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Sample records for affecting body condition

  1. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  2. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  3. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  4. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H.; Kappeler, Peter M.; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M.; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals’ general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations. PMID:27656285

  5. Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P.; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-06-01

    Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

  6. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    PubMed

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot.

  7. Calving body condition score affects indicators of health in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Schütz, K E; Matthews, L R; Verkerk, G A; Meier, S; Loor, J J; Rogers, A R; McGowan, J; Morgan, S R; Taukiri, S; Webster, J R

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of calving body condition score (BCS) on cow health during the transition period in a pasture-based dairying system. Feed inputs were managed during the second half of the previous lactation so that BCS differed at drying off (BCS 5.0, 4.0, and 3.0 for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively: a 10-point scale); feed allowance was managed after cows were dried off, such that the BCS differences established during lactation remained at the subsequent calving (BCS 5.5, 4.5, and 3.5; n=20, 18, and 19, for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively). After calving, cows were allocated pasture and pasture silage to ensure grazing residuals >1,600 kg of DM/ha. Milk production was measured weekly; blood was sampled regularly pre- and postpartum to measure indicators of health, and udder and uterine health were evaluated during the 6 wk after calving. Milk weight, fat, protein, and lactose yields, and fat content increased with calving BCS during the first 6 wk of lactation. The effect of calving BCS on the metabolic profile was nonlinear. Before calving, cows in the low group had lower mean plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and serum Mg concentrations and greater mean serum urea than cows in the medium and high BCS groups, which did not differ from each other. During the 6 wk after calving, cows in the low group had lower serum albumin and fructosamine concentrations than cows in the other 2 treatment groups, whereas cows in the low- and medium-BCS groups had proportionately more polymorphonucleated cells in their uterine secretions at 3 and 5 wk postpartum than high-BCS cows. In comparison, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased linearly in early lactation with calving BCS, consistent with a greater negative energy balance in these cows. Many of the parameters measured did not vary with BCS. The results highlight that calving BCS and, therefore, BCS through early

  8. Atrazine exposure affects growth, body condition and liver health in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Zaya, Renee M; Amini, Zakariya; Whitaker, Ashley S; Kohler, Steven L; Ide, Charles F

    2011-08-01

    Six studies were performed regarding the effects of atrazine, the most frequently detected pesticide in fresh water in the US, on developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed 5 days post-hatch through Nieuwkoop Faber Stage 62. The levels of atrazine tested included those potentially found in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application (200 and 400 μg/L) and a low level studied by a number of other investigators (25 μg/L). One study tested 0, 25 and 200 μg/L, another tested 0, 200 and 400 μg/L, while the remaining four studies tested 0 and 400 μg/L. During all exposures, mortality, growth, metamorphosis, sex ratio, fat body (a lipid storage organ) size and liver weights, both relative to body weight, were evaluated. In selected studies, feeding behavior was recorded, livers and fat bodies were histologically evaluated, liver glycogen and lipid content were determined by image analysis, and immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 in hepatocytes was performed. The NOEC was 25 μg/L. None of these exposure levels changed sex ratios nor were intersex gonads noted, however, no definitive histological evaluation of the gonads was performed. Although a marginal increase in mortality at the 200 μg/L level was noted, this was not statistically significant. Nor was there an increase in mortality at 400 μg/L versus controls. At the 400 μg/L level, tadpoles were smaller than controls by 72 h of exposure and remained smaller throughout the entire exposure. Appetite was not decreased at any exposure level. Slowed metamorphosis was noted only at 400 μg/L in two of five studies. Livers were significantly smaller in the study that tested both 200 and 400 μg/L, yet no pathological changes or differences in glycogen or lipid stores were noted. However, livers from 400 μg/L exposed tadpoles had higher numbers of activated caspase-3 immunopositive cells suggesting increased rates of apoptosis. Fat body size decreased significantly after exposure to 200

  9. Does influenza A affect body condition of wild mallard ducks, or vice versa?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are well documented to circulate within wild waterfowl populations (Olsen et. al. 2006). It has been assumed that these infections are benign with no subsequent effects on life-history parameters. The study by Latorre-Margalef et al. (2009; hereafter L.-M. et al.) represents an important step, as they attempt to test this assumption in wild birds. L.-M. et al. captured migrating mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) at a staging area and tested them for the presence of avian influenza A virus (IAV). They related IAV infection status to body mass and duration of time spent on the staging area. Overall, the study is well designed with impressive sample sizes and the analyses are carefully conducted and presented. However, in discussing these results, the authors assume causation based upon correlation and, although they acknowledge the possibility of immunosuppression during migration due to reduced energy stores, they do not discuss it as a possible explanation for their findings. Below, we consider several of the major findings by L.-M. et al., providing alternative explanations for the results. Because the L.-M. et al. study design is correlational, it is not possible to use their data to distinguish between their interpretations and our alternative explanations.

  10. A prospective study of calf factors affecting age, body size, and body condition score at first calving of holstein dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, A J; Heinrichs, B S; Harel, O; Rogers, G W; Place, N T

    2005-08-01

    Data were collected prospectively on parameters related to first calving on 18 farms located in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This project was designed to study possible residual effects of calf management practices and events occurring during the first 16 wk of life on age, BW, skeletal growth, and body condition score at first calving. Multiple imputation method for handling missing data was incorporated in these analyses. This method has the advantage over ad hoc single imputations because the appropriate error structure is maintained. Much similarity was found between the multiple imputation method and a traditional mixed model analysis, except that some estimates from the multiple imputation method seemed more logical in their effects on the parameter measured. Factors related to increased age at first calving were increased difficulty of delivery, antibiotic treatment of sick calves, increased amount of milk or milk replacer fed before weaning, reduced quality of forage fed to weaned calves, maximum humidity, mean daily temperature, and maximum ammonia levels in calf housing areas. Body weight at calving tended to increase with parity of the dam, increased amount of grain fed to calves, increased ammonia levels, and increased mean temperature of the calf housing area. Body condition score at calving tended to be positively influenced by delivery score at first calving, dam parity, and milk or milk replacer dry matter intake. Withers height at calving was positively affected by treatment of animals with antibiotics and increased mean temperature in the calf area. This study demonstrated that nutrition, housing, and management factors that affect health and growth of calves have long-term effects on the animal at least through first calving.

  11. Prepartum feeding level and body condition score affect immunological performance in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Lange, Joshua; McCarthy, Allison; Kay, Jane; Meier, Susanne; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R; Heiser, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Precalving feeding level affects dry matter intake, postcalving energy balance, the risk of hepatic lipidosis and metabolic disease, and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. These coincide with a higher risk of disease postpartum and, very likely, a failure to reach optimum production as well as reproductive targets. Current interpretation of the available evidence suggest that metabolic stressors affect the immune system of transition dairy cows and lead to reduced immunocompetence. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of precalving body condition score (BCS) and level of feeding on immunocompetence during the peripartum period. Twenty-three weeks before calving, 78 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n=13) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Blood was sampled precalving and at 1, 2 and 4 wk after calving. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The numbers of T helper lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), natural killer cells (CD335+), and γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+) as well as their activation status [IL-2 receptor (CD25)+ cells] were highly variable between animals, but there was no evident effect of BCS, feeding level, or time. All groups presented with an increase in expression of cytokines in unstimulated blood cells in the week after calving, although this was significant only for IFNG in the BCS 4.0 group. Analysis of in vitro-stimulated cells allowed 2 general observations: (1) cows with high energy intake precalving (125%) had increased cytokine expression precalving, and (2) all cows had increased cytokine expression in the week after calving. The present study provides evidence that prepartum feed management can affect immunocompetence during the transition period. Considering

  12. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-09

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory.

  13. Conditions affecting the foreskin.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions.

  14. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental impairments in visual social cognition. PMID:21713180

  15. Environmental hypoxia but not minor shell damage affects scope for growth and body condition in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.).

    PubMed

    Sanders, Trystan; Widdicombe, Steve; Calder-Potts, Ruth; Spicer, John I

    2014-04-01

    The effects of short-term (7 d) exposure to environmental hypoxia (2.11 mg O₂ L⁻¹; control: 6.96 mg O₂ L⁻¹) and varying degrees of shell damage (1 or 2, 1 mm diameter holes; control: no holes) on respiration rate, clearance rate, ammonia excretion rate, scope for growth (SFG) and body condition index were investigated in adult blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). There was a significant hypoxia-related reduction in SFG (>6.70 to 0.92 J g⁻¹ h⁻¹) primarily due to a reduction in energy acquisition as a result of reduced clearance rates during hypoxia. Shell damage had no significant affect on any of the physiological processes measured or the SFG calculated. Body condition was unaffected by hypoxia or shell damage. In conclusion, minor physical damage to mussels had no effect on physiological energetics but environmental hypoxia compromised growth, respiration and energy acquisition presumably by reducing feeding rates.

  16. Factish relations: Affective bodies in diabetes treatment.

    PubMed

    Danholt, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Chronic diseases pose a major challenge to contemporary western healthcare systems, and consequently there are numerous initiatives designed to meet these challenges. Patient empowerment is considered to be extremely important in chronic disease management. But what does it mean to become an 'active patient', managing a condition? This article argues that people are always active in shaping their agency and the agency of numerous others, and that we need to attend to these processes of configuration in order to better understand and conceptualize the problem of chronic disease management. This article analyses the daily practices of people with Type 2 Diabetes, with the use of what is described as the 'sociology of attachment' in the field of science and technology studies. The implications of seeing and analysing chronic conditions in this manner are that determinist understandings of chronic conditions are challenged. Accordingly, an experimental and constructive attitude towards the production and assembling of the chronically ill body is enabled. Such an attitude holds that relations with multiple other bodies and entities, such as technologies, the disease, medication and so on continuously and relentlessly affect how the condition unfolds and consequently, the room for interventional strategies and transformation of the chronically ill body is enlarged.

  17. Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2017-03-13

    The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.

  18. Psychological factors affecting oncology conditions.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Biancosino, Bruno; Marmai, Luciana; Rossi, Elena; Sabato, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The area of psychological factors affecting cancer has been the object of research starting from the early 1950s and consolidating from the 1970s with the development of psychooncology. A series of problems in the DSM and ICD nosological systems, such as the difficult application of the criteria for psychiatric diagnoses (i.e. major depression, adjustment disorders) and the scarce space dedicated to the rubric of psychosocial implications of medical illness (i.e. Psychological Factors Affecting a Medical Condition under 'Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention' in the DSM-IV) represent a major challenge in psycho-oncology. The application of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) has been shown to be useful in a more precise identification of several psychological domains in patients with cancer. The DCPR dimensions of health anxiety, demoralization and alexithymia have been shown to be quite frequent in cancer patient (37.7, 28.8 and 26%, respectively). The overlap between a formal DSM-IV diagnosis and the DCPR is low, with 58% of patients being categorized as non-cases on the DSM-IV having at least one DCPR syndrome. The specific quality of the DCPR in characterizing psychosocial aspects secondary to cancer is also confirmed by the fact that some dimensions of coping (e.g. Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer subscale hopelessness) correlate with the DCPR dimension of demoralization, while a quantitative approach on symptom assessment (e.g. stress symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory) is not useful in discriminating the patients with and without DCPR syndromes. More research is needed in order to understand the relationship between DCPR constructs (e.g. alexithymia) and psychosocial factors which have been shown to be significant in oncology (e.g. emotional repression and avoidance). The role of specific DCPR constructs in influencing the course of illness is also an area that should be investigated.

  19. Lower maternal body condition during pregnancy affects skeletal muscle structure and glut-4 protein levels but not glucose tolerance in mature adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Costello, Paula M; Hollis, Lisa J; Cripps, Roselle L; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A; Ozanne, Susan E; Green, Lucy R

    2013-10-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and basal glucose uptake into isolated muscle strips were similar in male offspring at 210 ± 4 weeks. Vastus total myofiber density (HBCS, 343 ± 15; LBCS, 294 ± 14 fibers/mm(2), P < .05) and fast myofiber density (HBCS, 226 ± 10; LBCS 194 ± 10 fibers/mm(2), P < .05), capillary to myofiber ratio (HBCS, 1.5 ± 0.1; LBCS 1.2 ± 0.1 capillary:myofiber, P < .05) were lower in LBCS offspring. Vastus protein levels of Akt1 were lower (83% ± 7% of HBCS, P < .05), and total glucose transporter 4 was increased (157% ± 6% of HBCS, P < .001) in LBCS offspring, Despite the reduction in total myofiber density in LBCS offspring, glucose tolerance was normal in mature adult life. However, such adaptations may lead to complications in metabolic control in an overabundant postnatal nutrient environment.

  20. Body condition score and plane of nutrition prepartum affect adipose tissue transcriptome regulators of metabolism and inflammation in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Kanwal, M; Bulgari, O; Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M; Heiser, A; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrating a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving have challenged the management practice of increasing dietary energy density during the last ~3 wk prepartum. Despite our knowledge at the whole-animal level, the tissue-level mechanisms that are altered in response to feeding management prepartum remain unclear. Our hypothesis was that prepartum body condition score (BCS), in combination with feeding management, plays a central role in the peripartum changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 prepartum BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale; BCS4, BCS5) obtained via differential feeding management during late-lactation, and 2 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75 and 125% of estimated requirements). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested via biopsy at -1, 1, and 4 wk relative to parturition. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression of targets related to fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, lipolysis), adipokine synthesis, and inflammation. Both prepartum BCS and feeding management had a significant effect on mRNA and miRNA expression throughout the peripartum period. Overfed BCS5 cows had the greatest prepartum expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an overall greater expression of leptin (LEP); BCS5 was also associated with greater overall adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), whereas overfeeding upregulated expression of proadipogenic miRNA. Higher postpartum expression of chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was detected in overfed BCS5 cows. Feed-restricted BCS4 cows had the highest overall interleukin 1 (IL1B) expression. Prepartum feed restriction

  1. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  2. Evaluating indices of body condition in two cricket species

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clint D; Tawes, Brittany R; Worthington, Amy M

    2014-01-01

    Body mass components (dry mass, lean dry mass, water mass, fat mass) in each sex correlate strongly with body mass and pronotum length in Gryllus texensis and Acheta domesticus. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression underestimates the scaling relationship between body mass and structural size (i.e., pronotum length) in both cricket species compared with standard major axis (SMA) regression. Standardized mass components correlate more strongly with scaled mass index () than with residual body mass (R i). R i represents the residuals from an OLS regression of log body mass against log pronotum length. Neither condition index predicts energy stores (i.e., fat content) in G. texensis. R i is not correlated with energy stores in A. domesticus whereas is negatively correlated. A comparison of condition index methods using published data showed that neither sex nor diet quality affected body condition at adulthood in G. texensis when using the scaled mass index. However, the residual index suggested that sex had a significant effect on body condition. Further, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) suggested that diet quality significantly affects body mass while statistically controlling for body size (i.e., body condition). We conclude that the statistical assumptions of condition index methods must be met prior to use and urge caution when using methods that are based on least squares in the y -plane (i.e., residual index ANCOVA). PMID:25512844

  3. Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

  4. The effects of exercise on body satisfaction and affect.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Marie L; Crowther, Janis H

    2010-03-01

    This research used ecological momentary assessment to examine the effects of exercise on state body dissatisfaction and affect in 33 undergraduate females with high trait body dissatisfaction and 28 with low trait body dissatisfaction who exercised at least three times weekly. Trait body dissatisfaction was investigated as a moderator of the effects of exercise as well as different motivations for exercise. Results indicated all participants experienced lower state body dissatisfaction and negative affect and greater positive affect post-exercise. Trait body dissatisfaction moderated the association between motivations and exercise effects. Appearance and weight motivations were related to higher state body dissatisfaction for all individuals. Fitness and health motivations were related to higher state body dissatisfaction for high trait body dissatisfied individuals and lower state body dissatisfaction for low trait body dissatisfied individuals. Thus, although exercise has positive effects on body dissatisfaction and affect for high frequency exercisers, their exercise motivations impact these effects.

  5. Determining seabird body condition using nonlethal measures.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Shoshanah R; Elliott, Kyle; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Gaston, Anthony J; Redman, Paula; Speakman, John R; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Energy stores are critical for successful breeding, and longitudinal studies require nonlethal methods to measure energy stores ("body condition"). Nonlethal techniques for measuring energy reserves are seldom verified independently. We compare body mass, size-corrected mass (SCM), plasma lipids, and isotopic dilution with extracted total body lipid content in three seabird species (thick-billed murres Uria lomvia, all four measures; northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis, three measures; and black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, two measures). SCM and body mass were better predictors of total body lipids for the species with high percent lipids (fulmars; R2 = 0.5-0.6) than for the species with low percent lipids (murres and kittiwakes; R2 = 0.2-0.4). The relationship between SCM and percent body lipids, which we argue is often a better measure of condition, was also poor (R2 < 0.2) for species with low lipids. In a literature comparison of 17 bird species, percent lipids was the only predictor of the strength of the relationship between mass and total body lipids; we suggest that SCM be used as an index of energy stores only when lipids exceed 15% of body mass. Across all three species we measured, SCM based on the ordinary least squares regression of mass on the first principal component outperformed other measures. Isotopic dilution was a better predictor of both total body lipids and percent body lipids than were mass, SCM, or plasma lipids in murres. Total body lipids decreased through the breeding season at both sites, while total and neutral plasma lipid concentrations increased at one site but not another, suggesting mobilization of lipid stores for breeding. A literature review showed substantial variation in the reliability of plasma markers, and we recommend isotopic dilution (oxygen-18, plateau) for determination of energy reserves in birds where lipid content is below 15%.

  6. Body position affects performance in untrained cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, M; Scroop, G; Frisken, P; Amery, C; Wilkins, M; Khan, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare cardiovascular and ventilatory variables in upright versus aero cycle ergometry at submaximal and maximal exercise intensities in untrained cyclists. Method: Ten physically active men (mean (SD) age 19.1 (1.10) years) who were unfamiliar with aerobars underwent maximal exercise testing and steady state cycling at 50, 100, and 150 W. Results: Participants had significantly greater maxima for oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation, heart rate, and workload maximum in the upright position. During steady state cycling at the three workloads, VO2 (ml/kg/min) and gross mechanical efficiency were significantly greater in the upright position. Conclusions: In untrained subjects performing with maximal effort, the upright position permits greater VO2, ventilation, heart rate, and workload maxima. Further, in the steady state, exercise cycling may be less costly in the upright position. For this reason, untrained cyclists need to weigh body position effects against the well known aerodynamic advantages of the aero position. PMID:14514538

  7. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Relaxation methods, such as meditation, listening to music, listening to guided imagery CD's or mp3's, yoga, ... Article >>Mental HealthPostpartum Depression (PPD)Postpartum depression affects women after childbirth. It includes feelings of sadness, loneliness, ...

  8. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  9. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  10. Parry–Romberg syndrome affecting one half of the body

    PubMed Central

    Pathi, Jugajyoti; Mishra, Pallavi; Kumar, Harish; Panda, Abikshyeet

    2016-01-01

    Parry-Romberg syndrome, which is also known as progressive hemifacial atrophy, is a poorly understood rare condition. In this condition, the face shows unilateral, slowly progressive atrophy. Disturbance in fat metabolism, viral infection, trauma, heredity, endocrinal disturbances, and autoimmunity are few possible factors in its pathogenesis. Rarely, only this syndrome progresses and involves one half of the body. Our attempt is to present a case of Parry–Romberg syndrome involving one half of the body, which is a rarity in itself. PMID:27583230

  11. I feel who I see: visual body identity affects visual-tactile integration in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Salomon, R; van Elk, M; Aspell, J E; Blanke, O

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of integrating multisensory information in the body representation for constituting self-consciousness. However, one idea that has received only scant attention is that our body representation is also constituted by knowledge of bodily visual characteristics (i.e. 'what I look like'). Here in two experiments we used a full body crossmodal congruency task in which visual distractors were presented on a photograph of the participant, another person, who was either familiar or unfamiliar, or an object. Results revealed that during the 'self-condition' CCEs were enhanced compared to the 'other condition'. The CCE was similar for unfamiliar and familiar others. CCEs for the object condition were significantly smaller. The results show that presentation of an irrelevant image of a body affects multimodal processing and that the effect is enhanced when that image is of the self. The results hold intriguing implications for body representation in social situations.

  12. Effects of the exposure to self- and other-referential bodies on state body image and negative affect in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja; Düsing, Rainer; Waldorf, Manuel

    2017-03-09

    Previous body image research suggests that first, exposure to body stimuli can negatively affect men's body satisfaction and second, body concerns are associated with dysfunctional gaze behavior. To date, however, the effects of self- vs. other-referential body stimuli and of gaze behavior on body image in men under exposure conditions have not been investigated. Therefore, 49 weight-trained men were presented with pictures of their own and other bodies of different builds (i.e., normal, muscular, hyper-muscular) while being eye-tracked. Participants completed pre- and post-exposure measures of body image and affect. Results indicated that one's own and the muscular body negatively affected men's body image to a comparable degree. Exposure to one's own body also led to increased negative affect. Increased attention toward disliked own body parts was associated with a more negative post-exposure body image and affect. These results suggest a crucial role of critical self-examination in maintaining body dissatisfaction.

  13. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Administration and governing body. 486... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS FOR COVERAGE OF SPECIALIZED SERVICES...: Administration and governing body. (a) While an OPO may have more than one board, the OPO must have an...

  14. Body conditions and stomach contents of subadult trout during fall and winter in three Wyoming tailwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hebdon, J.L.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    We studied three tailwaters in Wyoming from October 1997 through February 1998 to determine whether body conditions of stocked, subadult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarki declined from fall through winter and to assess whether lack of food in stomachs might be related to any declines. Body conditions of rainbow trout in two tailwaters remained high through the winter. Body conditions of cutthroat trout in a third tailwater declined between October and February but not to levels anticipated to affect the overwinter survival of the fish. Trout with substantial amounts of food in their stomachs were found throughout the fall and winter in all three tailwaters. In no subadult trout in any of the three tailwaters did we observe rapid declines in body conditions during fall or continuous declines in body conditions to very low levels by the end of winter in association with low biomass of food in stomachs.

  15. Evaluating the validity of using unverified indices of body condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Esler, Daniel; Flint, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Condition indices are commonly used in an attempt to link body condition of birds to ecological variables of interest, including demographic attributes such as survival and reproduction. Most indices are based on body mass adjusted for structural body size, calculated as simple ratios or residuals from regressions. However, condition indices are often applied without confirming their predictive value (i.e., without being validated against measured values of fat and protein), which we term 'unverified' use. We evaluated the ability of a number of unverified indices frequently found in the literature to predict absolute and proportional levels of fat and protein across five species of waterfowl. Among indices we considered, those accounting for body size never predicted absolute protein more precisely than body mass, however, some indices improved predictability of fat, although the form of the best index varied by species. Further, the gain in precision by using a condition index to predict either absolute or percent fat was minimal (rise in r2???0.13), and in many cases model fit was actually reduced. Our data agrees with previous assertions that the assumption that indices provide more precise indicators of body condition than body mass alone is often invalid. We strongly discourage the use of unverified indices, because subjectively selecting indices likely does little to improve precision and might in fact decrease predictability relative to using body mass alone. ?? 2009 The Authors.

  16. Affective responses of high and low body satisfied men to viewing physique slides.

    PubMed

    Hausenblas, Heather A; Janelle, Christopher M; Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hagan, Amy L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute affective responses of high and low body satisfied (BS) men who viewed physique slides of the male ideal (model-slides), physique slides of themselves (self-slides), and nonphysique slides (control-slides). During three laboratory visits the participants viewed the slides from one of the three conditions, and they completed pre-, in-, and post-task affective measures. It was found that the: (a) high BS group reported less mood disturbance than the low BS group; (b) participants reported an increase in depression, anger, and body dissatisfaction after viewing the self-slides; (c) participants indicated a decrease in body dissatisfaction after viewing the model-slides; and (d) viewing the control-slides did not result in affective changes. Findings suggest that viewing physique slides results in increased mood disturbance, regardless of BS level.

  17. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body

    PubMed Central

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs’ somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants’ body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations. PMID:26842303

  18. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-02-04

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs' somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants' body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations.

  19. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating. Although not severe, these conditions impair the quality of daily training and compromise the skaters’ state of mind and performances. Purpose (1) To determine the point prevalence of the ongoing lower extremity overuse conditions in a population of ice figure skaters of all ages and levels and (2) to identify the risk factors contributing to the development of the most common ongoing conditions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 95 skaters of all ages and skating levels were evaluated in a single examination in the middle of the competitive season. Data collection consisted of a questionnaire, clinical examination, and measurement of the skaters’ characteristics and the equipment used. Results Retrocalcaneal bursitis was the most common problem, affecting at least 1 foot in 34% of the skaters evaluated, followed by posterior heel skin calluses and superficial calcaneal bursitis, which affected 29% and 28% of skaters, respectively. The prevalence of the majority of these conditions was 10% to 32% higher in elite skaters than in nonelite skaters. Higher boot–foot length difference was associated with greater risk of superficial calcaneal bursitis in the landing foot of elite skaters, while higher body weight and greater in-skate ankle flexibility were associated with the development of retrocalcaneal bursitis in nonelite skaters. Only 30 skaters (32%) wore the appropriate boot size, while 57 skaters (51%) could not dorsiflex their ankles properly while wearing skates. Conclusion The heel represents a major area of concern for the high prevalence of calcaneal bursitis and calluses in proximity of the Achilles tendon, suggesting that improvements on the boot heel cup design should take priority. The

  20. Impact of a healthy body image program among adolescent boys on body image, negative affect, and body change strategies.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Karantzas, Gery

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a healthy body image program. In total, 421 adolescent boys completed a five-session intervention program or a wait list control group. There were no differences between the intervention and the control group at post-intervention or any of the follow-up times. Boys in the intervention group who were one standard deviation above the mean on body dissatisfaction at baseline, demonstrated a reduction in negative affect in the intervention group at post-test and 6 months follow-up. Prevention programs need to target boys who are at risk of adopting health risk behaviors, rather than being universally applied.

  1. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.; Spector, A.C. . Dept. of Psychology)

    1981-11-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed.

  2. Body Condition Peaks at Intermediate Parasite Loads in the Common Bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus.

    PubMed

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Green, Andy J; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2016-01-01

    Most ecologists and conservationists perceive parasitic infections as deleterious for the hosts. Their effects, however, depend on many factors including host body condition, parasite load and the life cycle of the parasite. More research into how multiple parasite taxa affect host body condition is required and will help us to better understand host-parasite coevolution. We used body condition indices, based on mass-length relationships, to test the effects that abundances and biomasses of six parasite taxa (five trematodes, Apatemon sp., Tylodelphys sp., Stegodexamene anguillae, Telogaster opisthorchis, Coitocaecum parvum, and the nematode Eustrongylides sp.) with different modes of transmission have on the body condition of their intermediate or final fish host, the common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus in New Zealand. We used two alternative body condition methods, the Scaled Mass Index (SMI) and Fulton's condition factor. General linear and hierarchical partitioning models consistently showed that fish body condition varied strongly across three lakes and seasons, and that most parasites did not have an effect on the two body condition indices. However, fish body condition showed a highly significant humpbacked relationship with the total abundance of all six parasite taxa, mostly driven by Apatemon sp. and S. anguillae, indicating that the effects of these parasites can range from positive to negative as abundance increases. Such a response was also evident in models including total parasite biomass. Our methodological comparison supports the SMI as the most robust mass-length method to examine the effects of parasitic infections on fish body condition, and suggests that linear, negative relationships between host condition and parasite load should not be assumed.

  3. Body Condition Peaks at Intermediate Parasite Loads in the Common Bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus

    PubMed Central

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Green, Andy J.; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2016-01-01

    Most ecologists and conservationists perceive parasitic infections as deleterious for the hosts. Their effects, however, depend on many factors including host body condition, parasite load and the life cycle of the parasite. More research into how multiple parasite taxa affect host body condition is required and will help us to better understand host-parasite coevolution. We used body condition indices, based on mass-length relationships, to test the effects that abundances and biomasses of six parasite taxa (five trematodes, Apatemon sp., Tylodelphys sp., Stegodexamene anguillae, Telogaster opisthorchis, Coitocaecum parvum, and the nematode Eustrongylides sp.) with different modes of transmission have on the body condition of their intermediate or final fish host, the common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus in New Zealand. We used two alternative body condition methods, the Scaled Mass Index (SMI) and Fulton’s condition factor. General linear and hierarchical partitioning models consistently showed that fish body condition varied strongly across three lakes and seasons, and that most parasites did not have an effect on the two body condition indices. However, fish body condition showed a highly significant humpbacked relationship with the total abundance of all six parasite taxa, mostly driven by Apatemon sp. and S. anguillae, indicating that the effects of these parasites can range from positive to negative as abundance increases. Such a response was also evident in models including total parasite biomass. Our methodological comparison supports the SMI as the most robust mass-length method to examine the effects of parasitic infections on fish body condition, and suggests that linear, negative relationships between host condition and parasite load should not be assumed. PMID:28030606

  4. Relationship between body condition of American alligators and water depth in the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, Kenneth G.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding opportunities of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in freshwater wetlands in south Florida are closely linked to hydrologic conditions. In the Everglades, seasonally and annually fluctuating surface water levels affect populations of aquatic organisms that alligators consume. Since prey becomes more concentrated when water depth decreases, we hypothesized an inverse relationship between body condition and water depth in the Everglades. On average, condition of adult alligators in the dry season was significantly higher than in the wet season, but this was not the case for juveniles/subadults. The correlation between body condition and measured water depth at capture locations was weak; however, there was a significant negative correlation between the condition and predicted water depth prior to capture for all animals except for spring juveniles/subadults which had a weak positive condition-water depth relationship. Overall, a relatively strong inverse correlation occurred at 10-49 days prior to the capture day, suggesting that current body condition of alligators may depend on feeding opportunities during that period. Fitted regression of body condition on water depth (mean depth of 10 days when condition-water depth correlation was greatest) resulted in a significantly negative slope, except for spring adult females and spring juveniles/subadults for which slopes were not significantly different from zero. Our results imply that water management practices may be critical for alligators in the Everglades since water depth can affect animal condition in a relatively short period of time.

  5. Jump conditions for thin bodies from an action principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, James

    2015-03-01

    Thin, flexible bodies such as strings, sheets, and rods often sustain kinky geometric features, or experience discontinuous contact forces in their interactions with obstacles. The physics of dynamic and static versions of these phenomena differ. Kink/shock propagation, impact, peeling, unwrapping, tearing and cracking all occur at geometric locations in a body that do not correspond to material points. I will discuss how the jump conditions for momentum and energy across such moving discontinuities may be derived from an action principle for an extended body with time-dependent, non-material boundaries.

  6. Boundary conditions on internal three-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    For a three-body system, a quantum wave function {Psi}{sub m}{sup {ell}} with definite {ell} and m quantum numbers may be expressed in terms of an internal wave function {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} which is a function of three internal coordinates. This article provides necessary and sufficient constraints on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} to ensure that the external wave function {Psi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} is analytic. These constraints effectively amount to boundary conditions on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} and its derivatives at the boundary of the internal space. Such conditions find similarities in the (planar) two-body problem where the wave function (to lowest order) has the form r{sup |m|} at the origin. We expect the boundary conditions to prove useful for constructing singularity free three-body basis sets for the case of nonvanishing angular momentum.

  7. Body condition of feral cats and the effect of neutering.

    PubMed

    Scott, Karen C; Levy, Julie K; Gorman, Shawn P; Newell, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    Considerable debate exists regarding the most appropriate methods for controlling feral cat populations, both from humane and logistical points of view. The physical condition of feral cats has not been reported, and it is not known if these cats benefit from neutering. This study investigates the body condition of feral cats by measuring body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS; Burkholder, 2000; Laflamme, Kealy, & Schmidt, 1994), and falciform fat pad. The study includes lateral abdominal radiographs taken at the time of neutering of 105 adult feral cats for measurement of falciform fat pad depth and area. At that time we also assessed BW and BCS. One year later we assessed the effects of neutering on body condition by evaluating a subsample of 14 cats. At the time of surgery, the cats were lean but not emaciated (BW 3.1 +/- 0.9 kg; BCS 4 +/- 1; based on a 1 to 9 scale ranging from 1 [emaciated] to 9 [grossly obese]). Falciform fat pad depth and area averaged 7.1 mm and 197.4 mm2, respectively, indicating a small amount of fat. Fourteen cats, reevaluated 1 year after neutering, increased 260% + 90% in falciform fat pad depth, 420% +/- 390% in fat pad area, 40% +/- 4% in BW, and 1 level in BCS ranking (1 to 9 scale; all differences p <.001). Similar to confined socialized cats, feral cats gained significant weight and body fat after neutering.

  8. Body condition predicts energy stores in apex predatory sharks

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Austin J.; Wagner, Dominique N.; Irschick, Duncan J.; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Animal condition typically reflects the accumulation of energy stores (e.g. fatty acids), which can influence an individual's decision to undertake challenging life-history events, such as migration and reproduction. Accordingly, researchers often use measures of animal body size and/or weight as an index of condition. However, values of condition, such as fatty acid levels, may not always reflect the physiological state of animals accurately. While the relationships between condition indices and energy stores have been explored in some species (e.g. birds), they have yet to be examined in top predatory fishes, which often undertake extensive and energetically expensive migrations. We used an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier, the tiger shark) as a model species to evaluate the relationship between triglycerides (energy metabolite) and a metric of overall body condition. We captured, blood sampled, measured and released 28 sharks (size range 125–303 cm pre-caudal length). In the laboratory, we assayed each plasma sample for triglyceride values. We detected a positive and significant relationship between condition and triglyceride values (P < 0.02). This result may have conservation implications if the largest and highest-condition sharks are exploited in fisheries, because these individuals are likely to have the highest potential for successful reproduction. Our results suggest that researchers may use either plasma triglyceride values or an appropriate measure of body condition for assessing health in large sharks. PMID:27293643

  9. Synergistic effects of seasonal rainfall, parasites and demography on fluctuations in springbok body condition.

    PubMed

    Turner, Wendy C; Versfeld, Wilferd D; Kilian, J Werner; Getz, Wayne M

    2012-01-01

    1. Seasonality of rainfall can exert a strong influence on animal condition and on host-parasite interactions. The body condition of ruminants fluctuates seasonally in response to changes in energy requirements, foraging patterns and resource availability, and seasonal variation in parasite infections may further alter ruminant body condition. 2. This study disentangles the effects of rainfall and gastrointestinal parasite infections on springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) body condition and determines how these factors vary among demographic groups. 3. Using data from four years and three study areas, we investigated (i) the influence of rainfall variation, demographic factors and parasite interactions on parasite prevalence or infection intensity, (ii) whether parasitism or rainfall is a more important predictor of springbok body condition and (iii) how parasitism and condition vary among study areas along a rainfall gradient. 4. We found that increased parasite intensity is associated with reduced body condition only for adult females. For all other demographic groups, body condition was significantly related to prior rainfall and not to parasitism. Rainfall lagged by two months had a positive effect on body condition. 5. Adult females showed evidence of a 'periparturient rise' in parasite intensity and had higher parasite intensity and lower body condition than adult males after parturition and during early lactation. After juveniles were weaned, adult females had lower parasite intensity than adult males. Sex differences in parasitism and condition may be due to differences between adult females and males in the seasonal timing of reproductive effort and its effects on host immunity, as well as documented sex differences in vulnerability to predation. 6. Our results highlight that parasites and the environment can synergistically affect host populations, but that these interactions might be masked by their interwoven relationships, their differential impacts on

  10. Synergistic effects of seasonal rainfall, parasites and demography on fluctuations in springbok body condition

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Wendy C.; Versfeld, Wilferd D.; Kilian, J. Werner; Getz, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary 1. Seasonality of rainfall can exert a strong influence on animal condition and on host-parasite interactions. The body condition of ruminants fluctuates seasonally in response to changes in energy requirements, foraging patterns and resource availability, and seasonal variation in parasite infections may further alter ruminant body condition. 2. This study disentangles effects of rainfall and gastrointestinal parasite infections on springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) body condition and determines how these factors vary among demographic groups. 3. Using data from four years and three study areas, we investigated i) the influence of rainfall variation, demographic factors and parasite interactions on parasite prevalence or infection intensity, ii) whether parasitism or rainfall is a more important predictor of springbok body condition and iii) how parasitism and condition vary among study areas along a rainfall gradient. 4. We found that increased parasite intensity is associated with reduced body condition only for adult females. For all other demographic groups, body condition was significantly related to prior rainfall and not to parasitism. Rainfall lagged by two months had a positive effect on body condition. 5. Adult females showed evidence of a “periparturient rise” in parasite intensity, and had higher parasite intensity and lower body condition than adult males after parturition and during early lactation. After juveniles were weaned, adult females had lower parasite intensity than adult males. Sex differences in parasitism and condition may be due to differences between adult females and males in the seasonal timing of reproductive effort and its effects on host immunity, as well as documented sex differences in vulnerability to predation. 6. Our results highlight that parasites and the environment can synergistically affect host populations, but that these interactions might be masked by their interwoven relationships, their differential

  11. Orthopedic conditions that affect the avian pelvic limb.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Brown, Nigel H

    2002-01-01

    Birds are often presented to the veterinarian with injury or disease that affects their ability to use one or both legs. Although in wild birds traumatic injuries usually involve the wing, captive birds especially falconer's birds, are usually presented with injuries to their legs. This article focuses on conditions affecting practice: birds of prey, and injured wild birds. The birds are presented with lameness or loss of use of the leg. The conditions described can be initiated by injury or by disease affecting an area other than the leg, such as the kidney or spinal cord, or they can be toxic or metabolic.

  12. Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Verbal Conditioning of Affective Self-Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekmat, Hamid

    1971-01-01

    Subjects were assigned to four experimental groups: neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts, and a control group. Results indicated that introversion, and not neuroticism, facilitated conditioning processes. Neuroticism, however, did not interact on the conditioning of affective self disclosures. Introverted…

  13. Body size affects the evolution of eyespots in caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    Skelhorn, John; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    Many caterpillars have conspicuous eye-like markings, called eyespots. Despite recent work demonstrating the efficacy of eyespots in deterring predator attack, a fundamental question remains: Given their protective benefits, why have eyespots not evolved in more caterpillars? Using a phylogenetically controlled analysis of hawkmoth caterpillars, we show that eyespots are associated with large body size. This relationship could arise because (i) large prey are innately conspicuous; (ii) large prey are more profitable, and thus face stronger selection to evolve such defenses; and/or (iii) eyespots are more effective on large-bodied prey. To evaluate these hypotheses, we exposed small and large caterpillar models with and without eyespots in a 2 × 2 factorial design to avian predators in the field. Overall, eyespots increased prey mortality, but the effect was particularly marked in small prey, and eyespots decreased mortality of large prey in some microhabitats. We then exposed artificial prey to naïve domestic chicks in a laboratory setting following a 2 × 3 design (small or large size × no, small, or large eyespots). Predators attacked small prey with eyespots more quickly, but were more wary of large caterpillars with large eyespots than those without eyespots or with small eyespots. Taken together, these data suggest that eyespots are effective deterrents only when both prey and eyespots are large, and that innate aversion toward eyespots is conditional. We conclude that the distribution of eyespots in nature likely results from selection against eyespots in small caterpillars and selection for eyespots in large caterpillars (at least in some microhabitats). PMID:25964333

  14. Body size affects the evolution of eyespots in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hossie, Thomas John; Skelhorn, John; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2015-05-26

    Many caterpillars have conspicuous eye-like markings, called eyespots. Despite recent work demonstrating the efficacy of eyespots in deterring predator attack, a fundamental question remains: Given their protective benefits, why have eyespots not evolved in more caterpillars? Using a phylogenetically controlled analysis of hawkmoth caterpillars, we show that eyespots are associated with large body size. This relationship could arise because (i) large prey are innately conspicuous; (ii) large prey are more profitable, and thus face stronger selection to evolve such defenses; and/or (iii) eyespots are more effective on large-bodied prey. To evaluate these hypotheses, we exposed small and large caterpillar models with and without eyespots in a 2 × 2 factorial design to avian predators in the field. Overall, eyespots increased prey mortality, but the effect was particularly marked in small prey, and eyespots decreased mortality of large prey in some microhabitats. We then exposed artificial prey to naïve domestic chicks in a laboratory setting following a 2 × 3 design (small or large size × no, small, or large eyespots). Predators attacked small prey with eyespots more quickly, but were more wary of large caterpillars with large eyespots than those without eyespots or with small eyespots. Taken together, these data suggest that eyespots are effective deterrents only when both prey and eyespots are large, and that innate aversion toward eyespots is conditional. We conclude that the distribution of eyespots in nature likely results from selection against eyespots in small caterpillars and selection for eyespots in large caterpillars (at least in some microhabitats).

  15. Effect of Ecological Restoration on Body Condition of a Predator

    PubMed Central

    González-Tokman, Daniel; Martínez-Garza, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration attempts to recover the structure and function of ecosystems that have been degraded by human activities. A crucial test of ecosystem recovery would be to determine whether individuals in restored environments are as healthy as those in conserved environments. However, the impact of restoration on physiology of terrestrial animals has never been tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of two restoration methods on body condition measured as body size, body mass, lipid and muscle content of the spider Nephila clavipes in a tropical dry forest that has suffered chronic disturbance due to cattle grazing. We used experimental plots that had been excluded from disturbance by cattle grazing during eight years. Plots were either planted with native trees (i. e. maximal intervention), or only excluded from disturbance (i. e. minimal intervention), and were compared with control conserved (remnants of original forest) and disturbed plots (where cattle is allowed to graze). We predicted (1) better body condition in spiders of conserved and restored sites, compared to disturbed sites, and (2) better body condition in plots with maximal intervention than in plots with minimal intervention. The first prediction was not supported in males or females, and the second prediction was only supported in females: body dry mass was higher in planted than in conserved plots for spiders of both sexes and also higher that in disturbed plots for males, suggesting that plantings are providing more resources. We discuss how different life histories and environmental pressures, such as food availability, parasitism, and competition for resources can explain our contrasting findings in male and female spiders. By studying animal physiology in restoration experiments it is possible to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological and evolutionary processes that determine success of ecological restoration. PMID:26226363

  16. Noninvasive measurement system for human respiratory condition and body temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Eiji; Sekiguchi, Sadamu; Nishimatsu, Toyonori

    1995-06-01

    A special chromel (C) and alumel wire (A) thermopile has been developed which can measure the human respiratory condition and body temperature without directly contacting a sensor to the human body. The measurement system enables high speed, real time, noninvasive, and simultaneous measurement of respiratory rates and body temperature with the same sensor. The special CA thermopile, with each sensing junction of approximately 25 μm, was constructed by using spot welded thermopile junctions. The thermoelectric power of 17 pairs of special CA thermopile is 0.7 mV/ °C. The special CA thermopile provides high sensitivity and fine frequency characteristics, of which the gain is flat to approximately 10 Hz.

  17. Effect of Map-vaccination in ewes on body condition score, weight and Map-shedding.

    PubMed

    Hüttner, Klim; Krämer, Ulla; Kleist, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in sheep receives growing attention worldwide, particularly in countries with national Map control strategies. A field study was conducted, investigating the effect of GUDAIR on body condition, weight and Map-shedding in a professionally managed but largely Map-affected suffolk flock prior and after vaccination. For this, 80 ewes out of 1000 animals were randomly sampled. In the univariate analysis body condition scores of ewes twelve months after vaccination improved significantly compared to those sampled prior to vaccination. At the same time the rate of ewes shedding Map was reduced by 37%.

  18. Influence of body condition on influenza a virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, D.M.; Ip, H.S.; Owen, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ??5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. ?? 2011 Arsnoe et al.

  19. Influence of body condition on influenza A virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Ip, Hon S.; Owen, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ±5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl.

  20. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  1. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  2. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  5. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  6. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  7. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  8. Is spinal excitability of the triceps surae mainly affected by muscle activity or body position?

    PubMed

    Cattagni, T; Martin, A; Scaglioni, G

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine how muscle activity and body orientation contribute to the triceps surae spinal transmission modulation, when moving from a sitting to a standing position. Maximal Hoffmann-reflex (Hmax) and motor potential (Mmax) were evoked in the soleus (SOL), medial and lateral gastrocnemius in 10 male subjects and in three conditions, passive sitting, active sitting and upright standing, with the same SOL activity in active sitting and upright standing. Moreover volitional wave (V) was evoked in the two active conditions (i.e., active sitting and upright standing). The results showed that SOL Hmax/Mmax was lower in active sitting than in passive sitting, while for the gastrocnemii it was not significantly altered. For the three plantar flexors, Hmax/Mmax was lower in upright standing than in active sitting, whereas V/Mmax was not modulated. SOL H-reflex is therefore affected by the increase in muscle activity and change in body orientation, while, in the gastrocnemii, it was only affected by a change in posture. In conclusion, passing from a sitting to a standing position affects the Hmax/Mmax of the whole triceps surae, but the mechanisms responsible for this change differ among the synergist muscles. The V/Mmax does not change when upright stance is assumed. This means that the increased inhibitory activity in orthostatic position is compensated by an increased excitatory inflow to the α-motoneurons of central and/or peripheral origin.

  9. Loving transgressions: Queer of color bodies, affective ties, transformative community.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Rowe, Aimee; Royster, Francesca T

    2016-09-12

    This introductory article considers the importance of queer woman of color theorizations of affect in thinking more fully the recent interdisciplinary turn to affect. The affective turn has vitally invited culture and feminist critics to interrogate emotion beyond the individual to examine the political and cultural production of emotion. Even as women of color are often associated with excessive affect, the theoretical contributions women of color make to the field of affect studies are often overlooked. Our introduction and this special issue more broadly examine how this solipsism shapes projects invested in critical knowledge production, as well as the stakes of centering a queer woman of color genealogy. For instance, we argue for the importance of retaining U.S. third-world feminist concepts-like interpellation, oppositional consciousness, and the generative force of negative affects-even as they fall out of favor within affect studies. Centering theory that emerges from the vexed spaces of queer women of color lived experiences generates a vital interdisciplinary conversation that contributes to the ongoing political task of mobilizing affect for social action as a critical praxis. In the articles that follow we see this critical praxis at work in the form of community organizing, music, poetry, and performance art.

  10. Validation of Body Condition Indices and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance in Estimating Body Composition in a Small Lizard

    PubMed Central

    WARNER, DANIEL A.; JOHNSON, MARIA S.; NAGY, TIM R.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual’s quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length–mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass. Comparisons of results from QMR scans to those from chemical carcass analysis reveal that QMR measures body fat, lean, and water mass with excellent accuracy in male and female lizards. With minor calibration from regression equations, QMR will be a reliable method of estimating body composition of A. sagrei. Body condition indices were positively related to absolute estimates of each constituent of body composition, but these relationships showed considerable variation around regression lines. In addition, condition indices did not predict fat, lean, or water mass when adjusted for body mass. Thus, our results emphasize the need for caution when interpreting body condition based upon linear measurements of animals. Overall, QMR provides an alternative noninvasive method for accurately measuring fat, lean, and water mass in these small-bodied animals. PMID:28035770

  11. Applying twisted boundary conditions for few-body nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körber, Christopher; Luu, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We describe and implement twisted boundary conditions for the deuteron and triton systems within finite volumes using the nuclear lattice EFT formalism. We investigate the finite-volume dependence of these systems with different twist angles. We demonstrate how various finite-volume information can be used to improve calculations of binding energies in such a framework. Our results suggests that with appropriate twisting of boundaries, infinite-volume binding energies can be reliably extracted from calculations using modest volume sizes with cubic length L ≈8 -14 fm. Of particular importance is our derivation and numerical verification of three-body analogs of "i-periodic" twist angles that eliminate the leading-order finite-volume effects to the three-body binding energy.

  12. Seasonal change in tropical habitat quality and body condition for a declining migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Emily A; Rotenberg, James A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-10-01

    Many migratory songbirds spend their non-breeding season in tropical humid forests, where climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of droughts and decrease rainfall. For conservation of these songbirds, it is critical to understand how resources during the non-breeding season are affected by seasonal patterns of drying, and thereby predict potential long-term effects of climate change. We studied habitat quality for a declining tropical forest-dwelling songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and tested the hypothesis that habitat moisture and arthropod abundance are drivers of body condition during the overwintering period. We examined habitat moisture, abundance of arthropods and fruit, and condition of individual birds (n = 418) in three habitat types--mature forest, mature forest with increased presence of human activity, and riparian scrub--from October to April. We found a strong pattern of habitat drying from October (wet season) to March (prior to spring migration) in all habitats, with concurrent declines in arthropod and fruit abundance. Body condition of birds also declined (estimated ~5 % decline over the wintering period), with no significant difference by habitat. Relatively poor condition (low body condition index, low fat and pectoral muscles scores) was equally apparent in all habitat types in March. Climate change is predicted to increase the severity of dry seasons in Central America, and our results suggest that this could negatively affect the condition of individual wood thrushes.

  13. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  14. Herbivore Body Condition Response in Altered Environments: Mule Deer and Habitat Management

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Eric J.; Doherty, Paul F.; Bishop, Chad J.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Banulis, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF), assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3), and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥1.5 years old) female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas — a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis) - Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area than in the reference study area , although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change. PMID:25184410

  15. Influence of support conditions on vertical whole-body vibration of the seated human body.

    PubMed

    M-Pranesh, Anand; Rakheja, Subhash; Demont, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The vibration transmission to the lumbar and thoracic segments of seated human subjects exposed to whole body vibration of a vehicular nature have been mostly characterised without the back and hand supports, which is not representative of general driving conditions. This non-invasive experimental study investigated the transmission of vertical seat vibration to selected vertebrae and the head along the vertical and fore-aft axes of twelve male human subjects seated on a rigid seat and exposed to random vertical excitation in the 0.5-20 Hz range. The measurements were performed under four different sitting postures involving combinations of back support conditions and hands positions, and three difference magnitudes of vertical vibration (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s(2) rms acceleration). The results showed significant errors induced by sensor misalignment and skin effects, which required appropriate correction methodologies. The averaged corrected responses revealed that the back support attenuates vibration in the vertical axis to all the body locations while increasing the fore-aft transmissibility at the C7 and T5. The hands position generally has a relatively smaller effect, showing some influences on the C7 and L5 vibration. Sitting without a back support resulted in very low magnitude fore-aft vibration at T5, which was substantially higher with a back support, suggestive of a probable change in the body's vibration mode. The effect of back support was observed to be very small on the horizontal vibration of the lower thoracic and lumbar regions. The results suggest that distinctly different target body-segment biodynamic functions need to be defined for different support conditions in order to represent the unique contribution of the specific support condition. These datasets may then be useful for the development of biodynamic models.

  16. Development of an automatic cow body condition scoring using body shape signature and Fourier descriptors.

    PubMed

    Bercovich, A; Edan, Y; Alchanatis, V; Moallem, U; Parmet, Y; Honig, H; Maltz, E; Antler, A; Halachmi, I

    2013-01-01

    Body condition evaluation is a common tool to assess energy reserves of dairy cows and to estimate their fatness or thinness. This study presents a computer-vision tool that automatically estimates cow's body condition score. Top-view images of 151 cows were collected on an Israeli research dairy farm using a digital still camera located at the entrance to the milking parlor. The cow's tailhead area and its contour were segmented and extracted automatically. Two types of features of the tailhead contour were extracted: (1) the angles and distances between 5 anatomical points; and (2) the cow signature, which is a 1-dimensional vector of the Euclidean distances from each point in the normalized tailhead contour to the shape center. Two methods were applied to describe the cow's signature and to reduce its dimension: (1) partial least squares regression, and (2) Fourier descriptors of the cow signature. Three prediction models were compared with manual scores of an expert. Results indicate that (1) it is possible to automatically extract and predict body condition from color images without any manual interference; and (2) Fourier descriptors of the cow's signature result in improved performance (R(2)=0.77).

  17. Does smoking affect body weight and obesity in China?

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A

    2009-12-01

    An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.

  18. 78 FR 7659 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... impairments that affect multiple body systems in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social... eligibility or filing for benefits, call our national toll-free number, 1-800-772-1213, or TTY 1-800-325-0778... the appropriate affected body system(s), such as musculoskeletal, special senses and...

  19. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Patrizia; Giannetti, Luigi Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular aspect, represented by the presence of an evident physical defect that is not recognized or is even denied and neglected, has been disregarded. The aim of our study was to examine the individual and relational meaning of BDD and to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and medical–aesthetical treatments. Methods and results We describe two subjects with BDD, diagnosed by clinical interviews and test. Both patients were compliant to cognitive-behavioral approach. One out of two subjects underwent aesthetical treatments. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral therapy stimulates self-consciousness, rebuilds the body image, promotes health care, and improves relational capacity. Moreover, it ensures the success of any medical and/or surgical procedures by preventing unrealistic expectations. Lastly, it contributes to the definition of worldwide shared behavioral models. PMID:19777069

  20. Environmental factors and habitat use influence body condition of individuals in a species at risk, the grizzly bear

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Cattet, Marc R. L.; Darimont, Chris T.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Janz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habitat net-energy demand affect the body condition of grizzly bears (n = 163) in a threatened population in Alberta, Canada. We quantified environmental variables by modelling spatial patterns of individual habitat use based on global positioning system telemetry data. After controlling for gender, age and capture effects, we assessed the influence of biological and environmental variables on body condition using linear mixed-effects models in an information theoretical approach. Our strongest model suggested that body condition was improved when patterns of habitat use included greater vegetation productivity, increased influence of forest harvest blocks and oil and gas well sites, and a higher percentage of regenerating and coniferous forest. However, body condition was negatively affected by habitat use in close proximity to roads and in areas where potential energetic demands were high. Poor body condition was also associated with increased selection of parks and protected areas and greater seasonal vegetation productivity. Adult females, females with cubs-of-year, juvenile females and juvenile males were in poorer body condition compared with adult males, suggesting that intra-specific competition and differences in habitat use based on gender and age may influence body condition dynamics. Habitat net-energy demand also tended to be higher in areas used by females which, combined with observed trends in body condition, could affect reproductive success in this threatened population. Our results highlight the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in environmental factors and habitat use when assessing

  1. Environmental factors and habitat use influence body condition of individuals in a species at risk, the grizzly bear.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habitat net-energy demand affect the body condition of grizzly bears (n = 163) in a threatened population in Alberta, Canada. We quantified environmental variables by modelling spatial patterns of individual habitat use based on global positioning system telemetry data. After controlling for gender, age and capture effects, we assessed the influence of biological and environmental variables on body condition using linear mixed-effects models in an information theoretical approach. Our strongest model suggested that body condition was improved when patterns of habitat use included greater vegetation productivity, increased influence of forest harvest blocks and oil and gas well sites, and a higher percentage of regenerating and coniferous forest. However, body condition was negatively affected by habitat use in close proximity to roads and in areas where potential energetic demands were high. Poor body condition was also associated with increased selection of parks and protected areas and greater seasonal vegetation productivity. Adult females, females with cubs-of-year, juvenile females and juvenile males were in poorer body condition compared with adult males, suggesting that intra-specific competition and differences in habitat use based on gender and age may influence body condition dynamics. Habitat net-energy demand also tended to be higher in areas used by females which, combined with observed trends in body condition, could affect reproductive success in this threatened population. Our results highlight the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in environmental factors and habitat use when assessing

  2. A tale of two polar bear populations: Ice habitat, harvest, and body condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, K.D.; Peacock, E.; Taylor, M.; Stirling, I.; Born, E.W.; Laidre, K.L.; Wiig, O.

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms by which sea ice loss is expected to affect polar bears is via reduced body condition and growth resulting from reduced access to prey. To date, negative effects of sea ice loss have been documented for two of 19 recognized populations. Effects of sea ice loss on other polar bear populations that differ in harvest rate, population density, and/or feeding ecology have been assumed, but empirical support, especially quantitative data on population size, demography, and/or body condition spanning two or more decades, have been lacking. We examined trends in body condition metrics of captured bears and relationships with summertime ice concentration between 1977 and 2010 for the Baffin Bay (BB) and Davis Strait (DS) polar bear populations. Polar bears in these regions occupy areas with annual sea ice that has decreased markedly starting in the 1990s. Despite differences in harvest rate, population density, sea ice concentration, and prey base, polar bears in both populations exhibited positive relationships between body condition and summertime sea ice cover during the recent period of sea ice decline. Furthermore, females and cubs exhibited relationships with sea ice that were not apparent during the earlier period (1977-1990s) when sea ice loss did not occur. We suggest that declining body condition in BB may be a result of recent declines in sea ice habitat. In DS, high population density and/or sea ice loss, may be responsible for the declines in body condition. ?? 2011 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  3. Developmental acclimation to low or high humidity conditions affect starvation and heat resistance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal

    2014-09-01

    Several Drosophila species originating from tropical humid localities are more resistant to starvation and heat stress than populations from high latitudes but mechanistic bases of such physiological changes are largely unknown. In order to test whether humidity levels affect starvation and heat resistance, we investigated developmental acclimation effects of low to high humidity conditions on the storage and utilization of energy resources, body mass, starvation survival, heat knockdown and heat survival of D. melanogaster. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity (85% RH) stored significantly higher level of lipids and showed greater starvation survival hours but smaller in body size. In contrast, lines reared at low humidity evidenced reduced levels of body lipids and starvation resistance. Starvation resistance and lipid storage level were higher in females than males. However, the rate of utilization of lipids under starvation stress was lower for lines reared under higher humidity. Adult flies of lines reared at 65% RH and acclimated under high or low humidity condition for 200 hours also showed changes in resistance to starvation and heat but such effects were significantly lower as compared with developmental acclimation. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity showed greater heat knockdown time and heat-shock survival. These laboratory observations on developmental and adult acclimation effects of low versus high humidity conditions have helped in explaining seasonal changes in resistance to starvation and heat of the wild-caught flies of D. melanogaster. Thus, we may suggest that wet versus drier conditions significantly affect starvation and heat resistance of D. melanogaster.

  4. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens.

    PubMed

    Aarnink, A J A; Schrama, J W; Heetkamp, M J W; Stefanowska, J; Huynh, T T T

    2006-08-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) was studied. Ten groups of 5 pigs were placed in partially slatted pens (60% solid concrete, 40% metal-slatted) in climate respiration chambers. After an adaptation period, temperatures were raised daily for 9 d. Results showed that above certain inflection temperatures (IT; mean 22.6 degrees C, SE = 0.78) the number of excretions (relative to the total number of excretions) on the solid floor increased with temperature (mean increase 9.7%/ degrees C, SE = 1.41). Below the IT, the number of excretions on the solid floor was low and not influenced by temperature (mean 13.2%, SE = 3.5). On average, the IT for excretion on the solid floor decreased with increasing BW, from approximately 25 degrees C at 25 kg to 20 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.05). Increasing temperature also affected the pattern and postural lying. The temperature at which a maximum number of pigs lay on the slatted floor (i.e., the IT for lying) decreased from approximately 27 degrees C at 25 kg to 23 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.001). At increasing temperatures, pigs lay more on their sides and less against other pigs (P < 0.001). Temperature affects lying and excreting behavior of growing-finishing pigs in partially slatted pens. Above certain IT, pen fouling increases linearly with temperature. Inflection temperatures decrease at increasing BW.

  5. Body condition and response to pesticides in woodcocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Dodge, W.E.; Sheldon, W.G.; DeWitt, J.B.; Stickel, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    Response of woodcocks (Philohela minor) to heptachlor dosage was closely related to the physical condition of the birds, as reflected by body weight and by body weight in relation to capture weight: in a series of tests with underweight birds, nearly all woodcocks died at dosage levels well below those at which nearly all the birds in a normal-weight series lived. Heptachlor residues in tissues were determined and their loss with time was estimated. Dieldrin proved more toxic than heptachlor to birds of similar weight. Birds in good weight survived massive doses of DDT; some succumbed to smaller spaced serial doses, but only when these were accompanied by starvation rations. When birds were placed in foil-lined boxes after doses of heptachlor added to butter oil or corn oil, it became evident that they passed quantities of oil in about 3 hours, thus very likely ridding themselves of a large part of the heptachlor dose. It was concluded that other methods than dosage with encapsulated chemicals would be needed for appraisal of field effects of toxicants on woodcocks.

  6. Improving initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Lehman H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V.; Pinto, Philip A.

    2016-10-01

    In cosmological N-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete `macroparticles' suppresses the growth of structure, such that simulations no longer reproduce linear theory on small scales near kNyquist. Marcos et al. demonstrate that this is due to sparse sampling of modes near kNyquist and that the often-assumed continuum growing modes are not proper growing modes of the particle system. We develop initial conditions (ICs) that respect the particle linear theory growing modes and then rescale the mode amplitudes to account for growth suppression. These ICs also allow us to take advantage of our very accurate N-body code ABACUS to implement second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) in configuration space. The combination of 2LPT and rescaling improves the accuracy of the late-time power spectra, halo mass functions, and halo clustering. In particular, we achieve 1 per cent accuracy in the power spectrum down to kNyquist, versus kNyquist/4 without rescaling or kNyquist/13 without 2LPT, relative to an oversampled reference simulation. We anticipate that our 2LPT will be useful for large simulations where fast Fourier transforms are expensive and that rescaling will be useful for suites of medium-resolution simulations used in cosmic emulators and galaxy survey mock catalogues. Code to generate ICs is available at https://github.com/lgarrison/zeldovich-PLT.

  7. Moose body mass variation revisited: disentangling effects of environmental conditions and genetics.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Haanes, Hallvard; Solberg, Erling J; Røed, Knut H; Høgda, Kjell Arild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2014-02-01

    Large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits within species is often correlated to local environmental conditions and population density. Such phenotypic variation has recently been shown to also be influenced by genetic structuring of populations. In ungulates, large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits, such as body mass, has been related to environmental conditions and population density, but little is known about the genetic influences. Research on the genetic structure of moose suggests two distinct genetic lineages in Norway, structured along a north-south gradient. This corresponds with many environmental gradients, thus genetic structuring provides an additional factor affecting geographical phenotypic variation in Norwegian moose. We investigated if genetic structure explained geographical variation in body mass in Norwegian moose while accounting for environmental conditions, age and sex, and if it captured some of the variance in body mass that previously was attributed to environmental factors. Genetic structuring of moose was the most important variable in explaining the geographic variation in body mass within age and sex classes. Several environmental variables also had strong explanatory power, related to habitat diversity, environmental seasonality and winter harshness. The results suggest that environmental conditions, landscape characteristics, and genetic structure should be evaluated together when explaining large-scale patterns in phenotypic characters or life history traits. However, to better understand the role of genetic and environmental effects on phenotypic traits in moose, an extended individual-based study of variation in fitness-related characters is needed, preferably in an area of convergence between different genetic lineages.

  8. Fermentation condition outweighed truffle species in affecting volatile organic compounds analyzed by chromatographic fingerprint system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ya-Jie; Wang, Guan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2009-08-04

    The influences of fermentation conditions and truffle species (i.e., Tuber melanosporum, Tuber sinense, Tuber indicum, and Tuber aestivum) on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originated from truffle fermentation mycelia were studied by using chromatographic fingerprint system for the first time. Gas chromatography combined with statistical methods including similarity analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to develop chromatographic fingerprint system for truffle VOCs evaluation. Fermentation conditions affected the VOCs from truffle fermentation mycelia much more significantly than truffle species. This indicated that it is possible to adjust the aroma of truffle fermentation mycelia similar with the natural fruiting-body through the control of fermentation process.

  9. Listening-touch, Affect and the Crafting of Medical Bodies through Percussion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The growing abundance of medical technologies has led to laments over doctors’ sensory de-skilling, technologies viewed as replacing diagnosis based on sensory acumen. The technique of percussion has become emblematic of the kinds of skills considered lost. While disappearing from wards, percussion is still taught in medical schools. By ethnographically following how percussion is taught to and learned by students, this article considers the kinds of bodies configured through this multisensory practice. I suggest that three kinds of bodies arise: skilled bodies; affected bodies; and resonating bodies. As these bodies are crafted, I argue that boundaries between bodies of novices and bodies they learn from blur. Attending to an overlooked dimension of bodily configurations in medicine, self-perception, I show that learning percussion functions not only to perpetuate diagnostic craft skills but also as a way of knowing of, and through, the resource always at hand; one’s own living breathing body. PMID:27390549

  10. Does Body Mass Index Affect Mortality in Coronary Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Protopapas, Aristotle D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Body Mass Index (BMI) quantifies nutritional status and classifies humans as underweight, of normal weight, overweight, mildly obese, moderately obese or morbidly obese. Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat, defined as BMI higher than 30 kg/m2. Obesity is widely accepted to complicate anaesthesia and surgery, being a risk factor for mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought the evidence on operative mortality of CABG between standard BMI groups. Materials and Methodology: A simple literature review of papers presenting the mortality of CABG by BMI group: Underweight (BMI ≤ 18.49 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2), mild obesity (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2), moderate obesity (BMI 35.0–39.9 kg/m2), or morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m2). Results: We identified 18 relevant studies with 1,027,711 patients in total. Their variability in size of samples and choice of BMI groups precluded us from attempting inferential statistics. The overall cumulative mortality was 2.7%. Underweight patients had by far the highest mortality (6.6%). Overweight patients had the lowest group mortality (2.1%). The group mortality for morbidly obese patients was 3.44%. Discussion: Patients with extreme BMI’s undergoing CABG (underweight ones more than morbidly obese) suffer increased crude mortality. This simple observation indicates that under nutrition and morbid obesity need be further explored as risk factors for coronary surgery. PMID:28217179

  11. What drives seasonal fluctuations of body condition in a semelparous income breeder octopus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; Valls, Maria

    2011-09-01

    The vast majority of modern cephalopods is single-season breeders, or semelparous in the strict sense, that die soon after the reproduction takes place. Individual body condition in these marine invertebrates is expected to be highly affected by reproduction because: 1) the gonad weight of females, which represents <1% of body weight when immature, increases up to 20-50% during maturation; and 2) octopus females reduce or even cease their food intake during breeding. Based on this expectation, we analysed the interrelationship between condition and reproduction in the temperate octopus Eledone cirrhosa. Results from a previous work using biochemical analyses showed that reproduction in this species is not fuelled by stored reserves (capital breeder), but by food intakes (income breeder). Since income breeders depend strongly on food resources, the effect of several environmental variables related to food availability such as primary production, sea temperature (ST) and river discharges were also analysed. Condition showed a marked intrannual cycle independently of the sex and, noteworthy, the maturity stage. Given that immature individuals are not expected to display seasonal fluctuations in body condition related to maturation, these results preclude reproduction as a driving factor for the observed circannual cycle. Condition was significantly correlated with all the environmental variables analysed, except with ST at the depths where the species lives. Although this last result also precludes concurrent ST as a driving factor of body condition, those correlations suggest that condition might display an intrinsic seasonal cycle, as many other life-history traits in most species such as reproduction, migration or moulting. Finally, there also remains the possibility that condition in this octopus species is determined genetically, as has been reported in recent studies across different taxonomical groups.

  12. Body temperature as a conditional response measure for pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Godsil, B P; Quinn, J J; Fanselow, M S

    2000-01-01

    On six days rats were exposed to each of two contexts. They received an electric shock in one context and nothing in the other. Rats were tested later in each environment without shock. The rats froze and defecated more often in the shock-paired environment; they also exhibited a significantly larger elevation in rectal temperature in that environment. The rats discriminated between each context, and we suggest that the elevation in temperature is the consequence of associative learning. Thus, body temperature can be used as a conditional response measure in Pavlovian fear conditioning experiments that use footshock as the unconditional stimulus.

  13. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  15. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  16. Many-body-localization transition: sensitivity to twisted boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2017-03-01

    For disordered interacting quantum systems, the sensitivity of the spectrum to twisted boundary conditions depending on an infinitesimal angle ϕ can be used to analyze the many-body-localization transition. The sensitivity of the energy levels {{E}n}(φ ) is measured by the level curvature {{K}n}=En\\prime \\prime(0) , or more precisely by the Thouless dimensionless curvature {{k}n}={{K}n}/{{ Δ }n} , where {{ Δ }n} is the level spacing that decays exponentially with the size L of the system. For instance {{ Δ }n}\\propto {{2}-L} in the middle of the spectrum of quantum spin chains of L spins, while the Drude weight {{D}n}=L{{K}n} studied recently by Filippone et al (arxiv:1606.07291v1) involves a different rescaling. The sensitivity of the eigenstates |{{\\psi}n}(φ )> is characterized by the susceptibility {χn}=-Fn\\prime \\prime(0) of the fidelity {{F}n}= |<{{\\psi}n}(0)|{{\\psi}n}(φ )>| . Both observables are distributed with probability distributions displaying power-law tails {{P}β}(k)≃ {{A}β}|k{{|}-(2+β )} and Q(χ )≃ {{B}β}{χ-\\frac{3+β{2}}} , where β is the level repulsion index taking the values {β\\text{GOE}}=1 in the ergodic phase and {β\\text{loc}}=0 in the localized phase. The amplitudes {{A}β} and {{B}β} of these two heavy tails are given by some moments of the off-diagonal matrix element of the local current operator between two nearby energy levels, whose probability distribution has been proposed as a criterion for the many-body-localization transition by Serbyn et al (2015 Phys. Rev. X 5 041047).

  17. The Mind-Body Connection - Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns? Past Issues / Winter ... traumatic life events. The categories ranged from traumatic stress to some stress to no significant stress. According ...

  18. Physicochemical conditions in affecting the distribution of spring phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuqiu; Liu, Haijiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xue, Bing; Munir, Sonia; Sun, Jun

    2017-03-01

    To better understand the physicochemical conditions in affecting regional distribution of phytoplankton community, one research cruise was carried out in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea during 3rd and 23th May, 2010. The phytoplankton community, including Bacillariophyta (105 taxa), Pyrrophyta (54 taxa), Chrysophyta (1 taxon) and Chlorophyta (2 taxa), had been identified and clearly described from six ecological provinces. And, the six ecological provinces were partitioned based on the top twenty dominant species related with notable physicochemical parameters. In general, the regional distributions of phytoplankton ecological provinces were predominantly influenced by the physicochemical properties induced by the variable water masses and circulations. The predominant diatoms in most of water samples showed well adaptability in turbulent and eutrophic conditions. However, several species of dinoflagellates e.g., Protoperidinium conicum, Protoperidinium triestinum, Protoperidinium sp. and Gymnodinium lohmanni preferred warmer, saltier and nutrient-poor environment. Moreover, the dinoflagellates with high frequency in the Yellow Sea might be transported from the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The horizontal distribution of phytoplankton was depicted by diatoms and controlled by phosphate concentration, while the vertical distribution was mainly supported by light and nutrients availability in the subsurface and bottom layers, respectively.

  19. Studies on wake-affected heat transfer around the circular leading edge of blunt body

    SciTech Connect

    Funazaki, K.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed measurements are performed about time-averaged heat transfer distributions around the leading edge of a blunt body, which is affected by incoming periodic wakes from the upstream moving bars. The blunt body is a test model of a front portion of a turbine blade in gas turbines and consists of a semicircular cylindrical leading edge and a flat plate afterbody. A wide range of the steady and unsteady flow conditions are adopted as for the Reynolds number based on the diameter of the leading edge and the bar-passing Strouhal number. The measured heat transfer distributions indicate that the wakes passing over the leading edge cause a significant increase in heat transfer before the separation and the higher Strouhal number results in higher heat transfer. From this experiment, a correlation for the heat transfer enhancement around the leading edge due to the periodic wakes is deduced as a function of the Stanton number and it is reviewed by comparison with the other experimental works.

  20. Lean birds in the city: body size and condition of house sparrows along the urbanization gradient.

    PubMed

    Liker, A; Papp, Z; Bókony, V; Lendvai, A Z

    2008-07-01

    1. Urbanized habitats differ from natural ones in several ecological features, including climate, food availability, strength of predation and competition. Although the effects of urbanization on avian community composition are well known, there is much less information about how individual birds are affected by these human-generated habitat differences. 2. In this study we investigated the relationships between the morphological characteristics and the degree of habitat urbanization in house sparrows, Passer domesticus (Linne 1758) . We collected data for more than 1000 non-breeding adult birds in Hungary between 1997 and 2006, from seven sites including farmlands, suburban areas and city centres. 3. We found that the body mass, tarsus length and body condition of free-living sparrows differed among the sites: birds in more urbanized habitats were consistently smaller and in worse condition than birds in more rural habitats. A composite measure of habitat urbanization (based on building density, road density and vegetation cover) explained over 75% of variance between sites in the studied traits, after we controlled for the effects of sex, year, season and time of capture. 4. The difference in body mass between rural and urban sparrows was significant when birds were kept in aviaries under identical conditions, with constant ad libitum food availability. It is therefore unlikely that the reduced body size and condition of urban sparrows are a consequence of reduced access to food for adults (e.g. due to strong competition), or their short-term responses to high food predictability (e.g. by strategic mass regulation). 5. We suggest that habitat differences in nestling development or adaptive divergence of sparrow populations due to distinct environmental conditions (such as differing predation pressure) may account for the differences along the urbanization gradient.

  1. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  2. Larval competition reduces body condition in the female seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Schade, Daynika J; Vamosi, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles.

  3. Winter body condition of moose (Alces alces) in a declining population in northeastern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    DelGiudice, Glenn D; Sampson, Barry A; Lenarz, Mark S; Schrage, Michael W; Edwards, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of the condition of moose (Alces alces) may be particularly informative to understanding the dynamics of populations and other influential factors. During February-March 2003 to 2005, we assessed the nutritional condition of 79 moose (39 females, 40 males) in northeastern Minnesota by body condition scoring (BCS(F), scale of 0-10); 67 of these by were assessed by ultrasonographic measurements of rump fat (Maxfat), which was used to estimate ingesta-free body fat (IFBF) in all but two of the females. Scores of the BCS(F) were related (r(2)=0.34, P<0.0001) to Maxfat. Body condition scores were not affected by sex × capture-year, capture-year, or age-at-capture, but the mean body condition score of males (6.5 ± 0.2 [SE], n=40) was less (P ≤ 0.009) than that of females (7.4 ± 0.2, n=39). Overall, Maxfat ranged from 0.0 to 4.6 and 0.3 to 2.8 cm in females and males, respectively, and was unaffected by age-at-capture. There was a sex×capture-year effect (P=0.021) on Maxfat; mean values were stable for males during the winters of 2003 to 2005 but in females were lowest during 2003, consistent with the lowest pregnancy rates and lowest winter and spring survival compared to 2004 and 2005. Based on estimates of percent IFBF, late winter-early spring survival in 2003 of at least 11% of the collared animals assessed by Maxfat, 21% of the adult females, specifically, may have been seriously challenged directly by poor condition. Data from this study provide reference values and assessments of body condition of moose that will be an essential component of the additional, comprehensive research needed to better understand the influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the performance of this viable, but declining, population. For future research, we will concentrate on developing a more-reliable BCS which would allow IFBF estimation once rump fat is depleted.

  4. 42 CFR 485.56 - Condition of participation: Governing body and administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... Condition of participation: Governing body and administration. The facility must have a governing body that... disclose certain information about ownership and control. (b) Standard: Administrator. The governing...

  5. 42 CFR 485.56 - Condition of participation: Governing body and administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... Condition of participation: Governing body and administration. The facility must have a governing body that... disclose certain information about ownership and control. (b) Standard: Administrator. The governing...

  6. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  7. Prefrontal infralimbic cortex mediates competition between excitation and inhibition of body movements during pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Halladay, Lindsay R; Blair, Hugh T

    2017-03-01

    The infralimbic subregion of the prefrontal cortex (IL) is broadly involved in behavioral flexibility, risk assessment, and outcome reinforcement. In aversive conditioning tasks, the IL has been implicated in fear extinction and in mediating transitions between Pavlovian and instrumental responses. Here we examine the role of the IL in mediating transitions between two competing Pavlovian fear responses, conditioned motor inhibition (CMI) and conditioned motor excitation (CME). Rats were trained to fear an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) by pairing it with periorbital shock to one eyelid (the unconditioned stimulus [US]). Trained animals exhibited CMI responses (movement suppression) to the CS when they had not recently encountered the US (>24 hr), but, after recent encounters with the US (<5 min), the CS evoked CME responses (turning in circles away from anticipated shock). Animals then received bilateral infusions of muscimol or picrotoxin to inactivate or hyperactivate the IL, respectively. Neither drug reliably affected CMI responses, but there was a bidirectional effect on CME responses; inactivation of the IL attenuated CME responses, whereas hyperactivation potentiated CME responses. These results provide evidence that activation of the IL may promote behavioral strategies that involve mobilizing the body and suppress strategies that involve immobilizing the body. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  9. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  10. Rhythm is it: effects of dynamic body feedback on affect and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sabine C.

    2014-01-01

    Body feedback is the proprioceptive feedback that denominates the afferent information from position and movement of the body to the central nervous system. It is crucial in experiencing emotions, in forming attitudes and in regulating emotions and behavior. This paper investigates effects of dynamic body feedback on affect and attitudes, focusing on the impact of movement rhythms with smooth vs. sharp reversals as one basic category of movement qualities. It relates those qualities to already explored effects of approach vs. avoidance motor behavior as one basic category of movement shape. Studies 1 and 2 tested the effects of one of two basic movement qualities (smooth vs. sharp rhythms) on affect and cognition. The third study tested those movement qualities in combination with movement shape (approach vs. avoidance motor behavior) and the effects of those combinations on affect and attitudes toward initially valence-free stimuli. Results suggest that movement rhythms influence affect (studies 1 and 2), and attitudes (study 3), and moderate the impact of approach and avoidance motor behavior on attitudes (study 3). Extending static body feedback research with a dynamic account, findings indicate that movement qualities – next to movement shape – play an important role, when movement of the lived body is an independent variable. PMID:24959153

  11. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (p<.001) compared with the control group. Plasma DA levels were also higher in the meditation (p=.031) than in the control group. The control group demonstrated a negative correlation between stress and positive affects (r=-.408, p=.002), whereas this correlation was not observed in the meditation group. The control group showed positive correlations between somatization and NE/E (r=.267, p=.045) and DA/E (r=.271, p=.042) ratios, whereas these correlations did not emerge in the meditation group. In conclusion, these results suggest that meditation as mind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity.

  12. Fear memory formation can affect a different memory: fear conditioning affects the extinction, but not retrieval, of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory

    PubMed Central

    Joels, Gil; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The formation of fear memory to a specific stimulus leads to subsequent fearful response to that stimulus. However, it is not apparent whether the formation of fear memory can affect other memories. We study whether specific fearful experience leading to fear memory affects different memories formation and extinction. We revealed that cued fear conditioning, but not unpaired or naïve training, inhibited the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory that was formed after fear conditioning training in rats. Fear conditioning had no effect on retrieval of CTA memory but specifically impaired its extinction. Extinguished fear memory, after fear extinction training, had no effect on future CTA memory extinction. Fear conditioning had no effect on CTA memory extinction if CTA memory was formed before fear conditioning. Conditioned taste aversion had no effect on fear conditioning memory extinction. We conclude that active cued fear conditioning memory can affect specifically the extinction, but not the formation, of future different memory. PMID:25324744

  13. Body condition of Morelet’s Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brandt, Laura A.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen; Jeffery, Brian; McMurry, Scott T.; Platt, Steven G.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Vinci, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Body condition factors have been used as an indicator of health and well-being of crocodilians. We evaluated body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) in northern Belize in relation to biotic (size, sex, and habitat) and abiotic (location, water level, and air temperature) factors. We also tested the hypothesis that high water levels and warm temperatures combine or interact to result in a decrease in body condition. Size class, temperature, and water level explained 20% of the variability in condition of Morelet's Crocodiles in this study. We found that adult crocodiles had higher condition scores than juveniles/subadults but that sex, habitat, and site had no effect. We confirmed our hypothesis that warm temperatures and high water levels interact to decrease body condition. We related body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles to natural fluctuations in air temperatures and water levels in northern Belize, providing baseline conditions for population and ecosystem monitoring.

  14. Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress × sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders.

  15. Work hardening and work conditioning interventions: do they affect disability?

    PubMed

    Lechner, D E

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the research on the effectiveness of work hardening and work conditioning programs. Twelve studies of work hardening and work conditioning programs in the United States and abroad were reviewed. One study produced convincing evidence in a randomized study that a work conditioning program was useful in producing a higher percentage of return to work and an earlier return to work in a group of patients off work for at least 2 months. Another study demonstrated that a work hardening program increased the rate of return to work by 52% in patients off work for greater than 4 months. Most of the other studies reviewed suggested positive results, but more carefully documented, randomized, and controlled studies are needed to support the efficacy of these programs and to determine the optimum and most cost-effective work hardening and work conditioning interventions.

  16. Why bodies? Twelve reasons for including bodily expressions in affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    de Gelder, Beatrice

    2009-12-12

    Why bodies? It is rather puzzling that given the massive interest in affective neuroscience in the last decade, it still seems to make sense to raise the question 'Why bodies' and to try to provide an answer to it, as is the goal of this article. There are now hundreds of articles on human emotion perception ranging from behavioural studies to brain imaging experiments. These experimental studies complement decades of reports on affective disorders in neurological patients and clinical studies of psychiatric populations. The most cursory glance at the literature on emotion in humans, now referred to by the umbrella term of social and affective neuroscience, shows that over 95 per cent of them have used faces as stimuli. Of the remaining 5 per cent, a few have used scenes or auditory information including human voices, music or environmental sounds. But by far the smallest number has looked into whole-body expressions. As a rough estimate, a search on PubMed today, 1 May 2009, yields 3521 hits for emotion x faces, 1003 hits for emotion x music and 339 hits for emotion x bodies. When looking in more detail, the body x emotion category in fact yields a majority of papers on well-being, nursing, sexual violence or organ donation. But the number of cognitive and affective neuroscience studies of emotional body perception as of today is lower than 20. Why then have whole bodies and bodily expressions not attracted the attention of researchers so far? The goal of this article is to contribute some elements for an answer to this question. I believe that there is something to learn from the historical neglect of bodies and bodily expressions. I will next address some historical misconceptions about whole-body perception, and in the process I intend not only to provide an impetus for this kind of work but also to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the affective dimension of behaviour, mind and brain as seen from the vantage point of bodily

  17. Impact of Metacognitive Acceptance on Body Dissatisfaction and Negative Affect: Engagement and Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Melissa J.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate engagement in metacognitive acceptance and subsequent efficacy with respect to decreasing 2 risk factors for disordered eating, body dissatisfaction (BD), and negative affect (NA). Method: In a pilot experiment, 20 female undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 24.35, SD = 9.79) underwent a BD induction procedure, received…

  18. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  19. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  20. Body condition and pregnancy in northern Yellowstone elk: evidence for predation risk effects?

    PubMed

    White, P J; Garrott, Robert A; Hamlin, Kenneth L; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Cunningham, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    S. Creel et al. reported a negative correlation between fecal progesterone concentrations and elk:wolf ratios in greater Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) herds and interpreted this correlation as evidence that pregnancy rates of elk decreased substantially in the presence of wolves (Canis lupus). Apparently, the hypothesized mechanism is that decreased forage intake reduces body condition and either results in elk failing to conceive during the autumn rut or elk losing the fetus during winter. We tested this hypothesis by comparing age-specific body condition (percentage ingesta-free body fat) and pregnancy rates for northern Yellowstone elk, one of the herds sampled by Creel et al., before (1962-1968) and after (2000-2006) wolf restoration using indices developed and calibrated for Rocky Mountain elk. Mean age-adjusted percentage body fat of female elk was similarly high in both periods (9.0%-0.9% pre-wolf; 8.9%-0.8% post-wolf). Estimated pregnancy rates (proportion of females that were pregnant) were 0.91 pre-wolf and 0.87 post-wolf for 4-9 year-old elk (95% CI on difference = -0.15 to 0.03, P = 0.46) and 0.64 pre-wolf and 0.78 post-wolf for elk > 9 years old (95% CI on difference = -0.01 to 0.27, P = 0.06). Thus, there was little evidence in these data to support strong effects of wolf presence on elk pregnancy. We caution that multiple lines of evidence and/or strong validation should be brought to bear before relying on indirect measures of how predators affect pregnancy rates.

  1. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of this part. (7) Transportation of organs to transplant hospitals. (8) Coordination of activities... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Organ Procurement Organization Process Performance Measures § 486.324...

  2. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  3. Direct versus indirect effects of social rank, maternal weight, body condition and age on milk production in Iberian red deer ( Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Estevez, Jose A; Gallego, Laureano

    2010-02-01

    Social rank in cervids and other mammals is not entirely predicted by body weight, but in most cases influences access to food directly. Milk provisioning depends on maternal weight and on daily food intake. Usually, body weight, body condition, age and social rank are inter-correlated making it very difficult to discern the relative importance of each variable to milk production. This study used path analysis to assess direct versus indirect effects of these variables on milk production of 62 Iberian red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Once the known direct effects of body weight and body condition were set as fixed, hind age and social rank did not affect milk production directly. In contrast, they exerted an indirect influence through the correlation both with hind body weight and body condition. Body weight exerted an effect on milk production nearly twice as great as that of body condition. This study shows, for the first time in a wild mammal, the relative importance of social rank, body weight, body condition and age in affecting milk production ability.

  4. Conditions affecting boundary response to messages out of awareness.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S

    1976-05-01

    Multiple studies evaluated the role of the following parameters in mediating the effects of auditory subliminal inputs upon the body boundary: being made aware that exposure to subliminal stimuli is occurring, nature of the priming preliminary to the input, length of exposure, competing sensory input, use of specialized content messages, tolerance for unrealistic experience, and masculinity-feminity. A test-retest design was typically employed that involved measuring the baseline Barrier score with the Holtzman bolts and then ascertaining the Barrier change when responding to a second series of Holtzman blots at the same time that subliminal input was occurring. Complex results emerged that defined in considerably new detail what facilitates and blocks the boundary-disrupting effects of subliminal messages in men and to a lesser degree in women.

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Benjamin L.; Williams, Ivor D.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Williams, Gareth J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research. PMID:22384014

  6. Patterns of Mind-Body Therapies in Adults with Common Neurological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Erwin Wells, Rebecca; Phillips, Russell S.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Over 40% of adults with common neurological conditions use complementary and alternative medicine, and mind-body therapies are the most commonly used form. Our objective was to describe mind-body use in adults with common neurological conditions. Methods We compared mind-body use between adults with and without common neurological conditions (regular headaches, migraines, back pain with sciatica, strokes, dementia, seizures or memory loss) using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey of 23,393 sampled American adults. Results Adults with common neurological conditions used mind-body therapies more frequently than those without (24.5 vs. 16.6%, p < 0.0001); differences persisted after adjustment. Deep breathing exercises, meditation and yoga were used most frequently. Nearly 70% of the adults with common neurological conditions did not discuss their mind-body use with their health care provider. Those with neurological conditions used mind-body therapies more than those without these conditions because of provider recommendation (26 vs. 13%) or because conventional treatments were perceived ineffective (12 vs. 4%) or too costly (7 vs. 2%), respectively. Conclusions Mind-body therapies are used more frequently among adults with common neurological conditions, more often when conventional treatments were perceived ineffective. More research is warranted on the efficacy of mind-body use for common neurological conditions. PMID:21196772

  7. Relational Responding Modulates and Reverses Affective Ratings in Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molet, Mikael; Macquet, Benjamin; Charley, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments explored relational responding in evaluative conditioning. In Experiment 1, the participants were trained with a computer task to make relational responses by putting CSs of different sizes in boxes in order of size. Subsequently they were instructed that these different sized CSs represented different intensities of hypothetical…

  8. Standard biobanking conditions prevent evaporation of body fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Eline A J; Koel-Simmelink, Marleen J A; Durieux-Lu, Sisi; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Teunissen, Charlotte E

    2015-03-10

    Pre-analytical variation in biobanking procedures, e.g., long-term storage, could confound biomarker outcomes. We investigated evaporation in various body fluids at different storage temperatures and storage durations. Biobank sample tubes (Sarstedt 72.694.007) filled with water in different volumes (50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500μl) were stored at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, room temperature (RT)) for 4.5years and weighed at regular intervals. Next, saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF were stored in different volumes (50, 250, 500, 1000μl) at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, RT) for 2years. An extra set of CSF was stored in tubes with safe-lock cap (Eppendorf 0030 120.086) instead of a screw cap with o-ring. No evaporation of water stored in biobanking tubes at -80°C or -20°C occurred over 4.5years. Storage of saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF at -80°C or -20°C, monitored over 2years, protected these samples from evaporation too. At 4°C, evaporation was minor, approximately 1.5% (50μl) or 0% (1ml) yearly, where at RT it ranged from 38% (50μl) to 2% (1ml). Differences were observed neither between different body fluids, nor between tube caps. Our data provide support for long-term biobanking conform current biobanking guidelines, encouraging retrospective use of clinical cohorts.

  9. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... syndrome (AIDS). (5) Appropriate tissue typing of organs. (6) A system for allocation of organs among... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Organ Procurement Organization Process Performance Measures § 486.324...

  10. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... syndrome (AIDS). (5) Appropriate tissue typing of organs. (6) A system for allocation of organs among... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Organ Procurement Organization Process Performance Measures § 486.324...

  11. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... syndrome (AIDS). (5) Appropriate tissue typing of organs. (6) A system for allocation of organs among... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Organ Procurement Organization Process Performance Measures § 486.324...

  12. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  13. Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Goerlich, Vivian C; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2012-03-01

    In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the costs and benefits of this compensatory strategy probably depend on environmental factors determining the survival chances of the chicks such as the food conditions, which should, therefore, influence maternal yolk androgen deposition. We studied the consequences of manipulated food conditions on the expected level of hatching asynchrony in canaries (Serinus canaria) assigning females to either a low (=LQ) or high quality (=HQ) diet. We measured the incubation behaviour (as incubation attendance) and the yolk androgen deposition in order to investigate whether and how females modulate hatching asynchrony in relation to the food conditions. Females on a HQ diet laid larger and heavier clutches, showed a stronger increase in yolk testosterone content towards the last-laid eggs, but did not alter their incubation attendance. Thus, females on a HQ diet seem to favour the survival of later hatching chicks, as indicated by their yolk testosterone deposition pattern. However, females on a HQ diet laid larger clutches and might need to compensate more in order to achieve a similar degree of hatching asynchrony than females on a LQ diet, given the lack of plasticity in incubation attendance. This suggests that canary females respond to food manipulations mainly via changes in clutch size rather than by altering the degree of hatching asynchrony.

  14. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector

    PubMed Central

    Nell, Lucas A.; Frederick, Peter C.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Vliet, Kent A.; Brandt, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations) shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes) actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction. PMID:26934602

  15. 42 CFR 483.410 - Condition of participation: Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM... Intellectual Disabilities § 483.410 Condition of participation: Governing body and management. (a)...

  16. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  17. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-13

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part.

  18. Nutritional modulation of IGF-1 in relation to growth and body condition in Sceloporus lizards.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christine A; Jetzt, Amanda E; Cohick, Wendie S; John-Alder, Henry B

    2015-05-15

    Nutrition and energy balance are important regulators of growth and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. However, our understanding of these functions does not extend uniformly to all classes of vertebrates and is mainly limited to controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards can be useful models to improve our understanding of the nutritional regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis because many species are relatively easy to observe and manipulate both in the laboratory and in the field. In the present study, the effects of variation in food intake on growth, body condition, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA levels were measured in (1) juveniles of Sceloporus jarrovii maintained on a full or 1/3 ration and (2) hatchlings of Sceloporus undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. These parameters plus plasma IGF-1 were measured in a third experiment using adults of S. undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. In all experiments, plasma corticosterone was measured as an anticipated indicator of nutritional stress. In S. jarrovii, growth and body condition were reduced but lizards remained in positive energy balance on 1/3 ration, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and plasma corticosterone were not affected in comparison to full ration. In S. undulatus, growth, body condition, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA, and plasma IGF-1 were all reduced by zero ration and restored by refeeding. Plasma corticosterone was increased in response to zero ration and restored by full ration in hatchlings but not adults of S. undulatus. These data indicate that lizards conform to the broader vertebrate model in which severe food deprivation and negative energy balance is required to attenuate systemic IGF-1 expression. However, when animals remain in positive energy balance, reduced food intake does not appear to affect systemic IGF-1. Consistent with other studies on lizards, the corticosterone response to reduced food intake is an unreliable indicator

  19. Uncontrollable atmospheric conditions which can affect animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, P; Rodriguez-Vicente, M C; Villar, P; Repetto, M

    1988-10-01

    In our programs of investigation into mechanisms of molecular action of toxic substances, we have had occasion to observe the appearance of anomalous values in biochemical parameters, which we put down to cyclic rhythms or coincidences with the following phenomena: meteorological (storms), geological (earthquakes), and astronomical or phenological (eclipse and lunar phases). This work reviews such observations, which suggest that besides the environmental conditions of the animal room (illumination, humidity, temperature, noise) it is necessary to consider all the external circumstances which occur at the moment of the experiment.

  20. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between 2-min and 2-h glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and <0.001 respectively) were positively associated with body weight and body condition score. Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared.

  1. Access conditions affect binge-type shortening consumption in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Johnson, D.S.; Corwin, R.L.W.

    2009-01-01

    When non-food-deprived rats are given intermittent access to certain substances, consumption of those substances is greater than when more frequent access is provided. The present study examined the effects of three different shortening access conditions on subsequent shortening intake in rats. Each of the three different shortening conditions lasted five weeks and was followed by a five-week period in which shortening access was limited by time (1 hr of availability) on either an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) or Daily schedule of access. In Part 1, limiting the quantity of shortening provided during the 1-hour period of availability attenuated subsequent 1-hr shortening intake in the Intermittent access group, but had no statistically significant effect in the Daily access group. In Part 2, unrestricted availability of shortening (24-hr/day-7days/week) attenuated subsequent 1-hr shortening intake in all groups. In Part 3, shortening non-availability for five weeks enhanced subsequent 1-hr shortening intake in all groups. It was also shown that rats under an Intermittent, but not a Daily, schedule of access consumed as much shortening during a 1 hr period of availability, as was consumed in 24-hr when shortening availability was unrestricted. These results demonstrate that while intermittent access is necessary and sufficient to stimulate binge-type eating in rats, the behavioral history can modulate binge size. PMID:18851983

  2. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badzinski, S.S.; Flint, P.L.; Gorman, K.B.; Petrie, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 ??g g-1 dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 ??g g-1 dw), and selenium (Se: >10 ??g g-1 dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Procedure of rectal temperature measurement affects brain, muscle, skin, and body temperatures and modulates the effects of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Bae, David D; Brown, P Leon; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2007-06-18

    Rectal probe thermometry is commonly used to measure body core temperature in rodents because of its ease of use. Although previous studies suggest that rectal measurement is stressful and results in long-lasting elevations in body temperatures, we evaluated how this procedure affects brain, muscle, skin, and core temperatures measured with chronically implanted thermocouple electrodes in rats. Our data suggest that the procedure of rectal measurement results in powerful locomotor activation, rapid and strong increases in brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures, as well as a biphasic, down-up fluctuation in skin temperature, matching the response pattern observed during tail-pinch, a representative stressful procedure. This response, moreover, did not habituate after repeated day-to-day testing. Repeated rectal probe insertions also modified temperature responses induced by intravenous cocaine. Under quiet resting conditions, cocaine moderately increased brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures. However, during repeated rectal measurements, which increased temperatures, cocaine induced both hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Direct comparisons revealed that body temperatures measured by a rectal probe are typically lower (approximately 0.6 degrees C) and more variable than body temperatures recorded by chronically implanted electrodes; the difference is smaller at low and greater at high basal temperatures. Because of this difference and temperature increases induced by the rectal probe per se, cocaine had no significant effect on rectal temperatures compared to control animals exposed to repeated rectal probes. Therefore, although rectal temperature measurements provide a decent correlation with directly measured deep body temperatures, the arousing influence of this procedure may drastically modulate the effects of other arousing stimuli and drugs.

  4. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  5. The influence of body size, condition index and tidal exposure on the variability in metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Mubiana, Valentine K; Vercauteren, Kathleen; Blust, Ronny

    2006-11-01

    Mussels are commonly used to monitor metal pollution despite high inter-individual variability in tissue concentrations. In this study, influences of body size, condition index and tidal height on concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated. Body weight was inversely related to metal concentrations and for Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn the regression was affected by tidal height. Except for As, Fe and Mn metal concentrations were inversely related to physiological status though no differences between essential and non-essential metals were obvious. After correcting for body size, tidal height was related positively to As, Cd and Zn, negatively related to Cu, Fe and Mn while Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were independent of tidal height. The study recommends stringent measures during sampling for biomonitoring or metal concentrations at each location must be normalized to a common body size, CI and tidal height.

  6. Lighting conditions affect testosterone feedback sensitivity in castrated rats.

    PubMed

    Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Laakso, M L; Stenberg, D; Johansson, G; Peder, M

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown in the Syrian hamster that a short photoperiod sensitizes the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis of castrated animals to the negative feedback effect of testosterone. There is some evidence that even the reproductive system of the rat, which is generally considered not to be very sensitive to light, can respond to changes in illumination. Therefore, we found it of interest to examine whether alterations in lighting conditions produce changes of sensitivity in the negative feedback effect of testosterone in the rat. We kept intact, castrated, and castrated testosterone-treated animals either in periodic (L:D 12:12) or constant light for 7 days starting 4 weeks after castration. In all 3 testosterone-injected groups, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was lower in constant than in periodic light. Exogenous testosterone did not decrease the castration-induced elevations of pituitary LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). On the contrary, testosterone increased the pituitary contents of LH and FSH, especially in constant light. We conclude that, in constant light, the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis of the castrated rat becomes more sensitive to the negative feedback action of testosterone.

  7. Conditions affecting beliefs about visual perception among children and adults.

    PubMed

    Winer, G A; Cottrell, J E; Karefilaki, K D; Chronister, M

    1996-03-01

    Children and adults were tested on their beliefs about whether visual processes involved intromissions (visual input) or extramissions (visual output) across a variety of situations. The idea that extramissions are part of the process of vision was first expressed by ancient philosophers, including Plato, Euclid, and Ptolemy and has been shown to be evident in children and in some adults. The present research showed that when questions about vision referred to luminous as opposed to non-luminous objects, under certain conditions there was some increase in intromission beliefs, but almost no corresponding decline in extramission beliefs, and no evidence of transfer of intromission responses to questions referring to nonluminous objects. A separate study showed that college students, but not children, increased their extramission responses to questions providing a positive emotional context. The results are inconsistent with the idea that simple experiences increase or reinforce a coherent theory of vision. The results also have implications for understanding the nature of beliefs about scientific processes and for education.

  8. Pyrolysis condition affected sulfamethazine sorption by tea waste biochars.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Vithanage, Meththika; Zhang, Ming; Ahmad, Mahtab; Mohan, Dinesh; Chang, Scott X; Ok, Yong Sik

    2014-08-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMT) as a veterinary drug has been detected frequently in the environment. In this study, six biochars produced from tea waste (TW) at 300 and 700 °C with or without N2 and steam activation were characterized and evaluated for SMT sorption in water. The sorption of SMT was interpreted as a function of biochar production condition, SMT concentration, pH and physicochemical characteristics of biochar. Distribution coefficient data showed high sorption of SMT at low pH (∼3) and the highest sorption density of 33.81 mg g(-1) was achieved by the steam activated biochar produced at 700 °C. The steam activation process increased the adsorption capacity by increasing the surface area of the biochar. The π-π electron donor-acceptor interaction, cation-π interaction and cation exchange at low pH were the primary mechanisms governing SMT retention by biochars. Overall, steam activated tea waste biochar could be a promising remedy of SMT removal from water.

  9. Does body mass index and position of impacted lower third molar affect the postoperative pain intensity?

    PubMed

    Matijević, Marko; Uzarević, Zvonimir; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Leović, Dinko; Ivanisević, Zrinka; Matijević-Mikelić, Valentina; Bogut, Irella; Vcev, Aleksandar; Macan, Darko

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine to which extent body mass index and position of impacted lower third molar was affecting the pain intensity in the first seven postoperative days. The study was conducted following the extraction of the lower third molar in 108 patients. Depending on the type of information given to each particular patient, the patients were divided in two groups: the test group where patients were given detailed standard written and verbal instructions and the control group which received only standard written instructions about treatment after surgery. Using canonical discriminant analysis we investigated the influence of body mass index and the position of impacted lower third molar on postoperative pain intensity in two groups of patients. Results of this study showed that the body mass index or the tooth position did not have influence on intensity of postoperative pain. The body mass index and the position of impacted lower third molar do not affect the postoperative pain intensity.

  10. Disturbance of Intentionality: A Phenomenological Study of Body-Affecting First-Rank Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Fuchs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In 1950, Kurt Schneider proposed that a considerable number of schizophrenia patients develop first-rank symptoms (FRS). In such cases, patients report made experiences, replaced control of will, thought insertion, broadcast or withdrawal and delusional perception, respectively. Although a number of recent studies tend to explain FRS in terms of neurobiological and neuropsychological processes, the origin of these symptoms still remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the subjective experience of patients with the following two FRS: (1) "made" impulses and (2) “made" volitional acts. Method The method applied for the study of two FRS consists first in the overview of psychiatric and philosophical literature and second in the further investigation of subjective experience in patients with FRS. Psychopathological and phenomenological aspects of FRS are discussed by means of patient cases. Results We discovered a profound transformation of intentionality and agency in schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS. This concept offers an insight into the interrelatedness between particular FRS. Conclusion We propose that the subjective experience of schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS is rooted in the disturbance of intentionality and diminished sense of agency. This theoretical account of body-affecting FRS will open up new directions in both phenomenological and neurobiological psychiatric research. PMID:24019932

  11. Using skinfold calipers while teaching body fatness-related concepts: cognitive and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J R; Eklund, R C; Williams, A C

    2003-12-01

    Body composition testing has been advocated as part of fitness test batteries in an educational effort to promote health-related fitness, and to prevent public health problems like obesity. However, the measurement of the body composition of children and youth, especially involving the use of skinfold calipers, has raised concerns. In two experiments the cognitive and affective consequences of skinfold caliper use in a 7th grade (155 boys, 177 girls, total N = 332) health/physical education context were examined. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the students could be taught to accurately measure a partner and/or significantly learn body fatness-related concepts compared to controls. It was also shown that inexpensive plastic Fat Control calipers produced accurate measurements. Experiment 2 was designed to replicate the significant cognitive outcome effects, and also to test the hypothesis that psychological damage is a likely consequence of skinfold caliper use-and that hypothesis was refuted. Specifically, knowledge scores, and outcome scores on adapted affect scales (e.g., PANAS, MAACL), physical self-esteem scales (CY-PSPP) and on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale supported the premise that skinfold calipers can be used in an educational context to facilitate cognitive learning without causing adverse affective consequences.

  12. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this

  13. Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces) population - Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Ličina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M

    2015-04-01

    Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O. leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of

  14. Oesophageal foreign bodies in dogs: factors affecting success of endoscopic retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oesophageal foreign bodies are common in dogs. Endoscopic removal is a viable treatment option but few studies have assessed the clinical and radiographic features that would be useful in decision-making and prognosis. Dogs (n = 44) with oesophageal foreign bodies presented to the University Veterinary Hospital were assessed. Terriers and West Highland White Terriers were significantly overrepresented (p < 0.0001) and in those breeds the foreign body was significantly (p < 0.0001) more likely to be located caudal to the heart base. The majority (88.6%) of foreign bodies were bones or bone fragments. Group 1 (n = 30) included animals where endoscopic removal was successful and Group 2 (n = 14) animals where it was unsuccessful or not attempted because of evidence of oesophageal rupture. There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, body weight, type, location and size of foreign body, recovery rate, short-term complications and long-term outcome between the two groups. Duration of signs prior to presentation and time to spontaneous oral feeding were significantly longer (p < 0.01 in each case) in Group 2 (five days and 120 hours, respectively) compared to Group 1 (2 days and 24 hours, respectively). Mortality was 11.1%. Long-term follow-up of 29 dogs suggested oesophageal stricture formation manageable by feeding alone in seven (24.1%) cases. Terriers appear predisposed to oesophageal foreign bodies. Success of endoscopic removal is adversely affected by duration of signs prior to presentation. Surgical removal negatively influences time to recovery. Stricture formation appears to be a relatively common complication and alternate measures for its prevention should be sought. PMID:21851744

  15. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  16. Feather corticosterone content in predatory birds in relation to body condition and hepatic metal concentration.

    PubMed

    Strong, Rebecca J; Pereira, M Glória; Shore, Richard F; Henrys, Peter A; Pottinger, Tom G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of measuring corticosterone in feathers from cryo-archived raptor specimens, in order to provide a retrospective assessment of the activity of the stress axis in relation to contaminant burden. Feather samples were taken from sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, kestrel Falco tinnunculus, buzzard Buteo buteo, barn owl Tyto alba, and tawny owl Strix aluco and the variation in feather CORT concentrations with respect to species, age, sex, feather position, and body condition was assessed. In sparrowhawks only, variation in feather CORT content was compared with hepatic metal concentrations. For individuals, CORT concentration (pgmm(-1)) in adjacent primary flight feathers (P5 and P6), and left and right wing primaries (P5), was statistically indistinguishable. The lowest concentrations of CORT were found in sparrowhawk feathers and CORT concentrations did not vary systematically with age or sex for any species. Significant relationships between feather CORT content and condition were observed in only tawny owl and kestrel. In sparrowhawks, feather CORT concentration was found to be positively related to the hepatic concentrations of five metals (Cd, Mn, Co, Cu, Mo) and the metalloid As. There was also a negative relationship between measures of condition and total hepatic metal concentration in males. The results suggest that some factors affecting CORT uptake by feathers remain to be resolved but feather CORT content from archived specimens has the potential to provide a simple effects biomarker for exposure to environmental contaminants.

  17. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. PMID:27415629

  18. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  19. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  20. Facial affective reactions to bitter-tasting foods and body mass index in adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, D; Zamora, M C

    2013-12-01

    Differences in food consumption among body-weight statuses (e.g., higher fruit intake linked with lower body mass index (BMI) and energy-dense products with higher BMI) has raised the question of why people who are overweight or are at risk of becoming overweight eat differently from thinner people. One explanation, in terms of sensitivity to affective properties of food, suggests that palatability-driven consumption is likely to be an important contributor to food intake, and therefore body weight. Extending this approach to unpalatable tastes, we examined the relationship between aversive reactions to foods and BMI. We hypothesized that people who have a high BMI will show more negative affective reactions to bitter-tasting stimuli, even after controlling for sensory perception differences. Given that hedonic reactions may influence consumption even without conscious feelings of pleasure/displeasure, the facial expressions were included in order to provide more direct access to affective systems than subjective reports. Forty adults (28 females, 12 males) participated voluntarily. Their ages ranged from 18 to 46 years (M=24.2, SD=5.8). On the basis of BMI, participants were classified as low BMI (BMI<20; n=20) and high BMI (BMI>23; n=20). The mean BMI was 19.1 for low BMI (SD=0.7) and 25.2 for high BMI participants (SD=1.8). Each subject tasted 5 mL of a grapefruit juice drink and a bitter chocolate drink. Subjects rated the drinks' hedonic and incentive value, familiarity and bitter intensity immediately after each stimulus presentation. The results indicated that high BMI participants reacted to bitter stimuli showing more profound changes from baseline in neutral and disgust facial expressions compared with low BMI. No differences between groups were detected for the subjective pleasantness and familiarity. The research here is the first to examine how affective facial reactions to bitter food, apart from taste responsiveness, can predict differences in BMI.

  1. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  2. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  3. Effect of body condition and season on yield and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Chrenek, Peter; Kubovičová, Elena; Olexíková, Lucia; Makarevich, Alexander V; Toporcerová, Silvia; Ostró, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the effects of cow's body condition score (BCS; scale 1-5) and season on the quality of bovine in vitro produced embryos. The proportion of good quality oocytes (Q1 and Q2) was higher (P < 0.05) in the BCS 2 (57.60%) and BCS 3 (60.90%) groups compared with the BCS 1 (43.60%) group. There were no statistical differences in embryo cleavage and blastocyst rate among the BCS groups. The highest total cell number (TCN, DAPI stain) of blastocysts (P < 0.05), recorded in BCS 1 (122.27 ± 6.90) in comparison with BCS 2 (101.8 ± 3.60) or BCS 3 (105.44 ± 3.70) groups, was related to higher dead cell (DCI, TUNEL) index in this group (7.07%) when compared with BCS 2 (6.54%) or BCS 3 (6.06%), respectively. The yield of good quality oocytes during spring was lower (P < 0.05) compared with the summer season. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in maturation and cleavage rates between autumn and summer (73.42%, 76.2% vs. 85.0%, 41.8%, respectively). The highest (P < 0.01) blastocyst rate was noted during spring and summer months. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in the TCN among spring (99.38 ± 3.90), autumn (110.1 ± 4.58) or summer (108.96 ± 3.52) was observed. The highest proportion of embryos with the best (grade I) actin cytoskeleton (phalloidin-TRITC) quality was noted during the summer months. Our results indicate that body condition affects the initial quality of oocytes, but does not affect embryo cleavage, blastocyst rate and actin quality. This finding may suggest that development in vitro can mask the influence of BCS. The season affects yield and quality of blastocysts in the way that the autumn period is more favorable for embryo development.

  4. Body condition as an index of winter foraging success in crabeater seals ( Lobodon carcinophaga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Birgitte I.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Burns, Jennifer M.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2008-02-01

    Body composition is a direct measure of body condition and as such integrates seasonal variation in foraging success and energy expenditure. In phocids, body condition is a critical determinant of both reproductive effort and ability to survive periods of poor foraging success. We determined body composition in 29 crabeater seals, Lobodon carcinophaga, during austral autumn (April-May 2002) and late winter (August-September 2001, 2002) off the Antarctic Peninsula by measuring blubber depth and taking morphometric (length, girth) measurements. In 15 of these seals, we also measured body composition using the labeled-water dilution technique. The two methods produced similar body composition estimates, with an average difference of 7%. There were no differences in body composition between adult males and females or between autumn and late winter. These findings suggest that by autumn, adult seals have replenished their energy stores following reproduction and molt. Similarly, the absence of seasonal variation in adults indicates that seals are successfully foraging throughout winter. In addition to providing insight into seasonal and age-related variation in body composition, this study provides baseline body condition data that can be used to measure impacts of natural or anthropogenic environmental change on one of the large consumers of Antarctic krill.

  5. Behavioural Responses to Thermal Conditions Affect Seasonal Mass Change in a Heat-Sensitive Northern Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    van Beest, Floris M.; Milner, Jos M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Methodology/Principal Findings Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance

  6. 42 CFR 485.56 - Condition of participation: Governing body and administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... administration, management, and operation must be retained by the facility itself and not delegated to others. (1... administration. 485.56 Section 485.56 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Condition of participation: Governing body and administration. The facility must have a governing body...

  7. Impact of body condition score on reproductive performance in young postpartum range cows grazing native range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body condition score (BCS) is used as a management tool to predict reproduction of young beef cows. Therefore, the objective was to determine the effects of BCS at calving on pregnancy rates, days to first estrus (DTFE), nutrient status assessed by blood metabolites and calf body wt change in 315, ...

  8. A delay in pubertal onset affects the covariation of body weight, estradiol, and bone size.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Vanessa R

    2009-04-01

    The skeletal system functions as a locomotive organ and a mineral reservoir and combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the skeletal system. Although delayed puberty is associated with compromised bone mass, suppression of estrogen should be beneficial to cortical strength. The purpose was to employ path analysis to study bone strength and delayed puberty. Forty-five female rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 15) and an experimental group (n = 30) that received injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-a). Causal models were constructed by specifying directed paths between bone traits. The first model tested the hypothesis that the functional relationships between bone traits and body weight were altered by a delay in pubertal onset. GnRH-a injections during puberty altered the covariation between body weight and bone size. The second model was constructed to test the hypothesis that variability in stiffness was causally related to variability in body weight. The model also tested the relationship between the periosteal and endocortical surfaces and their relationship to stiffness. There was no change in the relationship between the surfaces in the GnRH-a group. The third model determined the effect of estradiol on both total area and relative cortical area in both groups. The relationship between periosteal surface and serum estradiol levels was only significant during estrogen suppression. These data suggest that increases in body weight during or prior to puberty may not be protective of bone strength.

  9. Early age thermal conditioning immediately reduces body temperature of broiler chicks in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    De Basilio, V; Requena, F; León, A; Vilariño, M; Picard, M

    2003-08-01

    Early age thermal conditioning (TC) durably improves resistance of broilers to heat stress and reduces body temperature (Tb). Three experiments on broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effects of TC at 5 d of age on Tb variation measured by thermometer between 4 and 7 d of age, under a tropical environment. Because manipulation of chickens to measure Tb with a thermometer may increase Tb, a preliminary experiment on 13 3-to-4-wk-old male broilers compared Tb measured by telemetry to Tb measured in the terminal colon during three successive periods at 22, 33, and 22 degrees C. During heat exposure, Tb rapidly increased by 0.9 degrees C and plateaued over 24 h. During the last period, seven of the broilers rapidly reduced Tb to a plateau lower than the initial Tb, although six broilers exhibited more variable Tb. Measurement by thermometer underestimated on average core Tb by 0.28 degrees C at 22 degrees C and by 0.57 degrees C at 33 degrees C, whereas Tb recorded by telemetry was not affected by manipulation of the chickens. TC reduced Tb 24 h later in the three experiments. Compared to unexposed control chicks (N), 12 h of TC at 40 degrees C did not significantly reduce Tb at 7 d of age, although 24 h did. TC at 38 and 40 degrees C over 24 h significantly reduced Tb variation from 4 to 7 d of age compared to N chicks, whereas 36 degrees C did not. Withdrawing feed from the chicks for 2 h prior to measurement did not significantly reduce Tb at 4 and 7 d of age, but Tb reduction due to TC was greater in fed chicks (0.28 degrees C) than in chicks without feed (0.05 degrees C). Early age thermal conditioning at 38 to 40 degrees C at 5 d of age for 24 h reduced body temperature of 7-d-old male broilers.

  10. Body condition and immune response in wild zebra finches: effects of capture, confinement and captive-rearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewenson, Erynne; Zann, Richard; Flannery, Graham

    2001-08-01

    Behavioural ecologists attempt to predict fitness in birds from estimates of body condition and immune capacity. We investigated how the stresses associated with capture, confinement and captive-rearing of wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) affected different elements of the immune system and body condition. Wild birds had higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and total leucocyte counts than aviary birds, presumably an outcome of mounting specific resistance to pathogens, but this response diminished significantly within 10 days of confinement. Wild birds had lower phytohaemagglutinin-A (PHA) responses than their aviary-bred counterparts possibly because energetic costs limited a general resistance response. Wild birds were heavier and had higher haematocrits than their aviary counterparts, but had less fat, although just 10 days of captivity significantly increased fat levels. Measures of body condition were of limited use for predicting immune responsiveness. We conclude that the different elements of the immune system and body condition respond independently, and often unpredictably, to many ecological and behavioural stressors.

  11. Derivative plumbing: redesigning washrooms, bodies, and trans affects in ds+r's Brasserie.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Lucas Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    diller scofidio + renfro's Brasserie restaurant sets the scene for this article's overarching question: what are the stakes of absorbing "the washroom" into our affective habits as trans people? This article uses architectural theory to show that some hygienic models of transgender-such as "original plumbing"-are less about explaining our genders to ourselves and more about (1) communicating our "fuckability" to (presumably non-trans) others and (2) codifying subtle and often problematic beliefs about the relationship between architecture and the body.

  12. Interactions of the surface heat and moisture transfer from the human body under varying climatic conditions and walking speeds.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoming; Fan, Jintu

    2006-11-01

    The surface heat and moisture transfer from the human body are normally characterized by the thermal insulation and moisture vapor resistance, which are important parameters in environmental engineering. In the past, due to the limitation of measurement technology, simultaneous measurement of these two parameters was not possible and hence there is a lack of clear understanding on the interaction of surface heat and moisture transfer. In this paper, through the experimental measurements on a newly developed sweating/non-sweating fabric manikin (named WALTER) under varying climatic conditions and "walking" speeds, we show that the surface thermal insulation is little affected by moisture transfer. The surface moisture vapor resistances measured under isothermal conditions tend to be greater than those measured under non-isothermal conditions, especially when the wind velocity is less than 2.0m/s. The Lewis Relation holds under non-isothermal conditions, but should be corrected under isothermal condition when the wind velocity is small.

  13. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  14. Body visual discontinuity affects feeling of ownership and skin conductance responses

    PubMed Central

    Tieri, Gaetano; Tidoni, Emmanuele; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    When we look at our hands we are immediately aware that they belong to us and we rarely doubt about the integrity, continuity and sense of ownership of our bodies. Here we explored whether the mere manipulation of the visual appearance of a virtual limb could influence the subjective feeling of ownership and the physiological responses (Skin Conductance Responses, SCRs) associated to a threatening stimulus approaching the virtual hand. Participants observed in first person perspective a virtual body having the right hand-forearm (i) connected by a normal wrist (Full-Limb) or a thin rigid wire connection (Wire) or (ii) disconnected because of a missing wrist (m-Wrist) or a missing wrist plus a plexiglass panel positioned between the hand and the forearm (Plexiglass). While the analysis of subjective ratings revealed that only the observation of natural full connected virtual limb elicited high levels of ownership, high amplitudes of SCRs were found also during observation of the non-natural, rigid wire connection condition. This result suggests that the conscious embodiment of an artificial limb requires a natural looking visual body appearance while implicit reactivity to threat may require physical body continuity, even non-naturally looking, that allows the implementation of protective reactions to threat. PMID:26602036

  15. Wet Belly in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Relation to Body Condition, Body Temperature and Blood Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Åhman, B; Nilsson, A; Eloranta, E; Olsson, K

    2002-01-01

    Wet belly, when the reindeer becomes wet over the lower parts of the thorax and abdomen, sometimes occurs in reindeer during feeding. In a feeding experiment, 11 out of 69 reindeer were affected by wet belly. The problem was first observed in 7 animals during a period of restricted feed intake. When the animals were then fed standard rations, 3 additional animals fed only silage, and 1 fed pellets and silage, became wet. Four animals died and 1 had to be euthanised. To investigate why reindeer developed wet belly, we compared data from healthy reindeer and reindeer affected by wet belly. Urea, plasma protein, glucose, insulin and cortisol were affected by restricted feed intake or by diet but did not generally differ between healthy reindeer and those with wet belly. The wet animals had low body temperature and the deaths occurred during a period of especially cold weather. Animals that died were emaciated and showed different signs of infections and stress. In a second experiment, with 20 reindeer, the feeding procedure of the most affected group in the first experiment was repeated, but none of the reindeer showed any signs of wet belly. The study shows that wet belly is not induced by any specific diet and may affect also lichen-fed reindeer. The fluid making the fur wet was proven to be of internal origin. Mortality was caused by emaciation, probably secondary to reduced energy intake caused by diseases and/or unsuitable feed. PMID:12173506

  16. Body Posture Angle Affects the Physiological Indices of Patients With Liver Cirrhosis Ascites.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-chuan; Ho, Lun-hui; Lin, Mei-hsiang; Chiu, Hsiu-ling

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the effect of different angles of lying positions on the physiological indices of patients with cirrhosis ascites. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis were ranked 9th among the top 10 causes of death. Ascites is the most common cirrhosis comorbidity. Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure, making it an important clinical nursing intervention significantly affecting patient recovery. This was a quasi-experimental study design. From a medical center in Taiwan, 252 patients with cirrhosis ascites were recruited. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups by bed angle: 15°, 30°, and 45°. Physiological indices were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes to determine any changes in heart rate, respiration rate, and oxygenation saturation. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and the generalized estimating equation for statistical analysis with significance set at α= 0.05. After controlling for confounding variables, the three groups differed significantly in heart rate at 20, 25, and 30 minutes, oxygenation saturations at 15 and 20 minutes, and respiration rate at 5 and 10 minutes (α< 0.05). Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure and is thus an important clinical nursing intervention that significantly affects the recovery of patients. When caring for patients with cirrhosis ascites, nurses should help patients to choose the most comfortable angle for them with no particular restrictions. Our results can be used to guide nurses in making a plan for health education and nursing that improves the quality of care for patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis patients with ascites.

  17. Effects of 72-h of exercise abstinence on affect and body dissatisfaction in healthy female regular exercisers.

    PubMed

    Niven, Ailsa; Rendell, Emily; Chisholm, Lindsey

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of a 72-h exercise abstinence period and normal exercise on the affect and body dissatisfaction of 58 healthy women (mean age 26.1 years, s = 8.2) who exercised at least four times per week, and explored the relationship between the changes in affect and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the UWIST-MACL and Body Dissatisfaction Scale to assess affect and body image, and were randomized to an abstinence or control group. Affect and body image for both groups were re-assessed following the 72-h abstinence period. Compared with the control group, the abstinence group had a significant decrease in hedonic tone and energetic arousal, and a significant increase in tense arousal and body dissatisfaction from pre-intervention to post-intervention. There were no significant relationships between the changes in body dissatisfaction and the components of affect. A 72-h exercise abstinence period resulted in increased affect disturbance and body dissatisfaction in regularly active women.

  18. Asynchronous vegetation phenology enhances winter body condition of a large mobile herbivore.

    PubMed

    Searle, Kate R; Rice, Mindy B; Anderson, Charles R; Bishop, Chad; Hobbs, N T

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how spatial and temporal heterogeneity influence ecological processes forms a central challenge in ecology. Individual responses to heterogeneity shape population dynamics, therefore understanding these responses is central to sustainable population management. Emerging evidence has shown that herbivores track heterogeneity in nutritional quality of vegetation by responding to phenological differences in plants. We quantified the benefits mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) accrue from accessing habitats with asynchronous plant phenology in northwest Colorado over 3 years. Our analysis examined both the direct physiological and indirect environmental effects of weather and vegetation phenology on mule deer winter body condition. We identified several important effects of annual weather patterns and topographical variables on vegetation phenology in the home ranges of mule deer. Crucially, temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were linked with differences in body condition, with deer tending to show poorer body condition in areas with less asynchronous vegetation green-up and later vegetation onset. The direct physiological effect of previous winter precipitation on mule deer body condition was much less important than the indirect effect mediated by vegetation phenology. Additionally, the influence of vegetation phenology on body fat was much stronger than that of overall vegetation productivity. In summary, changing annual weather patterns, particularly in relation to seasonal precipitation, have the potential to alter body condition of this important ungulate species during the critical winter period. This finding highlights the importance of maintaining large contiguous areas of spatially and temporally variable resources to allow animals to compensate behaviourally for changing climate-driven resource patterns.

  19. What`s normal?: Body condition in Great Lakes herring gulls

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the usefulness of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels. However, the effects of environmental contaminants on gulls are difficult to distinguish from the effects of other anthropogenic stressors such as the introduction of exotic species, overfishing and habitat loss. To understand the relative importance of these factors in regulating the success of individual gulls and, hence, gull populations, the authors must first have a better understanding of what constitutes a ``normal`` bird. Improving the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal birds is crucial in any health assessment of Great Lakes gulls. Body condition has been shown to be an important measure of a bird`s ability to provide energy for egg production, migration etc. Numerous approaches have been used to assess condition, most of which required that the bird be sacrificed. In this study, the authors describe a nonlethal technique to quantify body condition in herring gulls. Multivariate statistics are used to quantify body size, relate body size to total mass and from that, determine relative body condition. Initially, body condition is assessed in gulls from a reference colony where reproductive success is normal and anthropogenic influences are limited. This reference population is then used as a baseline against which other gull populations are compared.

  20. Change in the Beaufort Sea ecosystem: Diverging trends in body condition and/or production in five marine vertebrate species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, L. A.; Smith, T. G.; George, J. C.; Sandstrom, S. J.; Walkusz, W.; Divoky, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of the body condition of five marine vertebrate predators in the Beaufort Sea, conducted independently during the past 2-4 decades, suggest each has been affected by biophysical changes in the marine ecosystem. We summarize a temporal trend of increasing body condition in two species (bowhead whale subadults, Arctic char), in both cases influenced by the extent and persistence of annual sea ice. Three other species (ringed seal, beluga, black guillemot chicks), consumers with a dietary preference for Arctic cod, experienced declines in condition, growth and/or production during the same time period. The proximate causes of these observed changes remain unknown, but may reflect an upward trend in secondary productivity, and a concurrent downward trend in the availability of forage fishes, such as the preferred Arctic cod. To further our understanding of these apparent ecosystem shifts, we urge the use of multiple marine vertebrate species in the design of biophysical sampling studies to identify causes of these changes. Continued long-term, standardized monitoring of vertebrate body condition should be paired with concurrent direct (stomach contents) or indirect (isotopes, fatty acids) monitoring of diet, detailed study of movements and seasonal ranges to establish and refine baselines, and identification of critical habitats of the marine vertebrates being monitored. This would be coordinated with biophysical and oceanographic sampling, at spatial and temporal scales, and geographic locations, that are relevant to the home range, critical habitats and prey of the vertebrate indicator species showing changes in condition and related parameters.

  1. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Saj, Arnaud; Raz, Noa; Levin, Netta; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Arzy, Shahar

    2014-01-01

    Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts. PMID:24961768

  2. Proximate body composition and energy content of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) in relation to the condition factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costopoulos, C. G.; Fonds, M.

    Length, wet weight, dry weight, and the content of lipid, ash and protein of young plaice were determined. The energy content of the fish was estimated by multiplying lipid and protein content by the commonly used calorific equivalents. The data were sorted from low to high condition factor of the fish and grouped according to condition factor (K = 100·W·L -3) into 8 condition groups. Mean values of percentage body composition and energy content were calculated for each condition group. Equations giving the best fit between condition factor and the parameters of body composition and energy content are presented. From the decrease in condition factor in fasting fish the relative losses of lipid and protein energy are calculated. The accuracy of equations for the calculation of energy content of plaice from condition factor is discussed.

  3. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  4. Does body size affect a bird's sensitivity to patch size and landscape structure?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, M.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Larger birds are generally more strongly affected by habitat loss and fragmentation than are smaller ones because they require more resources and thus larger habitat patches. Consequently, conservation actions often favor the creation or protection of larger over smaller patches. However, in grassland systems the boundaries between a patch and the surrounding landscape, and thus the perceived size of a patch, can be indistinct. We investigated whether eight grassland bird species with different body sizes perceived variation in patch size and landscape structure in a consistent manner. Data were collected from surveys conducted in 44 patches of northern tallgrass prairie during 1998-2001. The response to patch size was very similar among species regardless of body size (density was little affected by patch size), except in the Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), which showed a threshold effect and was not found in patches smaller than 140 ha. In landscapes containing 0%-30% woody vegetation, smaller species responded more negatively to increases in the percentage of woody vegetation than larger species, but above an apparent threshold of 30%, larger species were not detected. Further analyses revealed that the observed variation in responses to patch size and landscape structure among species was not solely due to body size per se, but to other differences among species. These results indicate that a stringent application of concepts requiring larger habitat patches for larger species appears to limit the number of grassland habitats that can be protected and may not always be the most effective conservation strategy. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  5. Significance of shock and body slip conditions on Jovian entry heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of the body and shock slip conditions on the heating of a Jovian entry body is investigated. The flow in the shock layer is considered to be axisymmetric, steady, laminar, viscous, and in chemical equilibrium. Realistic thermophysical and step-function spectral models are employed and results are obtained by implicit finite-difference and iteractive procedures. The freestream conditions correspond to a typical Jovian entry trajectory point. The results indicate that the effect of the slip conditions is significant when the altitudes are higher than 225 km and that the contribution of a radiative heat-flux term in the energy equation should not be neglected at any altitude.

  6. Body Weight Selection Affects Quantitative Genetic Correlated Responses in Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lele; Zhao, Wenjing; He, Chuan; Honaker, Christa F.; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Sun, Zikui; Siegel, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of gut microbiota can be viewed as a quantitative trait, which is affected by the genetics and environment of the host. To quantify the effects of host genetics, we calculated the heritability of abundance of specific microorganisms and genetic correlations among them in the gut microbiota of two lines of chickens maintained under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. The lines, which originated from a common founder population, had undergone >50 generations of selection for high (HW) or low (LW) 56-day body weight and now differ by more than 10-fold in body weight at selection age. We identified families of Paenibacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae that had moderate heritabilities. Although there were no obvious phenotypic correlations among gut microbiota, significant genetic correlations were observed. Moreover, the effects were modified by genetic selection for body weight, which altered the quantitative genetic background of the host. Heritabilities for Bacillaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Helicobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae were moderate in LW line and little to zero in the HW line. These results suggest that loci associated with these microbiota families, while exhibiting genetic variation in LW, have been fixed in HW line. Also, long term selection for body weight has altered the genetic correlations among gut microbiota. No microbiota families had significant heritabilities in both the LW and HW lines suggesting that the presence and/or absence of a particular microbiota family either has a strong growth promoting or inhibiting effect, but not both. These results demonstrate that the quantitative genetics of the host have considerable influence on the gut microbiota. PMID:24608294

  7. Using time-dependent models to investigate body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, P.S.; Wylie, G.D.; Halstead, B.J.; Casazza, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying links between phenotypic attributes and fitness is a primary goal of reproductive ecology. Differences in within-year patterns of body condition between sexes of gartersnakes in relation to reproduction and growth are not fully understood. We conducted an 11-year field study of body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake Thamnophis gigas across 13 study areas in the Central Valley of California, USA. We developed a priori mixed effects models of body condition index (BCI), which included covariates of time, sex and snout-vent length and reported the best-approximating models using an information theoretic approach. Also, we developed models of growth rate index (GRI) using covariates of sex and periods based on reproductive behavior. The largest difference in BCI between sexes, as predicted by a non-linear (cubic) time model, occurred during the mating period when female body condition (0.014??0.001 se) was substantially greater than males (-0.027??0.002 se). Males likely allocated energy to search for mates, while females likely stored energy for embryonic development. We also provided evidence that males use more body energy reserves than females during hibernation, perhaps because of different body temperatures between sexes. We found GRI of male snakes was substantially lower during the mating period than during a non-mating period, which indicated that a trade-off existed between searching for mates and growth. These findings contribute to our understanding of snake ecology in a Mediterranean climate. ?? 2009 The Zoological Society of London.

  8. Climate change, phenology, and habitat degradation: drivers of gosling body condition and juvenile survival in lesser snow geese.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Lise M; Rockwell, Robert F; Cooch, Evan G; Brook, Rodney W; Mulder, Christa P H; Koons, David N

    2013-01-01

    Nesting migratory geese are among the dominant herbivores in (sub) arctic environments, which have undergone unprecedented increases in temperatures and plant growing days over the last three decades. Within these regions, the Hudson Bay Lowlands are home to an overabundant breeding population of lesser snow geese that has dramatically damaged the ecosystem, with cascading effects at multiple trophic levels. In some areas the overabundance of geese has led to a drastic reduction in available forage. In addition, warming of this region has widened the gap between goose migration timing and plant green-up, and this 'mismatch' between goose and plant phenologies could in turn affect gosling development. The dual effects of climate change and habitat quality on gosling body condition and juvenile survival are not known, but are critical for predicting population growth and related degradation of (sub) arctic ecosystems. To address these issues, we used information on female goslings marked and measured between 1978 and 2005 (4125 individuals). Goslings that developed within and near the traditional center of the breeding colony experienced the effects of long-term habitat degradation: body condition and juvenile survival declined over time. In newly colonized areas, however, we observed the opposite pattern (increase in body condition and juvenile survival). In addition, warmer than average winters and summers resulted in lower gosling body condition and first-year survival. Too few plant 'growing days' in the spring relative to hatch led to similar results. Our assessment indicates that geese are recovering from habitat degradation by moving to newly colonized locales. However, a warmer climate could negatively affect snow goose populations in the long-run, but it will depend on which seasons warm the fastest. These antagonistic mechanisms will require further study to help predict snow goose population dynamics and manage the trophic cascade they induce.

  9. Estimating geographic variation on allometric growth and body condition of Blue Suckers with quantile regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.; Terrell, J.W.; Neely, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing our understanding of how environmental factors affect fish body condition and improving its utility as a metric of aquatic system health require reliable estimates of spatial variation in condition (weight at length). We used three statistical approaches that varied in how they accounted for heterogeneity in allometric growth to estimate differences in body condition of blue suckers Cycleptus elongatus across 19 large-river locations in the central USA. Quantile regression of an expanded allometric growth model provided the most comprehensive estimates, including variation in exponents within and among locations (range = 2.88–4.24). Blue suckers from more-southerly locations had the largest exponents. Mixed-effects mean regression of a similar expanded allometric growth model allowed exponents to vary among locations (range = 3.03–3.60). Mean relative weights compared across selected intervals of total length (TL = 510–594 and 594–692 mm) in a multiplicative model involved the implicit assumption that allometric exponents within and among locations were similar to the exponent (3.46) for the standard weight equation. Proportionate differences in the quantiles of weight at length for adult blue suckers (TL = 510, 594, 644, and 692 mm) compared with their average across locations ranged from 1.08 to 1.30 for southern locations (Texas, Mississippi) and from 0.84 to 1.00 for northern locations (Montana, North Dakota); proportionate differences for mean weight ranged from 1.13 to 1.17 and from 0.87 to 0.95, respectively, and those for mean relative weight ranged from 1.10 to 1.18 and from 0.86 to 0.98, respectively. Weights for fish at longer lengths varied by 600–700 g within a location and by as much as 2,000 g among southern and northern locations. Estimates for the Wabash River, Indiana (0.96–1.07 times the average; greatest increases for lower weights at shorter TLs), and for the Missouri River from Blair, Nebraska, to Sioux City, Iowa (0.90

  10. Development of a Body Condition Scoring Index for Female African Elephants Validated by Ultrasound Measurements of Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01), indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1–5) was lower (P<0.001) than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2–5). In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants. PMID:24718304

  11. Population-specific effects of developmental temperature on body condition and jumping performance of a widespread European frog.

    PubMed

    Drakulić, Sanja; Feldhaar, Heike; Lisičić, Duje; Mioč, Mia; Cizelj, Ivan; Seiler, Michael; Spatz, Theresa; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-05-01

    All physiological processes of ectotherms depend on environmental temperature. Thus, adaptation of physiological mechanisms to the thermal environments is important for achieving optimal performance and fitness. The European Common Frog, Rana temporaria, is widely distributed across different thermal habitats. This makes it an exceptional model for studying the adaptations to different thermal conditions. We raised tadpoles from Germany and Croatia at two constant temperature treatments (15°C, 20°C), and under natural temperature fluctuations (in outdoor treatments), and tested how different developmental temperatures affected developmental traits, that is, length of larval development, morphometrics, and body condition, as well as jumping performance of metamorphs. Our results revealed population-specific differences in developmental time, body condition, and jumping performance. Croatian frogs developed faster in all treatments, were heavier, in better body condition, and had longer hind limbs and better jumping abilities than German metamorphs. The populations further differed in thermal sensitivity of jumping performance. While metamorphs from Croatia increased their jumping performance with higher temperatures, German metamorphs reached their performance maximum at lower temperatures. These population-specific differences in common environments indicate local genetic adaptation, with southern populations being better adapted to higher temperatures than those from north of the Alps.

  12. The effect of body condition, live weight, breed, age, calf performance, and calving date on reproductive performance of spring-calving beef cows.

    PubMed

    Osoro, K; Wright, I A

    1992-06-01

    Data from 321 spring-calving cows (mean calving date March 27) were used to assess the effects of body condition, live weight, cow age (from 4 to 13 yr), and breed (237 Hereford x Friesians and 84 Blue-Greys) and time of calving on the proportion of cows that became pregnant, the number of days from the start of mating to pregnancy, and calving interval. Mating started at turn-out to pasture in mid-May and lasted 9 to 10 wk. Body condition at calving and breed were the most significant animal factors affecting reproductive performance. Cows calving in higher body condition had shorter (P less than .001) calving intervals (11.2 d per unit of body condition at calving). Blue-Grey cows became pregnant in a higher proportion (90%) and calving interval was shorter (364 d) than in Hereford x Friesians (83%; 374 d). Body condition at the start of mating was less important and body condition at the end of mating had no effect. Live weight at calving and changes in live weight from calving to the start of mating and during the mating period had no significant effect. The proportion of cows becoming pregnant decreased significantly with age in Hereford x Friesian cows older than 7 yr. The variance in calving interval accounted for by calving date, body condition at calving, breed, and age was 42%.

  13. Postmigratory body condition and ovarian steroid production predict breeding decisions by female gray-headed albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Williams, Tony D

    2013-01-01

    Carryover effects have been documented in many migratory bird species, but we know little about the physiological mechanisms that mediate those effects. Here we show that the energetic, endocrine, and aerobic characteristics of postmigratory female gray-headed albatrosses (Thalassarche chrysostoma) can affect their decision to breed. All females in this study, whether breeding or not, were secreting ovarian steroids when they arrived at the breeding colony at Bird Island, South Georgia, which suggests that all were responding to seasonal cues. However, deferring, nonbreeding birds were characterized by a steroid profile of high progesterone (P4) and low testosterone (T), whereas breeding birds showed the opposite pattern. Deferring birds also had low body mass, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. These results suggest that postmigratory condition can influence patterns of ovarian steroidogenesis and that the maintenance of high P4 without subsequent conversion to T favors breeding deferral. Whereas breeding females normally convert P4 to T, which is a key deterministic step toward 17β-estradiol synthesis, vitellogenesis, and follicle development, deferring females did not make this conversion and instead maintained high levels of P4, perhaps due to inhibition of the hydroxylase-lyase enzyme complex, thus rendering them infertile for the current season. Results are discussed within the context of the biennial breeding system of this species, and comparisons with other biennially and annually breeding albatrosses are made.

  14. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  15. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity).

  16. Growth conditions affect carotenoid-based plumage coloration of great tit nestlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrak, P.; Vellau, Helen; Ots, Indrek; Møller, Anders Pape

    Carotenoid-based integument colour in animals has been hypothesised to signal individual phenotypic quality because it reliably reflects either foraging efficiency or health status. We investigated whether carotenoid-derived yellow plumage coloration of fledgling great tits (Parus major) reflects their nestling history. Great tit fledglings reared in a poor year (1998) or in the urban habitat were less yellow than these reared in a good year (1999) or in the forest. The origin of nestlings also affected their coloration since nestlings from a city population did not improve their coloration when transferred to the forest. Brood size manipulation affected fledgling colour, but only in the rural population, where nestlings from reduced broods developed more yellow coloration than nestlings from increased and control broods. Effect of brood size manipulation on fledgling plumage colour was independent of the body mass, indicating that growth environment affects fledgling body mass and plumage colour by different pathways.

  17. Differential participation in cognitive tests is driven by personality, sex, body condition and experience.

    PubMed

    van Horik, Jayden O; Langley, Ellis J G; Whiteside, Mark A; Madden, Joah R

    2017-01-01

    Failure to participate in a cognitive test may result in sampling biases when measuring inter-individual variation in cognitive performances in both captive and wild populations. This would be problematic if particular classes of individuals consistently fail to participate, skewing data and making generalisations or comparisons difficult. We presented 144 pheasant chicks, raised under standardised conditions, with a battery of cognitive tests to investigate whether sex, body condition or personality traits, measured by differences in latencies to explore a novel object, novel environment or unknown conspecific, predicted individual variation in voluntary participation across 37 test sessions. In general, participation increased across testing sessions, yet patterns of participation differed with sex and body condition. Males with a high body condition were more likely to participate in early test sessions compared to males with a low body condition or females. While participation among males in high body condition was consistent across sessions, males with a low body condition and females, regardless of body condition, were more likely to participate in later, rather than earlier sessions. Individuals also showed repeatable behaviours across time and different contexts, revealing not only that the exploration of novelty, but also that the order that subjects entered the testing arena and their latencies to acquire a freely available meal-worm reward may be considered valid proxies for different personality traits. During each test session, those individuals that were among the first to voluntarily enter the testing arena were more likely to participate in subsequent trials. Moreover, when isolated in the testing arena, individuals that rapidly acquired a freely available meal-worm, positioned on the testing apparatus, were also more likely to participate in a cognitive test. Our findings therefore reveal that sex, body condition and personality traits, along with

  18. Muscimol microinjected in the arcuate nucleus affects metabolism, body temperature & ventilation.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2016-06-15

    Effects of microinjection of 2 doses of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor agonist, muscimol (M), into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus on oxygen consumption and control of ventilation over time and body temperature (BT) at the end of the experiment were compared in adult male and female rats. Relative to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, 0 nmol), BT was decreased only in male rats with both doses of M, while in female rats, the 5 nmol dose depressed oxygen consumption. Ventilation was depressed by 5 nmol M in male and 10 nmol M in female rats by decreasing tidal volume. M did not affect the ventilatory response of male or female rats to hypoxia, whereas in females 5 and 10 nmol M and in males 10 nmol M depressed the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Thus, in rats GABAA receptors in the arcuate nucleus modulate BT, oxygen consumption, and ventilation in air and in response to hypercapnia in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  19. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-29

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

  20. Metabolic demands of body armor on physical performance in simulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Richard; Deuster, Patricia A; Talbot, Laura A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical work performance, energy cost, and physiological fatigue in military personnel during simulated operational conditions. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 34 military personnel volunteered to undergo two experimental conditions: with body armor (BA+) and without BA (BA-). Subjects walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes and completed a physical performance battery during each of two sessions, which were separated by > or = 5 days. Subjects with BA+ as compared with BA- had significantly greater increases in: oxygen uptake (VO2) at slow (16.8 +/- 1.5 vs. 18.8 +/- 1.7 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and moderate paces (34.8 +/- 3.9 vs. 40.8 +/- 5.0 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)); blood lactate at a moderate pace (4.0 +/- 2.4 vs. 6.7 +/- 2.6 mmol/L); heart rate at slow (107 +/- 14 vs. 118 +/- 16 beats per minute) and moderate paces (164 +/- 16 vs. 180 +/- 13 beats per minute); and ratings of perceived physical exertion at slow (8.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 10.4 +/- 1.8) and moderate paces (14.3 +/- 2.3 vs. 16.7 +/- 2.1). Physical tasks were significantly affected by BA: under BA+, men performed 61% fewer pull-ups and women's hang time was reduced by 63%; stair stepping was reduced by 16% for both men and women. BA significantly impacted the physical work capacity of militarily relevant tasks. Specifically, wearing BA significantly increased VO2 when walking at both slow and moderate paces. The potential for physical exhaustion is high and performance of physical tasks is markedly impaired when wearing BA.

  1. Validation of Shoulder Response of Human Body Finite-Element Model (GHBMC) Under Whole Body Lateral Impact Condition.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    In previous shoulder impact studies, the 50th-percentile male GHBMC human body finite-element model was shown to have good biofidelity regarding impact force, but under-predicted shoulder deflection by 80% compared to those observed in the experiment. The goal of this study was to validate the response of the GHBMC M50 model by focusing on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics under a whole-body lateral impact condition. Five modifications, focused on material properties and modeling techniques, were introduced into the model and a supplementary sensitivity analysis was done to determine the influence of each modification to the biomechanical response of the body. The modified model predicted substantially improved shoulder response and peak shoulder deflection within 10% of the observed experimental data, and showed good correlation in the scapula kinematics on sagittal and transverse planes. The improvement in the biofidelity of the shoulder region was mainly due to the modifications of material properties of muscle, the acromioclavicular joint, and the attachment region between the pectoralis major and ribs. Predictions of rib fracture and chest deflection were also improved because of these modifications.

  2. Failure modes and conditions of a cohesive, spherical body due to YORP spin-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents transition of the failure mode of a cohesive, spherical body due to The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) spin-up. On the assumption that the distribution of materials in the body is homogeneous, failed regions first appearing in the body at different spin rates are predicted by comparing the yield condition of an elastic stress in the body. It is found that as the spin rate increases, the locations of the failed regions move from the equatorial surface to the central region. To avoid such failure modes, the body should have higher cohesive strength. The results by this model are consistent with those by a plastic finite element model. Then, this model and a two-layered-cohesive model first proposed by Hirabayashi et al. are used to classify possible evolution and disruption of a spherical body. There are three possible pathways to disruption. First, because of a strong structure, failure of the central region is dominant and eventually leads to a breakup into multiple components. Secondly, a weak surface and a weak interior make the body oblate. Thirdly, a strong internal core prevents the body from failing and only allows surface shedding. This implies that observed failure modes may highly depend on the internal structure of an asteroid, which could provide crucial information for giving constraints on the physical properties.

  3. The dynamics of finger tremor in multiple sclerosis is affected by whole body position.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S; Sosnoff, J J; Sandroff, B M; Pula, J H; Motl, R W

    2013-01-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that results in widespread damage to the nervous system. One consequence of this disease is the emergence of enhanced tremor. This study was designed to (1) compare the tremor responses of persons with MS to that of healthy adults and to (2) examine the impact of whole body position (i.e., seated/standing) on tremor. Bilateral postural tremor was recorded using accelerometers attached to each index finger. Results revealed some similarity of tremor between groups in regard to the principal features (e.g., presence of peaks in similar frequency ranges). However, significant differences were observed with tremor for the MS persons being of greater amplitude, more regular (lower ApEn) and more strongly coupled across limbs compared to the elderly. The effects of body position were consistent across all subjects, with tremor increasing significantly from sitting-to-standing. However, the tremor increase for the MS group was greater than the elderly. Overall, the tremor for MS group was negatively affected by both this disease process and the nature of the task being performed. This latter result indicates that tremor does not simply reflect the feed-forward output of the neuromotor system but that it is influenced by the task constraints.

  4. The association between the body composition and lifestyle affecting pulmonary function in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi Phn, Junko; Kato, Gohei; Kanzaki Rpt, Ryoko; Hiroshige Rpt, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kouichi; Rpt; Nakano Rpt, Keisuke; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to physical characteristics and lifestyle that affect pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety seven healthy male workers were recruited for this study, and basic information and details about lifestyle were collected. Body composition analyzer and visceral fat measuring device were conducted as measurements. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometer. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with pulmonary function as the dependent variable. Variables with a significant association with pulmonary function on univariate analysis were imputed as independent variables. [Results] Height, fat free mass, upper extremity muscle mass, lower extremity muscle mass, and trunk muscle mass had significant positive correlations with FEV1 and FVC. Age, percentage of body fat, and visceral fat area were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FVC. Regarding the association between pulmonary function and lifestyle, a significant difference was found between the smoking index and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome risk factors and both FEV1 and FVC. The multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with FEV1 as the dependent variable, adjusted for age and height, revealed that visceral fat area and fat free mass were significantly associated with FEV1. A similar analysis, FVC as the dependent variable identified visceral fat area. [Conclusion] FEV1 was independently associated with visceral fat area and fat free mass. FVC was independently associated with visceral fat area. These results may be valuable in preventing the decrease in respiratory function and, hence, in further preventing the onset of COPD.

  5. The dominant foot affects the postural control mechanism: examination by body tracking test

    PubMed Central

    Ikemiyagi, Fuyuko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Tositake; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion The antero-posterior (AP) body tracking test (BTT) showed that the dominant foot could affect the tilt angle of the sway movement, delineated by primary component analysis. Differences associated with the dominant foot could represent the difference in space perception of each person. Objectives To examine whether the dominant foot could affect the postural control mechanism using the BTT. Methods Ninety-seven healthy participants enrolled in the study were classified into right-foot and left-foot dominance groups, and their performances were compared. For the BTT, each participant stood on a stabilometer and caught the movement of a visual target moving vertically (anterior-posterior) or horizontally by the center of pressure movement, displayed on a 14-inch screen monitor at 100 cm in front of the subject. The mean displacement angle of the obtained stabilogram was evaluated by principal component analysis. Results The AP BTT in the right-foot dominance group showed a clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of 3.022 ± 3.761°, whereas the group with left-foot dominance had a modest counter-clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of –0.694 ± 4.497°. This difference was found to be significant by the independent t test (p < 0.0001). In the lateral BTT, the mean displacement angles were not significant. PMID:25252704

  6. Glancing and Then Looking: On the Role of Body, Affect, and Meaning in Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li; Bowman, Howard; Barnard, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In humans, there is a trade-off between the need to respond optimally to the salient environmental stimuli and the need to meet our long-term goals. This implies that a system of salience sensitive control exists, which trades task-directed processing off against monitoring and responding to potentially high salience stimuli that are irrelevant to the current task. Much cognitive control research has attempted to understand these mechanisms using non-affective stimuli. However, recent research has emphasized the importance of emotions, which are a major factor in the prioritization of competing stimuli and in directing attention. While relatively mature theories of cognitive control exist for non-affective settings, exactly how emotions modulate cognitive processes is less well understood. The attentional blink (AB) task is a useful experimental paradigm to reveal the dynamics of both cognitive and affective control in humans. Hence, we have developed the glance–look model, which has replicated a broad profile of data on the semantic AB task and characterized how attentional deployment is modulated by emotion. Taking inspiration from Barnard’s Interacting Cognitive Subsystems, the model relies on a distinction between two levels of meaning: implicational and propositional, which are supported by two corresponding mental subsystems: the glance and the look respectively. In our model, these two subsystems reflect the central engine of cognitive control and executive function. In particular, the interaction within the central engine dynamically establishes a task filter for salient stimuli using a neurobiologically inspired learning mechanism. In addition, the somatic contribution of emotional effects is modeled by a body-state subsystem. We argue that stimulus-driven interaction among these three subsystems governs the movement of control between them. The model also predicts attenuation effects and fringe awareness during the AB. PMID:22194729

  7. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    PubMed Central

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage) such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous interpretation of

  8. Identifying a reliable blubber measurement site to assess body condition in a marine mammal with topographically variable blubber, the Pacific walrus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noren, Shawn R.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Triggs, Lisa; Paschke, Jessa; Oland, Lisa; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific walruses may be unable to meet caloric requirements in the changing Arctic ecosystem, which could affect body condition and have population-level consequences. Body condition has historically been monitored by measuring blubber thickness over the xiphoid process (sternum). This may be an unreliable condition index because blubber at other sites along the body may be preferentially targeted to balance energetic demands. Animals in aquaria provided an opportunity for controlled study of how blubber topography is altered by caloric intake. Morphology, body mass, blubber thickness (21 sites), and caloric intake of five mature, nonpregnant, nonlactating female walruses were measured monthly (12 month minimum). Body condition (mass × standard length−1) was described by a model that included caloric intake and a seasonal effect, and scaled positively with estimates of total blubber mass. Blubber thicknesses (1.91–10.69 cm) varied topographically and were similar to values reported for free-ranging female walruses. Body condition was most closely related to blubber thickness measured dorsomedially in the region of the anterior insertion of the pectoral flippers (shoulders); sternum blubber thickness was a relatively poor indicator of condition. This study demonstrates the importance of validating condition metrics before using them to monitor free-ranging populations.

  9. Nectar foraging behaviour is affected by ant body size in Camponotus mus.

    PubMed

    Medan, Violeta; Josens, Roxana B

    2005-08-01

    The nectivorous ant Camponotus mus shows a broad size variation within the worker caste. Large ants can ingest faster and larger loads than small ones. Differences in physiological abilities in fluid ingestion due to the insect size could be related to differences in decision-making according to ant size during nectar foraging. Sucrose solutions of different levels of sugar concentration (30% or 60%w/w), viscosity (high or low) or flow rate (ad libitum or 1microl/min) were offered in combination to analyse the behavioural responses to each of these properties separately. Differences were found depending on ant body size and the property compared. A regulated flow produced smaller crop loads for medium and large ants compared to the same solution given ad libitum. All foragers remained longer times feeding at the regulated flow source but larger ants often made longer interruptions. When sugar concentration was constant but viscosity was high, only large ants increased feeding time. Constant viscosity with different sugar concentration determined longer feeding time and bigger loads for the most concentrated solution for small but not for large ants. Small ants reached similar crop loads in a variety of conditions while large ants did not. These differences could be evidence of a possible specialization for nectar foraging based on ant body size.

  10. Methods of body orientation in space in the absence of support under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeremin, A. V.; Stepantsov, V. I.; Chekidra, I. F.; Borisenko, I. P.; Kolosov, I. A.

    1975-01-01

    The experience accumulated in training subjects in methods of body orientation in space indicates the necessity of clear planning of the training process. After theoretical familiarization with the principles of body orientation in space and reviewing training films, practical mastery of the body orientation methods begins with working out of the individual elements on the Zhukovskiy stool. Then, the correctness and sequence of movements are carefully mastered in water, and the motor skills are then reinforced under time deficit conditions, on the vaulting bars, trampolines, and, in the concluding stage of training, the methods of orienting the body in space in weightlessness are worked out in laboratory-aircraft, with and without the spacesuit and with and without a load.

  11. Carry-Over or Compensation? The Impact of Winter Harshness and Post-Winter Body Condition on Spring-Fattening in a Migratory Goose Species

    PubMed Central

    Tombre, Ingunn M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions at one point of the annual cycle of migratory species may lead to cross-seasonal effects affecting fitness in subsequent seasons. Based on a long-term mark-resighting dataset and scoring of body condition in an arctic breeding goose species, we demonstrate a substantial effect of winter harshness on post-winter body condition. However, this effect was compensated along the spring migration corridor, and did not persist long enough to influence future reproduction. This highlights the importance of temporal scale when assessing impacts of environmental effects, and suggests a state-dependent physiological mechanism adjusting energy accumulation according to internal energy stores carried into spring. In support of these findings, the development of body condition was unaffected by whether geese used supplementary feeding sites or not. While there was no effect of winter harshness on the average population pre-breeding body condition, individual variations in early spring body condition (probably related to different life-histories) were partly traceable throughout spring. This strongly indicates a carry-over effect on the individual level, possibly related to differences in dominance, site use, disturbance or migration strategy, which may potentially affect future reproduction. PMID:26134270

  12. Parameter on systemic conditions affected by periodontal diseases. American Academy of Periodontology.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on systemic conditions affected by periodontal diseases. It is well known that systemic conditions may affect the onset, progression, and treatment of such diseases (see Parameter on Periodontitis Associated With Systemic Conditions, pages 876-879). The concept of periodontal diseases as localized entities affecting only the teeth and supporting apparatus is increasingly being questioned. Periodontal diseases may have widespread systemic effects. While these effects may be limited in some individuals, periodontal infections may significantly impact systemic health in others, and may serve as risk indicators for certain systemic diseases or conditions. As part of the approach to establishing and maintaining health, patients should be informed of the possible effects of periodontal infection on their overall well-being. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.

  13. Assessing the Potential Value for an Automated Body Condition Scoring System through Stochastic Simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated body condition scoring (BCS) through extraction of information from digital images has been demonstrated to be feasible; and commercial technologies are being developed. The primary objective of this research was to identify the factors that influence the potential profitability of investi...

  14. Impact of body condition score on reproductive performance in young postpartum range cows grazing native range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body condition score (BCS) is used as a management tool to predict reproduction of young beef cows. The objective was to determine the effects of BCS at calving on pregnancy rates, days to first estrus (DTFE), nutrient status assessed by blood metabolites and calf BW change in 315, 2- and 3-yr-old ...

  15. Determination of the observation conditions of celestial bodies with the aid of the DISPO system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazakov, R. K.; Krivov, A. V.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive system for determining the observation conditions of celestial bodies is described. A system of programs was created containing a part of the DISPO Display Interative System of Orbit Planning. The system was used for calculating the observatiion characteristics of Halley's comet during its approach to Earth in 1985-86.

  16. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  17. Precalving factors affecting conception risk in Holstein dairy cows in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Tillard, Emmanuel; Humblot, Patrice; Faye, Bernard; Lecomte, Philippe; Dohoo, Ian; Bocquier, François

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify precalving nutritional risk factors that may affect variation in first service conception risk in 21 commercial Holstein dairy herds in a tropical environment (Reunion Island). The data set included 473 lactation records in 404 cows. A multivariate logistic-regression model including herd as a random effect was used to analyse the relationship between first service conception risk and energy status (body condition score, plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate), nitrogen status (urea), hepatic function (gamma-glutamyltransferase, glutamate deshydrogenase, albumin), and mineral deficiencies (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium), adjusting systematically for factors such as breeding, season, parity, previous milk yield and fertility, calving to first service interval and type of oestrus (spontaneous versus induced). The overall mean conception risk was 0.27+/-0.02 (mean+/-S.E.M., n=473). First service conception risk was penalized by calving to 1st service interval shorter than 60 days, synchronized oestrus, previous 305-day milk yield >8000 kg (p<0.05), low blood glucose concentration in high-yielding cows (p<0.05) and combined high urea and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations (p<0.01). Precalving energy imbalance, revealed by low prepartum glucose concentration, was a strong nutritional predictor of low first service conception risk in high-yielding cows. Some precalving nutritional disorders potentially associated with consumption of spoiled silage which induces elevated circulating urea and beta-hydroxybutyrate have a delayed detrimental effect on conception, even if the true causes of this effect remain to be elucidated. As a conclusion, our findings should lead the breeders to pay more attention to the feeding of dry cows that is usually neglected in Reunion Island dairy farms.

  18. Carry-over effects of body condition in the early pregnant ewe on peri-partum adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, J; Estopañan, G; Sanz, A; Dervishi, E; Govoni, N; Tamanini, C; Joy, M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the carry-over effects of ewe body reserves during early pregnancy on peri-partum adipose tissue metabolism. Forty-nine multiparous ewes were divided in three categories according to their body condition score (BCS) at day 30 of pregnancy (BCS < 3, 2.5-2.75; BCS = 3; BCS > 3, 3.25-3.5). Live-weight (LW) and BCS gains from 1st to 4th month of pregnancy were greater in ewes with BCS < 3 and 3 than in >3 animals. In contrast, in the last month of pregnancy, there was BCS decrease in all groups, although LW continued increasing. There were no differences in LW or BCS across ewe categories during this period. Peripheral leptin levels throughout the three last weeks of pregnancy were greater in ewes with BCS > 3 than in the rest, but this difference did not persist after lambing. Plasma metabolites related to energy metabolism, milk yield and lamb growth were not affected by ewe BCS in early pregnancy. Long-chain saturated milk fatty acids (FA) (C16-C24) were greater in ewes with lowest BCS (<3 and 3). Ewes with greater BCS showed greater monounsaturated and lowest polyunsaturated milk FA content. Ewe post-mating body reserves affect both pre-partum leptinaemia and post-partum milk polyunsaturated fatty acids content, but it had little effect on lamb performance.

  19. Development of the body condition score system in Murrah buffaloes: validation through ultrasonic assessment of body fat reserves.

    PubMed

    Alapati, Anitha; Kapa, Sarjan Rao; Jeepalyam, Suresh; Rangappa, Srinivasa Moorthy; Yemireddy, Kotilinga Reddy

    2010-03-01

    The body condition score (BCS) system is a subjective scoring method of evaluating the energy reserves of dairy animals to provide better understanding of biological relationships between body fat, milk production and reproduction. This method helps in adopting the optimum management practices to derive maximum production and maintain optimum health of the livestock. In this study, a new BCS system was developed for Murrah buffaloes. The skeletal check points were identified by studying the anatomical features and amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. The scores were assigned from 1 to 5 based on the amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. A score of 1 represents least and 5 represents most amount of fat. The skeletal check points identified were ordered based on the amount of carcass fat reserves and scores assigned to prepare a preliminary BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.25 increments. The BCS chart was further modified by eliminating the skeletal check points at which the fat reserves were less evident on palpation in most of the buffaloes and a new BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.5 increments examining eight skeletal check points was developed. The new BCS system developed was tested for precision in 10 buffaloes for each point of the 1-5 scale by ultrasonographic measurements of body fat reserves. Ultrasonographic measurements showed that as the BCS increased, the amount of fat reserves also increased (p < 0.01), indicating that the BCS adequately reflected the amount of actual fat reserves. BCS was significantly correlated (r = 0.860) with the carcass fat reserves as well as the ultrasonographic fat reserves (r = 0.854).

  20. The association between the body composition and lifestyle affecting pulmonary function in Japanese workers

    PubMed Central

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi, Junko; Kato, Gohei; Kanzaki, Ryoko; Hiroshige, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kouichi; Nakano, Keisuke; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to physical characteristics and lifestyle that affect pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety seven healthy male workers were recruited for this study, and basic information and details about lifestyle were collected. Body composition analyzer and visceral fat measuring device were conducted as measurements. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometer. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with pulmonary function as the dependent variable. Variables with a significant association with pulmonary function on univariate analysis were imputed as independent variables. [Results] Height, fat free mass, upper extremity muscle mass, lower extremity muscle mass, and trunk muscle mass had significant positive correlations with FEV1 and FVC. Age, percentage of body fat, and visceral fat area were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FVC. Regarding the association between pulmonary function and lifestyle, a significant difference was found between the smoking index and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome risk factors and both FEV1 and FVC. The multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with FEV1 as the dependent variable, adjusted for age and height, revealed that visceral fat area and fat free mass were significantly associated with FEV1. A similar analysis, FVC as the dependent variable identified visceral fat area. [Conclusion] FEV1 was independently associated with visceral fat area and fat free mass. FVC was independently associated with visceral fat area. These results may be valuable in preventing the decrease in respiratory function and, hence, in further preventing the onset of COPD. PMID:27821955

  1. Body condition and habitat use by Hermann's tortoises in burnt and intact habitats

    PubMed Central

    Lecq, S.; Ballouard, J.-M.; Caron, S.; Livoreil, B.; Seynaeve, V.; Matthieu, L.-A.; Bonnet, X.

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions, fires threaten terrestrial tortoises. Nevertheless, varying proportions of adults survive fire; these surviving individuals can play a central role for population recovery. The regions devastated by fire often include important habitat of Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni hermanni), so assessing the ability of survivors to persist is essential for conserving the species. Body-condition indices provide an integrative estimate of how well individuals cope with environmental variations and impacts, including fires. Between 2002 and 2009, we monitored Hermann's tortoises in intact and burnt habitats in southeastern France. In summer 2003, a strong fire ravaged half of the surveyed zone, providing an opportunity to compare body condition of tortoises between intact and burnt areas over time. Six years later, the impact of fire on vegetation was still marked; large trees were abundant in the intact area, whereas open shrub vegetation prevailed in the burnt area. In both areas, the mean body condition of tortoises fluctuated over time; however, there were no differences between the two areas. A radio-tracking experiment demonstrated that individuals from each area were residents, and not vagrants commuting between areas. We also assessed changes in body condition and microhabitat use in radio-tracked individuals. We found no significant differences between the tortoises living in the burnt and intact areas, despite subtle differences in habitat use. In conclusion: (i) surviving tortoises in an area ravaged by fire can maintain their body condition like individuals living in an intact area, and thus, individuals from burnt areas should not be translocated to supposedly better areas; and (ii) depopulated burnt areas are likely to be appropriate for population-augmentation programmes. PMID:27293640

  2. Genetics Home Reference: inclusion body myopathy 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions inclusion body myopathy 2 inclusion body myopathy 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Inclusion body myopathy 2 is a condition that primarily affects skeletal muscles , ...

  3. Light conditions affect the performance of Yponomeuta evonymellus on its native host Prunus padus and the alien Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Łukowski, A; Giertych, M J; Walczak, U; Baraniak, E; Karolewski, P

    2017-04-01

    The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y. evonymellus. The influence of host species and light condition on their growth and development, characterized by the parameters of pupation, adult eclosion, body mass, potential fecundity, and wing size, was measured in a 2 × 2 experimental design (two light treatments, two hosts). In comparison with high light (HL) conditions, a greater percentage of pupation and a longer period and less dynamic adult emerge was observed under low light (LL) conditions. The effect of host species on these parameters was not significant. In contrast, mass, fecundity and all of the studied wing parameters were higher in larvae that grazed on P. padus than on P. serotina. Similarly the same parameters were also higher on shrubs in HL as compared with those grown under LL conditions. In general, light conditions, rather than plant species, were more often and to a greater extent, responsible for differences in the observed parameters of insect development and potential fecundity.

  4. Influence of introduced vs. native parasites on the body condition of migrant silver eels

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Claudia; Trancart, Thomas; Amilhat, Elsa; Faliex, Elisabeth; Virag, Laure; Feunteun, Eric; Acou, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Because parasitism is among the reasons invoked to explain the collapse of Anguilla anguilla, we evaluated the parasitic constraint on body condition (BC) of migrant silver eels as a proxy of fitness with inter-site comparisons. Metazoan parasites were studied in 149 silver eels from five sites (northern Europe). In total, 89% were infected by 13 species including Myxozoa, Monogenea, Cestoda, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Anguillicoloides crassus was most common (56%), then Acanthocephalus clavula (30%), and Pseudodactylogyrus sp. (17%). BC, calculated for 58 females, was negatively correlated by abundance of the introduced Pseudodactylogyrus sp. but not by other parasite taxa. Nevertheless, the introduced A. crassus was considered as a severe pathogen based on previous data, whereas the native A. clavula was supposed to have limited impact. Parasite component communities and BC were different between sites. Silver eels from Stockholm Archipelago (Sweden) were the least parasitized (40% vs. 90–95% for other sites) with no parasites on the gills. Burrishoole (Ireland) differed by the absence of A. crassus and high prevalence of A. clavula (84%) but without consequences on BC. Gudenaa (Denmark), Corrib (Ireland), and Frémur (France) were close due to high prevalence of A. crassus (89–93%). Gudenaa and Corrib were the most similar because Pseudodactylogyrus sp. was also highly prevalent (respectively 71% and 60%) whereas absent in Frémur. Our results suggest that the fitness loss induced by the introduced parasites could affect the spawning success of migrant silver eels from Gudenaa and Corrib, and to a lesser extent from Frémur, but probably not those from Stockholm Archipelago and Burrishoole. PMID:24135272

  5. Thermoregulatory responses during prolonged upper-body exercise in cool and warm conditions.

    PubMed

    Price, M J; Campbell, I G

    2002-07-01

    The thermoregulatory responses of upper-body trained athletes were examined at rest, during prolonged arm crank exercise and recovery in cool (21.5 +/- 0.9 degrees C, 43.9 +/- 10.1% relative humidity; mean +/- s) and warm (31.5 +/- 0.6 degrees C, 48.9 +/- 8.4% relative humidity) conditions. Aural temperature increased from rest by 0.7 +/- 0.7 degrees C (P< 0.05) during exercise in cool conditions and by 1.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C during exercise in warm conditions (P< 0.05). During exercise in cool conditions, calf skin temperature decreased (1.5 +/- 1.3 degrees C), whereas an increase was observed during exercise in warm conditions (3.0 +/- 1.7 degrees C). Lower-body skin temperatures tended to increase by greater amounts than upper-body skin temperatures during exercise in warm conditions. No differences were observed in blood lactate, heart rate or respiratory exchange ratio responses between conditions. Perceived exertion at 45 min of exercise was greater than that reported at 5 min of exercise during the cool trial (P< 0.05), whereas during exercise in the warm trial the rating of perceived exertion increased from initial values by 30 min (P < 0.05). Heat storage, body mass losses and fluid consumption were greater during exercise in warm conditions (7.06 +/- 2.25 J x g(-1) x degrees C(-1), 1.3 +/- 0.5 kg and 1,038 +/- 356 ml, respectively) than in cool conditions (1.35 +/- 0.23 J x g(-1) x degrees C(-1), 0.8 +/- 0.2 kg and 530 +/- 284 ml, respectively; P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the increasing thermal strain with constant thermal stress in warm conditions is due to heat storage within the lower body. These results may aid in understanding thermoregulatory control mechanisms of populations with a thermoregulatory dysfunction, such as those with spinal cord injuries.

  6. Previous success and current body condition determine breeding propensity in Lesser Scaup: evidence for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Williams, Tony D.; Koons, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The decision to breed influences an individual's current and future reproduction, and the proportion of individuals that breed is an important determinant of population dynamics. Age, experience, individual quality, and environmental conditions have all been demonstrated to influence breeding propensity. To elucidate which of these factors exerts the greatest influence on breeding propensity in a temperate waterfowl, we studied female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) breeding in southwestern Montana. Females were captured during the breeding seasons of 2007–2009, and breeding status was determined on the basis of (1) presence of an egg in the oviduct or (2) blood plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Presence on the study site in the previous year, a proxy for adult female success, was determined with stable isotope signatures of a primary feather collected at capture. Overall, 57% of females had evidence of breeding at the time of capture; this increased to 86% for females captured on or after peak nest initiation. Capture date and size-adjusted body condition positively influenced breeding propensity, with a declining body-condition threshold through the breeding season. We did not detect an influence of age on breeding propensity. Drought conditions negatively affected breeding propensity, reducing the proportion of breeding females to 0.85 (SE = 0.05) from 0.94 (SE = 0.03) during normal-water years. A female that was present in the previous breeding season was 5% more likely to breed than a female that was not present then. The positive correlation between age and experience makes it difficult to differentiate the roles of age, experience, and individual quality in reproductive success in vertebrates. Our results indicate that individual quality, as expressed by previous success and current body condition, may be among the most important determinants of breeding propensity in female Lesser Scaup, providing further support for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis.

  7. Estimating resource acquisition and at-sea body condition of a marine predator

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Robert S; New, Leslie F; Thomas, Len; Costa, Daniel P; Hindell, Mark A; McMahon, Clive R; Robinson, Patrick W; Simmons, Samantha E; Thums, Michele; Harwood, John; Clark, James S

    2013-01-01

    Body condition plays a fundamental role in many ecological and evolutionary processes at a variety of scales and across a broad range of animal taxa. An understanding of how body condition changes at fine spatial and temporal scales as a result of interaction with the environment provides necessary information about how animals acquire resources. However, comparatively little is known about intra- and interindividual variation of condition in marine systems. Where condition has been studied, changes typically are recorded at relatively coarse time-scales. By quantifying how fine-scale interaction with the environment influences condition, we can broaden our understanding of how animals acquire resources and allocate them to body stores. Here we used a hierarchical Bayesian state-space model to estimate the body condition as measured by the size of an animal's lipid store in two closely related species of marine predator that occupy different hemispheres: northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). The observation model linked drift dives to lipid stores. The process model quantified daily changes in lipid stores as a function of the physiological condition of the seal (lipid:lean tissue ratio, departure lipid and departure mass), its foraging location, two measures of behaviour and environmental covariates. We found that physiological condition significantly impacted lipid gain at two time-scales – daily and at departure from the colony – that foraging location was significantly associated with lipid gain in both species of elephant seals and that long-term behavioural phase was associated with positive lipid gain in northern and southern elephant seals. In northern elephant seals, the occurrence of short-term behavioural states assumed to represent foraging were correlated with lipid gain. Lipid gain was a function of covariates in both species. Southern elephant seals performed fewer drift dives than

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  10. Individual Consistency and Phenotypic Plasticity in Rockhopper Penguins: Female but Not Male Body Mass Links Environmental Conditions to Reproductive Investment

    PubMed Central

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment. PMID:26030824

  11. Individual consistency and phenotypic plasticity in rockhopper penguins: female but not male body mass links environmental conditions to reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment.

  12. Changes in cutaneous and body temperature during and after conditioned fear to context in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Daniel M L; Carrive, Pascal

    2005-05-01

    Infrared thermography was used to image changes in cutaneous temperature during a conditioned fear response to context. Changes in heart rate, arterial pressure, activity and body (i.p.) temperature were recorded at the same time by radio-telemetry, in addition to freezing immobility. A marked drop in tail and paws temperature (-5.3 and -7.5 degrees C, respectively, down to room temperature), which lasted for the entire duration of the response (30 min), was observed in fear-conditioned rats. In sham-conditioned rats, the drop was on average half the magnitude and duration. In contrast, temperature of the eye, head and back increased (between + 0.8 and + 1.5 degrees C), with no difference between the two groups of rats. There was a similar increase in body temperature although it was slightly higher and delayed in the fear-conditioned animals. Finally, ending of the fear response was associated with a gradual decrease in body temperature and a rebound increase in the temperature of the tail (+ 3.3 degrees C above baseline). This study shows that fear, and to some extent arousal, evokes a strong cutaneous vasoconstriction that is restricted to the tail and paws. This regionally specific reduction in blood flow may be part of a preparatory response to a possible fight and flight to reduce blood loss in the most exposed parts of the rat's body in case of injury. The data also show that the tail is the main part of the body used for dissipating internal heat accumulated during fear once the animal has returned to a safe environment.

  13. Magnetic Boundary Conditions at Non-Conducting Planetary Bodies: Applications to Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, J.; Duling, S.; Seufert, M.; Wicht, J.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction of planetary bodies with their surrounding magnetized plasma can often be described with the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations, which are commonly solved by numerical models. For these models it is necessary to define physically correct boundary conditions. Many planetary bodies have electrically non-conductive surfaces, which do not allow electric current to penetrate their surfaces. Magnetic boundary conditions, which correctly consider that the associated radial electric current at the planetary surface is zero, are however difficult to implement because they include the curl of the magnetic field. Here we derive new boundary conditions for the magnetic field at non-conducting surfaces by a decomposition of the magnetic field in poloidal and toroidal components and their spherical harmonics expansions. We find that the toroidal part of the magnetic field needs to vanish at the surface of the isolator. For the spectral spherical harmonics coefficients of the poloidal part we derive a Cauchy boundary condition, which includes the Gauss coefficients of a possible intrinsic field. Our non-conducting boundary condition can thus additionally include intrinsic dynamo fields as well as induction fields within electrically conductive subsurface layers such as subsurface oceans. We implement the new boundary condition in the MHD simulation code ZEUS-MP using spherical geometry. We apply these new magnetic boundary conditions to a model for Ganymede's plasma environment. With this model we can describe the in-situ observations by the Galileo spacecraft and Hubble Space Telescope observations of Ganmyede's aurora very well.

  14. Microtiming in Swing and Funk affects the body movement behavior of music expert listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kilchenmann, Lorenz; Senn, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The theory of Participatory Discrepancies (or PDs) claims that minute temporal asynchronies (microtiming) in music performance are crucial for prompting bodily entrainment in listeners, which is a fundamental effect of the “groove” experience. Previous research has failed to find evidence to support this theory. The present study tested the influence of varying PD magnitudes on the beat-related body movement behavior of music listeners. 160 participants (79 music experts, 81 non-experts) listened to 12 music clips in either Funk or Swing style. These stimuli were based on two audio recordings (one in each style) of expert drum and bass duo performances. In one series of six clips, the PDs were downscaled from their originally performed magnitude to complete quantization in steps of 20%. In another series of six clips, the PDs were upscaled from their original magnitude to double magnitude in steps of 20%. The intensity of the listeners' beat-related head movement was measured using video-based motion capture technology and Fourier analysis. A mixed-design Four-Factor ANOVA showed that the PD manipulations had a significant effect on the expert listeners' entrainment behavior. The experts moved more when listening to stimuli with PDs that were downscaled by 60% compared to completely quantized stimuli. This finding offers partial support for PD theory: PDs of a certain magnitude do augment entrainment in listeners. But the effect was found to be small to moderately sized, and it affected music expert listeners only. PMID:26347694

  15. Transcriptional regulation is affected by subnuclear targeting of reporter plasmids to PML nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Block, Gregory J; Eskiw, Christopher H; Dellaire, Graham; Bazett-Jones, David P

    2006-12-01

    Whereas the PML protein has been reported to have both transcriptional coactivator and corepressor potential, the contribution of the PML nuclear body (PML NB) itself to transcriptional regulation is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that plasmid DNA artificially tethered to PML or the PML NB-targeting domain of Sp100 is preferentially localized to PML NBs. Using the tethering technique, we targeted a simian virus 40 promoter-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PML NBs, resulting in the repression of the transgene transcriptional activity. Conversely, the tethering of a cytomegalovirus promoter-containing reporter plasmid resulted in activation. Targeting a minimal eukaryotic promoter did not affect its activity. The expression of targeted promoters could be modulated by altering the cellular concentration of PML NB components, including Sp100 and isoforms of the PML protein. Finally, we demonstrate that ICP0, the promiscuous herpes simplex virus transactivator, increases the level of transcriptional activation of plasmid DNA tethered to the PML NB. We conclude that when PML NB components are artificially tethered to reporter plasmids, the PML NB contributes to the regulation of the tethered DNA in a promoter-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that transient transcription assays are sensitive to the subnuclear localization of the transgene plasmid.

  16. Microtiming in Swing and Funk affects the body movement behavior of music expert listeners.

    PubMed

    Kilchenmann, Lorenz; Senn, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The theory of Participatory Discrepancies (or PDs) claims that minute temporal asynchronies (microtiming) in music performance are crucial for prompting bodily entrainment in listeners, which is a fundamental effect of the "groove" experience. Previous research has failed to find evidence to support this theory. The present study tested the influence of varying PD magnitudes on the beat-related body movement behavior of music listeners. 160 participants (79 music experts, 81 non-experts) listened to 12 music clips in either Funk or Swing style. These stimuli were based on two audio recordings (one in each style) of expert drum and bass duo performances. In one series of six clips, the PDs were downscaled from their originally performed magnitude to complete quantization in steps of 20%. In another series of six clips, the PDs were upscaled from their original magnitude to double magnitude in steps of 20%. The intensity of the listeners' beat-related head movement was measured using video-based motion capture technology and Fourier analysis. A mixed-design Four-Factor ANOVA showed that the PD manipulations had a significant effect on the expert listeners' entrainment behavior. The experts moved more when listening to stimuli with PDs that were downscaled by 60% compared to completely quantized stimuli. This finding offers partial support for PD theory: PDs of a certain magnitude do augment entrainment in listeners. But the effect was found to be small to moderately sized, and it affected music expert listeners only.

  17. Development of body condition in hinds of Iberian red deer during gestation and its effects on calf birth weight and milk production.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Déborah; García, Andrés José; Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Gallego, Laureano

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive effort affects body reserves and subsequent ability to reproduce. In fact, the energy costs of gestation and lactation in hinds of red deer have a marked effect on maternal condition. The objectives of this study were to examine the development of hind monthly body condition during gestation in relation to reproductive rest, age and age class, just as its effects on total milk yield and calf birth weight. Eighty hinds of Iberian red deer were used as subjects during 2 years of study. They had ad libitum access to food and water. Animals were weighed weekly, and body condition was individually assessed. Milking was carried out under anesthesia with a milking machine followed by hand milking to collect the remaining milk. Age and reproductive rest influenced body condition, improving with age (coefficient: 0.10+/-0.01; P<0.001) and reproductive rest (mean+/-SEM, 3.75+/-0.05 vs. 3.25+/-0.02, with and without rest respectively; P<0.001). Hind age correlated positively with her body condition (R=0.62, P<0.001), however, when age class was included in the model, age was not significant. The greater the age class (up to age class 4) the greater the body condition; however, hinds of age class 5 had a lower body condition, but no significant differences were observed. Development of the body condition during gestation was different to age class 1 with respect to the others, just as between hinds that rested the preceding year and those that did not.

  18. How Venus surface conditions evolution can be affected by large impacts at long timescales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmann, Cedric; Golabek, Gregor; Tackley, Paul

    2016-04-01

    degassing due to the melting of the solid parts of the bodies. Only larger impactors (300+ km) have lasting effects on the planet, though. In all cases, however, atmospheric erosion appears to be mitigated by volatiles brought by the collision. Long term effects are related to melting and volcanic events triggered by the impact. Those are expected immediately after the impact, but also later on. Depending on when the impact occurs, surface conditions history can change radically. Early impacts can deplete much of the initial volatile content of the mantle, allowing early efficient removal of volatiles due to strong atmospheric escape. This leads to low later degassing if the mantle is not replenished. Later impacts can counteract the effect of atmosphere escape by releasing volatile in a single event. The resulting high surface temperatures affect mantle convection and can prevent mobile lid regime from initiating, with profound consequences for volatile exchanges and mantle evolution. A key factor is thus the timing of the impact and how it interacts with other processes.

  19. Perfectionism and symptoms of eating disturbances in female college students: considering the role of negative affect and body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Downey, Christina A; Chang, Edward C

    2007-12-01

    This study examined body dissatisfaction and negative affect in understanding the link between perfectionism and dieting and bulimic symptoms in a sample of 307 female college students. Perfectionism was found to be associated with dieting and bulimic symptoms. Body dissatisfaction was found to interact with socially prescribed perfectionism in predicting both dieting and bulimic symptoms. Support for a prediction model involving negative affect as a mediator between socially prescribed perfectionism and bulimic symptoms was found only among those who reported a moderate level of body dissatisfaction. For those who reported a high level of body dissatisfaction, socially prescribed perfectionism was the only significant predictor of bulimic symptoms. Implications of the present findings for future research and for working with female college students at risk for eating disturbances are discussed.

  20. Raised middle-finger: electrocortical correlates of social conditioning with nonverbal affective gestures.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Matthias J; Flaisch, Tobias; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Humans form impressions of others by associating persons (faces) with negative or positive social outcomes. This learning process has been referred to as social conditioning. In everyday life, affective nonverbal gestures may constitute important social signals cueing threat or safety, which therefore may support aforementioned learning processes. In conventional aversive conditioning, studies using electroencephalography to investigate visuocortical processing of visual stimuli paired with danger cues such as aversive noise have demonstrated facilitated processing and enhanced sensory gain in visual cortex. The present study aimed at extending this line of research to the field of social conditioning by pairing neutral face stimuli with affective nonverbal gestures. To this end, electro-cortical processing of faces serving as different conditioned stimuli was investigated in a differential social conditioning paradigm. Behavioral ratings and visually evoked steady-state potentials (ssVEP) were recorded in twenty healthy human participants, who underwent a differential conditioning procedure in which three neutral faces were paired with pictures of negative (raised middle finger), neutral (pointing), or positive (thumbs-up) gestures. As expected, faces associated with the aversive hand gesture (raised middle finger) elicited larger ssVEP amplitudes during conditioning. Moreover, theses faces were rated as to be more arousing and unpleasant. These results suggest that cortical engagement in response to faces aversively conditioned with nonverbal gestures is facilitated in order to establish persistent vigilance for social threat-related cues. This form of social conditioning allows to establish a predictive relationship between social stimuli and motivationally relevant outcomes.

  1. Dynamic measurement of physical conditions in daily life by body area network sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, S.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kariya, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the measurement system to monitor physical conditions dynamically in dairy life. The measurement system for physical conditions in motion must be wearable and wireless connected. Body area network sensing system (BANSS) is a kind of the system to realize the conditions. BANSS is the system constructed with host system and plural sensing nodes. Sensing node is constructed with sensors, analogue/digital convertor(ADC), peripheral interface component(PIC), memory and near field communication device(NFCD). The NFCD in this system is Zigbee. Zigbee is the most suitable to construct wireless network system easily. BANSS is not only the system to measure physical parameters. BANSS informs current physical conditions and advises to keep suitable physical strength. As an application of BANSS, the system managing heart rate in walking is shown. By using this system, users can exercise in condition of a constant physical strength.

  2. Euler solutions for blunt bodies using triangular meshes - Artificial viscosity forms and numerical boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterstein, R.; Hafez, M.

    1993-01-01

    A finite volume method is used to calculate compressible inviscid flows over blunt bodies using, in general, unstructured grids. Artificial viscosity forms are derived based on a simplified least squares procedure. The extra second order terms are consistent with the governing equations, hence a systematic treatment of the numerical boundary conditions can be easily implemented. A special treatment of blunt bodies may be required. The discrete equations are linearized and the resulting system is solved by a relaxation method. Preliminary results indicate that the effect of the numerical dissipation is minimal. For subsonic flows over smooth bodies, the solution is practically vorticity-free and the total pressure loss is of the same order as the truncation error. Finally, some extensions of the present method are briefly discussed.

  3. Sex, season, and time of day interact to affect body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, M.L.; Halstead, B.J.; Gregory, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    1.We examined multiple hypotheses regarding differences in body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake using temperature-sensitive radio telemetry and an information-theoretic analytical approach.2.Giant Gartersnakes selected body temperatures near 30 ??C, and males and females had similar body temperatures most of the year, except during the midsummer gestation period.3.Seasonal differences in the body temperatures of males and females may relate to both the costs associated with thermoregulatory behavior, such as predation, and the benefits associated with maintaining optimal body temperatures, such as successful incubation.

  4. Bowhead whale body condition and links to summer sea ice and upwelling in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, John C.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Suydam, Robert; Person, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We examined the response of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) body condition to summer sea ice conditions and upwelling-favorable winds. We used a long-term dataset collected from whales of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas (BCB) stock to estimate various body condition indices (BCI's) for individual whales that were harvested by Alaskan Eskimos. A series of offshore regions frequented by bowhead whales in summer were delineated and used to quantify interannual summertime environmental conditions including: (a) mean open water fraction, (b) duration of melt season, (c) date of continuous freeze-up, and (d) mean upwelling-favorable wind stress. Body condition was analyzed relative to these metrics for both the preceding summer feeding season and the previous three seasons combined. Our analysis indicates a significant increase in the long-term trend in an axillary girth-based body condition index (BCIG) over the study period (1989-2011). The increase in BCIG is likely associated with the trend in overall reduction of sea ice, including increased duration of open water, changes in upwelling potential (wind stress), and possibly higher primary production in the Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem favoring water-column invertebrates. We found strong significant positive correlations between BCIG and late summer open water fraction in the Beaufort Sea and smaller nearshore areas off the Mackenzie Delta and west of Banks Island. Additionally, BCIG was positively and significantly correlated with duration of melt season, later date of freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, and upwelling-favorable winds on the Mackenzie shelf and west of Banks Island. A strong seasonal difference in BCI's was noted for subadult bowheads, presumably associated with summer feeding; however, yearlings were found to drop in BCI over at least the first summer after weaning. Our results indicate an overall increase in bowhead whale body condition and a positive correlation with summer sea ice loss over the

  5. Body size, but not cooling rate, affects supercooling points in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel A; Martin, Adam R; Porter, Sanford D

    2008-10-01

    The level of an animal's stress resistance is set by multiple intrinsic physiological and extrinsic environmental parameters. Body size is a critical intrinsic parameter that affects numerous fitness-related organismal traits including fecundity, survival, mating success, and stress resistance. The rate of cooling is a critical extrinsic environmental factor that can affect thermal stress resistance. Workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), display considerable variation in adult body size. Therefore, developing ecologically realistic models of thermotolerance in this species requires a consideration of body size. We tested the hypothesis that body size and cooling rate would interact to set the supercooling point in fire ant workers by exposing workers of a range of body sizes to three different cooling regimens: a very fast ramp of -10 degrees C/min, an intermediate ramp of -1 degrees C/min, and an ecologically relevant slow ramp of -0.1 degrees C/min. Specifically, we asked whether large workers were more susceptible to differences in cooling rate than smaller workers. We found that body size had a considerable effect on supercooling point with the largest workers freezing at a temperature approximately 3 degrees C higher than the smallest workers. Cooling rate had a very small effect on supercooling point, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Therefore, the allometry of supercooling points across the range of worker body sizes does not change with cooling rate.

  6. Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Kirjavainen, Ilkka; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-12-01

    The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger.

  7. Nocturnal body temperature in wintering blue tits is affected by roost-site temperature and body reserves.

    PubMed

    Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, J-Å

    2011-09-01

    Birds commonly use rest-phase hypothermia, a controlled reduction of body temperature (T(b)), to conserve energy during times of high metabolic demands. We assessed the flexibility of this heterothermic strategy by increasing roost-site temperature and recording the subsequent T(b) changes in wintering blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus L.), assuming that blue tits would respond to treatment by increasing T(b). We found that birds increased T(b) when roost-site temperature was increased, but only at low ambient temperatures. Moreover, birds with larger fat reserves regulated T(b) at higher levels than birds carrying less fat. This result implies that a roosting blue tit maintains its T(b) at the highest affordable level, as determined by the interacting effect of ecophysiological costs associated with rest-phase hypothermia and energy reserves, in order to minimize potential fitness costs associated with a low T(b).

  8. 32 CFR 48.303 - Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower. 48.303 Section 48.303 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Designation of...

  9. 32 CFR 48.303 - Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower. 48.303 Section 48.303 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Designation of...

  10. 32 CFR 48.303 - Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower. 48.303 Section 48.303 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Designation of...

  11. 32 CFR 48.303 - Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower. 48.303 Section 48.303 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Designation of...

  12. 32 CFR 48.303 - Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Condition affecting entitlement of widow or widower. 48.303 Section 48.303 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Designation of...

  13. Solubility and Plant Availability of Nutrients as Affected by Soil Drainage Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn growth is affected due to oxygen deficiency and root death in a perched water table (PWT). The study objective was to evaluate a surface application of FGD gypsum (FGDG) and glyphosate (GLY) on nutrient uptake in corn with different drainage conditions. The experiment was conducted in greenhous...

  14. Investigating the mechanisms underlying affective priming effects using a conditional pronunciation task.

    PubMed

    Pecchinenda, Anna; Ganteaume, Christiane; Banse, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Recently, using a conditional pronunciation task, De Houwer and Randell (2004) reported evidence of affective priming effects only when pronunciation depended on the semantic category of targets. Although these findings support the notion that spreading of activation is the mechanism underlying affective priming effects, an explanation in terms of postlexical mechanism could not be ruled out. To clarify this point, we conducted two experiments in which nouns for both the to-be-pronounced as well as the not-to-be pronounced targets were used and all stimuli were affectively valenced words. In Experiment 1, the to-be-pronounced targets were object-words, and the not-to-be-pronounced targets were person-words, whereas in Experiment 2, the instructions were reversed. Results of experiment 1 showed affective priming effects only when pronunciation of target words was conditional upon their semantic category. Most importantly, affective priming effects were observed for both object-words (Experiment 1) and person-words (Experiment 2). These results are compatible with a spreading activation account, but not with a postlexical mechanism account of affective priming effects in the pronunciation task.

  15. Melanocortin Receptor 4 Deficiency Affects Body Weight Regulation, Grooming Behavior, and Substrate Preference in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J.M.; Brans, Maike A.D.; Brakkee, Jan H.; Toonen, Pim W.; Garner, Keith M.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis–induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein79–129 (AgRP79–129), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function. PMID:21527895

  16. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  17. Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin V; Davis, Matthew L; Thompson, William R; Dahners, Laurence E; Weinhold, Paul S

    2013-05-31

    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury.

  18. Home range, body condition, and survival of rehabilitated raccoons (Procyon lotor) during their first winter.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Molly; Wilson, James A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of raccoon (Procyon lotor) rehabilitation on postrelease survivorship are unknown. Raccoon rehabilitation success was measured as differences in prewinter body condition, home range size, distance to manmade structures, and during-winter survival between raccoons in the wild and those who have been rehabilitated. Prewinter body condition did not differ between wild and rehabilitated raccoons, but there was a trend for rehabilitated raccoons to have better body conditions. There was no difference between wild and rehabilitated raccoon adaptive kernel (AK) home range for 95% and 90% AK home ranges, or for core (50% AK) use areas. There was no sex difference in distance traveled from the release site within rehabilitated raccoons. However, rehabilitated raccoons were found significantly closer (49.4 ± 4.7 m) to manmade structures than wild raccoons (92.2 ± 14.4 m), and female raccoons were found significantly closer (64.8 ± 4.5 m) to manmade structures than male raccoons (72.3 ± 17.6 m). The results of this study indicate that raccoons can be successfully rehabilitated, but they may occupy habitat closer to manmade structures than wild raccoons.

  19. Microinjection of Anti-coilin Antibodies Affects the Structure of Coiled Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fátima; Saffrich, Rainer; Ansorge, Wilhelm; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The coiled body is a distinct subnuclear domain enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) involved in processing of pre-mRNA. Although the function of the coiled body is still unknown, current models propose that it may have a role in snRNP biogenesis, transport, or recycling. Here we describe that anti-coilin antibodies promote a specific disappearance of the coiled body in living human cells, thus providing a novel tool for the functional analysis of this structure. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were raised against recombinant human coilin, the major structural protein of the coiled body. Four mAbs are shown to induce a progressive disappearance of coiled bodies within ∼6 h after microinjection into the nucleus of HeLa cells. After their disappearance, coiled bodies are not seen to re-form, although injected cells remain viable for at least 3 d. Epitope mapping reveals that the mAbs recognize distinct amino acid motifs scattered along the complete coilin sequence. By 24 and 48 h after injection of antibodies that promote coiled body disappearance, splicing snRNPs are normally distributed in the nucleoplasm, the nucleolus remains unaffected, and the cell cycle progresses normally. Furthermore, cells devoid of coiled bodies for ∼24 h maintain the ability to splice both adenoviral pre-mRNAs and transiently overexpressed human β-globin transcripts. In conclusion, within the time range of this study, no major nuclear abnormalities are detected after coiled body disappearance. PMID:9722604

  20. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells.

  1. Validation of a body condition scoring system in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): assessment of body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Summers, Laura; Clingerman, Karen J; Yang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a subjective semiquantitative method of assessing body fat and muscle by palpation of key anatomic features. A previously published BCS system for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) uses a scale comprising both whole and half units, in which the midrange represents optimal body condition (3.0), lower values represent emaciated to lean conditions (1.0 to 2.0), and higher values (4.0 to 5.0) indicate excessive body fat. A valid BCS system is well described, relevant to the species, has agreement within and between raters, and is consistent with objective measures. Here we correlate the subjective BCS assigned during physical exam with percentage body fat as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Adult rhesus monkeys from an indoor-housed breeding colony were evaluated by the veterinary staff and assigned to 1 of 9 BCS score groups to give a minimum of 6 animals in each group. DEXA was used to obtain objective body composition measurements for macaques in each BCS group. Animals in the 'optimal' BCS group (3.0) had 25% body fat on average. Each full unit change in BCS was associated with an approximate 10% change in body fat percentage for macaques in the 2.0-to-5.0 BCS range. Absolute body fat in animals with BCS of 1.0 or 1.5 may be too low for accurate assessment by DEXA.

  2. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  3. Genetic factors contributing to obesity and body weight can act through mechanisms affecting muscle weight, fat weight, or both.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Neuschl, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2009-01-08

    Genetic loci for body weight and subphenotypes such as fat weight have been mapped repeatedly. However, the distinct effects of different loci and physiological interactions among different traits are often not accounted for in mapping studies. Here we used the method of structural equation modeling to identify the specific relationships between genetic loci and different phenotypes influencing body weight. Using this technique, we were able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect muscle growth. We examined the high body weight-selected mouse lines NMRI8 and DU6i and the intercross populations NMRI8 x DBA/2 and DU6i x DBA/2. Structural models help us understand whether genetic factors affect lean mass and fat mass pleiotropically or nonpleiotropically. Sex has direct effects on both fat and muscle weight but also influences fat weight indirectly via muscle weight. Three genetic loci identified in these two crosses showed exclusive effects on fat deposition, and five loci contributed exclusively to muscle weight. Two additional loci showed pleiotropic effects on fat and muscle weight, with one locus acting in both crosses. Fat weight and muscle weight were influenced by epistatic effects. We provide evidence that significant fat loci in strains selected for body weight contribute to fat weight both directly and indirectly via the influence on lean weight. These results shed new light on the action of genes in quantitative trait locus regions potentially influencing muscle and fat mass and thus controlling body weight as a composite trait.

  4. "Doing Gender" at "Body Worlds": Embodying Field Trips as Affective Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Joyce; Huff, Leah; Bridgen, Jen; Carolan, Andrea; Chang, Ashley; Ennis, Katherine; Loynes, Kathryn; Miller, Jen

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, experience and outcomes of an explicitly feminist field trip to Gunther von Hagen's "Body Worlds 2: The Anatomical Exhibition of Real Human Bodies". The cultural landscape of this exhibition materialized gendered geographies very powerfully, facilitating observation and analysis of embodied and emotional,…

  5. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  6. Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances in Early Adolescence: A Structural Modeling Investigation Examining Negative Affect and Peer Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…

  7. Body size, but not cooling rate affects supercooling points in the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The level of an animal’s stress resistance is set by multiple intrinsic physiological and extrinsic environmental parameters. Body size is a critical intrinsic parameter that affects numerous fitness-related organismal traits including fecundity, survival, mating success, and stress resistance. The ...

  8. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  9. Body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohman, W.L.; Ankney, C.D.; Roster, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    We studied body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) using drainwater evaporation ponds in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Levels of body fat and protein were similar by sex but varied by age (adults greater than immatures). Masses of breast and leg muscle protein were greatest in adult males and lowest in immature males, but similar in adult and immature females. Fat and protein levels in late-wintering ruddy ducks were independent of their body size. We detected no differences among sex-age classes in the proportion of animal foods consumed. Aquatic invertebrates composed 85% of the diet; midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) and brine flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) were the principal taxa consumed. Molt score by feather region and overall molt score did not vary by sex or age. Light to moderate molt (25 to 50% molting feathers) was recorded in all feather regions. High levels of body fat and protein were attributed to premigratory hyperphagia and consumption of foods with a high protein:energy ratio.

  10. Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes: the role of vestibular information beyond ocular reflexes and control of posture

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Fred W.; Preuss, Nora; Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: (1) Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths), body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals), in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. (2) Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. (3) Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are—at least in part—associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood. PMID:24904327

  11. Tail loss, body condition and swimming performances in tiger snakes, Notechis ater occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Aubret, Fabien; Bonnet, Xavier; Maumelat, Stéphanie

    2005-10-01

    In limbless tetrapods such as snakes, propulsive forces are generated by lateral undulations of the body and of the tail. In a large population of tiger snakes from Western Australia, tail loss was extremely common (58% of the individuals) and often very severe (more than two-thirds of the tail was missing in 14% of the cases, and in some instances, the tail was totally lost). Tail loss was not however correlated with body size, mass or body condition of wild individuals, and hence did not influence their abilities to acquire resources. These large venomous snakes exhibit marked aquatic habits. Locomotor tests in controlled conditions revealed that tail loss had a significant negative influence on burst swimming performances. However, no effect was found on routine swimming speed and total distance travelled over 5 min. These results suggest that a long and slender tail, although important for maximal speed, is not necessarily relevant for the locomotor abilities required for successful hunting. Tail-damaged individuals outnumbered intact snakes, suggesting that tail loss did not severely compromise survival. Overall, in this species, a slight deterioration of maximal speed due to severe tail loss probably has a low (undetectable) ecological impact, at least for adults.

  12. Covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and body mass only under specific conditions.

    PubMed

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-03-01

    Identifying the factors that mediate covariation between an ornament and other phenotypic attributes is important to determine the signaling function of ornaments. Sign and magnitude of a covariation may vary across environments if the expression of the ornament or of its linked genes regulating correlated phenotypes is condition-dependent. I investigated in the barn owl Tyto alba whether sign and magnitude of covariation between body mass and two heritable melanin-based plumage ornaments change with food supply, along the reproductive cycle and from the morning to the evening. Using a dataset of 1,848 measurements of body mass in 336 breeding females, I found that females displaying large black spots were heavier than conspecifics with smaller spots in the afternoon (i.e., a long time after the last feeding) but not in the morning (i.e., a short time after the last feeding). This is consistent with the recently proposed hypothesis that eumelanin-based ornaments are associated with the ability to maintain energy balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Thus, covariation between melanin-based coloration and body mass can be detected only under specific conditions potentially explaining why it has been reported in only ten out of 28 vertebrate species. The proposition that ornamented individuals achieve a higher fitness than drab conspecifics only in specific environments should be tested for other ornaments.

  13. Conditions that influence the accuracy of anthropometric parameter estimation for human body segments using shape-from-silhouette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundermann, Lars; Mundermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).

  14. Conditions that influence the accuracy of anthropometric parameter estimation for human body segments using shape-from-silhouette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mündermann, Lars; Mündermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).

  15. Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Jácome, Antonio; Montaña, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Key Results Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. Conclusions The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting

  16. Consistent boundary conditions at nonconducting surfaces of planetary bodies: Applications in a new Ganymede MHD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duling, Stefan; Saur, Joachim; Wicht, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of planetary bodies with their surrounding magnetized plasma can often be described with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, which are commonly solved by numerical models. For these models it is necessary to define physically correct boundary conditions for the plasma mass and energy density, the plasma velocity, and the magnetic field. Many planetary bodies have surfaces whose electrical conductivity is negligibly small and thus no electric current penetrates their surfaces. Magnetic boundary conditions, which consider that the associated radial electric current at the planetary surface is zero, are difficult to implement because they include the curl of the magnetic field. Here we derive new boundary conditions by a decomposition of the magnetic field in poloidal and toroidal parts. We find that the toroidal part of the magnetic field needs to vanish at the surface of the insulator. For the spherical harmonics coefficients of the poloidal part, we derive a Cauchy boundary condition, which also matches a possible intrinsic field by including its Gauss coefficients. Thus, we can additionally include planetary dynamo fields as well as time-variable induction fields within electrically conductive subsurface layers. We implement the nonconducting boundary condition in the MHD simulation code ZEUS-MP using spherical geometry and provide a numerical implementation in Fortran 90 as supporting information on the JGR website. We apply it to a model for Ganymede's plasma environment. Our model also includes a consistent set of boundary conditions for the other MHD variables density, velocity, and energy. With this model we can describe Galileo spacecraft observations in and around Ganymede's minimagnetosphere very well.

  17. A simplified thermoregulation model of the human body in warm conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Baizhan; Yang, Yu; Yao, Runming; Liu, Hong; Li, Yongqiang

    2017-03-01

    Thermoregulation models of the human body have been widely used in thermal comfort studies. The existing models are complicated and not fully verified for application in China. This paper presents a simplified thermoregulation model which has been statistically validated by the predicted and measured mean skin temperature in warm environments, including 21 typical conditions with 400 Chinese subjects. This model comprises three parts: i) the physical model; ii) the controlled system; and iii) the controlling system, and considers three key questions formerly ignored by the existing models including: a) the evaporation efficiency of regulatory sweat; b) the proportional relation of total skin blood flow and total heat loss by regulatory sweating against body surface area; and c) discrepancies in the mean skin temperatures by gender. The developed model has been validated to be within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean skin temperature in three cases.

  18. Creation and validation of a novel body condition scoring method for the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the zoo setting.

    PubMed

    Clements, Julie; Sanchez, Jessica N

    2015-11-01

    This research aims to validate a novel, visual body scoring system created for the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) suitable for the zoo practitioner. Magellanics go through marked seasonal fluctuations in body mass gains and losses. A standardized multi-variable visual body condition guide may provide a more sensitive and objective assessment tool compared to the previously used single variable method. Accurate body condition scores paired with seasonal weight variation measurements give veterinary and keeper staff a clearer understanding of an individual's nutritional status. San Francisco Zoo staff previously used a nine-point body condition scale based on the classic bird standard of a single point of keel palpation with the bird restrained in hand, with no standard measure of reference assigned to each scoring category. We created a novel, visual body condition scoring system that does not require restraint to assesses subcutaneous fat and muscle at seven body landmarks using illustrations and descriptive terms. The scores range from one, the least robust or under-conditioned, to five, the most robust, or over-conditioned. The ratio of body weight to wing length was used as a "gold standard" index of body condition and compared to both the novel multi-variable and previously used single-variable body condition scores. The novel multi-variable scale showed improved agreement with weight:wing ratio compared to the single-variable scale, demonstrating greater accuracy, and reliability when a trained assessor uses the multi-variable body condition scoring system. Zoo staff may use this tool to manage both the colony and the individual to assist in seasonally appropriate Magellanic penguin nutrition assessment.

  19. Self-Esteem and Negative Affect as Moderators of Sociocultural Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, Strategies To Decrease Weight, and Strategies To Increase Muscles among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of sociocultural influences and the moderating role of self-esteem and negative affect on body dissatisfaction and body change strategies for adolescent boys and girls. Surveys indicated that sociocultural pressures significantly predicted body dissatisfaction and body change strategies among both sexes. Both boys and girls…

  20. Drifting invertebrates, stomach contents, and body conditions of juvenile rainbow trout from fall through winter in a Wyoming tailwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the availability of drifting invertebrates and the stomach contents and body conditions of stocked (hatchery) and naturally spawned (wild) juvenile (20-25 cm total length) rainbow trout from fall through winter in the Big Horn River downstream from Boysen Dam in Wyoming. When the density and biomass of drifting invertebrates declined with water temperature during the fall, stomach contents and body conditions substantially decreased among both wild and stocked fish. During the coldest portion of the winter, the density of small drifting invertebrates increased as did the body conditions of both wild and hatchery trout. We suggest that the perceived increase in body conditions during late winter was due to survival of fish with higher body conditions and not growth of fish from fall to late winter.

  1. Calculation of symmetric vortex separation affecting subsonic bodies at high incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almosnino, D.; Rom, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for calculating the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients and the pressure distributions on a body at reasonably high angles of attack is presented. The body is represented by a combination of source elements and vortex-lattice elements, including separation of the vortices at increasing angles of attack. The method is self-consistent in that the body and the separated vortex wake are treated as an integrated interacting system. The location of the separation line can be included as an arbitrary input from experimental data or can be evaluated approximately by a pressure-dependent criterion. Calculated values of the aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distributions on cone-cylinder and ogive-cylinder bodies compare well, qualitatively and quantitatively, with experimental data, including simulation of the dependence on Reynolds number.

  2. Does self-esteem affect body dissatisfaction levels in female adolescents?☆

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R2=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R2=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. Conclusion: It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. PMID:25479855

  3. L^1 -optimality conditions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the L^1 -minimization for the translational motion of a spacecraft in the circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is considered. Necessary conditions are derived by using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP), revealing the existence of bang-bang and singular controls. Singular extremals are analyzed, recalling the existence of the Fuller phenomenon according to the theories developed in (Marchal in J Optim Theory Appl 11(5):441-486, 1973; Zelikin and Borisov in Theory of Chattering Control with Applications to Astronautics, Robotics, Economics, and Engineering. Birkhäuser, Basal 1994; in J Math Sci 114(3):1227-1344, 2003). The sufficient optimality conditions for the L^1 -minimization problem with fixed endpoints have been developed in (Chen et al. in SIAM J Control Optim 54(3):1245-1265, 2016). In the current paper, we establish second-order conditions for optimal control problems with more general final conditions defined by a smooth submanifold target. In addition, the numerical implementation to check these optimality conditions is given. Finally, approximating the Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system by the CRTBP, an L^1 -minimization trajectory for the translational motion of a spacecraft is computed by combining a shooting method with a continuation method in (Caillau et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 114:137-150, 2012; Caillau and Daoud in SIAM J Control Optim 50(6):3178-3202, 2012). The local optimality of the computed trajectory is asserted thanks to the second-order optimality conditions developed.

  4. Ivermectin alters reproductive success, body condition and sexual trait expression in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    González-Tokman, Daniel; Martínez M, Imelda; Villalobos-Ávalos, Yesenia; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto; Ortiz-Zayas, María Del Rosario; Cruz-Rosales, Magdalena; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Ivermectin is a very common parasiticide used in livestock. It is excreted in the dung and has negative effects on survival and reproduction of dung-degrading organisms, including dung beetles. Here we exposed the dung beetle Euoniticellus intermedius to different concentrations of ivermectin in the food and evaluated reproductive success and the expression of traits associated with survival and reproduction under laboratory conditions. It is the first time the effects of ivermectin were evaluated on offspring physiological condition and the expression of a secondary sexual trait. We also registered the number of emerged beetles, sex ratio and body size of emerged adult beetles. Besides reducing the number of emerged beetles and body size, as found in the same and other insects, ivermectin at high doses reduced muscle mass while at intermediate doses it increased lipid mass. Ivermectin changed offspring sex ratio and at high doses increased the size of male horn, which is an important trait defining the male mating success. Our results highlight the importance of regulating parasiticide usage in livestock in order to maintain ecosystem services provided by dung beetles and confirm that contaminants impose new environmental conditions that not only impact on wild animal survival, but also on evolutionary processes such as sexual selection.

  5. Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions.

  6. No support for dual process accounts of human affective learning in simple Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Purkis, Helena M

    2005-02-01

    Dual process accounts of affective learning state that the learning of likes and dislikes reflects a learning mechanism that is distinct from the one reflected in expectancy learning, the learning of signal relationships, and has different empirical characteristics. Affective learning, for example, is said not to be affected by: (a) extinction training; (b) occasion setting; (c) cue competition; and (d) awareness of the CS-US contingencies. These predictions were tested in a series of experiments that employed simple Pavlovian conditioning procedures. Neutral visual pictures of geometric shapes, or tactile conditional stimuli (CS) were paired with aversive electrotactile unconditional stimuli (US). Dependent measures were physiological (skin conductance, blink startle modulation) or verbal (US expectancy, on-line and off-line ratings of CS pleasantness). Different combinations of these dependent measures were employed across different experiments in an attempt to assess affective and expectancy learning simultaneously. Changes in CS pleasantness as indexed by ratings or blink startle modulation were readily observed. However, contrary to the predictions from dual-process accounts, results indicated that acquired CS unpleasantness is subject to extinction, occasion setting, cue competition, and not found in absence of CS-US contingency awareness.

  7. Early trauma and affect: the importance of the body for the development of the capacity to symbolize.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Hessel

    2014-11-01

    In this paper I aim to outline the importance of working clinically with affect when treating severely traumatized patients who have a limited capacity to symbolize. These patients, who suffer the loss of maternal care early in life, require the analyst to be closely attuned to the patient's distress through use of the countertransference and with significantly less attention paid to the transference. It is questionable whether we can speak of transference when there is limited capacity to form internal representations. The analyst's relationship with the patient is not necessarily used to make interpretations but, instead, the analyst's reverie functions therapeutically to develop awareness and containment of affect, first in the analyst's mind and, later, in the patient's, so that, in time, a relationship between the patient's mind and the body, as the first object, is made. In contrast to general object-relations theories, in which the first object is considered to be the breast or the mother, Ferrari (2004) proposes that the body is the first object in the emerging mind. Once a relationship between mind and body is established, symbolization becomes possible following the formation of internal representations of affective states in the mind, where previously there were few. Using Ferrari's body-mind model, two clinical case vignettes underline the need to use the countertransference with patients who suffered chronic developmental trauma in early childhood.

  8. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M.; Butler, David M.; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures. PMID:27602281

  9. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M; Butler, David M; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  10. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    PubMed

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Parenteau, Charline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability). In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging) and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels) between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  11. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, S.; Martins, L.; Pontes, E.; Hansen, P. J.

    2009-07-01

    We compared diurnal patterns of vaginal temperature in lactating cows under grazing conditions to evaluate genotype effects on body temperature regulation. Genotypes evaluated were Holstein, Jersey, Jersey × Holstein and Swedish Red × Holstein. The comparison of Holstein and Jersey versus Jersey × Holstein provided a test of whether heterosis effects body temperature regulation. Cows were fitted with intravaginal temperature recording devices that measured vaginal temperature every 15 min for 7 days. Vaginal temperature was affected by time of day ( P < 0.0001) and genotype × time ( P < 0.0001) regardless of whether days in milk and milk yield were used as covariates. Additional analyses indicated that the Swedish Red × Holstein had a different pattern of vaginal temperatures than the other three genotypes (Swedish Red × Holstein vs others × time; P < 0.0001) and that Holstein and Jersey had a different pattern than Jersey × Holstein [(Holstein + Jersey vs Jersey × Holstein) × time, P < 0.0001]. However, Holstein had a similar pattern to Jersey [(Holstein vs Jersey) × time, P > 0.10]. These genotype × time interactions reflect two effects. First, Swedish Red × Holstein had higher vaginal temperatures than the other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon but not after the evening milking. Secondly, Jersey × Holstein had lower vaginal temperatures than other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon and again in the late night and early morning. Results point out that there are effects of specific genotypes and evidence for heterosis on regulation of body temperature of lactating cows maintained under grazing conditions and suggest that genetic improvement for thermotolerance through breed choice or genetic selection is possible.

  12. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach

    PubMed Central

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Parenteau, Charline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability). In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging) and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels) between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows’ nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds. PMID:26270531

  13. Statistical analysis of landing contact conditions for three lifting body research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The landing contact conditions for the HL-10, M2-F2/F3, and the X-24A lifting body vehicles are analyzed statistically for 81 landings. The landing contact parameters analyzed are true airspeed, peak normal acceleration at the center of gravity, roll angle, and roll velocity. Ground measurement parameters analyzed are lateral and longitudinal distance from intended touchdown, lateral distance from touchdown to full stop, and rollout distance. The results are presented in the form of histograms for frequency distributions and cumulative frequency distribution probability curves with a Pearson Type 3 curve fit for extrapolation purposes.

  14. Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy as a function of interpersonal and affective disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Ralf; Konicar, Lilian; Klinzing, Jens G.; Barth, Beatrix; Yilmaz, Özge; Birbaumer, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The diminished fear reactivity is one of the most valid physiological findings in psychopathy research. In a fear conditioning paradigm, with faces as conditioned stimulus (CS) and electric shock as unconditioned stimulus (US), we investigated a sample of 14 high psychopathic violent offenders. Event related potentials, skin conductance responses (SCR) as well as subjective ratings of the CSs were collected. This study assessed to which extent the different facets of the psychopathy construct contribute to the fear conditioning deficits observed in psychopaths. Participants with high scores on the affective facet subscale of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) showed weaker conditioned fear responses and lower N100 amplitudes compared to low scorers. In contrast, high scorers on the affective facet rated the CS+ (paired) more negatively than low scorers regarding the CS− (unpaired). Regarding the P300, high scores on the interpersonal facet were associated with increased amplitudes to the CS+ compared to the CS−, while the opposed pattern was found for the antisocial facet. Both, the initial and terminal contingent negative variation indicated a divergent pattern: participants with pronounced interpersonal deficits, showed increased cortical negativity to the CS+ compared to the CS−, whereas a reversed CS+/CS− differentiation was found in offenders scoring high on the antisocial facet. The present study revealed that deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy was most pronounced in offenders with high scores on the affective facet. Event related potentials suggest that participants with distinct interpersonal deficits showed increased information processing, whereas the antisocial facet was linked to decreased attention and interest to the CS+. These data indicate that an approach to the facets of psychopathy can help to resolve ambiguous findings in psychopathy research and enables a more precise and useful description of this disorder. PMID:24298245

  15. Investigation of Factors Affecting Body Temperature Changes During Routine Clinical Head Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong Seong

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulsed radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields, required to produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from tissue during the MRI procedure have been shown to heat tissues. Objectives To investigate the relationship between body temperature rise and the RF power deposited during routine clinical MRI procedures, and to determine the correlation between this effect and the body’s physiological response. Patients and Methods We investigated 69 patients from the Korean national cancer center to identify the main factors that contribute to an increase in body temperature (external factors and the body’s response) during a clinical brain MRI. A routine protocol sequence of MRI scans (1.5 T and 3.0 T) was performed. The patient’s tympanic temperature was recorded before and immediately after the MRI procedure and compared with changes in variables related to the body’s physiological response to heat. Results Our investigation of the physiological response to RF heating indicated a link between increasing age and body temperature. A higher increase in body temperature was observed in older patients after a 3.0-T MRI (r = 0.07, P = 0.29 for 1.5-T MRI; r = 0.45, P = 0.002 for 3.0-T MRI). The relationship between age and body heat was related to the heart rate (HR) and changes in HR during the MRI procedure; a higher RF power combined with a reduction in HR resulted in an increase in body temperature. Conclusion A higher magnetic field strength and a decrease in the HR resulted in an increase in body temperature during the MRI procedure. PMID:27895872

  16. Growth condition-dependent Esp expression by Enterococcus faecium affects initial adherence and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Van Wamel, Willem J B; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Top, Janetta; Posthuma, George; Willems, Rob J L

    2007-02-01

    A genetic subpopulation of Enterococcus faecium, called clonal complex 17 (CC-17), is strongly associated with hospital outbreaks and invasive infections. Most CC-17 strains contain a putative pathogenicity island encoding the E. faecium variant of enterococcal surface protein (Esp). Western blotting, flow cytometric analyses, and electron microscopy showed that Esp is expressed and exposed on the surface of E. faecium, though Esp expression and surface exposure are highly varied among different strains. Furthermore, Esp expression depends on growth conditions like temperature and anaerobioses. When grown at 37 degrees C, five of six esp-positive E. faecium strains showed significantly increased levels of surface-exposed Esp compared to bacteria grown at 21 degrees C, which was confirmed at the transcriptional level by real-time PCR. In addition, a significant increase in surface-exposed Esp was found in half of these strains when grown at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions compared to the level in bacteria grown under aerobic conditions. Finally, amounts of surface-exposed Esp correlated with initial adherence to polystyrene (R(2) = 0.7146) and biofilm formation (R(2) = 0.7535). Polystyrene adherence was competitively inhibited by soluble recombinant N-terminal Esp. This study demonstrates that Esp expression on the surface of E. faecium (i) varies consistently between strains, (ii) is growth condition dependent, and (iii) is quantitatively correlated with initial adherence and biofilm formation. These data indicate that E. faecium senses and responds to changing environmental conditions, which might play a role in the early stages of infection when bacteria transit from oxygen-rich conditions at room temperature to anaerobic conditions at body temperature. In addition, variation of surface exposure may explain the contrasting findings reported on the role of Esp in biofilm formation.

  17. Affective Assemblages: Body Matters in the Pedagogic Practices of Contemporary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Set within the affective turn in cultural and social theory, in this paper, I explore the significance of materiality and matter, most specifically, bodily matter, in the pedagogic practices of contemporary school classrooms. The received view in education is that affect is tantamount to emotion or feeling and that materials, such as bodily…

  18. How does the presence of a body affect the performance of an actuator disk ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, G.; Pereira, R. B.; Ragni, D.; Avallone, F.; van Bussel, G.

    2016-09-01

    The article seeks to unify the treatment of conservative force interactions between axi-symmetric bodies and actuators in inviscid flow. Applications include the study of hub interference, diffuser augmented wind turbines and boundary layer ingestion propeller configurations. The conservation equations are integrated over infinitesimal streamtubes to obtain an exact momentum model contemplating the interaction between an actuator and a nearby body. No assumptions on the shape or topology of the body are made besides (axi)symmetry. Laws are derived for the thrust coefficient, power coefficient and propulsive efficiency. The proposed methodology is articulated with previous efforts and validated against the numerical predictions of a planar vorticity equation solver. Very good agreement is obtained between the analytical and numerical methods.

  19. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escaler, X.; De La Torre, O.; Farhat, M.

    2015-12-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to their surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at the LMH-EPFL cavitation tunnel. The three first modes of vibration have been determined and analysed under various hydrodynamic conditions ranging from air and still water to partial cavitation and supercavitation. A remote nonintrusive excitation system with piezoelectric patches has been used for the experiments. The effects of the cavity properties and the lateral gap size on the natural frequencies and mode shapes have been determined. As a result, the significance of several parameters in the design of such structures is discussed.

  20. Experimental reduction of winter food decreases body condition and delays migration in a long-distance migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nathan W; Sherry, Thomas W; Marra, Peter P

    2015-07-01

    Many tropical habitats experience pronounced dry seasons, during which arthropod food availability declines, potentially limiting resident and migratory animal populations. In response to declines in food, individuals may attempt to alter their space use to enhance access to food resources, but may be socially constrained from doing so by con- and heterospecifics. If social constraints exist, food declines should result in decreased body condition. In migratory birds, correlational evidence suggests a link between body condition and migration timing. Poor body condition and delayed migration may, in turn, impact fitness in subsequent seasons via carry-over effects. To determine if winter food availability affects space use, inter- and intraspecific competition, body composition (i.e., mass, fat, and pectoral muscle), and migration timing, we experimentally decreased food availability on individual American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) territories in high-quality mangrove habitat. Redstarts on control territories experienced -40% loss of food due to the seasonal nature of the environment. Redstarts on experimental territories experienced -80% declines in food, which closely mimicked natural declines in nearby, low-quality, scrub habitat. Individuals on food-reduced territories did not expand their territories locally, but instead either became non-territorial "floaters" or remained on territory. Regardless of territorial status, food-reduced American Redstarts all deposited fat compared to control birds. Fat deposits provide insurance against the risk of starvation, but, for American Redstarts, came at the expense of maintaining pectoral muscle. Subsequently, food-reduced American Redstarts experienced, on average, a one-week delay in departure on spring migration, likely due to the loss of pectoral muscle. Thus, our results demonstrate experimentally, for the first time, that declines in winter food availability can result in a fat-muscle trade-off, which, in

  1. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  2. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Caparanga, Alvin R. Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-09-15

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  3. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M; Lee, Christopher C H; Milad, Mohammed R; Eskandar, Emad N; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-05-05

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in "context A". Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory.

  4. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  5. Variation in body condition indices of crimson finches by sex, breeding stage, age, time of day, and year

    PubMed Central

    Milenkaya, Olga; Weinstein, Nicole; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Body condition indices are increasingly applied in conservation to assess habitat quality, identify stressed populations before they decline, determine effects of disturbances, and understand mechanisms of declines. To employ condition indices in this manner, we need first to understand their baseline variability and sources of variation. Here, we used crimson finches (Neochmia phaeton), a tropical passerine, to describe the variation in seven commonly used condition indices by sex, age, breeding stage, time of day, and year. We found that packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total plasma protein, and scaled mass were all significantly affected by an interaction between sex and breeding stage. Furcular fat varied by sex and breeding stage and also trended by year, scaled mass showed a positive trend with age and varied by time of day, and haemoglobin additionally varied by year. Pectoral muscle scores varied and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio trended only by year. Year effects might reflect a response to annual variation in environmental conditions; therefore, those indices showing year effects may be especially worthy of further investigation of their potential for conservation applications. Pectoral muscle scores and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio may be particularly useful due to the lack of influence of other variables on them. For the other indices, the large variation that can be attributed to individual covariates, such as sex and breeding stage, suggests that one should not interpret the physiological condition of an individual as measured by these indices from their absolute value. Instead, the condition of an individual should be interpreted relative to conspecifics by sex, breeding stage, and possibly age. PMID:27293604

  6. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  7. Relationship between colouration and body condition in a crab spider that lures pollinators.

    PubMed

    Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Llandres, Ana L; Herberstein, Marie E

    2012-04-01

    Sit-and-wait predators have evolved several traits that increase the probability of encountering prey, including lures that attract prey. Although most crab spiders (Thomisidae) are known by their ability to change colour in order to match the background, a few use a different strategy. They are UV-reflective, creating a colour contrast against UV-absorbing flowers that is attractive for pollinators. The nature of the relationship between colour contrast and foraging success is unknown, as is how spiders trade off the potential costs and benefits of strong colour contrast. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between spider colouration, foraging success and background colouration in a crab spider species known to lure pollinators via UV reflectance (Thomisus spectabilis). Field data revealed that spider body condition - a proxy of past foraging success - is positively related to overall colour contrast. We experimentally tested the effect of satiation and background colour on spider colour change. Throughout the experiment, spiders changed their colour contrast regardless of their food intake, suggesting that colour contrast and the UV component contributing to overall contrast are not caused by spider condition. Although spiders responded to different backgrounds by subtly changing their body colour, this did not result in colour matching. We believe that the observed variation in colour contrast and hence conspicuousness in the field, coupled with the spiders' reaction to our manipulation, could be the result of plasticity in response to prey.

  8. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Cherel, Y.; Guinet, C.; Arnould, J. P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R2/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills. PMID:27493771

  9. Modulation of anticipatory postural activity for multiple conditions of a whole-body pointing task.

    PubMed

    Tolambiya, A; Chiovetto, E; Pozzo, T; Thomas, E

    2012-05-17

    This is a study on associated postural activities during the anticipatory segments of a multijoint movement. Several previous studies have shown that they are task dependant. The previous studies, however, have mostly been limited in demonstrating the presence of modulation for one task condition, that is, one aspect such as the distance of the target or the direction of reaching. Real-life activities like whole-body pointing, however, can vary in several ways. How specific is the adaptation of the postural activities for the diverse possibilities of a whole-body pointing task? We used a classification paradigm to answer this question. We examined the anticipatory postural electromyograms for four different types of whole-body pointing tasks. The presence of task-dependent modulations in these signals was probed by performing four-way classification tests using a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM was able to achieve significantly higher than chance performance in correctly predicting the movements at hand (Chance performance 25%). Using only anticipatory postural muscle activity, the correct movement at hand was predicted with a mean rate of 62%. Because this is 37% above chance performance, it suggests the presence of postural modulation for diverse conditions. The anticipatory activities consisted of both activations and deactivations. Movement prediction with the use of the activating muscles was significantly better than that obtained with the deactivating muscles. This suggests that more specific modulations for the movement at hand take place through activation, whereas the deactivation is more general. The study introduces a new method for investigating adaptations in motor control. It also sheds new light on the quantity and quality of information available in the feedforward segments of a voluntary multijoint motor activity.

  10. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds.

  11. Morphometric body condition indices of wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harshaw, Lauren T.; Larkin, Iskande V.; Bonde, Robert K.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Hill, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    In many species, body weight (W) increases geometrically with body length (L), so W/L3 provides a body condition index (BCI) that can be used to evaluate nutritional status once a normal range has been established. No such index has been established for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). This study was designed to determine a normal range of BCIs of Florida manatees by comparing W in kg with straight total length (SL), curvilinear total length (CL), and umbilical girth (UG) in m for 146 wild manatees measured during winter health assessments at three Florida locations. Small calves to large adults of SL from 1.47 to 3.23 m and W from 77 to 751 kg were compared. BCIs were significantly greater in adult females than in adult males (p < 0.05). W scaled proportionally to L3 in females but not in males, which were slimmer than females. The logarithms of W and of each linear measurement were regressed to develop amended indices that allow for sex differences. The regression slope for log W against log SL was 2.915 in females and 2.578 in males; W/SL2.915 ranged from 18.9 to 29.6 (mean 23.2) in females and from 24.6 to 37.3 (mean 29.8) in males. Some BCIs were slightly (4%), but significantly (p ≤ 0.05), higher for females in Crystal River than in Tampa Bay or Indian River, but there was no evidence of geographic variation in condition among males. These normal ranges should help evaluate the nutritional status of both wild and rehabilitating captive manatees.

  12. Correspondence Between Physical Self-Concept and Participation in, and Fitness Change After, Biweekly Body Conditioning Classes in Sedentary Women.

    PubMed

    Aasa, Ulrika; Paulin, Johan; Madison, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Aasa, U, Paulin, J, and Madison, G. Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, biweekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 451-461, 2017-The aims of the study were (a) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (b) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11 weeks of biweekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance, and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility, and balance tests were performed before and after the exercise period and the short-form of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs = 0.24, p = 0.040). At posttests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  13. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women.

    PubMed

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-07-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis.

  14. Microclimatic Divergence in a Mediterranean Canyon Affects Richness, Composition, and Body Size in Saproxylic Beetle Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Buse, Jörn; Fassbender, Samuel; Entling, Martin H; Pavlicek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Large valleys with opposing slopes may act as a model system with which the effects of strong climatic gradients on biodiversity can be evaluated. The advantage of such comparisons is that the impact of a change of climate can be studied on the same species pool without the need to consider regional differences. The aim of this study was to compare the assemblage of saproxylic beetles on such opposing slopes at Lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel (also known as "Evolution Canyon") with a 200-800% higher solar radiation on the south-facing (SFS) compared to the north-facing slope (NFS). We tested specific hypotheses of species richness patterns, assemblage structure, and body size resulting from interslope differences in microclimate. Fifteen flight-interception traps per slope were distributed over three elevation levels ranging from 50 to 100 m a.s.l. Richness of saproxylic beetles was on average 34% higher on the SFS compared with the NFS, with no detected influence of elevation levels. Both assemblage structure and average body size were determined by slope aspect, with more small-bodied beetles found on the SFS. Both the increase in species richness and the higher prevalence of small species on the SFS reflect ecological rules present on larger spatial grain (species-energy hypothesis and community body size shift hypothesis), and both can be explained by the metabolic theory of ecology. This is encouraging for the complementary use of micro- and macroclimatic gradients to study impacts of climate warming on biodiversity.

  15. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  16. The influence of diet on nestling body condition of an apex predator: a multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Real, Joan; Parés, Francesc; Moleón, Marcos; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2016-04-01

    Animal body condition refers to the health and physiological state of individuals, and multiple parameters have been proposed to quantify this key concept. Food intake is one of the main determinants of individual body condition and much debate has been generated on how diet relates to body condition. We investigated this relationship in free-living Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) nestlings sampled at two geographically distant populations in Spain. Nestlings' main prey consumption was estimated by isotopic analyses. A multi-biomarker approach, including morphometric and blood biochemical measures (i.e. hematocrit, plasma biochemistry and oxidative stress biomarkers), enabled us to integrate all the body condition measures taken. A greater consumption of a preferred prey [i.e. the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)] improved nestling body condition, as indicated by lower levels of cholesterol in plasma, greater activity of enzymes mediating in protein catabolism, higher levels of tocopherol and glutathione, and less glutathione peroxidase activity, which also suggested lower degree of oxidative stress. On the other hand, increased diet diversity was positively correlated with higher levels of oxidized glutathione, which suggests that these nestlings had poorer body condition than those with a higher frequency of preferred prey consumption. Several factors other than diet [i.e. altitude of nesting areas, nestling sex and age, sampling time (before or after midday) and recent food ingestion] had an effect on certain body condition measures. Our study reveals a measurable effect of diet on a predator's body condition and demonstrates the importance of considering the potential influence of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors when assessing animal body condition.

  17. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; p<.001, p=.042 and p<.001, respectively. Orofacial pain also had a significant social impact (p<.001). Patients with oral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (p<.001). Conclusions Oral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  18. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  19. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, Uwe; Burke, Edward J.; Butler, Bruce D.; Davis, Karen L.; Katz, Jeffrey; Melamed, Evan; Morris, William P.; Allen, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 years ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 deg down (LLR-10 deg; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  20. Body size and condition influence migration timing of juvenile Arctic grayling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Seitz, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes utilising seasonally available habitats within annual migratory circuits time movements out of such habitats with changing hydrology, although individual attributes of fish may also mediate the behavioural response to environmental conditions. We tagged juvenile Arctic grayling in a seasonally flowing stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska and recorded migration timing towards overwintering habitat. We examined the relationship between individual migration date, and fork length (FL) and body condition index (BCI) for fish tagged in June, July and August in three separate models. Larger fish migrated earlier; however, only the August model suggested a significant relationship with BCI. In this model, 42% of variability in migration timing was explained by FL and BCI, and fish in better condition were predicted to migrate earlier than those in poor condition. Here, the majority (33%) of variability was captured by FL with an additional 9% attributable to BCI. We also noted strong seasonal trends in BCI reflecting overwinter mass loss and subsequent growth within the study area. These results are interpreted in the context of size and energetic state-specific risks of overwinter starvation and mortality (which can be very high in the Arctic), which may influence individuals at greater risk to extend summer foraging in a risky, yet prey rich, habitat. Our research provides further evidence that heterogeneity among individuals within a population can influence migratory behaviour and identifies potential risks to late season migrants in Arctic beaded stream habitats influenced by climate change and petroleum development.

  1. Is the body condition of the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) enhanced through attachment to native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae)?

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Francesca; Sousa, Ronaldo; Aldridge, David C

    2016-05-15

    The invasion of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, into Western Europe and North America has driven widespread ecological change. Attachment of zebra mussels to the shell of native unionoid mussels has resulted in reductions in unionoid abundance and, in extreme cases, their localised extirpations. While the impacts of zebra mussels on infested unionoids are well documented, the possible benefits of the association to the zebra mussel have been little considered. We collected zebra mussels attached to unionoids and to inanimate structures. Zebra mussels attached to unionoids had significantly larger shells, higher standardized body mass and glycogen content than those attached to inanimate substrates, suggesting that D. polymorpha benefits from settling upon unionoids. The body condition of individual zebra mussels was negatively correlated with the number of zebra mussels attached to the unionoid, indicating intraspecific competition. Therefore, zebra mussels seem positively affected through attachment to unionoid mussels, but that these benefits decrease at higher densities of fouling. This association may offer advantages to the spread of zebra mussels within unionoid-rich systems, especially at sites with soft substrates and at the early stages of the invasion process where intraspecific competition is likely to be lower and benefits to the zebra mussels are higher.

  2. Do laboratory rearing conditions affect auditory and mechanosensory development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poling, Kirsten R.; Jaworski, Eva; Fantetti, Kristen R.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of anthropogenic noise on the fish auditory system has become of increasing concern due to possible detrimental effects of intense sounds on auditory function and structures. This is especially problematic when raising fish in laboratory and aquaculture settings using filtration and aeration, which increase sound levels. To assess the effects of laboratory rearing conditions, one group of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (``controls'') were placed into aerated aquaria in a normal laboratory rearing environment. A second set of embryos (``quiet'') were reared in aquaria with no aeration or filtration in a sound-resistant room. The intensity difference between the two sets of tanks was over 30 dB. Preliminary data show that there was no affect of differential rearing environments on saccular hair cell numbers or on hearing ability in fish up to 25 mm total length. However, rearing environment did affect neuromast number. ``Quiet'' fish had higher numbers of both cephalic and trunk superficial neuromasts, relative to controls. This difference was maintained up to 11 mm total length (the size at which canal formation begins). This suggests that acoustic environments normally found in the laboratory do not affect development of hearing in zebrafish, although laboratory acoustics may affect mechanosensory development.

  3. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Quinn, Diane M; Marsh, Kerry L

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed.

  4. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Quinn, Diane M.; Marsh, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed. PMID:26594085

  5. Environmental conditions affecting concentrations of He, CO2, O2 and N2 in soil gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of concentrations of volatile species in soil gases has potential for use in geochemical exploration for concealed ore deposits and for monitoring of subsurface contaminants. However, the interpretation of anomalies in surficial gases can be difficult because soil-gas concentrations are dependent on both meteorological and environmental conditions.For this study, concentrations of He, CO2, O2 and N2 and meteorological conditions were monitored for 10–14 months at eight nonmineralized sites in both humid and dry environments. Gases were collected at 0.6–0.7-m depth at seven sites. At one site, gases were collected from 0.3-, 0.6-, 1.2-, and 2.0-m depths; diurnal monitoring studies were conducted at this site also. Rain and snowfall, soil and air temperatures, barometric pressure, and relative humidity were monitored at all the sites. The sand, silt and clay content, and the organic carbon content of surficial soil were measured at each site.Meteorological conditions generally affected He and CO2 concentrations in the same way at all the sites; however, these effects were modified by local environmental conditions. Both seasonal and diurnal concentration changes occurred. The most important seasonal concentration changes were related to rain and snowfall and soil and air temperatures. Seasonal changes tended to be larger then the diurnal changes, but both could be related to the same processes. Local conditions of soil type and organic content affected the amount of pore space and moisture present in the soil and therefore the soil-gas concentrations.

  6. Inference of human affective states from psychophysiological measurements extracted under ecologically valid conditions

    PubMed Central

    Betella, Alberto; Zucca, Riccardo; Cetnarski, Ryszard; Greco, Alberto; Lanatà, Antonio; Mazzei, Daniele; Tognetti, Alessandro; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Omedas, Pedro; De Rossi, Danilo; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to standard laboratory protocols, the measurement of psychophysiological signals in real world experiments poses technical and methodological challenges due to external factors that cannot be directly controlled. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach based on an immersive and human accessible space called the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM), that incorporates the advantages of a laboratory within a life-like setting. The XIM integrates unobtrusive wearable sensors for the acquisition of psychophysiological signals suitable for ambulatory emotion research. In this paper, we present results from two different studies conducted to validate the XIM as a general-purpose sensing infrastructure for the study of human affective states under ecologically valid conditions. In the first investigation, we recorded and classified signals from subjects exposed to pictorial stimuli corresponding to a range of arousal levels, while they were free to walk and gesticulate. In the second study, we designed an experiment that follows the classical conditioning paradigm, a well-known procedure in the behavioral sciences, with the additional feature that participants were free to move in the physical space, as opposed to similar studies measuring physiological signals in constrained laboratory settings. Our results indicate that, by using our sensing infrastructure, it is indeed possible to infer human event-elicited affective states through measurements of psychophysiological signals under ecological conditions. PMID:25309310

  7. Long-term microplastic retention causes reduced body condition in the langoustine, Nephrops norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Welden, Natalie A C; Cowie, Phillip R

    2016-11-01

    Microplastic represents a rising proportion of marine litter and is widely distributed throughout a range of marine habitats. Correspondingly, the number of reports of species containing microplastics increases annually. Nephrops norvegicus in the Firth of Clyde have previously been shown to retain large aggregations of microplastic fibres. The potential for N. norvegicus to retain plastic over an extended time period increases the likelihood of any associated negative impacts to the individual. This study represents the longest observation of the impacts of microplastic retention in invertebrates. We exposed N. norvegicus to plastic over eight months to determine the impacts of extended exposure. Over this period we compared the feeding rate, body mass, and nutritional state of plastic-fed N. norvegicus to that of fed and starved control groups. Following the experimental period, the plastic-fed langoustine contained microplastic aggregations comparable to those of small individuals from the Clyde Sea Area. Comparisons between fed, unfed and plastic-fed individuals indicated a reduction in feeding rate, body mass, and metabolic rate as well as catabolism of stored lipids in plastic contaminated animals. We conclude that N. norvegicus exposed to high levels of environmental microplastic pollution may experience reduced nutrient availability. This can result in reduced population stability and may affect the viability of local fisheries.

  8. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P < 0.001) and was partially reciprocated by a 6.0% increase in resting (F1,154 = 7.629, P = 0.006), 0.9% increase in maintenance (F1,154 = 7.028, P = 0.009), and 1.8% increase in social behavior (F1,154 = 15.064, P < 0.001). There was no difference detected in body condition of treated versus control females (F1,154 = 0.033, P = 0.856), but females with a dependent foal had lower body condition than those without a foal (F1,154 = 4.512, P = 0.038). Herding behavior was best explained by a model of treatment and the interaction of band fidelity and foal presence (AICc weight = 0.660) which estimated no difference in rate of herding behavior directed toward control versus treated females (F1,102 = 0.196, P = 0.659), but resident females without a dependent foal were herded 50.9% more than resident females with a foal (F3,102 = 8.269, P < 0.001). Treated females received 54.5% more reproductive behaviors from stallions than control mares (F1,105 = 5.155, P = 0.025), with the model containing only treatment being the most-supported (AICc weight = 0.530). Treated and control females received harem-tending behaviors

  9. Body size affects individual winter foraging strategies of thick-billed murres in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Orben, Rachael A; Paredes, Rosana; Roby, Daniel D; Irons, David B; Shaffer, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Foraging and migration often require different energetic and movement strategies. Though not readily apparent, constraints during one phase might influence the foraging strategies observed in another. For marine birds that fly and dive, body size constraints likely present a trade-off between foraging ability and migration as smaller bodies reduce flight costs, whereas larger bodies are advantageous for diving deeper. This study examines individual wintering strategies of deep diving thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding at three colonies in the south-eastern Bering Sea: St Paul, St George and Bogoslof. These colonies, arranged north to south, are located such that breeding birds forage in a gradient from shelf to deep-water habitats. We used geolocation time-depth recorders and stable isotopes from feathers to determine differences in foraging behaviour and diet of murres during three non-breeding periods, 2008-2011. Body size was quantified by a principal component analysis (wing, culmen, head+bill and tarsus length). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified winter foraging strategies based on individual movement, diving behaviour and diet (inferred from stable isotopes). Structural body size differed by breeding island. Larger birds from St Paul had higher wing loading than smaller birds from St George. Larger birds, mainly from St Paul, dove to deeper depths, spent more time in the Bering Sea, and likely consumed higher trophic-level prey in late winter. Three winter foraging strategies were identified. The main strategy, employed by small birds from all three breeding colonies in the first 2 years, was characterized by high residency areas in the North Pacific south of the Aleutians and nocturnal diving. In contrast, 31% of birds from St Paul remained in the Bering Sea and foraged mainly during the day, apparently feeding on higher trophic-level prey. Throat feather stable isotopes indicated that individuals exhibited flexibility in the use of this

  10. Initial conditions for accurate N-body simulations of massive neutrino cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, M.; Bel, J.; Villaescusa-Navarro, F.; Carbone, C.; Sefusatti, E.; Guzzo, L.

    2017-04-01

    The set-up of the initial conditions in cosmological N-body simulations is usually implemented by rescaling the desired low-redshift linear power spectrum to the required starting redshift consistently with the Newtonian evolution of the simulation. The implementation of this practical solution requires more care in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies, mainly because of the non-trivial scale-dependence of the linear growth that characterizes these models. In this work, we consider a simple two-fluid, Newtonian approximation for cold dark matter and massive neutrinos perturbations that can reproduce the cold matter linear evolution predicted by Boltzmann codes such as CAMB or CLASS with a 0.1 per cent accuracy or below for all redshift relevant to non-linear structure formation. We use this description, in the first place, to quantify the systematic errors induced by several approximations often assumed in numerical simulations, including the typical set-up of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmologies adopted in previous works. We then take advantage of the flexibility of this approach to rescale the late-time linear power spectra to the simulation initial redshift, in order to be as consistent as possible with the dynamics of the N-body code and the approximations it assumes. We implement our method in a public code (REPS rescaled power spectra for initial conditions with massive neutrinos https://github.com/matteozennaro/reps) providing the initial displacements and velocities for cold dark matter and neutrino particles that will allow accurate, i.e. 1 per cent level, numerical simulations for this cosmological scenario.

  11. Comparison of body condition score and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate uroliths

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Stephanie M.; Lulich, Jody P.; Ritt, Michelle G.; Furrow, Eva

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare body condition score (BCS) and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths. DESIGN Case-control study. ANIMALS 46 Miniature Schnauzers, 16 Bichons Frises, and 6 Shih Tzus. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frises, and Shih Tzus that were examined between January 2001 and November 2014 for another urolithiasis study or for a urolith removal procedure. Dogs with CaOx uroliths were classified as cases. Dogs without a history of urinary tract disease and with no evidence of radiopaque uroliths on abdominal radiographs were classified as controls. Each case was matched with 1 control on the basis of age (± 2 years), sex, and breed. Body condition score and urinalysis results were compared between cases and controls, and the relationship between BCS and urine pH was analyzed. RESULTS Median BCS was significantly greater for cases than controls, although the proportion of overweight dogs did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Urine pH was negatively associated with age, but was not associated with BCS or the presence of CaOx uroliths. Cases infrequently had acidic urine or CaOx crystalluria but frequently had hematuria and proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CaOx uroliths had a greater median BCS than control dogs, but the clinical importance of that finding was unclear. Acidic urine and CaOx crystalluria were uncommon and not adequate predictors of CaOx urolith status. Hematuria and proteinuria were commonly observed in dogs with CaOx urolithiasis, but they are not pathognomonic for that condition. PMID:27875079

  12. Condition-dependent ejaculate production affects male mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Kaldun, Bettina; Otti, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Food availability in the environment is often low and variable, constraining organisms in their resource allocation to different life-history traits. For example, variation in food availability is likely to induce condition-dependent investment in reproduction. Further, diet has been shown to affect ejaculate size, composition and quality. How these effects translate into male reproductive success or change male mating behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we concentrated on the effect of meal size on ejaculate production, male reproductive success and mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius. We analyzed the production of sperm and seminal fluid within three different feeding regimes in six different populations. Males receiving large meals produced significantly more sperm and seminal fluid than males receiving small meals or no meals at all. While such condition-dependent ejaculate production did not affect the number of offspring produced after a single mating, food-restricted males could perform significantly fewer matings than fully fed males. Therefore, in a multiple mating context food-restricted males paid a fitness cost and might have to adjust their mating strategy according to the ejaculate available to them. Our results indicate that meal size has no direct effect on ejaculate quality, but food availability forces a condition-dependent mating rate on males. Environmental variation translating into variation in male reproductive traits reveals that natural selection can interact with sexual selection and shape reproductive traits. As males can modulate their ejaculate size depending on the mating situation, future studies are needed to elucidate whether environmental variation affecting the amount of ejaculate available might induce different mating strategies.

  13. Investigation of factors affecting intra-annual variability of evapotranspiration and streamflow under different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaomang; Zhang, Qi; Liang, Kang; Liu, Changming

    2016-12-01

    Investigating the factors that affect intra-annual evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow variability is important to regional hydrological cycles and energy balance research. In this study, ET and streamflow variability (defined as their standard deviations) are attributed to precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and total water storage change (TWSC) based on a Budyko-based approach at 282 catchments in China. The results show that the Budyko-based approach satisfactorily simulates the intra-annual ET and streamflow variability (R2 of 0.63-0.84). The dominant contributor to ET variability is ET0 under energy-limited condition (aridity index ⩽ 0.76), whereas the dominant contributor is precipitation under equitant (0.76 < aridity index ⩽ 1.35) and water-limited conditions (aridity index ⩾ 1.35). The contribution of ET0 to ET variability decreases with the aridity index, whereas the contribution of precipitation to ET variability increases with the aridity index. However, the dominant contributor to streamflow variability is precipitation under all the three climate conditions, which is unaffected by the aridity index. TWSC enhances ET variability under energy-limited condition and inhibits ET variability under water-limited and equitant conditions. However, TWSC inhibits streamflow variability under all the three climate conditions. In addition, geography and vegetation also influence the contributors to ET and streamflow variability. The effects of geography on the contributors to streamflow variability are larger than that to ET variability. In contrast, the impacts of vegetation on the contributors to ET variability are larger than that to streamflow variability. This study demonstrates that the mechanism of ET variability under different climate conditions is much more complex than that of streamflow variability, suggesting that more attention should be given to ET for water-energy modeling, hydrological predictions and local water management.

  14. Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Douglas Stewart

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show that b is usually higher during active exercise (mean +/- 95% confidence limits = 0.918 +/- 0.038) than during rest (0.768 +/- 0.069). This significant upward shift in b to near 1 is consistent with the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, which predicts that maximal metabolic rate during exercise should be chiefly influenced by volume-related muscular power production (scaling as M (1)). This dependence of b on activity level does not appear to be a simple temperature effect because body temperature in ectotherms changes very little during exercise.

  15. How Can Diet Affect the Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End-Products in the Human Body?

    PubMed Central

    Guilbaud, Axel; Niquet-Leridon, Celine; Boulanger, Eric; Tessier, Frederic J.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is associated with the complications of diabetes, kidney disease, metabolic disorders and degenerative diseases. It is recognized that the pool of glycation products found in the human body comes not only from an endogenous formation, but also from a dietary exposure to exogenous AGEs. In recent years, the development of pharmacologically-active ingredients aimed at inhibiting endogenous glycation has not been successful. Since the accumulation of AGEs in the human body appears to be progressive throughout life, an early preventive action against glycation could be effective through dietary adjustments or supplementation with purified micronutrients. The present article provides an overview of current dietary strategies tested either in vitro, in vivo or both to reduce the endogenous formation of AGEs and to limit exposure to food AGEs. PMID:28231179

  16. Does Body Image Affect Quality of Life?: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayir, Tufan; Uskun, Ersin; Yürekli, Mustafa Volkan; Devran, Hacer; Çelik, Ayşe; Okyay, Ramazan Azim

    2016-01-01

    Body image (BI) can be described as the assessment of both positive and negative emotion for one’s own body parts and their characteristics by himself or herself. Current research has concentrated mostly on the status of negative BI as a risk factor for mental health problems rather than as a public health problem, thereby little is known about the effects of BI on quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the BI and Quality of Life (QoL) of individuals and to investigate the relationship between the two. Individuals over 15 living in Isparta city center constitute the universe of this cross-sectional analytical study, carried out in 2014. The BI of individuals was measured by the Body Image Scale and The QoL of individuals was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life Scale Short Form. The mean age of the participants was 31.9 ± 13.0 and 56.0% were female, 36.8% were married and 81.7% had education above high school. 25.7% had at least one chronic disease and 17.7% received medication regularly. Having good-very good health perception, having higher income than expenses, making regular exercises were predictors in enhancing the quality of life in certain aspects, however having a good body image came out as a predictor enhancing the quality of life in all sub-domains. BI was found closely related with QoL in all sub-domains. Our findings suggest that greater attention should be to be given to BI as a strong predictor of QoL. PMID:27649389

  17. Microclimatic Divergence in a Mediterranean Canyon Affects Richness, Composition, and Body Size in Saproxylic Beetle Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Buse, Jörn; Fassbender, Samuel; Entling, Martin H.; Pavlicek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Large valleys with opposing slopes may act as a model system with which the effects of strong climatic gradients on biodiversity can be evaluated. The advantage of such comparisons is that the impact of a change of climate can be studied on the same species pool without the need to consider regional differences. The aim of this study was to compare the assemblage of saproxylic beetles on such opposing slopes at Lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel (also known as “Evolution Canyon”) with a 200–800% higher solar radiation on the south-facing (SFS) compared to the north-facing slope (NFS). We tested specific hypotheses of species richness patterns, assemblage structure, and body size resulting from interslope differences in microclimate. Fifteen flight-interception traps per slope were distributed over three elevation levels ranging from 50 to 100 m a.s.l. Richness of saproxylic beetles was on average 34% higher on the SFS compared with the NFS, with no detected influence of elevation levels. Both assemblage structure and average body size were determined by slope aspect, with more small-bodied beetles found on the SFS. Both the increase in species richness and the higher prevalence of small species on the SFS reflect ecological rules present on larger spatial grain (species-energy hypothesis and community body size shift hypothesis), and both can be explained by the metabolic theory of ecology. This is encouraging for the complementary use of micro- and macroclimatic gradients to study impacts of climate warming on biodiversity. PMID:26047491

  18. Does Body Image Affect Quality of Life?: A Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Nayir, Tufan; Uskun, Ersin; Yürekli, Mustafa Volkan; Devran, Hacer; Çelik, Ayşe; Okyay, Ramazan Azim

    2016-01-01

    Body image (BI) can be described as the assessment of both positive and negative emotion for one's own body parts and their characteristics by himself or herself. Current research has concentrated mostly on the status of negative BI as a risk factor for mental health problems rather than as a public health problem, thereby little is known about the effects of BI on quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the BI and Quality of Life (QoL) of individuals and to investigate the relationship between the two. Individuals over 15 living in Isparta city center constitute the universe of this cross-sectional analytical study, carried out in 2014. The BI of individuals was measured by the Body Image Scale and The QoL of individuals was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life Scale Short Form. The mean age of the participants was 31.9 ± 13.0 and 56.0% were female, 36.8% were married and 81.7% had education above high school. 25.7% had at least one chronic disease and 17.7% received medication regularly. Having good-very good health perception, having higher income than expenses, making regular exercises were predictors in enhancing the quality of life in certain aspects, however having a good body image came out as a predictor enhancing the quality of life in all sub-domains. BI was found closely related with QoL in all sub-domains. Our findings suggest that greater attention should be to be given to BI as a strong predictor of QoL.

  19. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, N; Chin A Paw, M J; de Groot, L C; Hiddink, G J; van Staveren, W A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. METHODS: A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design--(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither--was performed in 143 frail elderly persons (aged 78.6 +/- 5.6 years). Foods were enriched with multiple micronutrients; exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination, and flexibility. Main outcome parameters were bone and body composition. RESULTS: Exercise preserved lean mass (mean difference between exercisers and non-exercisers: 0.5 kg +/- 1.2 kg; P < .02). Groups receiving enriched food had slightly increased bone mineral density (+0.4%), bone mass (+0.6%), and bone calcium (+0.6%) compared with groups receiving non-enriched foods, in whom small decreases of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, were found. These groups differed in bone mineral density (0.006 +/- 0.020 g/cm2; P = .08), total bone mass (19 +/- g; P = .04), and bone calcium (8 +/- 21 g; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Foods containing a physiologic dose of micronutrients slightly increased bone density, mass, and calcium, whereas moderately intense exercise preserved lean body mass in frail elderly persons. PMID:10846514

  20. Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Wright, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that people can learn about the positive and negative value of other people (e.g., neutral faces) under minimal learning conditions, with stable individual differences in this learning. In four studies, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing positive, negative or neutral behaviors on either two (Study 1) or four (Studies 2, 3, and 4) occasions. Participants were later asked to judge the valence of the faces alone. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that learning does occur under minimal conditions. Study 3 and 4 further demonstrated that the degree of learning was moderated by Extraversion. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that initial learning persisted over a period of 2 days. Implications for affective processing and person perception are discussed. PMID:18729580

  1. Seasonal stress physiology and body condition differ among co-occurring tropical finch species.

    PubMed

    Maute, Kimberly L; French, Kristine; Legge, Sarah; Astheimer, Lee

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal changes in avian hormonal stress responses and condition are well known for common species found at temperate and arctic latitudes, but declining and tropical species are poorly studied. This study compares stress and condition measures of co-occurring declining and non-declining tropical grass finch species in Australia. We monitored declining Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) and non-declining long-tailed and masked finches (Poepila acuticauda and P. personata) during two seasons that are potentially stressful: peak breeding (early dry season when food is plentiful) and moult (late dry to early wet season when food may be scarce). We measured body condition (muscle and fat), haematocrit, and stress response to capture using plasma corticosterone and binding globulin concentrations. All species had higher muscle and lower fat indices during breeding than moult. Haematocrit did not consistently differ between seasons. Long-tailed finches had higher stress responses during breeding than moult, similar to other passerines studied. Masked finches showed no seasonal changes in stress response. Gouldian finches had stress response patterns opposite to those of long-tailed finches, with higher stress responses during moult. However, seasonal trends in Gouldian and long-tailed finch stress responses sometimes differed between years or sites. The differences in stress response patterns between species suggest that the declining Gouldian finch is more sensitive to recent environmental changes which are thought to further reduce grass seed food resources during the late dry to early wet season. Retention of stress responsiveness during a protracted moult could increase the survival potential of Gouldian finches. This study highlights the utility of stress and condition indices to determine the sensitivity of co-occurring species to environmental conditions.

  2. The effects of childhood SNAP use and neighborhood conditions on adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Thomas P; Houser, Linda

    2012-08-01

    The disproportionate number of individuals who are obese or overweight in the low-income U.S. population has raised interest in the influence of neighborhood conditions and public assistance programs on weight and health. Generally, neighborhood effects and program participation effects have been explored in separate studies. We unite these two areas of inquiry, using the 1968-2005 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to examine the long-term effects of childhood Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation, neighborhood conditions, and the interaction of these two, on adult body mass index (BMI). Using sibling fixed-effects models to account for selection bias, we find that relative to children in other low-income families, children in SNAP-recipient households have higher average adult BMI values. However, the effects of childhood SNAP usage are sensitive to both residential neighborhood and age at receipt. For those growing up in advantaged neighborhoods, projected adult BMI is higher for children in SNAP-recipient households than for children in low-income, nonrecipient households. In contrast, for those growing up in less-advantaged areas, adult BMI differences between children in SNAP-recipient and those in low-income, nonrecipient households are small. SNAP usage during preschool years (0 to 4) has no impact on adult BMI scores. However, at later childhood ages, the time elapsed receiving SNAP income increases adult BMI values relative to a condition of low-income nonreceipt.

  3. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  4. Body condition, hormonal correlates and consequences for survival in common tern chicks.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Alexander; Palme, Rupert; Hoppen, Hans-Otto; Becker, Peter H

    2011-10-01

    Although sibling competition in avian species has been extensively studied, the proximate mechanisms remain largely unknown. Recent research proposed that steroid hormones, in particular testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT), might play a role either in promoting competitive behavioral displays or in response to chronic nutritional stress accompanied by a sustained competitive situation. Here, we examine body condition, endogenous T levels and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) as non-invasive measures of CORT in sibling broods of wild common tern chicks (Sterna hirundo) during three post-natal developmental stages. In this species, distinct within-brood size asymmetries are imposed by an asynchronous hatching interval, and sexes show slightly different growth patterns. First-hatched (a-)chicks were in better condition than their later-hatched sibling (b-chick). FGM levels inversely covaried with condition and were elevated at the end of pre-fledging development. T levels of a- and b-chicks changed with age, although the direction of the changes differed, with b-chicks eventually having higher levels than their older siblings. Survival to fledging was not associated with FGM but with T levels, which tended to be higher in surviving chicks. Our results are discussed with regard to how plasticity in steroid hormones could be involved in mediating sibling competition in common terns.

  5. Body condition scoring system for greater one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis): Development and application.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Eva M; von Houwald, Friederike; Steck, Beatrice; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Preventing obesity in zoo animals is increasingly recognized as an important husbandry objective. To achieve this goal, body condition scoring (BCS) systems are available for an ever-increasing number of species. Here, we present a BCS for the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) based on an evaluation (on a scale from 1 to 5) of seven different body regions, and report resulting scores for 62 animals from 27 facilities, based on digital photographs. In animals above 4 years of age, this BCS correlated with the body mass:shoulder height ratio. Although differences between the sexes for individual regions were noted (with consistently higher scores in males for the neck and shoulder and in parous females for the abdomen), the average BCS of all regions did not differ significantly between males (4.3 ± 0.4) and females (4.1 ± 0.5). Linking the BCS to results of a questionnaire survey and studbook information, there were no differences in BCS between animals with and without foot problems or between parous and non-parous females. In a very limited sample of 11 females, those eight that had been diagnosed with leiomyoma in a previous study had a higher BCS (range 3.9-4.9) than the three that had been diagnosed as leiomyoma-free (range 3.5-3.7). The BCS was correlated to the amount of food offered as estimated from the questionnaire. Adjusting the amounts and the nutritional quality of the diet components is an evident measure to maintain animals at a target BCS (suggested as 3-3.5). Zoo Biol. 35:432-443, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. How do operating conditions affect As(III) removal by iron electrocoagulation?

    PubMed

    Delaire, Caroline; Amrose, Susan; Zhang, Minghui; Hake, James; Gadgil, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) has been shown to effectively remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater at low cost and has the potential to improve access to safe drinking water for millions of people. Understanding how operating conditions, such as the Fe dosage rate and the O2 recharge rate, affect arsenic removal at different pH values is crucial to maximize the performance of Fe-EC under economic constraints. In this work, we improved upon an existing computational model to investigate the combined effects of pH, Fe dosage rate, and O2 recharge rate on arsenic removal in Fe-EC. We showed that the impact of the Fe dosage rate strongly depends on pH and on the O2 recharge rate, which has important practical implications. We identified the process limiting arsenic removal (As(III) oxidation versus As(V) adsorption) at different pH values, which allowed us to interpret the effect of operating conditions on Fe-EC performance. Finally, we assessed the robustness of the trends predicted by the model, which assumes a constant pH, against lab experiments reproducing more realistic conditions where pH is allowed to drift during treatment as a result of equilibration with atmospheric CO2. Our results provide a nuanced understanding of how operating conditions impact arsenic removal by Fe-EC and can inform decisions regarding the operation of this technology in a range of groundwaters.

  7. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Overton, C.T.; Casazza, M.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Keister, R.A.; Herzog, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 ??g/g ww in blood (range: 0.15-1.43), 9.87 ??g/g fw in head feathers (3.37-22.0), 9.04 ??g/g fw in breast feathers (3.68-20.2), and 0.57 ??g/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15-2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R 2 = 0.58-0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20-22 g (5-7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Cassazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 μg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20–22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats.

  9. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 mg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20e22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats.

  10. Terror(ism) in the Classroom: Censorship, Affect and Uncivil Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccolini, Alyssa D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines an event in a US secondary classroom where a Muslim student was disciplined for reading lesbian erotica in class. While many students read and exchanged erotica in the school, this student in particular was targeted for a disciplinary hearing. I explore this as an affective event, a moment of sensation and excess, to think…

  11. The Pedagogy of the Body: Affect and Collective Individuation in the Classroom and on the Dancefloor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Much recent work in the study of popular culture has emphasized the extent to which it is not only a site of signifying practices, myths, meanings and identifications, but also an arena of intensities, of affective flows and corporeal state-changes. From this perspective, many areas of popular culture (from calisthenics to social dance to video…

  12. Three-body scattering theory without knowledge of exact asymptotic boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shakeshaft, Robin

    2009-07-15

    We formulate the theory of three-body scattering without explicit reference to exact asymptotic boundary conditions on the wave function. The transition rate and amplitude are expressed as volume integrals of the resolvent, which are insensitive to the region of asymptotically large distances. The physical branch of the resolvent is selected through the arrow of time, which is required to point forward in each subchannel. This is accomplished by first expressing the resolvent as an integral over time and then making a conformal transformation of each half of the time plane onto a unit disk. The physical branch corresponds to a path of integration in the upper half of the disk. We have tested the method, using a real discrete basis, by calculating the total cross section for singlet S-wave electron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen; our results are in reasonable agreement overall with the landmark results of Bartlet and Stelbovics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233201 (2004)].

  13. Three-body scattering theory without knowledge of exact asymptotic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeshaft, Robin

    2009-07-01

    We formulate the theory of three-body scattering without explicit reference to exact asymptotic boundary conditions on the wave function. The transition rate and amplitude are expressed as volume integrals of the resolvent, which are insensitive to the region of asymptotically large distances. The physical branch of the resolvent is selected through the arrow of time, which is required to point forward in each subchannel. This is accomplished by first expressing the resolvent as an integral over time and then making a conformal transformation of each half of the time plane onto a unit disk. The physical branch corresponds to a path of integration in the upper half of the disk. We have tested the method, using a real discrete basis, by calculating the total cross section for singlet S -wave electron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen; our results are in reasonable agreement overall with the landmark results of Bartlet and Stelbovics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233201 (2004)].

  14. Necessary conditions for accurate computations of three-body partial decay widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, E.; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.

    2008-09-01

    The partial width for decay of a resonance into three fragments is largely determined at distances where the energy is smaller than the effective potential producing the corresponding wave function. At short distances the many-body properties are accounted for by preformation or spectroscopic factors. We use the adiabatic expansion method combined with the WKB approximation to obtain the indispensable cluster model wave functions at intermediate and larger distances. We test the concept by deriving conditions for the minimal basis expressed in terms of partial waves and radial nodes. We compare results for different effective interactions and methods. Agreement is found with experimental values for a sufficiently large basis. We illustrate the ideas with realistic examples from α emission of C12 and two-proton emission of Ne17. Basis requirements for accurate momentum distributions are briefly discussed.

  15. A novel mouse model of anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD): conditional deletion of Tsc1 disrupts ciliary body and iris development

    PubMed Central

    Hägglund, Anna-Carin; Jones, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Development of the cornea, lens, ciliary body and iris within the anterior segment of the eye involves coordinated interaction between cells originating from the ciliary margin of the optic cup, the overlying periocular mesenchyme and the lens epithelium. Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) encompasses a spectrum of developmental syndromes that affect these anterior segment tissues. ASD conditions arise as a result of dominantly inherited genetic mutations and result in both ocular-specific and systemic forms of dysgenesis that are best exemplified by aniridia and Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome, respectively. Extensive clinical overlap in disease presentation amongst ASD syndromes creates challenges for correct diagnosis and classification. The use of animal models has therefore proved to be a robust approach for unravelling this complex genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. However, despite these successes, it is clear that additional genes that underlie several ASD syndromes remain unidentified. Here, we report the characterisation of a novel mouse model of ASD. Conditional deletion of Tsc1 during eye development leads to a premature upregulation of mTORC1 activity within the ciliary margin, periocular mesenchyme and lens epithelium. This aberrant mTORC1 signalling within the ciliary margin in particular leads to a reduction in the number of cells that express Pax6, Bmp4 and Msx1. Sustained mTORC1 signalling also induces a decrease in ciliary margin progenitor cell proliferation and a consequent failure of ciliary body and iris development in postnatal animals. Our study therefore identifies Tsc1 as a novel candidate ASD gene. Furthermore, the Tsc1-ablated mouse model also provides a valuable resource for future studies concerning the molecular mechanisms underlying ASD and acts as a platform for evaluating therapeutic approaches for the treatment of visual disorders. PMID:28250050

  16. Nest-climatic factors affect the abundance of biting flies and their effects on nestling condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Lobato, Elisa; Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; del Cerro, Sara; Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Moreno, Juan

    2010-11-01

    The first step in the establishment of a host-biting fly relationship is host location. While a number of studies highlight the role of host emitted products as important cues affecting host location by biting flies, the role of host temperature is far from clear. We investigated the role of different nest microclimatic variables affecting the interaction between pied flycatchers and two biting flies: black flies and biting midges. Biting midge abundances increased with temperature inside the nest, supporting the potential importance of nest temperature as a cue used by insects to localize their hosts. The possibility that biting fly infestations were associated to ecological conditions in the vicinity of the nests is also discussed. Furthermore, we found a negative association between nestling weight (including tarsus length as a covariate in the analyses) and the interaction between the abundance of biting midges and the presence/absence of black flies in nests. The potential negative effect of these ectoparasites on nestling weight (condition index) and potential differences in the bird phenotypic/genetic quality associated with nest site choice and parasite infestations are considered.

  17. Quantifying the timescales over which exogenous and endogenous conditions affect soil respiration.

    PubMed

    Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Cable, Jessica M; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Scott, Russell L; Huxman, Travis E; Jenerette, G Darrel; Ogle, Kiona

    2014-04-01

    Understanding how exogenous and endogenous factors and above-ground-below-ground linkages modulate carbon dynamics is difficult because of the influences of antecedent conditions. For example, there are variable lags between above-ground assimilation and below-ground efflux, and the duration of antecedent periods are often arbitrarily assigned. Nonetheless, developing models linking above- and below-ground processes is crucial for estimating current and future carbon dynamics. We collected data on leaf-level photosynthesis (Asat ) and soil respiration (Rsoil ) in different microhabitats (under shrubs vs under bunchgrasses) in the Sonoran Desert. We evaluated timescales over which endogenous and exogenous factors control Rsoil by analyzing data in the context of a semimechanistic temperature-response model of Rsoil that incorporated effects of antecedent exogenous (soil water) and endogenous (Asat ) conditions. For both microhabitats, antecedent soil water and Asat significantly affected Rsoil , but Rsoil under shrubs was more sensitive to Asat than that under bunchgrasses. Photosynthetic rates 1 and 3 d before the Rsoil measurement were most important in determining current-day Rsoil under bunchgrasses and shrubs, respectively, indicating a significant lag effect. Endogenous and exogenous controls are critical drivers of Rsoil , but the relative importance and the timescale over which each factor affects Rsoil depends on above-ground vegetation and ecosystem structure characteristics.

  18. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits.

  19. Can different conditioning activities and rest intervals affect the acute performance of taekwondo turning kick?

    PubMed

    Santos, Jonatas F da Silva; Valenzuela, Tomás H; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the acute effect of strength, plyometric, and complex exercises (combined strength and plyometric exercise) in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and frequency speed of kick test (FSKT) and attempted to establish the best rest interval to maximize performance in the CMJ, number of kicks, and impact generated during FSKT. Eleven taekwondo athletes (mean ± SD; age: 20.3 ± 5.2 years; body mass: 71.8 ± 15.3 kg; height: 177 ± 7.2 cm) participated. One control and 9 experimental conditions were randomly applied. Each condition was composed of warm-up, conditioning activity (half-squat: 3 × 1 at 95% 1RM; jumps: 3 × 10 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier; or complex exercise: half-squat 3 × 2 at 95% 1RM + 4 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier), followed by different rest intervals (5-, 10-minute, and self-selected) before CMJ and FSKT. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. The alpha level was set at 5%. Significant difference was found in the number of kicks (F9,90 = 1.32; p = 0.239; and η2 = 0.116 [small]). The complex method with a 10-minute rest interval (23 ± 5 repetitions) was superior (p = 0.026) to the control (19 ± 3 repetitions), maximum strength with a self-selected rest interval (328 ± 139 seconds; 18 ± 2 repetitions) (p = 0.015), and plyometric with a 5-minute rest interval (18 ± 3 repetitions) (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that taekwondo athletes increased the number of kicks in a specific test by using the complex method when 10-minute rest interval was used.

  20. Body fat and condition in sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus, from southern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen; Hindell, Mark A; Thiele, Deborah

    2003-04-01

    Blubber thickness (n=102) and lipid content (n=37) were measured in sperm whales from three mass stranding events on the west and north-west coasts of Tasmania, Australia in February 1998. Blubber thickness was highly variable, ranging from 43.0 to 168.0 mm (mean 98.4+/-18.4 mm) while lipid fat content, also highly variable, ranged from 16.19 to 89.34% (mean 49.2+/-17.9%). Blubber thickness was significantly and positively related to total length, but a blubber thickness index based on the residuals of this relationship was not related to age, sex or reproductive condition. No relationship was found between blubber thickness index and blubber lipid content, indicating that blubber thickness may not provide a comprehensive indication of body fat condition in sperm whales when only measured at a single site. Blubber lipid content was not related to total length, age or sex. Blubber lipid content was stratified vertically throughout the blubber layer, suggesting that the inner blubber layer may be a more active site for lipid deposition and mobilisation, while the outer blubber layer may serve in a structural or thermoregulatory role. The social structure and foraging ecology of this species may serve to minimise the need to rely on stored energy reserves to meet reproductive energy requirements. In addition, the broader role of blubber for structural, buoyancy and insulative functions coupled with high individual variability may cause a lack of obvious relationships between these variables and body size, age, sex and reproductive state in this species.

  1. Genetic and environmental relationships between body condition score and milk production traits in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Loker, S; Bastin, C; Miglior, F; Sewalem, A; Schaeffer, L R; Jamrozik, J; Ali, A; Osborne, V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters of first-lactation body condition score (BCS), milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), somatic cell score (SCS), milk urea nitrogen (MUN), lactose percentage (Lact%), and fat to protein ratio (F:P) using multiple-trait random regression animal models. Changes in covariances between BCS and milk production traits on a daily basis have not been investigated before and could be useful for determining which BCS estimated breeding values (EBV) might be practical for selection in the future. Field staff from Valacta milk recording agency (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) collected BCS from Québec herds several times per cow throughout the lactation. Average daily heritabilities and genetic correlations among the various traits were similar to literature values. On an average daily basis, BCS was genetically unfavorably correlated with milk yield (i.e., increased milk yield was associated with lower body condition). The unfavorable genetic correlation between BCS and milk yield became stronger as lactation progressed, but was equivalent to zero for the first month of lactation. Favorable genetic correlations were found between BCS with Prot%, SCS, and Lact% (i.e., greater BCS was associated with greater Prot%, lower SCS, and greater Lact%). These correlations were strongest in early lactation. On an average daily basis, BCS was not genetically correlated with Fat% or MUN, but was negatively correlated with F:P. Furthermore, BCS at 5 and 50 d in milk (DIM) had the most favorable genetic correlations with milk production traits over the lactation (at 5, 50, 150, and 250 DIM). Thus, early lactation BCS EBV shows potential for selection. Regardless, this study showed that the level of association BCS has with milk production traits is not constant over the lactation. Simultaneous selection for both BCS and milk production traits should be considered, mainly due to the unfavorable

  2. Body length rather than routine metabolic rate and body condition correlates with activity and risk-taking in juvenile zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Polverino, G; Bierbach, D; Killen, S S; Uusi-Heikkilä, S; Arlinghaus, R

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the following hypotheses were explored using zebrafish Danio rerio: (1) individuals from the same cohort differ consistently in activity and risk-taking and (2) variation in activity and risk-taking is linked to individual differences in metabolic rate, body length and body condition. To examine these hypotheses, juvenile D. rerio were tested for routine metabolic rate and subsequently exposed to an open field test. Strong evidence was found for consistent among-individual differences in activity and risk-taking, which were overall negatively correlated with body length, i.e. larger D. rerio were found to be less active in a potentially dangerous open field and a similar trend was found with respect to a more direct measure of their risk-taking tendency. In contrast, routine metabolic rate and body condition were uncorrelated with both activity and risk-taking of juvenile D. rerio. These findings suggest that body length is associated with risk-related behaviours in juvenile D. rerio for which larger, rather than smaller, individuals may have a higher risk of predation, while the role for routine metabolic rate is relatively limited or non-existent, at least under the conditions of the present study.

  3. Disruption of the lower food web in Lake Ontario: Did it affect alewife growth or condition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, R.; Prindle, S.E.; Lantry, J.R.; Lantry, B.F.

    2008-01-01

    From the early 1980s to the late 1990s, a succession of non-native invertebrates colonized Lake Ontario and the suite of consequences caused by their colonization became known as "food web disruption". For example, the native burrowing amphipod Diporeia spp., a key link in the profundal food web, declined to near absence, exotic predaceous cladocerans with long spines proliferated, altering the zooplankton community, and depth distributions of fishes shifted. These changes had the potential to affect growth and condition of planktivorous alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, the most abundant fish in the lake. To determine if food web disruption affected alewife, we used change-point analysis to examine alewife growth and adult alewife condition during 1976-2006 and analysis-of-variance to determine if values between change points differed significantly. There were no change points in growth during the first year of life. Of three change points in growth during the second year of life, one coincided with the shift in springtime distribution of alewife to deeper water but it was not associated with a significant change in growth. After the second year of life, no change points in growth were evident, although growth in the third year of life spiked in those years when Bythotrephes, the largest of the exotic cladocerans, was abundant suggesting that it was a profitable prey item for age-2 fish. We detected two change points in condition of adult alewife in fall, but the first occurred in 1981, well before disruption began. A second change point occurred in 2003, well after disruption began. After the springtime distribution of alewife shifted deeper during 1992-1994, growth in the first two years of life became more variable, and growth in years of life two and older became correlated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, food web disruption had no negative affect on growth and condition of alewife in Lake Ontario although it appears to have resulted in growth in the first two years of

  4. Cajal body proteins differentially affect the processing of box C/D scaRNPs.

    PubMed

    Enwerem, Isioma I; Wu, Guowei; Yu, Yi Tao; Hebert, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which are required for pre-mRNA splicing, contain extensively modified snRNA. Small Cajal body-specific ribonucleoproteins (scaRNPs) mediate these modifications. It is unknown how the box C/D class of scaRNPs localizes to Cajal Bodies (CBs). The processing of box C/D scaRNA is also unclear. Here, we explore the processing of box C/D scaRNA 2 and 9 by coilin. We also broaden our investigation to include WRAP53 and SMN, which accumulate in CBs, play a role in RNP biogenesis and associate with coilin. These studies demonstrate that the processing of an ectopically expressed scaRNA2 is altered upon the reduction of coilin, WRAP53 or SMN, but the extent and direction of this change varies depending on the protein reduced. We also show that box C/D scaRNP activity is reduced in a cell line derived from coilin knockout mice. Collectively, the findings presented here further implicate coilin as being a direct participant in the formation of box C/D scaRNPs, and demonstrate that WRAP53 and SMN may also play a role, but the activity of these proteins is divergent to coilin.

  5. Expression of TRPV1 in rabbits and consuming hot pepper affects its body weight.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi; Wang, Yanli; Yu, Ying; Li, Yafeng; Zhao, Sihai; Chen, Yulong; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2012-07-01

    The capsaicin receptor, known as transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), is an important membrane receptor that has been implicated in obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The rabbit model is considered excellent for studying cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, however, the tissue expression of TRPV1 and physiological functions of its ligand capsaicin on diet-induced obesity have not been fully defined in this model. In the current study, we investigated the tissue expression of TRPV1 in normal rabbits using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Rabbit TRPV1 mRNA was highly expressed in a variety of organs, including the kidneys, adrenal gland, spleen and brain. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of rabbit TRPV1 was closer to human TRPV1 than rodent TRPV1. To examine the effect of capsaicin (a pungent compound in hot pepper) on body weight, rabbits were fed with either a high fat diet (as control) or high fat diet containing 1% hot pepper. We found that the body weight of the hot pepper-fed rabbits was significantly lower than the control group. We conclude that the intake of capsaicin can prevent diet-induced obesity and rabbit model is useful for the study of TRPV1 function in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  6. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span.

  7. Dementia severity and Lewy bodies affect circadian rhythms in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Harper, David G; Stopa, Edward G; McKee, Ann C; Satlin, Andrew; Fish, David; Volicer, Ladislav

    2004-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a symptom shared by all neurodegenerative, dementing illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and its presence frequently precipitates decisions to seek institutional care for patients. Although the sleep disturbances of AD and DLB are qualitatively similar, they appear to be more prominent in patients with DLB. Disturbance of the circadian rhythm has been noted and is a potential factor underlying the nocturnal sleep fragmentation and daytime sleepiness observed in these patients. We studied the circadian variation of core-body temperature and motor activity in a total of 32 institutionalized patients with probable AD by NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, 9 of whom also met pathologic criteria for DLB. Eight, healthy, elderly male controls were studied on a clinical research unit designed to simulate the hospital environment where the dementia patients were studied. Circadian variables generally had greater deviations from normal associated with increasing AD pathology, as measured by postmortem-determined Braak stage, supporting the hypothesis that central changes mediate circadian disturbances in AD and DLB. Patients with a postmortem diagnosis of DLB manifested greater disturbances of locomotor activity circadian rhythms than patients with AD, possibly reflecting the greater sleep disturbances seen in this population, but the differences from normal in the circadian rhythms of the AD and DLB patients were qualitatively similar.

  8. Myotonia congenita-associated mutations in chloride channel-1 affect zebrafish body wave swimming kinematics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Tian, Jing; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Hunziker, Walter; Eng, How-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Myotonia congenita is a human muscle disorder caused by mutations in CLCN1, which encodes human chloride channel 1 (CLCN1). Zebrafish is becoming an increasingly useful model for human diseases, including muscle disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing, under the control of a muscle specific promoter, human CLCN1 carrying mutations that have been identified in human patients suffering from myotonia congenita. We developed video analytic tools that are able to provide precise quantitative measurements of movement abnormalities in order to analyse the effect of these CLCN1 mutations on adult transgenic zebrafish swimming. Two new parameters for body-wave kinematics of swimming reveal changes in body curvature and tail offset in transgenic zebrafish expressing the disease-associated CLCN1 mutants, presumably due to their effect on muscle function. The capability of the developed video analytic tool to distinguish wild-type from transgenic zebrafish could provide a useful asset to screen for compounds that reverse the disease phenotype, and may be applicable to other movement disorders besides myotonia congenita.

  9. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  10. How body size affects middle-ear structure and function and auditory sensitivity in gekkonoid lizards.

    PubMed

    Werner, Y L; Montgomery, L G; Safford, S D; Igic, P G; Saunders, J C

    1998-02-01

    Gekkonoid lizards increase in body size throughout life, and the present study investigates whether changes in auditory function accompany these increases. Middle-ear structures in four groups of animals, adults and juveniles of two gekkonoid species (Eublepharis macularius and Oedura marmorata), were examined. Tympanic membrane velocity and phase were also measured in all four groups. An indication of peripheral auditory function was obtained for each group by measuring compound action potentials (CAPs) from the round window membrane. The middle-ear contribution to CAP thresholds was obtained by comparing threshold levels of the CAP response with and without an intact middle-ear system. The results from these studies indicated that significant changes occurred in middle-ear structure, tympanic membrane velocity and CAP threshold between the younger and older animals. In addition, the adults of both species exhibited better auditory function when the acoustic stimulus was delivered to the tympanic membrane than when it was delivered to the columella footplate. The findings show clearly that increased body size (or age) is accompanied by functional changes in the auditory periphery.

  11. Turbulence: does vorticity affect the structure and shape of body and fin propulsors?

    PubMed

    Webb, P W; Cotel, A J

    2010-12-01

    Over the past century, many ideas have been developed on the relationships between water flow and the structure and shape of the body and fins of fishes, largely during swimming in relatively steady flows. However, both swimming by fishes and the habitats they occupy are associated with vorticity, typically concentrated as eddies characteristic of turbulent flow. Deployment of methods to examine flow in detail suggests that vorticity impacts the lives of fishes. First, vorticity near the body and fins can increase thrust and smooth variations in thrust that are a consequence of using oscillating and undulating propulsors to swim. Second, substantial mechanical energy is dissipated in eddies in the wake and adaptations that minimize these losses would be anticipated. We suggest that such mechanisms may be found in varying the length of the propulsive wave, stiffening propulsive surfaces, and shifting to using median and paired fins when swimming at low speeds. Eddies in the flow encountered by fishes may be beneficial, but when eddy radii are of the order of 0.25 of the fish's total length, negative impacts occur due to greater difficulties in controlling stability. The archetypal streamlined "fish" shape reduces destabilizing forces for fishes swimming into eddies.

  12. Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Soren, N M; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P < 0.05) in G2 and G3 than in G0. A lower ruminal pH and ammonia N but higher total N and trichloroacetic acid-precipitable N, an increase in holotrichs, spirotrichs and total protozoa population, increase in haemoglobin but decrease in serum total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were observed in high-concentrate-fed groups. Carcass attributes revealed increase (P < 0.05) in empty LW, dressing yield, eye muscle area, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat, decrease in shear force value and higher (P < 0.05) protein content in Longissimus dorsi muscle in test groups than in the control. Above all, the G2 animals had better rumen environment and blood biochemical attributes and consumed more feed with enhanced digestibility that supported higher LWG at better feed conversion efficiency, improvement in BCS and carcass quality. Thus, re-alimentation of

  13. Artificial light at night affects body mass but not oxidative status in free-living nestling songbirds: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Costantini, David; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN. Because it is very difficult to generalise the oxidative status from one or two measures we relied on a multi-biomarker approach. We determined multiple metrics of both antioxidant defences and oxidative damage: molecular antioxidants GSH, GSSG; antioxidant enzymes GPX, SOD, CAT; total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and damage markers protein carbonyls and TBARS. Light exposed nestlings showed no increase in body mass, in contrast to unexposed individuals. None of the metrics of oxidative status were affected. Nonetheless, our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN may negatively affect free-living nestlings’ development and hence may have adverse consequences lasting throughout adulthood. PMID:27759087

  14. Artificial light at night affects body mass but not oxidative status in free-living nestling songbirds: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Costantini, David; Abdelgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN. Because it is very difficult to generalise the oxidative status from one or two measures we relied on a multi-biomarker approach. We determined multiple metrics of both antioxidant defences and oxidative damage: molecular antioxidants GSH, GSSG; antioxidant enzymes GPX, SOD, CAT; total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and damage markers protein carbonyls and TBARS. Light exposed nestlings showed no increase in body mass, in contrast to unexposed individuals. None of the metrics of oxidative status were affected. Nonetheless, our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN may negatively affect free-living nestlings’ development and hence may have adverse consequences lasting throughout adulthood.

  15. Launch Conditions Might Affect the Formation of Blood Vessel in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. K.; Unsworth, B. R.; Sychev, B. R.; Guryeva, T. S.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Piert, S. J.; Lagel, K. E.; Dubrovin, L. C.; Jahns, G. C.; Boda, K.; Sabo, V.; Samet, M. M.; Lelkes, P. I.

    1998-01-01

    AS 2 part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryos exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the conditions experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development of the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis In CAMS of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory Incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during Incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development or the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease In blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of Incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent Incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogenesis In the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  16. Biomechanical Analyses of Body Movement and Locomotion as Affected by Clothing and Footwear for Cold Weather Climates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    revealed that adding clothing layers interfered with bending at the waist and moving the upper arm at the shoulder. Compared with the temperate duty...the body were located by palpation and marked; these were acromion, trochanterion, olecranon, radial styloid process, anterior superior iliac spine...points posterior to the locations of the left and the right anterior superior iliac spine. For clothing conditions that included the ECWCS parka, the

  17. The effect of maternal body condition on in vivo production of zygotes and behavior of delivered offspring in mice.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dušan; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Burkuš, Ján; Fabianová, Kamila; Račeková, Enikö; Czikková, Soňa; Koppel, Juraj

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of maternal body condition on oocyte quality and zygote production. Additionally, we examined the possible consequences on somatic parameters and behavior of naturally delivered offspring. We used an experimental model based on overfeeding of outbred mice during intrauterine and early postnatal development to produce the following four types of females: physiological (7%-8%), slightly increased (8%-11%), highly increased (>11%), and low (<7%) body fat content (Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The fertilized females with slightly increased body fat showed increased numbers of spontaneously ovulated oocytes and an increased fertilization index compared with control animals. On the contrary, mice with slightly and highly increased body fat showed increased numbers of isolated immature oocytes and degenerates. Furthermore, animals with increased body fat had significantly decreased deposits of neutral lipids in the cytoplasm of mature oocytes (Nile red staining) and showed lower reduction in DNA cytosine methylation signal in parental pronuclei (5-methylcytosine immunohistochemistry). The highly increased amount of body fat in mothers was accompanied with lower weights in newborn pups and 5-week-old offspring. We also observed several deviations from normal behavior (open-field test and forced swimming test). The females with low body fat displayed a lower fertilization index, a lower percentage of zygotes at pronuclear stage 4 with demethylated DNA cytosine in parental pronuclei, and lower newborn weights. Although delivered offspring were able to gain normal weight by the fifth week of life, there were several deviations from normal behavior observed. Our results show that periconceptional status of maternal body condition adversely affects the quality of oocytes and might be correlated with significant changes during postnatal offspring development. The data documenting later onset of DNA demethylation in zygotes and decreased

  18. Tree species diversity affects decomposition through modified micro-environmental conditions across European forests.

    PubMed

    Joly, François-Xavier; Milcu, Alexandru; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Jean, Loreline-Katia; Bussotti, Filippo; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Müller, Sandra; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Vesterdal, Lars; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2017-02-09

    Different tree species influence litter decomposition directly through species-specific litter traits, and indirectly through distinct modifications of the local decomposition environment. Whether these indirect effects on decomposition are influenced by tree species diversity is presently not clear. We addressed this question by studying the decomposition of two common substrates, cellulose paper and wood sticks, in a total of 209 forest stands of varying tree species diversity across six major forest types at the scale of Europe. Tree species richness showed a weak but positive correlation with the decomposition of cellulose but not with that of wood. Surprisingly, macroclimate had only a minor effect on cellulose decomposition and no effect on wood decomposition despite the wide range in climatic conditions among sites from Mediterranean to boreal forests. Instead, forest canopy density and stand-specific litter traits affected the decomposition of both substrates, with a particularly clear negative effect of the proportion of evergreen tree litter. Our study suggests that species richness and composition of tree canopies modify decomposition indirectly through changes in microenvironmental conditions. These canopy-induced differences in the local decomposition environment control decomposition to a greater extent than continental-scale differences in macroclimatic conditions.

  19. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  20. How Does the Body Affect the Mind? Role of Cardiorespiratory Coherence in the Spectrum of Emotions.

    PubMed

    Jerath, Ravinder; Crawford, Molly W

    2015-01-01

    The brain is considered to be the primary generator and regulator of emotions; however, afferent signals originating throughout the body are detected by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and brainstem, and, in turn, can modulate emotional processes. During stress and negative emotional states, levels of cardiorespiratory coherence (CRC) decrease, and a shift occurs toward sympathetic dominance. In contrast, CRC levels increase during more positive emotional states, and a shift occurs toward parasympathetic dominance. The dynamic changes in CRC that accompany different emotions can provide insights into how the activity of the limbic system and afferent feedback manifest as emotions. The authors propose that the brainstem and CRC are involved in important feedback mechanisms that modulate emotions and higher cortical areas. That mechanism may be one of many mechanisms that underlie the physiological and neurological changes that are experienced during pranayama and meditation and may support the use of those techniques to treat various mood disorders and reduce stress.

  1. Mating status and body size in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) affect host finding and DEET repellency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variations in the conditions accompanying mosquito development and mating can result in females of variable size that have not been inseminated. In this study, we compared the host finding activity of mated and unmated large and small Aedes albopictus and the repellency to these mosquitoes of 25% D...

  2. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-07-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individually for mood in a behavioural cognitive bias paradigm. Also, their reactions to three physical stimuli thought to differ in their perceived valence were observed (negative: pricking, intermediate: slight pressure, positive: kneading). General behaviour, activity, ear movements and positions, and haemodynamic changes in the cortical brain were recorded during stimulations. Generalised mixed-effects models and model probabilities based on the BIC (Bayesian information criterion) were used. Only weak evidence for mood difference was found. Sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing condition had a somewhat more negative cognitive bias, showed slightly more aversive behaviour, were slightly more active and moved their ears somewhat more. Sheep most clearly differentiated the negative from the intermediate and positive stimulus in that they exhibited more aversive behaviour, less nibbling, were more active, showed more ear movements, more forward ear postures, fewer backward ear postures, and a stronger decrease in deoxyhaemoglobin when subjected to the negative stimulus. In conclusion, sheep reacted towards stimuli according to their presumed valence but their mood was not strongly influenced by housing conditions. Therefore, behavioural reactions and cortical brain activity towards the stimuli were hardly modulated by housing conditions.

  3. The adolescent body image satisfaction scale for males: exploratory factor analysis and implications for strength and conditioning professionals.

    PubMed

    Leone, James E; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Rovito, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of reliability and validity for the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS), an instrument previously developed to measure adolescent body image. A sample (N = 330) of adolescent males, aged 14-19 years, completed the ABISS to determine current body image satisfaction. Data were analyzed for measures of instrument composite reliability and initial content and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution (16 total items), which explained 42.7% of variance in the model. Composite reliability for the subscales, body competence, body inadequacy, and internal conflict ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. Exploratory factor analysis of the ABISS provides initial psychometric support for a valid and reliable measure for assessing adolescent male body image, which also can be used as a needs assessment tool. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of their athlete and client psychological attributes, many of whom are adolescents. Understanding how adolescents view their bodies and their body image will assist professionals in designing appropriate, health-promotive strength programs, while at the same time monitoring for signs of body image dissatisfaction. Assessing body image can help heighten awareness and possibly encourage preventative programming to help avert negative health practices (e.g., performance-enhancing drug use, exercise addictions, disordered eating). The ABISS seems to have preliminary psychometric support to be a valid and reliable instrument that helps gauge at-risk populations.

  4. An individual reproduction model sensitive to milk yield and body condition in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brun-Lafleur, L; Cutullic, E; Faverdin, P; Delaby, L; Disenhaus, C

    2013-08-01

    To simulate the consequences of management in dairy herds, the use of individual-based herd models is very useful and has become common. Reproduction is a key driver of milk production and herd dynamics, whose influence has been magnified by the decrease in reproductive performance over the last decades. Moreover, feeding management influences milk yield (MY) and body reserves, which in turn influence reproductive performance. Therefore, our objective was to build an up-to-date animal reproduction model sensitive to both MY and body condition score (BCS). A dynamic and stochastic individual reproduction model was built mainly from data of a single recent long-term experiment. This model covers the whole reproductive process and is composed of a succession of discrete stochastic events, mainly calving, ovulations, conception and embryonic loss. Each reproductive step is sensitive to MY or BCS levels or changes. The model takes into account recent evolutions of reproductive performance, particularly concerning calving-to-first ovulation interval, cyclicity (normal cycle length, prevalence of prolonged luteal phase), oestrus expression and pregnancy (conception, early and late embryonic loss). A sensitivity analysis of the model to MY and BCS at calving was performed. The simulated performance was compared with observed data from the database used to build the model and from the bibliography to validate the model. Despite comprising a whole series of reproductive steps, the model made it possible to simulate realistic global reproduction outputs. It was able to well simulate the overall reproductive performance observed in farms in terms of both success rate (recalving rate) and reproduction delays (calving interval). This model has the purpose to be integrated in herd simulation models to usefully test the impact of management strategies on herd reproductive performance, and thus on calving patterns and culling rates.

  5. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. PMID:27148211

  6. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H.; Strand, Micheline K.; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such “migratory management” causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  7. Selective inactivation of Socs3 in SF1 neurons improves glucose homeostasis without affecting body weight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren; Dhillon, Harveen; Yin, Huali; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Lowell, Bradford B; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Flier, Jeffrey S

    2008-11-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) has been identified as a mediator of central leptin resistance, but the identity of specific neurons in which Socs3 acts to suppress leptin signaling remains elusive. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) was recently shown to be an important site for leptin action because deleting leptin receptor within VMH neurons causes obesity. To examine the role of VMH Socs3 in leptin resistance and energy homeostasis, we generated mice lacking Socs3 specifically in neurons positive for steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), which is expressed abundantly in the VMH. These mice had increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in VMH neurons, suggesting improved leptin signaling, and consistently, food intake and weight-reducing effects of exogenous leptin were enhanced. Furthermore, on either chow or high-fat diets, these mice had reduced food intake. Unexpectedly, energy expenditure was reduced as well. Mice lacking Socs3 in SF1 neurons, despite no change in body weight, had improved glucose homeostasis and were partially protected from hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia induced by high-fat diets. These results suggest that Socs3 in SF1 neurons negatively regulates leptin signaling and plays important roles in mediating leptin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, and energy expenditure.

  8. Affect differentially modulates brain activation in uni- and multisensory body-voice perception.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Sarah; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Emotion perception naturally entails multisensory integration. It is also assumed that multisensory emotion perception is characterized by enhanced activation of brain areas implied in multisensory integration, such as the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). However, most previous studies have employed designs and stimuli that preclude other forms of multisensory interaction, such as crossmodal prediction, leaving open the question whether classical integration is the only relevant process in multisensory emotion perception. Here, we used video clips containing emotional and neutral body and vocal expressions to investigate the role of crossmodal prediction in multisensory emotion perception. While emotional multisensory expressions increased activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus (FFG), neutral expressions compared to emotional ones enhanced activation in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and posterior STS. Hence, while neutral stimuli activate classical multisensory areas, emotional stimuli invoke areas linked to unisensory visual processing. Emotional stimuli may therefore trigger a prediction of upcoming auditory information based on prior visual information. Such prediction may be stronger for highly salient emotional compared to less salient neutral information. Therefore, we suggest that multisensory emotion perception involves at least two distinct mechanisms; classical multisensory integration, as shown for neutral expressions, and crossmodal prediction, as evident for emotional expressions.

  9. Risk communication with Fukushima residents affected by the Fukushima Daiichi accident at whole-body counting

    SciTech Connect

    Gunji, I.; Furuno, A.; Yonezawa, R.; Sugiyama, K.

    2013-07-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Tokai Research and Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have had direct dialogue as risk communication with Fukushima residents who underwent whole-body counting examination (WBC). The purpose of the risk communication was to exchange information and opinions about radiation in order to mitigate Fukushima residents' anxiety and stress. Two kinds of opinion surveys were performed: one survey evaluated residents' views of the nuclear accident itself and the second survey evaluated the management of WBC examination as well as the quality of JAEA's communication skills on risks. It appears that most Fukushima residents seem to have reduced their anxiety level after the direct dialogue. The results of the surveys show that Fukushima residents have the deepest anxiety and concern about their long-term health issues and that they harbor anger toward the government and TEPCO. On the other hand, many WBC patients and patients' relatives have expressed gratitude for help in reducing their feelings of anxiety.

  10. Does whole body vibration training affect knee kinematics and neuromuscular control in healthy people?

    PubMed

    Sañudo, Borja; Feria, Adrian; Carrasco, Luis; de Hoyo, Moisés; Santos, Rui; Gamboa, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on the knee kinematics and neuromuscular control after single-legged drop landings. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles and knee and ankle accelerometry signals were acquired from 42 healthy volunteers. Participants performed three pre-test landings and after a recovery period of three minutes, they completed one set of six bouts of WBV each of one minute duration (30 Hz - 4 mm), followed by a single-leg drop landing. After the WBV intervention no significant changes were observed in the kinematic outcomes measured, although the time to stabilise the lower-limb was significantly lower after the vibration training (F(8,41) = 6.55; P < 0.01). EMG analysis showed no significant differences in the amplitude of rectus femoris or hamstring muscles after WBV training, however, significant differences in EMG frequency of the rectus femoris were found before (F(8,41) = 7.595; P < 0.01) and after toe-down (F(8,41) = 4.440; P < 0.001). Finally, no significant changes were observed in knee or ankle acceleration after WBV. Results suggest that WBV can help to acutely enhance knee neuromuscular control, which may have clinical significance and help in the design of rehabilitation programmes.

  11. A structural colour ornament correlates positively with parasite load and body condition in an insular lizard species.

    PubMed

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Merino, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual's ability to cope with environmental stress.

  12. A structural colour ornament correlates positively with parasite load and body condition in an insular lizard species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Merino, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual's ability to cope with environmental stress.

  13. Formation of Nup98-containing nuclear bodies in HeLa sublines is linked to genomic rearrangements affecting chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Romana, Serge; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Doye, Valérie; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude

    2016-09-01

    Nup98 is an important component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and also a rare but recurrent target for chromosomal translocation in leukaemogenesis. Nup98 contains multiple cohesive Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly (GLFG) repeats that are critical notably for the formation of intranuclear GLFG bodies. Previous studies have reported the existence of GLFG bodies in cells overexpressing exogenous Nup98 or in a HeLa subline (HeLa-C) expressing an unusual elevated amount of endogenous Nup98. Here, we have analysed the presence of Nup98-containing bodies in several human cell lines. We found that HEp-2, another HeLa subline, contains GLFG bodies that are distinct from those identified in HeLa-C. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) revealed that HEp-2 cells express additional truncated forms of Nup98 fused to a non-coding region of chromosome 11q22.1. Cytogenetic analyses using FISH and array-CGH further revealed chromosomal rearrangements that were distinct from those observed in leukaemic cells. Indeed, HEp-2 cells feature a massive amplification of juxtaposed NUP98 and 11q22.1 loci on a chromosome marker derived from chromosome 3. Unexpectedly, minor co-amplifications of NUP98 and 11q22.1 loci were also observed in other HeLa sublines, but on rearranged chromosomes 11. Altogether, this study reveals that distinct genomic rearrangements affecting NUP98 are associated with the formation of GLFG bodies in specific HeLa sublines.

  14. Does Total Body Irradiation Conditioning Improve Outcomes of Myeloablative HLA-Identical Sibling Transplants for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    PubMed Central

    Sabloff, Mitchell; Sobecks, Ronald M.; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Zhu, Xiaochun; de Lima, Marcos; Brown, Jennifer R.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Holland, H. Kent; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Laughlin, Mary J.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Hsu, Jack W.; Wirk, Baldeep M.; Seftel, Matthew; Lewis, Ian D.; Arora, Mukta; Alyea, Edwin P.; Kalaycio, Matt E.; Cortes, Jorge; Maziarz, Richard T.; Gale, Robert Peter; Saber, Wael

    2014-01-01

    An allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from an HLA-identical donor after high-dose (myeloablative) pre-transplant conditioning, is an effective therapy for some people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because CLL is a highly radiosensitive cancer, we hypothesized total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimens may be associated with better outcomes than those without TBI. To answer this we analyzed data from 180 subjects with CLL receiving myeloablative doses of TBI (N=126) or not (N=54), transplanted from an HLA-identical sibling donor, between 1995 and 2007 and reported to the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). At 5 years, treatment-related mortality was 48% (95% CI, 39–57%) vs. 50% (95% CI, 36–64%); p=NS. Relapse rates were 17% (95% CI, 11–25%) vs. 22% (95% CI, 11–35%); p=NS. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival was 34% (95% CI, 26–43%) vs. 28% (95% CI, 15–42%); p=NS and 42% (95% CI, 33–51%) vs. 33% (95% CI, 19–48%); p=NS, respectively. The single most common cause of death in both cohorts was recurrent/progressive CLL. No variable tested in the multivariate analysis was found to significantly affect these outcomes including having failed fludarabine. Within the limitations of this study we found no difference in HLA-identical sibling transplant outcomes between myeloablative TBI and chemotherapy pre-transplant conditioning in persons with CLL. PMID:24321745

  15. Tail position affects the body temperature of rats during cold exposure in a low-energy state.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yuki; Tokizawa, Ken; Nakamura, Mayumi; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Nagashima, Kei

    2012-02-01

    Rats place their tails underneath their body trunks when cold (tail-hiding behavior). The aim of the present study was to determine whether this behavior is necessary to maintain body temperature. Male Wistar rats were divided into 'fed' and '42-h fasting' groups. A one-piece tail holder (8.4 cm in length) that prevented the tail-hiding behavior or a three-piece tail holder (2.8 cm in length) that allowed for the tail-hiding behavior was attached to the tails of the rats. The rats were exposed to 27°C for 180 min or to 20°C for 90 min followed by 15°C for 90 min with continuous body temperature and oxygen consumption measurements. Body temperature decreased by -1.0 ± 0.1°C at 15°C only in the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior of the 42-h fasting group, and oxygen consumption increased at 15°C in all animals. Oxygen consumption was not different between the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior and the rats that allowed the behavior in the fed and 42-h fasting groups under ambient conditions. These results show that the tail-hiding behavior is involved in thermoregulation in the cold in fasting rats.

  16. Dietary available phosphorus affected growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  17. Do sex, body size and reproductive condition influence the thermal preferences of a large lizard? A study in Tupinambis merianae.

    PubMed

    Cecchetto, Nicolas Rodolfo; Naretto, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Body temperature is a key factor in physiological processes, influencing lizard performances; and life history traits are expected to generate variability of thermal preferences in different individuals. Gender, body size and reproductive condition may impose specific requirements on preferred body temperatures. If these three factors have different physiological functions and thermal requirements, then the preferred temperature may represent a compromise that optimizes these physiological functions. Therefore, the body temperatures that lizards select in a controlled environment may reflect a temperature that maximizes their physiological needs. The tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae is one of the largest lizards in South America and has wide ontogenetic variation in body size and sexual dimorphism. In the present study we evaluate intraspecific variability of thermal preferences of T. merianae. We determined the selected body temperature and the rate at which males and females attain their selected temperature, in relation to body size and reproductive condition. We also compared the behavior in the thermal gradient between males and females and between reproductive condition of individuals. Our study show that T. merianae selected body temperature within a narrow range of temperatures variation in the laboratory thermal gradient, with 36.24±1.49°C being the preferred temperature. We observed no significant differences between sex, body size and reproductive condition in thermal preferences. Accordingly, we suggest that the evaluated categories of T. merianae have similar thermal requirements. Males showed higher rates to obtain heat than females and reproductive females, higher rates than non-reproductive ones females. Moreover, males and reproductive females showed a more dynamic behavior in the thermal gradient. Therefore, even though they achieve the same selected temperature, they do it differentially.

  18. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and <4.0 for LBC cows during the experiments. During Exp. 1, LBC cows consumed more (P = 0.001) pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but

  19. Verbal instructions targeting valence alter negative conditional stimulus evaluations (but do not affect reinstatement rates).

    PubMed

    Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2017-01-31

    Negative conditional stimulus (CS) valence acquired during fear conditioning may enhance fear relapse and is difficult to remove as it extinguishes slowly and does not respond to the instruction that unconditional stimulus (US) presentations will cease. We examined whether instructions targeting CS valence would be more effective. In Experiment 1, an image of one person (CS+) was paired with an aversive US, while another (CS-) was presented alone. After acquisition, participants were given positive information about the CS+ poser and negative information about the CS- poser. Instructions reversed the pattern of differential CS valence present during acquisition and eliminated differential electrodermal responding. In Experiment 2, we compared positive and negative CS revaluation by providing positive/negative information about the CS+ and neutral information about CS-. After positive revaluation, differential valence was removed and differential electrodermal responding remained intact. After negative revaluation, differential valence was strengthened and differential electrodermal responding was eliminated. Unexpectedly, the instructions did not affect the reinstatement of differential electrodermal responding.

  20. Roles of fat body trophocytes, mycetocytes and urocytes in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana under starvation conditions: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Soo; Park, Pyoyun; Takeda, Makio

    2013-07-01

    In insects, trophocytes (adipocytes) are major cells of a storage organ, the fat body, from which stored glycogen and lipids are mobilized under starvation. However, cockroaches have 2 additional types of cell in the fat body: mycetocytes harboring an endosymbiont, Blattabacterium cuenoti, and urocytes depositing uric acid in urate vacuoles. These cells have not been investigated in terms of their roles under starvation conditions. To gain insight into the roles of trophocytes, mycetocytes and urocytes in cockroaches, structural changes were first investigated in the cells associated with starvation in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by light and electron microscopy. The area of lipid droplets in trophocytes, the endosymbiont population and mitotic activity in mycetocytes, and the area of urate vacuoles in urocytes were analyzed in association with survival rates of the starved cockroaches. After 2 weeks of starvation, trophocytes lost glycogen rosettes and their area of lipid droplets decreased, but almost all cockroaches survived this period. However, further starvation did not reduce the area, but the survival rates dropped rapidly and all cockroaches died in 7 weeks. Endosymbionts were not affected in terms of population size and mitotic activity, even if the cockroaches were dying. The area of urate vacuoles rapidly decreased in a week of starvation and did not recover upon further starvation. These results indicate that starved cockroaches mobilize glycogen and lipids stored in trophocytes to survive for 2 weeks and then die after the exhaustion of nutrients in these cells. Endosymbionts are not digested for the recycling of nutrients, but uric acid is reused under starvation.

  1. Relationship between Deck Level, Body Surface Temperature and Carcass Damages in Italian Heavy Pigs after Short Journeys at Different Unloading Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Arduini, Agnese; Redaelli, Veronica; Luzi, Fabio; Dall’Olio, Stefania; Pace, Vincenzo; Nanni Costa, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport duration and thermal conditions can negatively affect pig welfare and carcass quality. The effects of short journeys (30 min) in different thermal-humidity conditions on the body surface temperature of live heavy pigs and carcass skin damage were examined. Body temperature increased with increasing Temperature Humidity Index (THI) class. The highest and lowest body surface temperatures were found in pigs located on the middle and upper decks, respectively. THI class significantly affected skin damage scores, which increased with increasing THI class. Even at relatively low temperatures and THI, the results of this study suggested the need to increase the control of environmental conditions in the truck during short-distance transport of pigs, in order to improve welfare and reduce loss of carcass value. Abstract In order to evaluate the relationships between deck level, body surface temperature and carcass damages after a short journey (30 min), 10 deliveries of Italian heavy pigs, including a total of 1400 animals from one farm, were examined. Within 5 min after the arrival at the abattoir, the vehicles were unloaded. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were recorded and a Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was calculated. After unloading, maximum temperatures of dorsal and ocular regions were measured by a thermal camera on groups of pigs from each of the unloaded decks. After dehairing, quarters and whole carcasses were evaluated subjectively by a trained operator for skin damage using a four-point scale. On the basis of THI at unloading, deliveries were grouped into three classes. Data of body surface temperature and skin damage score were analysed in a model including THI class, deck level and their interaction. Regardless of pig location in the truck, the maximum temperature of the dorsal and ocular regions increased with increasing THI class. Within each THI class, the highest and lowest body surface temperatures were found

  2. Region and site conditions affect phenotypic trait variation in five forest herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Isgard Holle; Kolb, Annette; Diekmann, Martin Reemt

    2012-02-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms to express different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. It may buffer individuals both against short-term environmental fluctuations and long-term effects of global change. A plastic behaviour in response to changes in the environment may be especially important in species with low migration rates and colonization capacities, such as in many forest plants in present-day fragmented landscapes. We compared the phenotypic trait variation (used as a proxy for the amount of phenotypic plasticity) of five forest herbs (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Impatiens noli-tangere, Sanicula europaea and Stachys sylvatica) between two regions in Germany that differ in their overall environmental conditions (Bremen in the northwest, Freiburg in the southwest; 5 species × 2 regions × 8-15 populations × 25-50 individuals). In addition, we measured light intensity and important soil parameters (soil pH, moisture, K, P and N) in all populations. We found consistent differences in trait variability between the two regions in several species. In Brachypodium and Stachys both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in Freiburg. Similarly, reproductive traits of Impatiens and Sanicula appeared to be more variable in Freiburg, while in both species at least one of the vegetative traits was more variable in Bremen. Mean local environmental conditions also affected trait variation; in most of the species both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in sites with higher nutrient contents and higher light availability. Across all traits and both regions, seed or fruit production was most variable. In summary, at least some of the studied forest herbs appear to respond strongly to large-scale environmental differences, showing a higher trait variability in the more southern region. Given the assumption that phenotypic trait variation is positively associated with phenotypic plasticity

  3. CLIMATE CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE WITHIN-PLANT SPREAD OF BROAD MITES ON AZALEA.

    PubMed

    Mechant, E; Pauwels, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) is considered a major pest in potted azalea, Flanders' flagship ornamental crop of Rhododendron simsii hybrids. In addition to severe economic damage, the broad mite is dreaded for its increasing resistance to acaricides. Due to restrictions in the use of broad spectrum acaricides, Belgian azalea growers are left with only three compounds, belonging to two mode of action groups and restricted in their number of applications, for broad mite control: abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin. Although P. latus can be controlled with predatory mites, the high cost of this system makes it (not yet) feasible for integration into standard azalea pest management systems. Hence, a maximum efficacy of treatments with available compounds is essential. Because abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin are contact acaricides with limited trans laminar flow, only broad mites located on shoot tips of azalea plants will be controlled after spraying. Consequently, the efficacy of chemical treatments is influenced by the location and spread of P. latus on the plant. Unfortunately, little is known on broad mites' within-plant spread or how it is affected by climatic conditions like temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, experiments were set up to verify whether climate conditions have an effect on the location and migration of broad mites on azalea. Broad mite infected azalea plants were placed in standard growth chambers under different temperature (T:2.5-25°C) and relative humidity (RH:55-80%) treatments. Within-plant spread was determined by counting mites on the shoot tips and inner leaves of azalea plants. Results indicate that temperature and relative humidity have no significant effect on the within-plant spread of P. latus. To formulate recommendations for optimal spray conditions to maximize the efficacy of broad mite control with acaricides, further experiments on the effect of light intensity and rain are scheduled.

  4. Factors affecting body weight loss during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify several factors affecting shrink in cattle during commercial long-haul transport (≥400 km; n = 6,152 journeys). Surveys were designed and delivered to transport carriers to collect relevant information regarding the characteristics of animals, time of loading, origin and destination, and loaded weight before and after transport. In contrast to fat cattle, feeder cattle exhibited greater shrink (4.9 vs. 7.9 ± 0.2% of BW, respectively; P < 0.01), and experienced longer total transport durations (12.4 vs. 14.9 ± 0.99, respectively; P < 0.01) due to border crossing protocols which require mandatory animal inspection. Shrink was greater (P < 0.001) for feeder cattle loaded at ranches/farms and feed yards compared with those loaded at auction markets. Cattle loaded during the afternoon and evening shrank more than those loaded during the night and morning (P < 0.05). Shrinkage was less in cattle transported by truck drivers having 6 or more years of experience hauling livestock compared with those with 5 yr or less (P < 0.05). Shrink increased with both midpoint ambient temperature (% of BW/°C; P < 0.001) and time on truck (% of BW/h; P < 0.001). Temperature and time on truck had a multiplicative effect on each other because shrink increased most rapidly in cattle transported for both longer durations and at higher ambient temperatures (P < 0.001). The rate of shrink over time (% of BW/h) was greatest in cull cattle, intermediate in calves and feeder cattle, and slowest in fat cattle (P < 0.05) but such differences disappeared when the effects of place of origin, loading time, and experience of truck drivers were included in the model. Cull cattle, calves and feeder cattle appear to be more affected by transport compared with fat cattle going to slaughter because of greater shrink. Several factors should be considered when developing guidelines to reduce cattle transport stress and shrink including type

  5. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle.

  6. Stirring N-body systems - II. Necessary conditions for the dark matter attractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Jeremy A.; Zhao, Hongsheng; Hansen, Steen H.

    2014-05-01

    We study the evolution of the phase space of collisionless N-body systems under repeated stirrings or perturbations, which has been shown to lead to a convergence towards a limited group of end states. This so-called attractor was previously shown to be independent of the initial system and environmental conditions. However, the fundamental reason for its appearance is still unclear. It has been suggested that the origin of the attractor may be either radial infall (RI), the radial orbit instability (ROI), or energy exchange which, for instance, happens during violent relaxation. Here, we examine the effects of a set of controlled perturbations, referred to as `kicks', which act in addition to the standard collisionless dynamics by allowing pre-specified instantaneous perturbations in phase space. We first demonstrate that the attractor persists in the absence of RI and ROI by forcing the system to expand. We then consider radial velocity kicks in a rigid potential and isotropic velocity kicks, since there are no energy exchanges in these two recipes of kicks. We find that these kicks do not lead to the attractor, indicating that the energy exchange in a dynamic potential is indeed the physical mechanism responsible for the attractor.

  7. Stress and body condition in a population of largemouth bass: implications for red-sore disease

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1980-09-01

    The body conditions, K = 10/sup 5/(weight, g)/(standard length)/sup 3/, and various hematological characters were examined for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) taken from Par Pond, a reservoir heated by effluent from a nuclear production reactor at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Largemouth bass with K less than 2.0 had significantly lower (P < 0.05) hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte fractions, and significantly higher granulocyte fractions and cortisol concentrations, than those with K greater than 2.0; monocyte, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte fractions were not different between the two K-factor groupings. When data were pooled, all blood variables except the reticulocyte fraction were significantly correlated with K. Hematocrit, the lymphocyte fraction, and cortisol concentration account for 20.5% of the variation in K. These data support a previous hypothesis that elevated water temperature promotes stress. Stress within the Par Pond largemouth bass population may play an important role in the epizootiology of red-sore disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila.

  8. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high‐amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  9. Spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls of small pelagic fish body condition from contrasted Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosset, Pablo; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Lloret, Josep; Marques, Virginie; Basilone, Gualtiero; Bonanno, Angelo; Carpi, Piera; Donato, Fortunata; Čikeš Keč, Vanja; De Felice, Andrea; Ferreri, Rosalia; Gašparević, Denis; Giráldez, Ana; Gücü, Ali; Iglesias, Magdalena; Leonori, Iole; Palomera, Isabel; Somarakis, Stylianos; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Torres, Pedro; Ventero, Ana; Zorica, Barbara; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Small pelagic fish are among the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species and are characterized by large fluctuations all over the world. In the Mediterranean Sea, low catches and biomass of anchovies and sardines have been described in some areas during the last decade, resulting in important fisheries crises. Therefore, we studied anchovy and sardine body condition variability, a key index of population health and its response to environmental and anthropogenic changes. Wide temporal and spatial patterns were investigated by analyzing separately data from scientific surveys and fisheries in eight Mediterranean areas between 1975 and 2015. Results showed that anchovy and sardine body condition as well as maximum size in some areas sharply decreased in most Mediterranean areas along years (except in the Northern Alboran Sea). Despite this general pattern, well-marked environmental differences between sub-regions were highlighted by several analyses and variations in body condition were not found to be homogeneous over all the Mediterranean Sea. Further, other analyses revealed that except for the Adriatic where major changes towards a lower body condition were concomitant with a decrease in river runoffs and chl-a concentration, no concomitant environmental regime shift was detected in other areas. Together, these analyses highlighted the current poor body condition of almost all small pelagic fish populations in the Mediterranean. Yet, global environmental indices could not explain the observed changes and the general decrease in condition might more likely come from regional environmental and/or anthropogenic (fishing) effects. A prolonged state of poor fish body condition, together with an observed reduced size and early age-at-maturity may have strong ecological, economic and social consequences all around the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  11. Handing the pen to the patient: reflective writing for children and families affected by genetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Murali, Chaya; Fernbach, Susan D; Potocki, Lorraine

    2014-12-01

    Genetic diagnoses impact the Quality of Life (QoL) of patients and their families. While some patients and families report a positive impact on QoL, others are affected negatively by a genetic diagnosis. No matter the impact, it is clear that social support is needed for this population. Genetic healthcare providers should be aware of the need for psychosocial support and be equipped to provide or direct patients and families to the appropriate resources. Reflective writing offers a unique opportunity for families and health care providers to engage in self-reflection and expression, activities which have the potential to enhance QoL in a positive manner. The therapeutic potential of writing has been studied in many populations, from caregivers of elderly individuals with dementia, to cancer survivors, to survivors of traumatic experiences. Some of these interventions have shown promise for improving participants' QoL. However, reflective writing has never been studied in patients and families affected by genetic conditions. We propose that reflective writing therapy is a feasible, reproducible, and enjoyable approach to providing psychosocial support for our patients. Get it Write is a reflective writing workshop pilot project for those who have a personal or family history of a genetic diagnosis. Our hypothesis is that reflective writing will help engender acceptance and alleviate feelings of isolation. Get it Write does not focus on the stressful factors in the participants' lives, rather it serves to facilitate interactions with peers facing the same struggles, and with medical students in a non-medical context.

  12. Variable Gene Dispersal Conditions and Spatial Deforestation Patterns Can Interact to Affect Tropical Tree Conservation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with ‘Near’ distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  13. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  14. Maturation conditions and boar affect timing of cortical reaction in porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Romar, R; Coy, P; Rath, D

    2012-09-15

    The cortical reaction induces changes at the egg's Zona pellucida (ZP), perivitelline space and/or oolemma level, blocking polyspermic fertilization. We studied the timing of sperm penetration and cortical reaction in pig oocytes matured under different conditions and inseminated with different boars. Immature (germinal vesicle stage) and in vitro matured (IVM) (metaphase II stage) oocytes were inseminated and results assessed at different hours post insemination. Penetrability and polyspermy rates increased with gamete coincubation time and were higher in IVM oocytes. A strong boar effect was observed in IVF results. Cortical reaction (assessed as area occupied by cortical granules) and galactose-β(1-3)-Nacetylgalactosamine residues on ZP (area labeled by peanut agglutinin lectin, PNA) were assessed in IVM and in vivo matured (IVV) oocytes at different hours post insemination. After maturation, IVM and IVV oocytes displayed similar area occupied by cortical granules and it decreased in fertilized oocytes compared to unfertilized ones. Cortical reaction was influenced by boar and was faster in polyspermic than in monospermic oocytes, and in IVM than in IVV oocytes. The outer ZP of inseminated oocytes appeared stained by PNA and the labeled area increased along with gamete coculture time. This labeling was also observed after insemination of isolated ZP, indicating that this modification in ZP carbohydrates is not induced by cortical reaction. The steady and maintained cortical reaction observed at 4 to 5 h post insemination in IVV monospermic oocytes might reflect the physiological time course of this important event in pigs. Both maturation conditions and boar affect cortical granules release.

  15. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss.

    PubMed

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D

    2017-05-01

    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  16. On being the right size: increased body size is associated with reduced telomere length under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Pärn, Henrik; Kvalnes, Thomas; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Holand, Håkon; Hagen, Ingerid Julie; Rønning, Bernt; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-12-07

    Evolution of body size is likely to involve trade-offs between body size, growth rate and longevity. Within species, larger body size is associated with faster growth and ageing, and reduced longevity, but the cellular processes driving these relationships are poorly understood. One mechanism that might play a key role in determining optimal body size is the relationship between body size and telomere dynamics. However, we know little about how telomere length is affected when selection for larger size is imposed in natural populations. We report here on the relationship between structural body size and telomere length in wild house sparrows at the beginning and end of a selection regime for larger parent size that was imposed for 4 years in an isolated population of house sparrows. A negative relationship between fledgling size and telomere length was present at the start of the selection; this was extended when fledgling size increased under the selection regime, demonstrating a persistent covariance between structural size and telomere length. Changes in telomere dynamics, either as a correlated trait or a consequence of larger size, could reduce potential longevity and the consequent trade-offs could thereby play an important role in the evolution of optimal body size.

  17. Spider foraging strategy affects trophic cascades under natural and drought conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Jin; Gan, Wenjin; Schaefer, Douglas; Gan, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Spiders can cause trophic cascades affecting litter decomposition rates. However, it remains unclear how spiders with different foraging strategies influence faunal communities, or present cascading effects on decomposition. Furthermore, increased dry periods predicted in future climates will likely have important consequences for trophic interactions in detritus-based food webs. We investigated independent and interactive effects of spider predation and drought on litter decomposition in a tropical forest floor. We manipulated densities of dominant spiders with actively hunting or sit-and-wait foraging strategies in microcosms which mimicked the tropical-forest floor. We found a positive trophic cascade on litter decomposition was triggered by actively hunting spiders under ambient rainfall, but sit-and-wait spiders did not cause this. The drought treatment reversed the effect of actively hunting spiders on litter decomposition. Under drought conditions, we observed negative trophic cascade effects on litter decomposition in all three spider treatments. Thus, reduced rainfall can alter predator-induced indirect effects on lower trophic levels and ecosystem processes, and is an example of how such changes may alter trophic cascades in detritus-based webs of tropical forests. PMID:26202370

  18. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Let, Mette B; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-03-07

    In this study fish oil was incorporated into commercial homogenized milk using different homogenization temperatures and pressures. The main aim was to understand the significance of homogenization temperature and pressure on the oxidative stability of the resulting milks. Increasing homogenization temperature from 50 to 72 degrees C decreased droplet size only slightly, whereas a pressure increase from 5 to 22.5 MPa decreased droplet size significantly. Surprisingly, emulsions having small droplets, and therefore large interfacial area, were less oxidized than emulsions having bigger droplets. Emulsions with similar droplet size distributions, but resulting from different homogenization conditions, had significantly different oxidative stabilities, indicating that properties of significance to oxidation other than droplet size itself were affected by the different treatments. In general, homogenization at 72 degrees C appeared to induce protective effects against oxidation as compared to homogenization at 50 degrees C. The results thus indicated that the actual composition of the oil-water interface is more important than total surface area itself.

  19. Spider foraging strategy affects trophic cascades under natural and drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Jin; Gan, Wenjin; Schaefer, Douglas; Gan, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-07-23

    Spiders can cause trophic cascades affecting litter decomposition rates. However, it remains unclear how spiders with different foraging strategies influence faunal communities, or present cascading effects on decomposition. Furthermore, increased dry periods predicted in future climates will likely have important consequences for trophic interactions in detritus-based food webs. We investigated independent and interactive effects of spider predation and drought on litter decomposition in a tropical forest floor. We manipulated densities of dominant spiders with actively hunting or sit-and-wait foraging strategies in microcosms which mimicked the tropical-forest floor. We found a positive trophic cascade on litter decomposition was triggered by actively hunting spiders under ambient rainfall, but sit-and-wait spiders did not cause this. The drought treatment reversed the effect of actively hunting spiders on litter decomposition. Under drought conditions, we observed negative trophic cascade effects on litter decomposition in all three spider treatments. Thus, reduced rainfall can alter predator-induced indirect effects on lower trophic levels and ecosystem processes, and is an example of how such changes may alter trophic cascades in detritus-based webs of tropical forests.

  20. Study of the atmospheric conditions affecting infrared astronomical measurements at White Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, G. B.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements are described of atmospheric conditions affecting astronomical observations at White Mountain, California. Measurements were made at more than 1400 times spaced over more than 170 days at the Summit Laboratory and a small number of days at the Barcroft Laboratory. The recorded quantities were ten micron sky noise and precipitable water vapor, plus wet and dry bulb temperatures, wind speed and direction, brightness of the sky near the sun, fisheye lens photographs of the sky, description of cloud cover and other observable parameters, color photographs of air pollution astronomical seeing, and occasional determinations of the visible light brightness of the night sky. Measurements of some of these parameters have been made for over twenty years at the Barcroft and Crooked Creek Laboratories, and statistical analyses were made of them. These results and interpretations are given. The bulk of the collected data are statistically analyzed, and disposition of the detailed data is described. Most of the data are available in machine readable form. A detailed discussion of the techniques proposed for operation at White Mountain is given, showing how to cope with the mountain and climatic problems.

  1. Improved visualization of fat body conditions and abundance in the southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat bodies are a crucial source of energy for insect survival and reproduction. Differing types of fat body cells and amounts have been previously reported for southern green stink bug but clear supporting images are lacking. Further, in ongoing studies elucidating the ecology of southern green st...

  2. Survival of greater white-fronted geese: Effects of year, season, sex, and body condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Information regarding the magnitude and variation in survival rates is necessary for understanding the causes of large changes in population size. We examined survival of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in the Pacific Flyway during 1979-82. The population declined by 75% in the decade preceding our study but was stable during our investigation. Annual survival of adults (0.749, SE = 0.045) was 7% higher than during an earlier study. We developed a simple population model which suggests that recent (1985-96) survival rates may be as much as 10% higher in adults than the 1979-82 rate, which corresponds to population increases observed since 1985. Survival of adult females varied seasonally; monthly survival during a period of winter when no hunting or migration occurred was higher (0.986, SE = 0.015) than monthly survival at other times (0.964, SE = 0.006). Survival of adult males varied among years and with a general seasonal trend inverse to that for females. An index of body condition was positively related to survival of adult females in fall and spring, but not for adult males or immature geese. Monthly survival of immatures was lower during their first hunting season (0.886, SE = 0.026) than during all subsequent seasons (0.963, SE = 0.007). Annual survival of immatures beginning 1 October, immediately before the hunting season, was 0.471. Corresponding variations in survival rates, population numbers, and hunting regulations suggest that hunting may have influenced survival in this population of greater white-fronted geese.

  3. Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated Se bioaccumulation in four waterbird species (n = 206 birds) that breed within San Francisco Bay, California, USA: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Selenium concentrations were variable and influenced by several factors, including species, region, reproductive stage, age, and sex. Adult Se concentrations (μg/g dry wt) in livers ranged from 3.07 to 48.70 in avocets (geometric mean ± standard error, 7.92 ± 0.64), 2.28 to 41.10 in stilts (5.29 ± 0.38), 3.73 to 14.50 in Forster's terns (7.13 ± 0.38), and 4.77 to 14.40 in Caspian terns (6.73 ± 0.78). Avocets had higher Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay, whereas stilt Se concentrations were similar between these regions and Forster's terns had lower Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay. Female avocets had higher Se concentrations than male avocets, but this was not the case for stilts and Forster's terns. Of the factors assessed, reproductive stage had the most consistent effect among species. Prebreeding birds tended to have higher liver Se concentrations than breeding birds, but this trend was statistically significant only for Forster's terns. Forster's tern chicks had lower Se concentrations than Forster's tern adults, whereas avocet and stilt adults and chicks were similar. Additionally, body condition was negatively related to liver Se concentrations in Forster's tern adults but not in avocet, stilt, or Caspian tern adults and chicks. These variable results illustrate the complexity of Se bioaccumulation and highlight the need to sample multiple species and examine several factors to assess the impact of Se on wildlife.

  4. Impacts of parturition and body condition score on glucose uptake capacity of bovine monocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Eger, Melanie; Hussen, Jamal; Drong, Caroline; Meyer, Ulrich; von Soosten, Dirk; Frahm, Jana; Daenicke, Sven; Breves, Gerhard; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-15

    The peripartal period of dairy cows is associated with a higher incidence of infectious diseases like mastitis or metritis, particularly in high-yielding animals. The onset of lactation induces a negative energy balance and a shift of glucose distribution toward the udder. Glucose is used as primary fuel by monocytes which give rise to macrophages, key cells in the defense against pathogens. The aim of this study was to analyze whether animals with high or low body condition score (BCS) differ in composition and glucose uptake capacities of bovine monocyte subsets. Blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows starting 42 days before parturition until day 56 after parturition. The cows were allocated to two groups according to their BCS. A feeding regime was applied, in which the BCS high group received higher amounts of concentrate before parturition and concentrate feeding was more restricted in the BCS high group after parturition compared with the BCS low group, to promote postpartal lipolysis and enhance negative energy balance in the BCS high group. Blood cell counts of classical (cM), intermediate (intM) and nonclassical monocytes (ncM) were increased at day 7 after calving. In the BCS low group intM numbers were significantly higher compared to the BCS high group at day 7 after parturition. Within the BCS low group cows suffering from mastitis or metritis showed significantly higher numbers of cM, intM and ncM at day 7 after parturition. Classical monocytes and intM showed similar glucose uptake capacities while values for ncM were significantly lower. Compared with antepartal capacities and irrespective of BCS and postpartal mastitis or metritis, glucose uptake of all monocyte subsets decreased after parturition. In conclusion, whereas glucose uptake capacity of bovine monocyte subsets is altered by parturition, it is not linked to the energy supply of the animals or to postpartal infectious diseases.

  5. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients’ Affected Side Lower Extremity’s Walking Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity’s walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. PMID:25540499

  6. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    control are "emotional eating" and "externality", which represent an individual's vulnerability to eat in response to emotional states or external cues, respectively. These questionnaires have been translated into French and validated for the French population. Average data are available for normal weight and obese French men and women. A gender difference is often reported: women, and even young girls, tend to have higher scores than males for most dimensions. These questionnaires have been extensively used in populations without psychiatric disorders, with the only exception of diagnosed eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The questionnaires have not been used until now in populations with other types of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disease. Their relevance for such populations is now an important question, since last generation pharmaceutical treatments of such psychiatric disorders seem to adversely affect body weight control. It then becomes critical to know whether the psychological dimensions assessed by such questionnaires reflect the action of pharmacological agents that induce weight gain. A research project is now in progress at Sainte-Anne Hospital to investigate many dimensions of the motivation to eat, as assessed by the questionnaires, in psychiatric patients receiving various types of antipsychotic agents. The results of this original study might provide hints about the mechanisms that lead to body weight gain in patients receiving certain types of antipsychotic pharmacological agents and potentially help in preventing or reversing the weight gain associated with such treatments.

  7. The distance of visual targets affects the spatial magnitude and multifractal scaling of standing body sway in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Munafo, Justin; Curry, Christopher; Wade, Michael G; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    The spatial magnitude of standing body sway is greater during viewing of more distant targets and reduced when viewing nearby targets. Classical interpretations of this effect are based on the projective geometry of changes in visual stimulation that are brought about by body sway. Such explanations do not motivate predictions about the temporal dynamics of body sway. We asked whether the distance of visible targets would affect both the spatial magnitude and the multifractality of standing body sway. It has been suggested that the multifractality of movement may change with age. Separately, previous research has not addressed the effects of target distance on postural sway in older adults. For these reasons, we crossed our variation in target distance with variation in age. In an open-air setting, we measured standing body sway in younger and older adults while looking at visual targets that were placed at three distances. The distance of visual targets affected the spatial magnitude of body sway in younger adults, replicating past studies. Target distance also affected the spatial magnitude of sway in older adults, confirming that this relation persists despite other age-related changes. Target distance also affected the multifractality of body sway, but this effect was modulated by age. Finally, the width of the multifractal spectrum was greater for older adults than for younger adults, revealing that healthy aging can affect the multifractality of movement. These findings reveal similarities and differences between the spatial magnitude and the multifractality of human movement.

  8. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a

  9. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  10. "External Conditions Affecting a Harmonious Family": Lessons Learned from a School-Based Parent Education Programme in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

    2013-01-01

    This article documents a parent education presentation on "External conditions affecting a harmonious family" within a school-based parent education programme in Hong Kong. The presentation adopted an eco-systems approach for understanding families and argued for the need to include the external conditions for a harmonious family as an…

  11. Adaptive, but not condition-dependent, body shape differences contribute to assortative mating preferences during ecological speciation.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Ryan; Drexler, Shannon; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Tobler, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Assortative mating is critical for reproductive isolation during speciation; however, the mechanisms underlying mating preferences are often unknown. Assortative mating can be mediated through preferences for condition-dependent and adaptive ("magic") traits, but rigorously testing these hypotheses has been impeded by trait covariation in living organisms. We used computer-generated models to examine the role of body shape in producing association preferences between fish populations undergoing ecological speciation in different habitat types. We demonstrate that body shape can serve as an adaptive trait (variation in head size between populations) and a condition-dependent signal (variation in abdominal distention among individuals). Female preferences for stimuli varying in only one aspect of body shape uncovered evidence for body shape as a magic trait across population pairs, but no evidence for body shape serving as a condition-dependent signal. Evolution of preferences only in females from one habitat type as well as stronger preferences in sympatric nonsulfidic as opposed to allopatric nonsulfidic populations suggests that reinforcement may have played a role in producing the observed patterns.

  12. Factors Affecting Pathogen Survival in Finished Dairy Compost with Different Particle Sizes Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diao, Junshu; Chen, Zhao; Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in finished dairy compost with different particle sizes during storage as affected by moisture content and temperature under greenhouse conditions. The mixture of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium strains was inoculated into the finished composts with moisture contents of 20, 30, and 40%, separately. The finished compost samples were then sieved into 3 different particle sizes (>1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm) and stored under greenhouse conditions. For compost samples with moisture contents of 20 and 30%, the average Salmonella reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm were 2.15, 2.27, and 2.47 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.60, 2.03, and 2.26 log CFU g(-1) in late fall, respectively, and 2.61, 3.33, and 3.67 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. The average E. coli O157:H7 reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm were 1.98, 2.30, and 2.54 log CFU g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.70, 2.56, and 2.90 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. Our results revealed that both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost samples with larger particle size survived better than those with smaller particle sizes, and the initial rapid moisture loss in compost may contribute to the fast inactivation of pathogens in the finished compost. For the same season, the pathogens in the compost samples with the same particle size survived much better at the initial moisture content of 20% compared to 40%.

  13. Genetic polymorphism in dopamine receptor D4 is associated with early body condition in a large population of greater flamingos, Phoenicopterus roseus.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, Mark A F; Bechet, Arnaud; Geraci, Julia; Wattier, Remi; Dubreuil, Christine; Cezilly, Frank

    2012-08-01

    Body condition is an important determinant of fitness in many natural populations. However, as for many fitness traits, the underlying genes that regulate body condition remain elusive. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a promising candidate as dopamine is known to play an important role in the regulation of food intake and the metabolism of both glucose and lipids in vertebrates. In this study, we take advantage of a large data set of greater flamingos, Phoenicopterus roseus, to test whether DRD4 polymorphism predicts early body condition (EBC) while controlling for whole-genome effects of inbreeding and outbreeding using microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity (MLH). We typed 670 of these individuals for exon 3 of the homologue of the human DRD4 gene and 10 microsatellite markers. When controlling for the effects of yearly environmental variations and differences between sexes, we found strong evidence of an association between exon 3 DRD4 polymorphisms and EBC, with 2.2-2.3% of the variation being explained by DRD4 polymorphism, whereas there was only weak evidence that MLH predicts EBC. Because EBC is most likely a polygenic trait, this is a considerable amount of variation explained by a single gene. This is to our knowledge, the first study to show an association between exon 3 DRD4 polymorphism and body condition in non-human animals. We anticipate that the DRD4 gene as well as other genes coding for neurotransmitters and their receptors may play an important role in explaining variation in traits that affect fitness.

  14. Residual analysis in the determination of factors affecting the estimates of body heat storage in clothed subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Y; McLellan, T M; Shephard, R J

    1996-01-01

    Body heat storage can be estimated by calorimetry (from heat gains and losses) or by thermometry [from changes (delta) in mean body temperature (T b) calculated as a weighted combination of rectal (Tre) and mean skin temperatures (T sk)]. If an invariant weighting factor of Tre and T sk were to be used (for instance, delta T b = 0.8.delta Tre + 0.2 delta T sk under hot conditions), body heat storage could be over- or underestimated substantially relative to calorimetry, depending on whether the subject was wearing light or protective clothing. This study investigated whether discrepancies between calorimetry and thermometry arise from methodological errors in the calorimetric estimate of heat storage, from inappropriate weightings in the thermometric estimate, or from both. Residuals of calorimetry versus thermometric estimates were plotted against individual variables in the standard heat balance equation, applying various weighting factors to Tre and T sk. Whether light or protective clothing was worn, the calorimetric approach generally gave appropriate estimates of heat exchange components and thus heat storage. One exception was in estimating latent heat loss from sweat evaporation. If sweat evaporation exceeded 650 g.h-1 when wearing normal clothing, evaporative heat loss was overestimated and thus body heat storage was underestimated. Nevertheless, if data beyond this ceiling were excluded from the analyses, the standard 4:1 weighting matched calorimetric heat storage estimates quite well. When wearing protective clothing, the same 4:1 weighting approximated calorimetric heat storage with errors of less than approximately 10%, but only if environmental conditions allowed a subject to exercise for more than 90 min. The best thermometric estimates of heat storage were provided by using two sets of relative weightings, based upon the individual's metabolic heat production (M in kilojoules per meter squared per hour): (4 - [(M - x).x-1].2): 1 for an initial

  15. Body condition and forage type influence intramuscular and rump fat, and reproductive performance of postpartum Brahman-influenced cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiparous Brahman-influenced cows were managed to achieve marginal (BCS = 4.9 ± 0.1; n = 55) or moderate (BCS = 6.5 ± 0.1; n = 55) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of forage type on estrous characteristics, intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat (RF), and reproductive performan...

  16. Photogrammetry with an Unmanned Aerial System to Assess Body Condition and Growth of Blainville’s Beaked Whales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    preferred feeding habitats could potentially impact survival and reproduction through compromised body condition. This is of particular concern for...lactating females with increased energetic demands, and could indeed result in lower reproductive success, reduced calf survival and negative population...also learn about key variation in morphometrics. Notably, these will include width profiles for adult females in varying reproductive states to

  17. Relationship between body condition score at calving and reproductive performance in young postpartum cows grazing native range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body condition score is used as a management tool to predict competency of reproduction in beef cows. Therefore, a retrospective study was performed to evaluate association of BCS at calving with subsequent pregnancy rate, days to first estrus, nutrient status (assessed by blood metabolites), and c...

  18. Northern pintail body condition during wet and dry winters in the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Body weights and carcass composition of male and female adult northern pintails (Anas acuta) were investigated in the Sacramento Valley, California, from August to March 1979-82. Pintails were lightweight, lean, and had reduced breast, leg, and heart muscles during August-September. Ducks steadily gained weight after arrival; and body, carcass (body wt minus feathers and gastrointestinal content), fat protein, and muscle weights peaked in October-November. Fat-free dry weight remained high but variable the rest of the winter, whereas body and carcass weight and fat content declined to lows in December or January, then increased again in February or March. Gizzard weights declined from early fall to March. Males were always heavier than females, but females were fatter (percentage) than males during mid-winter. Mid-winter body weight, carcass fat, and protein content were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in the dry winter of 1980-81 than in 2 wet winters (1979-80 and 1981-82). Changes in pintail body weight and composition during winter are probably adaptations to mild climate, predictable food supplies, and requirements for pair formation and molt.

  19. AN INQUIRY INTO THE STRUCTURAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING FLUID TRANSPORT IN THE INTERSTITIAL TISSUE OF THE SKIN

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, Philip D.

    1941-01-01

    With the aim of determining the structural conditions which affect fluid movement in the cutaneous connective tissue of mice, various test fluids were brought into contact with it under conditions such that neither blood vessels nor lymphatics were directly entered. Locke's solution, mouse serum, and a mixture of Locke's solution with a dye which causes edema were all employed. At atmospheric pressure, Locke's solution entered the tissues intermittently. When subjected to very low pressures it continued to enter the skin intermittently and at approximately the same rate. At pressures above 4.5 cm. of water, however, the flow became continuous but it did not increase in rate significantly until pressures of about 8.5 cm. were employed. There was no relationship between the rate of flow and the pressure employed. At a pressure of about 8.5 cm. the resistance of the tissues seemed to give way abruptly as if the formed elements had been separated. This has been termed the "breaking point." After it had been reached each further increase of pressure produced a proportionately greater inflow. Under the conditions of our experiments, the dye-Locke"s solution and also the homologous serum failed to enter the tissues at atmospheric pressure. It was necessary to subject these fluids to pressure to force them into the skin at the same rate at which the Locke's solution entered it spontaneously. Under these circumstances the dye-Locke's solution and the serum entered the skin continuously, not intermittently like the plain Locke's solution. As the pressure was gradually raised, no significant increase of flow into the tissues occurred until a point was reached, on the average 8.5 cm. of water, at which fluid suddenly began to enter very rapidly. This point, the "breaking point" already mentioned, was reached at the same pressure irrespective of the character of the fluid employed, showing that the phenomenon was produced by the fluid bulk. Once it had been attained, further

  20. Short communication: Jersey × Holstein crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins for body weight, body condition score, fertility, and survival during the first three lactations.

    PubMed

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Hazel, A R; Seykora, A J; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G

    2012-07-01

    Crossbred cows (n=80) resulting from the use of Jersey (JE) semen on their pure Holstein (HO) dams were compared with pure HO cows (n=77) for body weight, body condition score, fertility, and survival during their first 3 lactations. Cows were in 2 research herds of the University of Minnesota and calved from September 2003 to June 2008. The JE × HO crossbred cows had significantly less body weight during the first (-56 kg), second (-67 kg), and third (-82 kg) lactations than pure HO cows. However, JE × HO cows had significantly greater body condition score during the first (2.94 vs. 2.84), second (2.97 vs. 2.84), and third (2.99 vs. 2.87) lactations than pure HO cows. For fertility, JE × HO cows had fewer days to first breeding during the first (-10.6d), second (-8.4d), and third (-12.3d) lactations than pure HO cows. Crossbred cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for number of services during first lactation; however, JE × HO cows had significantly fewer services (2.2) than pure HO cows (2.7) during the second lactation. Also, JE × HO cows had significantly fewer days open than pure HO cows in the first (-24 d), second (-42 d), and third (-42 d) lactations. For survival, JE × HO cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for percentage of cows calving a second time; however, a tendency existed for a higher percentage of JE × HO cows (63.8%) than pure HO cows (49.4%) to calve a third time, and a higher percentage of JE × HO cows calved a third time within 28, 34, and 40 mo of first calving than pure HO cows.

  1. Genetic relationships between boar feed efficiency and sow piglet production, body condition score, and stayability in Norwegian Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, K H; Ødegård, J; Aasmundstad, T; Olsen, D; Meuwissen, T H E

    2016-08-01

    Both feed efficiency and sow production are economically important traits in pig breeding. One challenge in a maternal line such as Norwegian Landrace is to breed for highly feed efficient fattening pigs and, at the same time, produce sows with high daily feed intake to maintain their BCS in multiple parities. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations among novel feed efficiency measurements on Norwegian Landrace boars and piglet production, stayability, and body condition in Norwegian Landrace sows. The feed efficiency measurements were lean meat and fat efficiency. These measurements were calculated using an extended residual feed intake model where total feed intake in the test period was the response variable and fat (kg) and lean meat (kg) on the carcass were included as both fixed and random regressions. The random regression coefficients that resulted from this model were breeding values, which represented the amount of feed used to produce an extra kilogram of lean meat and fat. The sow traits were stayability of the sow from first to second parity, BCS at weaning, litter weight at 3 wk, and total number of piglets born. All traits were recorded on first parity purebred Norwegian Landrace and analyzed using multivariate animal models. All genetic correlations between fat efficiency and sow traits were low. Significant genetic correlations were found only between fat efficiency and stayability (0.21 ± 0.11) and between fat efficiency and total litter weight at 3 wk (0.21 ± 0.10). The results indicate that selection for efficient deposition of fat could give poor stayability and lower litter weight at 3 wk in first parity sows. The genetic correlations between lean meat efficiency and sow traits were not significantly different from 0 and signified no genetic relationships between these traits. Selection for efficient deposition of lean meat should not affect the sow traits and is, therefore, beneficial.

  2. Fructose decreases physical activity and increases body fat without affecting hippocampal neurogenesis and learning relative to an isocaloric glucose diet

    PubMed Central

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Masnik, Ashley M.; Mun, Jonathan G.; Du, Kristy; Clark, Diana; Dilger, Ryan N.; Dilger, Anna C.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fructose consumption is associated with weight gain, fat deposition and impaired cognitive function. However it is unclear whether the detrimental effects are caused by fructose itself or by the concurrent increase in overall energy intake. In the present study we examine the impact of a fructose diet relative to an isocaloric glucose diet in the absence of overfeeding, using a mouse model that mimics fructose intake in the top percentile of the USA population (18% energy). Following 77 days of supplementation, changes in body weight (BW), body fat, physical activity, cognitive performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis were assessed. Despite the fact that no differences in calorie intake were observed between groups, the fructose animals displayed significantly increased BW, liver mass and fat mass in comparison to the glucose group. This was further accompanied by a significant reduction in physical activity in the fructose animals. Conversely, no differences were detected in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive/motor performance as measured by object recognition, fear conditioning and rotorod tasks. The present study suggests that fructose per se, in the absence of excess energy intake, increases fat deposition and BW potentially by reducing physical activity, without impacting hippocampal neurogenesis or cognitive function. PMID:25892667

  3. Sea ice-associated decline in body condition leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Polder, Anuschka; Thiemann, Gregory W; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2017-01-15

    Global climate changes are magnified in the Arctic and are having an especially dramatic effect on the spatial and temporal distribution and the thickness traits of sea ice. Decline of Arctic sea ice may lead to qualitative and/or quantitative changes in diet and reduced body condition (i.e. adipose tissue stores) of ice-associated apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). This may further affect their tissue concentrations of lipophilic pollutants. We determined how variations in adipose tissue stores associated to both breeding status and spatial changes in sea ice conditions and diet influence concentrations and biotransformation of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We collected 112 blood and fat samples from female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of different breeding status (alone, with cubs of the year, or with yearlings) during two seasons (April and September) in 2012 and 2013 at three locations of Svalbard, Norway, with contrasted sea ice conditions. We inferred diet from nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in red blood cells and fatty acid composition in adipose tissue. Relative to diet, body condition, which was negatively related to sea ice extent at both temporal and spatial scales, was the most important predictor for concentrations of POPs in plasma and fat, whereas diet showed a minor influence. Additionally, fatter females were more efficient at biotransforming PCBs than were leaner ones. Breeding status influenced the concentrations of less lipophilic compounds such as β-hexachlorocyclohexane, which were lower in females with yearlings, probably due to excretion into milk and subsequent offloading to young. In conclusion, our results indicate that declining sea ice indirectly leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears mediated through reduced feeding opportunities and declining body condition rather than changes in diet composition.

  4. Effects of macroalgae on the recruitment, growth, and body condition of an invasive reef forming polychaete in a south-western Atlantic coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazterrica, María Cielo; Bruschetti, Carlos Martín; Alvarez, María Fernanda; Iribarne, Oscar; Botto, Florencia

    2014-04-01

    Species interactions could mediate species invasive processes. In Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon (37° 40‧S, 57° 23´W, Argentine), the invasive reef building polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel 1923) enhances the biomass of the red alga Polysiphonia subtilissima Montagne 1840 on reef surfaces, and excludes green macroalgae (mainly Cladophora sp. Kützing, 1843) from sediment between reefs. In turn, macroalgae could have several community structuring effects (e.g., as food or by competing for space). Therefore, macroalgae may affect F. enigmaticus. To evaluate this hypothesis we studied (1) the interaction between macroalgae and F. enigmaticus during the colonization of new substrates and (2) the effects of macroalgae on the recruitment, growth, and body condition of F. enigmaticus. Field sampling and experiments suggested a lack of competition on new substrates. However, there was a positive effect of macroalgae on F. enigmaticus during the warm season, since its recruitment, tube length, and body condition were higher in areas with macroalgae on reef surfaces. Considering that previous studies showed that reefs positively affect macroalgae, our results suggest that there is a positive feedback on F. enigmaticus created by macroalgae on established reefs and during the reefs' growing season. This interaction may contribute to the maintenance and growth of established reefs.

  5. Bioassay of body fluids, experiment M073. [biochemical changes caused by space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    Body fluids were assayed in this experiment to demonstrate changes which might have occurred during the 56-day chamber study in fluid and electrolyte balance, in regulation of calcium metabolism, in overall physiological and emotional adaptation to the environment, and in regulation of metabolic processes.

  6. Anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments in conditions of body asymmetry induced by holding an object.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-11-01

    The effect of body asymmetry on anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments was studied. Ten healthy subjects stood on the force platform and held an object in one hand which induced body asymmetry. Subjects were exposed to external perturbations applied to their shoulders while standing with either normal or narrow base of support. Bilateral electromyographic activity (EMG) of dorsal and ventral trunk and leg muscles and center-of-pressure displacements were recorded. Data was analyzed within the intervals typical for anticipatory (APA) and compensatory postural adjustments. Integrals of EMG activity and co-contraction and reciprocal activation of muscles were calculated and analyzed. Reciprocal activation of muscles on the target side and co-contraction of muscles on the contralateral side were seen when standing in asymmetrical stance and being subjected to external perturbations. Decreased magnitudes of co-contraction and reciprocal activation of muscles were seen in the APA phase while standing asymmetrically with narrow base of support. The findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of body asymmetry in maintaining control of vertical posture. The outcome of the study provides a foundation for future studies focusing on improvement in postural control in individuals with body asymmetry due to unilateral weakness.

  7. 42 CFR 483.410 - Condition of participation: Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM... governing body must— (1) Exercise general policy, budget, and operating direction over the facility; (2) Set... separate record for each client and that documents the client's health care, active treatment,...

  8. 42 CFR 483.410 - Condition of participation: Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM... governing body must— (1) Exercise general policy, budget, and operating direction over the facility; (2) Set... separate record for each client and that documents the client's health care, active treatment,...

  9. 42 CFR 483.410 - Condition of participation: Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... treatment, social information, and protection of the client's rights. (2) The facility must keep... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM... the facility. The governing body must— (1) Exercise general policy, budget, and operating...

  10. 42 CFR 483.410 - Condition of participation: Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... treatment, social information, and protection of the client's rights. (2) The facility must keep... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM... the facility. The governing body must— (1) Exercise general policy, budget, and operating...

  11. Use of ultrasound scanning and body condition score to evaluate composition traits in mature beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was designed to validate the use of ultrasound to evaluate body composition in mature beef cows. Both precision and accuracy of measurement were assessed. Cull cows (n = 87) selected for highly variable fatness were used. Two experienced ultrasound technicians scanned and assigned ...

  12. Performing a secondary executive task with affective stimuli interferes with decision making under risk conditions.

    PubMed

    Gathmann, Bettina; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that executive functions are crucial for advantageous decision making under risk and that therefore decision making is disrupted when working memory capacity is demanded while working on a decision task. While some studies also showed that emotions can affect decision making under risk, it is unclear how affective processing and executive functions predict decision-making performance in interaction. The current experimental study used a between-subjects design to examine whether affective pictures (positive and negative pictures compared to neutral pictures), included in a parallel executive task (working memory 2-back task), have an impact on decision making under risk as assessed by the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Moreover, the performance GDT plus 2-back task was compared to the performance in the GDT without any additional task (GDT solely). The results show that the performance in the GDT differed between groups (positive, negative, neutral, and GDT solely). The groups with affective pictures, especially those with positive pictures in the 2-back task, showed more disadvantageous decisions in the GDT than the groups with neutral pictures and the group performing the GDT without any additional task. However, executive functions moderated the effect of the affective pictures. Regardless of affective influence, subjects with good executive functions performed advantageously in the GDT. These findings support the assumption that executive functions and emotional processing interact in predicting decision making under risk.

  13. QCT/FEA predictions of femoral stiffness are strongly affected by boundary condition modeling

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Timothy; Kushvaha, Vinod; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography-based finite element models of proximal femora must be validated with cadaveric experiments before using them to assess fracture risk in osteoporotic patients. During validation it is essential to carefully assess whether the boundary condition modeling matches the experimental conditions. This study evaluated proximal femur stiffness results predicted by six different boundary condition methods on a sample of 30 cadaveric femora and compared the predictions with experimental data. The average stiffness varied by 280% among the six boundary conditions. Compared with experimental data the predictions ranged from overestimating the average stiffness by 65% to underestimating it by 41%. In addition we found that the boundary condition that distributed the load to the contact surfaces similar to the expected contact mechanics predictions had the best agreement with experimental stiffness. We concluded that boundary conditions modeling introduced large variations in proximal femora stiffness predictions. PMID:25804260

  14. 48 CFR 52.236-3 - Site Investigation and Conditions Affecting the Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of... power, and roads; (3) uncertainties of weather, river stages, tides, or similar physical conditions...

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-3 - Site Investigation and Conditions Affecting the Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of... power, and roads; (3) uncertainties of weather, river stages, tides, or similar physical conditions...

  16. 48 CFR 52.236-3 - Site Investigation and Conditions Affecting the Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of... power, and roads; (3) uncertainties of weather, river stages, tides, or similar physical conditions...

  17. The use of total serum proteins and triglycerides for monitoring body condition in the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Serrano, Emmanuel; González, Francisco J; Granados, José E; Moço, Gisela; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M

    2008-12-01

    Body condition in wild ungulates is traditionally evaluated during the necropsy of animals on the basis of the weight of fat stored around or within the vital organs, the weight of the organs themselves, and their derived indices. However, sometimes it is important to evaluate the nutritional status of the animal by means of blood and serum analyses and the interpretation of specific parameters. Only in a very few studies is the nutritional status of the animal obtained by blood biochemistry and, when obtained, compared with the values for body condition obtained by anatomic dissection. In this study, the usefulness of two serum parameters, total serum proteins (TSP) and serum triglycerides (ST), was assessed in the monitoring of the body condition of Iberian wild goats (Capra pyrenaica). In addition, their relationship with the kidney fat index (KFI) and its components, kidney mass without fat (KM) and kidney fat (KF) is evaluated. A total of 25 wild goats from the Sierra Nevada National Park (southern Iberian Peninsula) that were shot by hunters were used in this study. The parameter TSP was found to be correlated with KM, and ST was correlated with both KM and KFI. Hence, both TSP and ST can be used for monitoring physical condition in wild and captive Iberian wild goats.

  18. Feeding of potato, tomato and eggplant alkaloids affects food consumption and body and liver weights in mice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Henika, P R; Mackey, B E

    1996-04-01

    Reduced liver weight was used to evaluate the potential toxicity in mice of four naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids: alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, alpha-tomatine and solasonine. Increased liver weights was used to evaluate the three corresponding steroidal aglycones: solanidine, tomatidine, and solasodine and the non-alkaloid adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Adult female Swiss-Webster mice were fed diets containing test compound concentrations of 0 (control), 1.2, 2.4 or 4.8 mmol/kg diet for 7, 14 or 28 d. Absolute liver weights (LW) and relative liver weights (liver weight/body weight x 100, %LW/BW) were determined at autopsy. The %LW/BW was lower than that of controls in mice fed the potato glycoalkaloid alpha-chaconine (-10%, P < or = 0.05) for 7 d with the 2.4 mmol/kg diet dose. Under these same conditions, %LW/BW was greater than that of controls in mice fed two aglycones: solanidine (27%, P < or = 0.001) and solasodine (8%, P < or = 0.01). Relative liver weight increases induced by the aglycones were determined under time and dose conditions in which differences in body weight and food consumption were not significant (2.4 mmol/kg diet for 28 d). Under these conditions, the observed %LW/BW increases relative to the controls were as follows: solanidine (32%, P < or = 0.001), solasodine (22%, P < or = 0.001) and DHEA (16%, P < or = 0.001). Solanidine, solasodine and DHEA were equally potent and were more potent than tomatidine. We also observed that the greater %LW/BW in mice fed 2.4 mmol/kg diet solasodine or solanidine for 14 d declined to near control values if they were fed control diets for another 14 d. The increase in relative liver weight induced by solanidine and solasodine is a reversible adaptive response. These findings and the apparent effects of structure on biological activity should serve as a guide for the removal of the most toxic ++compounds from plant foods. The implications of the results for food safety and

  19. Body condition and wind support initiate the shift of migratory direction and timing of nocturnal departure in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Schmaljohann, Heiko; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2011-11-01

    1. An innate migration strategy guides birds through space and time. Environmental variation further modulates individual behaviour within a genetically determined frame. In particular, ecological barriers could influence departure direction and its timing. A shift in the migratory direction in response to an ecological barrier could reveal how birds adjust their individual trajectories to environmental cues and body condition. 2. Northern wheatears of the Greenland/Iceland subspecies Oenanthe oenanthe leucorhoa arrive in Western Europe en route from their West African winter range. They then undergo an endogenously controlled shift in migratory direction from north to north-west to cross a large ecological barrier, the North Atlantic. We radiotracked these songbirds departing from Helgoland, a small island in the North Sea, over an unprecedented range of their journey. 3. Here, we show that both birds' body condition and the wind conditions that they encountered influenced the departure direction significantly. Jointly high fuel loads and favourable wind conditions enabled migrants to cross large stretches of sea. Birds in good condition departed early in the night heading to the sea towards their breeding areas, while birds with low fuel loads and/or flying in poor weather conditions departed in directions leading towards nearby mainland areas during the entire night. These areas could be reached even after setting off late at night. 4. Behavioural adjustment of migratory patterns is a critical adaptation for crossing ecological barriers. The observed variation in departure direction and time in relation to fuel load and wind revealed that these birds have an innate ability to respond by jointly incorporating internal information (body condition) and external information (wind support).

  20. Sequential activation of different pathway networks in ischemia-affected and non-affected myocardium, inducing intrinsic remote conditioning to prevent left ventricular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Pavo, Noemi; Lukovic, Dominika; Zlabinger, Katrin; Zimba, Abelina; Lorant, David; Goliasch, Georg; Winkler, Johannes; Pils, Dietmar; Auer, Katharina; Jan Ankersmit, Hendrik; Giricz, Zoltán; Baranyai, Tamas; Sárközy, Márta; Jakab, András; Garamvölgyi, Rita; Emmert, Maximilian Y.; Hoerstrup, Simon P.; Hausenloy, Derek J.; Ferdinandy, Péter; Maurer, Gerald; Gyöngyösi, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    We have analyzed the pathway networks of ischemia-affected and remote myocardial areas after repetitive ischemia/reperfusion (r-I/R) injury without ensuing myocardial infarction (MI) to elaborate a spatial- and chronologic model of cardioprotective gene networks to prevent left ventricular (LV) adverse remodeling. Domestic pigs underwent three cycles of 10/10 min r-I/R by percutaneous intracoronary balloon inflation/deflation in the mid left anterior descending artery, without consecutive MI. Sham interventions (n = 8) served as controls. Hearts were explanted at 5 h (n = 6) and 24 h (n = 6), and transcriptomic profiling of the distal (ischemia-affected) and proximal (non-affected) anterior myocardial regions were analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS) and post-processing with signaling pathway impact and pathway network analyses. In ischemic region, r-I/R induced early activation of Ca-, adipocytokine and insulin signaling pathways with key regulator STAT3, which was also upregulated in the remote areas together with clusterin (CLU) and TNF-alpha. During the late phase of cardioprotection, antigen immunomodulatory pathways were activated with upregulation of STAT1 and CASP3 and downregulation of neprilysin in both zones, suggesting r-I/R induced intrinsic remote conditioning. The temporo-spatially differently activated pathways revealed a global myocardial response, and neprilysin and the STAT family as key regulators of intrinsic remote conditioning for prevention of adverse remodeling. PMID:28266659

  1. Memory Elicited by Courtship Conditioning Requires Mushroom Body Neuronal Subsets Similar to Those Utilized in Appetitive Memory

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Shelby A.; Baker, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    An animal’s ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female. As such, courtship conditioning is not clearly categorized as either appetitive or aversive conditioning. The mushroom body (MB) region in the fruit fly brain is important for several types of memory; however, the precise subsets of intrinsic and extrinsic MB neurons necessary for courtship conditioning are unknown. Here, we disrupted synaptic signaling by driving a shibirets effector in precise subsets of MB neurons, defined by a collection of split-GAL4 drivers. Out of 75 lines tested, 32 showed defects in courtship conditioning memory. Surprisingly, we did not have any hits in the γ lobe Kenyon cells, a region previously implicated in courtship conditioning memory. We did find that several γ lobe extrinsic neurons were necessary for courtship conditioning memory. Overall, our memory hits in the dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and the mushroom body output neurons were more consistent with results from appetitive memory assays than aversive memory assays. For example, protocerebral anterior medial DANs were necessary for courtship memory, similar to appetitive memory, while protocerebral posterior lateral 1 (PPL1) DANs, important for aversive memory, were not needed. Overall, our results indicate that the MB circuits necessary for courtship conditioning memory coincide with circuits necessary for appetitive memory. PMID

  2. Exercise and diet affect quantitative trait loci for body weight and composition traits in an advanced intercross population of mice.

    PubMed

    Leamy, Larry J; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Driven by the recent obesity epidemic, interest in understanding the complex genetic and environmental basis of body weight and composition is great. We investigated this by searching for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting a number of weight and adiposity traits in a G(10) advanced intercross population produced from crosses of mice in inbred strain C57BL/6J with those in a strain selected for high voluntary wheel running. The mice in this population were fed either a high-fat or a control diet throughout the study and also measured for four exercise traits prior to death, allowing us to test for pre- and postexercise QTLs as well as QTL-by-diet and QTL-by-exercise interactions. Our genome scan uncovered a number of QTLs, of which 40% replicated QTLs previously found for similar traits in an earlier (G(4)) generation. For those replicated QTLs, the confidence intervals were reduced from an average of 19 Mb in the G(4) to 8 Mb in the G(10). Four QTLs on chromosomes 3, 8, 13, and 18 were especially prominent in affecting the percentage of fat in the mice. About of all QTLs showed interactions with diet, exercise, or both, their genotypic effects on the traits showing a variety of patterns depending on the diet or level of exercise. It was concluded that the indirect effects of these QTLs provide an underlying genetic basis for the considerable variability in weight or fat loss typically found among individuals on the same diet and/or exercise regimen.

  3. Development and validation of a visual body condition scoring system for dairy goats with picture-based training.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Brandão, S; Monteiro, A; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G

    2015-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is the most widely used method to assess changes in body fat reserves, which reflects its high potential to be included in on-farm welfare assessment protocols. Currently used scoring systems in dairy goats require animal restraint for body palpation. In this study, the Animal Welfare Indicators project (AWIN) proposes to overcome this constraint by developing a scoring system based only on visual assessment. The AWIN visual body condition scoring system highlights representative animals from 3 categories: very thin, normal, and very fat, and was built from data sets with photographs of animals scored by a commonly used 6-point scoring system that requires palpation in 2 anatomical regions. Development of the AWIN scoring system required 3 steps: (1) identification and validation of a body region of interest; (2) sketching the region from photographs; and (3) creation of training material. The scoring system's reliability was statistically confirmed. An initial study identified features in the rump region from which we could compute a set of body measurements (i.e., measures based on anatomical references of the rump region) that showed a strong correlation with the assigned BCS. To validate the result, we collected a final data set from 171 goats. To account for variability in animal size and camera position, we mapped a subset of features to a standard template and aligned all the rump images before computing the body measurements. Scientific illustrations were created from the aligned images of animals identified as representative of each category to increase clarity and reproducibility. For training material, we created sketches representing the threshold between consecutive categories. Finally, we conducted 2 field reliability studies. In the first test, no training was given to 4 observers, whereas in the second, training using the threshold images was delivered to the same observers. In the first experiment, interobserver results

  4. Blubber and buoyancy: monitoring the body condition of free-ranging seals using simple dive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Biuw, Martin; McConnell, Bernie; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Burton, Harry; Fedak, Mike

    2003-10-01

    Elephant seals regularly perform dives during which they spend a large proportion of time drifting passively through the water column. The rate of vertical change in depth during these "drift" dives is largely a result of the proportion of lipid tissue in the body, with fatter seals having higher (more positive or less negative) drift rates compared with leaner seals. We examined the temporal changes in drift rates of 24 newly weaned southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) pups during their first trip to sea to determine if this easily recorded dive characteristic can be used to continuously monitor changes in body composition of seals throughout their foraging trips. All seals demonstrated a similar trend over time: drift rates were initially positive but decreased steadily over the first 30-50 days after departure (Phase 1), corresponding to seals becoming gradually less buoyant. Over the following approximately 100 days (Phase 2), drift rates again increased gradually, while during the last approximately 20-45 days (Phase 3) drift rates either remained constant or decreased slightly. The daily rate of change in drift rate was negatively related to the daily rate of horizontal displacement (daily travel rate), and daily travel rates of more than approximately 80 km were almost exclusively associated with negative changes in drift rate. We developed a mechanistic model based on body compositions and morphometrics measured in the field, published values for the density of seawater and various body components, and values of drag coefficients for objects of different shapes. We used this model to examine the theoretical relationships between drift rate and body composition and carried out a sensitivity analysis to quantify errors and biases caused by varying model parameters. While variations in seawater density and uncertainties in estimated body surface area and volume are unlikely to result in errors in estimated lipid content of more than +/-2.5%, variations in

  5. The Addition of Saccharin to Taste Cues Affects Taste Preference Conditioning in Thirsty Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forestell, Catherine A.; LoLordo, Vincent M.

    2004-01-01

    Previous failures to condition preferences for the unacceptable taste cues sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and citric acid (CA) using a reverse-order, differential conditioning procedure (Forestell & LoLordo, 2000) may have been the result of low consumption of the taste cues in training or of their relatively low acceptability to rats that are thirsty…

  6. Rate of Conditioned Reinforcement Affects Observing Rate but Not Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the resistance to change of operant behavior have not been examined. In addition, the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the rate of observing have not been adequately examined. In two experiments, a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures was used to examine the effects…

  7. 42 CFR 416.41 - Condition for coverage-Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Specific Conditions...) of this section; or (ii) Ensure that all physicians performing surgery in the ASC have...

  8. Physiological responses of juvenile rainbow trout to fasting and swimming activity: Effects on body composition and condition indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The physiological traits that allow fish to survive periods of limited food resources are poorly understood. We assessed changes in proximate body composition, relative organ mass, blood metabolites, and relative weight (Wr) of sedentary and actively swimming (15 cm/s) juvenile rainbow trout (154-182 mm total length) over 147 d of fasting. Fasting caused measurable responses that were augmented when fish were swimming. Lipids and plasma triacylglycerides declined over time. Proteins were catabolized simultaneously with lipid reserves, but ammonia concentrations in plasma did not increase. The liver somatic index (LSI) did not change substantially over 105 d, suggesting that gluconeogenesis maintained blood glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen reserves for a substantial period of fasting. The gut somatic index (GSI) and Wr declined linearly during fasting, but the LSI did not decline until after 105 d of fasting. Consequently, the use of different body condition indices could lead to different conclusions about the condition of juvenile rainbow trout. Swimming activity caused fish to have lower lipid and protein reserves than those of sedentary fish. No mortalities were observed among sedentary fish, but mortalities occurred among actively swimming fish after 97 d of fasting when 3.2% or less lipid remained in their bodies. Body condition indices did not account for differences in proximate body composition between sedentary and actively swimming fish and were relatively poor predictors of lipid content and risk of mortality. The probability of mortality was most accurately predicted by percent lipid content. Therefore, we suggest that fisheries scientists consider using percent lipid content when evaluating the physiological status and risk of mortality due to starvation among juvenile rainbow trout.

  9. Toxicity of DDT to Japanese quail as influenced by body weight, breeding condition, and sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gish, C.D.; Chura, N.J.

    1970-01-01

    Controlled experiments were utilized to simulate the stresses on wild birds of breeding condition and of weight loss due to migration. Light conditions in the laboratory were manipulated to produce Japanese quail (Co