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Sample records for affecting carbon fluxes

  1. Carbon Flux Explorers

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Jim

    2016-09-09

    Jim Bishop, senior scientist at Berkeley Lab and professor at UC Berkeley, is leading a project to deploy robotic floats that provide data on how microorganisms sequester carbon in the ocean. He recently led a research team on a 10-day voyage, funded by the National Science Foundation, to put the Carbon Flux Explorers to the test.

  2. Carbon Flux Explorers

    ScienceCinema

    Bishop, Jim

    2016-10-12

    Jim Bishop, senior scientist at Berkeley Lab and professor at UC Berkeley, is leading a project to deploy robotic floats that provide data on how microorganisms sequester carbon in the ocean. He recently led a research team on a 10-day voyage, funded by the National Science Foundation, to put the Carbon Flux Explorers to the test.

  3. Climatic versus biotic constraints on carbon and water fluxes in seasonally drought-affected ponderosa pine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, P. A.; Law, B. E.; Williams, M.; Irvine, J.; Kurpius, M.; Moore, D.

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the relative importance of climatic versus biotic controls on gross primary production (GPP) and water vapor fluxes in seasonally drought-affected ponderosa pine forests. The study was conducted in young (YS), mature (MS), and old stands (OS) over 4 years at the AmeriFlux Metolius sites. Model simulations showed that interannual variation of GPP did not follow the same trends as precipitation, and effects of climatic variation were smallest at the OS (<10%), largest at the MS (>50%), and intermediate at the YS (<20%). In the young, developing stand, interannual variation in leaf area has larger effects on fluxes than climate, although leaf area is a function of climate in that climate can interact with age-related shifts in carbon allocation and affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance. Older forests, with well-established root systems, appear to be better buffered from effects of seasonal drought and interannual climatic variation. Interannual variation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was also lowest at the OS, where NEE is controlled more by interannual variation of ecosystem respiration, 70% of which is from soil, than by the variation of GPP, whereas variation in GPP is the primary reason for interannual changes in NEE at the YS and MS. Across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with high frequency of younger stands resulting from natural and anthropogenic disturbances, interannual climatic variation and change in leaf area are likely to result in large interannual variation in GPP and NEE.

  4. Climatic Versus Biotic Constraints on Carbon and Water Fluxes in Seasonally Drought-affected Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, P. A.; Law, B. E.; Williams, M.; Irvine, J.; Kurpius, M.; Moore, D.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relative importance of climatic versus biotic controls on gross primary production (GPP) and water vapor fluxes in seasonally drought-affected ponderosa pine forests. The study was conducted in young (YS), mature (MS), and old stands (OS) over 4 years at the AmeriFlux Metolius sites. Model simulations showed that interannual variation of GPP did not follow the same trends as precipitation, and effects of climatic variation were smallest at the OS (50%), and intermediate at the YS (<20%). In the young, developing stand, interannual variation in leaf area has larger effects on fluxes than climate, although leaf area is a function of climate in that climate can interact with age-related shifts in carbon allocation and affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance. Older forests, with well-established root systems, appear to be better buffered from effects of seasonal drought and interannual climatic variation. Interannual variation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was also lowest at the OS, where NEE is controlled more by interannual variation of ecosystem respiration, 70% of which is from soil, than by the variation of GPP, whereas variation in GPP is the primary reason for interannual changes in NEE at the YS and MS. Across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with high frequency of younger stands resulting from natural and anthropogenic disturbances, interannual climatic variation and change in leaf area are likely to result in large interannual variation in GPP and NEE.

  5. Processes Affecting Carbon Fluxes of Grassland Ecosystems Under Elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Owensby, C.E.; Ham, J.M.; Rice, C.W.; Knapp, A.K.

    1998-03-14

    Final report of a project which exposed native tallgrass prairie to twice-ambient atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Improved water use efficiency increased biomass production and increased soil organic matter. Twice ambient CO{sub 2} decreased canopy evapotranspiration by 22%, but, maintained an increased net carbon sequestration.

  6. How Seasonal Drought Affect Carbon and Water Fluxes of Alternative Energy Crops in the US?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, E.; Hussain, M. Z.; Zeri, M.; Masters, M.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The cellulosic biomass of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) and native prairie are considered candidate second-generation biofuels, potentially resulting in partial replacement annual row crops within the Midwestern US. There is an increasing focus to study the environmental impact of agricultural crops, however not much is known on the influence on the energy, carbon and water cycles of energy crops, especially under drought conditions. This study compares the impact of drought episodes (in 2011 and 2012) on evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and water use efficiency (WUE; equals to NEP/ET) for Switchgrass (SW), Miscanthus (MXG), Maize (MZ) and native prairie (NP) grown in Central Illinois using the eddy covariance technique. Due to the prolonged drought and the rapid growth development with increasing ET of MXG in 2012, large water deficit (precipitation-ET) was observed for each species up to the highest deficit of -360 mm for this species. The gross primary production (GPP) of MZ was radically decreased by the drought in 2011 and 2012, while SW and NP were not influenced. MXG increased NEP throughout the typically wet and drought years, mainly due to the decrease in respiration and by the largest GPP upon the drought in 2012. Despite having the largest water deficit, MXG showed an enhanced WUE of 12.8 and 11.4 Kg C ha-1mm-1 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, in comparison to years typical to the region with WUE of 3.7-7.3 Kg C ha-1mm-1. Other species did not show a significant enhancement of WUE. Therefore we conclude that out of the studied species, MXG has more access to water, and uses this water the most efficiently to store carbon, under drought conditions.

  7. California's Future Carbon Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K.; Gertz, M.

    2008-12-01

    The diversity of the climate and vegetation systems in the state of California provides a unique opportunity to study carton dioxide exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. In order to accurately calculate the carbon flux, this study couples the sophisticated analytical surface layer model ACASA (Advance Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, developed in the University of California, Davis) with the newest version of mesoscale model WRF (the Weather Research & Forecasting Model, developed by NCAR and several other agencies). As a multilayer, steady state model, ACASA incorporates higher-order representations of vertical temperature variations, CO2 concentration, radiation, wind speed, turbulent statistics, and plant physiology. The WRF-ACASA coupling is designed to identify how multiple environmental factors, in particularly climate variability, population density, and vegetation distribution, impact on future carbon cycle prediction across a wide geographical range such as in California.

  8. Generalized Münch coupling between sugar and water fluxes for modelling carbon allocation as affected by water status.

    PubMed

    Daudet, F A; Lacointe, A; Gaudillère, J P; Cruiziat, P

    2002-02-07

    A model of within-plant carbon allocation is proposed which makes a generalized use of the Münch mechanism to integrate carbon and water functions and their involvement in growth limitations. The plant is envisioned as a branched network of resistive pathways (phloem and xylem) with nodal organs acting as sources and sinks for sucrose. Four elementary organs (leaf, stem, fruit, root) are described with their particular sink functions and hydraulic attributes. Given the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration and the hydraulic properties of the network as inputs, the model calculates the internal fluxes of water and sucrose. Xylem water potential (Psi), phloem sucrose concentration (C) and turgor pressure (P) are calculated everywhere in the network accounting for osmotic equilibrium between apoplasm and symplasm and coupled functioning of xylem and phloem. The fluxes of phloem and xylem saps are driven by the gradients of P and Psi, respectively. The fruit growth rate is assumed as turgor pressure dependent. To demonstrate its ability to address within-plant competition, the model is run with a simple-branched structure gathering three leaves, eight stem segments, three competing growing fruits and one root. The model was programmed with P-Spice, a software specifically designed for simulating electrical circuits but easily adaptable to physiology. Simulations of internal water fluxes, sucrose concentrations and fruit growth rates are given for different conditions of soil water availability and hydraulic resistances (sensitivity analysis). The discussion focuses on the potential interest of this approach in functional--structural plant models to address water stress-induced effects.

  9. Wet Deposition Flux of Reactive Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, S.; Heald, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Reactive organic carbon (ROC) is the sum of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and primary and secondary organic aerosols (OA). ROC plays a key role in driving the chemistry of the atmosphere, affecting the hydroxyl radical concentrations, methane lifetime, ozone formation, heterogeneous chemical reactions, and cloud formation, thereby impacting human health and climate. Uncertainties on the lifecycle of ROC in the atmosphere remain large. In part this can be attributed to the large uncertainties associated with the wet deposition fluxes. Little is known about the global magnitude of wet deposition as a sink of both gas and particle phase organic carbon, making this an important area for research and sensitivity testing in order to better understand the global ROC budget. In this study, we simulate the wet deposition fluxes of the reactive organic carbon of the troposphere using a global chemistry transport model, GEOS-Chem. We start by showing the current modeled global distribution of ROC wet deposition fluxes and investigate the sensitivity of these fluxes to variability in Henry's law solubility constants and spatial resolution. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc) is a useful metric that depicts the degree of oxidation of atmospheric reactive carbon. Here, we present for the first time the simulated gas and particle phase OSc of the global troposphere. We compare the OSc in the wet deposited reactive carbon flux and the dry deposited reactive carbon flux to the OSc of atmospheric ROC to gain insight into the degree of oxidation in deposited material and, more generally, the aging of organic material in the troposphere.

  10. Changes in soil moisture affect carbon and water fluxes from trees and soils differently in a young semi-arid ponderosa pine stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehr, N. K.; Martin, J.; Pettijohn, J. C.; Law, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    A potential decline in the global trend in land evapotranspiration due to soil moisture limitation may alter the C balance of forest ecosystems, especially in water-limited Mediterranean and semi-arid climate zones. Despite the wide distribution of ponderosa pine forests in semi-arid climate zones of the USA, detailed studies on how these ecosystems may respond to changes in soil water availability are rather rare. To provide better insights on this relevant topic, we conducted a soil moisture manipulation experiment and investigated the response of tree and soil carbon and water fluxes in a young ponderosa pine stand in Oregon (Ameriflux site US-Me6) during summer 2010. Irrigation started with the onset of the dry season at the end of June, maintaining volumetric soil moisture content constantly above 20%. In contrast, in the control treatment soil moisture dried down with regional drought and was below 10% and 15% in 10 cm and 30 cm depth by the end of August. Results show that irrigation increased soil CO2 efflux by 40% at the end of July and reached a maximum of 60% in mid August, with about one-third to two-thirds originating from root-rhizosphere respiration (soil CO2 efflux under tree - soil CO2 efflux in the open). Photosynthesis (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (T) rates were not affected by irrigation in early summer. However, Amax, gs and T rates in both treatments suddenly decreased, most likely caused by increased VPD and decreased soil water availability (predawn needle water potentials) at the end of July. Irrigation dampened that decrease and caused Amax, gs and T to remain on average about 25% higher, following largely the course of VPD during August. In summary, our preliminary results indicate that higher soil water content affected in particular soil activity and root-rhizosphere respiration rates. Photosynthesis and transpiration appeared to depend to a lesser extent and later in the season on irrigation water, yet both

  11. Suspended particulate matter fluxes along with their associated metals, organic matter and carbonates in a coastal Mediterranean area affected by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Helali, Mohamed Amine; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Oueslati, Walid; Added, Ayed; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-03-15

    A study of suspended particulate matter (SPM) fluxes along with their associated metals, organic matter and carbonates, was conducted off the Mejerda River outlet in May 2011 and in March and July 2012 at depths of 10, 20 and 40 m using sediment traps. SPM fluxes are more significant near the Mejerda outlet, especially in winter, but dissipate further offshore. Normalization reveals that the Mejerda is a major source of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Co, all of which are the result of human activities. In contrast, Fe, Mn and N are of authigenic origin. The enrichment factor shows that Pb, Zn and especially Cd are the most highly polluting metals off the Mejerda outlet. This confirms the trend observed on the shores of the Mejerda prodelta and is consistent with the type of mining activities conducted in the Mejerda catchment.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M

    2005-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

  13. Genotypic variation in traits controlling carbon flux responses to precipitation in switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background/Questions/Methods Fluxes of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems are key indicators of their productivity and carbon storage potential. Ecosystem fluxes will be impacted by climate change, especially changes in rainfall amount. Fluxes may also be affected by plant traits, including abovegr...

  14. Soil carbon pools and fluxes in urban ecosystems

    Treesearch

    R. Pouyat; P. Groffman; I Yesilonis; L. Hernandez

    2002-01-01

    The transformation of landscapes from non-urban to urban land use has the potential to greatly modify soil carbon (C) pools and fluxes. For urban ecosystems, very little data exists to assess whether urbanization leads to an increase or decrease in soil C pools. We analyzed three data sets to assess the potential for urbanization to affect soil organic C. These...

  15. Gas and aerosol fluxes. [emphasizing sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques to address the global need for accurate distribution and flux determinations of both man made and natural materials which affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere, the heat budget of the Earth, and the depletion, of stratospheric ozone is considered. Specifically, trace gas fluxes, sea salt aerosol production, and the effect of sea surface microlayer on gas and aerosol fluxes are examined. Volatile sulfur, carbon, nitrogen, and halocarbon compounds are discussed including a statement of the problem associated with each compound or group of compounds, a brief summary of current understanding, and suggestions for needed research.

  16. Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a

  17. Foliar uptake, carbon fluxes and water status are affected by the timing of daily fog in saplings from a threatened cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Berry, Z Carter; White, Joseph C; Smith, William K

    2014-05-01

    In cloud forests, foliar uptake (FU) of water has been reported for numerous species, possibly acting to relieve daily water and carbon stress. While the prevalence of FU seems common, how daily variation in fog timing may affect this process has not been studied. We examined the quantity of FU, water potentials, gas exchange and abiotic variation at the beginning and end of a 9-day exposure to fog in a glasshouse setting. Saplings of Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. and Picea rubens Sarg. were exposed to morning (MF), afternoon (AF) or evening fog (EF) regimes to assess the ability to utilize fog water at different times of day and after sustained exposure to simulated fog. The greatest amount of FU occurred during MF (up to 50%), followed by AF (up to 23%) and then EF, which surprisingly had no FU. There was also a positive relationship between leaf conductance and FU, suggesting a role of stomata in FU. Moreover, MF and AF lead to the greatest improvements in daily water balance and carbon gain, respectively. Foliar uptake was important for improving plant ecophysiology but was influenced by diurnal variation in fog. With climate change scenarios predicting changes to cloud patterns and frequency that will likely alter diurnal patterns, cloud forests that rely on this water subsidy could be affected.

  18. Carbon Fluxes on the Florida shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, L. L.; Knorr, P. O.; Liu, X. S.; Byrne, R.; Gledhill, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    Lack of baseline data on carbonate saturation state and pCO2 fluxes on the west Florida shelf, a low- gradient calcium carbonate platform, constrains the ability of managers and scientists to predict aspects of ecosystem change. Ecosystem change may result from a number of factors, such as climate change, ocean acidification, riverine and groundwater contribution, and biogeochemical cycling. Maps and models of pCO2 fluxes and carbonate saturation state are needed for the Florida shelf where significant decline of carbonate ecosystems, fishery habitats, and calcifying organisms are predicted over the next decade. To address critical information gaps and an incomplete understanding of nearshore carbon flux variability, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a field campaign with the University of South Florida (USF) and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to acquire baseline pCO2, pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and total alkalinity (TA) on the west Florida shelf. These data are being used to model nearshore to offshore regional pCO2 and carbonate saturation state and, in conjunction with acquired habitat data, will be used to describe and interpret habitat change over time. Using the Multiparameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA) developed by USF, data on air and sea pCO2, pH, DIC, and TA were collected underway during July and August 2008 cruises on the west Florida shelf. Maps depicting carbonate saturation state of the marine water, underlying sediment, and habitat data show varying relations. An additional cruise is planned for winter 2009.

  19. Proposed Gulf of Mexico Intensive Study on Carbon Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, P. G.; Robbins, L.; Lohrenz, S.; Cai, W.

    2009-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is an ideal site for the study of land-ocean carbon cycle coupling processes. A recent synthesis suggests that Gulf of Mexico air-sea CO2 flux may dominate the net flux of the entire North American margin because of the Gulf's large size and strong carbon signals. Northern Gulf waters appear to be a strong local CO2 sink due to high primary productivity stimulated by river input of anthropogenic nutrients from the North American continent. Nutrient discharge from the Mississippi River has been implicated in widespread hypoxia on the shelf. The surface drainage system of the Gulf covers more than 60% of the U.S. and more than 40% of Mexico; thus, large-scale changes in land-use and water-management practices in both countries, as well as changes in temperature and rainfall due to climate change, will profoundly affect Gulf carbon fluxes. Nevertheless, major sources of uncertainty in the North American carbon budget remain because of largely unsampled areas, undocumented key fluxes, such as air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide, associated carbon fluxes, and poorly characterized control mechanisms. An intensive study in which the Gulf is considered as a whole system, including watersheds, margins, open Gulf of Mexico, overlying atmosphere, and underlying sediments, will be discussed. The study is best addressed using a three-pronged approach that incorporates remote sensing observations, field observations and experiments, and physical and biogeochemical modeling. Societal issues related to carbon management and land-use/land-change must be an integral part of such a study. International cooperation with Mexico, Canada, and Cuba will be essential for the success of this study.

  20. Upscaling diurnal cycles of carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodesheim, Paul; Jung, Martin; Mahecha, Miguel; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Carbon fluxes like Gross Primary Production (GPP) and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) are important variables for studying interactions between the atmosphere and the biosphere in different ecosystems. They are typically derived from measurements at Eddy covariance towers and the FLUXNET global network consists of hundreds of such sites. In order to diagnose global GPP and NEE patterns from FLUXNET, upscaling approaches have been used in the past to extrapolate the site measurements to continental and global scale. However, respective products have a daily or monthly temporal resolution and do not allow for analyzing patterns related to diurnal variations of GPP and NEE. To raise these upscaling approaches to the next level, we present our first results on upscaling diurnal cycles of GPP and NEE with half-hourly resolution. We use random forest regression models to estimate the relationship between predictor variables and fluxes based on more than four million half-hourly observations from FLUXNET sites. We have developed and tested two approaches that overcome the mismatch in the temporal resolution between predictor variables at daily resolution and fluxes at half-hourly resolution. Based on thorough leave-one-site-out cross-validation we show that the approach works very well. Finally, we used the trained models for computing global products of half-hourly GPP and NEE that cover the years 2001 to 2014 and present global patterns of diurnal carbon flux variations derived from the upscaling approach.

  1. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon from Chesapeake Bay sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Burdige, D.J.; Homstead, J. )

    1994-08-01

    Benthic fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured over an annual cycle at two contrasting sites in Chesapeake Bay. At an organic-rich, sulfidic site in the mesohaline portion of the Bay (site M) DOC fluxes from the sediments ranged from 1.4 to 2.9 mmol/m[sup 2]/d. Measured benthic DOC fluxes at site M corresponded to [approximately]3-13% of the depth-integrated benthic C remineralization rates ([Sigma]OCR), and agreed well with calculated diffusive DOC fluxes based on porewater DOC profiles. This agreement suggests that DOC fluxes from site M sediments were likely controlled by molecular diffusion. The second site that was studied is a heavily bioturbated site in the southern Bay (site S). The activity of macrobenthos did not appear to enhance DOC fluxes from these sediments, since measured benthic DOC fluxes (>0.5 mmol/m[sup 2]/d) were lower than those at site M. The ratios of benthic DOC fluxes to [Sigma]OCR values at site S were also slightly smaller than those observed at site M. Benthic DOC fluxes from Chesapeake Bay sediments do not appear to significantly affect the transport of DOC through this estuary, although uncertainties in the reactivity of DOC in estuaries makes this conclusion somewhat tentative at this time. However, when these results are used to make a lower limit estimate of the globally integrated benthic DOC flux from marine sediments, a value similar to that previously calculated by Burdige et al. is obtained. This observation further supports suggestions in this paper about the importance of benthic DOC fluxes in the oceanic C cycle.

  2. Estimates of carbon cycle surface fluxes from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Lee, M.; Gurney, K. R.; Menemenlis, D.; Brix, H.; Hill, C. N.; Denning, S.; Haynes, K.; Baker, I. T.; Henze, D. K.; Bousserez, N.; Marland, G.; Marland, E.; Badurek, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of NASA Carbon Monitoring Study (CMS) Flux Pilot Project is to incorporate the full suite of NASA observational, modeling, and assimilation capabilities in order to attribute changes in globally distributed CO2 concentrations to spatially resolved surface fluxes across the entire carbon cycle. To that end, CMS has initiated a coordinated effort between land surface, ocean, fossil fuel, and atmospheric scientists to provide global estimates of CO2 constrained by satellite observations and informed by contemporaneous estimates of 'bottom up' fluxes from land surface, ocean, and fossil fuel models. The CMS Flux has evolved to incorporate a spatially explicit fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS), an updated ECCO2 Darwin biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and the new Simple Biospheric Model (Sib4) terrestrial ecosystem model. We compare GOSAT xCO2 observations, processed by the JPL ACOS v33, to predicted CMS Flux atmospheric CO2 concentrations for 2010-2011, and attribute the differences to spatially-resolved fluxes. We examine these fluxes in terms of interannual variability, correlative satellite measurements, and uncertainty across the carbon cycle

  3. Carbon Flux Explorer observations of ocean carbon sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. K.; Wood, T.

    2011-12-01

    The strength of natural biotic organic carbon sedimentation from the base of sunlit zone of the ocean is estimated to be 10 Pg C/y globally. This biological sequestration of carbon to deeper waters plays a key role in the atmophere/ocean carbon balance. It is impossible to predict whether the ocean biological carbon pump will strengthen or weaken in the face of climate change and ocean acidification because there are scant observations of the sinking carbon flux and remineralization in the upper 1000 m. We report progress on the development and deployment of the fully robotic and autonomous Ocean Carbon Flux Explorer (CFE) which is designed to follow hourly variations of carbon sedimentation for seasons at depths to 1500 m. The CFE relays observations to shore in real time via Iridium satellite links. The Carbon Flux Explorer is the integration of the Scripps Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO) with the LBNL/UC Berkeley Optical Sedimentation Recorder (OSR). The OSR intercepts sinking particles and images them using dark field, transmitted, and transmitted cross polarized modes of illumination. OSR's modified to collect samples have been deployed to enable translation image data on particle albedo, optical density, and birefringence to carbon units. Our aim is fully autonomous operations in 2012. In this progress update, we report highlights of CFE deployments in the Santa Catalina Basin (October 2010, May 2011) and Santa Cruz Basin (May 2011), and California Current waters (August through September 2011). In many cases CFE data shows order of magnitude variation of particle sedimentation on diurnal time scales, a view of sedimentation here-to-fore not attained.

  4. Carbon fluxes from an urban tropical grassland.

    PubMed

    Ng, B J L; Hutyra, L R; Nguyen, H; Cobb, A R; Kai, F M; Harvey, C; Gandois, L

    2015-08-01

    Turfgrass covers a large fraction of the urbanized landscape, but the carbon exchange of urban lawns is poorly understood. We used eddy covariance and flux chambers in a grassland field manipulative experiment to quantify the carbon mass balance in a Singapore tropical turfgrass. We also assessed how management and variations in environmental factors influenced CO2 respiration. Standing aboveground turfgrass biomass was 80 gC m(-2), with a mean ecosystem respiration of 7.9 ± 1.1 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The contribution of autotrophic respiration was 49-76% of total ecosystem respiration. Both chamber and eddy covariance measurements suggest the system was in approximate carbon balance. While we did not observe a significant relationship between the respiration rates and soil temperature or moisture, daytime fluxes increased during the rainy interval, indicating strong overall moisture sensitivity. Turfgrass biomass is small, but given its abundance across the urban landscape, it significantly influences diurnal CO2 concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon storage and greenhouse gas fluxes in the San Juan ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mangrove systems are known carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks, but this function may be affected by global change drivers that include (but are not limited to) eutrophication, climate change, species composition shifts, and hydrological changes. In Puerto Rico’s San Juan Bay Estuary, mangrove wetlands are characterized by anthropogenic impacts, particularly tidal restriction due to infilling of the Martin Pena Canal and eutrophication. The objective of our research is to measure carbon sequestration and carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes in the San Juan Bay Estuary to understand the sustainability and role in global climate of this urban mangrove ecosystem. Cores for C sequestration measurements were collected and GHG fluxes were measured during rainy and dry seasons at 5 sites along a gradient of development and nitrogen loading in the San Juan Bay Estuary. At each site, paired GHG flux measurements were performed for mangrove wetland soil and estuarine water using static and floating chambers. Our results suggest a positive relationship between urban development and CH4 and N2O emissions, and demonstrate that in this system, estuarine waters are a major methane source. In addition to providing characterization of GHG fluxes in an urban subtropical estuary, these data provide a baseline against which future states of the estuary (after planned hydrological restoration has been implemented) may be compared. In Puer

  6. Carbon storage and greenhouse gas fluxes in the San Juan ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mangrove systems are known carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks, but this function may be affected by global change drivers that include (but are not limited to) eutrophication, climate change, species composition shifts, and hydrological changes. In Puerto Rico’s San Juan Bay Estuary, mangrove wetlands are characterized by anthropogenic impacts, particularly tidal restriction due to infilling of the Martin Pena Canal and eutrophication. The objective of our research is to measure carbon sequestration and carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes in the San Juan Bay Estuary to understand the sustainability and role in global climate of this urban mangrove ecosystem. Cores for C sequestration measurements were collected and GHG fluxes were measured during rainy and dry seasons at 5 sites along a gradient of development and nitrogen loading in the San Juan Bay Estuary. At each site, paired GHG flux measurements were performed for mangrove wetland soil and estuarine water using static and floating chambers. Our results suggest a positive relationship between urban development and CH4 and N2O emissions, and demonstrate that in this system, estuarine waters are a major methane source. In addition to providing characterization of GHG fluxes in an urban subtropical estuary, these data provide a baseline against which future states of the estuary (after planned hydrological restoration has been implemented) may be compared. Thi

  7. Soil carbon flux following pulse precipitation events in the shortgrass steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, S.M.; Benton, T.J.; Lauenroth, W.K.; Burke, I.C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulses of water availability characterize semiarid and arid ecosystems. Most precipitation events in these ecosystems are small (???10 mm), but can stimulate carbon flux. The large proportion of carbon stored belowground and small carbon inputs create the potential for these small precipitation events to have large effects on carbon cycling. Land-use change can modify these effects through alteration of the biota and soil resources. The goal of our research was to determine how small precipitation events (2, 5, and 10 mm) affected the dynamics of soil carbon flux and water loss in previously cultivated Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields and undisturbed shortgrass steppe. Total carbon loss and duration of elevated carbon flux increased as event size increased in all field types. Time since cultivation increased in importance for carbon flux as event size increased. A comparison of water loss rates to carbon flux suggests that water is limiting to carbon flux for the smallest events, but is less limiting for events above 5 mm. We also describe how water availability interacts with temperature in controlling carbon flux rate. We conclude that small precipitation events have the potential for large short-term losses of carbon in the shortgrass steppe. ?? 2009 The Ecological Society of Japan.

  8. Monitoring Energy and Carbon Fluxes in a Mediterranean City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Bellucco, V.; Arca, A.; Ventura, A.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cities and the surrounding areas play an important role in altering and/or contributing to the natural processes of the Earth system. Specifically, cities affect the amount and partitioning of energy fluxes, as well as the carbon budget. It is recognized that increased greenhouse gases (GHG) concentration (mainly carbon dioxide) and air temperature values are typically experienced by cities, due to their structural and morphological characteristics and to human activities in urban areas (such as traffic, domestic heating/cooling, etc.). This will impact the urban climate. Reducing the impact of urbanization on climate requires the knowledge of the interactions and links between human activities and the land-atmosphere system. Each city has different characteristics and conditions, so planning strategies helping in reducing carbon emissions should take into account local features. In this contest, monitoring activities are crucial to study the exchange of energy, water, and carbon over the city, evaluate their impact on human livability, and understand the role of the city on climate. A research activity is carried out in the Mediterranean city of Sassari, in the North of Sardinia island (Italy) to monitor urban fluxes and distinguish the main sources of GHG emissions, which could help the municipality to identify possible actions for reducing them. An Eddy Covariance tower was set up in the city center to directly monitor energy and carbon exchanges at half-hourly time step. Even if the measurement period only consists of few months, the daily trend of urban fluxes clearly shows that traffic is one of the main carbon emission sources, while the contribution of vegetation in sequestering carbon is low due to the reduced amount of green areas in the measurements footprint (< 20%). In addition, differences between working days and holiday periods can be distinguished.

  9. Carbon in, Carbon out: Reevaluating Carbon Fluxes in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction zones exert a fundamental control on the deep carbon cycle. We reevaluated carbon inputs and outputs in convergent margins considering new estimates of C concentration in subducting mantle peridotites, carbonate solubility in aqueous fluids along subduction geotherms, melting and diapirism of carbon-bearing metasediments, and diffuse degassing from arcs. Our updated estimate of carbon inputs to the global subduction system, which includes estimates for C in altered peridotite, is 40-66 megatons carbon/year (MtC/y). We find that estimates of C lost from slabs (14-66 MtC/y) must take into account the high CaCO3 solubility in aqueous fluids, which contributes significant C that must be added to that derived from mineral decarbonation reactions. When taken together with hydrous silicate and carbonatite melts and metasediment diapirs, nearly all C can be scavenged from subducting lithosphere. The return of C to the atmosphere via arc-volcano degassing is only 18-43 MtC/y, but consideration deep volatile saturation of arc magmas, magma ponding in the middle and deep arc crust, and CO2 venting in forearcs can account for the remaining C lost from the slab. Thus, whereas previous studies concluded that about half the subducting carbon is returned to the convecting mantle, we find that relatively little carbon may be recycled. If so, substantial quantities of carbon are stored in the mantle lithosphere and crust and the carbon content of the mantle lithosphere + crust + ocean + atmosphere must be increasing, at least over the last 5-10 My. This is consistent with inferences from noble gas data. Recycled carbon in diamonds is a small fraction of the global carbon inventory.

  10. Growth media simulating ileal and colonic environments affect the intracellular proteome and carbon fluxes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933.

    PubMed

    Polzin, Sabrina; Huber, Claudia; Eylert, Eva; Elsenhans, Ines; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Herbert

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the intracellular proteome of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry after growth in simulated ileal environment media (SIEM) and simulated colonic environment media (SCEM) under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Differentially expressed intracellular proteins were identified and allocated to functional protein groups. Moreover, metabolic fluxes were analyzed by isotopologue profiling with [U-(13)C(6)]glucose as a tracer. The results of this study show that EDL933 responds with differential expression of a complex network of proteins and metabolic pathways, reflecting the high metabolic adaptability of the strain. Growth in SIEM and SCEM is obviously facilitated by the upregulation of nucleotide biosynthesis pathway proteins and could be impaired by exposition to 50 µM 6-mercaptopurine under aerobic conditions. Notably, various stress and virulence factors, including Shiga toxin, were expressed without having contact with a human host.

  11. Expression and knockdown of the PEPC1 gene affect carbon flux in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaodong; Cai, Jiajia; Li, Yajun; Fei, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The regulation of lipid biosynthesis is important in photosynthetic eukaryotic cells. This regulation is facilitated by the direct synthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerol (TAG), and by other controls of the main carbon metabolic pathway. In this study, knockdown of the mRNA expression of the Chlamydomonas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoform 1 (CrPEPC1) gene by RNA interference increased TAG level by 20 % but decreased PEPC activities in the corresponding transgenic algae by 39-50 %. The decrease in CrPEPC1 expression increased the expression of TAG biosynthesis-related genes, such as acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase and phosphatidate phosphatase. Conversely, CrPEPC1 over-expression decreased TAG level by 37 % and increased PEPC activities by 157-184 %. These observations suggest that the lipid content of algal cells can be controlled by regulating the CrPEPC1 gene.

  12. Carbon Fluxes in Mature Peach Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Moing, Annick; Carbonne, Francis; Rashad, Mohamed H.; Gaudillère, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using 14C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks. PMID:16653212

  13. Fine-root biomass and fluxes of soil carbon in young stands of paper birch and trembling aspen as affected by elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3

    Treesearch

    J. S. King; K. S. Pregitzer; D. R. Zak; J. Sober; J. G. Isebrands; R. E. Dickson; G. R. Hendrey; D. F. Karnosky

    2001-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 may stimulate future forest productivity, possibly increasing carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems, but how tropospheric ozone will modify this response is unknown. Because of the importance of fine roots to the belowground C cycle, we monitored fine-root biomass and associated C fluxes in regenerating stands of...

  14. Ecosystem carbon storage and flux in upland/peatland watersheds in northern Minnesota. Chapter 9.

    Treesearch

    David F. Grigal; Peter C. Bates; Randall K. Kolka

    2011-01-01

    Carbon (C) storage and fluxes (inputs and outputs of C per unit time) are central issues in global change. Spatial patterns of C storage on the landscape, both that in soil and in biomass, are important from an inventory perspective and for understanding the biophysical processes that affect C fluxes. Regional and national estimates of C storage are uncertain because...

  15. Variable atmospheric, canopy, and soil effects on energy and carbon fluxes over crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fluxes of energy and carbon fluxes for canopies represent the dynamics of several exchange processes which couple the soil, plant, and atmosphere components. Energy exchanges are driven by net radiation, windspeed, canopy dynamics and soil water availability. The largest factor affected the ener...

  16. Controls of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, C.; Famulari, D.; Phillips, G. J.; Barlow, J. F.; Wood, C. R.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Nemitz, E.

    2011-03-01

    Eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were taken continuously between October 2006 and May 2008 at 190 m height in central London (UK) to quantify emissions and study their controls. Inner London, with a population of 8.2 million (~5000 inhabitants per km2) is heavily built up with 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs. CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). The measurement period allowed investigation of both diurnal patterns and seasonal trends. Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be correlated with traffic but also exhibited an inverse dependency on atmospheric stability in the near-neutral range, with higher fluxes coinciding with unstable stratification during most seasons and perhaps reflecting how changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity controlled the seasonal variability. Despite measurements being taken at ca. 22 times the mean building height, coupling with street level was adequate, especially during daytime. Night-time saw a higher occurrence of stable or neutral stratification, especially in autumn and winter, which resulted in data loss in post-processing and caused the tower to become decoupled from street level. CO2 fluxes observed at night were not always correlated with traffic counts, probably reflecting this decoupling, but also the fact that at night heating was always a larger source than traffic. No significant difference was found between the annual estimate of net exchange of CO2 for the expected measurement footprint and the values derived from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI), with daytime fluxes differing by only 3%. This agreement with NAEI data also supported the use of the simple flux footprint model which was applied to the London site; this also suggests that individual roughness elements did not significantly affect the measurements due

  17. Reduced soil wettability can affect greenhouse gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is known to be an important factor affecting the carbon (C) dynamics in soils including decomposition of organic matter and exchange of gases like CO2 and CH4 between the soil and the atmosphere. Most studies and process models looking at the soil C dynamics assume, however, that soils are easily wettable and water is relatively uniformly distributed within the soil pores. Most soils, however, do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist, but instead exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity), which can restrict infiltration and conductivity of water for weeks or months. This is world-wide occurring phenomenon which affects all soil textural types but is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. Soil water repellency is most profound during drier seasons, when the soil moisture content is relatively low. Although prolonged contact with water can gradually decrease water repellency, some soils do not recover to being completely wettable even after very wet winter months or substantial rainfall events. It has been recognized that with the predicted climatic changes the phenomenon of soil water repellency will become even more pronounced and severe, additionally it may occur in the areas and climatic zones where the effect have not been currently recognized. One of the main implications of soil water repellency is restricted water infiltration and reduced conductivity, which results in reduced soil water availability for plants and soil biota, even after prolonged periods of rainfall. As the process of C mineralization and consequently CO2 efflux from soil is driven by the accessibility of organic matter to decomposing organisms, which in turn is directly dependent on (i) soil moisture and (ii) soil temperature it is, therefore hypothesised that carbon decomposition and CO2 efflux in water repellent soils will also be affected when soil in the water repellent state. The CO2

  18. Sampling frequency affects estimates of annual nitrous oxide fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Barton, L.; Wolf, B.; Rowlings, D.; Scheer, C.; Kiese, R.; Grace, P.; Stefanova, K.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, a potent greenhouse gas, from soils is necessary to improve our knowledge of terrestrial N2O losses. Developing universal sampling frequencies for calculating annual N2O fluxes is difficult, as fluxes are renowned for their high temporal variability. We demonstrate daily sampling was largely required to achieve annual N2O fluxes within 10% of the ‘best’ estimate for 28 annual datasets collected from three continents—Australia, Europe and Asia. Decreasing the regularity of measurements either under- or overestimated annual N2O fluxes, with a maximum overestimation of 935%. Measurement frequency was lowered using a sampling strategy based on environmental factors known to affect temporal variability, but still required sampling more than once a week. Consequently, uncertainty in current global terrestrial N2O budgets associated with the upscaling of field-based datasets can be decreased significantly using adequate sampling frequencies. PMID:26522228

  19. Sampling frequency affects estimates of annual nitrous oxide fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, L.; Wolf, B.; Rowlings, D.; Scheer, C.; Kiese, R.; Grace, P.; Stefanova, K.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, a potent greenhouse gas, from soils is necessary to improve our knowledge of terrestrial N2O losses. Developing universal sampling frequencies for calculating annual N2O fluxes is difficult, as fluxes are renowned for their high temporal variability. We demonstrate daily sampling was largely required to achieve annual N2O fluxes within 10% of the ‘best’ estimate for 28 annual datasets collected from three continents—Australia, Europe and Asia. Decreasing the regularity of measurements either under- or overestimated annual N2O fluxes, with a maximum overestimation of 935%. Measurement frequency was lowered using a sampling strategy based on environmental factors known to affect temporal variability, but still required sampling more than once a week. Consequently, uncertainty in current global terrestrial N2O budgets associated with the upscaling of field-based datasets can be decreased significantly using adequate sampling frequencies.

  20. Salp contributions to vertical carbon flux in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Joshua P.; Steinberg, Deborah K.

    2016-07-01

    We developed a one-dimensional model to estimate salp contributions to vertical carbon flux at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre for a 17-yr period (April 1994 to December 2011). We based the model parameters on published rates of salp physiology and experimentally determined sinking and decomposition rates of salp carcasses. Salp grazing was low during non-bloom conditions, but routinely exceeded 100% of chlorophyll standing stock and primary production during blooms. Fecal pellet production was the largest source of salp carbon flux (78% of total), followed by respiration below 200 m (19%), sinking of carcasses (3%), and DOC excretion below 200 m (<0.1%). Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis, Salpa aspera, Wheelia cylindrica, and Iasis zonaria were the five highest contributors, accounting for 95% of total salp-mediated carbon flux. Seasonally, salp flux was higher during spring-summer than fall-winter, due to seasonal changes in species composition and abundance. Salp carbon export to 200 m was on average 2.3 mg C m-2 d-1 across the entire time series. This is equivalent to 11% of the mean 200 m POC flux measured by sediment traps in the region. During years with significant salp blooms, however, annually-averaged salp carbon export was the equivalent of up to 60% of trap POC flux at 200 m. Salp carbon flux attenuated slowly, and at 3200 m the average modeled carbon from salps was 109% of the POC flux measured in sediment traps at that depth. Migratory and carcass carbon export pathways should also be considered (alongside fecal pellet flux) as facilitating carbon export to sequestration depths in future studies.

  1. Integration of carbon fluxes and optical remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Contreras, S.; Nestola, E.; Flanagan, L. B.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The integration of optical and flux measurements can improve our understanding of flux controls and dynamics. For our study, reflectance and flux measurements at a dry mixed-grass prairie grassland and crop ecosystem were collected. A LUE model was used to estimate productivity and then compared to eddy-covariance derived NEE and GPP. Both narrow band and low cost two-band radiometers were explored as alternative ways to estimate terms of the LUE model. The high temporal resolution in an automated broadband sensors system resulted in estimated carbon fluxes that accurately tracked the seasonal carbon flux dynamics, including the precise tracking of the phenologic cycle through green-up, maturity, and senescence. Furthermore, automated sensors offered a continuous time series that provide a novel approach for partitioning net carbon fluxes into its productivity and respiration components, as well as allowed gap filling missing eddy covariance data. Association between harvested biomass and NDVI derived from ground spectrometry provide a method for assessing variation in standing green biomass. By integrating remote sensing and flux measurement approaches, we can achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics involving the biospheric carbon budget. Having the optical and flux measurements a comparable location and time scale as the eddy covariance allows for up-scaling flux measurements, and could permit direct comparisons to aircraft and satellite measurements.

  2. Empirically Modeling Carbon Fluxes over the Northern Great Plains Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ji, L.; Gilmanov, T.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    Grasslands cover nearly one-fifth of the global terrestrial surface and store most of their carbon below ground. The grassland ecosystem in the Great Plains occupies over 1.5 million km2 of land area and is the primary resource for livestock production in North America. However, the contributions of grasslands to local and regional carbon budgets remain uncertain due to the lack of carbon flux data for the expansive grassland ecosystems under various managements, land uses, and climate variability. A quantitative understanding of carbon fluxes across these systems is essential for developing regional, national, and global carbon budgets and providing guidance to policy makers and managers when substantial conversion to biofuels are implemented. Additionally, these estimates will provide insights into how the grassland ecosystem will respond to future climate and what systems are sustainable and offer net carbon sinks. This knowledge base and decisions support tools are needed for developing land management strategies for the region under a variety of environmental conditions and land use options. In the past, we used a remote sensing-based piecewise regression (PWR) model to estimate the grassland carbon fluxes in the northern Great Plains using the 1-km SPOT VEGETATION normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. We estimated the carbon fluxes through integrated spatial databases and remotely sensed extrapolations of flux tower data to regional scales. The PWR model was applied to derive an empirical relationship between environmental variables and tower-based measurements. The PWR equations were then applied through time and space to estimate carbon fluxes across the study area at 1-km resolution. We now improve this modeling approach by 1) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data with higher temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions (8-day, 500-m, and 7-band) as input; 2) incorporating the actual vegetation evapotranspiration

  3. Controls of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, C.; Famulari, D.; Phillips, G. J.; Barlow, J. F.; Wood, C. R.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Nemitz, E.

    2010-10-01

    Eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were taken semi-continuously between October 2006 and May 2008 at 190 m height in central London (UK) to quantify emissions and study their controls. Inner London, with a population of 8.2 million (~5000 inhabitants per km2) is heavily built up with 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs. CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). The measurement period allowed investigation of both diurnal patterns and seasonal trends. Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity that controlled the seasonal variability. Despite measurements being taken at ca. 22 times the mean building height, coupling with street level was adequate, especially during daytime. Night-time saw a higher occurrence of stable or neutral stratification, especially in autumn and winter, which resulted in data loss in post-processing. No significant difference was found between the annual estimate of net exchange of CO2 for the expected measurement footprint and the values derived from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI), with daytime fluxes differing by only 3%. This agreement with NAEI data also supported the use of the simple flux footprint model which was applied to the London site; this also suggests that individual roughness elements did not significantly affect the measurements due to the large ratio of measurement height to mean building height.

  4. Mapping carbon flux uncertainty and selecting optimal locations for future flux towers in the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Y.; Howard, D.M.; Wylie, B.K.; Zhang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Flux tower networks (e. g., AmeriFlux, Agriflux) provide continuous observations of ecosystem exchanges of carbon (e. g., net ecosystem exchange), water vapor (e. g., evapotranspiration), and energy between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The long-term time series of flux tower data are essential for studying and understanding terrestrial carbon cycles, ecosystem services, and climate changes. Currently, there are 13 flux towers located within the Great Plains (GP). The towers are sparsely distributed and do not adequately represent the varieties of vegetation cover types, climate conditions, and geophysical and biophysical conditions in the GP. This study assessed how well the available flux towers represent the environmental conditions or "ecological envelopes" across the GP and identified optimal locations for future flux towers in the GP. Regression-based remote sensing and weather-driven net ecosystem production (NEP) models derived from different extrapolation ranges (10 and 50%) were used to identify areas where ecological conditions were poorly represented by the flux tower sites and years previously used for mapping grassland fluxes. The optimal lands suitable for future flux towers within the GP were mapped. Results from this study provide information to optimize the usefulness of future flux towers in the GP and serve as a proxy for the uncertainty of the NEP map.

  5. Inverse modeling of the terrestrial carbon flux in China with flux covariance among inverted regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Jiang, F.; Chen, J. M.; Ju, W.; Wang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative understanding of the role of ocean and terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, their response and feedback to climate change is required for the future projection of the global climate. China has the largest amount of anthropogenic CO2 emission, diverse terrestrial ecosystems and an unprecedented rate of urbanization. Thus information on spatial and temporal distributions of the terrestrial carbon flux in China is of great importance in understanding the global carbon cycle. We developed a nested inversion with focus in China. Based on Transcom 22 regions for the globe, we divide China and its neighboring countries into 17 regions, making 39 regions in total for the globe. A Bayesian synthesis inversion is made to estimate the terrestrial carbon flux based on GlobalView CO2 data. In the inversion, GEOS-Chem is used as the transport model to develop the transport matrix. A terrestrial ecosystem model named BEPS is used to produce the prior surface flux to constrain the inversion. However, the sparseness of available observation stations in Asia poses a challenge to the inversion for the 17 small regions. To obtain additional constraint on the inversion, a prior flux covariance matrix is constructed using the BEPS model through analyzing the correlation in the net carbon flux among regions under variable climate conditions. The use of the covariance among different regions in the inversion effectively extends the information content of CO2 observations to more regions. The carbon flux over the 39 land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2004 to 2009. In order to investigate the impact of introducing the covariance matrix with non-zero off-diagonal values to the inversion, the inverted terrestrial carbon flux over China is evaluated against ChinaFlux eddy-covariance observations after applying an upscaling methodology.

  6. Coupling soil Carbon Fluxes, Soil Microbes, and High-Resolution Carbon Profiling in Permafrost Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Stegen, J.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Tfaily, M. M.; Huang, M.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial communities play a central role in the functioning of natural ecosystems by heavily influencing biogeochemical cycles. Understanding how shifts in the environment are tied to shifts in biogeochemical rates via changes in microbial communities is particularly relevant in high latitude terrestrial systems underlain by permafrost due to vast carbon stocks currently stored within thawing permafrost. There is limited understanding, however, of the interplay among soil-atmosphere CO2 fluxes, microbial communities, and SOM chemical composition. To address this knowledge gap, we leverage the distinct spatial transitions in permafrost-affected soils at the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed, a 104 km2 boreal watershed ~50 km north of Fairbanks, AK. We integrate a variety of data to gain new knowledge of the factors that govern observed patterns in the rates of soil CO2 fluxes associated with permafrost to non-permafrost transition zones. We show that nonlinearities in fluxes are influenced by depth to permafrost, tree stand structure, and soil C composition. Further, using 16S sequencing methods we explore microbial community assembly processes and their connection to CO2 flux across spatial scales, and suggest a path to more mechanistically link microbes to large-scale biogeochemical cycles. Lastly, we use the Community Land Model (CLM) to compare Earth System Model predictions of soil C cycling with empirical measurements. Deviations between CLM predictions and field observations of CO2 flux and soil C stocks will provide insight for how the model may be improved through inclusion of additional biotic (e.g., microbial community composition) and abiotic (e.g., organic carbon composition) features, which will be critical to improve the predictive power of climate models in permafrost-affected regions.

  7. Hydrologic support of carbon dioxide flux revealed by whole-lake carbon budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, E.G.; Striegl, R.G.; Aiken, G.R.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    Freshwater lakes are an important component of the global carbon cycle through both organic carbon (OC) sequestration and carbon dioxide (CO 2) emission. Most lakes have a net annual loss of CO2 to the atmosphere and substantial current evidence suggests that biologic mineralization of allochthonous OC maintains this flux. Because net CO 2 flux to the atmosphere implies net mineralization of OC within the lake ecosystem, it is also commonly assumed that net annual CO2 emission indicates negative net ecosystem production (NEP). We explored the relationship between atmospheric CO2 emission and NEP in two lakes known to have contrasting hydrologie characteristics and net CO2 emission. We calculated NEP for calendar year 2004 using whole-lake OC and inorganic carbon (IC) budgets, NEPoc and NEPIC, respectively, and compared the resulting values to measured annual CO 2 flux from the lakes. In both lakes, NEPIc and NEP Ic were positive, indicating net autotrophy. Therefore CO2 emission from these lakes was apparently not supported by mineralization of allochthonous organic material. In both lakes, hydrologie CO2 inputs, as well as CO2 evolved from netcalcite precipitation, could account for the net CO2 emission. NEP calculated from diel CO2 measurements was also affected by hydrologie inputs of CO2. These results indicate that CO2 emission and positive NEP may coincide in lakes, especially in carbonate terrain, and that all potential geologic, biogeochemical, and hydrologie sources of CO2 need to be accounted for when using CO2 concentrations to infer lake NEP. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Carbon storage and flux in urban residential greenspace

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Hyun-Kil; McPherson, G.

    1995-10-01

    There is increasing concern about the predicted negative effects of the future doubling of carbon dioxide on the earth. This concern has evoked interest in the potential for urban greenspace to help reduce the levels of atmopsheric carbon. This study quantifies greenspace-related carbon storage and annual carbon fluxes for urban residential landscapes. For detailed quantification, the scale of this study was limited to two residential blocks in NW Chicago which had a significant difference in vegetation cover. Differences between the two blocks in the size of greenspace area and vegetation cover resulted in considerable differences in total carbon storage and annual carbon uptake. The principal net carbon release from greenspaces of the two residential lanscapes was from grass maintenance. Greenspace planning and management strategies were explored to minimize carbon release and maximize carbon uptake. 83 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Carbon Pools and Fluxes as an Indicator of Riparian Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, L.A.B.

    2001-01-01

    The author studied the pattern and distribution of carbon pools and fluxes in recently disturbed and restored wetland, mid-seral stage successional wetlands and late successional forests at the Savannah Rive Site. Microsite differences between mature and agrading systems are small. Both mid-successional and recently disturbed systems were similar in carbon pools and fluxes. Herbaceous biomass was greater in recently disturbed Pen Branch. Woody plant biomass was greater in the late successional stage. Mean annual productivity was similar indicating that despite the severe impact of reactor water from the SRS, the basic productivity of the system has not been altered. Soil Carbon was much greater in the mature system.

  10. CARBON FLUXES ON NORTH AMERICAN RANGELANDS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seasonal patterns of growth and thus carbon uptake are relevant to both scientists who study ecosystem properties and managers who strive to maintain rangeland productivity. We studied seasonal patterns of net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) on 11 US rangelands over a 6-year period. All sites w...

  11. Forest disturbance and North American carbon flux

    Treesearch

    S. N. Goward; J. G. Masek; W. Cohen; G. Moisen; G. J. Collatz; S. Healey; R. A. Houghton; C. Huang; R. Kennedy; B. Law; S. Powell; D. Turner; M. A. Wulder

    2008-01-01

    North America's forests are thought to be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon. Currently, the rate of sequestration by forests on the continent has been estimated at 0.23 petagrams of carbon per year, though the uncertainty about this estimate is nearly 50%. This offsets about 13% of the fossil fuel emissions from the continent [Pacala et al., 2007]. However...

  12. Aquatic carbon fluxes from the conterminous US and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, D. E.; Stackpoole, S. M.; Stets, E.; McDonald, C.; Clow, D. W.; Striegl, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, the First State of the Carbon Cycle Report estimated that rivers exported ~ 35 Tg-C yr-1 to coastal systems and reservoirs in the US served as sink of ~ 25 Tg-C yr-1 through sedimentation, each reported with 95% confidence that the estimate was within 100%. Significant progress has been made to constrain and improve these estimates by carefully considering how inland water ecosystems dynamically process, transport, and sequester carbon with attention given to the gaseous evasion of carbon across the air-water interface, a component that was not included in the 2007 estimates. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's LandCarbon program, we present the first integrated assessment of freshwater carbon cycling for the conterminous US and Alaska. We estimate that 147 (95% confidence interval of 101- 208) Tg-C yr-1 is exported downstream or emitted to the atmosphere and sedimentation stores 22 (95% confidence interval of 10-68) Tg-C yr-1 in lakes and reservoirs. We show that there is significant regional variation in aquatic carbon flux, but verify that emission across stream and river surfaces represents the dominant removal flux at 85 Tg-C yr-1, or 58% of the total aquatic carbon flux. These new estimates for aquatic carbon fluxes indicate that inland waters must be considered in the context of national scale carbon accounting. For the conterminous US, we compare our results to the output of Terrestrial Biosphere Models. Analysis suggests that within the current modelling framework, calculations of Net Ecosystem Production may be overestimated by as much as 27%. Reconciliation of mass-flux interactions between terrestrial and aquatic carbon sources and sinks will require significant additional field data collection and modelling capacity.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universities Simulator (FAMOUS) GCMs. Here, HadOCC is coupled to the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting meteorology to undertake a sensitivity analysis of its twenty biological parameters. Analyses are performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W) to assess variability in parameter sensitivities at different locations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. We perform the analysis using one-at-a-time perturbations and using a statistical emulator, and compare results. The most sensitive parameters are generic to many NPZD ocean ecosystem models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosythesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

  14. Fluxes of soot black carbon to South Atlantic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Bollinger, Kevyn; Cantwell, Mark; Feichter, Johann; Fischer-Bruns, Irene; Zabel, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Deep sea sediment samples from the South Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for soot black carbon (BC), total organic carbon (TOC), stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Soot BC was present at low concentrations (0.04-0.17% dry weight), but accounted for 3-35% of TOC. Fluxes of soot BC were calculated on the basis of known sedimentation rates and ranged from 0.5 to 7.8 μg cm-2 a-1, with higher fluxes near Africa compared to South America. Values of δ13C indicated a marine origin for the organic carbon but terrestrial sources for the soot BC. PAH ratios implied a pyrogenic origin for most samples and possibly a predominance of traffic emissions over wood burning off the African coast. A coupled ocean-atmosphere-aerosol-climate model was used to determine fluxes of BC from 1860 to 2000 to the South Atlantic. Model simulation and measurements both yielded higher soot BC fluxes off the African coast and lower fluxes off the South American coast; however, measured sedimentary soot BC fluxes exceeded simulated values by ˜1 μg cm-2 a-1 on average (within a factor of 2-4). For the sediments off the African coast, soot BC delivery from the Congo River could possibly explain the higher flux rates, but no elevated soot BC fluxes were detected in the Amazon River basin. In total, fluxes of soot BC to the South Atlantic were ˜480-700 Gg a-1 in deep sea sediments. Our results suggest that attempts to construct a global mass balance of BC should include estimates of the atmospheric deposition of BC.

  15. A Carbon Nanotube Optical Reporter Maps Endolysosomal Lipid Flux.

    PubMed

    Jena, Prakrit V; Roxbury, Daniel; Galassi, Thomas V; Akkari, Leila; Horoszko, Christopher P; Iaea, David B; Budhathoki-Uprety, Januka; Pipalia, Nina; Haka, Abigail S; Harvey, Jackson D; Mittal, Jeetain; Maxfield, Frederick R; Joyce, Johanna A; Heller, Daniel A

    2017-09-12

    Lipid accumulation within the lumen of endolysosomal vesicles is observed in various pathologies including atherosclerosis, liver disease, neurological disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancer. Current methods cannot measure lipid flux specifically within the lysosomal lumen of live cells. We developed an optical reporter, composed of a photoluminescent carbon nanotube of a single chirality, that responds to lipid accumulation via modulation of the nanotube's optical band gap. The engineered nanomaterial, composed of short, single-stranded DNA and a single nanotube chirality, localizes exclusively to the lumen of endolysosomal organelles without adversely affecting cell viability or proliferation or organelle morphology, integrity, or function. The emission wavelength of the reporter can be spatially resolved from within the endolysosomal lumen to generate quantitative maps of lipid content in live cells. Endolysosomal lipid accumulation in cell lines, an example of drug-induced phospholipidosis, was observed for multiple drugs in macrophages, and measurements of patient-derived Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts identified lipid accumulation and phenotypic reversal of this lysosomal storage disease. Single-cell measurements using the reporter discerned subcellular differences in equilibrium lipid content, illuminating significant intracellular heterogeneity among endolysosomal organelles of differentiating bone-marrow-derived monocytes. Single-cell kinetics of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol accumulation within macrophages revealed rates that differed among cells by an order of magnitude. This carbon nanotube optical reporter of endolysosomal lipid content in live cells confers additional capabilities for drug development processes and the investigation of lipid-linked diseases.

  16. Increased carbon flux with rising mean annual temperature does not alter ecosystem carbon storage in a tropical montane wet forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmants, P.; Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological theory and existing studies agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere in the absence of water and nutrient limitations. However, it remains unclear how increased carbon input to and loss from terrestrial ecosystems will affect overall ecosystem carbon storage, which has important implications for potential feedbacks to climate change. Here we use a well-constrained model ecological gradient to quantify how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects carbon fluxes and ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across nine permanent plots representing a 5.2ο C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Aboveground net primary productivity increased by 1 Mg ha-1 y-1 and the residence time of carbon in the forest floor declined by ~3 months for each 1ο C rise in MAT across the gradient, indicating a substantial increase in both carbon input and output with rising MAT. Despite these large increases in carbon flux, ecosystem carbon storage showed minimal sensitivity to MAT. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of temperature. Detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg ha-1 for each 1ο C rise in temperature, but this decline was driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter, which together make up < 10% on average of total ecosystem C across the MAT gradient. The largest detrital pool, soil carbon, did not vary with MAT, averaging 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the gradient. Overall, total ecosystem carbon storage did not vary with MAT, averaging ~550 Mg ha-1 across the gradient. In addition, the distribution of ecosystem carbon in live biomass vs. detritus remained relatively constant at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. Because our MAT gradient does not vary with respect to factors other than temperature (i.e., dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), these

  17. Effect of a nitrogen-carbon interaction on terrestrial carbon fluxes estimated by biosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2007-12-01

    It is important for the global warming to accurately understand the terrestrial carbon fluxes at global scale. Estimating spatial and temporal patterns in the carbon fluxes, recently, many global biosphere models were proposed and developed. However, since the model analyses have always some uncertainties. One of the major uncertainties is an effect of nitrogen cycle on the carbon cycle, as nitrogen largely controls carbon dynamics as plant and soil microbe nutrients. A goal of this study is to investigate the effect of terrestrial carbon-nitrogen interaction on NPP using new biosphere model. Firstly, a new nitrogen cycle model was constructed including twelve main nitrogen flows (nitrogen fixation, deposition, nitrifications, volatilization, nitrate leaching, plant uptake, allocation, translocation, retranslocation, soil organic and inorganic nitrogen dynamics), and fourteen pools (three biomass, four litter fall, five soil organic, and two inorganic). Secondly, the nitrogen model was integrated to the existing biosphere model, BEAMS (Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data) [Sasai et al., 2005, 2007]. The new biosphere model was run for 20 years (1982-2001) at a global scale. The inputs datasets used were NCEP/NCAR re-analysis and fPAR/LAI based on NOAA/AVHRR produced by Boston University. The two-dimensional distributions of monthly GPP and NPP were calculated. And, the GPP estimates by the original and new BEAMS were compared with ground measurements at flux-tower sites. We compared seasonal changes in GPP between the new model and eddy covariance measurements at flux sites. As a result, the GPP estimates had good agreement with the GPP measurements (r2 = 0.91). In view of a comparison in GPP between the measurements and the original BEAMS (r2 = 0.84), the new model is better than the original BEAMS. Especially, we could observe an indisputable improvement of the new model on a seasonal change in the growing

  18. Global estimates of boreal forest carbon stocks and flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Warkentin, Ian G.

    2015-05-01

    The boreal ecosystem is an important global reservoir of stored carbon and a haven for diverse biological communities. The natural disturbance dynamics there have historically been driven by fire and insects, with human-mediated disturbances increasing faster than in other biomes globally. Previous research on the total boreal carbon stock and predictions of its future flux reveal high uncertainty in regional patterns. We reviewed and standardised this extensive body of quantitative literature to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive estimates of the global carbon balance in the boreal forest. We also compiled century-scale predictions of the carbon budget flux. Our review and standardisation confirmed high uncertainty in the available data, but there is evidence that the region's total carbon stock has been underestimated. We found a total carbon store of 367.3 to 1715.8 Pg (1015 g), the mid-point of which (1095 Pg) is between 1.3 and 3.8 times larger than any previous mean estimates. Most boreal carbon resides in its soils and peatlands, although estimates are highly uncertain. We found evidence that the region might become a net carbon source following a reduction in carbon uptake rate from at least the 1980s. Given that the boreal potentially constitutes the largest terrestrial carbon source in the world, in one of the most rapidly warming parts of the globe (Walsh, 2014), how we manage these stocks will be influential on future climate dynamics.

  19. Arogenate dehydratase isoenzymes profoundly and differentially modulate carbon flux into lignins.

    PubMed

    Corea, Oliver R A; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E; Patten, Ann M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2012-03-30

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1-6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure.

  20. Arogenate Dehydratase Isoenzymes Profoundly and Differentially Modulate Carbon Flux into Lignins*

    PubMed Central

    Corea, Oliver R. A.; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L.; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E.; Patten, Ann M.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1–6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure. PMID:22311980

  1. Acidification, not carbonation, is the major regulator of carbon fluxes in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Kottmeier, Dorothee M; Rokitta, Sebastian D; Rost, Björn

    2016-07-01

    A combined increase in seawater [CO2 ] and [H(+) ] was recently shown to induce a shift from photosynthetic HCO3 (-) to CO2 uptake in Emiliania huxleyi. This shift occurred within minutes, whereas acclimation to ocean acidification (OA) did not affect the carbon source. To identify the driver of this shift, we exposed low- and high-light acclimated E. huxleyi to a matrix of two levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (1400, 2800 μmol kg(-1) ) and pH (8.15, 7.85) and directly measured cellular O2 , CO2 and HCO3 (-) fluxes under these conditions. Exposure to increased [CO2 ] had little effect on the photosynthetic fluxes, whereas increased [H(+) ] led to a significant decline in HCO3 (-) uptake. Low-light acclimated cells overcompensated for the inhibition of HCO3 (-) uptake by increasing CO2 uptake. High-light acclimated cells, relying on higher proportions of HCO3 (-) uptake, could not increase CO2 uptake and photosynthetic O2 evolution consequently became carbon-limited. These regulations indicate that OA responses in photosynthesis are caused by [H(+) ] rather than by [CO2 ]. The impaired HCO3 (-) uptake also provides a mechanistic explanation for lowered calcification under OA. Moreover, it explains the OA-dependent decrease in photosynthesis observed in high-light grown phytoplankton.

  2. Chapter 9: Carbon fluxes across regions.

    Treesearch

    Beverly E. Law; Dave Turner; John Campbell; Michael Lefsky; Michael Guzy; Osbert Sun; Steve Van Tuyl; Warren. Cohen

    2006-01-01

    Scaling biogeochemical processes to regions, continents, and the globe is critical for understanding feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere in the analysis of global change. This includes the effects of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, disturbances, and increasing nitrogen deposition from air pollution (Ehleringer and Field 1993, Vitousek et al....

  3. Carbon fluxes on North American rangelands

    Treesearch

    Tony Svejcar; Raymond Angell; James A. Bradford; William Dugas; William Emmerich; Albert B. Frank; Tagir Gilmanov; Marshall Haferkamp; Douglas A. Johnson; Herman Mayeux; Pat Mielnick; Jack Morgan; Nicanor Z. Saliendra; Gerald E. Schuman; Phillip L. Sims; Kereith Snyder

    2008-01-01

    Rangelands account for almost half of the earth's land surface and may play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle. We studied net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of C on eight North American rangeland sites over a 6-yr period. Management practices and disturbance regimes can influence NEE; for consistency, we compared ungrazed and undisturbed rangelands...

  4. Climate and Biological Controls of Carbon Fluxes along latitudinal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Yuan, J.; Niu, S.

    2012-12-01

    It has not been carefully examined whether relative importance of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes is similar among various ecosystem types along latitudinal gradients from the tropical to polar region. We hypothesize that except tropical regions, there is a consistent pattern of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes across all the other ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis by analyzing data of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from nearly 200 eddy-flux towers distributed worldwide and simulated gross primary production (GPP) from the Australian Community Atmosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model. Specifically, we estimated yearly NEE (i.e., NEP), carbon uptake period (CUP) and seasonal maximum of NEE (NEE¬_max) from eddy-flux data. Similarly, we estimated CUP, GPP_max, seasonal maximum leaf area index (LAI_max), and Vcmax from the model across the globe. Our regression analysis indicates that NEP is very tightly correlated with the product of CUP and NEE_max cross all sites. Similarly, simulated GPP is highly correlated with the product of CUP and GPP_max over the globe in the CABLE model. CUP is related to phenology and represents climate control of carbon fluxes while NEE_max or GPP_max is determined by biological processes and thus represents biological control of carbon processes. We further analyzed relationships of GPP_max with LAI_max and Vcmax individually or in combination. GPP_max is highly correlated with them. This talk will present results of our analysis and explain our hypothesis test regarding relative importance of biological and climate controls of carbon fluxes along the latitudinal gradients.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of an ocean carbon cycle model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

    2011-06-01

    The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. We explore the effect on these outputs of variation in the values of the twenty parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of the UK Met Office HadOCC NPZD model used in GCMs. We use and compare the results from one-at-a-time and all-at-a-time perturbations performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W). Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. The most sensitive parameters are generally found to be those controlling well-established ocean ecosystem parameterisations widely used in many NPZD-type models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosynthesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

  6. Riverine carbon fluxes to the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. H.; Chen, C. T. A.; Tseng, H. C.; Lou, J. Y.; Wang, S. L.; Yang, L.; Kandasamy, S.; Gao, X.; Wang, J. T.; Aldrian, E.; Jacinto, G. S.; Anshari, G. Z.; Sompongchaiyakul, P.; Wang, B. J.

    2017-05-01

    The high precipitation around Southeast Asia results in abundant freshwater outflow, which transports terrestrial dissolved and particulate material to the world's largest marginal sea, namely, the South China Sea (SCS). To estimate the riverine carbon flux to the SCS, carbonate data from 42 rivers were collected. These results, combined with literature data for 13 rivers, indicate that the concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are positively correlated with the cation exchange capacity and the bulk density, except for the Low Discharge category. The highest DIC concentration and flux are in the Low and Medium Discharge categories. Negative correlations exist between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the base saturation in the Low and High Discharge categories and between DOC and bulk density in the Low and Medium Discharge categories. However, the correlation between the DOC concentration and the organic carbon content in the soil is only significant in the Medium Discharge category. Once the negative exponential relationships between the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) or the particulate organic carbon (POC) and the total suspended matter are determined, these can be used to estimate the PIC and POC carbon fluxes. Of the annual riverine carbon flux, 83.0 ± 8.1 Tg C, 40.14 ± 6.11 Tg is DIC, 25.03 ± 4.54 Tg is DOC, 1.83 ± 0.35 Tg is PIC, and 16.03 ± 2.87 Tg is POC. The total discharge amounts to 6.2-10.3% of the global riverine discharge for a sea covering only 1% of the world's ocean surface area and for watersheds covering only 2.2% of the global land mass.

  7. High-Flux Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes for Gas Separation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hannes; Voss, Hartwig; Kaltenborn, Nadine; Kämnitz, Susanne; Wollbrink, Alexander; Feldhoff, Armin; Caro, Jürgen; Roitsch, Stefan; Voigt, Ingolf

    2017-06-26

    Carbon membranes have great potential for highly selective and cost-efficient gas separation. Carbon is chemically stable and it is relative cheap. The controlled carbonization of a polymer coating on a porous ceramic support provides a 3D carbon material with molecular sieving permeation performance. The carbonization of the polymer blend gives turbostratic carbon domains of randomly stacked together sp(2) hybridized carbon sheets as well as sp(3) hybridized amorphous carbon. In the evaluation of the carbon molecular sieve membrane, hydrogen could be separated from propane with a selectivity of 10 000 with a hydrogen permeance of 5 m(3) (STP)/(m(2) hbar). Furthermore, by a post-synthesis oxidative treatment, the permeation fluxes are increased by widening the pores, and the molecular sieve carbon membrane is transformed from a molecular sieve carbon into a selective surface flow carbon membrane with adsorption controlled performance and becomes selective for carbon dioxide. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Fluxes in Amazon Floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; MacIntyre, S.; Forsberg, B.; Barbosa, P.; Amaral, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Field studies on the central Amazon floodplain in representative aquatic habitats (open water, flooded forests, floating macrophytes) combine measurements of methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes to the atmosphere over diel and seasonal times with deployment of meteorological sensors and high-resolution thermistors and dissolved oxygen sondes. A cavity ringdown spectrometer is used to determine gas concentrations, and floating chambers and bubble collectors are used to measure fluxes. To further understand fluxes, we measured turbulence as rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy based on microstructure profiling. These results allow calculations of vertical mixing within the water column and of air-water exchanges using surface renewal models. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes varied as a function of season, habitat and water depth. High CO2 fluxes at high water are related to high pCO2; low pCO2 levels at low water result from increased phytoplankton uptake. CO2 fluxes are highest at turbulent open water sites, and pCO2 is highest in macrophyte beds. Fluxes and pCH4 are high in macrophyte beds.

  9. Effects of Land Use History on Soil Carbon Dioxide Flux in Ecuadorian Páramo Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, J.; Harden, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a primary mechanism for soil carbon (C) loss and is intricately linked to processes that affect soil C storage. As a result, land-use changes that affect soil CO2 flux (Flux) rates can significantly influence regional C budgets. The páramo grasslands of the high altitude Ecuadorian Andes are important in regional C budgets due to large soil C stocks. Though some forms of land use history have been shown to reduce soil C and affect known drivers of Flux, such as soil moisture (MS) and soil temperature (TS), the effect of land use history on Flux and its role in páramo soil C budgets remains poorly understood. This study investigated Flux differences among sites representing four land-use histories (PA-páramo; PAB-páramo recently burned; NA-native forest; PI-planted pine forest) and assessed the role of MS and TS on Flux rates within and across sites. Flux, MS, and TS were measured over a 3-week period at the Mazar Wildlife Reserve in southern Ecuador. Flux varied significantly among site pairs, except PI and NA. Flux rates were highest in the PI (5.79 g CO2-C m-2 d-1) and NA sites (5.59 g CO2-C m-2 d-1), with Flux rates at PA and PAB of 4.84 g CO2-C m-2 d-1 and 3.76 g CO2-C m-2 d-1, respectively. MS ranged from 29% at PI to 55% at PA, with grass sites having higher MS than forested sites. On average, páramo soils were ~3°C warmer than forested soil, with PI warmer than NA. Across all sites, Flux was weakly, negatively correlated with MS. Flux and TS were positively correlated within each site except PAB; the strongest correlation (p<0.0001) was observed at PI. Our results show that in the Ecuadorian Andes, Flux is significantly affected by land use history with higher Flux rates observed in forested areas than in páramo grasslands. To our knowledge, these are the first Flux rates reported for the Ecuadorian páramo region.

  10. The effects of teleconnections on carbon fluxes of global terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Xu, Yaoya; Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Peng, Shushi

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (i.e., teleconnections) influence global climate variability patterns and can be studied to provide a simple framework for relating the complex response of ecosystems to climate. This study analyzes the effects of 15 major teleconnections on terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes during 1951-2012 using an ensemble of nine dynamic global vegetation models. We map the global pattern of the dominant teleconnections and find that these teleconnections significantly affect gross primary productivity variations over more than 82.1% of the global vegetated area, through mediating the global temperature and regional precipitation and cloud cover. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation are strongly correlated with global, hemispherical, and continental carbon fluxes and climatic variables, while the Northern Hemisphere teleconnections have only regional influences. Further research regarding the interactions among the teleconnections and the nonstationarity of the relationship between teleconnections and carbon fluxes is needed.

  11. Overview of NASA's Carbon Monitoring System Flux-Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Gunson, Michael R.; Jucks, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    NASA's space-based observations of physical, chemical and biological parameters in the Earth System along with state-of-the-art modeling capabilities provide unique capabilities for analyses of the carbon cycle. The Carbon Monitoring System is developing an exploratory framework for detecting carbon in the environment and its changes, with a view towards contributing to national and international monitoring activities. The Flux-Pilot Project aims to provide a unified view of land-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere carbon exchange, using observation-constrained models. Central to the project is the application of NASA's satellite observations (especially MODIS), the ACOS retrievals of the JAXA-GOSAT observations, and the "MERRA" meteorological reanalysis produced with GEOS-S. With a primary objective of estimating uncertainty in computed fluxes, two land- and two ocean-systems are run for 2009-2010 and compared with existing flux estimates. An transport model is used to evaluate simulated CO2 concentrations with in-situ and space-based observations, in order to assess the realism of the fluxes and how uncertainties in fluxes propagate into atmospheric concentrations that can be more readily evaluated. Finally, the atmospheric partial CO2 columns observed from space are inverted to give new estimates of surface fluxes, which are evaluated using the bottom-up estimates and independent datasets. The focus of this presentation will be on the science goals and current achievements of the pilot project, with emphasis on how policy-relevant questions help focus the scientific direction. Examples include the issue of what spatio-temporal resolution of fluxes can be detected from polar-orbiting satellites and whether it is possible to use space-based observations to separate contributions to atmospheric concentrations of (say) fossil-fuel and biological activity

  12. Estimates of Gelatinous Zooplankton Carbon Flux in the Global Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J. Y.; Condon, R.; Cowen, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton (GZ), which include the cnidarians, ctenophores, and pelagic tunicates, are a common feature of marine ecosystems worldwide, but their contribution to global biogeochemical fluxes has never been assessed. We constructed a carbon-cycle model with a single, annual time-step and resolved to a 5° spatial grid for the three major GZ groups in order to evaluate the GZ-mediated carbon fluxes and export to depth. Biomass inputs (totaling 0.149 Pg C) were based off of Lucas et al. (2014) and updated using the JeDI database (Condon et al. 2015). From the upper ocean, biomass export flux from cnidarians, ctenophores, and tunicates totaled 2.96 ± 2.82 Pg C y-1, though only 0.199 ± 0.023 Pg C y-1 of GZ carbon were transferred to upper trophic levels, roughly amounting to one-quarter of all mesozooplankton production flux. In contrast, GZ fluxes to DOC only comprised ca. 2% of labile DOC flux. Egestion flux from the upper ocean totaled 2.56 ± 3.35 Pg C y-1, with over 80% being fast-sinking tunicate fecal pellets. Due to fast sinking rates of carcasses and fecal pellets, 26% of all C export from the upper ocean reached the seafloor, such that GZ fecal matter is estimated to comprise between 20-30% of global POC surface export and 11-30% of POC seafloor deposition. Finally, results from sensitivity analyses showed no increase in cnidarian and ctenophore export fluxes with increased temperature and jelly biomass, though tunicate export fluxes showed some increase with both temperature and biomass. These results suggest that current estimates of global POC flux from the surface oceans, which range between 8.6 - 12.9 Pg C y-1, may be underestimated by as much as 20 - 25%, implying a definite need to incorporate GZ mediated flux in estimating the biological pump transfer efficiency. Our study represents the first effort to quantify the role of gelatinous zooplankton in the global marine carbon cycle.

  13. Closing the North American Carbon Budget: Continental Margin Fluxes Matter!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Benway, H. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Cai, W. J.; Coble, P. G.; Cross, J. N.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Goni, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Mathis, J. T.; McKinley, G. A.; Pilskaln, C. H.; Smith, R. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, continental margins are regions of intense carbon and nutrient processing, export and exchange, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles. In response to recommendations for regional synthesis and carbon budget estimation for North America put forth in the North American Continental Margins workshop report (Hales et al., 2008), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and North American Carbon Program (NACP) began coordinating a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) research activities in five coastal regions of North America (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Laurentian Great Lakes) to improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget. CCARS workshops and collaborative research activities have resulted in the development of regional coastal carbon budgets based on recent literature- and model-based estimates of major carbon fluxes with estimated uncertainties. Numerous peer-reviewed papers and presentations by involved researchers have highlighted these findings and provided more in-depth analyses of processes underlying key carbon fluxes in continental margin systems. As a culminating outcome of these synthesis efforts, a comprehensive science plan highlights key knowledge gaps identified during this synthesis and provides explicit guidance on future research and observing priorities in continental margin systems to help inform future agency investments in continental margins research. This presentation will provide an overview of regional and flux-based (terrestrial inputs, biological transformations, sedimentary processes, atmospheric exchanges, lateral carbon transport) synthesis findings and key recommendations in the science plan, as well as a set of overarching priorities and recommendations on observations and modeling approaches for continental margin systems.

  14. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  15. Carbon fluxes, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency of terrestrial ecosystems in China

    Treesearch

    Jingfeng Xiao; Ge Sun; Jiquan Chen; Hui Chen; Shiping Chen; Gang Dong

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude, spatial patterns, and controlling factors of the carbon and water fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems in China are not well understood due to the lack of ecosystem-level flux observations. We synthesized flux and micrometeorological observations from 22 eddy covariance flux sites across China,and examined the carbon fluxes, evapotranspiration (ET), and...

  16. Effect of carbon and nitrogen addition on nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide fluxes from thawing forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haohao, Wu; Xingkai, Xu; Cuntao, Duan; TuanSheng, Li; Weiguo, Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Packed soil-core incubation experiments were done to study the effects of carbon (glucose, 6.4 g C m-2) and nitrogen (NH4Cl and KNO3, 4.5 g N m-2) addition on nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes during thawing of frozen soils under two forest stands (broadleaf and Korean pine mixed forest and white birch forest) with two moisture levels (55 and 80% water-filled pore space). With increasing soil moisture, the magnitude and longevity of the flush N2O flux from forest soils was enhanced during the early period of thawing, which was accompanied by great NO3--N consumption. Without N addition, the glucose-induced cumulative CO2 fluxes ranged from 9.61 to 13.49 g CO2-C m-2, which was larger than the dose of carbon added as glucose. The single addition of glucose increased microbial biomass carbon but slightly affected soil dissolved organic carbon pool. Thus, the extra carbon released upon addition of glucose can result from the decomposition of soil native organic carbon. The glucose-induced N2O and CO2 fluxes were both significantly correlated to the glucose-induced total N and dissolved organic carbon pools and influenced singly and interactively by soil moisture and KNO3 addition. The interactive effects of glucose and nitrogen inputs on N2O and CO2 fluxes from forest soils after frost depended on N sources, soil moisture, and vegetation types.

  17. Inorganic nutrient availability affects organic matter fluxes and metabolic activity in the soft coral genus Xenia.

    PubMed

    Bednarz, Vanessa N; Naumann, Malik S; Niggl, Wolfgang; Wild, Christian

    2012-10-15

    The release of organic matter (OM) by scleractinian corals represents a key physiological process that importantly contributes to coral reef ecosystem functioning, and is affected by inorganic nutrient availability. Although OM fluxes have been studied for several dominant reef taxa, no information is available for soft corals, one of the major benthic groups in tropical reef environments. Thus, this study investigates OM fluxes along with other key physiological parameters (i.e. photosynthesis, respiration and chlorophyll a tissue content) in the common soft coral genus Xenia after a 4-week exposure period to elevated ammonium (N; 20.0 μmol l(-1)), phosphate (P; 2.0 μmol l(-1)) and combined inorganic nutrient enrichment treatment (N+P). Corals maintained without nutrient enrichment served as non-treated controls and revealed constant uptake rates for particulate organic carbon (POC) (-0.315±0.161 mg POC m(-2) coral surface area h(-1)), particulate nitrogen (PN) (-0.053±0.018 mg PN m(-2) h(-1)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (-4.8±2.1 mg DOC m(-2) h(-1)). Although DOC uptake significantly increased in the N treatment, POC flux was not affected. The P treatment significantly enhanced PN release as well as photosynthesis and respiration rates, suggesting that autotrophic carbon acquisition of zooxanthellae endosymbionts influences OM fluxes by the coral host. Our physiological findings confirm the significant effect of inorganic nutrient availability on OM fluxes and key metabolic processes for the soft coral Xenia, and provide the first clues on OM cycles initiated by soft corals in reef environments exposed to ambient and elevated inorganic nutrient concentrations.

  18. Carbon and Water Flux Observations from AmeriFlux and Fluxnet: Some Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.

    2001-12-01

    Flux networks provide a means for scientists to make common measurements of carbon, water, and energy exchange, to share advancements in methods, and synthesize results across the network. AmeriFlux objectives are to: Determine how environmental factors and climate regulate ecosystem CO2 and H2O exchange over the short- and long-term, evaluate impacts of anthropogenic factors, and provide data and new understanding for incorporation into models. AmeriFlux is part of the larger international network, Fluxnet. Among Fluxnet sites, we investigated seasonal and annual CO2 and water vapor exchange, and relations with environmental variables to elucidate generalities within and among biomes. The data showed a strong linkage between carbon gain and water loss, with the highest water-use efficiency values for grasslands, and lowest values for tundra. Ecosystem respiration was only weakly correlated with mean annual temperature across biomes, in spite of sensitivity within site over shorter temporal scales. Mean annual temperature and site water balanced explained much of the variation in gross photosynthesis, whereby water availability limits LAI over the long-term, and inter-annual climate variability limits carbon uptake below the potential of the leaf area available for photosynthesis. We compared BIOME-BGC model results among AmeriFlux coniferous forests, and the model showed that variation in net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) is mostly a function of disturbance history, with important secondary effects from site climate, ecophysiology, and changing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen deposition.

  19. Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from aircraft measurements in southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, O. S.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Elbers, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    In 2007, the CarboEurope-IP Regional Component organised the second edition of the CERES measurement campaign in the southwest of France. This was a follow-up of the initial campaign in 2005. CERES'07 consisted of two intensive observational periods (IOPs), of which one in spring and the other one in summer. During both IOPs, ground stations, tall towers, radiosondes and a number of aircrafts were used, including our own environmental research aircraft (ERA). The ERA is a small aircraft flying at low altitudes and low air speeds, equipped to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat and sensible heat using the eddy-correlation technique. In addition, instruments are on board for measuring ground temperature, net radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Flux data obtained with the ERA during CERES'07 have been analyzed and will be presented here. In the data analysis, we present regional fluxes of carbon dioxide focussing at seasonal trends in relation to landscape elements. To achieve this, flight tracks were split into homogeneous segments based on land cover, topography and soil type. During both IOPs, weather conditions were constant. This gives us the possibility to average data in each segment across all flights, though the issue of diurnal variation in surface fluxes and radiation still remains. In short, the analysis strategy on our airborne flux data from CERES'07 will be addressed in this presentation together with its results focussing at drivers for these fluxes at landscape scale.

  20. Estimation of Global Surface Carbon Fluxes Using Advanced Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, E.; Asrar, G.; Zeng, N.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Kang et al., (JGR, 2011, 2012) developed an advanced data assimilation methodology able to recover (in a simulation mode) the surface carbon fluxes from the assimilation of realistic atmospheric CO2 measurements. After a spin-up of 3 months, the carbon fluxes were estimated accurately at a grid-size resolution and captured quite well the natural annual cycle and the anthropogenic sources without using any prior information. In our current research, led together with co-authors, we are assimilating both simulated and real observations into the GEOS-CHEM global model coupled with the VEGAS vegetation model, using strongly coupled LETKF Data Assimilation, with the ultimate goal of estimating global real carbon fluxes. The coupled GEOS-CHEM/VEGAS model reproduces very realistically the observed seasonal cycle of the CO2 flask data for April 2012-July 2014 at many Global View stations, after a spin-up of about 6 months. We confirmed that the LETKF Data Assimilation could also be used to estimate unmeasured parameters in VEGAS model, as long as their time scales are not longer than a few years. We are performing OSSE and OSE data assimilation experiments with this system, assimilating a) Global View observations, b) OCO-2 observations, and c) combining both set of observations in order to determine optimal data assimilation parameters for the estimation of surface carbon fluxes, and will present an overview of our results.

  1. Observation-based modelling of permafrost carbon fluxes with accounting for deep carbon deposits and thermokarst activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, Thomas; Grosse, Guido; Strauss, Jens; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Morgenstern, Anne; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Meinshausen, Malte; Boike, Julia

    2015-04-01

    With rising global temperatures and consequent permafrost degradation a part of old carbon stored in high latitude soils will become available for microbial decay and eventual release to the atmosphere. To estimate the strength and timing of future carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from newly thawed permafrost carbon, we have developed a simplified, two-dimensional multi-pool model. As large amounts of soil organic matter are stored in depths below three meters, we have also simulated carbon release from deep deposits in Yedoma regions. For this purpose we have modelled abrupt thaw under thermokarst lakes which can unlock large amounts of soil carbon buried deep in the ground. The computational efficiency of our 2-D model allowed us to run large, multi-centennial ensembles of differing scenarios of future warming to express uncertainty inherent to simulations of the permafrost-carbon feedback. Our model simulations, which are constrained by multiple lines of recent observations, suggest cumulated CO2 fluxes from newly thawed permafrost until the year 2100 of 20-58 Pg-C under moderate warming (RCP2.6), and of 42-141Pg-C under strong warming (RCP8.5). Under intense thermokarst activity, our simulated methane fluxes proved substantial and caused up to 40 % of total permafrost-affected radiative forcing in the 21st century. By quantifying CH4 contributions from different pools and depth levels, we discuss the role of thermokarst dynamics in affecting future Arctic carbon release. The additional global warming through the release from newly thawed permafrost carbon proved only slightly dependent on the pathway of anthropogenic emission in our simulations and reached about 0.1°C by end of the century. The long-term, permafrost-affected global warming increased further in the 22nd and 23rd century, reaching a maximum of about 0.4°C in the year 2300.

  2. Branchfall dominates annual carbon flux across lowland Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, David C.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-09-01

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, but knowledge of interannual variation in the total tropical carbon flux and constituent carbon pools is highly uncertain. One such pool, branchfall, is an ecologically important dynamic with links to nutrient cycling, forest productivity, and drought. Identifying and quantifying branchfall over large areas would reveal the role of branchfall in carbon and nutrient cycling. Using data from repeat airborne light detection and ranging campaigns across a wide array of lowland Amazonian forest landscapes totaling nearly 100 000 ha, we find that upper canopy gaps—driven by branchfall—are pervasive features of every landscape studied, and are seven times more frequent than full tree mortality. Moreover, branchfall comprises a major carbon source on a landscape basis, exceeding that of tree mortality by 21%. On a per hectare basis, branchfall and tree mortality result in 0.65 and 0.72 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 gross source of carbon to the atmosphere, respectively. Reducing uncertainties in annual gross rates of tropical forest carbon flux, for example by incorporating large-scale branchfall dynamics, is crucial for effective policies that foster conservation and restoration of tropical forests. Additionally, large-scale branchfall mapping offers ecologists a new dimension of disturbance monitoring and potential new insights into ecosystem structure and function.

  3. Rerouting Carbon Flux To Enhance Photosynthetic Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ducat, DC; Avelar-Rivas, JA; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2012-03-23

    The bioindustrial production of fuels, chemicals, and therapeutics typically relies upon carbohydrate inputs derived from agricultural plants, resulting in the entanglement of food and chemical commodity markets. We demonstrate the efficient production of sucrose from a cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus, heterologously expressing a symporter of protons and sucrose (cscB). cscB-expressing cyanobacteria export sucrose irreversibly to concentrations of >10 mM without culture toxicity. Moreover, sucrose-exporting cyanobacteria exhibit increased biomass production rates relative to wild-type strains, accompanied by enhanced photosystem II activity, carbon fixation, and chlorophyll content. The genetic modification of sucrose biosynthesis pathways to minimize competing glucose-or sucrose-consuming reactions can further improve sucrose production, allowing the export of sucrose at rates of up to 36.1 mg liter(-1) h illumination(-1). This rate of production exceeds that of previous reports of targeted, photobiological production from microbes. Engineered S. elongatus produces sucrose in sufficient quantities (up to similar to 80% of total biomass) such that it may be a viable alternative to sugar synthesis from terrestrial plants, including sugarcane.

  4. Rerouting Carbon Flux To Enhance Photosynthetic Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Ducat, Daniel C.; Avelar-Rivas, J. Abraham; Way, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The bioindustrial production of fuels, chemicals, and therapeutics typically relies upon carbohydrate inputs derived from agricultural plants, resulting in the entanglement of food and chemical commodity markets. We demonstrate the efficient production of sucrose from a cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus, heterologously expressing a symporter of protons and sucrose (cscB). cscB-expressing cyanobacteria export sucrose irreversibly to concentrations of >10 mM without culture toxicity. Moreover, sucrose-exporting cyanobacteria exhibit increased biomass production rates relative to wild-type strains, accompanied by enhanced photosystem II activity, carbon fixation, and chlorophyll content. The genetic modification of sucrose biosynthesis pathways to minimize competing glucose- or sucrose-consuming reactions can further improve sucrose production, allowing the export of sucrose at rates of up to 36.1 mg liter−1 h illumination−1. This rate of production exceeds that of previous reports of targeted, photobiological production from microbes. Engineered S. elongatus produces sucrose in sufficient quantities (up to ∼80% of total biomass) such that it may be a viable alternative to sugar synthesis from terrestrial plants, including sugarcane. PMID:22307292

  5. Carbon Flux Signal Detection for the ASCENDS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerling, D.; Michalak, A. M.; Kawa, S. R.; Doney, S. C.; Schaefer, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) offer novel and distinctive opportunities for quantifying the carbon cycle, which is an important scientific and societal challenge with anthropogenic CO2 emissions and accumulation rates in the atmosphere still on the rise. One mission in the planning stage is the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission, which is a laser CO2 sensing mission with an anticipated launch date around 2022. Notable features of this mission include the ability to sample at night and at high latitudes, which passive missions cannot do because of their reliance on reflected sunlight. In this work we present findings from signal detection studies, i.e. experiments that investigate if perturbations in carbon fluxes can be detected in the ASCENDS observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The experiments employ a realistic synthetic-data setup using the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA GFED CO2 flux and transport model in combination with CALIPSO and MODIS measurements. The signal detection approach applied uses a geostatistical mapping methodology that can leverage the information content of nearby observations, thereby potentially facilitating enhanced signal detection. The specific perturbation scenarios investigated are: carbon release from the melting of permafrost in the high Northern latitudes, the shifting of fossil fuel emissions from Europe to P.R. China, and natural variability in the CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean. Results indicate that the permafrost carbon release is comparatively easy to detect, while the Southern Ocean change is more challenging. The ability to detect a shift in fossil fuel emissions strongly depends on its magnitude: a 50% decrease in Europe is easily detectible, while a 20% decrease is only marginally so. A key conclusion is that the optimal signal detection strategy is intrinsically linked to how the carbon flux perturbations translate into atmospheric CO2 concentrations

  6. Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, T.; Liebner, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ronald; Wagner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

  7. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, G. James; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange and spatially distributed to 0.05° resolution using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which was respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of approximately 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  8. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  9. An Assessment of Global Organic Carbon Flux Along Continental Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunell, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This project was designed to use real-time and historical SeaWiFS and AVHRR data, and real-time MODIS data in order to estimate the global vertical carbon flux along continental margins. This required construction of an empirical model relating surface ocean color and physical variables like temperature and wind to vertical settling flux at sites co-located with sediment trap observations (Santa Barbara Basin, Cariaco Basin, Gulf of California, Hawaii, and Bermuda, etc), and application of the model to imagery in order to obtain spatially-weighted estimates.

  10. Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmants, P. C.; Sleeter, B. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Zhu, Z.; Asner, G. P.

    2016-12-01

    Hawaii is characterized by steep climatic gradients and heterogeneous land cover within a small geographic area, presenting a model tropical system to capture ecosystem carbon dynamics across a wide range of climate, soil, and land use conditions. However, ecosystem carbon balance is poorly understood on a statewide level, and the potential for climate and land use change to affect carbon dynamics in Hawaii has not been formally assessed. We estimated current baseline and projected future ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes on the seven main Hawaiian Islands using a combination of remote sensing, published plot-level data, and simulation modeling. Total ecosystem carbon storage during the baseline period was estimated at 258 TgC, with 70% stored as soil organic carbon, 25% as live biomass and 5% as surface detritus, and gross primary production was estimated at 20 TgC y-1. Net ecosystem carbon balance, which incorporated carbon losses from freshwater aquatic fluxes to nearshore waters and wildland fire emissions, was estimated as 0.34 TgC y-1 during the baseline period, offsetting 7% of anthropogenic emissions. We used a state and transition simulation model to estimate the response of ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes to potential changes in climate, land use, and wildfire over a 50-year projection period (2012-2061). Total ecosystem carbon storage was projected to increase by 5% by the year 2061, but net ecosystem carbon balance was projected to decline by 35% due to climate change induced reductions in statewide net primary production and increased carbon losses from land use and land cover change. Our analysis indicates that the State of Hawaii would remain a net carbon sink overall, primarily because of ecosystem carbon sequestration on Hawaii Island, but predicted changes in climate and land use on Kauai and Oahu would convert these islands to net carbon sources. The Hawaii carbon assessment is part of a larger effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to assess

  11. Mapping carbon dioxide flux in semiarid grasslands using optical remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holifield Collins, Chandra Deberta

    Increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the potential impact on climate change has caused an increased effort to more accurately quantify terrestrial sources and sinks. Semiarid grasslands cover a significant portion of the Earth's land surface and may be an important sink for atmospheric CO2. This study was conducted to examine the role semiarid grasslands play in the carbon cycle. The relation between surface reflectance and temperature obtained from satellite imagery was used to determine a Water Deficit Index (WDI) to estimate distributed plant transpiration rates for a point in time. Due to the relationship between transpiration and plant CO2 uptake, WDI was directly related to CO2 flux. Satellite images were acquired for a five-year period (1996-2000) during which transpiration and net CO2 flux were measured for a semiarid grassland site in southeastern Arizona. Manual and automatic chamber data were also collected in 2005 and 2006 and used to assess the spatial variability of nighttime soil respiration. Spatial analysis showed the most influential factor affecting nighttime respiration was aspect, where flux from North-facing slopes was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than on South-facing slopes. A strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.97) existed between WDI-derived instantaneous net CO2 flux and daytime net CO2 flux estimates, and was used to generate maps of distributed daytime net CO2 flux. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.88) was also found between daytime and nighttime net CO2 flux, and used in combination with maps of daytime net CO2 flux to create maps of daily net CO2 flux. This study indicated that remote sensing offers an operational, physically-based means of obtaining daily net CO2 flux in semiarid grasslands.

  12. Dissolved Organic Carbon: Nitrate Ratios as a Driver of Methane Fluxes in Stream Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, B. W.; Wymore, A.; Schade, J. D.; McDowell, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    Fluvial ecosystems are poorly understood components of the global methane (CH4) budget because the ecology of CH4 fluxes in streams has yet to be sufficiently elucidated. Both CH4 production and uptake via oxidation are microbially mediated processes, but it is unclear where in the fluvial environment are the sources and sinks of CH4 and what role terrestrial inputs of carbon (C) and nutrients have on the magnitude and direction of CH4 flux. To address these uncertainties, we measured CH4 fluxes in a laboratory incubation from two temperate headwater streams that differed in ambient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. We amended stream water and sediment microcosms from each site with labile DOC from senesced leaf litter to assess how DOC concentration and the DOC:NO3- ratio affect proximate controls on CH4 flux. Lastly, we manipulated sediment and water column ratios (0-100%) to estimate sources and fates of CH4 flux within the ecosystem. We measured CH4 fluxes for the first 120 minutes of the incubation to simulate short-term, in stream processes. Initially, streams were a source of methane, but switched to a sink within 120 minutes. Methane fluxes were statistically similar in both stream sediment and water, suggesting that microbial processing of CH4 has similar directionality and magnitude in each environment. Both CH4 oxidation and production were significantly correlated with the DOC: NO3- ratio over the course of the incubation. Early in the incubation, increasing DOC: NO3- increased CH4 flux, but late in the incubation, increasing DOC: NO3- increased CH4 oxidation. Together, our results challenge existing paradigms of CH4 flux in the fluvial environment and identify the DOC:NO3- ratio as a possible mechanism that can explain spatial and temporal CH4 flux patterns in streams.

  13. Scaling-up of CO2 fluxes to assess carbon sequestration in rangelands of Central Asia

    Treesearch

    Bruce K. Wylie; Tagir G. Gilmanov; Douglas A. Johnson; Nicanor Z. Saliendra; Larry L. Tieszen; Ruth Anne F. Doyle; Emilio A. Laca

    2006-01-01

    Flux towers provide temporal quantification of local carbon dynamics at specific sites. The number and distribution of flux towers, however, are generally inadequate to quantify carbon fluxes across a landscape or ecoregion. Thus, scaling up of flux tower measurements through use of algorithms developed from remote sensing and GIS data is needed for spatial...

  14. On the violet flux of N type carbon stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Danny R.; Honeycutt, R. Kent; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1988-01-01

    New six-color violet photometry of 26 carbon stars is presented. These observations reveal the shape of the spectrum between 3400 and 4500 A and provide a measurement of the violet flux deficiency. The strength of the 11.5-micron SiC emission feature was also measured using ground-based infrared spectrophotometry and the IRAS low-resolution spectral catalog. The lack of correlation between the 11.5-micron emission and the violet flux deficiency leads to the conclusion that SiC is not the predominant violet opacity source in N type carbon stars. The violet photometry presented here does not quantitatively agree with previous spectrophotometry that supported C3 as the opacity source. The observations alone do not rule out the C3 opacity, but when they are combined with IUE data, the C3 opacity appears less plausible.

  15. Urban Evapotranspiration and Carbon Dioxide Flux in Miami - Dade, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, T.; Hopper, W.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) concentrations are leading indicators of secular climate change. With increasing awareness of the consequences of climate change, methods for monitoring this change are becoming more important daily. Of particular interest is the carbon dioxide exchange between natural and urban landscapes and the correlation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Monitoring Evapotranspiration (ET) is important for assessments of water availability for growing populations. ET is surprisingly understudied in the hydrologic cycle considering ET removes as much as 80 to over 100% of precipitation back into the atmosphere as water vapor. Lack of understanding in spatial and temporal ET estimates can limit the credibility of hydrologic water budgets designed to promote sustainable water use and resolve water-use conflicts. Eddy covariance (EC) methods are commonly used to estimate ET and CO2 fluxes. The EC platform consist of a (CSAT) 3-D Sonic Anemometer and a Li-Cor Open Path CO2/ H2O Analyzer. Measurements collected at 10 Hz create a very large data sets. A EC flux tower located in the Snapper Creek Well Field as part of a study to estimate ET for the Miami Dade County Water and Sewer project. Data has been collected from December 17, 2009 to August 30, 2010. QA/QC is performed with the EdiRe data processing software according to Ameri-flux protocols. ET estimates along with other data--latent-heat flux, sensible-heat flux, rainfall, air temperature, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance, net radiation, soil-heat flux and relative humidity--can be used to aid in the development of water management policies and regulations. Currently, many financial institutions have adopted an understanding about baseline environmental monitoring. The “Equator Principle” is an example of a voluntary standard for managing social and environmental risk in project financing and has changed the way in which projects are financed.

  16. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foken, T.; Biermann, T.; Babel, W.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km2 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of Carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  17. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in a hydrologically changed wetland in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Elisa; Berger, Sina; Burger, Magdalena; Forsyth, Jordan; Goebel, Marie; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Blodau, Christian; Klemm, Otto

    2015-04-01

    Northern peatlands store about 30 % of the global soil carbon and account for a significant contribution to methane emissions from natural sources. The carbon cycle in peatland ecosystems is very sensitive to hydrological changes so that it is important to quantify and analyze the direction and magnitude of carbon fluxes under such conditions. For example, increased water levels might decrease the carbon dioxide uptake and increase methane emissions. The Luther Bog in Ontario, Canada, has been flooded to create a reservoir in 1952. This changed the hydrological regime of the adjacent areas and the question arises whether the changed ecosystem acts as a sink or source for carbon, and how it affects global warming. In 2014, an eddy covariance measurement station was operated there from May to October to quantify the exchange of water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane between the bog and the atmosphere. The station was located in an area that got wetter through the construction of the dam. The magnitude and direction of the methane fluxes were independent from daily patterns. The constantly high water level excluded the effect of temperature changes on the methane production. A seasonal variation with increased emissions during the summer period was visible despite the slightly decreased water level. However, the difference was small. The study site was found to be a clear methane source. The carbon dioxide fluxes showed typical diurnal courses. Their magnitude was relatively constant during the measurement period apart from a slight decrease in fall. The uptake of carbon clearly overweighed the carbon loss, meaning that the bog is sequestering carbon. However, considering the global warming potential of carbon dioxide and methane the effect on climate change is only slightly negative. This points out that even changed wetland ecosystems can keep their important function of sequestering carbon and thereby counteract global warming. A comparison and combination of this

  18. Air-water CO2 Fluxes and Inorganic Carbon Dynamics in a Microtidal, Eutrophic Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosswell, J.; Hales, B. R.; Paerl, H. W.

    2010-12-01

    Though the role of coastal margins in the global carbon cycle is on a slow rise up the scientific agenda, carbon dynamics in microtidal estuaries have been largely ignored. High spatial and temporal variability of wind and water conditions in these systems make integration of air-water CO2 fluxes particularly difficult. Given the high degree of monitoring effort required to accurately determine air-water CO2 fluxes, does the short term variability and significance in the coastal carbon cycle justifies the means? In an effort to address this question we examined air-water CO2 fluxes in the microtidal, eutrophic Neuse River Estuary, NC (NRE) from June 2009 to July 2010. High-resolution, continuous-flow surveys of CO2 partial pressure, pCO2, were conducted biweekly spanning the longitudinal axis of the estuary from the tidal freshwater region to the polyhaline border with the Pamlico Sound. Lateral transects were conducted in each of three hydrologically distinct sections. Discrete surface and bottom water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) samples were input into a conservative tracer box model to determine estuarine carbon cycle parameters and exchange coefficients. High temporal variability of air-water CO2 fluxes was closely associated with climatological events affecting estuarine stratification and riverine discharge. The greatest flux rate increase over a 10 day period (-3.01 to 54.76 t-C d-1) was observed during the steepest rise (>500%) in river discharge. Smoother trends were observed on seasonal scales with maximum and minimum whole estuary air-water CO2 flux rates of 54.76 and -20.84 t-C d-1 in mid-fall and late-spring respectively. Air-water CO2 fluxes in the NRE were found to account for up to 5% of total estuarine C import during undersaturated conditions and 14% of C export during oversaturated conditions. Though accurate characterization of air-water CO2 fluxes requires intensive monitoring resources, the magnitude and variability of these exchanges

  19. Regional-Scale Carbon Flux Partitioning Using Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Naser, M.; Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Simultaneous analysis of atmospheric concentrations of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon dioxide (CO2) has been proposed as an approach to partitioning gross primary production and respiration fluxes at regional and global scales. The basis for this approach was that the observation and regional gradients in atmospheric CO2 are dominated by net ecosystem fluxes while regional gradients in atmospheric COS are dominated by GPP-related plant uptake. Here we investigate the spatial and temporal gradients in airborne COS and CO2 measurements in comparison to flux estimates from ecosystem models and eddy covariance methods over North America. The spatial gradients in the ecosystem relative uptake (ERU), the normalized ratio of COS and CO2 vertical gradients, were consistent with the theoretical relationship to flux estimates from ecosystem models and eddy covariance methods. The seasonality of the gross primary productivity flux estimates was consistent with airborne observations in the midwestern region but had mixed results in the southeastern region. Inter-annual changes in the ERU and regional drought index data suggested a potential relationship between drought stress and low ratios of gross primary production to net ecosystem exchange.

  20. Forest carbon stocks and fluxes in physiographic zones of India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing carbon Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) is of central importance to combat climate change. Foremost among the challenges is quantifying nation's carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation, which requires information on forest carbon storage. Here we estimated carbon storage in India's forest biomass for the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 and the net flux caused by deforestation and degradation, between two assessment periods i.e., Assessment Period first (ASP I), 2003-2005 and Assessment Period second (ASP II), 2005-2007. Results The total estimated carbon stock in India's forest biomass varied from 3325 to 3161 Mt during the years 2003 to 2007 respectively. There was a net flux of 372 Mt of CO2 in ASP I and 288 Mt of CO2 in ASP II, with an annual emission of 186 and 114 Mt of CO2 respectively. The carbon stock in India's forest biomass decreased continuously from 2003 onwards, despite slight increase in forest cover. The rate of carbon loss from the forest biomass in ASP II has dropped by 38.27% compared to ASP I. Conclusion With the Copenhagen Accord, India along with other BASIC countries China, Brazil and South Africa is voluntarily going to cut emissions. India will voluntary reduce the emission intensity of its GDP by 20-25% by 2020 in comparison to 2005 level, activities like REDD+ can provide a relatively cost-effective way of offsetting emissions, either by increasing the removals of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere by afforestation programmes, managing forests, or by reducing emissions through deforestation and degradation. PMID:22196920

  1. Inverse carbon dioxide flux estimates for the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesters, A. G. C. A.; Tolk, L. F.; Peters, W.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Vellinga, O. S.; Elbers, J. A.; Vermeulen, A. T.; van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Dolman, A. J.

    2012-10-01

    CO2 fluxes for the Netherlands and surroundings are estimated for the year 2008, from concentration measurements at four towers, using an inverse model. The results are compared to direct CO2flux measurements by aircraft, for 6 flight tracks over the Netherlands, flown multiple times in each season. We applied the Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Modeling system (RAMS) coupled to a simple carbon flux scheme (including fossil fuel), which was run at 10 km resolution, and inverted with an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The domain had 6 eco-regions, and inversions were performed for the four seasons separately. Inversion methods with pixel-dependent and -independent parameters for each eco-region were compared. The two inversion methods, in general, yield comparable flux averages for each eco-region and season, whereas the difference from the prior flux may be large. Posterior fluxes co-sampled along the aircraft flight tracks are usually much closer to the observations than the priors, with a comparable performance for both inversion methods, and with best performance for summer and autumn. The inversions showed more negative CO2 fluxes than the priors, though the latter are obtained from a biosphere model optimized using the Fluxnet database, containing observations from more than 200 locations worldwide. The two different crop ecotypes showed very different CO2uptakes, which was unknown from the priors. The annual-average uptake is practically zero for the grassland class and for one of the cropland classes, whereas the other cropland class had a large net uptake, possibly because of the abundance of maize there.

  2. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Wolfgang; Biermann, Tobias; Falge, Eva; Ingrisch, Johannes; Leonbacher, Jürgen; Schleuss, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Ma, Yaoming; Miehe, Georg; Foken, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km² on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  3. Aeolian nutrient fluxes following wildfire in sagebrush steppe: Implications for soil carbon storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasselquist, N.J.; Germino, M.J.; Sankey, J.B.; Ingram, L.J.; Glenn, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    Pulses of aeolian transport following fire can profoundly affect the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. Our objective was to determine horizontal nutrient fluxes during an episodic pulse of aeolian transport that occurred following a wildfire in a semi-arid sagebrush steppe ecosystem in southern Idaho, USA. We also examined how temporal trends in nutrient fluxes were affected by changes in particle sizes of eroded mass as well as nutrient concentrations associated with different particle size classes. In the burned area, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes were as high as 235 g C m????'1 d????'1 and 19 g N m????'1 d????'1 during the first few months following fire, whereas C and N fluxes were negligible in an adjacent unburned area throughout the study. Temporal variation in C and N fluxes following fire was largely attributable to the redistribution of saltation-sized particles. Total N and organic C concentrations in the soil surface were significantly lower in the burned relative to the unburned area one year after fire. Our results show how an episodic pulse of aeolian transport following fire can affect the spatial distribution of soil C and N, which, in turn, can have important implications for soil C storage. These findings demonstrate how an ecological disturbance can exacerbate a geomorphic process and highlight the need for further research to better understand the role aeolian transport plays in the biogeochemical cycling of C and N in recently burned landscapes. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  4. CarbonTracker-Lagrange: A model-data assimilation system for North American carbon flux estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Chen, Huilin; van der Velde, Ivar; Andrews, Arlyn; Sweeney, Colm; Baker, Ian; Ju, Weimin; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid; Tans, Pieter; Peters, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the regional carbon fluxes is of great importance for climate-related studies. To derive these carbon fluxes, atmospheric inverse modeling methods are often used. Different from global inverse modeling, regional studies need to deal with lateral boundary conditions (BCs) at the outer atmospheric domain studied. Also, regional inverse modeling systems typically use a higher spatial resolution and can be more computation-intensive. In this study, we implement a regional inverse modeling system for atmospheric CO₂ based on the CarbonTracker framework. We combine it with a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model driven by the Weather Forecast and Research meteorological fields (WRF-STILT). The new system uses independent information from aircraft CO₂ profiles to optimize lateral BCs, while simultaneously optimizing biosphere fluxes with near-surface CO₂ observations from tall towers. This Lagrangian transport model with precalculated footprints is computational more efficient than using an Eulerian model. We take SiBCASA biosphere model results as prior NEE from the terrestrial biosphere. Three different lateral BCs, derived from CarbonTracker North America mole fraction fields, CarbonTracker Europe mole fraction fields and an empirical BC from NOAA aircraft profiles, are employed to investigate the influence of BCs. To estimate the uncertainties of the optimized fluxes from the system and to determine the impacts of system setup on biosphere flux covariances, BC uncertainties and model-data mismatches, we tested various prior biosphere fluxes and BCs. To estimate the transport uncertainties, we also tested an alternative Lagrangian transport model Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model driven by the North American Mesoscale Forecast System meteorological fields (HYSPLIT-NAM12). Based on the above tests, we achieved an ensemble of inverse estimates from our system

  5. Testing the Need for Replication of Eddy Covariance Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurements over Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A. M.; Amiro, B. D.; Gervais, M.

    2015-12-01

    The eddy covariance method directly measures carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes for long periods of time and with footprints up to hundreds of meters in size. Any ecosystem process that alters how gases and energy move between the atmosphere and soil/vegetation can affect these fluxes. Eddy covariance is vulnerable to systematic errors and uncertainy, particular through relying on assumptions about surface characteristics. Additionally, spatial variation within a site can cause more uncertainty in these measurements and lack of replication in many eddy covariance studies makes statistical analysis of carbon fluxes challenging. We tested if there are significant differences between co-located and simultaneous CO2 flux measurements over a uniform crop surface, and if the differences increase if we measure different flux footprint areas over the same field. During the summer of 2014, three matched instrumented 2.5-m high towers were co-located and then periodically separated by moving at 50 m intervals along a north-south transect on an alfalfa/trefoil field and a spring wheat field in Southern Manitoba, Canada to compare CO­2 fluxes. Georeferenced leaf area index measurements were taken in 50 m grid of each field to establish uniformity of the source/sink within a footprint. Diurnal differences of similar magnitude in the CO2 ­fluxes were found in both the co-located experiment and the spatially separated intervals. Despite rigorous calibration during the experiment, some differences were caused by the measurement systems rather than by variation within the field. Interpretation of the spatial variation in leaf area index is being used to determine the contribution caused by difference in source/sink contributions to the flux footprint areas when the towers were spatially separated.

  6. [Effects of CO2 storage flux on carbon budget of forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mi; Wen, Xue-fa; Yu, Gui-rui; Zhang, Lei-ming; Fu, Yu-ling; Sun, Xiao-min; Han, Shi-jie

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage flux in the air space below measurement height of eddy covariance is very important to correctly evaluate net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) between forest ecosystem and atmosphere. This study analyzed the dynamic variation of CO2 storage flux and its effects on the carbon budget of a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbai Mountains, based on the eddy covariance flux data and the vertical profile of CO2 concentration data. The CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem had typical diurnal variation, with the maximum variation appeared during the transition from stable atmospheric layer to unstable atmospheric layer. The CO2 storage flux calculated by the change in CO2 concentration throughout a vertical profile was not significantly different from that calculated by the change in CO2 concentration at the measurement height of eddy covariance. The NEE of this forest ecosystem was underestimated by 25% and 19% at night and at daytime, respectively, without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour scale, and was underestimated by 10% and 25% at daily scale and annual scale, respectively. Without calculating the CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem, the parameters of Michaelis-Menten equation and Lloyd-Taylor equation were underestimated, and the ecosystem apparent quantum yield (alpha) and the ecosystem respiration rate (Rref) at the reference temperature were mostly affected. The gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) of this forest ecosystem were underestimated about 20% without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour, daily scale, and annual scale.

  7. Inversing grided land surface carbon fluxes focusing on Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huifang

    2013-04-01

    With the global carbon budget research carrying out, there is a growing scientific and political interest to better understand terrestrial carbon cycle at global and regional scales. Asia, contributed one of the largest uncertainties to global carbon budget, needs further more investigation and study. The contribution of Asia to the global carbon cycle is characterized by its high fossil fuel emissions due to economic booming and demand steep rising in energy, a rapidly increasing land cover change or degradation caused by population explosion and crop land expansion, a fast forest recovering in virtue of forest afforestation in the past 20 years. These unique characteristics force the exchange of terrestrial carbon more heterogeneous in Asian continent, and lead the Asian carbon balance research's implementation more difficult. In view of the Asian net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon characteristics, we used a state-of-the-art CO2 data assimilation system called CarbonTraker to estimate NEE of CO2 in Asia for every week during the years 2000-2009. This approach includes the following three steps: (1) the atmospheric transport model (TM5) used in the data assimilation system was nested to be 1x1 degree grid in Asian area while globally at 2x3 degree resolution; (2) the number of CO2 observation sites was expend with 22 in Asia (including CONTRAIL and NOAA's CO2 measurement); and (3) two different prior flux products were used to estimate uncertainty ranges. We find the Asian terrestrial biosphere absorbed about 1.89 PgC (1 petagram=1015 g) per year averaged over the period studied, partly offsetting the estimated 3.87 PgC/yr release by fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing. The estimated sink is located mainly in the boreal Asia, while the temperate Asia and the tropical Asia are a week sink and a very small source, respectively. The results also show that the surface fluxes produced by the CarbonTracker system were reasonably consistent with the recent

  8. Accounting for urban biogenic fluxes in regional carbon budgets.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Brady S; Wang, Jonathan A; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Friedl, Mark A

    2017-03-18

    Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated. Model results suggest that, kilogram-for-kilogram, urban vegetation cycles C twice as fast as rural forests. Urban vegetation releases (RE) and absorbs (GEE) the equivalent of 11 and 14%, respectively, of anthropogenic emissions in the most urban portions of the state. While urban vegetation in Massachusetts fully sequesters anthropogenic emissions from smaller cities in the region, Boston's UHI reduces annual C storage by >20% such that vegetation offsets only 2% of anthropogenic emissions. Asynchrony between temporal patterns of biogenic and anthropogenic C fluxes further constrains the emissions mitigation potential of urban vegetation. However, neglecting to account for biogenic C fluxes in cities can impair efforts to accurately monitor, report, verify, and reduce anthropogenic emissions.

  9. Soil Carbon Dioxide Production and Surface Fluxes: Subsurface Physical Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    Soil respiration is a critical determinant of landscape carbon balance. Variations in soil temperature and moisture patterns are important physical processes controlling soil respiration which need to be better understood. Relationships between soil respi- ration and physical controls are typically addressed using only surface flux data but other methods also exist which permit more rigorous interpretation of soil respira- tion processes. Here we use a combination of subsurface CO_{2} concentrations, surface CO_{2} fluxes and detailed physical monitoring of the subsurface envi- ronment to examine physical controls on soil CO_{2} production at four climate observatories in Eastern Canada. Results indicate that subsurface CO_{2} produc- tion is more strongly correlated to the subsurface thermal environment than the surface CO_{2} flux. Soil moisture was also found to have an important influence on sub- surface CO_{2} production, particularly in relation to the soil moisture - soil profile diffusivity relationship. Non-diffusive profile CO_{2} transport appears to be im- portant at these sites, resulting in a de-coupling of summertime surface fluxes from subsurface processes and violating assumptions that surface CO_{2} emissions are the result solely of diffusion. These results have implications for the study of soil respiration across a broad range of terrestrial environments.

  10. Multi-property modeling of ocean basin carbon fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to elucidate the causal mechanisms in some of the most important features of the global ocean/atomsphere carbon system. These included the interaction of physical and biological processes in the seasonal cycle of surface water pCo2, and links between productivity, surface chlorophyll, and the carbon cycle that would aid global modeling efforts. In addition, several other areas of critical scientific interest involving links between the marine biosphere and the global carbon cycle were successfully pursued; specifically, a possible relation between phytoplankton emitted DMS and climate, and a relation between the location of calcium carbonate burial in the ocean and metamorphic source fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere. Six published papers covering the following topics are summarized: (1) Mass extinctions, atmospheric sulphur and climatic warming at the K/T boundary; (2) Sensitivity of climate and atmospheric CO2 to deep-ocean and shallow-ocean carbonate burial; (3) Controls on CO2 sources and sinks in the earthscale surface ocean; (4) pre-anthropogenic, earthscale patterns of delta pCO2 between ocean and atmosphere; (5) Effect on atmospheric CO2 from seasonal variations in the high latitude ocean; and (6) Limitations or relating ocean surface chlorophyll to productivity.

  11. Carbon Fluxes and Ocean Acidification in the Irminger Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, Daniela; Barkhouse, Ryan; Olafsson, Jon; Olafsdottir, Solveig; Gulev, Sergej; Wallace, Doug

    2016-04-01

    Complex horizontal and vertical circulation in the Irminger and Labrador Seas has the potential to influence global ocean circulation and climate patterns. Deep water formation coupled with strong winds, and high rates of primary productivity in spring and summer result in these regions of the North Atlantic acting as strong sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. An increase in surface water pCO2 over the past two decades at a rate greater than that of the atmosphere has been observed and indicates a decrease in the air-sea pCO2 difference, the driving force of the air-sea CO2 flux. In response to the increasing pCO2, the surface water pH and the aragonite saturation states (Ωar) show a decreasing trend. Much of the previous work in the region has occurred on a few repeated transects over time, or in specific regions the Irminger basin. There is therefore a need for surveys of carbon parameters with broader horizontal spatial coverage to determine the CO2 fluxes and the effect of ocean acidification (OA) in the Irminger Sea. Here, we estimate surface pCO2 and CO2 fluxes, and Ωar over a large portion of the Irminger Sea and adjacent waters in the summer of 2013. These estimates are based on measurements of total alkalinity (TA) and pH from discrete samples in the upper 100m, collected at 83 stations on two cruises during the International Redfish Survey. The present study is designed to provide a baseline of inorganic carbon parameters for future, long-term study in the region. The large spatial scope of this study, and planned future work, will provide data that will help contextualize measures from repeated transect studies, underway measures, as well as measures from fixed observatories such those deployed by Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI).

  12. Seasonal spectral dynamics and carbon fluxes at core EOS sites using EO-1 Hyperion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomasino, D.; Campbell, P.; Price, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    phenology, as well as distinct spectral shapes for each vegetation type. Preliminary results suggest a high correlation (r=0.77-0.86) between CO2 flux and various biophysical indices that were primarily associated with the red-edge inflection point (i.e., 670-780 nm wavelength), regardless of vegetation type. Soil heat flux measurements also correlated well with the biophysical indices. These findings demonstrate the advantages of high-resolution spectral imaging for Earth observations, as well as for monitoring regional and global water and carbon fluxes to understand their affects on climate change.

  13. Benchmarking carbon fluxes of the ISIMIP2a biome models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Asrar, Ghassem; Betts, Richard; Chevallier, Frédéric; Dury, Marie; François, Louis; Frieler, Katja; García Cantú Ros, Anselmo; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; Hickler, Thomas; Ito, Akihiko; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Munhoven, Guy; Nishina, Kazuya; Ostberg, Sebastian; Pan, Shufen; Peng, Shushi; Rafique, Rashid; Reyer, Christopher; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Steinkamp, Jörg; Tian, Hanqin; Viovy, Nicolas; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the eight ISIMIP2a biome models against independent estimates of long-term net carbon fluxes (i.e. Net Biome Productivity, NBP) over terrestrial ecosystems for the recent four decades (1971-2010). We evaluate modeled global NBP against 1) the updated global residual land sink (RLS) plus land use emissions (E LUC) from the Global Carbon Project (GCP), presented as R + L in this study by Le Quéré et al (2015), and 2) the land CO2 fluxes from two atmospheric inversion systems: Jena CarboScope s81_v3.8 and CAMS v15r2, referred to as F Jena and F CAMS respectively. The model ensemble-mean NBP (that includes seven models with land-use change) is higher than but within the uncertainty of R + L, while the simulated positive NBP trend over the last 30 yr is lower than that from R + L and from the two inversion systems. ISIMIP2a biome models well capture the interannual variation of global net terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes. Tropical NBP represents 31 ± 17% of global total NBP during the past decades, and the year-to-year variation of tropical NBP contributes most of the interannual variation of global NBP. According to the models, increasing Net Primary Productivity (NPP) was the main cause for the generally increasing NBP. Significant global NBP anomalies from the long-term mean between the two phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are simulated by all models (p < 0.05), which is consistent with the R + L estimate (p = 0.06), also mainly attributed to NPP anomalies, rather than to changes in heterotrophic respiration (Rh). The global NPP and NBP anomalies during ENSO events are dominated by their anomalies in tropical regions impacted by tropical climate variability. Multiple regressions between R + L, F Jena and F CAMS interannual variations and tropical climate variations reveal a significant negative response of global net terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes to tropical mean annual temperature variation

  14. Benchmarking carbon fluxes of the ISIMIP2a biome models

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Xuhui; ...

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the eight ISIMIP2a biome models against independent estimates of long-term net carbon fluxes (i.e. Net Biome Productivity, NBP) over terrestrial ecosystems for the recent four decades (1971–2010). Here, we evaluate modeled global NBP against 1) the updated global residual land sink (RLS) plus land use emissions (ELUC) from the Global Carbon Project (GCP), presented as R + L in this study by Le Quéré et al (2015), and 2) the land CO2 fluxes from two atmospheric inversion systems: Jena CarboScope s81_v3.8 and CAMS v15r2, referred to as FJena and FCAMS respectively. Themore » model ensemble-mean NBP (that includes seven models with land-use change) is higher than but within the uncertainty of R + L, while the simulated positive NBP trend over the last 30 yr is lower than that from R + L and from the two inversion systems. ISIMIP2a biome models well capture the interannual variation of global net terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes. Tropical NBP represents 31 ± 17% of global total NBP during the past decades, and the year-to-year variation of tropical NBP contributes most of the interannual variation of global NBP. According to the models, increasing Net Primary Productivity (NPP) was the main cause for the generally increasing NBP. Significant global NBP anomalies from the long-term mean between the two phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are simulated by all models (p < 0.05), which is consistent with the R + L estimate (p = 0.06), also mainly attributed to NPP anomalies, rather than to changes in heterotrophic respiration (Rh). The global NPP and NBP anomalies during ENSO events are dominated by their anomalies in tropical regions impacted by tropical climate variability. Multiple regressions between R + L, FJena and FCAMS interannual variations and tropical climate variations reveal a significant negative response of global net terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes to tropical mean annual temperature

  15. Genotypic variation in traits controlling carbon flux responses to precipitation in switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fluxes of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems are key indicators of their productivity and carbon storage potential. Ecosystem fluxes will be impacted by climate change, especially changes in rainfall amount. Fluxes are also related to plant traits, including leaf photosynthesis (ACO2), leaf area ind...

  16. Tidal wetland fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and sediment at Browns Island, California: initial evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, N.K.; Bergamaschi, B.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon and sediment fluxes from tidal wetlands are of increasing concern in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta), because of drinking water issues and habitat restoration efforts. Certain forms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) react with disinfecting chemicals used to treat drinking water, to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs), some of which are potential carcinogens. The contribution of DBP precursors by tidal wetlands is unknown. Sediment transport to and from tidal wetlands determines the potential for marsh accretion, thereby affecting habitat formation.Water, carbon, and sediment flux were measured in the main channel of Browns Island, a tidal wetland located at the confluence of Suisun Bay and the Delta. In-situ instrumentation were deployed between May 3 and May 21, 2002. Water flux was measured using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the index-velocity method. DOC concentrations were measured using calibrated ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence instruments. Suspended-sediment concentrations were measured using a calibrated nephelometric turbidity sensor. Tidally averaged water flux through the channel was dependent on water surface elevations in Suisun Bay. Strong westerly winds resulted in higher water surface elevations in the area east of Browns Island, causing seaward flow, while subsiding winds reversed this effect. Peak ebb flow transported 36% more water than peak flood flow, indicating an ebb-dominant system. DOC concentrations were affected strongly by porewater drainage from the banks of the channel. Peak DOC concentrations were observed during slack after ebb, when the most porewater drained into the channel. Suspended-sediment concentrations were controlled by tidal currents that mobilized sediment from the channel bed, and stronger tides mobilized more sediment than the weaker tides. Sediment was transported mainly to the island during the 2-week monitoring period, though short periods of export occurred during the spring

  17. Carbon flux assessment in cow-calf grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Rowntree, J E; Powers, W J

    2015-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in grassland ecosystems are intimately linked to grazing management. This study assessed the carbon equivalent flux (Ceq) from 1) an irrigated, heavily stocked, low-density grazing system, 2) a nonirrigated, lightly stocked, high-density grazing system, and 3) a grazing-exclusion pasture site on the basis of the GHG emissions from pasture soils and enteric methane emissions from cows grazing different pasture treatments. Soil organic carbon and total soil nitrogen stocks were measured but not included in Ceq determination because of study duration and time needed to observe a change in soil composition. Light- and heavy-stocking systems had 36% and 43% greater Ceq than nongrazed pasture sites, respectively ( < 0.01). The largest contributor to increased Ceq from grazing systems was enteric CH emissions, which represented 15% and 32% of the overall emissions for lightly and heavily stocked grazing systems, respectively. Across years, grazing systems also had increased nitrous oxide (N2O; < 0.01) and CH emissions from pasture soils ( < 0.01) compared with nongrazed pasture sites but, overall, minimally contributed to total emissions. Results indicate no clear difference in Ceqflux between the grazing systems studied when SOC change is not incorporated ( = 0.11). A greater stocking rate potentially increased total SOC stock ( = 0.02), the addition of SOC deeper into the soil horizon ( = 0.01), and soil OM content to 30 cm ( < 0.01). The incorporation of long-term annual carbon sequestration into the determination of Ceq could change results and possibly differentiate the grazing systems studied.

  18. CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates relates to their inorganic carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Hoins, Mirja; Eberlein, Tim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Sluijs, Appy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation (εp) between the inorganic carbon source and organic matter has been proposed to be a function of pCO2. To understand the CO2-dependency of εp and species-specific differences therein, inorganic carbon fluxes in the four dinoflagellate species Alexandrium fundyense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum have been measured by means of membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. In-vivo assays were carried out at different CO2 concentrations, representing a range of pCO2 from 180 to 1200 μatm. The relative bicarbonate contribution (i.e. the ratio of bicarbonate uptake to total inorganic carbon uptake) and leakage (i.e. the ratio of CO2 efflux to total inorganic carbon uptake) varied from 0.2 to 0.5 and 0.4 to 0.7, respectively, and differed significantly between species. These ratios were fed into a single-compartment model, and εp values were calculated and compared to carbon isotope fractionation measured under the same conditions. For all investigated species, modeled and measured εp values were comparable (A. fundyense, S. trochoidea, P. reticulatum) and/or showed similar trends with pCO2 (A. fundyense, G. spinifera, P. reticulatum). Offsets are attributed to biases in inorganic flux measurements, an overestimated fractionation factor for the CO2-fixing enzyme RubisCO, or the fact that intracellular inorganic carbon fluxes were not taken into account in the model. This study demonstrates that CO2-dependency in εp can largely be explained by the inorganic carbon fluxes of the individual dinoflagellates.

  19. Nitrogen and carbon interactions in controlling terrestrial greenhouse gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ineson, Phil; Toet, Sylvia; Christiansen, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    The increased input of N to terrestrial systems may have profound impacts on net greenhouse gas (GHGs) fluxes and, consequently, our future climate; however, fully capturing and quantifying these interactions under field conditions urgently requires new, more efficient, measurement approaches. We have recently developed and deployed a novel system for the automation of terrestrial GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scales, using the approach of 'flying' a single measurement chamber to multiple points in an experimental field arena. As an example of the value of this approach, we shall describe the results from a field experiment investigating the interactions between increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) additions on net ecosystem exchanges of N2O, CH4 and CO2, enabling the simultaneous application of 25 treatments, replicated five times in a fully replicated block field design. We will describe how the ability to deliver automated GHG flux measurements, highly replicated in space and time, has revealed hitherto unreported findings on N and C interactions in field soil. In our experiments we found insignificant N2O fluxes from bare field soil, even at very high inorganic N addition rates, but the interactive addition of even small amounts of available C resulted in very large and rapid N2O fluxes. The SkyGas experimental system enabled investigation of the underlying interacting response surfaces on the fluxes of the major soil-derived GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) to increasing N and C inputs, and revealed unexpected interactions. In addition to these results we will also discuss some of the technical problems which have been overcome in developing these 'flying' systems and the potential of the systems for automatically screening the impacts of large numbers of treatments on GHG fluxes, and other ecosystem responses, under field conditions. We describe here technological advances that can facilitate the development of more robust GHG mitigation

  20. Effect of non-homogeneity in flux footprint on the interpretation of seasonal, annual, and interannual ecosystem carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebel, A.; Bennett, L. T.; Metzen, D.; Cleverly, J. R.; Burba, G. G.; Arndt, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon flux measurements using the eddy covariance method rely on several assumptions, including reasonably uniform terrain and homogenous vegetation. These are not always possible in complex terrain, structurally variable native vegetation or in disturbed ecosystems. Consequently, an increasing number of flux sites are located over not fully homogeneous areas. This implies that observed year-to-year variations in CO2 budgets may not always be related only to changes in the key driving factors such as weather, canopy state and physiology, but may also be affected by differences in the flux footprints between years. This may bias budget estimates over many locations, since a large number of flux sites are affected by wind channelling, contrasting climatic conditions with wind direction (e.g. maritime sites) and by variations of continental-scale climate patterns that modify prevailing wind directions. We tested the effects of a non-homogeneous footprint on annual carbon estimates for an evergreen forest, where the combination of terrain, weather and anthropogenic management shaped the local forest structure. Interactions among these factors caused the key drivers regulating carbon fluxes (such as LAI, temperature, VPD and turbulence) to vary significantly with wind direction, and their combinations resulted in pronounced carbon sequestration 'hotspots' that impacted instantaneous fluxes. These were most distinctive during the summer months, and they varied in extent and magnitude depending on prevailing weather. Consequently, interannual variations in footprints affected up to 18.9% of seasonal estimates during the summer months, and up to 23.1% of annual carbon budget estimates. The footprint-related bias was largest at 48.7% under 'ideal' uptake conditions (clear sky, mid-day during summer). We further present a procedure to recognise and quantify the apparent interannual variations in carbon estimates attributable to year-to-year variations in flux footprint.

  1. Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide and Nitric Oxide from a Repeatedly Burned Mediterranean Shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekberg, A.; Buchmann, N.; Gross, S.; Sörgel, K.; Weitz, A.

    2003-04-01

    Ecosystem carbon and nitrogen fluxes are closely coupled. Soil nitrogen availability and organic matter content affect soil carbon turnover as well as emissions of nitrogen oxides. Fire affects nutrient availability, typically leading to peaks in soil-atmosphere gas fluxes. However, little information on this subject is currently available from Mediterranean ecosystems. Our study is carried out within the framework of the EU project SPREAD (Forest Fire Spread Prevention and Mitigation). In the context of SPREAD, we study effects of repeated management fires on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO). The study is performed in a mountain bushland area at Quintos de Mora Biological Station, Montes de Toledo, central Spain (39°23'N, 4°00'W). The experiments are set up in a split plot design where autumn- and spring burns from three consecutive years (1997-1999) and one additional burn from 1994 are compared with unburned controls. During the first field campaign, conducted in November 2002, soil respiration (CO2 emission) was measured from 30 permanently installed frames by a manual chamber technique using infrared gas analysis (LI-6400-09, LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska). The preliminary results indicate no significant differences in CO2 emissions between different burns. Emissions of NO were not measured at this occasion, but in future field campaigns, we will use a luminol chemiluminescence detection technique (LMA-3D, Unisearch Associates Inc., Concord, Canada) with dynamic vented chambers to determine soil NO fluxes. Soil physical (bulk density, gravimetric soil water content, water-filled pore space) and chemical (pH, available ammonium a nitrate) properties are also determined. Additional field campaigns are scheduled to March, early summer and late summer 2003.

  2. Comparing the CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar data assimilation systems for CO2 surface flux inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenhauserheide, A.; Basu, S.; Houweling, S.; Peters, W.; Butz, A.

    2015-03-01

    Data assimilation systems allow for estimating surface fluxes of greenhouse gases from atmospheric concentration measurements. Good knowledge about fluxes is essential to understand how climate change affects ecosystems and to characterize feedback mechanisms. Based on assimilation of more than one year of atmospheric in-situ concentration measurements, we compare the performance of two established data assimilation models, CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar, for CO2 flux estimation. CarbonTracker uses an Ensemble Kalman Filter method to optimize fluxes on ecoregions. TM5-4DVar employs a 4-D variational method and optimizes fluxes on a 6° × 4° longitude/latitude grid. Harmonizing the input data allows analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches by direct comparison of the modelled concentrations and the estimated fluxes. We further assess the sensitivity of the two approaches to the density of observations and operational parameters such as temporal and spatial correlation lengths. Our results show that both models provide optimized CO2 concentration fields of similar quality. In Antarctica CarbonTracker underestimates the wintertime CO2 concentrations, since its 5-week assimilation window does not allow for adjusting the far-away surface fluxes in response to the detected concentration mismatch. Flux estimates by CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar are consistent and robust for regions with good observation coverage, regions with low observation coverage reveal significant differences. In South America, the fluxes estimated by TM5-4DVar suffer from limited representativeness of the few observations. For the North American continent, mimicking the historical increase of measurement network density shows improving agreement between CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar flux estimates for increasing observation density.

  3. Comparing the CarbonTracker and M5-4DVar data assimilation systems for CO2 surface flux inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenhauserheide, A.; Basu, S.; Houweling, S.; Peters, W.; Butz, A.

    2015-09-01

    Data assimilation systems allow for estimating surface fluxes of greenhouse gases from atmospheric concentration measurements. Good knowledge about fluxes is essential to understand how climate change affects ecosystems and to characterize feedback mechanisms. Based on the assimilation of more than 1 year of atmospheric in situ concentration measurements, we compare the performance of two established data assimilation models, CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar (Transport Model 5 - Four-Dimensional Variational model), for CO2 flux estimation. CarbonTracker uses an ensemble Kalman filter method to optimize fluxes on ecoregions. TM5-4DVar employs a 4-D variational method and optimizes fluxes on a 6° × 4° longitude-latitude grid. Harmonizing the input data allows for analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches by direct comparison of the modeled concentrations and the estimated fluxes. We further assess the sensitivity of the two approaches to the density of observations and operational parameters such as the length of the assimilation time window. Our results show that both models provide optimized CO2 concentration fields of similar quality. In Antarctica CarbonTracker underestimates the wintertime CO2 concentrations, since its 5-week assimilation window does not allow for adjusting the distant surface fluxes in response to the detected concentration mismatch. Flux estimates by CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar are consistent and robust for regions with good observation coverage, regions with low observation coverage reveal significant differences. In South America, the fluxes estimated by TM5-4DVar suffer from limited representativeness of the few observations. For the North American continent, mimicking the historical increase of the measurement network density shows improving agreement between CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar flux estimates for increasing observation density.

  4. Global ocean particulate organic carbon flux merged with satellite parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen B.; Barnett, Audrey; McKinley, Galen A.; Gloege, Lucas; Pilcher, Darren

    2016-10-01

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux estimated from POC concentration observations from sediment traps and 234Th are compiled across the global ocean. The compilation includes six time series locations: CARIACO, K2, OSP, BATS, OFP, and HOT. Efficiency of the biological pump of carbon to the deep ocean depends largely on biologically mediated export of carbon from the surface ocean and its remineralization with depth; thus biologically related parameters able to be estimated from satellite observations were merged at the POC observation sites. Satellite parameters include net primary production, percent microplankton, sea surface temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, euphotic zone depth, and climatological mixed layer depth. Of the observations across the globe, 85 % are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere with 44 % of the data record overlapping the satellite record. Time series sites accounted for 36 % of the data, while 71 % of the data are measured at ≥ 500 m with the most common deployment depths between 1000 and 1500 m. This data set is valuable for investigations of CO2 drawdown, carbon export, remineralization, and sequestration. The compiled data can be freely accessed at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.855600.

  5. Interannual variation of carbon exchange fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindermann, Jürgen; Würth, Gudrun; Kohlmaier, Gundolf H.; Badeck, Franz-W.

    1996-12-01

    A global prognostic physiologically based model of the carbon budget in terrestrial ecosystems, the Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM), is applied to simulate the interannual variation of carbon exchange fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. The data on climatic forcing are based on Cramer and Leemans climate maps; the interannual variation is introduced according to records of temperature anomalies and precipitation anomalies for the period 1980 to 1993. The calculated net exchange flux between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere is compared to the biospheric signal deduced from 13C measurements. Some intermediate results are presented as well: the contributions of the most important global ecosystems to the biospheric signal, the contributions of different latitudinal belts to the biospheric signal, and the responses of net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh). From the simulation results it can be inferred that the complex temperature and precipitation responses of NPP and Rh in different latitudes and different ecosystem types add up to a global CO2 signal contributing substantially to the atmospheric CO2 anomaly on the interannual timescale. The temperature response of NPP was found to be the most important factor determining this signal.

  6. Observation-based modelling of permafrost carbon fluxes with accounting for deep carbon deposits and thermokarst activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, T.; Grosse, G.; Strauss, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Morgenstern, A.; Schaphoff, S.; Meinshausen, M.; Boike, J.

    2015-06-01

    High-latitude soils store vast amounts of perennially frozen and therefore inert organic matter. With rising global temperatures and consequent permafrost degradation, a part of this carbon stock will become available for microbial decay and eventual release to the atmosphere. We have developed a simplified, two-dimensional multi-pool model to estimate the strength and timing of future carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from newly thawed permafrost carbon (i.e. carbon thawed when temperatures rise above pre-industrial levels). We have especially simulated carbon release from deep deposits in Yedoma regions by describing abrupt thaw under newly formed thermokarst lakes. The computational efficiency of our model allowed us to run large, multi-centennial ensembles under various scenarios of future warming to express uncertainty inherent to simulations of the permafrost carbon feedback. Under moderate warming of the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 2.6 scenario, cumulated CO2 fluxes from newly thawed permafrost carbon amount to 20 to 58 petagrams of carbon (Pg-C) (68% range) by the year 2100 and reach 40 to 98 Pg-C in 2300. The much larger permafrost degradation under strong warming (RCP8.5) results in cumulated CO2 release of 42 to 141 Pg-C and 157 to 313 Pg-C (68% ranges) in the years 2100 and 2300, respectively. Our estimates only consider fluxes from newly thawed permafrost, not from soils already part of the seasonally thawed active layer under pre-industrial climate. Our simulated CH4 fluxes contribute a few percent to total permafrost carbon release yet they can cause up to 40% of total permafrost-affected radiative forcing in the 21st century (upper 68% range). We infer largest CH4 emission rates of about 50 Tg-CH4 per year around the middle of the 21st century when simulated thermokarst lake extent is at its maximum and when abrupt thaw under thermokarst lakes is taken into account. CH4 release from newly thawed carbon in wetland-affected

  7. Observation-based modelling of permafrost carbon fluxes with accounting for deep carbon deposits and thermokarst activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, T.; Grosse, G.; Strauss, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Morgenstern, A.; Schaphoff, S.; Meinshausen, M.; Boike, J.

    2014-12-01

    High-latitude soils store vast amounts of perennially frozen and therefore inert organic matter. With rising global temperatures and consequent permafrost degradation, a part of this carbon store will become available for microbial decay and eventual release to the atmosphere. We have developed a simplified, two-dimensional multi-pool model to estimate the strength and timing of future carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from newly thawed permafrost carbon (i.e. carbon thawed when temperatures rise above pre-industrial levels). We have especially simulated carbon release from deep deposits in Yedoma regions by describing abrupt thaw under thermokarst lakes. The computational efficiency of our model allowed us to run large, multi-centennial ensembles under various scenarios of future warming to express uncertainty inherent to simulations of the permafrost-carbon feedback. Under moderate warming of the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 2.6 scenario, cumulated CO2 fluxes from newly thawed permafrost carbon amount to 20 to 58 petagrammes of carbon (Pg-C) (68% range) by the year 2100 and reach 40 to 98 Pg-C in 2300. The much larger permafrost degradation under strong warming (RCP8.5) results in cumulated CO2 release of 42-141 and 157-313 Pg-C (68% ranges) in the years 2100 and 2300, respectively. Our estimates do only consider fluxes from newly thawed permafrost but not from soils already part of the seasonally thawed active layer under preindustrial climate. Our simulated methane fluxes contribute a few percent to total permafrost carbon release yet they can cause up to 40% of total permafrost-affected radiative forcing in the 21st century (upper 68% range). We infer largest methane emission rates of about 50 Tg-CH4 year-1 around the mid of the 21st century when simulated thermokarst lake extent is at its maximum and when abrupt thaw under thermokarst lakes is accounted for. CH4 release from newly thawed carbon in wetland-affected deposits is only

  8. Quantifying legacies of clearcut on carbon fluxes and biomass carbon stock in northern temperate forests

    Treesearch

    W. Wang; J. Xiao; S. V. Ollinger; J. Chen; A. Noormets

    2014-01-01

    Stand-replacing disturbances including harvests have substantial impacts on forest carbon (C) fluxes and stocks. The quantification and simulation of these effects is essential for better understanding forest C dynamics and informing forest management 5 in the context of global change. We evaluated the process-based forest ecosystem model, PnET-CN, for how well and by...

  9. Tree age, disturbance history, and carbon stocks and fluxes in subalpine Rocky Mountain forests

    Treesearch

    J.B. Bradford; R.A. Birdsey; L.A. Joyce; M.G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Forest carbon stocks and fluxes vary with forest age, and relationships with forest age are often used to estimate fluxes for regional or national carbon inventories. Two methods are commonly used to estimate forest age: observed tree age or time since a known disturbance. To clarify the relationships between tree age, time since disturbance and forest carbon storage...

  10. Phytolith-Occluded Carbon Pools and Fluxes: New Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyerson, P. E.; Alexandre, A. E.; Santos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Phytoliths are microscopic grains of silica (SiO2•nH2O) formed within plants. The biomineralization process typically encapsulates small quantities of carbon termed phytC. Upon decomposition, phytoliths are released from biomass and into soils. Recent research has suggested that phytC may be a large sink of atmospheric CO2 in soils. Important steps, therefore, are to quantify phytC cycling across ecosystems and to measure it's importance relative to the organic C cycle as a whole. Thus, information regarding phytC pool sizes and flux rates are needed. To an extent this has been performed. PhytC quantities can be easily estimated as long as 1) phytolith quantities and 2) the amount of C present in phytoliths are known. The quantity of C within phytoliths is still a subject of debate, but recent work has found quantities of less than 0.22%. Older studies, which rely on extraction methods which are now known to incompletely remove surface organic residues, have found phytC quantities from 1% to 20%. Hence, studies of phytC cycling using outdated methods may lead to overestimates. In order to re-estimate phytC dynamics, we compiled an extensive list of published works which document phytolith pools in above-ground biomass and soils, as well as flux rates. From these data phytC quantities were calculated using revised estimates of phytolith C percentages. PhytC quantities were also compared to total organic C (TOC) pools and fluxes. These calculations were then extrapolated to biome and global scales. At the biome scale, our results indicate that phytC within living biomass and soil pools as well as fluxes are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than previously estimated. PhytC is generally less than 0.01% of biomass TOC, and less than 1% of soil TOC. Annual phytC fluxes are less than 0.01% of TOC fluxes. At the global scale, annual phytC production is approximately 0.01% to 0.10% of gross C production. The findings of the present study suggest that direct C

  11. Autonomous Particle Recognition and Analysis of Carbon Flux Explorer Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C. M.; Bishop, J. K.; Wood, T.

    2013-12-01

    The biologically mediated export, or sedimentation, of particulate organic carbon to ocean depths below 100 m is approximately 10 Pg C per year and is highly variable in space and time. Despite the need to understand the biological drivers for export and the depth dependence of carbon remineralization for carbon cycle prediction, there are scant observations of sedimentation dynamics in the upper 1000 m. The Carbon Flux Explorer (CFE) is a robotic ocean profiling system, which combines the Scripps Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO) and the LBNL/Berkeley optical sedimentation recorder. The CFE is designed to conduct high-frequency (hourly) observations of particulate organic and inorganic carbon sedimentation to kilometer depths, absent of ships, in all sea conditions, be reprogrammable and adaptive once deployed, and relay data to shore in near real time via Iridium satellite links for seasons to years. The CFE operates by sequentially imaging settled particles at ~15 micrometer size resolution in transmitted, transmitted cross-polarized, and dark field illumination. At present, these images must be stored on the CFE until recovery. In other words, the CFE is deployable in the context of multi-month long process studies. Here we present progress on particle recognition and quantification methodology, which will enable a 100,000:1 compression of image data needed for efficient satellite telemetry and fully autonomous real-time operation. Our methodology includes corrective thresh-holding, cross imaging comparison, distinction of aggregates from organisms, and the classification of particle properties including particle fractal dimension. We also look at these findings in context of particle vertical velocity, float performance, and oceanic conditions. Data analysis examples drawing on recent CFE missions to California coastal and offshore waters and to the subarctic N Pacific ocean, some lasting 41 days, will be presented.

  12. Hydroclimatic Controls over Global Variations in Phenology and Carbon Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal; Walker, G.; Thornton, Patti; Collatz, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The connection between phenological and hydroclimatological variations are quantified through joint analyses of global NDVI, LAI, and precipitation datasets. The global distributions of both NDVI and LAI in the warm season are strongly controlled by three quantities: mean annual precipitation, the standard deviation of annual precipitation, and Budyko's index of dryness. Upon demonstrating that these same basic (if biased) relationships are produced by a dynamic vegetation model (the dynamic vegetation and carbon storage components of the NCAR Community Land Model version 4 combined with the water and energy balance framework of the Catchment Land Surface Model of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office), we use the model to perform a sensitivity study focusing on how phenology and carbon flux might respond to climatic change. The offline (decoupled from the atmosphere) simulations show us, for example, where on the globe a given small increment in precipitation mean or variability would have the greatest impact on carbon uptake. The analysis framework allows us in addition to quantify the degree to which climatic biases in a free-running GCM are manifested as biases in simulated phenology.

  13. Carbon fluxes in the Arabian Sea: Export versus recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, Tim; Gaye, Birgit; Ramaswamy, Venkitasubramani

    2016-04-01

    The organic carbon pump strongly influences the exchange of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere. It is known that it responds to global change but the magnitude and the direction of change are still unpredictable. Sediment trap experiments carried out at various sites in the Arabian Sea between 1986 and 1998 have shown differences in the functioning of the organic carbon pump (OCP). An OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton operated in the upwelling region off Oman and during the spring bloom in the northern Arabian Sea. Cyanobacteria capable of fixing nitrogen seem to dominate the phytoplankton community during all other seasons. The export driven by cyanobacteria was much lower than the export driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton. Productivity and nutrient availability seems to be a main factor controlling fluxes during blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankton. The ballast effect caused by inputs of dust into the ocean and its incorporation into sinking particles seems to be the main factor controlling the export during times when cyanobacteria dominate the phytoplankton community. C/N ratios of organic matter exported from blooms dominated by nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are enhanced and, furthermore, indicate a more efficient recycling of nutrients at shallower water depth. This implies that the bacterial-driven OCP operates more in a recycling mode that keeps nutrients closer to the euphotic zone whereas the OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton reduces the recycling of nutrients by exporting them into greater water-depth.

  14. [Biogeneous carbon fluxes in the boreal forests of Central Siberia].

    PubMed

    Vedrova, É F

    2011-01-01

    The assessments of the carbon pool and rate of plant biomass production, phytodetritus destruction, new formations of humic matters, and removal of water-soluble decomposition products for the forest ecosystems of the forest tundra and the northern and southern parts of the Central Siberian taiga were given. The rates of the main processes (organic-matter production and degradation) were demonstrated to be balanced in the ecosystems of the forest tundra. The larch forests of the northern taiga serve as a stock for a C atmosphere, which are equivalent to 32-34% of net primary production (NPP). The secondary birch growth where the understory needle-leaved trees have been formed and the primary old-growth fir forests are characterized by the balance of the main carbon fluxes in the southern taiga. The birch forests where the understory trees are just being formed and the fir forests at the age of 50-90 years serve as a stock for an average of 26% of carbon extracted as dioxide to make NPP.

  15. Influence of Leaf Area Index Prescriptions on Simulations of Heat, Moisture, and Carbon Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kala, Jatin; Decker, Mark; Exbrayat, Jean-Francois; Pitman, Andy J.; Carouge, Claire; Evans, Jason P.; Abramowitz, Gab; Mocko, David

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-area index (LAI), the total one-sided surface area of leaf per ground surface area, is a key component of land surface models. We investigate the influence of differing, plausible LAI prescriptions on heat, moisture, and carbon fluxes simulated by the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLEv1.4b) model over the Australian continent. A 15-member ensemble monthly LAI data-set is generated using the MODIS LAI product and gridded observations of temperature and precipitation. Offline simulations lasting 29 years (1980-2008) are carried out at 25 km resolution with the composite monthly means from the MODIS LAI product (control simulation) and compared with simulations using each of the 15-member ensemble monthly-varying LAI data-sets generated. The imposed changes in LAI did not strongly influence the sensible and latent fluxes but the carbon fluxes were more strongly affected. Croplands showed the largest sensitivity in gross primary production with differences ranging from -90 to 60 %. PFTs with high absolute LAI and low inter-annual variability, such as evergreen broadleaf trees, showed the least response to the different LAI prescriptions, whilst those with lower absolute LAI and higher inter-annual variability, such as croplands, were more sensitive. We show that reliance on a single LAI prescription may not accurately reflect the uncertainty in the simulation of the terrestrial carbon fluxes, especially for PFTs with high inter-annual variability. Our study highlights that the accurate representation of LAI in land surface models is key to the simulation of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence this will become critical in quantifying the uncertainty in future changes in primary production.

  16. Carbon dioxide fluxes associated with synoptic weather events over a southern inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Gao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates that inland waters play an important role in regional and global carbon budget through releasing a substantial carbon into the atmosphere. To better quantify how environmental variables affect CO2 exchange between inland waters and the atmosphere and its temporal variations, we have conducted direct, long-term measurements of CO2 fluxes across the water-atmosphere interface over a large southern open water of Ross Barnett Reservoir in central Mississippi. Our data indicate that large CO2 flux pulses occurred occasionally throughout the course of a year with the duration of a few days for each pulse. Here we analyzed and demonstrated that these CO2 flux pulses were associated with the passages of synoptic weather events. Our preliminary results indicated that these synoptic weather events (e.g., extratropical clones and cold air bursts) led to the enhanced mechanical mixing due to increasing wind speeds and the instability of the atmospheric surface layer due to the decreasing air temperature. As a consequence, in-water processes were also substantially altered accordingly. Due to the dramatic decrease in air temperature caused by the events, the temperature in the water surface layer was largely reduced, generating in-water convection conditions and thus leading to the increased depths of the mixing layer in the water, as reflected by the water temperature profiles. The enhanced mechanical mixing in the atmospheric surface layer may have further contributed to the deepened mixing layer in the water. Our suggestions suggest that high CO2 effluxes during the pulse events were largely attributed to changes in the water-side physical processes that are directly linked to rapid changes in atmospheric processes associated with synoptic weather events. Given its substantial contribution of CO2 flux pulses to carbon emission, such physical processes should be taken into account when carbon emissions from inland waters are quantified.

  17. Carbon flux from bio-optical profiling floats: Calibrating transmissometers for use as optical sediment traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estapa, Meg; Durkin, Colleen; Buesseler, Ken; Johnson, Rod; Feen, Melanie

    2017-02-01

    Our mechanistic understanding of the processes controlling the ocean's biological pump is limited, in part, by our lack of observational data at appropriate timescales. The ;optical sediment trap; (OST) technique utilizes a transmissometer on a quasi-Lagrangian platform to collect sedimenting particles. This method could help fill the observational gap by providing autonomous measurements of particulate carbon (PC) flux in the upper mesopelagic ocean at high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we used a combination of field measurements and laboratory experiments to test hydrodynamic and zooplankton-swimmer effects on the OST method, and we quantitatively calibrated this method against PC flux measured directly in same-platform, neutrally buoyant sediment traps (NBSTs) during 5 monthly cruises at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. We found a well-correlated, positive relationship (R2=0.66, n=15) between the OST proxy, and the PC flux measured directly using NBSTs. Laboratory tests showed that scattering of light from multiple particles between the source and detector was unlikely to affect OST proxy results. We found that the carbon-specific attenuance of sinking particles was larger than literature values for smaller, suspended particles in the ocean, and consistent with variable carbon: size relationships reported in the literature for sinking particles. We also found evidence for variability in PC flux at high spatiotemporal resolution. Our results are consistent with the literature on particle carbon content and optical properties in the ocean, and support more widespread use of the OST proxy, with proper site-specific and platform-specific calibration, to better understand variability in the ocean biological pump.

  18. Long Term Pattern in Runoff Doc Fluxes in Two Boreal Upland Forested Catchments: does the Increasing Nee Affect Doc Fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, J. S.; Lindén, A.; Miettinen, H.; Kolari, P.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Hari, P.; Heinonsalo, J.; Vesala, T.; Back, J. K.; Berninger, F.; Ojala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Part of the carbon fixed in terrestrial ecosystems is transferred through streams and rivers to lakes and the carbon is finally released as CO2 to the atmosphere through respiration or buried into lake sediments. Recently it has been shown that lake and stream water dissolved/total organic carbon (DOC/TOC) concentrations throughout the boreal zone are increasing. There are several theories which could explain this trend; land use changes, decrease in atmospheric acid deposition, changes in seasonal patterns in temperature and precipitation and increase in below ground C allocation due to increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration or soil warming. Here, we tested a hypothesis that increase in photosynthesis is reflected in soil water DOC concentrations and finally in DOC fluxes from the catchment. We used a 15-year-long continuous monitoring data on catchment runoff, DOC concentration in the runoff, GPP, TER and NEE of the ecosystem of two small upland boreal catchment areas in Southern Finland to explain the long-term trends in runoff DOC fluxes. We also studied the long term trends in the amount, DOC concentration and pH of through fall over the study period ranging from 1998 to 2012. The average DOC concentration in runoff water was 3.43-4.0 mg L-1 and it increased in both catchments over the study period (P<0.001) along with soil temperature. The annual DOC fluxes (calculated as runoff x DOC concentration) ranged from a dry year minimum of 201 mg m-2 to wet year maximum of 1886 mg m-2. Also the DOC fluxes increased significantly over the course of the study period, but only during wet years. Annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (P<0.002) and total ecosystem respiration (TER) (P<0.007) increased significantly during the study period whereas GPP did not show any increasing or decreasing trend (P<0.347). Annual DOC fluxes were not significantly correlated with annual NEE, GPP or TER except for wet years when one of the catchments showed increasing trend in DOC fluxes

  19. Estimations of global terrestrial carbon flux using bottom-up and top-down approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Saito, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Yokota, T.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating global terrestrial carbon fluxes with high accuracy is important to understand global environmental changes. Moreover the estimations of the global spatiotemporal distribution may contribute to the political and social activities. In order to reveal the present state of terrestrial carbon fluxes covering a wide and a decadal scale, using the satellite-based diagnostic biosphere model is suitable because of uniformly observing on the present global land surface condition. However the satellite-based diagnostic model can simulate the terrestrial carbon flux in only a few decadal periods and cannot calculate back to 100 years ago. Therefore the model estimations have the potential to underestimate the annual terrestrial carbon fluxes as a result of doing spin-up to the steady state. Because the steady state is a pre-industrial era, not present day, so the flux becomes to zero throughout the global scale. In this study, we optimized the spin-up time of the terrestrial biosphere model (BEAMS) in each sub continental region using estimations of carbon fluxes by the atmospheric transport model (GOSAT L4A global CO2 flux). First, we made the BEAMS steady state by the spin-up run for 10000 years, and then the carbon pools in the biomass and soil was adjusted to fit the GOSAT carbon flux. Significant improvement of the estimation accuracy was achieved by using the two satellite observation data (GOSAT as atmospheric information, and MODIS as land surface information). We evaluated our new carbon flux estimations on various spatial scales. Annual global carbon fluxes were indicated similar values between BEAMS, GOSAT L4A, and GCP estimations, and perhaps these may be reasonable. In a tropical regions that are low satellite observation data, the temporal patterns of the carbon flux was indicated various changes, so the accuracy of carbon fluxes in some regions remained a matter of discussion.

  20. Carbon dioxide flux within and above a boreal aspen forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Paul Chenggang

    Carbon dioxide, water vapour, sensible heat and momentum fluxes were continuously measured using the eddy covariance technique above and below the overstory in a 70-year old aspen stand in northern Saskatchewan from October to November 1993 and from February to September 1994, and above the overstory from April to December 1996 as a part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). The air within the forest was usually stably stratified at night and unstable during the daytime. The relationships of the variances of the vertical velocity and scalars (air temperature, CO2 concentration and specific humidity) to the stability parameter above the forest followed the Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) relationships, while the applicability of MOS theory in the trunk space was poor. The rate of change in CO2 storage in the air column (Δ Sa/Δt) beneath the above-canopy eddy covariance system could be well estimated with concentrations measured at one height above the form and at one height (2.3 m) in the trunk space. Within the hunk space, eddy covariance sensible and latent heat flux measurements at one position were representative of an area extending for at least two tree heights. The same was the case for CO2 flux and during the daytime. At night, however, they exhibited significant horizontal variability but were representative of the above area when averaged over several days. Evidence supporting the hypothesis that the low nighttime CO2 fluxes resulted from the short-term changes in CO2 storage in the air-filled pores of soil/snow was presented. The rate of change of this storage (ΔSa/Δt) was estimated as ΔSs/Δt = (1 - M)Rsha where Rsha (forest respiration) is a function of soil temperature and M is a function of the friction velocity. Photosynthetic rates (P) were modelled as a product of P1, P2 and P3. P1 is a rectangular hyperbolic function of the absorbed photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), and P2 and P3 are second order polynomial functions of

  1. A flux-limited sample of Galactic carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claussen, M. J.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Joyce, R. R.; Jura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Published observational data (including IRAS observations) for a flux-limited sample of 215 Galactic carbon stars (CSs) selected from the 2-micron sky survey of Neugebauer and Leighton (1969) are compiled in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed statistically. The sample is found to penetrate a volume of radius 1.5 kpc, and the local CS space density and surface density are calculated as log rho0 (per cu kpc) = 2.0 + or - 0.4 and log N (per sq kpc) = 1.6 + or - 0.2, respectively. The total Galactic mass-return rate from these CSs is estimated as 0.013 solar mass/yr, implying a time scale of 0.1-1 Myr for the CS evolutionary phase and a mass of 1.2-1.6 solar mass for the (probably F-type) main-seqence progenitors of CSs.

  2. Upper ocean mixing controls the seasonality of planktonic foraminifer fluxes and associated strength of the carbonate pump in the oligotrophic North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, K. H.; Anand, P.; Sexton, P. F.; Conte, M.

    2015-01-01

    Oligotrophic regions represent up to 75% of Earth's open-ocean environments. They are thus areas of major importance in understanding the plankton community dynamics and biogeochemical fluxes. Here we present fluxes of total planktonic foraminifera and 11 planktonic foraminifer species measured at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) time series site in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea, subtropical western North Atlantic Ocean. Foraminifera flux was measured at 1500 m water depth, over two ~ 2.5-year intervals: 1998-2000 and 2007-2010. We find that foraminifera flux was closely correlated with total mass flux, carbonate and organic carbon fluxes. We show that the planktonic foraminifera flux increases approximately 5-fold during the winter-spring, contributing up to ~ 40% of the total carbonate flux. This was primarily driven by increased fluxes of deeper-dwelling globorotaliid species, which contributed up to 90% of the foraminiferal-derived carbonate during late winter-early spring. Interannual variability in total foraminifera flux, and in particular fluxes of the deep-dwelling species (Globorotalia truncatulinoides, Globorotalia hirsuta and Globorotalia inflata), was related to differences in seasonal mixed layer dynamics affecting the strength of the spring phytoplankton bloom and export flux, and by the passage of mesoscale eddies. As these heavily calcified, dense carbonate tests of deeper-dwelling species (3 times denser than surface dwellers) have greater sinking rates, this implies a high seasonality of the biological carbonate pump in oligotrophic oceanic regions. Our data suggest that climate cycles, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which modulates nutrient supply into the euphotic zone and the strength of the spring bloom, may also in turn modulate the production and flux of these heavily calcified deep-dwelling foraminifera by increasing their food supply, thereby intensifying the biological carbonate pump.

  3. Aboveground Tree Carbon Stocks and Flux Following Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, E. M.; Hicke, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Mountain pine beetle outbreaks result in tree mortality across millions of acres in North America, with significant effects on forest ecosystem processes such as carbon cycling. Following outbreak-related mortality, forest stands continue taking up carbon (C) via the growth of 1) surviving trees and/or 2) tree seedlings that establish during and after outbreaks. To date, the degree to which surviving trees can, in the absence of post-outbreak seedling establishment, recover pre-outbreak C stocks and flux is largely unknown. To address this uncertainty we asked: (1) Do aboveground stocks and flux among pure lodgepole pine stands recover to pre-outbreak levels independent of post-outbreak regeneration? 2) What is the long-term effect of the mountain pine beetle outbreaks on modeled aboveground C stocks and flux? We used measurements from several stands affected by a recent mountain pine beetle outbreak as input to the Forest Vegetation Simulator, an individual tree-based growth model, to predict stand-level aboveground C stocks and flux. The simulation time period spanned from just prior to the bark beetle outbreak and for 200 years following outbreak collapse. At five-year intervals, we compared C stocks and fluxes in stands affected by the disturbance to conditions in the same stands immediately preceding the outbreak, as well as identical stands modeled as if the outbreak had not occurred. Crown closure of surviving trees was predicted by the model in all stands following outbreak collapse, but measured outbreak mortality did not significantly reverse increases of growth dominance by relatively large trees. Stand-level growth dominance and increases of stand density following crown closure have been associated with declines in stand-level primary productivity and productivity efficiency. Thus, unlike stand- level C stocks, predicted C flux did not recover relative to pre-outbreak levels, although we observed basic patterns of C flux rise, peak, and long

  4. Dynamics of carbon fluxes above a hemiboreal mixed forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnova, Alisa; Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Krasnov, Dmitrii

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are a major part of the biosphere and control land surface-atmosphere interactions. They influence atmospheric composition and climate significantly being sources and sinks of trace gases and energy. Mixed stands of both coniferous and deciduous tree species are characterized by greater seasonal variability of forest microclimate, canopy shape and density, length of growing season and plant activity and higher biota diversity and compared to pure boreal forests. These factors coupled with physical environment (atmospheric and meteorological conditions, soil properties) influence CO2 exchange between forest and the atmosphere. To explore complex interactions within ecosystem-atmosphere continuum of hemiboreal forest SMEAR Estonia station was established in Järvselja, Estonia. A 24 m height scaffolding tower located in a forest stand dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with co-domination of Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) was used to study eddy-covariance fluxes of CO2. We present the results from the first continuous EC measurements over a hemiboreal mixed forest performed in 2011-2012. The focus of the study is on diurnal and annual dynamics of carbon fluxes and the influence of main environmental drivers.

  5. Interannual variation of carbon fluxes from three contrasting evergreen forests: the role of forest dynamics and climate.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Carlos A; Loescher, Henry W; Harmon, Mark E; Richardson, Andrew D; Hollinger, David Y; Perakis, Steven S

    2009-10-01

    Interannual variation of carbon fluxes can be attributed to a number of biotic and abiotic controls that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Type and frequency of disturbance, forest dynamics, and climate regimes are important sources of variability. Assessing the variability of carbon fluxes from these specific sources can enhance the interpretation of past and current observations. Being able to separate the variability caused by forest dynamics from that induced by climate will also give us the ability to determine if the current observed carbon fluxes are within an expected range or whether the ecosystem is undergoing unexpected change. Sources of interannual variation in ecosystem carbon fluxes from three evergreen ecosystems, a tropical, a temperate coniferous, and a boreal forest, were explored using the simulation model STANDCARB. We identified key processes that introduced variation in annual fluxes, but their relative importance differed among the ecosystems studied. In the tropical site, intrinsic forest dynamics contributed approximately 30% of the total variation in annual carbon fluxes. In the temperate and boreal sites, where many forest processes occur over longer temporal scales than those at the tropical site, climate controlled more of the variation among annual fluxes. These results suggest that climate-related variability affects the rates of carbon exchange differently among sites. Simulations in which temperature, precipitation, and radiation varied from year to year (based on historical records of climate variation) had less net carbon stores than simulations in which these variables were held constant (based on historical records of monthly average climate), a result caused by the functional relationship between temperature and respiration. This suggests that, under a more variable temperature regime, large respiratory pulses may become more frequent and high enough to cause a reduction in ecosystem carbon stores. Our results

  6. Interannual variation of carbon fluxes from three contrasting evergreen forests: The role of forest dynamics and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra, C.A.; Loescher, H.W.; Harmon, M.E.; Richardson, A.D.; Hollinger, D.Y.; Perakis, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Interannual variation of carbon fluxes can be attributed to a number of biotic and abiotic controls that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Type and frequency of disturbance, forest dynamics, and climate regimes are important sources of variability. Assessing the variability of carbon fluxes from these specific sources can enhance the interpretation of past and current observations. Being able to separate the variability caused by forest dynamics from that induced by climate will also give us the ability to determine if the current observed carbon fluxes are within an expected range or whether the ecosystem is undergoing unexpected change. Sources of interannual variation in ecosystem carbon fluxes from three evergreen ecosystems, a tropical, a temperate coniferous, and a boreal forest, were explored using the simulation model STANDCARB. We identified key processes that introduced variation in annual fluxes, but their relative importance differed among the ecosystems studied. In the tropical site, intrinsic forest dynamics contributed ?? 30% of the total variation in annual carbon fluxes. In the temperate and boreal sites, where many forest processes occur over longer temporal scales than those at the tropical site, climate controlled more of the variation among annual fluxes. These results suggest that climate-related variability affects the rates of carbon exchange differently among sites. Simulations in which temperature, precipitation, and radiation varied from year to year (based on historical records of climate variation) had less net carbon stores than simulations in which these variables were held constant (based on historical records of monthly average climate), a result caused by the functional relationship between temperature and respiration. This suggests that, under a more variable temperature regime, large respiratory pulses may become more frequent and high enough to cause a reduction in ecosystem carbon stores. Our results also show

  7. Links Among Warming, Fungal Communities, and Carbon Fluxes in Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.; Czimczik, C. I.; Treseder, K. K.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial responses to climate change could drive positive feedbacks to the carbon cycle, particularly in high latitude ecosystems. We used molecular and enzymatic approaches to determine whether fungal communities changed in response to experimental warming in boreal forest ecosystems. We also measured the flux and 14C signature of soil respiration from warmed and unwarmed soils to link microbial responses with the carbon cycle. In an early-successional site recovering from a 1999 fire, warming significantly increased the activities of cellulose- and chitin-degrading enzymes by 17% and 30%, respectively. In a second site dominated by mature black spruce trees, the activity of the chitin-degrading enzyme declined significantly by 24%. However, warming did not affect soil CO2 fluxes in either site, or the source of soil respiration as measured by 14C isotopic analyses in the mature forest site. Together, these results suggest that warming does alter fungal community composition and potentially carbon substrate utilization. However, the total amount and 14C age of microbially-respired carbon does not change. Despite shifts in fungal community composition, ecosystem processes driven by microbial activity may be resistant to climate warming in these well-drained boreal ecosystems.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Flux in Mixed-grass Prairie: Response to Interannual Variation in Rainfall and Grazing History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, D.

    2002-12-01

    Grasslands are an important biome in the exchange of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere. However, our understanding of how carbon flux varies due to changes in precipitation, including drought conditions and land use history (grazing intensity) is only rudimentary. In this study we have evaluated the effects of adequate precipitation versus drought on net carbon flux, ecosystem respiration, and gross photosynthesis over three years (1998, 1999, and 2002) using chamber techniques. In addition, during 2002 measurements were taken across three grazing regimes (light, heavy, and ungrazed). Precipitation, or lack thereof, in 2002 made for a drought year compared to 1998 and 1999. The maximum rate of net carbon flux was lowest in 2002 at 3 mmol m-2 s-1 and highest in 1998 at 9 mmol m-2 s-1. Due to the drought conditions of 2002 grazing history had no affect on net flux rates. We propose that precipitation is the overriding factor that controls carbon flux in the mixed-grass prairie ecosystem, while land use has only marginal effects. Further data collected in a non-drought year is needed to corroborate this land use hypothesis.

  9. Long term pattern in runoff DOC fluxes in two boreal upland forested catchments: does the increasing NEE affect DOC fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Lindén, Aki; Miettinen, Heli; Kolari, Pasi; Ilvesniemi, Hannu; Mammarella, Ivan; Hari, Pertti; Nikinmaa, Eero; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Bäck, Jaana; Ojala, Anne; Vesala, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Part of the carbon fixed in terrestrial ecosystems is transferred through streams and rivers to lakes and the carbon is finally released as CO2 to the atmosphere through respiration or buried into lake sediments. Recently it has been shown that lake and stream water dissolved/total organic carbon (DOC/TOC) concentrations throughout the boreal zone are increasing. There are several theories which could explain this trend; land use changes, decrease in atmospheric acid deposition, changes in seasonal patterns in temperature and precipitation and increase in below ground C allocation due to increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration or soil warming. Here, we tested a hypothesis that increase in photosynthesis is reflected in soil water DOC concentrations and finally in DOC fluxes from the catchment. We used a 15-year-long continuous monitoring data on catchment runoff, DOC concentration in the runoff, GPP, TER and NEE of the ecosystem of two small upland boreal catchment areas in Southern Finland to explain the long term trends in runoff DOC fluxes. We also studied the long term trends in the amount, DOC concentration and pH of throughfall over the study period ranging from 1998 to 2012. Our results indicate that the DOC concentration and the DOC fluxes have increased over the last 15 years. The DOC flux was mainly determined by the amount of runoff flow but in years when the runoff flow was above the long term average the NEE was a more important explanatory factor for annual DOC fluxes than the annual temperature sum.

  10. Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over East Asia through AsiaFlux and improved MODIS gross primary production data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun

    2014-05-01

    The accurate estimation of carbon fluxes over terrestrial ecosystems provides useful information in studying the global carbon cycle. Estimates of carbon fluxes such as gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) have been commonly used as indicators of the global carbon budgets. Eddy covariance (EC) flux towers are operating all over the world, networking each other. The towers provide temporally continuous measurements of carbon, water and energy over terrestrial ecosystems as being the best way to estimate ecosystem fluxes up to date. However, the EC flux towers only cover the scale of footprint, having difficulty in representing fluxes at the regional or continental scale. For upscaling flux tower data, satellite products that cover vast areas at high temporal resolution can be used. While many studies were conducted to estimate carbon fluxes from satellite products using process-based modeling and empirical modeling approaches, there are still great uncertainties in carbon flux estimation due to biases and errors associated with in-situ measurements, spatio-temporal discrepancy between satellite products and in-situ measurements, and relatively less accurate satellite products. In this paper, NEE and GPP were estimated using machine learning techniques including random forest, Cubist, and support vector regression. Various satellite products were used as independent variables such as land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, GPP, evapotranspiration, rainfall, normalized difference water index obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, MODIS GPP based on the light use efficiency (LUE) model has some uncertainties derived from input data used in this model such as coarse spatial resolution of the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) meteorological

  11. Hydrothermal fluxes of solutes, carbon, and heat to Himalayan rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Matthew Jared

    Hot springs flow along the base of the Himalayan front in the Narayani river basin of central Nepal. The springs flow near the Main Central Thrust (MCT), in a zone characterized by active uplift and high incision and erosion rates. Water-rock interaction at depth results in hydrothermal fluids with high solute loads. Himalayan rivers flowing through the zones of geothermal activity are enriched in cations, chloride, radiogenic strontium, and germanium. We use a comprehensive sample set of hot spring and river waters to asses the impact of the springs on the chemistry of the Narayani, and to investigate subsurface processes which control the hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Quantification of the hydrothermal fluxes of solutes, carbon dioxide, and heat to the surface depends on hot spring discharge. A chemical mass balance estimate using the high germanium concentrations in the springs yields hot spring discharge near 0.5% of the river discharge. The chemistry of the springs indicates that 12 to 100% of the total alkalinity in the springs is derived from silicates, and hot springs collectively deliver 20% of the silicate alkalinity in the Narayani. High germanium-silicon ratios in the springs can be modeled as a combination of thermodynamic equilibrium effects and Rayleigh fractionation during quartz precipitation. Active degassing and high dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations indicate that the springs are a source of CO2. High delta 13C values in the springs can be modeled with a metamorphic source and extensive sub-surface degassing. CO2 released during metamorphic decarbonation reactions is entrained in the meteoric water of the hydrothermal system. The CO2 flux from the springs is comparable to the total uptake of CO2 by silicate weathering in the Narayani drainage, which suggests that the Himalayan orogen may be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Hydrothermal heat loss is near 745 +/- 313 megawatts. The high heat flux is the result of tectonic

  12. Aeolian nutrient fluxes following wildfire in sagebrush steppe: Implications for soil carbon storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasselquist, N.J.; Germino, M.J.; Sankey, J.B.; Ingram, L.J.; Glenn, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    Pulses of aeolian transport following fire can profoundly affect the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. Our objective was to determine horizontal nutrient fluxes occurring in the saltation zone during an episodic pulse of aeolian transport that occurred following a wildfire in a semi-arid sagebrush steppe ecosystem in southern Idaho, USA. We also examined how temporal trends in nutrient fluxes were affected by changes in particle sizes of eroded mass as well as nutrient concentrations associated with different particle size classes. In the burned area, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes were as high as 235 g C m????'1 d????'1 and 19 g N m????'1 d????'1 during the first few months following fire, whereas C and N fluxes were negligible in an adjacent unburned area throughout the study. Temporal variation in C and N fluxes following fire was largely attributable to the redistribution of saltation-sized particles. Total N and organic C concentrations in the soil surface were significantly lower in the burned relative to the unburned area one year after fire. Our results show how an episodic pulse of aeolian transport following fire can affect the spatial distribution of soil C and N, which, in turn, can have important implications for soil C storage. These findings demonstrate how an ecological disturbance can exacerbate a geomorphic process and highlight the need for further research to better understand the role aeolian transport plays in the biogeochemical cycling of C and N in recently burned landscapes. ?? Author(s) 2011. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

  13. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selmants, Paul C.; Giardina, Christian P.; Jacobi, James D.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-05-04

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to improve understanding of factors influencing carbon balance in ecosystems of Hawai‘i. Ecosystem carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and carbon balance were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems on the seven main Hawaiian islands in two time periods: baseline (from 2007 through 2012) and future (projections from 2012 through 2061). The assessment incorporated observed data, remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment has been completed for the conterminous United States, using methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, with results provided in three regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897), and for Alaska, with results provided in PP 1826.

  14. Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km by 1km spatial-resolution using satellite- driven model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Nasahara, K.; Ito, A.; Saigusa, N.; Hirata, R.; Takagi, K.; Oikawa, T.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle is strongly affected by some local natural phenomena and human-induced activities, which bring change to the carbon exchanges via vegetation and soil microbe activities. In order to accurately understand a realistic spatial pattern in carbon exchanges including such an effect of local-scale events, we need to calculate carbon fluxes and storages with as detailed spatial resolution as possible. In response to this, we attempt to estimate terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km by 1km spatial resolution using satellite-driven model. Study area of the model estimation is the Further East Asia region, which lies at 30-50 north latitude and 125-150 east longitude. The model is the Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data (BEAMS) [Sasai et al., 2005, 2007]. Being aim at simulating terrestrial carbon exchanges under more realistic land surface condition, we applied as many as possible of satellite-observation products such as the standard MODIS, TRMM, and SRTM high-level land products as model inputs. In the model validation, we compared between model estimations and eddy covariance measurements at four flux sites. As a result, a correlation coefficient of the terrestrial carbon fluxes between estimations and measurements were high values, leading up that the model estimations are virtually reasonable. In model analysis, BEAMS was operated with 1km by 1km spatial resolution from 2001 to 2006. Spatial distributions in the annual mean NPP and NEP showed that high values were distributed over the hilly and plateau regions, and they were gradually decreasing towards the urban and high mountain areas, meaning that we could reflect an impact of the local-scale events in the carbon flux estimations. In future, we would extend study area to the East Asia region, and the carbon exchange map with 1km by 1km spatial- resolution is distributed on the website.

  15. How temporal patterns in rainfall determine the geomorphology and carbon fluxes of tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Alexander R; Hoyt, Alison M; Gandois, Laure; Eri, Jangarun; Dommain, René; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Kai, Fuu Ming; Haji Su'ut, Nur Salihah; Harvey, Charles F

    2017-06-27

    Tropical peatlands now emit hundreds of megatons of carbon dioxide per year because of human disruption of the feedbacks that link peat accumulation and groundwater hydrology. However, no quantitative theory has existed for how patterns of carbon storage and release accompanying growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands are affected by climate and disturbance. Using comprehensive data from a pristine peatland in Brunei Darussalam, we show how rainfall and groundwater flow determine a shape parameter (the Laplacian of the peat surface elevation) that specifies, under a given rainfall regime, the ultimate, stable morphology, and hence carbon storage, of a tropical peatland within a network of rivers or canals. We find that peatlands reach their ultimate shape first at the edges of peat domes where they are bounded by rivers, so that the rate of carbon uptake accompanying their growth is proportional to the area of the still-growing dome interior. We use this model to study how tropical peatland carbon storage and fluxes are controlled by changes in climate, sea level, and drainage networks. We find that fluctuations in net precipitation on timescales from hours to years can reduce long-term peat accumulation. Our mathematical and numerical models can be used to predict long-term effects of changes in temporal rainfall patterns and drainage networks on tropical peatland geomorphology and carbon storage.

  16. How temporal patterns in rainfall determine the geomorphology and carbon fluxes of tropical peatlands

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Alison M.; Gandois, Laure; Eri, Jangarun; Dommain, René; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Kai, Fuu Ming; Haji Su’ut, Nur Salihah; Harvey, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    Tropical peatlands now emit hundreds of megatons of carbon dioxide per year because of human disruption of the feedbacks that link peat accumulation and groundwater hydrology. However, no quantitative theory has existed for how patterns of carbon storage and release accompanying growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands are affected by climate and disturbance. Using comprehensive data from a pristine peatland in Brunei Darussalam, we show how rainfall and groundwater flow determine a shape parameter (the Laplacian of the peat surface elevation) that specifies, under a given rainfall regime, the ultimate, stable morphology, and hence carbon storage, of a tropical peatland within a network of rivers or canals. We find that peatlands reach their ultimate shape first at the edges of peat domes where they are bounded by rivers, so that the rate of carbon uptake accompanying their growth is proportional to the area of the still-growing dome interior. We use this model to study how tropical peatland carbon storage and fluxes are controlled by changes in climate, sea level, and drainage networks. We find that fluctuations in net precipitation on timescales from hours to years can reduce long-term peat accumulation. Our mathematical and numerical models can be used to predict long-term effects of changes in temporal rainfall patterns and drainage networks on tropical peatland geomorphology and carbon storage. PMID:28607068

  17. Geomorphic controls on riparian zone hydrology, carbon pools and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabs, T.; Ledesma, J.; Laudon, H.; Seibert, J.; Kohler, S. J.; Bishop, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Near stream (riparian) zones are an important link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and influence a wide range of processes including solute transport or hydrologic behavior of headwater catchments. Understanding the links between geomorphology and riparian soils, vegetation and hydrology is, thus, a prerequisite for relating small scale processes to observations at the watershed scale. Geographic information systems (GIS) have traditionally been used to study links between geomorphology and properties of terrestrial ecosystems. Applying this approach to riparian zones, however, has only recently become feasible with the availability of high-resolution digital elevation models and the new development of suitable computational methods. In this study we present links between geomorphology and riparian zone hydrology, carbon pools and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon. Geomorphometric attributes were successfully used to predict (1) riparian groundwater levels and flow pathways, (2) the size of riparian soil carbon pools, (3) the vertical variation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in riparian soil profiles, as well as (4) riparian carbon fluxes and turnover times.

  18. Quantifying organic carbon fluxes in eroding hillslopes through MIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lever, R.; Sanderman, J.; Berhe, A.

    2013-12-01

    Erosion is a ubiquitous and important global process that redistributes approximately 75 Gt of soil annually and has been shown to serve as a significant terrestrial carbon (C) sink. The role of soil erosion in redistribution of carbon and other essential elements has not been adequately investigated in much of the current literature. Additionally, fire plays a significant role in controlling the dynamics of bulk C and different organic carbon (OC) fraction dynamics in the soil system. Here we use mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR) to predict how fire affects distribution of OC into different fractions in different landform positions of an area affected by the Gondola fire in South Lake Tahoe, CA. The Gondola fire is a unique site, with pre- and post-wildfire sampling points on both the hillslope and in the corresponding depositional area. The MIR/PLSR analysis illustrates how fire and erosion can act to change C and OC fractions within an eroding hillslope.

  19. Constraining surface carbon fluxes using in situ measurements of carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkelhammer, M.; Asaf, D.; Still, C.; Montzka, S.; Noone, D.; Gupta, M.; Provencal, R.; Chen, H.; Yakir, D.

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the processes that control the terrestrial exchange of carbon is critical for assessing atmospheric CO2 budgets. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is taken up by vegetation during photosynthesis following a pathway that mirrors CO2 but has a small or nonexistent emission component, providing a possible tracer for gross primary production. Field measurements of COS and CO2 mixing ratios were made in forest, senescent grassland, and riparian ecosystems using a laser absorption spectrometer installed in a mobile trailer. Measurements of leaf fluxes with a branch-bag gas-exchange system were made across species from 10 genera of trees, and soil fluxes were measured with a flow-through chamber. These data show (1) the existence of a narrow normalized daytime uptake ratio of COS to CO2 across vascular plant species of 1.7, providing critical information for the application of COS to estimate photosynthetic CO2 fluxes and (2) a temperature-dependent normalized uptake ratio of COS to CO2 from soils. Significant nighttime uptake of COS was observed in broad-leafed species and revealed active stomatal opening prior to sunrise. Continuous high-resolution joint measurements of COS and CO2 concentrations in the boundary layer are used here alongside the flux measurements to partition the influence that leaf and soil fluxes and entrainment of air from above have on the surface carbon budget. The results provide a number of critical constraints on the processes that control surface COS exchange, which can be used to diagnose the robustness of global models that are beginning to use COS to constrain terrestrial carbon exchange.

  20. A comparison of different inverse carbon flux estimation approaches for application on a regional domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolk, L. F.; Dolman, A. J.; Meesters, A. G. C. A.; Peters, W.

    2011-10-01

    We have implemented six different inverse carbon flux estimation methods in a regional carbon dioxide (CO2) flux modeling system for the Netherlands. The system consists of the Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Modeling System (RAMS) coupled to a simple carbon flux scheme which is run in a coupled fashion on relatively high resolution (10 km). Using an Ensemble Kalman filter approach we try to estimate spatiotemporal carbon exchange patterns from atmospheric CO2 mole fractions over the Netherlands for a two week period in spring 2008. The focus of this work is the different strategies that can be employed to turn first-guess fluxes into optimal ones, which is known as a fundamental design choice that can affect the outcome of an inversion significantly. Different state-of-the-art approaches with respect to the estimation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) are compared quantitatively: (1) where NEE is scaled by one linear multiplication factor per land-use type, (2) where the same is done for photosynthesis (GPP) and respiration (R) separately with varying assumptions for the correlation structure, (3) where we solve for those same multiplication factors but now for each grid box, and (4) where we optimize physical parameters of the underlying biosphere model for each land-use type. The pattern to be retrieved in this pseudo-data experiment is different in nearly all aspects from the first-guess fluxes, including the structure of the underlying flux model, reflecting the difference between the modeled fluxes and the fluxes in the real world. This makes our study a stringent test of the performance of these methods, which are currently widely used in carbon cycle inverse studies. Our results show that all methods struggle to retrieve the spatiotemporal NEE distribution, and none of them succeeds in finding accurate domain averaged NEE with correct spatial and temporal behavior. The main cause is the difference between the structures of the first-guess and true CO2 flux

  1. A comparison of different inverse carbon flux estimation approaches for application on a regional domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolk, L. F.; Dolman, A. J.; Meesters, A. G. C. A.; Peters, W.

    2011-01-01

    We have implemented six different inverse carbon flux estimation methods in a regional carbon dioxide (CO2) flux modeling system for The Netherlands. The system consists of the Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Modeling System (RAMS) coupled to a simple carbon flux scheme which is run in a coupled fashion on relatively high resolution (10 km). Using an Ensemble Kalman filter approach we try to estimate spatiotemporal carbon exchange patterns from atmospheric CO2 mole fractions over The Netherlands for a two week period in spring 2008. The focus of this work is the different strategies that can be employed to turn first-guess fluxes into optimal ones, which is known as a fundamental design choice that can affect the outcome of an inversion significantly. Different state-of-the-art approaches with respect to the estimation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) are compared quantitatively: (1) where NEE is scaled by one linear multiplication factor per land-use type, (2) where the same is done for photosynthesis (GPP) and respiration (R) separately with varying assumptions for the correlation structure, (3) where we solve for those same multiplication factors but now for each grid box, and (4) where we optimize physical parameters of the underlying biosphere model for each land-use type. The pattern to be retrieved in this pseudo-data experiment is different in nearly all aspects from the first-guess fluxes, including the structure of the underlying flux model, reflecting the difference between the modeled fluxes and the fluxes in the real world. This makes our study a stringent test of the performance of these methods, which are currently widely used in carbon cycle inverse studies. Our results show that all methods struggle to retrieve the spatiotemporal NEE distribution, and none of them succeeds in finding accurate domain averaged NEE with correct spatial and temporal behavior. The main cause is the difference between the structures of the first-guess and true CO2 flux

  2. Air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes in the coastal southeastern tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, Gernot E.; Ledesma, Jesus; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2008-10-01

    Comprehensive sea surface surveys of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2) have been made in the upwelling system of the coastal (0-200 km from shore) southeastern tropical Pacific since 2004. The shipboard data have been supplemented by mooring and drifter based observations. Air-sea flux estimates were made by combining satellite derived wind fields with the direct sea surface pCO 2 measurements. While there was considerable spatial heterogeneity, there was a significant flux of CO 2 from the ocean to the atmosphere during all survey periods in the region between 4° and 20° south latitude. During periods of strong upwelling the average flux out of the ocean exceeded 10 moles of CO 2 per square meter per year. During periods of weaker upwelling and high productivity the CO 2 evasion rate was near 2.5 mol/m 2/yr. The average annual fluxes exceed 5 mol/m 2/yr. These findings are in sharp contrast to results obtained in mid-latitude upwelling systems along the west coast of North America where the average air-sea CO 2 flux is low and can often be from the atmosphere into the ocean. In the Peruvian upwelling system there are several likely factors that contribute to sea surface pCO 2 levels that are well above those of the atmosphere in spite of elevated primary productivity: (1) the upwelling source waters contain little pre-formed nitrate and are affected by denitrification, (2) iron limitation of primary production enhanced by offshore upwelling driven by the curl of the wind stress and (3) rapid sea surface warming. The combined carbon, nutrient and oxygen dynamics of this region make it a candidate site for studies of global change.

  3. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Alluvione, Francesco; Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: (i) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and conventional moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; (ii) N fertilization levels [0-246 kg N ha(-1) for corn (Zea mays L.); 0 and 56 kg N ha(-1) for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); 0 and 112 kg N ha(-1) for barley (Hordeum distichon L.)]; and (iii) crop rotation under NT soil management [corn-barley (NT-CB); continuous corn (NT-CC); corn-dry bean (NT-CDb)] on CO(2) and CH(4) flux from a clay loam soil. Carbon dioxide and CH(4) fluxes were monitored one to three times per week using vented nonsteady state closed chambers. No-till reduced (14%) growing season (154 d) cumulative CO(2) emissions relative to CT (NT: 2.08 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1); CT: 2.41 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1)), while N fertilization had no effect. Significantly lower (18%) growing season CO(2) fluxes were found in NT-CDb than NT-CC and NT-CB (11.4, 13.2 and 13.9 kg CO(2)-C ha(-1)d(-1) respectively). Growing season CH(4) emissions were higher in NT (20.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)) than in CT (1.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)). Nitrogen fertilization and cropping rotation did not affect CH(4) flux. Implementation of NT for 7 yr with no N fertilization was not adequate for restoring the CH(4) oxidation capacity of this clay loam soil relative to CT plowed and fertilized soil.

  4. Carbon trace gas fluxes along a successional gradient in the Hudson Bay lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Lee F.; Zimmerman, Patrick R.; Greenberg, James P.; Heidt, Leroy E.; Guenther, Alex B.

    1994-01-01

    Patterns and controls of carbon trace gas emissions from wetlands may vary depending upon the spatial and temporal scale being examined. The factors affecting these emissions are thought to be hierarchically related according to their respective scales of importance. A hierarchical model of processes controlling methane emissions from wetlands is presented and examined here. During the 1990 Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) fluxes were measured in static chambers along a 100 km transect in the Hudson Bay lowland (HBL). Environmental variables, vegetation abundance, and ecosystem age and structure were also quantified at each sampling site. The findings indicate that CH4 emissions from peatlands (e.g., bogs and fens) and other wetlands (e.g., salt marshes) in the region were low, and were nil or negative (i.e., CH4 uptake) in forests and bog forests dominated by aspen and black spruce. Site to site variations in mean CH4 flux appeared to be most closely related to mean water table and sedge productivity, both of which are intercorrelated. Seasonal changes in CH4 flux tend to follow soil temperature fluctuations. Instantaneous CO2 and CH4 daytime fluxes exhibit a negative correlation, suggesting that photosynthetic assimilation of carbon may be related to CH4 emissions, although the processes of CO2 and CH4 production are occurring at somewhat different temporal scales. No diurnal variations in CH4 flux could be detected. While soil water pH trends are not fully explored, there is some indication that high CH4 fluxes are concentrated around pH 4 and pH 7. Soil temperature closely follows the seasonal progression of CH4 flux. Estimated CH4 seasonal flux (1.5-3.9 g CH4 m-2 season-1) and estimated aboveground net primary productivity (NPP) (90-400 g dry weight m-2 season-1) show systematic changes along a successional sequence which are consistent with patterns predicted from successional theory

  5. Human footprint affects US carbon balance more than climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Tim; Baker, Barry; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The MC2 model projects an overall increase in carbon capture in conterminous United States during the 21st century while also simulating a rise in fire causing much carbon loss. Carbon sequestration in soils is critical to prevent carbon losses from future disturbances, and we show that natural ecosystems store more carbon belowground than managed systems do. Natural and human-caused disturbances affect soil processes that shape ecosystem recovery and competitive interactions between native, exotics, and climate refugees. Tomorrow's carbon budgets will depend on how land use, natural disturbances, and climate variability will interact and affect the balance between carbon capture and release.

  6. CARBON STORAGE AND FLUXES IN PONDEROSA PINE AT DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared carbon storage and fluxes in young and old ponderosa pine stands in Oregon, including plant and soil storage, net primary productivity, respiration fluxes, and eddy flux estimates of net ecosystem exchange. The young site (Y site) was previously an old-growth pondero...

  7. CARBON STORAGE AND FLUXES IN PONDEROSA PINE AT DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared carbon storage and fluxes in young and old ponderosa pine stands in Oregon, including plant and soil storage, net primary productivity, respiration fluxes, and eddy flux estimates of net ecosystem exchange. The young site (Y site) was previously an old-growth pondero...

  8. Comparing carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between no-till and conventional tillage agriculture in Lesotho

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil management practices can either sequester or emit carbon (C). Feeding seven billion people mandates that soils be used intensively for food production, but how these soils are managed greatly impacts soil fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the lack of CO2 flux measurements on African subs...

  9. Forest inventory-based estimation of carbon stocks and flux in California forests in 1990.

    Treesearch

    Jeremy S. Fried; Xiaoping. Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of forest carbon stores and flux for California circa 1990 were modeled from forest inventory data in support of California’s legislatively mandated greenhouse gas inventory. Reliable estimates of live-tree carbon stores and flux on timberlands outside of national forest could be calculated from periodic inventory data collected in the 1980s and 1990s;...

  10. Unsaturated zone carbon dioxide flux, mixing, and isotopic composition at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, C. H.; Thordsen, J. J.; Thomas, B.; Haase, K.; Moreo, M. T.; Walvoord, M. A.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of tritium, radiocarbon, and volatile organic compounds at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site, adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, have stimulated research on factors affecting transport of these contaminants. This research includes an examination of unsaturated zone carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, mixing, and isotopic composition, which can help in understanding these factors. In late April 2015 we collected 76 soil-gas samples in multi-layer foil bags from existing 1.5-m deep tubes, both inside and outside the low-level waste area, as well as from two 110-m-deep multilevel gas-sampling boreholes and a distant background site. These samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide concentration and isotopic composition by direct injection into a cavity ring-down spectrometer. Graphical analysis of results indicates mixing of CO2 characteristic of the root zone (δ13C -18 ‰ VPDB), deep soil gas of the capillary fringe (-20‰), and CO2 produced by microbial respiration of organic matter disposed in the waste area trenches (-28‰). Land-surface boundary conditions are being constrained by the application of a novel non-dispersive infrared sensor and traditional concentration and flux measurements, including discrete CO2 flux data using a gas chamber method to complement continuous data from surface- and tower-based CO2 sensors. These results shed light on radionuclide and VOC mobilization and transport mechanisms from this and similar waste disposal facilities.

  11. Dynamics of particulate organic carbon flux in a global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, I. D.; Lam, P. J.; Doney, S. C.

    2013-09-01

    The sinking of particulate organic carbon (POC) is a key component of the ocean carbon cycle and plays an important role in the global climate system. However, the processes controlling the fraction of primary production that is exported from the euphotic zone (export ratio) and how much of it survives respiration in the mesopelagic to be sequestered in the deep ocean (transfer efficiency) are not well understood. In this study, we use a three-dimensional, coupled physical-biogeochemical model (CCSM-BEC) to investigate the processes controlling the export of particulate organic matter from the euphotic zone and its flux to depth. We also compare model results with sediment trap data and other parameterizations of POC flux to depth to evaluate model skill and gain further insight into the causes of error and uncertainty in POC flux estimates. In the model, export ratios are mainly a function of diatom relative abundance and temperature while absolute fluxes and transfer efficiency are driven by mineral ballast composition of sinking material. The temperature dependence of the POC remineralization length scale is modulated by denitrification under low O2 concentrations and lithogenic (dust) fluxes. Lithogenic material is an important control of transfer efficiency in the model, but its effect is restricted to regions of strong atmospheric dust deposition. In the remaining regions, CaCO3 content of exported material is the main factor affecting transfer efficiency. The fact that mineral ballast composition is inextricably linked to plankton community structure results in correlations between export ratios and ballast minerals fluxes (opal and CaCO3), and transfer efficiency and diatom relative abundance that do not necessarily reflect ballast or direct ecosystem effects, respectively. This suggests that it might be difficult to differentiate between ecosystem and ballast effects in observations. The model's skill at reproducing sediment trap observations is equal to

  12. Dynamics of particulate organic carbon flux in a global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, I. D.; Lam, P. J.; Doney, S. C.

    2014-02-01

    The sinking of particulate organic carbon (POC) is a key component of the ocean carbon cycle and plays an important role in the global climate system. However, the processes controlling the fraction of primary production that is exported from the euphotic zone (export ratio) and how much of it survives respiration in the mesopelagic to be sequestered in the deep ocean (transfer efficiency) are not well understood. In this study, we use a three-dimensional, coupled physical-biogeochemical model (CCSM-BEC; Community Climate System Model-ocean Biogeochemical Elemental Cycle) to investigate the processes controlling the export of particulate organic matter from the euphotic zone and its flux to depth. We also compare model results with sediment trap data and other parameterizations of POC flux to depth to evaluate model skill and gain further insight into the causes of error and uncertainty in POC flux estimates. In the model, export ratios are mainly a function of diatom relative abundance and temperature while absolute fluxes and transfer efficiency are driven by mineral ballast composition of sinking material. The temperature dependence of the POC remineralization length scale is modulated by denitrification under low O2 concentrations and lithogenic (dust) fluxes. Lithogenic material is an important control of transfer efficiency in the model, but its effect is restricted to regions of strong atmospheric dust deposition. In the remaining regions, CaCO3 content of exported material is the main factor affecting transfer efficiency. The fact that mineral ballast composition is inextricably linked to plankton community structure results in correlations between export ratios and ballast minerals fluxes (opal and CaCO3), and transfer efficiency and diatom relative abundance that do not necessarily reflect ballast or direct ecosystem effects, respectively. This suggests that it might be difficult to differentiate between ecosystem and ballast effects in observations. The

  13. Spatial patterns and climate drivers of carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gui-Rui; Zhu, Xian-Jin; Fu, Yu-Ling; He, Hong-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Wen, Xue-Fa; Li, Xuan-Ran; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Li; Su, Wen; Li, Sheng-Gong; Sun, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Xiang, Wen-Hua; Li, Ying-Nian; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Pei-Li; Chen, Shi-Ping; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yu-Ying; Tong, Cheng-Li

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics and underlying mechanism of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is one of the key issues in global change research. In this study, we quantified the carbon fluxes in different terrestrial ecosystems in China, and analyzed their spatial variation and environmental drivers based on the long-term observation data of ChinaFLUX sites and the published data from other flux sites in China. The results indicate that gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of terrestrial ecosystems in China showed a significantly latitudinal pattern, declining linearly with the increase of latitude. However, GEP, ER, and NEP did not present a clear longitudinal pattern. The carbon sink functional areas of terrestrial ecosystems in China were mainly located in the subtropical and temperate forests, coastal wetlands in eastern China, the temperate meadow steppe in the northeast China, and the alpine meadow in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The forest ecosystems had stronger carbon sink than grassland ecosystems. The spatial patterns of GEP and ER in China were mainly determined by mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas the spatial variation in NEP was largely explained by MAT. The combined effects of MAT and MAP explained 79%, 62%, and 66% of the spatial variations in GEP, ER, and NEP, respectively. The GEP, ER, and NEP in different ecosystems in China exhibited 'positive coupling correlation' in their spatial patterns. Both ER and NEP were significantly correlated with GEP, with 68% of the per-unit GEP contributed to ER and 29% to NEP. MAT and MAP affected the spatial patterns of ER and NEP mainly by their direct effects on the spatial pattern of GEP.

  14. SIERRA-Flux: Measuring Regional Surface Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Water Vapor from an Unmanned Aircraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland; Yates, Emma Louise; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Dean-Day, Jonathan; Kolyer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the most frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft.

  15. Estimating carbon and energy fluxes in arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokkaya, K.; Jiang, Y.; Rastetter, E.; Shaver, G. R.; Rocha, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are undergoing a very rapid change due to climate change and their response to climate change has important implications for the global energy budget and carbon (C) cycling. Therefore, it is important to understand how (C) and energy fluxes in the Arctic will respond to climate change. However, attribution of these responses to climate is challenging because measured fluxes are the sum of multiple processes that respond differently to environmental factors. For example, net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) is the net result of gross (C) uptake by plant photosynthesis (GPP) and (C) loss by ecosystem respiration (ER) and similarly, evapotranspiration (i.e. latent energy, LE) is the sum of transpiration and evaporation. Partitioning of NEE into GPP and ER requires nighttime measurements of NEE, when photosynthesis does not take place, to be extrapolated to daytime. This is challenging in the Arctic because of the long photoperiod during the growing season and the errors involved during the extrapolation. Transpiration (energy), photosynthesis (carbon), and vegetation phenology are inherently coupled because leaf stomata are the primary regulators of gas exchange. Our objectives in this study are to i) estimate canopy resistance (Rc) based on a light use efficiency model, ii) utilize the estimated Rc to predict GPP and transpiration using a coupled C and energy model and thus improve the partitioning of NEE and LE, and iii) to test ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate model parameters and improve model predictions. Results from one growing season showed that the model predictions can explain 75 and 71% of the variance in GPP and LE in the Arctic tundra ecosystem, respectively. When the model was embedded within the EnKF for estimating Rc, the amount of variance explained for GPP increased to 81% but there was no improvement for the prediction of LE. This suggests that the factors controlling LE are not fully integrated in the model such as the

  16. Bead tempering effects on flux cored arc welding heat-affected zone hardness

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    Bead tempering is a technique used to control the maximum heat-affected zone (HAZ) hardness in the base metal. Applications have included pressure vessel repairs, pipeline hot tapping, and structural welding. Although this technique can be effective if closely controlled, its use as standard welding practice is questionable because precise control of bead placement is required. Experimental design software was used to define a test matrix to evaluate the effects of base plate carbon equivalent, heat input, and weld fusion line proximity on HAZ softening of flux cored arc welds. Some quantitative limits have been identified for the application of temperbead techniques. The results showed that tempering increased with base metal carbon equivalent and temperbead cooling time. An empirical formula was developed that is useful for estimating the amount of HAZ hardness reduction from the plate chemistry, welding parameters, and temperbead placement. The formula can determine the welding conditions needed to achieve a desired hardness reduction. Temperbead techniques can be effective for reducing HAZ hardness where very close quality control of the bead placement is possible. however, the use of bead tempering to pass welding procedure qualifications for standard production welding should be avoided because the level of close control is usually not practical.

  17. Seasonal and Yearly Carbon and Water Flux Changes Over Lake Mendota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannery, A. L.; Reed, D. E.; Desai, A. R.; Thom, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Lakes have been known to serve as hotspots in local and regional carbon and water cycles and have unique projected responses from climate change relative to terrestrial ecosystems. However, few long-term continuous direct observations of these fluxes have been done to examine the movement of carbon and water from small, mid-latitude lakes. This study uses 4.5 years of eddy covariance flux tower data to examine integrated seasonal and yearly water vapor and carbon fluxes as well as potential drivers of these fluxes (air temperature, wind speed and water temperature). Additionally, we examined the effectiveness of placing an eddy covariance flux tower at the edge of the lakeshore with a mixed footprint of lake and land. After using a footprint model, only an average of 18% of the flux data were determined to be primarily influenced by the lake. Summer, as defined using water temperature, exhibited the largest average water vapor fluxes and was the primary driver of yearly water flux sums. Yearly carbon flux totals indicate that the lake can act as a net annual source or a sink for carbon depending the length and timing of seasons, particularly spring and fall turnover. Observing long-term lake flux data can provide a baseline of information and aid our understanding of lakes processes in local and regional biogeochemical cycles as lakes face increasing temperatures from climate change.

  18. Drought alters carbon fluxes in alpine snowbed ecosystems through contrasting impacts on graminoids and forbs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Vachon, Jérémie; Britton, Andrea J; Helliwell, Rachel C

    2011-05-01

    • Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of drought events in alpine ecosystems with the potential to affect carbon turnover. • We removed intact turfs from a Nardus stricta alpine snowbed community and subjected half of them to two drought events of 8 d duration under controlled conditions. Leachate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured throughout the 6 wk study period, and a (13)CO(2) pulse enabled quantification of fluxes of recent assimilate into shoots, roots and leachate and ecosystem CO(2) exchange. • The amount of DOC in leachate from droughted cores was 62% less than in controls. Drought reduced graminoid biomass, increased forb biomass, had no effect on bryophytes, and led to an overall decrease in total above-ground biomass compared with controls. Net CO(2) exchange, gross photosynthesis and the amount of (13)CO(2) fixed were all significantly less in droughted turfs. These turfs also retained proportionally more (13)C in shoots, allocated less (13)C to roots, and the amount of dissolved organic (13)C recovered in leachate was 57% less than in controls. • Our data show that drought events can have significant impacts on ecosystem carbon fluxes, and that the principal mechanism behind this is probably changes in the relative abundance of forbs and grasses.

  19. Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes of Different Ecosystems in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, P.; Gowda, P. H.; Northup, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    Information on exchange of energy, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) for major terrestrial ecosystems is vital to quantify carbon and water balances on a large-scale. It is also necessary to develop, test, and improve crop models and satellite-based production efficiency and evapotranspiration (ET) models, and to better understand the potential of terrestrial ecosystems to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. A network (GRL-FLUXNET) of nine eddy flux towers has been established over a diverse range of terrestrial ecosystems, including native and improved perennial grasslands [unburned and grazed tallgrass prairie, burned and grazed tallgrass prairie, and burned Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.)], grazed and non-grazed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), till and no-till winter wheat and canola (Brassica napus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.), at the USDA-ARS, Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK. In this presentation, we quantify and compare net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and ET between recently burned and grazed tallgrass prairie and burned and non-grazed Bermuda grass pastures, alfalfa, and soybean. Preliminary results show monthly ensembles average NEE reached seasonal peak values of -29, -35, -25, and -20 µmol m-2 s-1 in burned tallgrass prairie pasture, burned Bermuda grass pasture, alfalfa, and soybean, respectively. Similarly, monthly ensembles average ET reached seasonal peak values of 0.22, 0.27, 0.25, 0.28 mm 30-min-1 in burned tallgrass prairie pasture, burned Bermuda grass pasture, alfalfa, and soybean, respectively. Seasonal patterns and daily magnitudes of NEE and ET and their responses to the similar climatic conditions will be further investigated.

  1. Global Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen enrichment on carbon fluxes and storage in terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Tao, B.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C. R.; Wei, Y.; Michalak, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) enrichment has been recognized as one of most important global changes and largely affected terrestrial carbon (C) dynamics over the past century. A wide range of scientific studies have focused on estimation of carbon sink resulting from N deposition at global scale, and confirmed that atmospheric N input has substantially stimulated terrestrial CO2 uptake, particularly in part of North America, western Europe, and East and Southeast Asia. However, ecosystem models have distinct strategies in partitioning and describing the pools/fluxes and C-N interactions, as well as in simulating 'N-saturated status'. Whether a model's representation of C-N coupling can truly reflect the C and N cycling in the real world is a hard nut to crack for most models involving C-N interactions. Little is known on how various C-N coupling processes represented by models have led to divergence in the estimated magnitude of N-induced C sink. Here we combine field observations and model ensembles from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) to examine how enhanced N deposition affected global C fluxes and storage during the period 1860-2010, and what explore the major sources of uncertainty responsible for various modeling estimates. Model behavior in simulating key C-N coupling processes has been evaluated through data-model and model-model intercomparison. Future research needs for filling our knowledge gaps and for reducing uncertainties are discussed as well.

  2. The influence of climate on soil carbon turnover times derived from carbon flux and pool data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomik, M.; Reichstein, M.; Schrumpf, M.; Beer, C.; Curiel-Yuste, C. J.; Jenssens, I.; Luyssaert, S.; Subke, J.; Trumbore, S.; Wutzler, T.; Jung, M.; Lasslop, G.; Fluxnet Lathuille Synthesis Team (Cf. Www. Fluxdata. Org)

    2010-12-01

    Our understanding of the climatic controls on the rate of soil organic carbon (SOM) decomposition is still limited and greatly debated, especially the temperature sensitivity of decomposition. This lack of understanding and consensus hinders the ability to develop and improve models of soil carbon dynamics. In light of this, we used annual ecosystem carbon flux measurements and soil organic carbon stocks to derive soil carbon turnover times (TO) for a selection of eddy flux sites (FLUXNET LaThuille dataset) , following a method proposed by Sanderman et al.(2003). We then related these TO to mean annual temperatures (MAT) and found that TO decreased exponentially with increasing MAT, in accordance with Sanderman et al (2003) and other studies. However, upon closer examination, we also found that this exponential relationship was largely driven by the difference in TO between sites located in the boreal climate zone and those in the tropical, Mediterranean and temperate climates, combined. The range of computed TO values in the boreal zone was higher compared to the rest. Likewise, we also analyzed the combined effect of MAT and total annual precipitation (TAP) on TO and found that TAP was also negatively correlated to TO, although not as strongly as MAT. Similar to the response to MAT, the observed overall TAP vs TO relationship was also driven primarily by the difference in the range of TO values computed for sites from the boreal climate zone. The results of this study add to our understanding of the spatial variability of SOM controls and can be used to improve and/or direct future studies on soil carbon cycling. Sanderman, J., R. G. Amundson, and D. D. Baldocchi, Application of eddy covariance measurements to the temperature dependence of soil organic matter mean residence time, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(2), 1061, doi:10.1029/2001GB001833, 2003.

  3. Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Berry, Joseph A.; Billesbach, Dave; Torn, Margaret S; Zahniser, Mark; Seibt, Ulrike; Maseyk, Kadmiel

    2016-04-01

    The April-June 2012 campaign was located at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site Central Facility and had three purposes. One goal was to demonstrate the ability of current instrumentation to correctly measure fluxes of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS). The approach has been describe previously as a critical approach to advancing carbon cycle science1,2, but requires further investigation at the canopy scale to resolve ecosystem processes. Previous canopy-scale efforts were limited to data rates of 1Hz. While 1 Hz measurements may work in a few ecosystems, it is widely accepted that data rates of 10 to 20 Hz are needed to fully capture the exchange of traces gases between the atmosphere and vegetative canopy. A second goal of this campaign was to determine if canopy observations could provide information to help interpret the seasonal double peak in airborne observations at SGP of CO2 and COS mixing ratios. A third goal was to detect potential sources and sinks of COS that must be resolved before using COS as a tracer of gross primary productivity (GPP).

  4. Climate Warming Can Increase Soil Carbon Fluxes Without Decreasing Soil Carbon Stocks in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, S. E.; Benner, R. H.; Billings, S. A.; Edwards, K. A.; Philben, M. J.; Zhu, X.; Laganiere, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem C fluxes respond positively to climate warming, however, the net impact of changing C fluxes on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks over decadal scales remains unclear. Manipulative studies and global-scale observations have informed much of the existing knowledge of SOC responses to climate, providing insights on relatively short (e.g. days to years) and long (centuries to millennia) time scales, respectively. Natural climate gradient studies capture integrated ecosystem responses to climate on decadal time scales. Here we report the soil C reservoirs, fluxes into and out of those reservoirs, and the chemical composition of inputs and soil organic matter pools along a mesic boreal forest climate transect. The sites studied consist of similar forest composition, successional stage, and soil moisture but differ by 5.2°C mean annual temperature. Carbon fluxes through these boreal forest soils were greatest in the lowest latitude regions and indicate that enhanced C inputs can offset soil C losses with warming in these forests. Respiration rates increased by 55% and the flux of dissolved organic carbon from the organic to mineral soil horizons tripled across this climate gradient. The 2-fold increase in litterfall inputs to these soils coincided with a significant increase in the organic horizon C stock with warming, however, no significant difference in the surface mineral soil C stocks was observed. The younger mean age of the mineral soil C ( 70 versus 330 YBP) provided further evidence for the greater turnover of SOC in the warmer climate soils. In spite of these differences in mean radiocarbon age, mineral SOC exhibited chemical characteristics of highly decomposed material across all regions. In contrast with depth trends in soil OM diagenetic indices, diagenetic shifts with latitude were limited to increases in C:N and alkyl to O-alkyl ratios in the overlying organic horizons in the warmer relative to the colder regions. These data indicate that the

  5. Dissolved Carbon Flux and Mass Balance From a Wetland-Dominated Karstic Headwater Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, T. P.; Waddington, J. M.; Branfireun, B. A.

    2009-05-01

    between the wetland types. Significant stream recharge back into the dolomite occurred through the calcareous fen, resulting in the peatland acting as a net 'sink' of DOC and DIC, which was stronger in the drier summer than the wetter autumn. The stream became unconfined through the cedar swamp, with appreciable depression storage that resulted in the wetland becoming a greater net sink of DOC and DIC in the autumn when increased stream discharge into the swamp resulted in greater depression storage. The marsh received significant groundwater inputs from the karstic dolomite, diluting the stream of DOC, but increasing the flux of DIC, resulting in the wetland acting as a sink of DOC but a source of DIC. These data demonstrate that the presence of calcareous bedrock overwhelms the influence of wetland sediments on the dynamics of terrestrial-stream linkages to carbon transport, and that groundwater systems and wetland type can significantly affect the stream-borne flux of carbon from watersheds.

  6. Carbon Flux Estimated from CO2 Concentration using Half Order Derivative Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnaz, S.; Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The object of this study is to test the half-order derivative method for estimating carbon flux from CO2 concentration time series data at single level near the surface. When the transport process is described by a diffusion equation, carbon flux may be expressed as a weighted average of CO2 concentration time-series known as half-order time derivative. CO2 concentration and flux data collected from Ameriflux network at 10 sites in USA, Canada, Mexico and Brazil were used in this study. The preliminary results show good agreement between the modeled and observed CO2 flux during growing seasons. The study suggests that the half order derivative method is a useful tool in monitoring global carbon budget as direct measurements of carbon flux over extensive regions are limited.

  7. Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, P; Peylin, P; Ciais, P; Le Quéré, C; Friedlingstein, P; Tans, P P

    2000-11-17

    We have applied an inverse model to 20 years of atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements to infer yearly changes in the regional carbon balance of oceans and continents. The model indicates that global terrestrial carbon fluxes were approximately twice as variable as ocean fluxes between 1980 and 1998. Tropical land ecosystems contributed most of the interannual changes in Earth's carbon balance over the 1980s, whereas northern mid- and high-latitude land ecosystems dominated from 1990 to 1995. Strongly enhanced uptake of carbon was found over North America during the 1992-1993 period compared to 1989-1990.

  8. Constraining future terrestrial carbon cycle projections using observation-based water and carbon flux estimates.

    PubMed

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2  emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current earth system models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the projected terrestrial carbon cycle response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and projected changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on projected GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease in the projected GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction in the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between projected changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on net biome productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the projected land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Moreover, the projected decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. This indicates that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change.

  9. Upper ocean mixing controls the seasonality of planktonic foraminifer fluxes and associated strength of the carbonate pump in the oligotrophic North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, K. H.; Anand, P.; Sexton, P. F.; Conte, M.

    2014-08-01

    Oligotrophic regions represent up to 75% of Earth's open-ocean environments, and are typically characterized by nutrient-limited upper-ocean mixed layers. They are thus areas of major importance in understanding the plankton community dynamics and biogeochemical fluxes. Here we present fluxes of total planktonic foraminifera and eleven planktonic foraminifer species from a bi-weekly sediment trap time series in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea, subtropical western North Atlantic Ocean at 1500 m water depth, over two ∼2.5 year intervals, 1998-2000 and 2007-2010. Foraminifera flux was closely correlated with total mass flux and with carbonate and organic carbon fluxes. We show that the planktonic foraminifera flux increases approximately five-fold during the winter-spring, contributing up to ∼40% of the total carbonate flux, driven primarily by increased fluxes of deeper dwelling ("globorotaliid") species. Interannual variability in total foraminifera flux, and in particular fluxes of the deep dwelling Globorotalia truncatulinoides, Globorotalia hirsuta, Globorotalia inflata, were related to differences in seasonal mixed layer dynamics affecting the strength of the spring phytoplankton bloom and export flux, and by the passage of mesoscale eddies. The heavily calcified, dense carbonate tests of deeper dwelling species (3 times denser than surface dwellers) can contribute up to 90% of the foraminiferal-derived carbonate in this region during late winter-early spring, implying a high seasonality of the biological carbonate pump in oligotrophic oceanic regions. Our data suggest that climate cycles, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, that modulate the depth of the mixed layer, intensity of nutrient upwelling and primary production could also modulate the strength of the biological carbonate pump in the oligotrophic North Atlantic.

  10. Climatic Extremes Significantly Alter Carbon Fluxes in Time and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Ouyan, Z.; John, R.; Chu, H.; Zenone, T.; Deal, M.; Gottgens, J.

    2012-12-01

    It has been increasingly evident that climatic extremes play crucial roles in the magnitudes and directions of carbon fluxes. However, significantly less is known about how these effects may change across multiple time and spatial scales. Here we used several databases collected from eddy-covariance (EC) towers and MODIS to understand these effects for: 1) long-term influences at an oak opening site (i.e. single site); 2) a cluster of EC fluxes from the Maumee watershed (i.e. different ecosystem types under the same climate); 3) several agricultural systems in the Midwest (i.e., same ecosystem among different climates); and 4) long term EVI, ET, GPP and LST (2000-2011) impacts across the Mongolia Plateau. We employed various wavelet analyses (transform, variance, coherency, and cross-wavelet) for the temporal data while an anomaly index was calculated for the spatial data on the plateau. As expected, the occurrences of extreme events and their influences varied greatly by year, but all produced significant and lasting effects on NEE, ER and, particularly on GEP. Three different ecosystems in the Maumee Watershed responded differently in magnitude/direction to the same climate anomaly (e.g. 2012 warmest March on record). Both the beginning time and magnitude of the NEE oscillation of the daily period at Oak Openings and the marshland were influenced by the unusual high March temperature, but the cropland ecosystem was less influenced because crops were not sown until the end of spring. Similarly, crops in different climates responded differently to the similar extremes. Across the broader spatiotemporal scales, we found that the forest biome more resistant to climatic extremes than the grassland and desert biomes on Mongolia Plateau. Frequency distributions of standardized anomalies of EVI during 2000-2010 showed that a number of the positively skewed years were more common in the desert biome compared to grasslands and forests. Positively skewed drought years

  11. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A.; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S.; Rocha, Mariana F.; Lima, Renato A. F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage. PMID:26824067

  12. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Rocha, Mariana F; Lima, Renato A F; Peres, Carlos A; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage.

  13. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Leclerc, Monique Y.

    2014-11-17

    This final report presents the main activities and results of the project “A Carbon Flux Super Site: New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling” from 10/1/2006 to 9/30/2014. It describes the new AmeriFlux tower site (Aiken) at Savanna River Site (SC) and instrumentation, long term eddy-covariance, sodar, microbarograph, soil and other measurements at the site, and intensive field campaigns of tracer experiment at the Carbon Flux Super Site, SC, in 2009 and at ARM-CF site, Lamont, OK, and experiments in Plains, GA. The main results on tracer experiment and modeling, on low-level jet characteristics and their impact on fluxes, on gravity waves and their influence on eddy fluxes, and other results are briefly described in the report.

  14. Decadal-Scale Increases in Dissolved Carbon Flux from the Western Canadian Arctic to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, S. E.; Striegl, R. G.; McClelland, J. W.; Kokelj, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical signature of large rivers has a clear effect on the chemistry and biology of the nearshore ocean. At the same time, the flux of riverine constituents to coastal environments can be used to understand changes occurring over broad terrestrial landscapes. This is particularly relevant in the Arctic, where rivers have a disproportionate impact on nearshore ocean function. Additionally, change is playing out rapidly in Arctic regions, as permafrost thaw and changes in temperature and hydrology are exposing previously frozen soils, changing the nature of hydrological linkages between land and water, and affecting the seasonality of riverine chemistry and flux. Here, we examine a 40-year dataset of point-measurement alkalinity (largely dissolved inorganic carbon) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations near the mouth of the Mackenzie River, in addition to similar data from four of the Mackenzie's major sub-catchments. These datasets are coupled with continuous discharge records, and capture flow from the fourth largest river discharging to the Arctic Ocean. Trends near the Mackenzie mouth show that annual fluxes of both alkalinity and DOC are increasing over time, with the proportional changes in DOC (approximately 16% per decade) being much greater than those for alkalinity (approximately 4% per decade). Seasonally, this increase in total flux occurs largely in the winter and late summer, for both constituents. Sub-catchment datasets indicate that these fluxes are increasing in northern, but not southern, sub-catchment regions. These results have clear implications for nearshore ocean function in the western Canadian Arctic. Increases in DOC may fuel increased bacterial metabolism, while differences in the magnitude of change in alkalinity and DOC flux may modify coastal aragonite saturation. Overall, the changing flux of dissolved carbon near the mouth of the Mackenzie River documents broad-scale changes in the carbon cycle of this region, both on

  15. Inventory and burial fluxes of Black Carbon in the Swedish continental shelf sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-García, L.; Cato, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2009-04-01

    Highly condensed black carbon (BC) particles, mainly derived from incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel, are involved in several important processes in the biogeosphere [1], including sedimentary carbon burial, sequestration of organic pollutants in soils and sediments, affecting Earth's radiative heat balance and even human respiratory health. BC is commonly found to constitute several to 20% of total sedimentary carbon, and thus plays an important but poorly constrained role in the global biogeospheric carbon cycle. Sequestration of biogenic carbon as BC is a direct sink of the element from the rapidly cycling atmosphere-biosphere reservoirs, whereas burial of petrogenic/fossil BC is simply a conversion of one form of geological carbon to another [2]. Considerable emphasis has been made on the relevant role this recalcitrant form of organic matter (OM) may play on the global C cycle and yet large uncertainty exists around BC detection and quantification. This work seeks to provide a large-scale estimate of the reservoir and burial sink flux of BC in sediments from the extensive Swedish continental shelf (SCS), as a first approach to global inventories. To this end, a total of 120 sediment samples were collected from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) along the ?2000 km SCS stretch. The most recalcitrant fraction of the sedimentary OM was isolated and determined by means of a commonly applied method in biogeochemical studies of soils and sediments: chemo-thermal oxidation at 375˚ C in air (CTO-375). The obtained BC concentration was used to estimate the inventory and burial flux of BC in the SCS surface sediments, following [3], which takes into account key geophysical and geochemical properties of the nine distinct sedimentary regimes of the SCS that was separately assessed. Globally representative values of the sediment properties (e.g. density of dried sediments, bioturbated mixing depth, sedimentation rate or porosity over the mixed depth) were

  16. Nocturnal soil CO2 uptake and its relationship to subsurface soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes in a Chihuahuan Desert shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamerlynck, Erik P.; Scott, Russell L.; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.

    2013-12-01

    their prevalence, little attention has been given to quantifying arid land soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes over prolonged, annually occurring dry periods. We measured soil [CO2] profiles and fluxes (Fs) along with volumetric soil moisture and temperature in bare interplant canopy soils and in soils under plant canopies over a three-month hot and dry period in a Chihuahuan Desert shrubland. Nocturnal Fs was frequently negative (from the atmosphere into the soil), a form of inorganic carbon exchange infrequently observed in other deserts. Negative Fs depended on air-soil temperature gradients and were more frequent and stronger in intercanopy soils. Daily integrated ecosystem-level Fs was always positive despite lower daily Fs in intercanopy soils due to nocturnal uptake and more limited positive response to isolated rains. Subsurface [CO2] profiles associated with negative Fs indicated that sustained carbonate dissolution lowered shallow-soil [CO2] below atmospheric levels. In the morning, positive surface Fs started earlier and increased faster than shallow-soil Fs, which was bidirectional, with upward flux toward the surface and downward flux into deeper soils. These dynamics are consistent with carbonate precipitation in conjunction with convection-assisted CO2 outgassing from warming air and soil temperatures and produced a pronounced diurnal Fs temperature hysteresis. We concluded that abiotic nocturnal soil CO2 uptake, through a small carbon sink, modulates dry season ecosystem-level carbon dynamics. Moreover, these abiotic carbon dynamics may be affected by future higher atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and predictions of more prolonged and regular hot and dry periods.

  17. Experimental evidence that terrestrial carbon subsidies increase CO2 flux from lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Jay T

    2004-03-01

    Subsidies are donor-controlled inputs of nutrients and energy that can affect ecosystem-level processes in a recipient environment. Lake ecosystems receive large inputs of terrestrial carbon (C) in the form of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM inputs may energetically subsidize heterotrophic bacteria and determine whether lakes function as sources or sinks of atmospheric CO(2). I experimentally tested this hypothesis using a series of mesocosm experiments in New England lakes. In the first experiment, I observed that CO(2) flux increased by 160% 4 days following a 1,000 microM C addition in the form of DOM. However, this response was relatively short lived, as there was no effect of DOM enrichment on CO(2) flux beyond 8 days. In a second experiment, I demonstrated that peak CO(2) flux from mesocosms in two lakes increased linearly over a broad DOM gradient (slope for both lakes=0.02+/-0.001 mM CO(2).m(-2) day(-1) per microM DOC, mean+/-SE). Concomitant changes in bacterial productivity and dissolved oxygen strengthen the inference that increasing CO(2) flux resulted from the metabolism of DOM. I conducted two additional studies to test whether DOM-correlated attributes were responsible for the observed change in plankton metabolism along the subsidy gradient. First, terrestrial DOM reduced light transmittance, but experimental shading revealed that this was not responsible for the observed patterns of CO(2) flux. Second, organically bound nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) accompanied DOM inputs, but experimental nutrient additions (without organic C) caused mesocosms to be saturated with CO(2). Together, these results suggest that C content of terrestrial DOM may be an important subsidy for freshwater bacteria that can influence whether recipient aquatic ecosystems are sources or sinks of atmospheric CO(2).

  18. A Bayesian Deconvolution Approach to Partitioning Soil Respiration: Coupling Carbon Flux and Isotope Data with Process-based Flux and Mixing Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, K.; Cable, J. M.; Huxman, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    The respiratory loss of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems is a major carbon flux affecting local, regional, and global carbon cycling. Such losses (e.g., soil CO2 efflux), however, are often overly simplified in biogeochemical models compared to processes such as photosynthesis. This discrepancy is partly due to the difficulty associated with partitioning soil respiration (or CO2 efflux) into its various components (e.g., autotrophic vs. heterotrophic). Different components operate at dissimilar temporal and spatial scales, thus estimation of their relative activity based on bulk soil efflux measurements is challenging. Hence, development of a robust, biophysically-inspired method for partitioning the different components is paramount to teasing- apart the mechanisms underlying carbon source-sink dynamics within and across diverse landscapes. Towards this goal, we developed a semi-mechanistic Bayesian deconvolution modeling approach for partitioning soil respiration into its component sources. While the sources can be broadly categorized as autotrophic or heterotrophic, the fundamental sources of biogenic CO2 efflux arises from specific interactions between plants, micro-organisms, and the soil environment. Potential sources have been identified based on their different turnover rates and functional roles, including, (1) activity of roots, (2) rhizomicrobial (e.g., mycorrhiza) respiration, (3) microbial decomposition of plant tissues, (4) microbial activity primed by root exudation, and (5) microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. The relative contribution of each source to soil CO2 efflux can vary within the soil matrix, depending on spatial and temporal variability in soil properties, resource and substrate availability, and microclimate. Our Bayesian deconvolution framework allows for simultaneous analysis of multiple data sources related to soil respiration dynamics, and the data are analyzed within the context of process-based models. The data include

  19. Modeling the Relative Importance of Nutrient and Carbon Loads, Boundary Fluxes, and Sediment Fluxes on Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Feist, Timothy J; Pauer, James J; Melendez, Wilson; Lehrter, John C; DePetro, Phillip A; Rygwelski, Kenneth R; Ko, Dong S; Kreis, Russell G

    2016-08-16

    The Louisiana continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico experiences bottom water hypoxia in the summer. In this study, we applied a biogeochemical model that simulates dissolved oxygen concentrations on the shelf in response to varying riverine nutrient and organic carbon loads, boundary fluxes, and sediment fluxes. Five-year model simulations demonstrated that midsummer hypoxic areas were most sensitive to riverine nutrient loads and sediment oxygen demand from settled organic carbon. Hypoxic area predictions were also sensitive to nutrient and organic carbon fluxes from lateral boundaries. The predicted hypoxic area decreased with decreases in nutrient loads, but the extent of change was influenced by the method used to estimate model boundary concentrations. We demonstrated that modeling efforts to predict changes in hypoxic area on the continental shelf in relationship to changes in nutrients should include representative boundary nutrient and organic carbon concentrations and functions for estimating sediment oxygen demand that are linked to settled organic carbon derived from water-column primary production. On the basis of our model analyses using the most representative boundary concentrations, nutrient loads would need to be reduced by 69% to achieve the Gulf of Mexico Nutrient Task Force Action Plan target hypoxic area of 5000 km(2).

  20. Evaluation of Site and Continental Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Simulations with North American Flux Tower Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raczka, B. M.; Davis, K. J.; Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants, N.; Site Level Interim Synthesis, N.; Regional/Continental Interim Synthesis Team

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon models are widely used to diagnose past ecosystem-atmosphere carbon flux responses to climate variability, and are a critical component of coupled climate-carbon model used to predict global climate change. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Interim Regional and Site Interim Synthesis activities collected a broad sampling of terrestrial carbon model results run at both regional and site level. The Regional Interim Synthesis Activity aims to determine our current knowledge of the carbon balance of North America by comparing the flux estimates provided by the various terrestrial carbon cycle models. Moving beyond model-model comparison is challenging, however, because no continental-scale reference values exist to validate modeled fluxes. This paper presents an effort to evaluate the continental-scale flux estimates of these models using North American flux tower observations brought together by the Site Interim Synthesis Activity. Flux towers present a standard for evaluation of the modeled fluxes, though this evaluation is challenging because of the mismatch in spatial scales between the spatial resolution of continental-scale model runs and the size of a flux tower footprint. We compare model performance with flux tower observations at monthly and annual integrals using the statistical criteria of normalized standard deviation, correlation coefficient, centered root mean square deviation and chi-squared. Models are evaluated individually and according to common model characteristics including spatial resolution, photosynthesis, soil carbon decomposition and phenology. In general all regional models are positively biased for GPP, Re and NEE at both annual and monthly time scales. Further analysis links this result to a positive bias in many solar radiation reanalyses. Positively biased carbon fluxes are also observed for enzyme-kinetic models and models using no nitrogen limitation for soil carbon decomposition. While the former result is

  1. Carbon export fluxes in the Southern Ocean: results from inverse modeling and comparison with satellite-based estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlitzer, Reiner

    The use of dissolved nutrients and carbon for photosynthesis in the euphotic zone and the subsequent downward transport of particulate and dissolved organic material strongly affect carbon concentrations in surface water and thus the air-sea exchange of CO 2. Efforts to quantify the downward carbon flux for the whole ocean or on basin-scales are hampered by the sparseness of direct productivity or flux measurements. Here, a global ocean circulation, biogeochemical model is used to determine rates of export production and vertical carbon fluxes in the Southern Ocean. The model exploits the existing large sets of hydrographic, oxygen, nutrient and carbon data that contain information on the underlying biogeochemical processes. The model is fitted to the data by systematically varying circulation, air-sea fluxes, production, and remineralization rates simultaneously. Use of the adjoint method yields model property simulations that are in very good agreement with measurements. In the model, the total integrated export flux of particulate organic matter necessary for the realistic reproduction of nutrient data is significantly larger than export estimates derived from primary productivity maps. Of the 10,000 TgC yr -1(10 GtC yr -1) required globally, the Southern Ocean south of 30°S contributes about 3000 TgC yr -1 (33%), most of it occurring in a zonal belt along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and in the Peru, Chile and Namibia coastal upwelling regions. The export flux of POC for the area south of 50°S amounts to 1000±210 TgC yr -1, and the particle flux in 1000 m for the same area is 115±20 TgC yr -1. Unlike for the global ocean, the contribution of the downward flux of dissolved organic carbon is significant in the Southern Ocean in the top 500 m of the water column. Comparison with satellite-based productivity estimates (CZCS and SeaWiFS) shows a relatively good agreement over most of the ocean except for the Southern Ocean south of 50°S, where the model

  2. Inorganic carbon dominates total dissolved carbon concentrations and fluxes in British rivers: Application of the THINCARB model - Thermodynamic modelling of inorganic carbon in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Helen P; King, Stephen M; Neal, Colin

    2017-01-01

    River water-quality studies rarely measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) routinely, and there is a gap in our knowledge of the contributions of DIC to aquatic carbon fluxes and cycling processes. Here, we present the THINCARB model (THermodynamic modelling of INorganic CARBon), which uses widely-measured determinands (pH, alkalinity and temperature) to calculate DIC concentrations, speciation (bicarbonate, HCO3(-); carbonate, CO3(2-); and dissolved carbon dioxide, H2CO3(⁎)) and excess partial pressures of carbon dioxide (EpCO2) in freshwaters. If calcium concentration measurements are available, THINCARB also calculates calcite saturation. THINCARB was applied to the 39-year Harmonised Monitoring Scheme (HMS) dataset, encompassing all the major British rivers discharging to the coastal zone. Model outputs were combined with the HMS dissolved organic carbon (DOC) datasets, and with spatial land use, geology, digital elevation and hydrological datasets. We provide a first national-scale evaluation of: the spatial and temporal variability in DIC concentrations and fluxes in British rivers; the contributions of DIC and DOC to total dissolved carbon (TDC); and the contributions to DIC from HCO3(-) and CO3(2-) from weathering sources and H2CO3(⁎) from microbial respiration. DIC accounted for >50% of TDC concentrations in 87% of the HMS samples. In the seven largest British rivers, DIC accounted for an average of 80% of the TDC flux (ranging from 57% in the upland River Tay, to 91% in the lowland River Thames). DIC fluxes exceeded DOC fluxes, even under high-flow conditions, including in the Rivers Tay and Tweed, draining upland peaty catchments. Given that particulate organic carbon fluxes from UK rivers are consistently lower than DOC fluxes, DIC fluxes are therefore also the major source of total carbon fluxes to the coastal zone. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for DIC concentrations and fluxes for quantifying carbon transfers from land

  3. Inferring Carbon Sources from Gene Expression Profiles Using Metabolic Flux Models

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Kuhn; Zucker, Jeremy; Colijn, Caroline; Weiner, Brian; Galagan, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria have evolved the ability to efficiently and resourcefully adapt to changing environments. A key means by which they optimize their use of available nutrients is through adjustments in gene expression with consequent changes in enzyme activity. We report a new method for drawing environmental inferences from gene expression data. Our method prioritizes a list of candidate carbon sources for their compatibility with a gene expression profile using the framework of flux balance analysis to model the organism’s metabolic network. Principal Findings For each of six gene expression profiles for Escherichia coli grown under differing nutrient conditions, we applied our method to prioritize a set of eighteen different candidate carbon sources. Our method ranked the correct carbon source as one of the top three candidates for five of the six expression sets when used with a genome-scale model. The correct candidate ranked fifth in the remaining case. Additional analyses show that these rankings are robust with respect to biological and measurement variation, and depend on specific gene expression, rather than general expression level. The gene expression profiles are highly adaptive: simulated production of biomass averaged 94.84% of maximum when the in silico carbon source matched the in vitro source of the expression profile, and 65.97% when it did not. Conclusions Inferences about a microorganism’s nutrient environment can be made by integrating gene expression data into a metabolic framework. This work demonstrates that reaction flux limits for a model can be computed which are realistic in the sense that they affect in silico growth in a manner analogous to that in which a microorganism’s alteration of gene expression is adaptive to its nutrient environment. PMID:22606312

  4. Factors affecting the behavior of unburned carbon upon steam activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors that could affect the behavior of unburned carbon samples upon steam activation. Through this work, the relationships among the factors that could influence the carbon-steam reaction with the surface area of the produced activated carbon were explored. Statistical analysis was used to relate the chemical and physical properties of the unburned carbon to the surface area of the activated carbon. Six unburned carbons were selected as feedstocks for activated carbon, and marked as UCA through UCF. The unburned carbons were activated using steam at 850°C for 90 minutes, and the surface areas of their activated counterparts were measured using N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The activated carbons produced from different unburned carbon precursors presented different surface areas at similar carbon burn-off levels. Moreover, in different carbon burn-off regions, the sequences for surface area of activated carbons from different unburned carbon samples were different. The factors that may affect the carbon-steam gasification reactions, including the concentration of carbon active sites, the crystallite size of the carbon, the intrinsic porous structure of carbon, and the inorganic impurities, were investigated. All unburned carbons investigated in this study were similar in that they showed the very broad (002) and (10 ) carbon peaks, which are characteristic of highly disordered carbonaceous materials. In this study, the unburned carbon samples contained about 17--48% of inorganic impurities. Compared to coals, the unburned carbon samples contain a larger amount of inorganic impurities as a result of the burn-off, or at lease part, of the carbon during the combustion process. These inorganic particles were divided into two groups in terms of the way they are associated with carbon particles: free single particles, and particles combined with carbon particles. As indicated from the present work, unburned

  5. Carbon fluxes in North American coastal and shelf seas: Current status and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennel, K.; Alin, S. R.; Barbero, L.; Evans, W.; Martin Hernandez-Ayon, J. M.; Hu, X.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Najjar, R.; Robbins, L. L.; Shadwick, E. H.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Steiner, N.; Turk, D.; Vlahos, P.; Wang, A. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal and shelf seas represent an interface between all major components of the global carbon cycle: land, atmosphere, marine sediments and the ocean. Fluxes and transformations of carbon in coastal systems are complex and highly variable in space and time. The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/SOCCR/final.html, Chapter 15, Chavez et al. 2007) concluded that carbon budgets of North American ocean margins were not well quantified because of insufficient observations and the complexity and highly localized spatial variability of coastal carbon dynamics. Since then significant progress has been made through the expansion of carbon observing networks, the implementation of modeling capabilities, and national and international coordination and synthesis activities. We will review the current understanding of coastal carbon fluxes around the North American continent including along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the northern Gulf of Mexico, and the North American Arctic region and provide a compilation of regional estimates of air-sea fluxes of CO2. We will discuss generalizable patterns in coastal air-sea CO2 exchange and other carbon fluxes as well as reasons underlying spatial heterogeneity. After providing an overview of the principal modes of carbon export from coastal systems, we will apply these mechanisms to the North American continent, and discuss observed and projected trends of key properties and fluxes. The presentation will illustrate that despite significant advances in capabilities and understanding, large uncertainties remain.

  6. Rhizodeposition flux of competitive versus conservative graminoid: contribution of exudates and root lysates as affected by N loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastovska, Eva; Edwards, Keith; Santruckova, Hana

    2017-04-01

    Carbon allocation pattern represents the plant strategy for growth and nutrient capture. Plants exhibit high plasticity in their allocation pattern and belowground C partitioning in response to changes in the availability of nutrients limiting their production, namely nitrogen (N). Any shift in the belowground C fluxes and partitioning between root production, exudation and other rhizodeposits could affect the soil microbial activity and soil organic matter turnover. We studied the influence of N availability on plant allocation patterns with emphasis on belowground C fluxes of two wetland graminoids, the competitive Glyceria maxima and the conservative Carex acuta. Plants were grown in pots under two levels of N availability. We combined pulse-labeling of plants with 13CO2 to track recent assimilates with estimation of the root death rate calculated from the difference between gross and net root growth rates for assessing the rhizodeposition flux to soil, and the contribution of root exudates and lysates from root turnover. We found that higher N supply enhanced root biomass and, subsequently, the total rhizodeposition. Both species shifted partitioning of belowground C towards higher mass-specific root production and turnover, with lower investments into root exudation. Therefore, the rhizodeposition flux was enriched in root-derived lysates over soluble exudates. Root exudates accounted for 50-70% of the rhizodeposition flux in conditions of low N availability, while it was only 20-40% under high N availability. The N fertilization induced changes in belowground C fluxes were species-specific, with more pronounced changes in the conservative Carex than the competitive Glyceria. In summary, soil N loading enhanced total C rhizodeposition and, simultaneously, the proportion of predominantly more complex root lysates over soluble root exudates, with potential implications for soil organic matter dynamics. Our results further stress the importance of species

  7. Water and carbon fluxes from savanna ecosystems of the Volta River watershed, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Heiko; Ferguson, Paul R.; Dubois, Kristal; Hayford, Ebenezer Kofi; von Vordzogbe, Vincent; Veizer, Ján

    2008-03-01

    The fluxes of water and carbon from terrestrial ecosystems are coupled via the process of photosynthesis. Constraining the annual water cycle therefore allows first order estimates of annual photosynthetic carbon flux, providing that the components of evapotranspiration can be separated. In this study, an isotope mass-balance equation is utilized to constrain annual evaporation flux, which in turn, is used to determine the amount of water transferred to the atmosphere by plant transpiration. The Volta River watershed in West Africa is dominated by woodland and savanna ecosystems with a significant proportion of C 4 vegetation. Annually, the Volta watershed receives ˜ 380 km 3 of rainfall, ˜ 50% of which is returned to the atmosphere via transpiration. An annual photosynthetic carbon flux of ˜ 170 × 10 12 g C yr - 1 or ˜ 428 g C m - 2 was estimated to be associated with this water vapor flux. Independent estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration slightly exceeded the NPP estimate from this study, implying that the exchange of carbon between the Volta River watershed and the atmosphere was close to being in balance or that terrestrial ecosystems were a small annual source of CO 2 to the atmosphere. In addition to terrestrial carbon flux, the balance of photosynthesis and respiration in Volta Lake was also examined. The lake was found to evade carbon dioxide to the atmosphere although the magnitude of the flux was much smaller than that of the terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Making Sense of Sensors: Stream Carbon Flux Determination at the Five USGS WEBB Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Saraceno, J.; Dornblaser, M.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Mast, A.; Clow, D. W.; Walker, J. F.; Hood, K.; Wickland, K.; Pellerin, B. A.; Aiken, G.; Crawford, J. T.; Striegl, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    At the five diverse forested and/or alpine headwater sites of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program, we measure stream concentrations of all forms of carbon - DOC, PC (assumed to be POC), CO2, CH4, and bicarbonate alkalinity. One goal of this work is to estimate DIC, DOC, and POC fluxes from headwater landscapes. For DOC, POC, and CO2, we utilize high-frequency measurements with in situ sensors. We also take discrete samples over a range of hydrologic conditions for independent flux calculations, and to verify the sensor measurements and test proxy relations. In situ fluorescing dissolved organic matter (FDOM) serves as a proxy for DOC. Turbidity is needed to adjust FDOM, and also serves as a proxy for POC. DIC flux is computed from the discrete alkalinity analyses. Sensor measurements at the five sites - in Colorado, Wisconsin, Vermont, Georgia, and Puerto Rico -- began either in 2011 or 2012. The sensors generally functioned well, but occasional down time required gap filling, typically using strong relations with stream discharge. We computed at least one full year of carbon flux at each site. In this paper we compare sensor-based and sampling-based carbon flux estimates. We interpret the differences among sites in total carbon flux and its relative apportionment among DIC, DOC, and POC, with respect to climate and ecosystem type. Finally, we evaluate the significance of stream carbon flux as a component of the ecosystem carbon balance.

  9. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions.

  10. Improve carbon flux predictions in ecosystem models using lidar and imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonarakis, Alexander; Guizar Coutino, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    The composition and structure of vegetation are key attributes of ecosystems, affecting their current and future carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Information on these attributes has traditionally come from ground-based inventories of the plant canopy within small sample plots. In this study, airborne and satellite lidar in conjunction with available hyperspectral imagery, are used to provide estimates of sub-pixel forest canopy composition and structure in New England. Hyperspectral imagery is used to determine forest plant functional types. Waveform lidar is used to determine the vertical structure of foliage, which in turn is used to derive stem density, basal area and biomass. This method of determining structure is compared against widely used lidar-derived regression methods with similar biomass uncertainty (RMSE ~2.5 kgC/m2). Regional-scale applicability is investigated using satellite lidar to derive sub-pixel forest structure. This fine scale information is then integrated into a size-structured terrestrial biosphere model (Ecosystem Demography) to improve the accuracy of carbon flux predictions at the local to regional scales. These improvements are quantified against simulations initialized with ground measurements and from a potential vegetation simulation. These results suggest that terrestrial biosphere model simulations can utilize modern-remote sensing data on vegetation composition and structure to improve their predictions of the current and near-term future functioning of the terrestrial biosphere.

  11. Process-oriented modelling to identify main drivers of erosion-induced carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilken, Florian; Sommer, Michael; Van Oost, Kristof; Bens, Oliver; Fiener, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Coupled modelling of soil erosion, carbon redistribution, and turnover has received great attention over the last decades due to large uncertainties regarding erosion-induced carbon fluxes. For a process-oriented representation of event dynamics, coupled soil-carbon erosion models have been developed. However, there are currently few models that represent tillage erosion, preferential water erosion, and transport of different carbon fractions (e.g. mineral bound carbon, carbon encapsulated by soil aggregates). We couple a process-oriented multi-class sediment transport model with a carbon turnover model (MCST-C) to identify relevant redistribution processes for carbon dynamics. The model is applied for two arable catchments (3.7 and 7.8 ha) located in the Tertiary Hills about 40 km north of Munich, Germany. Our findings indicate the following: (i) redistribution by tillage has a large effect on erosion-induced vertical carbon fluxes and has a large carbon sequestration potential; (ii) water erosion has a minor effect on vertical fluxes, but episodic soil organic carbon (SOC) delivery controls the long-term erosion-induced carbon balance; (iii) delivered sediments are highly enriched in SOC compared to the parent soil, and sediment delivery is driven by event size and catchment connectivity; and (iv) soil aggregation enhances SOC deposition due to the transformation of highly mobile carbon-rich fine primary particles into rather immobile soil aggregates.

  12. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in drained tropical peat before and after hydrological restoration.

    PubMed

    Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Limin, Suwido; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Vasander, Harri

    2008-12-01

    Present tropical peat deposits are the outcome of net carbon removal from the atmosphere and form one of the largest terrestrial organic carbon stores on the Earth. Reclamation of pristine tropical peatland areas in Southeast Asia increased strikingly during the last half of the 20th century. Drainage due to land-use change is one of the main driving factors accelerating carbon loss from the ecosystem. Dams were built in drainage-affected peatland area canals in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in order to evaluate major patterns in gaseous carbon dioxide and methane fluxes and in peat hydrology immediately before and after hydrologic restoration. The sites included peat swamp forest and deforested burned area, both affected by drainage for nearly 10 years. Higher annual minimum soil water table levels prevailed on both sites after restoration; the deforested site water table level prevailed considerably longer near the peat surface, and the forest water table level remained for a longer period in the topmost 30 cm peat profile after restoration. Forest soil gas fluxes were clearly higher in comparison to the deforested area. Cumulative forest floor CO2 emissions (7305-7444 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); 166.0-169.2 mol CO2 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) and the deforested site CO2 emissions (2781-2608 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); 63.2-59.3 mol CO2 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) did not markedly reflect the notably differing hydrological conditions the year before and after restoration. The forest floor was a weak CH4 sink (-0.208 to -0.368 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); -13.0 to -22.9 mmol CH4 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) and the deforested site a comparable CH4 source (0.197-0.275 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); 12.3-17.1 mmol CH4 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) in the study period. In general, higher soil water table levels had a relatively small effect on the annual CH4 emission budgets. In the two site types the gas flux response into hydrological conditions in degraded tropical peat can be attributed to differing CO2 and CH4 dynamics, peat physical

  13. 13C-metabolic flux ratio and novel carbon path analyses confirmed that Trichoderma reesei uses primarily the respirative pathway also on the preferred carbon source glucose.

    PubMed

    Jouhten, Paula; Pitkänen, Esa; Pakula, Tiina; Saloheimo, Markku; Penttilä, Merja; Maaheimo, Hannu

    2009-10-29

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important host organism for industrial enzyme production. It is adapted to nutrient poor environments where it is capable of producing large amounts of hydrolytic enzymes. In its natural environment T. reesei is expected to benefit from high energy yield from utilization of respirative metabolic pathway. However, T. reesei lacks metabolic pathway reconstructions and the utilization of the respirative pathway has not been investigated on the level of in vivo fluxes. The biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in T. reesei supported by genome-level evidence were reconstructed with computational carbon path analysis. The pathway reconstructions were a prerequisite for analysis of in vivo fluxes. The distribution of in vivo fluxes in both wild type strain and cre1, a key regulator of carbon catabolite repression, deletion strain were quantitatively studied by performing 13C-labeling on both repressive carbon source glucose and non-repressive carbon source sorbitol. In addition, the 13C-labeling on sorbitol was performed both in the presence and absence of sophorose that induces the expression of cellulase genes. Carbon path analyses and the 13C-labeling patterns of proteinogenic amino acids indicated high similarity between biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in T. reesei and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, however, mitochondrial rather than cytosolic biosynthesis of Asp was observed under all studied conditions. The relative anaplerotic flux to the TCA cycle was low and thus characteristic to respiratory metabolism in both strains and independent of the carbon source. Only minor differences were observed in the flux distributions of the wild type and cre1 deletion strain. Furthermore, the induction of the hydrolytic gene expression did not show altered flux distributions and did not affect the relative amino acid requirements or relative anabolic and respirative activities of the TCA cycle

  14. 13C-metabolic flux ratio and novel carbon path analyses confirmed that Trichoderma reesei uses primarily the respirative pathway also on the preferred carbon source glucose

    PubMed Central

    Jouhten, Paula; Pitkänen, Esa; Pakula, Tiina; Saloheimo, Markku; Penttilä, Merja; Maaheimo, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important host organism for industrial enzyme production. It is adapted to nutrient poor environments where it is capable of producing large amounts of hydrolytic enzymes. In its natural environment T. reesei is expected to benefit from high energy yield from utilization of respirative metabolic pathway. However, T. reesei lacks metabolic pathway reconstructions and the utilization of the respirative pathway has not been investigated on the level of in vivo fluxes. Results The biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in T. reesei supported by genome-level evidence were reconstructed with computational carbon path analysis. The pathway reconstructions were a prerequisite for analysis of in vivo fluxes. The distribution of in vivo fluxes in both wild type strain and cre1, a key regulator of carbon catabolite repression, deletion strain were quantitatively studied by performing 13C-labeling on both repressive carbon source glucose and non-repressive carbon source sorbitol. In addition, the 13C-labeling on sorbitol was performed both in the presence and absence of sophorose that induces the expression of cellulase genes. Carbon path analyses and the 13C-labeling patterns of proteinogenic amino acids indicated high similarity between biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in T. reesei and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, however, mitochondrial rather than cytosolic biosynthesis of Asp was observed under all studied conditions. The relative anaplerotic flux to the TCA cycle was low and thus characteristic to respiratory metabolism in both strains and independent of the carbon source. Only minor differences were observed in the flux distributions of the wild type and cre1 deletion strain. Furthermore, the induction of the hydrolytic gene expression did not show altered flux distributions and did not affect the relative amino acid requirements or relative anabolic and respirative activities

  15. Carbon Monoxide Affecting Planetary Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Horst, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric hazes are present in a range of solar system and extrasolar planetary atmospheres, and organic hazes, such as that in Titan's atmosphere, could be a source of prebiotic molecules.1 However, the chemistry occurring in planetary atmospheres and the resulting chemical structures are still not clear. Numerous experimental simulations2 have been carried out in the laboratory to understand the chemistry in N2/CH4 atmospheres, but very few simulations4 have included CO in their initial gas mixtures, which is an important component in many N2/CH4 atmospheres including Titan, Triton, and Pluto.3 Here we have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments using AC glow discharge (cold plasma) as energy source to irradiate reactions in gas mixtures of CO, CH4, and N2 with a range of CO mixing ratios (from 0, 0.05%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, to 5%) at low temperature (~100 K). Gas phase products are monitored during the reaction by quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS), and solid phase products are analyzed by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). MS results show that with the increase of CO in the initial gases, the production of nitrogenous organic molecules increases while the production of hydrogen molecules decreases in the gas phase. NMR measurements of the solid phase products show that with the increase of CO, hydrogen atoms bonded to nitrogen or oxygen in unsaturated structures increase while those bonded to saturated carbon decrease, which means more unsaturated species and less saturated species formed with the addition of CO. MS and NMR results demonstrate that the inclusion of CO affects the compositions of both gas and solid phase products, indicating that CO has an important impact on the chemistry occurring in our experiments and probably in planetary atmospheres.1. Hörst, S. M., et al. 2012, AsBio, 12, 8092. Cable, M. L., et al. 2012, Chem. Rev., 112, 18823. Lutz, B. L., et al. 1983, Sci, 220, 1374; Greaves, J. S., et al

  16. Organic and inorganic carbon fluxes in a tropical river system (Tana River, Kenya) during contrasting wet seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geeraert, Naomi; Omengo, Fred O.; Bouillon, Steven; Borges, Alberto V.; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Tropical river systems are often subjected to strong seasonality; in the Tana River (Kenya), for example, ~60% of the annual discharge takes place during a 4-month period. As different carbon pools are transported by the river, seasonal differences in carbon fluxes will also occur. This can furthermore be enhanced or attenuated due to changes in the intensity of carbon transformation processes, such as microbial respiration and primary production, during the wet season. Besides that, seasonal flooding of flood plains or flooded forest is known to be a major driver of the biogeochemical and ecological functioning of tropical rivers ("flood pulse concept") and has been shown to be one of the major drivers of the CO2 emissions from the Amazon River. We monitored the fluxes of different carbon pools at two sites spaced 385 km apart along the lower Tana River (Kenya), which is characterized by a highly seasonal flow regime. Water samples were taken at daily resolution during three wet seasons. During one of those seasons (May-June 2013), considerable flooding took place between both stations, while the other two wet seasons (Oct-Nov 2012 and April-May 2014) were characterised by several distinct discharge peaks, without leading to substantial overbank flooding. The flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) was observed to decrease in the downstream direction by 8 to 33% during all measurement periods. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) also decreased in the downstream direction during the wet seasons without flooding (by 10-38%) but increased drastically (increase of 231%) during the wet season with flooding. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) flux increased downstream (by 6% to 62%) during all measurement periods. The total carbon flux (POC+DOC+DIC) increased by 33% in the wet season with flooding (2013), but decreased by 23% and 3%, respectively, during the 2012 and 2014 wet seasons. Flooding thus affected the relative contribution of different C pools to the

  17. Estimating Carbon Flux Phenology with Satellite-Derived Land Surface Phenology and Climate Drivers for Different Biomes: A Synthesis of AmeriFlux Observations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenquan; Chen, Guangsheng; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jianhong; Mou, Minjie

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP) can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP) metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands), using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU) by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU) by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. This methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data. PMID:24386441

  18. Estimating carbon flux phenology with satellite-derived land surface phenology and climate drivers for different biomes: a synthesis of AmeriFlux observations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenquan; Chen, Guangsheng; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jianhong; Mou, Minjie

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP) can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP) metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands), using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU) by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU) by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. This methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.

  19. Estimating Carbon Flux Phenology with Satellite-Derived Land Surface Phenology and Climate Drivers for Different Biomes: A Synthesis of AmeriFlux Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wenquan; Chen, Guangsheng; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jianhong; Mou, Minjie

    2013-12-27

    Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP) can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this paper, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP) metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands), using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU) by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU) by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. In conclusion, this methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.

  20. Estimating Carbon Flux Phenology with Satellite-Derived Land Surface Phenology and Climate Drivers for Different Biomes: A Synthesis of AmeriFlux Observations

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Wenquan; Chen, Guangsheng; Jiang, Nan; ...

    2013-12-27

    Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP) can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this paper, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP) metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands), using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU) by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptakemore » (ECU) by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. In conclusion, this methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.« less

  1. Monitoring carbon dioxide from space: Retrieval algorithm and flux inversion based on GOSAT data and using CarbonTracker-China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongxu; Zhang, Huifang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Baozhang; Cai, Zhaonan; Lü, Daren

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space-borne state-of-the-art hyperspectral instruments can provide a high precision global dataset to improve carbon flux estimation and reduce the uncertainty of climate projection. Here, we introduce a carbon flux inversion system for estimating carbon flux with satellite measurements under the support of "The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences—Climate Change: Carbon Budget and Relevant Issues". The carbon flux inversion system is composed of two separate parts: the Institute of Atmospheric Physics Carbon Dioxide Retrieval Algorithm for Satellite Remote Sensing (IAPCAS), and CarbonTracker-China (CT-China), developed at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) measurements are used in the carbon flux inversion experiment. To improve the quality of the IAPCAS-GOSAT retrieval, we have developed a post-screening and bias correction method, resulting in 25%-30% of the data remaining after quality control. Based on these data, the seasonal variation of XCO2 (column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction) is studied, and a strong relation with vegetation cover and population is identified. Then, the IAPCAS-GOSAT XCO2 product is used in carbon flux estimation by CT-China. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange is -0.34 Pg C yr-1 (±0.08 Pg C yr-1), with a large error reduction of 84%, which is a significant improvement on the error reduction when compared with in situ-only inversion.

  2. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy: An Economic Model for Limiting Climate Change by Managing Anthropogenic Carbon Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss an economic model for comprehensive carbon management that focuses on changes in carbon flux in the biosphere due to anthropogenic activity. The two unique features of the model include: 1. A shift in emphasis from primarily carbon emissions, toward changes in carbon flux, mainly carbon extraction, and 2. A carbon price vector (CPV) to express the value of changes in carbon flux, measured in changes in carbon sequestration, or carbon residence time. The key focus with the economic model is the degree to which carbon flux changes due to anthropogenic activity. The economic model has three steps: 1. The CPV metric is used to value all forms of carbon associated with any anthropogenic activity. In this paper, the CPV used is a logarithmic chronological scale to gauge expected carbon residence (or sequestration) time. In future economic models, the CPV may be expanded to include other factors to value carbon. 2. Whenever carbon changes form (and CPV) due to anthropogenic activity, a carbon toll is assessed as determined by the change in the CPV. The standard monetary unit for carbon tolls are carbon toll units, or CTUs. The CTUs multiplied by the quantity of carbon converted (QCC) provides the total carbon toll, or CT. For example, CT = (CTU /mole carbon) x (QCC moles carbon). 3. Whenever embodied carbon (EC) attributable to a good or service moves via trade to a jurisdiction with a different CPV metric, a carbon toll (CT) is assessed representing the CPV difference between the two jurisdictions. This economic model has three clear advantages. First, the carbon pricing and cost scheme use existing and generally accepted accounting methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of carbon management efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard, existing auditing protocols. Implementing this economic model will not require any new, special, unique, or additional training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum

  3. Satellite-driven estimation of terrestrial carbon flux over Far East Asia with 30-second grid resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Saigusa, N.; Nasahara, K. N.; Ito, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.; Hirata, R.; Ichii, K.; Takagi, K.; Saitoh, T. M.; Ohta, T.; Murakami, K.; Oikawa, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is strongly affected by local natural phenomena and local human-induced activities that alter carbon exchange via vegetation and soil activities. In order to accurately understand terrestrial carbon cycle mechanisms, it is necessary to estimate spatial and temporal variations in carbon flux and storage using process-based models with the highest possible resolution. We estimated terrestrial carbon fluxes using the biosphere model integrating eco-physiological and mechanistic approaches using Satellite data (BEAMS) and satellite observations with 30-second grid resolution. The study area is the central Far East Asia region, which lies between 30 degree and 50 degree north latitude and 125 degree and 150 degree east longitude. Aiming to simulate terrestrial carbon exchanges under realistic land surface conditions, we applied as many satellite-observation means as possible, such as the standard MODIS, TRMM, and SRTM high-level land products. Validated using gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem production (NEP), net radiation and latent heat with ground measurements at six flux sites, the model estimations showed reasonable seasonal and annual patterns. In extensive analysis, total amounts of GPP and NPP were determined to be 2.1 PgC/year and 0.9 PgC/year. The total NEP estimate was +5.6 TgC/year, meaning that the land area played a role as a carbon sink for these six years. In analyses of areas with complicated topography, the 30-second grid estimation could prove to be an effective product to evaluate the effect of landscape on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The method presented here is an appropriate approach to gain a better understanding of terrestrial carbon exchange, both spatially and temporally.

  4. A rheostat mechanism governs the bifurcation of carbon flux in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Murima, Paul; Zimmermann, Michael; Chopra, Tarun; Pojer, Florence; Fonti, Giulia; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Alonso, Sylvie; Sauer, Uwe; Pethe, Kevin; McKinney, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism is an important feature of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection. Consumption of fatty acids requires regulation of carbon flux bifurcation between the oxidative TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt. In Escherichia coli, flux bifurcation is regulated by phosphorylation-mediated inhibition of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD), a paradigmatic example of post-translational mechanisms governing metabolic fluxes. Here, we demonstrate that, in contrast to E. coli, carbon flux bifurcation in mycobacteria is regulated not by phosphorylation but through metabolic cross-activation of ICD by glyoxylate, which is produced by the glyoxylate shunt enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL). This regulatory circuit maintains stable partitioning of fluxes, thus ensuring a balance between anaplerosis, energy production, and precursor biosynthesis. The rheostat-like mechanism of metabolite-mediated control of flux partitioning demonstrates the importance of allosteric regulation during metabolic steady-state. The sensitivity of this regulatory mechanism to perturbations presents a potentially attractive target for chemotherapy. PMID:27555519

  5. Reevaluating carbon fluxes in subduction zones, what goes down, mostly comes up

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Peter B.; Manning, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fluxes in subduction zones can be better constrained by including new estimates of carbon concentration in subducting mantle peridotites, consideration of carbonate solubility in aqueous fluid along subduction geotherms, and diapirism of carbon-bearing metasediments. Whereas previous studies concluded that about half the subducting carbon is returned to the convecting mantle, we find that relatively little carbon may be recycled. If so, input from subduction zones into the overlying plate is larger than output from arc volcanoes plus diffuse venting, and substantial quantities of carbon are stored in the mantle lithosphere and crust. Also, if the subduction zone carbon cycle is nearly closed on time scales of 5–10 Ma, then the carbon content of the mantle lithosphere + crust + ocean + atmosphere must be increasing. Such an increase is consistent with inferences from noble gas data. Carbon in diamonds, which may have been recycled into the convecting mantle, is a small fraction of the global carbon inventory. PMID:26048906

  6. Reevaluating carbon fluxes in subduction zones, what goes down, mostly comes up.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Peter B; Manning, Craig E

    2015-07-28

    Carbon fluxes in subduction zones can be better constrained by including new estimates of carbon concentration in subducting mantle peridotites, consideration of carbonate solubility in aqueous fluid along subduction geotherms, and diapirism of carbon-bearing metasediments. Whereas previous studies concluded that about half the subducting carbon is returned to the convecting mantle, we find that relatively little carbon may be recycled. If so, input from subduction zones into the overlying plate is larger than output from arc volcanoes plus diffuse venting, and substantial quantities of carbon are stored in the mantle lithosphere and crust. Also, if the subduction zone carbon cycle is nearly closed on time scales of 5-10 Ma, then the carbon content of the mantle lithosphere + crust + ocean + atmosphere must be increasing. Such an increase is consistent with inferences from noble gas data. Carbon in diamonds, which may have been recycled into the convecting mantle, is a small fraction of the global carbon inventory.

  7. Evaluation of the Community Land Model simulated carbon and water fluxes against observations over ChinaFLUX sites

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Li; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; ...

    2016-07-15

    The Community Land Model (CLM) is an advanced process-based land surface model that simulates carbon, nitrogen, water vapor and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. We use observed carbon and water fluxes from five representative Chinese Terrestrial Ecosystem Flux Research Network (ChinaFLUX) eddy covariance tower sites to systematically evaluate the new version CLM4.5 and old version CLM4.0, and to generate insights that may inform future model developments. CLM4.5 underestimates the annual carbon sink at three forest sites and one alpine grassland site but overestimates the carbon sink of a semi-arid grassland site.more » The annual carbon sink underestimation for the deciduous-dominated forest site results from underestimated daytime carbon sequestration during summer and overestimated nighttime carbon emission during spring and autumn. Compared to CLM4.0, the bias of annual gross primary production (GPP) is reduced by 24% and 28% in CLM4.5 at two subtropical forest sites. However, CLM4.5 still presents a large positive bias in annual GPP. The improvement in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is limited, although soil respiration bias decreases by 16%–43% at three forest sites. CLM4.5 simulates lower soil water content in the dry season than CLM4.0 at two grassland sites. Drier soils produce a significant drop in the leaf area index and in GPP and an increase in respiration for CLM4.5. The new fire parameterization approach in CLM4.5 causes excessive burning at the Changbaishan forest site, resulting in an unexpected underestimation of NEE, vegetation carbon, and soil organic carbon by 46%, 95%, and 87%, respectively. Altogether, our study reveals significant improvements achieved by CLM4.5 compared to CLM4.0, and suggests further developments on the parameterization of seasonal GPP and respiration, which will require a more effective representation of seasonal water conditions and the

  8. Evaluation of the Community Land Model simulated carbon and water fluxes against observations over ChinaFLUX sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Li; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; He, Honglin; Thornton, Peter E.; Yu, Guirui; Li, Pan; Liu, Min; Ren, Xiaoli; Han, Shijie; Li, Yingnian; Yan, Junhua; Hao, Yanbin; Wang, Huimin

    2016-07-15

    The Community Land Model (CLM) is an advanced process-based land surface model that simulates carbon, nitrogen, water vapor and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. We use observed carbon and water fluxes from five representative Chinese Terrestrial Ecosystem Flux Research Network (ChinaFLUX) eddy covariance tower sites to systematically evaluate the new version CLM4.5 and old version CLM4.0, and to generate insights that may inform future model developments. CLM4.5 underestimates the annual carbon sink at three forest sites and one alpine grassland site but overestimates the carbon sink of a semi-arid grassland site. The annual carbon sink underestimation for the deciduous-dominated forest site results from underestimated daytime carbon sequestration during summer and overestimated nighttime carbon emission during spring and autumn. Compared to CLM4.0, the bias of annual gross primary production (GPP) is reduced by 24% and 28% in CLM4.5 at two subtropical forest sites. However, CLM4.5 still presents a large positive bias in annual GPP. The improvement in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is limited, although soil respiration bias decreases by 16%–43% at three forest sites. CLM4.5 simulates lower soil water content in the dry season than CLM4.0 at two grassland sites. Drier soils produce a significant drop in the leaf area index and in GPP and an increase in respiration for CLM4.5. The new fire parameterization approach in CLM4.5 causes excessive burning at the Changbaishan forest site, resulting in an unexpected underestimation of NEE, vegetation carbon, and soil organic carbon by 46%, 95%, and 87%, respectively. Altogether, our study reveals significant improvements achieved by CLM4.5 compared to CLM4.0, and suggests further developments on the parameterization of seasonal GPP and respiration, which will require a more effective representation of seasonal water conditions and the partitioning of

  9. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes on the Bakchar bog in warm season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil S.; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Aleksander V.; Glagolev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    Data terrain-atmosphere fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide overseen for measurement campaign Plotnikovo-2014 on the bog's Flux-NIES automatic complex (N56°51.29' E82° 50.91') in the warn season. Six vegetative groups on the bog's surface were taken in comparison. Improvement precise method used to determinate the sensitivity for the gases analyzers and calculating of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes measured by automated chamber-based technique.

  10. Evaluation of statistical protocols for quality control of ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes

    Treesearch

    Jorge F. Perez-Quezada; Nicanor Z. Saliendra; William E. Emmerich; Emilio A. Laca

    2007-01-01

    The process of quality control of micrometeorological and carbon dioxide (CO2) flux data can be subjective and may lack repeatability, which would undermine the results of many studies. Multivariate statistical methods and time series analysis were used together and independently to detect and replace outliers in CO2 flux...

  11. Forest disturbances trigger erosion controlled fluxes of nitrogen, phosphorus and dissolved carbon

    Treesearch

    Marek Matyjasik; Gretchen Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Tracy Frescino; Michael Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    The initial phase of the research that addressed correlation between annual forest disturbance maps produced from LANDSAT images and water quality and flow data indicate that forest disturbances in conjunction with intense atmospheric precipitation commonly trigger fluxes of several chemical constituents, such as nitrogen, phosphorus carbon. These fluxes appear to be...

  12. Below-ground carbon flux and partitioning: global patterns and response to temperature

    Treesearch

    C.M. Litton; C.P. Giardina

    2008-01-01

    1. The fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is total below-ground carbon flux (TBCF) and the fraction of TBCF that is below-ground net primary production (BNPP) represent globally significant C fluxes that are fundamental in regulating ecosystem C balance. However, global estimates of the partitioning of GPP to TBCF and of TBCF to BNPP, as well as the...

  13. Diurnal centroid of ecosystem energy and carbon fluxes at FLUXNET sites

    Treesearch

    Kell B. Wilson; Dennis Baldocchi; Eva Falge; Marc Aubinet; Paul Berbigier; Christian Bernhofer; Han Dolman; Chris Field; Allen Goldstein; Andre Granier; Dave Hollinger; Gabriel Katul; B.E. Law; Tilden Meyers; John Moncrieff; Russ Monson; John Tenhunen; Riccardo Valentini; Shashi Verma; Steve. Wofsy

    2003-01-01

    Data from a network of eddy covariance stations in Europe and North America (FLUXNET) were analyzed to examine the diurnal patterns of surface energy and carbon fluxes during the summer period across a range of ecosystems and climates. Diurnal trends were quantified by assessing the time of day surface fluxes and meteorological variable reached peak values, using the...

  14. Faunal Influences on Fracture-Induced Carbon Flux Dynamics in Dryland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, K. F.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Organismal activity, in addition to its role in ecological feedbacks, ha the potential to serve as instigators or enhancers of atmospheric and hydrologic fluxes via alterations in soil structural regimes. We investigated the effect of faunally-induced crack morphology on soil carbon dynamics in three dryland soil systems in central Kenya: bioturbated soils, biocompacted soils, and undisturbed soils. Carbon fluxes were characterized using a closed-system respiration chamber, with CO2 concentration differences measured using an infrared gas analyzer. Results show that faunal influenes play a divergent biomechanical role in bulk soil cracking morphology and topology: macrofauna-induced bioturbation creates shallow, large, well-connected networks relative to those from megaherbivore-induced biocompaction, with the latter showing a "memory" of past drying events through a crack layering effect. These morphologies may further drive differences in soil carbon flux: under dry conditions, bioturbated and control soils show a persistently high and low mean carbon flux, respectively - biocompacted soils suggest a diurnal trend, with daytime lows and nighttime highs comparable to the control and bioturbated soils, respectively. Overall fluxes under wet conditions are considerably higher, but also more variable, though higher mean carbon fluxes are observed in the biocompacted and bioturbated soils. Our results suggest that fracture morphology induced in biocompacted soils may enhance diffusive fluxes that are typical in undisturbed soils to levels that are as high as those from macrofaunal respiration, but that particular physical conditions in fracture morphology and topology may be necessary as a prerequisite.

  15. Carbon and Energy Fluxes Over two Mid-Latitude Deciduous Forests: Interannual and Latitudinal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, H.; Grimmond, S.; Oliphant, A.; Su, H.; Vogel, C.; Scott, S.; Curtis, P.

    2001-12-01

    Hourly fluxes of energy, water vapor and CO2 are now available from two AmeriFlux sites in Indiana (MMSF, 39deg 10'N, 86deg 25' W, for the years 1998-2001, up to the end of the growth period) and Michigan (UMBS, 45deg 35' N, 84deg 42' W, for 1999-2001). Both sites are in extensive hardwood forests of a similar age, but the composition and diversity of tree species is quite different between the two locations. The latitudinal separation of more than 6.5 degrees causes also marked differences in the biophysical forcings of the ecosystem exchange, such as variations in growing season legth, summertime length of day, and soil thermal regimes in winter. The Indiana site was affected by a severe drought over much of summer and fall of 1999, whereas the Michigan site was only marginally affected by it. We present the seasonal carbon exchange dynamics and annual increments of net ecosystem exchange in the context of the energy and water availability and compare the results from four years of measurements in the light of these geographical and interannual variations in the ecosystem forcings.

  16. Deep instability of deforested tropical peatlands revealed by fluvial organic carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sam; Evans, Chris D; Page, Susan E; Garnett, Mark H; Jones, Tim G; Freeman, Chris; Hooijer, Aljosja; Wiltshire, Andrew J; Limin, Suwido H; Gauci, Vincent

    2013-01-31

    Tropical peatlands contain one of the largest pools of terrestrial organic carbon, amounting to about 89,000 teragrams (1 Tg is a billion kilograms). Approximately 65 per cent of this carbon store is in Indonesia, where extensive anthropogenic degradation in the form of deforestation, drainage and fire are converting it into a globally significant source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Here we quantify the annual export of fluvial organic carbon from both intact peat swamp forest and peat swamp forest subject to past anthropogenic disturbance. We find that the total fluvial organic carbon flux from disturbed peat swamp forest is about 50 per cent larger than that from intact peat swamp forest. By carbon-14 dating of dissolved organic carbon (which makes up over 91 per cent of total organic carbon), we find that leaching of dissolved organic carbon from intact peat swamp forest is derived mainly from recent primary production (plant growth). In contrast, dissolved organic carbon from disturbed peat swamp forest consists mostly of much older (centuries to millennia) carbon from deep within the peat column. When we include the fluvial carbon loss term, which is often ignored, in the peatland carbon budget, we find that it increases the estimate of total carbon lost from the disturbed peatlands in our study by 22 per cent. We further estimate that since 1990 peatland disturbance has resulted in a 32 per cent increase in fluvial organic carbon flux from southeast Asia--an increase that is more than half of the entire annual fluvial organic carbon flux from all European peatlands. Our findings emphasize the need to quantify fluvial carbon losses in order to improve estimates of the impact of deforestation and drainage on tropical peatland carbon balances.

  17. Fluxes of Soot Carbon to South Atlantic Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deep sea sediment samples from the South Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for soot black carbon (BC), total organic carbon (TOC), stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Soot BC was present at low concentrations (0.04–0.17% dry weight), but ...

  18. Fluxes of Soot Carbon to South Atlantic Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deep sea sediment samples from the South Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for soot black carbon (BC), total organic carbon (TOC), stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Soot BC was present at low concentrations (0.04–0.17% dry weight), but ...

  19. Carbon monoxide fluxes from natural, managed, or cultivated savannah grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza, Eugenio; Donoso, Loreto; Scharffe, Dieter; Crutzen, Paul J.

    1994-08-01

    As part of a comprehensive study on tropical land use change and its effect on atmospheric trace gas fluxes, we report the CO fluxes recorded at a natural grassland site and the changes produced when this ecosystem was managed or cultivated. The field site is located in the central part of the savannah climatic region of Venezuela. Fluxes were measured in the dark using the enclosed chamber technique. CO was analyzed with a reduction-gas detector in combination with a molecular sieve 5A columm for CO separation. At all sites, CO fluxes exhibited a strong diurnal variation, with net emission during daytime and consumption or no fluxes during nightime. In unplowed soils no differences were observed between dry and rainy season. A large disparity was observed between unplowed and plowed grassland soils. Plowed soil shows a much smaller emission during daytime and a larger consumption at night. The 24-hour integrated fluxes indicate that the nonperturbed grassland switches from being a net source of CO (3.4×1010 molecules cm-2 s-1) to being a net sink (-1.6×1010 molecules cm-2s-1) after plowing. It is likely that burial of surface litter reduces the production of CO in the top soil and that the diffusion of CO to deeper layers (where CO is consumed by microbiological processes) is promoted in decompacted soils. As the rainy season progressed the plowed soil gradually compacted and CO fluxes changed back, and after 3 months the fluxes from plowed soils and the original unplowed soils were equal. Even though the various cultivated fields (corn, sorghum, and pasture) received differing inorganic fertilization treatments, no significant difference in the CO fluxes resulted. Measurements during the dry season suggest that "degrading dry (dead) vegetation" produces CO under dark conditions.

  20. Carbon monoxide fluxes from natural, managed, or cultivated savannah grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Sanhueza, E.; Donoso, L.; Scharffe, D.; Crutzen, P.J.

    1994-08-20

    As part of a comprehensive study on tropical land use change and its effect on atmospheric trace gas fluxes, we report the CO fluxes recorded at a natural grassland site and the changes produced when this ecosystem was managed or cultivated. The field site is located in the central part of the savannah climatic region of Venezuela. Fluxes were measured in the dark using the enclosed chamber technique. CO was analyzed with a reduction-gas detector in combination with a molecular sieve 5A column for CO separation. At all sites, CO fluxes exhibited a strong diurnal variation, with net emission during daytime and consumption or no fluxes during nighttime. In unplowed soils no differences were observed between dry and rainy season. A large disparity was observed between unplowed and plowed grassland soils. Plowed soil shows a much smaller emission during daytime and a larger consumption at night. The 24-hour integrated fluxes indicate that the nonperturbed grassland switches from being a net source of CO (3.4 x 10{sup 10} molecules cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) to being a net sink (-1.6 x 10{sup 10} molecules cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) after plowing. It is likely that burial of surface litter reduces the production of CO in the top soil and that the diffusion of CO to deeper layers (where CO is consumed by microbiological processes) is promoted in decompacted soils. As the rainy season progressed the plowed soil gradually compacted and CO fluxes changed back, and after 3 months the fluxes from plowed soils and the original unplowed soils were equal. Even though the various cultivated fields (corn, sorghum, and pasture) received differing inorganic fertilization treatments, no significant difference in the CO fluxes resulted. Measurements during the dry season suggest that {open_quotes}degrading dry (dead) vegetation{close_quotes} produces CO under dark conditions. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Soil surface CO2 fluxes and the carbon budget of a grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Garcia, R.; Verma, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil surface CO2 fluxes are reported for three sites within the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) area, and simple empirical equations are fit to the data to provide predictions of soil fluxes from environmental observations. A prototype soil chamber, used to make the flux measurements, is described and tested by comparing CO2 flux measurements to a 40-L chamber, a 1-m/cu chamber, and eddy correlation. Results suggest that flux measurements with the prototype chamber are consistent with measurements by other methods to within about 20 percent. A simple empirical equation based on 10-cm soil temperature, 0- to 10-cm soil volumetric water content, and leaf area index predicts the soil surface CO2 flux with a rms error of 1.2 micro-mol sq m/s for all three sites. Further evidence supports using this equation to evaluate soil surface CO2 during the 1987 FIFE experiment. The soil surface CO2 fluxes when averaged over 24 hours are comparable to daily gross canopy photosynthetic rates. For 6 days of data the net daily accumulation of carbon is about 0.6 g CO2 sq m/d; this is only a few percent of the daily gross accumulation of carbon by photosynthesis. As the soil became drier in 1989, the net accumulation of carbon by the prairie increased, suggesting that the soil flux is more sensitive to temperature and drought than the photosynthetic fluxes.

  2. Adaptive data-driven models for estimating carbon fluxes in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, B.K.; Fosnight, E.A.; Gilmanov, T.G.; Frank, A.B.; Morgan, J.A.; Haferkamp, Marshall R.; Meyers, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    Rangeland carbon fluxes are highly variable in both space and time. Given the expansive areas of rangelands, how rangelands respond to climatic variation, management, and soil potential is important to understanding carbon dynamics. Rangeland carbon fluxes associated with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) were measured from multiple year data sets at five flux tower locations in the Northern Great Plains. These flux tower measurements were combined with 1-km2 spatial data sets of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperature, precipitation, seasonal NDVI metrics, and soil characteristics. Flux tower measurements were used to train and select variables for a rule-based piece-wise regression model. The accuracy and stability of the model were assessed through random cross-validation and cross-validation by site and year. Estimates of NEE were produced for each 10-day period during each growing season from 1998 to 2001. Growing season carbon flux estimates were combined with winter flux estimates to derive and map annual estimates of NEE. The rule-based piece-wise regression model is a dynamic, adaptive model that captures the relationships of the spatial data to NEE as conditions evolve throughout the growing season. The carbon dynamics in the Northern Great Plains proved to be in near equilibrium, serving as a small carbon sink in 1999 and as a small carbon source in 1998, 2000, and 2001. Patterns of carbon sinks and sources are very complex, with the carbon dynamics tilting toward sources in the drier west and toward sinks in the east and near the mountains in the extreme west. Significant local variability exists, which initial investigations suggest are likely related to local climate variability, soil properties, and management.

  3. Snowpack fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from high Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirk, Norbert; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.; Lund, Magnus; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Pedersen, Stine H.; Mylius, Maria R.; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christensen, Torben R.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the land-atmosphere exchange of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in high Arctic tundra ecosystems are particularly difficult in the cold season, resulting in large uncertainty on flux magnitudes and their controlling factors during this long, frozen period. We conducted snowpack measurements of these gases at permafrost-underlain wetland sites in Zackenberg Valley (NE Greenland, 74°N) and Adventdalen Valley (Svalbard, 78°N), both of which also feature automatic closed chamber flux measurements during the snow-free period. At Zackenberg, cold season emissions were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than growing season fluxes. Perennially, CH4 fluxes resembled the same spatial pattern, which was largely attributed to differences in soil wetness controlling substrate accumulation and microbial activity. We found no significant gas sinks or sources inside the snowpack but detected a pulse in the δ13C-CH4 stable isotopic signature of the soil's CH4 source during snowmelt, which suggests the release of a CH4 reservoir that was strongly affected by methanotrophic microorganisms. In the polygonal tundra of Adventdalen, the snowpack featured several ice layers, which suppressed the expected gas emissions to the atmosphere, and conversely lead to snowpack gas accumulations of up to 86 ppm CH4 and 3800 ppm CO2 by late winter. CH4 to CO2 ratios indicated distinctly different source characteristics in the rampart of ice-wedge polygons compared to elsewhere on the measured transect, possibly due to geomorphological soil cracks. Collectively, these findings suggest important ties between growing season and cold season greenhouse gas emissions from high Arctic tundra.

  4. Observed and modeled carbon and energy fluxes for agricultural sites under North American Carbon Program site-level interim synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokupitiya, E. Y.; Denning, A.

    2010-12-01

    Croplands are unique, man-made ecosystems with dynamics mostly dependent on human decisions. Crops uptake a significant amount of Carbon dioxide (CO2) during their short growing seasons. Reliability of the available models to predict the carbon exchanges by croplands is important in estimating the cropland contribution towards overall land-atmosphere carbon exchange and global carbon cycle. The energy exchanges from croplands include both sensible and latent heat fluxes. This study focuses on analyzing the performance of 19 land surface models across five agricultural sites under the site-level interim synthesis of North American Carbon Program (NACP). Model simulations were performed using a common simulation protocol and input data, including gap-filled meteorological data corresponding to each site. The net carbon fluxes (i.e. net ecosystem exchange; NEE) and energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) predicted by 12 models with sub-hourly/hourly temporal resolution and 7 models with daily temporal resolution were compared against the site-specific gap-filled observed flux tower data. Comparisons were made by site and crop type (i.e. maize, soybean, and wheat), mainly focusing on the coefficient of determination, correlation, root mean square error, and standard deviation. Analyses also compared the diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability of the modeled fluxes against the observed data and the mean modeled data.

  5. Evaluation of the Community Land Model simulated carbon and water fluxes against observations over ChinaFLUX sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Ricciuto, D. M.; He, H.; Thornton, P. E.; Yu, G.; Han, S.; Li, Y.; Yan, J.; Hao, Y.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) is an advanced process-based land surface model that simulates the complicated carbon, water vapor and energy exchanges between the terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere at various spatial-temporal scales. We for the first time use eddy-covariance observations of CO2 and water vapor exchange and soil respiration measurements at five representative Chinese Terrestrial Ecosystem Flux Observational Network (ChinaFLUX) tower sites to systematically evaluate the latest versions of CLM, the CLM4.0 and CLM4.5, and comprehensively examine the similarities and differences between the observational and simulated results. The CLM4.5 underestimates annual carbon sink at three forest sites and one alpine grassland site but overestimates the carbon sink at a semi-arid grassland site. The underestimation in annual carbon sink at a deciduous dominated forest site is resulted from underestimated daytime carbon sequestration in summer and overestimated nighttime carbon emission in spring and autumn. Compared with the CLM4.0, the bias of annual Gross Primary Production (GPP) is reduced by 24% and 28% in CLM4.5 at two subtropical forest sites. However, CLM4.5 still has a large positive bias in annual GPP. The improvement in NEE is limited, although the bias of soil respiration decreases by 16%-43% at three forest sites. The CLM4.5 has lower soil water content in dry season than this simulated by the CLM4.0 at two grassland sites. These lead to the significant drop in leaf area index and GPP, and the increase in respiration for the CLM4.5. The new fire parameterization in CLM4.5 causes incorrect fire estimation at Changbaishan forest site, which results in unexpected underestimation of NEE, vegetation carbon, and soil organic carbon by 46%, 95%, and 87%, respectively. Our study with the ChinaFLUX sites indicates a significant improvement of the CLM4.5 than the CLM4, and suggests further developments on the parameterization of seasonal GPP and

  6. The increasing importance of atmospheric demand for ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, Kimberly A.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Stoy, Paul C.; Williams, Christopher A.; Bohrer, Gil; Oishi, A. Christopher; Papuga, Shirley A.; Blanken, Peter D.; Noormets, Asko; Sulman, Benjamin N.; Scott, Russell L.; Wang, Lixin; Phillips, Richard P.

    2016-11-01

    Soil moisture supply and atmospheric demand for water independently limit--and profoundly affect--vegetation productivity and water use during periods of hydrologic stress. Disentangling the impact of these two drivers on ecosystem carbon and water cycling is difficult because they are often correlated, and experimental tools for manipulating atmospheric demand in the field are lacking. Consequently, the role of atmospheric demand is often not adequately factored into experiments or represented in models. Here we show that atmospheric demand limits surface conductance and evapotranspiration to a greater extent than soil moisture in many biomes, including mesic forests that are of particular importance to the terrestrial carbon sink. Further, using projections from ten general circulation models, we show that climate change will increase the importance of atmospheric constraints to carbon and water fluxes in all ecosystems. Consequently, atmospheric demand will become increasingly important for vegetation function, accounting for >70% of growing season limitation to surface conductance in mesic temperate forests. Our results suggest that failure to consider the limiting role of atmospheric demand in experimental designs, simulation models and land management strategies will lead to incorrect projections of ecosystem responses to future climate conditions.

  7. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Julia; Hansis, Eberhard; Davis, Steven

    2015-04-01

    To understand and potentially steer how humans shape land-climate interactions it is important to accurately attribute greenhouse gas fluxes from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in space and time. However, such accounting of carbon fluxes from LULCC generally requires choosing from multiple options of how to attribute the fluxes to regions and to LULCC activities. Applying a newly-developed and spatially-explicit bookkeeping model, BLUE ("bookkeeping of land use emissions"), we quantify LULCC carbon fluxes and attribute them to land-use activities and countries by a range of different accounting methods. We present results with respect to a Kyoto Protocol-like ``commitment'' accounting period, using land use emissions of 2008-12 as example scenario. We assess the effect of accounting methods that vary (1) the temporal evolution of carbon stocks, (2) the state of the carbon stocks at the beginning of the period, (3) the temporal attribution of carbon fluxes during the period, and (4) treatment of LULCC fluxes that occurred prior to the beginning of the period. We show that the methodological choices result in grossly different estimates of carbon fluxes for the different attribution definitions. The global net flux in the accounting period varies between 4.3 Pg(C) uptake and 15.2 Pg(C) emissions, depending on the accounting method. Regional results show different modes of variation. This finding has implications for both political and scientific considerations: Not all methodological choices are currently specified under the UNFCCC treaties on land use, land-use change and forestry. Yet, a consistent accounting scheme is crucial to assure comparability of individual LULCC activities, quantify their relevance for the global annual carbon budget, and assess the effects of LULCC policies.

  8. Carbon allocation and carbon isotope fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, N.; Gessler, A.; Kayler, Z.; Keel, S. G.; Badeck, F.; Barthel, M.; Boeckx, P.; Buchmann, N.; Brugnoli, E.; Esperschütz, J.; Gavrichkova, O.; Ghashghaie, J.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Keitel, C.; Knohl, A.; Kuptz, D.; Palacio, S.; Salmon, Y.; Uchida, Y.; Bahn, M.

    2011-11-01

    The terrestrial carbon (C) cycle has received increasing interest over the past few decades, however, there is still a lack of understanding of the fate of newly assimilated C allocated within plants and to the soil, stored within ecosystems and lost to the atmosphere. Stable carbon isotope studies can give novel insights into these issues. In this review we provide an overview of an emerging picture of plant-soil-atmosphere C fluxes, as based on C isotope studies, and identify processes determining related C isotope signatures. The first part of the review focuses on isotopic fractionation processes within plants during and after photosynthesis. The second major part elaborates on plant-internal and plant-rhizosphere C allocation patterns at different time scales (diel, seasonal, interannual), including the speed of C transfer and time lags in the coupling of assimilation and respiration, as well as the magnitude and controls of plant-soil C allocation and respiratory fluxes. Plant responses to changing environmental conditions, the functional relationship between the physiological and phenological status of plants and C transfer, and interactions between C, water and nutrient dynamics are discussed. The role of the C counterflow from the rhizosphere to the aboveground parts of the plants, e.g. via CO2 dissolved in the xylem water or as xylem-transported sugars, is highlighted. The third part is centered around belowground C turnover, focusing especially on above- and belowground litter inputs, soil organic matter formation and turnover, production and loss of dissolved organic C, soil respiration and CO2 fixation by soil microbes. Furthermore, plant controls on microbial communities and activity via exudates and litter production as well as microbial community effects on C mineralization are reviewed. A further part of the paper is dedicated to physical interactions between soil CO2 and the soil matrix, such as CO2 diffusion and dissolution processes within the

  9. Soil Carbon Pools and CO2 Fluxes in the GISS Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharecha, P. A.; Kiang, N. Y.; Aleinov, I.; Moorcroft, P.; Koster, R.; Rind, D.

    2006-12-01

    Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will act as a sink or source of carbon in the future is crucial for understanding the feedbacks that will affect future global warming. To this end, a growing number of GCMs now include interactive global carbon cycle models (Friedlingstein et al., J. Clim. 19, 2006). To allow for the prediction of net CO2 fluxes from land in the NASA-GISS GCM, we have added a soil biogeochemistry submodel to the Ent dynamic global vegetation model currently under development for the GISS GCM . This submodel is a modified version of the soil submodel in the CASA biosphere model (Potter et al., Glob. Biogeoch. Cyc. 7, 1993). It is driven by vegetation litterfall from the Ent model and litter quality parameters for the Ent vegetation types (in addition to soil temperature, texture, and volumetric moisture) and calculates soil carbon and nitrogen pools and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration. The latter quantity is then used by the Ent model to calculate net CO2 from the global land surface. Here we describe the results of both offline Ent/soil model runs as well as runs in which the model is coupled to the GISS GCM, using prescribed land cover and seasonal variation, and biophysics from Friend and Kiang (J. Clim. 18, 2005). To spin up the soil submodel offline, we conducted 700-1000 year runs using 1986-1995 climatological datasets from the GSWP-2 multi-model analysis (Intl. GEWEX Project Office, 2002, avail. at http://grads.iges.org/gswp/publications.html). The equilibrium soil pools are compared to soil carbon and nitrogen data from the ISRIC-WISE database (Batjes, 2000, avail. at http://www.daac.ornl.gov). This work has been done in the context of incorporation of a dynamic global carbon cycle into the GISS GCM.

  10. Upscaling carbon fluxes over the Great Plains grasslands: Sinks and sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Ji, Lei; Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Howar, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the grasslands may be carbon sinks or near equilibrium, and they often shift between carbon sources in drought years and carbon sinks in other years. It is important to understand the responses of net ecosystem production (NEP) to various climatic conditions across the U.S. Great Plains grasslands. Based on 15 grassland flux towers, we developed a piecewise regression model and mapped the grassland NEP at 250 m spatial resolution over the Great Plains from 2000 to 2008. The results showed that the Great Plains was a net sink with an averaged annual NEP of 24 ± 14 g C m−2 yr−1, ranging from a low value of 0.3 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2002 to a high value of 47.7 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2005. The regional averaged NEP for the entire Great Plains grasslands was estimated to be 336 Tg C yr−1 from 2000 to 2008. In the 9 year period including 4 dry years, the annual NEP was very variable in both space and time. It appeared that the carbon gains for the Great Plains were more sensitive to droughts in the west than the east. The droughts in 2000, 2002, 2006, and 2008 resulted in increased carbon losses over drought-affected areas, and the Great Plains grasslands turned into a relatively low sink with NEP values of 15.8, 0.3, 20.1, and 10.2 g C m−2 yr−1 for the 4 years, respectively.

  11. Canopy structure of sagebrush ecosystems leading to differences in carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Pendall, E. G.; Kelly, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The sagebrush steppe ecosystem covers nearly 15% of Western North America, and its productivity is sensitive to warming and increasingly variable precipitation. Previous work has shown that interannual variability of precipitation is the largest factor in carbon and water cycling in these semi-arid ecosystems and that the relationship of traditional drivers of fluxes (VPD, net radiation, soil temperature) to carbon and water fluxes as well as ecosystem water use efficiency does not change along an elevation gradient. We seek to expand on that work by using multiple site-years from eddy covariance data near the upper (2469m) and lower (2069m) elevation range of sagebrush to answer the question 'How does canopy structure and canopy leaf area index combine to control the ecosystem carbon and water fluxes from rocky mountain sagebrush ecosystems'. We are answering this question by quantifying ecosystem scale carbon and water using eddy covariance measurements and a standard suite of atmospheric, soil and vegetation monitoring instruments. This data will be used with the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) Bayesian framework model that utilizes a coupled plant hydraulic and carbon uptake. For this work we use the TREES model to simulate canopy structure and leaf area based on seven years of eddy covariance data from the two different locations. This canopy information will be compared with canopy structure ground measurements within the eddy covariance footprint, and then we will compare the relationship between canopy structure and ecosystem fluxes. During well watered growing season time periods, the high elevation site has average water flux of 1.06 mmol m-2 s-1 and carbon flux of 1.54 μmol m-2 s-1 of uptake. Average water and carbon fluxes at the lower elevation site were 0.84 mmol m-2 s-1 and 1.09 μmol m-2 s-1 of uptake respectively. This is a reduction of 20% for water flux and 30% and carbon flux down the elevation gradient. With the

  12. A systematic approach for comparing modeled biospheric carbon fluxes across regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Gourdji, S. M.; Mueller, K. L.; Michalak, A. M.

    2011-06-01

    Given the large differences between biospheric model estimates of regional carbon exchange, there is a need to understand and reconcile the predicted spatial variability of fluxes across models. This paper presents a set of quantitative tools that can be applied to systematically compare flux estimates despite the inherent differences in model formulation. The presented methods include variogram analysis, variable selection, and geostatistical regression. These methods are evaluated in terms of their ability to assess and identify differences in spatial variability in flux estimates across North America among a small subset of models, as well as differences in the environmental drivers that best explain the spatial variability of predicted fluxes. The examined models are the Simple Biosphere (SiB 3.0), Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA), and CASA coupled with the Global Fire Emissions Database (CASA GFEDv2), and the analyses are performed on model-predicted net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, and ecosystem respiration. Variogram analysis reveals consistent seasonal differences in spatial variability among modeled fluxes at a 1° × 1° spatial resolution. However, significant differences are observed in the overall magnitude of the carbon flux spatial variability across models, in both net ecosystem exchange and component fluxes. Results of the variable selection and geostatistical regression analyses suggest fundamental differences between the models in terms of the factors that explain the spatial variability of predicted flux. For example, carbon flux is more strongly correlated with percent land cover in CASA GFEDv2 than in SiB or CASA. Some of the differences in spatial patterns of estimated flux can be linked back to differences in model formulation, and would have been difficult to identify simply by comparing net fluxes between models. Overall, the systematic approach presented here provides a set of tools for comparing predicted grid

  13. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  14. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( < 20% RH) at 293 K. Optical properties and the AMS spectra were measured for toluene-derived SOM after ammonia exposure at varied RHs. The results suggest that the production of light-absorbing nitrogen-containing compounds from multiphase reactions with ammonia was kinetically limited in the glassy organic matrix, which otherwise produce brown carbon. The results of this study have significant implications for production and optical properties of brown carbon in urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  15. Carbon dioxide fluxes from Tifway bermudagrass: early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotten, David L.; Zhang, G.; Leclerc, M. Y.; Raymer, P.; Steketee, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time preliminary data on carbon uptake of warm-season turfgrass at a well-managed sod farm in south central Georgia. It examines the changes in carbon uptake from one of the most widely used warm-season turfgrass cultivars in the world, Tifway Bermudagrass. It elucidates the role of canopy density and light avalaibility on the net carbon uptake using the eddy-covariance technique. Preliminary evidence suggests that turfgrass is effective at sequestering carbon dioxide during the summer months even when the canopy is being reestablished following a grass harvest.

  16. Calculations of automatic chamber flux measurements of methane and carbon dioxide using short time series of concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirk, N.; Mastepanov, M.; Parmentier, F.-J. W.; Lund, M.; Crill, P.; Christensen, T. R.

    2015-09-01

    The closed chamber technique is widely used to measure the exchange of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from terrestrial ecosystems. There is, however, large uncertainty about which model should be used to calculate the gas flux from the measured gas concentrations. Due to experimental uncertainties the robust linear regression model (first order polynomial) is often applied, even though theoretical considerations of the technique suggest the application of other, curvilinear models. High-resolution automatic chamber systems which sample gas concentrations several hundred times per flux measurement make it possible to resolve the curvilinear behavior and study the information imposed by the natural variability of the temporal concentration changes. We used more than 50 000 such flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 from five field sites located in peat forming wetlands to calculate fluxes with different models. The flux differences from independent linear estimates are generally found to be smaller than the local flux variability on the plot scale. The curvilinear behavior of the gas concentrations within the chamber is strongly influenced by wind driven chamber leakage, and less so by changing gas concentration gradients in the soil during chamber closure. Such physical processes affect both gas species equally, which makes it possible to isolate biochemical processes affecting the gases differently, such as photosynthesis limitation by chamber headspace CO2 concentrations under high levels of incoming solar radiation. We assess the possibility to exploit this effect for a partitioning of the net CO2 flux into photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration and argue that high-resolution automatic chamber measurements could be used for purposes beyond the estimation of the net gas flux.

  17. Evaluation of carbon isotope flux partitioning theory under simplified and controlled environmental conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Separation of the photosynthetic (Fp) and respiratory (Fr) fluxes of net CO2 exchange (Fn)remains a necessary step toward understanding the biological and physical controls on carbon cycling between the soil, biomass, and atmosphere. Despite recent advancements in stable carbon isotope partitioning ...

  18. Quantifying aboveground forest carbon pools and fluxes from repeat LiDAR surveys

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak; Eva K. Strand; Lee A. Vierling; John C. Byrne; Jan U. H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Michael J. Falkowski

    2012-01-01

    Sound forest policy and management decisions to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 depend upon accurate methodologies to quantify forest carbon pools and fluxes over large tracts of land. LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, little work has evaluated the efficacy of repeat LiDAR...

  19. Soil carbon dioxide fluxes with time and depth in a bare field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. The amount of CO2 emitted from soil to the atmosphere has significant effects on the soil-atmosphere system. The objectives of this study are 1) to determine bare soil CO2 fluxes continuously with time and de...

  20. [Research progress on urban carbon fluxes based on eddy covariance technique].

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Fu, Yu-Ling; Yang, Fang

    2014-02-01

    Land use change and fossil fuel consumption due to urbanization have made significant effect on global carbon cycle and climate change. Accurate estimating and understanding of the carbon budget and its characteristics are the premises for studying carbon cycle and its driving mechanisms in urban system. Based on the theory of eddy covariance (EC) technique, the characteristics atmospheric boundary layer and carbon cycle in urban area, this study systematically reviewed the principles of CO2 flux monitoring in urban system with EC technique, and then summarized the problems faced in urban CO2 flux monitoring and the method for data processing and further assessment. The main research processes on urban carbon fluxes with EC technique were also illustrated. The results showed that the urban surface was mostly acting as net carbon source. The CO2 exchange between urban surface and atmosphere showed obvious diurnal, weekly and seasonal variation resulted from the vehicle exhaust, domestic heating and vegetation respiration. However, there still exist great uncertainties in urban flux measurement and its explanation due to high spatial heterogeneity and complex distributions of carbon source/sink in urban environments. In the end, we suggested that further researches on EC technique and data assessment in complex urban area should be strengthened. It was also requisite to develop models of urban carbon cycle on the basis of the system principle, to investigate the influencing mechanism and variability of urban cycle at regional scale with spatial analysis technique.

  1. Analyzing a relationship between climate change and terrestrial carbon fluxes over Japan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Setoyama, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, terrestrial vegetation undergoes dramatic change in climate. Areal difference of climate change has been gradually large, and ecosystem differ in response to climate change, leading that terrestrial carbon exchange between atmosphere and biosphere has also undergone much change for each region. A purpose of this study is to examine a relationship between climate parameter and terrestrial carbon flux over Japan region. The carbon flux data used are GPP, NPP, and NEP at 1km grid resolution, they were estimated by the satellite-driven biosphere model, BEAMS. The climate data are the MODIS land products and NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data set. We calculated annual and seasonal anomalies, and correlation coefficient between climate parameters and carbon fluxes from 2001 to 2010. The study area is Japan region (125°-150°E, 30°-50°N). We found in inter-annual change anomalies that NEP plays a role of sizable carbon sink in 2004 and 2007, and carbon source in 2003 and 2006. In 2004 and 2007, as full-year air temperature is high, an end of plant growing season might be delayed. In 2003 and 2006, low solar radiation due to rainy season front decreases NEP. By analyzing a relationship between climate parameters and carbon fluxes for each region, we could understand a characteristic of climate change and ecosystem, and a mechanism of terrestrial carbon cycle.

  2. Importance of early season conditions and grazing on carbon dioxide fluxes in Colorado shortgrass steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the influence of environmental and management drivers on fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) is essential for optimizing carbon (C) uptake and storage in livestock production systems. Herein, using 15 treatment-years (two three-year experiments, one with three grazing treatments, the other ...

  3. Disturbance and climate effects on carbon stocks and fluxes across western Oregon USA.

    Treesearch

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; J. Campbell; O.J. Sun; S. Van Tuyl; W.D. Ritts; W.B. Cohen

    2004-01-01

    We used a spatially nested hierarchy of field and remote-sensing observations and a process model, Biome-BGC, to produce a carbon budget for the forested region of Oregon, and to determine the relative influence of differences in climate and disturbance among the ecoregions on carbon stocks and fluxes. The simulations suggest that annual net uptake (net ecosystem...

  4. A Satellite Based Modeling Framework for Estimating Seasonal Carbon Fluxes Over Agricultural Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, V.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Sahajpal, R.; Houborg, R.; Milla, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Croplands are typically characterized by fine-scale heterogeneity, which makes it difficult to accurately estimate cropland carbon fluxes over large regions given the fairly coarse spatial resolution of high-frequency satellite observations. It is, however, important that we improve our ability to estimate spatially and temporally resolved carbon fluxes because croplands constitute a large land area and have a large impact on global carbon cycle. A Satellite based Dynamic Cropland Carbon (SDCC) modeling framework was developed to estimate spatially resolved crop specific daily carbon fluxes over large regions. This modeling framework uses the REGularized canopy reFLECtance (REGFLEC) model to estimate crop specific leaf area index (LAI) using downscaled MODIS reflectance data, and subsequently LAI estimates are integrated into the Environmental Policy Integrated Model (EPIC) model to determine daily net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Firstly, we evaluate the performance of this modeling framework over three eddy covariance flux tower sites (Bondville, IL; Fermi Agricultural Site, IL; and Rosemount site, MN). Daily NPP and NEP of corn and soybean crops are estimated (based on REGFLEC LAI) for year 2007 and 2008 over the flux tower sites and compared against flux tower observations and model estimates based on in-situ LAI. Secondly, we apply the SDCC framework for estimating regional NPP and NEP for corn, soybean and sorghum crops in Nebraska during year 2007 and 2008. The methods and results will be presented.

  5. A Satellite Based Modeling Framework for Estimating Seasonal Carbon Fluxes Over Agricultural Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, V.; Houborg, R.; Izaurralde, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Croplands are typically characterized by fine-scale heterogeneity, which makes it difficult to accurately estimate cropland carbon fluxes over large regions given the fairly coarse spatial resolution of high-frequency satellite observations. It is, however, important that we improve our ability to estimate spatially and temporally resolved carbon fluxes because croplands constitute a large land area and have a large impact on global carbon cycle. A Satellite based Dynamic Cropland Carbon (SDCC) modeling framework was developed to estimate spatially resolved crop specific daily carbon fluxes over large regions. This modeling framework uses the REGularized canopy reFLECtance (REGFLEC) model to estimate crop specific leaf area index (LAI) using downscaled MODIS reflectance data, and subsequently LAI estimates are integrated into the Environmental Policy Integrated Model (EPIC) model to determine daily net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Firstly, we evaluate the performance of this modeling framework over three eddy covariance flux tower sites (Bondville, IL; Fermi Agricultural Site, IL; and Rosemount site, MN). Daily NPP and NEP of corn and soybean crops are estimated (based on REGFLEC LAI) for year 2007 and 2008 over the flux tower sites and compared against flux tower observations and model estimates based on in-situ LAI. Secondly, we apply the SDCC framework for estimating regional NPP and NEP for corn, soybean and sorghum crops in Nebraska during year 2007 and 2008. The methods and results will be presented.

  6. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansis, Eberhard; Davis, Steven J.; Pongratz, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Accounting for carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change (LULCC) generally requires choosing from multiple options of how to attribute the fluxes to regions and to LULCC activities. Applying a newly developed and spatially explicit bookkeeping model BLUE (bookkeeping of land use emissions), we quantify LULCC fluxes and attribute them to land use activities and countries by a range of different accounting methods. We present results with respect to a Kyoto Protocol-like "commitment" accounting period, using land use emissions of 2008-2012 as an example scenario. We assess the effect of accounting methods that vary (1) the temporal evolution of carbon stocks, (2) the state of the carbon stocks at the beginning of the period, (3) the temporal attribution of carbon fluxes during the period, and (4) treatment of LULCC fluxes that occurred prior to the beginning of the period. We show that the methodological choices result in grossly different estimates of carbon fluxes for the different attribution definitions.

  7. The "Carbon Data Explorer": Web-Based Space-Time Visualization of Modeled Carbon Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billmire, M.; Endsley, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The visualization of and scientific "sense-making" from large datasets varying in both space and time is a challenge; one that is still being addressed in a number of different fields. The approaches taken thus far are often specific to a given academic field due to the unique questions that arise in different disciplines, however, basic approaches such as geographic maps and time series plots are still widely useful. The proliferation of model estimates of increasing size and resolution further complicates what ought to be a simple workflow: Model some geophysical phenomen(on), obtain results and measure uncertainty, organize and display the data, make comparisons across trials, and share findings. A new tool is in development that is intended to help scientists with the latter parts of that workflow. The tentatively-titled "Carbon Data Explorer" (http://spatial.mtri.org/flux-client/) enables users to access carbon science and related spatio-temporal science datasets over the web. All that is required to access multiple interactive visualizations of carbon science datasets is a compatible web browser and an internet connection. While the application targets atmospheric and climate science datasets, particularly spatio-temporal model estimates of carbon products, the software architecture takes an agnostic approach to the data to be visualized. Any atmospheric, biophysical, or geophysical quanity that varies in space and time, including one or more measures of uncertainty, can be visualized within the application. Within the web application, users have seamless control over a flexible and consistent symbology for map-based visualizations and plots. Where time series data are represented by one or more data "frames" (e.g. a map), users can animate the data. In the "coordinated view," users can make direct comparisons between different frames and different models or model runs, facilitating intermodal comparisons and assessments of spatio-temporal variability. Map

  8. Stable carbon isotope gradients in benthic foraminifera as proxy for organic carbon fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodor, Marc; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Jorissen, Frans; Mackensen, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    We have determined stable carbon isotope ratios of epifaunal and shallow infaunal benthic foraminifera in the Mediterranean Sea to relate the inferred gradient of pore water δ13CDIC to varying trophic conditions. This is a prerequisite for developing this difference into a potential transfer function for organic matter flux rates. The data set is based on samples retrieved from a well-defined bathymetric range (400-1500 m water depth) of sub-basins in the western, central, and eastern Mediterranean Sea. Regional contrasts in organic matter fluxes and associated δ13CDIC of pore water are recorded by the δ13C difference (Δδ13CUmed-Epi) between the shallow infaunal Uvigerina mediterranea and epifaunal species (Planulina ariminensis, Cibicidoides pachydermus, Cibicides lobatulus). Within epifaunal taxa, the highest δ13C values are recorded for P. ariminensis, providing the best indicator for bottom water δ13CDIC. In contrast, C. pachydermus reveals minor pore water effects at the more eutrophic sites. Because of ontogenetic trends in the δ13C signal of U. mediterranea of up to 1.04 ‰, only tests larger than 600 µm were used for the development of the transfer function. The recorded differences in the δ13C values of U. mediterranea and epifaunal taxa (Δδ13CUmed-Epi) range from -0.46 to -2.13 ‰, with generally higher offsets at more eutrophic sites. The measured δ13C differences are related to site-specific differences in microhabitat, depth of the principal sedimentary redox boundary, and TOC content of the ambient sediment. The Δδ13CUmed-Epi values reveal a consistent relation to Corg fluxes estimated from satellite-derived surface water primary production in open-marine settings of the Alboran Sea, Mallorca Channel, Strait of Sicily, and southern Aegean Sea. In contrast, Δδ13CUmed-Epi values in areas affected by intense resuspension and riverine organic matter sources of the northern to central Aegean Sea and the canyon systems of the Gulf of Lion

  9. Carbon Fluxes in a sub-arctic tundra undergoing permafrost degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho, R. G.; Webb, E.; Mauritz, M.; Schuur, E. A. G.

    2014-12-01

    As an effect of climate change, temperatures in high latitude regions are increasing faster than in the rest of the world and future projections indicate it will increase between 7°C and 8°C by the end of the 21st century. Permafrost soils store around 1700 Pg of Carbon (C), which is approximately the amount of C stored in terrestrial vegetation and in the atmosphere combined. Sustained warming induces permafrost thaw, leads to a thicker seasonal active layer, and creates subsided patches in the landscape. Carbon that was previously inaccessible to decomposition is thus exposed, increasing the likelihood of positive feedback of CO2 to the atmosphere. We measured C fluxes (Net ecosystem carbon flux, NEE, and Ecosystem respiration, Re) using the eddy covariance approach in a tundra landscape (Eight Mile Lake Watershed, Alaska) undergoing permafrost degradation from the beginning of the growing season in 2008 and throughout most winters until May 2014. This interval encompassed a range of climatic variability that included a deviation of ± 50% from the long term average in growing season precipitation. Active layer depth (thaw depth at the end of the growing season) and subsidence in the footprint were used as indicators of permafrost degradation. Results indicate that annual NEE ranged from a sink of 0.76 MgC ha-1 yr-1 to a source of 0.55 MgC ha-1 yr-1. NEE during the growing seasons fluctuated from 1.1 to 1.8 MgC ha-1 season-1 in net C uptake. Annual NEE was strongly affected by winter Re, which represented between 33% and 45% of the annual value regardless of of the large drop in both air and soil temperature. Parameters from the light response curve (optimum NEE, NEEopt and quantum yield, α) showed a seasonal and interannual variability and were different between the most and least degraded sites in the footprint, which affected the magnitude of the carbon cycle and may have implications for landscape C balance in sub-arctic tundra.

  10. Distribution and air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide on the Chukchi Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Repina, I. A.; Dudarev, O. V.; Charkin, A. N.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of long-term studies of the dynamics of carbonate parameters and air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes on the Chukchi Sea shelf during the summer. As a result of the interaction of physical and biological factors, the surface waters on the west of Chukchi Sea were undersaturated with carbon dioxide when compared with atmospheric air; the partial pressure of CO2 varied in the range from 134 to 359 μatm. The average value of CO2 flux in the Chukchi Sea per unit area varied in the range from-2.4 to-22.0 mmol /(m2 day), which is significantly higher than the average value of CO2 flux in the World Ocean. It has been estimated that the minimal mass of C absorbed by the surface of Chukchi Sea from the atmosphere during ice-free season is 13 × 1012 g; a great part of this carbon is transported to the deeper layers of sea and isolated from the atmosphere for a long period of time. The studies of the carbonate system of the Chukchi Sea, especially of its western part, will provide some new data on the fluxes of carbon dioxide in the Arctic Ocean and their changes. Our analysis can be used for an interpretation of the satellite assessment of CO2 fluxes and dissolved CO2 distribution in the upper layers of the ocean.

  11. Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, R.A.

    2001-02-22

    The database documented in this numeric data package, a revision to a database originally published by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) in 1995, consists of annual estimates, from 1850 through 1990, of the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere resulting from deliberate changes in land cover and land use, especially forest clearing for agriculture and the harvest of wood for wood products or energy. The data are provided on a year-by-year basis for nine regions (North America, South and Central America, Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, Tropical Africa, the Former Soviet Union, China, South and Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Developed Region) and the globe. Some data begin earlier than 1850 (e.g., for six regions, areas of different ecosystems are provided for the year 1700) or extend beyond 1990 (e.g., fuelwood harvest in South and Southeast Asia, by forest type, is provided through 1995). The global net flux during the period 1850 to 1990 was 124 Pg of carbon (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams). During this period, the greatest regional flux was from South and Southeast Asia (39 Pg of carbon), while the smallest regional flux was from North Africa and the Middle East (3 Pg of carbon). For the year 1990, the global total net flux was estimated to be 2.1 Pg of carbon.

  12. Land-Use Influences Carbon Fluxes in Northern Kazakhstan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An understanding of carbon cycling is important to maintain sustainable rangeland ecosystems. Rangelands in the western U.S. are similar to those in Central Asia. We used a combination of meteorological and computer modeling techniques to quantitatively assess carbon loss and gain for four major l...

  13. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of different ecosystems in Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information on exchange of energy, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) for major terrestrial ecosystems is vital to quantify carbon and water balances on a large-scale. It is also necessary to develop, test, and improve crop models and satellite-based production efficiency and evapotranspira...

  14. Subduction fluxes of water, carbon dioxide, chlorine, and potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrard, Richard D.

    2003-05-01

    The alteration of upper oceanic crust entails growth of hydrous minerals and loss of macroporosity, with associated large-scale fluxes of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O between seawater and crust. This age-dependent alteration can be quantified by combining a conceptual alteration model with observed age-dependent changes in crustal geophysical properties at DSDP/ODP sites, permitting estimation of crustal concentrations of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O, given crustal age. Surprisingly, low-temperature alteration causes no net change in total water; pore water loss is nearly identical to bound water gain. Net change in total crustal K2O is also smaller than expected; the obvious low-temperature enrichment is partly offset by earlier high-temperature depletion, and most crustal K2O is primary rather than secondary. I calculate crustal concentrations of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O for 41 modern subduction zones, thereby determining their modern mass fluxes both for individual subduction zones and globally. This data set is complemented by published flux determinations for subducting sediments at 26 of these subduction zones. Global mass fluxes among oceans, oceanic crust, continental crust, and mantle are calculated for H2O, Cl-, and K2O. Except for the present major imbalance between sedimentation and sediment subduction, most fluxes appear to be at or near steady state. I estimate that half to two thirds of subducted crustal water is later refluxed at the prism toe; most of the remaining water escapes at subarc depths, triggering partial melting. The flux of subducted volatiles, however, does not appear to correlate with either rate of arc magma generation or magnitude of interplate earthquakes.

  15. Subduction Fluxes of Water, Carbon Dioxide, Chlorine, and Potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrard, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    The alteration of upper oceanic crust entails growth of hydrous minerals and loss of macroporosity, with associated large-scale fluxes of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O between seawater and crust. This age-dependent alteration can be quantified by combining a conceptual alteration model with observed age-dependent changes in crustal geophysical properties at DSDP/ODP sites, permitting estimation of crustal concentrations of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O, given crustal age. Surprisingly, low-temperature alteration causes no net change in total water; pore water loss is nearly identical to H2O+ gain. The overall alteration effect on total crustal content of K2O is also smaller than expected; the obvious low-temperature enrichment is partly offset by earlier high-temperature depletion, and most crustal K2O is primary rather than secondary. We calculate crustal concentrations of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O for 41 modern subduction zones, thereby determining their modern mass fluxes both for individual subduction zones and globally. This dataset is complemented by published flux determinations for subducting sediments at 26 of these subduction zones. Global mass fluxes among oceans, oceanic crust, continental crust, and mantle are calculated for H2O, Cl-, and K2O. Except for the present major imbalance between sedimentation and sediment subduction, most fluxes appear to be at or near steady-state. We estimate that half to two thirds of subducted crustal water is later refluxed at the prism toe; most of the remaining water escapes at subarc depths, triggering partial melting. The flux of subducted volatiles, however, does not appear to correlate with either rate of arc magma generation or magnitude of interplate earthquakes.

  16. Biophysical controls on organic carbon fluxes in fluvial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battin, Tom J.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Findlay, Stuart; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Marti, Eugenia; Packman, Aaron I.; Newbold, J. Denis; Sabater, Francesc

    2008-02-01

    Metabolism of terrestrial organic carbon in freshwater ecosystems is responsible for a large amount of carbon dioxide outgassing to the atmosphere, in contradiction to the conventional wisdom that terrestrial organic carbon is recalcitrant and contributes little to the support of aquatic metabolism. Here, we combine recent findings from geophysics, microbial ecology and organic geochemistry to show geophysical opportunity and microbial capacity to enhance the net heterotrophy in streams, rivers and estuaries. We identify hydrological storage and retention zones that extend the residence time of organic carbon during downstream transport as geophysical opportunities for microorganisms to develop as attached biofilms or suspended aggregates, and to metabolize organic carbon for energy and growth. We consider fluvial networks as meta-ecosystems to include the acclimation of microbial communities in downstream ecosystems that enable them to exploit energy that escapes from upstream ecosystems, thereby increasing the overall energy utilization at the network level.

  17. Seep-carbonate lamination controlled by cyclic particle flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmler, Tobias; Bayon, Germain; Wangner, David; Enzmann, Frieder; Peckmann, Jörn; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-11-01

    Authigenic carbonate build-ups develop at seafloor methane-seeps, where microbially mediated sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane facilitates carbonate precipitation. Despite being valuable recorders of past methane seepage events, their role as archives of atmospheric processes has not been examined. Here we show that cyclic sedimentation pulses related to the Indian monsoon in concert with authigenic precipitation of methane-derived aragonite gave rise to a well-laminated carbonate build-up within the oxygen minimum zone off Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). U–Th dating indicates that the build-up grew during past ~1,130 years, creating an exceptional high-resolution archive of the Indian monsoon system. Monsoon-controlled formation of seep-carbonates extends the known environmental processes recorded by seep-carbonates, revealing a new relationship between atmospheric and seafloor processes.

  18. Seep-carbonate lamination controlled by cyclic particle flux

    PubMed Central

    Himmler, Tobias; Bayon, Germain; Wangner, David; Enzmann, Frieder; Peckmann, Jörn; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Authigenic carbonate build-ups develop at seafloor methane-seeps, where microbially mediated sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane facilitates carbonate precipitation. Despite being valuable recorders of past methane seepage events, their role as archives of atmospheric processes has not been examined. Here we show that cyclic sedimentation pulses related to the Indian monsoon in concert with authigenic precipitation of methane-derived aragonite gave rise to a well-laminated carbonate build-up within the oxygen minimum zone off Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). U–Th dating indicates that the build-up grew during past ~1,130 years, creating an exceptional high-resolution archive of the Indian monsoon system. Monsoon-controlled formation of seep-carbonates extends the known environmental processes recorded by seep-carbonates, revealing a new relationship between atmospheric and seafloor processes. PMID:27876764

  19. Seep-carbonate lamination controlled by cyclic particle flux.

    PubMed

    Himmler, Tobias; Bayon, Germain; Wangner, David; Enzmann, Frieder; Peckmann, Jörn; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-11-23

    Authigenic carbonate build-ups develop at seafloor methane-seeps, where microbially mediated sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane facilitates carbonate precipitation. Despite being valuable recorders of past methane seepage events, their role as archives of atmospheric processes has not been examined. Here we show that cyclic sedimentation pulses related to the Indian monsoon in concert with authigenic precipitation of methane-derived aragonite gave rise to a well-laminated carbonate build-up within the oxygen minimum zone off Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). U-Th dating indicates that the build-up grew during past ~1,130 years, creating an exceptional high-resolution archive of the Indian monsoon system. Monsoon-controlled formation of seep-carbonates extends the known environmental processes recorded by seep-carbonates, revealing a new relationship between atmospheric and seafloor processes.

  20. Carbon stocks and fluxes in fire disturbed landscapes of Colorado, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. T.; Wolf, K.; Whittinghill, K. A.; Gilbertson, A.; Buma, B.

    2016-12-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, ecological disturbances can strongly regulate material and energy flows. This often results from the reduction in biomass and associated ecological relationships and physiological processes. Researchers have noted an increase in the size and severity of disturbances, such as wildfire, in recent decades. While there is significant research examining post-disturbance carbon stocks and recovery, there is less known about the fate and quality of post-disturbance carbon pools. In an effort to understand the recovery and resilience of forest carbon stocks to severe wildfire we examined the carbon and black carbon (pyrogenic) stocks (e.g. above ground biomass, coarse woody debris, charcoal, soils) and export fluxes (stream export, soil leachate, soil respiration) within the burn scars and nearby reference sites of five 2002 Colorado fires. The fires encompass large precipitation and ecosystem gradients (relatively dry montane Ponderosa forests to relatively wet subalpine Lodgepole forests), allowing us to control for various state factors in our analyses. With the exception of the Hinman fire (subalpine, Lodgepole dominated), there is little forest regrowth more than a decade later, with only a few saplings found in burned plots; instead forbes and grasses dominate. Fire also reduces soil C stocks (by 16 to 68%) across all sites. In addition, with the shifts in vegetation we hypothesize that there will be corresponding changes in soil organic matter (SOM), altering the residence time of C in soil. Soil incubation experiments reveal that organic matter bioavailability is significantly greater in three of the burned sites, suggesting that the new sources of SOM are more bioavailable. Stable isotopic analyses of SOM and the evolved CO2 from the incubation studies will allow us to test this hypothesis. Fire also affects the amount and nature of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM, respectively) leaving the watershed. For example

  1. Environmental controls on carbon fluxes over three grassland ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Zheng, Z.; Yu, G.; Hu, Z.; Sun, X.; Shi, P.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, X.

    2009-08-01

    This study compared the CO2 fluxes over three grassland ecosystems in China, including a temperate steppe (TS) in Inner Mongolia, an alpine shrub-meadow (ASM) in Qinghai and an alpine meadow-steppe (AMS) in Tibet. The measurements were made in 2004 and 2005 using the eddy covariance technique. Objectives were to document the different seasonality of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and its components, gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco), and to examine how environmental factors affect carbon exchange in the three grassland ecosystems. It was warmer in 2005 than in 2004, especially during the growing season (from May to September), across the three sites. The annual precipitation at TS in 2004 (364.4 mm) was close the annual average (350 mm), whereas the precipitation at TS in 2005 (153.3 mm) was significantly below the average. Both GEP and Reco of the temperate steppe in 2005 were significantly reduced by the extreme drought stress, resulting in net carbon release during almost the whole growing season. The magnitude of CO2 fluxes (daily and annual sums) was largest for the alpine shrub-meadow and smallest for the alpine meadow-steppe. The seasonal trends of GEP, Reco and NEE of the alpine shrub-meadow tracked closely with the variation in air temperature, while the seasonality of GEP, Reco and NEE of the temperate steppe and the alpine meadow-steppe was more related to the variation in soil moisture. The alpine shrub-meadow was a local carbon sink over the two years. The temperate steppe and alpine meadow-steppe were acting as net carbon source, with more carbon loss to the atmosphere in warmer and drier year of 2005. Annual precipitation was the primary climate driver for the difference in annual GEP and NEE among the three sites and between the two years. We also found the annual GEP and NEE depended significantly on the growing season length, which was mainly a result of the timing and amount of precipitation for the

  2. Carbon flux and C/Nb ratios in the mantle in ridge context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, F.; Cartigny, P.; Javoy, M.

    2004-12-01

    The hypothesis that undegassed MORB would display constant CO2/Nb-ratios of \\sim 239 (ppm/ppm) obtained by Saal et al (2002) is not supported by available data. Incorrectely quoted by these authors, the MORB popping rock shows a CO2/Nb-ratio higher by a factor of \\sim 3 (Javoy and Pineau, 1991) than the ratio measured among their carbon under-saturated glass inclusions from the Siquieros transform fault. In order to better constrain the variability of CO2/Nb-ratios among MORB, we have analysed and compiled volatile, trace and major element data from 14 \\degN and 34 \\degN basaltic glasses on the Mid Atlantic Ridge. The sample set includes N-, E-MORB and alkali basalts. Carbon (and water for alkali basalts) have been affected by degassing and initial carbon and water concentrations were reconstructed using methods described previously (e.g. Pineau et al. 2004). The variations in \\delta D-values (-88 to -55 per mil) with water contents (1300 to 7700 ppm) show consistent variations with published data of worldwide mid-ocean ridges. The samples define rather constant regional ratios from 349 to 589 and from 524 to 1065 at 14 \\deg and 34 \\degN respectively. CO2/Nb-ratios roughly correlate positively with enrichment indexes such K/Ti. It is worth noting that the little variable CO2/Nb-ratios over a large range of CO2, up to 44,000 ppm, (i.e. 12,000 ppmC) and Nb-contents, up to 41.3 ppm, confirm the accuracy of degassing corrections. From the broad inverse correlation between CO2/Nb and TiO2/H20 and the mean TiO2/H20-ratio of worldwide MORB with 8 \\pm1weight percent MgO, a MORB CO2/Nb-ratio from 500 to 950 seems more appropriate than the value quoted by Saal et al. (2002). This corresponds to carbon flux from 4.0 to 7.6\\times1012 mol/y. However, in the light of the regional dependency of CO2/Nb-ratios it is unclear yet whether it represents the best tool to constrain mantle carbon flux or should be more likely used to distinguish different mantle domains.

  3. Carbon fluxes resulting from land-use changes in the Tamaulipan thornscrub of northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Návar-Chaidez, Jose de Jesus

    2008-09-30

    Information on carbon stock and flux resulting from land-use changes in subtropical, semi-arid ecosystems are important to understand global carbon flux, yet little data is available. In the Tamaulipan thornscrub forests of northeastern Mexico, biomass components of standing vegetation were estimated from 56 quadrats (200 m2 each). Regional land-use changes and present forest cover, as well as estimates of soil organic carbon from chronosequences, were used to predict carbon stocks and fluxes in this ecosystem.For the period of 1980-1996, the Tamaulipan thornscrub is presenting an annual deforestation rate of 2.27% indicating that approximately 600 km2 of this plant community are lost every year and that 60% of the original Mexican Tamaulipan thornscrub vegetation has been lost since the 1950's. On the other hand, intensive agriculture, including introduced grasslands increased (4,000 km2) from 32 to 42% of the total studied area, largely at the expense of the Tamaulipan thornscrub forests. Land-use changes from Tamaulipan thornscrub forest to agriculture contribute 2.2 Tg to current annual carbon emissions and standing biomass averages 0.24 +/- 0.06 Tg, root biomass averages 0.17 +/- 0.03 Tg, and soil organic carbon averages 1.80 +/- 0.27 Tg. Land-use changes from 1950 to 2000 accounted for Carbon emissions of the order of 180.1 Tg. Projected land-use changes will likely contribute to an additional carbon flux of 98.0 Tg by the year 2100. Practices to conserve sequester, and transfer carbon stocks in semi-arid ecosystems are discussed as a means to reduce carbon flux from deforestation practices.

  4. Carbon fluxes resulting from land-use changes in the Tamaulipan thornscrub of northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Návar-Chaidez, Jose de Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Information on carbon stock and flux resulting from land-use changes in subtropical, semi-arid ecosystems are important to understand global carbon flux, yet little data is available. In the Tamaulipan thornscrub forests of northeastern Mexico, biomass components of standing vegetation were estimated from 56 quadrats (200 m2 each). Regional land-use changes and present forest cover, as well as estimates of soil organic carbon from chronosequences, were used to predict carbon stocks and fluxes in this ecosystem. For the period of 1980–1996, the Tamaulipan thornscrub is presenting an annual deforestation rate of 2.27% indicating that approximately 600 km2 of this plant community are lost every year and that 60% of the original Mexican Tamaulipan thornscrub vegetation has been lost since the 1950's. On the other hand, intensive agriculture, including introduced grasslands increased (4,000 km2) from 32 to 42% of the total studied area, largely at the expense of the Tamaulipan thornscrub forests. Land-use changes from Tamaulipan thornscrub forest to agriculture contribute 2.2 Tg to current annual carbon emissions and standing biomass averages 0.24 ± 0.06 Tg, root biomass averages 0.17 ± 0.03 Tg, and soil organic carbon averages 1.80 ± 0.27 Tg. Land-use changes from 1950 to 2000 accounted for Carbon emissions of the order of 180.1 Tg. Projected land-use changes will likely contribute to an additional carbon flux of 98.0 Tg by the year 2100. Practices to conserve sequester, and transfer carbon stocks in semi-arid ecosystems are discussed as a means to reduce carbon flux from deforestation practices. PMID:18826617

  5. Export of dissolved organic carbon from an upland peatland during storm events: Implications for flux estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Joanna M.; Lane, Stuart N.; Chapman, Pippa J.; Adamson, John K.

    2007-12-01

    SummaryMost of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exported from catchments is transported during storm events. Accurate assessments of DOC fluxes are essential to understand long-term trends in the transport of DOC from terrestrial to aquatic systems, and also the loss of carbon from peatlands to determine changes in the source/sink status of peatland carbon stores. However, many long-term monitoring programmes collect water samples at a frequency (e.g. weekly/monthly) less than the time period of a typical storm event (typically <1-2 days). As widespread observations in catchments dominated by organo-mineral soils have shown that both concentration and flux of DOC increases during storm events, lower frequency monitoring could result in substantial underestimation of DOC flux as the most dynamic periods of transport are missed. However, our intensive monitoring study in a UK upland peatland catchment showed a contrasting response to these previous studies. Our results showed that (i) DOC concentrations decreased during autumn storm events and showed a poor relationship with flow during other seasons; and that (ii) this decrease in concentrations during autumn storms caused DOC flux estimates based on weekly monitoring data to be over-estimated, rather than under-estimated, because of over rather than under estimation of the flow-weighted mean concentration used in flux calculations. However, as DOC flux is ultimately controlled by discharge volume, and therefore rainfall, and the magnitude of change in discharge was greater than the magnitude of decline in concentrations, DOC flux increased during individual storm events. The implications for long-term DOC trends are therefore contradictory, as increased rainfall could increase flux but cause an overall decrease in DOC concentrations from peatland streams. Care needs to be taken when interpreting long-term trends in DOC flux rather than concentration; as flux is calculated from discharge estimates, and discharge

  6. Impacts of ontogenetically migrating copepods on downward carbon flux in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobari, Toru; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Ueda, Ai; Tsuda, Atsushi; Silver, Mary W.; Kitamura, Minoru

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the impacts of ontogenetically (seasonally) migrating copepods on carbon transport to the mesopelagic zone, we investigated depth distribution, population structure, and feeding activity of the ontogentic copepod community in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean from day-night pairs of zooplankton samples down to 1000 m during the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) program. Over the 31 July-16 August 2005 study period, the biomass of Neocalanus cristatus and Neocalanus plumchrus predominated in the near surface waters, while Neocalanus flemingeri was already dormant at depth. We observed a strong diel migration for Metridia pacifica, and a seasonal downward migration for Eucalanus bungii. Based on gut pigment analysis, ingestion rate of the copepod community was 214-375 mg C m -2 day -1, which was equal to 26-37% of the concurrent primary production. However, comparison of grazing estimated from gut pigments to calculated carbon demand of the copepod community indicates that phytoplankton comprised 37-59% of the ingested carbon. Thus, the copepod community appears to have also relied on detritus and microzooplankton for their nutrition, likely because primary production during this time was dominated by picophytoplankton too small to be grazed by these large copepods. Fecal pellet flux by the copepod community was estimated to account for 141-223% of the sedimentary particulate organic carbon (POC) flux at 150 m, suggesting considerable fragmentation and consumption of pellets in the upper layers. Fecal pellets alone were adequate to meet copepod carbon demand in the surface 0-150 m layer. Active carbon flux by diel migration of M. pacifica (respiration, egestion, and mortality) was 4-17 mg C m -2 day -1, equal to 6-44% of sedimentary POC flux at 150 m. Active carbon flux by N. flemingeri ontogenetic migration (i.e., respiration and mortality at depth) contributed 246 mg C m -2 year -1, equal to 9% of sedimentary POC flux at 1000 m. The

  7. Carbon allocation and carbon isotope fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, N.; Gessler, A.; Kayler, Z.; Keel, S. G.; Badeck, F.; Barthel, M.; Boeckx, P.; Buchmann, N.; Brugnoli, E.; Esperschütz, J.; Gavrichkova, O.; Ghashghaie, J.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Keitel, C.; Knohl, A.; Kuptz, D.; Palacio, S.; Salmon, Y.; Uchida, Y.; Bahn, M.

    2011-04-01

    The terrestrial carbon (C) cycle has received increasing interest over the past few decades, however, there is still a lack of understanding of the fate of newly assimilated C allocated within plants and to the soil, stored within ecosystems and lost to the atmosphere. Stable carbon isotope studies can give novel insights into these issues. In this review we provide an overview of an emerging picture of plant-soil-atmosphere C fluxes, as based on C isotope studies, and identify processes determining related C isotope signatures. The first part of the review focuses on isotopic fractionation processes within plants during and after photosynthesis. The second major part elaborates on plant-internal and plant-rhizosphere C allocation patterns at different time scales (diel, seasonal, interannual), including the speed of C transfer and time lags in the coupling of assimilation and respiration, as well as the magnitude and controls of plant-soil C allocation and respiratory fluxes. Plant responses to changing environmental conditions, the functional relationship between the physiological and phenological status of plants and C transfer, and interactions between C, water and nutrient dynamics are discussed. The role of the C counterflow from the rhizosphere to the aboveground parts of the plants, e.g. via CO2 dissolved in the xylem water or as xylem-transported sugars, is highlighted. The third part is centered around belowground C turnover, focusing especially on above- and belowground litter inputs, soil organic matter formation and turnover, production and loss of dissolved organic C, soil respiration and CO2 fixation by soil microbes. Furthermore, plant controls on microbial communities and activity via exudates and litter production as well as microbial community effects on C mineralization are reviewed. The last part of the paper is dedicated to physical interactions between soil CO2 and the soil matrix, such as CO2 diffusion and dissolution processes within the

  8. Interactive Effects of Water level and Temperature on Tundra Carbon Flux Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, P. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    Arctic regions store important amounts of soil carbon in an unstable state because of saturated soils and low temperatures. Temperature and soil water may also strongly influence the productivity of tundra ecosystems. As a result, changes in water availability and temperature could have significant effects on the carbon balance. However, as the climate changes, the direction and the magnitude of changes in the carbon balance in response to these potentially interacting physical factors are uncertain. To evaluate the effects of water regime, we have initiated a large hydrological manipulation at Barrow, Alaska where we have maintained flooded, drained, and intermediate water levels in a drained thaw lake basin. To test the interactive effects of temperature and water level, we passively increased the temperature of the surface using open top chambers (OTCs) in each of the three water-level treatments. To quantify the effects of these treatments on the ecosystem carbon balance, we measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its components, ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross primary production (GPP) using static chamber methods. Growing seasons differed strongly between 2007 and 2008, the being former hotter, brighter and drier. Interannual differences in water availability revealed an important reduction in ER for both OTC and non- temperature treated plots as a consequence of increased water table in 2008. The effect of increased water table on GPP was not as strong as the effect on ER. However, in areas where most the leaf area was submerged, GPP was strongly reduced. As a result, net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was greater (stronger sink activity) in 2008 than in 2007 for the non-temperature treated plots. The OTCs enhanced the effects of lower water availability on the flux components. During the dry year (2007) both the ER and GPP were positively affected with the stronger effect on GPP. As result the NEE was higher in the OTCs. In 2008, the combination of higher

  9. Simulating the effects of fire disturbance and vegetation recovery on boreal ecosystem carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; Jones, L. A.; Zhao, M.

    2011-12-01

    Fire related disturbance and subsequent vegetation recovery has a major influence on carbon storage and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes in boreal ecosystems. We applied a synthetic approach combining tower eddy covariance flux measurements, satellite remote sensing and model reanalysis surface meteorology within a terrestrial carbon model framework to estimate fire disturbance and recovery effects on boreal ecosystem carbon fluxes including gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE). A disturbance index based on MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI was found to coincide with vegetation recovery status inferred from tower chronosequence sites. An empirical algorithm was developed to track ecosystem recovery status based on the disturbance index and used to nudge modeled net primary production (NPP) and surface soil organic carbon stocks from baseline steady-state conditions. The simulations were conducted using a satellite based terrestrial carbon flux model driven by MODIS NDVI and MERRA reanalysis daily surface meteorology inputs. The MODIS (MCD45) burned area product was then applied for mapping recent (post 2000) regional disturbance history, and used with the disturbance index to define vegetation disturbance and recovery status. The model was then applied to estimate regional patterns and temporal changes in terrestrial carbon fluxes across the entire northern boreal forest and tundra domain. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the relative importance of fire disturbance and recovery on regional carbon fluxes relative to assumed steady-state conditions. The explicit representation of disturbance and recovery effects produces more accurate NEE predictions than the baseline steady-state simulations and reduces uncertainty regarding the purported missing carbon sink in the high latitudes.

  10. The effect of management on forest carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noormets, A.; McNulty, D.; Sun, G.; domec, J.; Gavazi, M.; King, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of land use is often considered a primary factor leading to accelerated mineralization of soil carbon. This is particularly evident in agricultural lands, but is also suggested under less intensive management practices, including commercial forestry. If true, such an effect would offset efforts to manage ecosystems for carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Yet, recent studies of carbon cycling in managed forests have not found unequivocal evidence of greater respiratory activity compared to unmanaged ones, which is a major process determining carbon balance of ecosystems. In the current study, we evaluated both direct and indirect effects of management on respiratory carbon emissions. The preliminary results indicate minimal systematic effect on respiration rates, whereas the increased frequency of harvest disturbances resulting in more frequent post-disturbance spikes in heterotrophic respiration leads to greater net loss of soil C over time. In contrast, the higher productivity of managed forests results in greater mean net carbon uptake, which partially offsets the respiration losses. The cumulative long-term effect of forest management on ecosystem carbon balance depends on the net balance between productivity and respiration processes, and likely will be more responsive to the fate of harvested biomass than the direct and indirect effects on respiratory dynamics.

  11. Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Zeri, Marcelo; Sá, Leonardo D A; Manzi, Antônio O; Araújo, Alessandro C; Aguiar, Renata G; von Randow, Celso; Sampaio, Gilvan; Cardoso, Fernando L; Nobre, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

  12. Variability of Carbon and Water Fluxes Following Climate Extremes over a Tropical Forest in Southwestern Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Zeri, Marcelo; Sá, Leonardo D. A.; Manzi, Antônio O.; Araújo, Alessandro C.; Aguiar, Renata G.; von Randow, Celso; Sampaio, Gilvan; Cardoso, Fernando L.; Nobre, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha−1 year−1, but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change. PMID:24558378

  13. Effects of Environmental Change on Carbon and Nitrogen Fluxes from a Midwestern Agricultural Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riha, K. M.; Michalski, G.; Filley, T. R.; Dalzell, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change is expected to change precipitation patterns, which would alter the runoff of excess carbon and nitrogen into the surrounding waterways. If agricultural areas experience an increase in precipitation, then coastal areas downstream from these areas could expect to develop hypoxic conditions that are more widespread, continual, and severe causing loss of biodiversity in the ocean and economical loss to fishing industries. In the Midwest, these waterways feed into local drinking water reservoirs increasing the nitrate concentration and could easily surpass the EPA maximum nitrate concentration of 10ppm. In order to evaluate the damage to the environment due to excess nitrogen, and the possible gains by its mitigation, requires a thorough assessment of the environmental controls on nitrogen and carbon fluxes. To understand the extent of nitrogen and carbon runoff from agricultural ecosystems we are studying an 850 km2 Midwestern United States agricultural watershed located in west central Indiana. Previous studies by Dalzell et. al. examined organic carbon export from this watershed as a function of stream flow and precipitation events and observed shifts in the amount and type of carbon with season. We are interested in the nitrate concentration and how it couples with the carbon fluxes. Anions (Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) were analyzed for the samples that were collected in 2002 and 2003. A correlation was seen between storm events, fertilizer application, and the nitrate runoff; with the highest nitrate concentration seen in April 2002 with a storm event. Recent fertilizer application is believed to be the cause. Cations were analyzed (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+) to qualitatively determine a relationship between DOC and nitrate and determine possible flowpaths. Relationships were seen with storm events and cation fluxes, with highest concentrations seen in April 2002 during a storm event and a dilution peak seen in May 2002 which is characteristic of

  14. Carbon stocks and fluxes in managed peatlands in northern Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arn Teh, Yit; Manning, Frances; Cook, Sarah; Zin Zawawi, Norliyana; Sii, Longwin; Hill, Timothy; Page, Susan; Whelan, Mick; Evans, Chris; Gauci, Vincent; Chocholek, Melanie; Khoon Kho, Lip

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is the largest agricultural crop in the tropics and accounts for 13 % of current tropical land area. Patterns of land-atmosphere exchange from oil palm ecosystems therefore have potentially important implications for regional and global C budgets due to the large scale of land conversion. This is particularly true for oil palm plantations on peat because of the large C stocks held by tropical peat soils that are potential sensitivity to human disturbance. Here we report preliminary findings on C stocks and fluxes from a long-term, multi-scale project in Sarawak, Malaysia that aims to quantify the impacts of oil palm conversion on C and greenhouse gas fluxes from oil palm recently established on peat. Land-atmosphere fluxes were determined using a combination of top-down and bottom-up methods (eddy covariance, canopy/stem and soil flux measurements, net primary productivity). Fluvial fluxes were determined by quantifying rates of dissolved and particulate organic C export. Ecosystem C dynamics were determined using the intensive C plot method, which quantified all major C stocks and fluxes, including plant and soil stocks, leaf litterfall, aboveground biomass production, root production, stem/canopy respiration, root-rhizosphere respiration, and heterotrophic soil respiration. Preliminary analysis indicates that vegetative aboveground biomass in these 7 year old plantations was 8.9-11.9 Mg C ha-1, or approximately one-quarter of adjacent secondary forest. Belowground biomass was 5.6-6.5 Mg C ha-1; on par with secondary forests. Soil C stocks in the 0-30 cm depth was 233.1-240.8 Mg C ha-1, or 32-36% greater than soil C stocks in secondary forests at the same depth (176.8 Mg C ha-1). Estimates of vegetative aboveground and belowground net primary productivity were 1.3-1.7 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0.8-0.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Fruit brunch production was approximately 67 Mg C ha-1over 7 yearsor 9.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Total soil respiration rates were 18 Mg C ha

  15. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    Treesearch

    Jakob Zscheischler; Simone Fatichi; Sebastian Wolf; Peter D. Blanken; Gil Bohrer; Ken Clark; Ankur R. Desai; David Hollinger; Trevor Keenan; Kimberly A. Novick; Sonia I. Seneviratne

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their...

  16. Estimation of net ecosystem carbon exchange for the conterminous United States by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Treesearch

    Jingfeng Xiao; Qianlai Zhuang; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Beverly E. Law; Andrew D. Richardson; Jiquan Chen; Ram Oren; Gegory Starr; Asko Noormets; Siyan Ma; Sashi B. Verma; Sonia Wharton; Steven C. Wofsy; Paul V. Bolstad; Sean P. Burns; David R. Cook; Peter S. Curtis; Bert G. Drake; Matthias Falk; MArc L. Fischer; David R. Foster; Lianhong Gu; Julian L. Hadley; David Y. Hollinger; Gabriel G. Katul; Marcy Litvak; Timothy Martin; Roser Matamala; Steve McNulty; Tilden P. Meyers; Russell K. Monson; J. William Munger; Walter C. Oechel; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Hans Peter Schmid; Russell L. Scott; Ge Sun; Andrew E. Suyker; Margaret S. Torn

    2008-01-01

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents,...

  17. Anthropogenically enhanced fluxes of water and carbon from the Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Peter A; Oh, Neung-Hwan; Turner, R Eugene; Broussard, Whitney

    2008-01-24

    The water and dissolved inorganic carbon exported by rivers are important net fluxes that connect terrestrial and oceanic water and carbon reservoirs. For most rivers, the majority of dissolved inorganic carbon is in the form of bicarbonate. The riverine bicarbonate flux originates mainly from the dissolution of rock minerals by soil water carbon dioxide, a process called chemical weathering, which controls the buffering capacity and mineral content of receiving streams and rivers. Here we introduce an unprecedented high-temporal-resolution, 100-year data set from the Mississippi River and couple it with sub-watershed and precipitation data to reveal that the large increase in bicarbonate flux that has occurred over the past 50 years (ref. 3) is clearly anthropogenically driven. We show that the increase in bicarbonate and water fluxes is caused mainly by an increase in discharge from agricultural watersheds that has not been balanced by a rise in precipitation, which is also relevant to nutrient and pesticide fluxes to the Gulf of Mexico. These findings demonstrate that alterations in chemical weathering are relevant to improving contemporary biogeochemical budgets. Furthermore, land use change and management were arguably more important than changes in climate and plant CO2 fertilization to increases in riverine water and carbon export from this large region over the past 50 years.

  18. Benthic foraminiferal stable isotope record of organic carbon fluxes during deposition of Mediterranean sapropel S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodor, Marc; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Mackensen, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We integrated Late Glacial to Holocene stable isotope records for different epi- and endobenthic foraminifera from the Mediterranean Sea in order to document the sequence of environmental changes across formation of the most recent sapropel S1. The stable carbon isotope record of epibenthic taxa corroborates results from model experiments indicating a Late Glacial onset of deep-water stagnation with short-term reventilation events during cold intervals of the Heinrich event 1, the Younger Dryas, and the 8.2 event. The stable carbon isotope difference between epi- and shallow endobenthic foraminifera exhibits marked temporal fluctuations linked to microhabitat shifts and changes in organic matter fluxes. We generated a transfer function for organic carbon fluxes based on a correlation between the stable carbon isotope signature of modern benthic foraminifera and observed organic carbon flux rates from different Mediterranean basins. Application of this transfer function to the down-core data reveals generally elevated organic matter fluxes during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas, while values drop significantly during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and with onset of the Holocene. Our results support a scenario where average organic matter fluxes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea were not significantly enhanced during formation of sapropel S1. Instead, our data corroborate earlier results from benthic foraminiferal faunal successions and model experiments suggesting that sufficient amounts of organic matter are buried under oligotrophic conditions in an intermittently hypoxic water column.

  19. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water,carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)...

  20. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water,carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)...

  1. The response of ecosystem carbon fluxes to LAI and environmental drivers in a maize crop grown in two contrasting seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Luca; Di Tommasi, Paul; D'Urso, Guido; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    The eddy correlation technique was used to investigate the influence of biophysical variables and crop phenological phases on the behaviour of ecosystem carbon fluxes of a maize crop, in two contrasting growing seasons. In 2009, the reduced water supply during the early growing stage limited leaf area expansion, thus negatively affecting canopy photosynthesis. The variability of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration ( R eco) was mainly explained by seasonal variation of leaf area index (LAI). The seasonal variation of R eco was positively influenced by soil temperatures ( T soil) in 2008 but not in 2009. In 2008, a contribution of both autotrophic and heterotrophic components to total R eco could be hypothesized, while during 2009, autotrophic respiration is supposed to be the most important component. Crop phenological phases affected the response of ecosystem fluxes to biophysical drivers.

  2. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption: Gridded, annual estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, J.; West, T. O.; le Page, Y.; Thomson, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate globally consistent bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring and model input. We quantify agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual (starting in 1961) crop net primary productivity (NPP), harvested biomass, and human and livestock consumption and emissions, with estimates of uncertainty, by applying region- and species-specific carbon parameters to annual crop, livestock, food and trade inventory data, and generate downscaled, gridded (0.05 degree resolution) representations of these fluxes. In 2011, global crop NPP was 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg carbon (excluding root exudates), of which 2.05 ± 0.051 Pg carbon was harvested as primary crops; an additional 0.54 Pg of crop residue carbon was collected for livestock fodder. In 2011, total livestock feed intake was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg carbon, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg carbon was emitted as carbon dioxide and 0.072 ± 0.005 Pg carbon was emitted as methane. We estimate that livestock grazed 1.18 Pg carbon from non-crop lands in 2011, representing 48.5 % of global total feed intake. In 2009, the latest available data year, we estimate global human food intake (excluding seafood and orchard fruits and nuts) at 0.52 ± 0.03 Pg carbon, with an additional 0.24 ± 0.01 Pg carbon of food supply chain losses. Trends in production and consumption of agricultural carbon between 1961 and recent years, such as increasing dominance of oilcrops and decreasing percent contribution of pasturage to total livestock feed intake, are discussed, and accounting of all agricultural carbon was done for the years 2005 and 2009. Gridded at 0.05 degree resolution, these quantities represent local uptake and release of agricultural biogenic carbon (e.g. biomass production and removal, residue and manure inputs to soils) and may be used with other gridded data to help estimate current and future changes in soil organic carbon.

  3. Assessing and Synthesizing the Last Decade of Research on the Major Pools and Fluxes of the Carbon Cycle in the US and North America: An Interagency Governmental Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallaro, N.; Shrestha, G.; Stover, D. B.; Zhu, Z.; Ombres, E. H.; Deangelo, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2) is focused on US and North American carbon stocks and fluxes in managed and unmanaged systems, including relevant carbon management science perspectives and tools for supporting and informing decisions. SOCCR-2 is inspired by the US Carbon Cycle Science Plan (2011) which emphasizes global scale research on long-lived, carbon-based greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, and the major pools and fluxes of the global carbon cycle. Accordingly, the questions framing the Plan inform this report's topical roadmap, with a focus on US and North America in the global context: 1) How have natural processes and human actions affected the global carbon cycle on land, in the atmosphere, in the oceans and in the ecosystem interfaces (e.g. coastal, wetlands, urban-rural)? 2) How have socio-economic trends affected the levels of the primary carbon-containing gases, carbon dioxide and methane, in the atmosphere? 3) How have species, ecosystems, natural resources and human systems been impacted by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, the associated changes in climate, and by carbon management decisions and practices? To address these aspects, SOCCR-2 will encompass the following broad assessment framework: 1) Carbon Cycle at Scales (Global Perspective, North American Perspective, US Perspective, Regional Perspective); 2) Role of carbon in systems (Soils; Water, Oceans, Vegetation; Terrestrial-aquatic Interfaces); 3) Interactions/Disturbance/Impacts from/on the carbon cycle. 4) Carbon Management Science Perspective and Decision Support (measurements, observations and monitoring for research and policy relevant decision-support etc.). In this presentation, the Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group and the U.S. Global Change Research Program's U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program Office will highlight the scientific context, strategy, structure, team and production process of the report, which is part of the USGCRP's Sustained

  4. Carbon dioxide and water fluxes in grasslands of Inner Mongolia (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, S.; Ketzer, B.; Grünwald, T.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    2009-04-01

    Grasslands are one of the dominating vegetation types in the world. In China grasslands capture 400 Mha. This huge area has great influence on water and carbon stocks and fluxes. Water and carbon exchange influence the local concentration of greenhouse gases. In the steppe of Inner Mongolia there are problems of overgrazing, erosion and ongoing desertification. Through these processes the seasonal patterns of the water and carbon cycles are changed. Within the project MAGIM (Matter fluxes in grasslands of Inner Mongolia as influenced by stocking rate), which is a multidisciplinary project bringing together German and Chinese expertise, matter fluxes were measured with eddy covariance method. In this study the results of MAGIM concerning the carbon dioxide and water fluxes were presented. The study site is in the Xilin River catchment in the Northeast of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The region is a continental temperate semiarid zone with cold dry winters and warm humid summers. The annual mean temperature is about 2 °C and the annual precipitation is 350 mm. The EC-measurements include measurements at different steppe types (Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis) and various land use (overgrazed, winter grazed, continuously crazed, ungrazed since 1979) by one permanent and by two roving towers. From 2002 to 2004 there were continuous measurements at the ungrazed site (Leymus chinensis). The roving tower was used in the vegetation period at the other sites. From 2005 a third tower was available to measure at the overgrazed site continuously. The results show large differences in the carbon dioxide fluxes of the various land use. In general the carbon dioxide fluxes are small in Inner Mongolia. At the ungrazed site the results show negative net carbon exchange (CO2 sink). The positive net carbon exchange at overgrazed site indicates a CO2 source. The partially grazed sites switch between CO2 sink and source dependent on the environmental conditions. Lower

  5. Evaluations of carbon fluxes estimated by top-down and bottom-up approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Yokota, T.; Nasahara, K.; Matsunaga, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are two types of estimating carbon fluxes using satellite observation data, and these are referred to as top-down and bottom-up approaches. Many uncertainties are however still remain in these carbon flux estimations, because the true values of carbon flux are still unclear and estimations vary according to the type of the model (e.g. a transport model, a process based model) and input data. The CO2 fluxes in these approaches are estimated by using different satellite data such as the distribution of CO2 concentration in the top-down approach and the land cover information (e.g. leaf area, surface temperature) in the bottom-up approach. The satellite-based CO2 flux estimations with reduced uncertainty can be used efficiently for identifications of large emission area and carbon stocks of forest area. In this study, we evaluated the carbon flux estimates from two approaches by comparing with each other. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been observing atmospheric CO2 concentrations since 2009. GOSAT L4A data product is the monthly CO2 flux estimations for 64 sub-continental regions and is estimated by using GOSAT FTS SWIR L2 XCO2 data and atmospheric tracer transport model. We used GOSAT L4A CO2 flux as top-down approach estimations and net ecosystem productions (NEP) estimated by the diagnostic type biosphere model BEAMS as bottom-up approach estimations. BEAMS NEP is only natural land CO2 flux, so we used GOSAT L4A CO2 flux after subtraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and oceanic CO2 flux. We compared with two approach in temperate north-east Asia region. This region is covered by grassland and crop land (about 60 %), forest (about 20 %) and bare ground (about 20 %). The temporal variation for one year period was indicated similar trends between two approaches. Furthermore we show the comparison of CO2 flux estimations in other sub-continental regions.

  6. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from a fire chronosequence in subarctic boreal forests of Canada.

    PubMed

    Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    Forest fires are one of the most important natural disturbances in boreal forests, and their occurrence and severity are expected to increase as a result of climate warming. A combination of factors induced by fire leads to a thawing of the near-surface permafrost layer in subarctic boreal forest. Earlier studies reported that an increase in the active layer thickness results in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. We studied changes in CO2, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes in this study, and the significance of several environmental factors that influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at three forest sites that last had fires in 2012, 1990 and 1969, and we compared these to a control area that had no fire for at least 100years. The soils in our study acted as sources of CO2 and N2O and sinks for CH4. The elapsed time since the last forest fire was the only factor that significantly influenced all studied GHG fluxes. Soil temperature affected the uptake of CH4, and the N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by nitrogen and carbon content of the soil, and by the active layer depth. Results of our study confirm that the impacts of a forest fire on GHGs last for a rather long period of time in boreal forests, and are influenced by the fire induced changes in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changing Land Use from Cotton to Bioenergy Crops in the Southern Great Plains: Implications on Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, N.; Sharma, S.

    2016-12-01

    We are facing an unprecedented challenge in securing America's energy future. To address this challenge, increased biofuel crop production is needed. Although first-generation biofuels like corn ethanol are available, second-generation biofuels are gaining importance because they don't directly compete with food production. Second-generation biofuels are made from the by-products of intensive agriculture or from less-intensive agriculture on more marginal lands. The Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt can play a significant role in this effort through a change from more conventional crops (like continuous cotton) to second-generation biofuel feedstocks (biomass sorghum and perennial grasses). While we believe there would be environmental benefits associated with this change in land use, their exact nature and magnitude have not been investigated for this region. The overall goal of the proposed study was to investigate the water and carbon (C) fluxes associated with the change in agricultural land use to biofuels-dominated cropping systems in the semi-arid Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt region. Eddy covariance flux towers were established at selected producer fields (cotton, perennial grasses and biomass sorghum) in the Southern Great Plains region. The fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat between the surface and the atmosphere will be measured throughout the year. The results have demonstrated that the dynamics of C and water vapor fluxes for these agroecosystems were strongly affected by environmental variables, management factors, and crop phenology. Detailed results will be presented at the meeting.

  8. Carbon fluxes in an acid rain impacted boreal headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Anne; Hintze, Simone; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon export via inland aquatic systems is a key process in the budget of the global carbon cycle. This includes loss of carbon to the atmosphere via gas evasion from rivers or reservoirs as well as carbon fixation in freshwater sediments. Headwater streams are the first endmembers of the transition of carbon between soils, groundwater and surface waters and the atmosphere. In order to quantify these processes the experimental catchment Uhlirska (1.78 km2) located in the northern Czech Republic was studied. Dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic and particulate organic carbon (DIC, DOC, POC) concentrations and isotopes were analyzed in ground-, soil -and stream waters between 2014 and 2015. In addition, carbon dioxide degassing was quantified via a stable isotope modelling approach. Results show a discharge-weighted total carbon export of 31.99 g C m-2 yr-1 of which CO2 degassing accounts 79 %. Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of DIC, DOC, and POC (in ‰ VPDB) ranged from -26.6 to -12.4 ‰ from -29.4 to -22.7 ‰ and from -30.6 to -26.6 ‰ respectively. The mean values for DIC are -21.8 ±3.8 ‰ -23.6 ±0.9 ‰ and -19.5 ±3.0 ‰ for soil, shallow ground and surface water compartments. For DOC, these compartments have mean values of -27.1 ±0.3 ‰ -27.0 ±0.8 ‰ and -27.4 ±0.7 ‰Ṁean POC value of shallow groundwaters and surface waters are -28.8 ±0.8 ‰ and -29.3 ±0.5 ‰ respectively. These isotope ranges indicate little turnover of organic material and predominant silicate weathering. The degassing of CO2 caused an enrichment of the δ13C-DIC values of up to 6.8 ‰ between a catchment gauge and the catchment outlet over a distance of 866 m. In addition, the Uhlirska catchment has only negligible natural sources of sulphate, yet SO42- accounts for 21 % of major stream water ions. This is most likely a remainder from acid rain impacts in the area.

  9. Sensitivities of marine carbon fluxes to ocean change

    PubMed Central

    Riebesell, Ulf; Körtzinger, Arne; Oschlies, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Throughout Earth's history, the oceans have played a dominant role in the climate system through the storage and transport of heat and the exchange of water and climate-relevant gases with the atmosphere. The ocean's heat capacity is ≈1,000 times larger than that of the atmosphere, its content of reactive carbon more than 60 times larger. Through a variety of physical, chemical, and biological processes, the ocean acts as a driver of climate variability on time scales ranging from seasonal to interannual to decadal to glacial–interglacial. The same processes will also be involved in future responses of the ocean to global change. Here we assess the responses of the seawater carbonate system and of the ocean's physical and biological carbon pumps to (i) ocean warming and the associated changes in vertical mixing and overturning circulation, and (ii) ocean acidification and carbonation. Our analysis underscores that many of these responses have the potential for significant feedback to the climate system. Because several of the underlying processes are interlinked and nonlinear, the sign and magnitude of the ocean's carbon cycle feedback to climate change is yet unknown. Understanding these processes and their sensitivities to global change will be crucial to our ability to project future climate change. PMID:19995981

  10. Diurnal and seasonal variation of various carbon fluxes from an urban tower platform in Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, G. W.; Werner, N.; Hale, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    We measured carbon fluxes (CO2, CO, VOCs) from a tall lattice tower in Houston between 2007 and 2009, and 2011-2013. We present results from various analyses of (i) anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 fluxes using a quadrant segregation technique, (ii) seasonal and multi-year changes of CO fluxes as related to car traffic and industrial sources, and (iii) the accuracy of, and usefulness of a bulk flux footprint model to quantify pentane emissions form a distant source in comparison to permitted emission levels. Segregated and net anthropogenic CO2 fluxes were dominated by car traffic but industrial sources were identified as well. Emissions sank to minimal levels after hurricane Ike had passed over Houston, causing a traffic shutdown and lower population density. Segregated biogenic fluxes showed a clear seasonal variation with photosynthetic activity between April and November, and large effects of the 2011 Texas drought due to negligible irrigation in the study area. Carbon monoxide fluxes, measured via a flux gradient technique, are even stronger dominated by car traffic than CO2 fluxes and serve as a traffic tracer. Our data show a continued drop in emissions over time, seasonal changes with higher emissions during winter, and local influences due to industrial emissions. Lastly, we present the results of a tracer release study and a single point source quantification to test a bulk footprint model in this complex urban area. Known releases of volatile acetone and MEK were compered to measured fluxes using a REA-GC-FID system, and permit emissions of pentane from a foam plastics manufacturing facility were compared to measured pentane fluxes. Both comparisons reveal a surprisingly accurate performance of the footprint model within a factor of 2.

  11. Carbon and Nitrogen Provisions Alter the Metabolic Flux in Developing Soybean Embryos1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Doug K.; Young, Jamey D.

    2013-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) seeds store significant amounts of their biomass as protein, levels of which reflect the carbon and nitrogen received by the developing embryo. The relationship between carbon and nitrogen supply during filling and seed composition was examined through a series of embryo-culturing experiments. Three distinct ratios of carbon to nitrogen supply were further explored through metabolic flux analysis. Labeling experiments utilizing [U-13C5]glutamine, [U-13C4]asparagine, and [1,2-13C2]glucose were performed to assess embryo metabolism under altered feeding conditions and to create corresponding flux maps. Additionally, [U-14C12]sucrose, [U-14C6]glucose, [U-14C5]glutamine, and [U-14C4]asparagine were used to monitor differences in carbon allocation. The analyses revealed that: (1) protein concentration as a percentage of total soybean embryo biomass coincided with the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio; (2) altered nitrogen supply did not dramatically impact relative amino acid or storage protein subunit profiles; and (3) glutamine supply contributed 10% to 23% of the carbon for biomass production, including 9% to 19% of carbon to fatty acid biosynthesis and 32% to 46% of carbon to amino acids. Seed metabolism accommodated different levels of protein biosynthesis while maintaining a consistent rate of dry weight accumulation. Flux through ATP-citrate lyase, combined with malic enzyme activity, contributed significantly to acetyl-coenzyme A production. These fluxes changed with plastidic pyruvate kinase to maintain a supply of pyruvate for amino and fatty acids. The flux maps were independently validated by nitrogen balancing and highlight the robustness of primary metabolism. PMID:23314943

  12. The effect of induced anoxia and reoxygenation on benthic fluxes of organic carbon, phosphate, iron, and manganese.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Annelie C; Arias-Esquivel, Victor A

    2009-11-15

    Eutrophication causes seasonally anoxic bottom waters in coastal environments, but we lack information on effects of onset of anoxia and subsequent reoxygenation on benthic fluxes of redox-sensitive minerals and associated organic carbon (OC). As the first study, we determined the effect of inducing anoxia and subsequently restoring oxic conditions in mesocosms with surface sediment and water from a coastal environment. These concentration changes were compared with those in an oxygenated control. We determined water column concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), iron, manganese, and phosphate. Benthic fluxes of DOC, POC, and iron increased at the onset of anoxia in oxygen-depleted treatments. DOC and iron concentrations increased concomitantly towards maxima, which may have indicated reductive dissolution of FeOOH and release of associated OC. The subsequent concomitant concentration decreases may have been the result of coprecipitation of OC with iron-containing minerals. In contrast, the phosphate-concentration increase occurred several days after the onset of anoxia and the manganese concentration was not affected by the onset of anoxia. Restoring oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in DOC, POC, and phosphate concentrations, which may indicate coprecipitation of OC with phosphate-containing minerals. The high DOC fluxes at the onset of anoxia indicate that redox oscillations may be important in OC degradation. Further, our results indicate a close coupling between OC cycling and dissolution/precipitation of iron-containing minerals in intermittently anoxic sediments.

  13. Carbon Explorer Assessment of Carbon Biomass Variability and Carbon Flux Systematics in the Upper Ocean During SOFEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. K.; Wood, T. J.; Sherman, J. T.

    2002-12-01

    Three autonomous Carbon Explorers built on SIO's Orbcomm/GPS enhanced Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer were launched near 55S 172W in the "North" SOFEX experiment area in early January 2002. All Explorers at 55S were programmed to perform profiles from 1000, 300, and 300 m with surfacings, GPS position, and telemetry of profile data initiating at local 0600, 1200, and 1800 hours. The floats were programmed to 'sleep' at 100 m depth between profiles to maximize tracking of the surface layer. Each Explorer carried SeaBird T and S sensors and was additionally fitted with a WETLabs transmissometer based "POC" sensor and a Seapoint scattering meter to assess particulate matter variability. A carbon flux "index" obtained during the 100 m sleep periods was also derived from the POC sensor readings. Explorer 1177 was deployed as a control outside of Fe treated waters on Jan 11 2002 (UTC) and drifted initially to the North East at 10 cm/sec. Explorer 2104, deployed on Jan 19 2002 after the 3rd Fe infusion, advected with the patch to the NE on a course that closely paralleled that of the "control". By Feb 8 2002, the two floats had drifted with the circumpolar current nearly 200 km; Explorer 2104 had recorded a 4-fold build-up of of particles in the upper 60 m whereas records from the nearby control Explorer 1177 showed little change. Ship survey data (Revelle) indicated that Explorer 2104 was near but "in" the trailing edge of the patch. Beginning Feb 14 (several days after the 4th infusion of Fe) and ending on Feb 24 2002, Explorer 2104 data showed isolines of POC concentration beginning to deepen in waters below 60 m and a coincident loss of POC from above; the POC flux index also began to show clearly different and enhanced 'spikes' compared to that recorded by the control. The spikes either reflected temporal variability of particle export from the patch or the intermingled sampling of the "in patch" settling plume of particles and "out-of-patch" background

  14. Comparing the carbonyl sulfide (COS) method with two carbon flux based methods of flux partitioning at a freshwater marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Maseyk, K. S.; Lett, C.; Pesqueira, A.; Seibt, U.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has emerged as a novel photosynthetic tracer for partitioning net ecosystem exchange (NEE), because leaf uptake of COS is coupled to CO2 uptake due to their shared diffusional pathway and similar hydrolytic reactions. At a freshwater marsh site in southern California (AmeriFlux: US-SJ1), we measured COS and CO2 ecosystem fluxes, leaf-scale fluxes, and ground fluxes during the 2013 growing season. Here we compare the COS-based partitioning of NEE with two widely used partitioning methods that rely on carbon flux measurements only: the nighttime respiration method and light response curve method. The measurements covered two distinct periods: one with inundated surface, and the other with drained surface. In the inundated period, ground COS emissions were small ( 4 pmol m-2 s-1) and CO2 emissions were minimal (< 1 µmol m-2 s-1). After the surface water had drained, mean CO2 emission increased by almost an order of magnitude while mean COS emission increased about 20%. The two periods with different ground emissions offer suitable conditions for testing partitioning methods. We calculated canopy COS to CO2 relative uptake ratios by scaling up leaf relative uptake ratios (LRU) using canopy light profiles, and obtained GPP estimates from the net canopy COS uptake. The COS-based GPP estimates are in general consistent with those derived from the light response curve method. In contrast, the nighttime respiration method did not work due to low turbulence conditions and poor correlation between respiration and temperature. Although NEE changed between the inundated and drained periods, GPP estimates from COS measurements and light response curves remained similar, indicating NEE changes were mainly driven by changes in ground emissions consistent with our surface measurements. Our results indicate that the COS method and the light response curve method both perform well in partitioning NEE at this freshwater marsh ecosystem.

  15. Multi-decadal increases in dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity flux from the Mackenzie drainage basin to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Striegl, Robert G.; McClelland, James W.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2016-05-01

    Riverine exports of organic and inorganic carbon (OC, IC) to oceans are intricately linked to processes occurring on land. Across high latitudes, thawing permafrost, alteration of hydrologic flow paths, and changes in vegetation may all affect this flux, with subsequent implications for regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Using a unique, multi-decadal dataset of continuous discharge coupled with water chemistry measurements for the Mackenzie River, we show major increases in dissolved OC (DOC) and IC (as alkalinity) fluxes since the early 1970s, for a watershed that covers 1.8 M km2 of northwestern Canada, and provides substantial inputs of freshwater and biogeochemical constituents to the Arctic Ocean. Over a 39-year period of record, DOC flux at the Mackenzie mouth increased by 39.3% (44.5 ± 22.6 Gmol), while alkalinity flux increased by 12.5% (61.5 ± 60.1 Gmol). Isotopic analyses and substantial increases in sulfate flux indicate that increases in alkalinity are driven by accelerating sulfide oxidation, a process that liberates IC from rock and soils in the absence of CO2 consumption. Seasonal and sub-catchment trends suggest that permafrost thaw plays an important role in the observed increases in DOC and alkalinity: sub-catchment increases for all constituents are confined to northern, permafrost-affected regions, while observed increases in autumn to winter are consistent with documented landscape-scale changes that have resulted from changing thaw dynamics. This increase in DOC and sulfide-derived alkalinity represents a substantial intensification of land-to-ocean C mobilization, at a level that is significant within the regional C budget. The change we observe, for example, is similar to current and projected future rates of CO2 consumption by weathering in the Mackenzie basin.

  16. Multi-decadal increases in dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity flux from the Mackenzie drainage basin to the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Striegl, Robert G.; McClelland, James W.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2016-01-01

    Riverine exports of organic and inorganic carbon (OC, IC) to oceans are intricately linked to processes occurring on land. Across high latitudes, thawing permafrost, alteration of hydrologic flow paths, and changes in vegetation may all affect this flux, with subsequent implications for regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Using a unique, multi-decadal dataset of continuous discharge coupled with water chemistry measurements for the Mackenzie River, we show major increases in dissolved OC (DOC) and IC (as alkalinity) fluxes since the early 1970s, for a watershed that covers 1.8 M km2 of northwestern Canada, and provides substantial inputs of freshwater and biogeochemical constituents to the Arctic Ocean. Over a 39-year period of record, DOC flux at the Mackenzie mouth increased by 39.3% (44.5 ± 22.6 Gmol), while alkalinity flux increased by 12.5% (61.5 ± 60.1 Gmol). Isotopic analyses and substantial increases in sulfate flux indicate that increases in alkalinity are driven by accelerating sulfide oxidation, a process that liberates IC from rock and soils in the absence of CO2 consumption. Seasonal and sub-catchment trends suggest that permafrost thaw plays an important role in the observed increases in DOC and alkalinity: sub-catchment increases for all constituents are confined to northern, permafrost-affected regions, while observed increases in autumn to winter are consistent with documented landscape-scale changes that have resulted from changing thaw dynamics. This increase in DOC and sulfide-derived alkalinity represents a substantial intensification of land-to-ocean C mobilization, at a level that is significant within the regional C budget. The change we observe, for example, is similar to current and projected future rates of CO2 consumption by weathering in the Mackenzie basin.

  17. The European forest sector: past and future carbon budget and fluxes under different management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, Giacomo; Kurz, Werner A.; Fiorese, Giulia; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The comprehensive analysis of carbon stocks and fluxes of managed European forests is a prerequisite to quantify their role in biomass production and climate change mitigation. We applied the Carbon Budget Model (CBM) to 26 European countries, parameterized with country information on the historical forest age structure, management practices, harvest regimes and the main natural disturbances. We modeled the C stocks for the five forest pools plus harvested wood products (HWPs) and the fluxes among these pools from 2000 to 2030. The aim is to quantify, using a consistent modeling framework for all 26 countries, the main C fluxes as affected by land-use changes, natural disturbances and forest management and to assess the impact of specific harvest and afforestation scenarios after 2012 on the mitigation potential of the EU forest sector. Substitution effects and the possible impacts of climate are not included in this analysis. Results show that for the historical period from 2000 to 2012 the net primary productivity (NPP) of the forest pools at the EU level is on average equal to 639 Tg C yr-1. The losses are dominated by heterotrophic respiration (409 Tg C yr-1) and removals (110 Tg C yr-1), with direct fire emissions being only 1 Tg C yr-1, leading to a net carbon stock change (i.e., sink) of 110 Tg C yr-1. Fellings also transferred 28 Tg C yr-1 of harvest residues from biomass to dead organic matter pools. The average annual net sector exchange (NSE) of the forest system, i.e., the carbon stock changes in the forest pools including HWP, equals a sink of 122 Tg C yr-1 (i.e., about 19 % of the NPP) for the historical period, and in 2030 it reaches 126, 101 and 151 Tg C yr-1, assuming constant, increasing (+20 %) and decreasing (-20 %) scenarios, respectively, of both harvest and afforestation rates compared to the historical period. Under the constant harvest rate scenario, our findings show an incipient aging process of the forests existing in 1990: although NPP

  18. Local to regional emission sources affecting mercury fluxes to New York lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookman, Revital; Driscoll, Charles T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Effler, Steven W.

    Lake-sediment records across the Northern Hemisphere show increases in atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) over the last 150 years. Most of the previous studies have examined remote lakes affected by the global atmospheric Hg reservoir. In this study, we present Hg flux records from lakes in an urban/suburban setting of central New York affected also by local and regional emissions. Sediment cores were collected from the Otisco and Skaneateles lakes from the Finger Lakes region, Cross Lake, a hypereutrophic lake on the Seneca River, and Glacial Lake, a small seepage lake with a watershed that corresponds with the lake area. Sediment accumulation rates and dates were established by 210Pb. The pre-anthropogenic regional atmospheric Hg flux was estimated to be 3.0 μg m -2 yr -1 from Glacial Lake, which receives exclusively direct atmospheric deposition. Mercury fluxes peaked during 1971-2001, and were 3 to more than 30 times greater than pre-industrial deposition. Land use change and urbanization in the Otisco and Cross watersheds during the last century likely enhanced sediment loads and Hg fluxes to the lakes. Skaneateles and Glacial lakes have low sediment accumulation rates, and thus are excellent indicators for atmospheric Hg deposition. In these lakes, we found strong correlations with emission records for the Great Lakes region that markedly increased in the early 1900s, and peaked during WWII and in the early 1970s. Declines in modern Hg fluxes are generally evident in the core records. However, the decrease in sediment Hg flux at Glacial Lake was interrupted and has increased since the early 1990s probably due to the operation of new local emission sources. Assuming the global Hg reservoir tripled since the pre-industrial period, the contribution of local and regional emission sources to central New York lakes was estimated to about 80% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition.

  19. Estimating carbon fluxes on small rotationally grazed pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. Large-scale estimates of GPP are a necessary component of efforts to monitor the soil carbon balance of grazi...

  20. Carbon pools and flux in U.S. forest products

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey; Clark Row; Andrew J. Plantinga

    1996-01-01

    Increasing recognition that anthropogenic CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions may effect climate change has prompted research studies on global carbon (C) budgets and international agreements for action. At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, world leaders and citizens gathered and initiated the Framework...

  1. Multiple constraint analysis of regional land-surface carbon flux

    Treesearch

    D.P. Turner; M. Göckede; B.E. Law; W.D. Ritts; W.B. Cohen; Z. Yang; T. Hudiburg; R. Kennedy; M. Duane

    2011-01-01

    We applied and compared bottom-up (process model-based) and top-down (atmospheric inversion-based) scaling approaches to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of net ecosystem production (NEP) over a 2.5 × 105 km2 area (the state of Oregon) in the western United States. Both approaches indicated a carbon sink over this...

  2. Benthic Primary Production in a Saltmarsh Pond: Insights from Fluxes of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karolewski, J. S.; Stanley, R. H.; Howard, E. M.; Spivak, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are important carbon sinks that exist at continental margins and act as mediators in the exchange of nutrients and carbon between terrestrial and marine environments. Within salt marshes, 10-20% of total surface area is covered by marshtop ponds. The fractional area of marshtop ponds is predicted to increase as sea level rises. Despite their potential importance, the balance between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes within such ponds remain poorly understood. To quantify the balance of metabolic fluxes within salt marsh ponds, chemical fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured in July, 2014 in benthic flux chambers inserted into a salt marsh pond in the Plum Island Estuary Long-Term Ecosystem Research (PIE-LTER) site. Light and dark chambers were used to enable separation of rates of photosynthesis and respiration. Separate chambers were used to enclose sediment covered by primarily benthic microalgae and primarily benthic macroalgae. Net ecosystem metabolism in the microalgae was ~10 and in the macroalgae ~15 mmol C/m2/hour. Respiration rates were ~10 mmol C/m2/ hour for both microalgae and macroalgae. The resulting fluxes of net ecosystem production in the ponds will be compared with overall marsh net ecosystem flux as measured by an eddy flux tower that was located 100 meters from the pond. Additionally, concurrent measurements of DIC and DO allow quantification of the C:O ratio during respiration (i.e. respiratory quotient) in this system.

  3. Alaska ecosystem carbon fluxes estimated from MODIS satellite data inputs from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Genovese, Vanessa

    2013-11-22

    Trends in Alaska ecosystem carbon fluxes were predicted from inputs of monthly MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index time-series combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model over the past decade. CASA simulates monthly net ecosystem production (NEP) as the difference in carbon fluxes between net primary production (NPP) and soil microbial respiration (Rh). Model results showed that NEP on a unit area basis was estimated to be highest (> +10 g C m-2 yr-1) on average over the period 2000 to 2010 within the Major Land Resource Areas (MRLAs) of the Interior Brooks Range Mountains, the Arctic Foothills, and the Western Brooks Range Mountains. The lowest (as negative land C source fluxes) mean NEP fluxes were predicted for the MLRAs of the Cook Inlet Lowlands, the Ahklun Mountains, and Bristol Bay-Northern Alaska Peninsula Lowlands. High levels of interannual variation in NEP were predicted for most MLRAs of Alaska. The relatively warm and wet years of 2004 and 2007 resulted in the highest positive NEP flux totals across MLRAs in the northern and western coastal locations in the state (i.e., the Brooks Range Mountains and Arctic Foothills). The relatively cold and dry years of 2001 and 2006 were predicted with the lowest (negative) NEP flux totals for these MLRAs, and likewise across the Ahklun Mountains and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Highlands.

  4. Slow-sinking particulate organic carbon in the Atlantic Ocean: Magnitude, flux, and potential controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Chelsey A.; Henson, Stephanie A.; Cavan, Emma L.; Giering, Sarah L. C.; Yool, Andrew; Gehlen, Marion; Belcher, Anna; Riley, Jennifer S.; Smith, Helen E. K.; Sanders, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The remineralization depth of particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes exported from the surface ocean exerts a major control over atmospheric CO₂ levels. According to a long-held paradigm most of the POC exported to depth is associated with large particles. However, recent lines of evidence suggest that slow-sinking POC (SSPOC) may be an important contributor to this flux. Here we assess the circumstances under which this occurs. Our study uses samples collected using the Marine Snow Catcher throughout the Atlantic Ocean, from high latitudes to midlatitudes. We find median SSPOC concentrations of 5.5 μg L-1, 13 times smaller than suspended POC concentrations and 75 times higher than median fast-sinking POC (FSPOC) concentrations (0.07 μg L-1). Export fluxes of SSPOC generally exceed FSPOC flux, with the exception being during a spring bloom sampled in the Southern Ocean. In the Southern Ocean SSPOC fluxes often increase with depth relative to FSPOC flux, likely due to midwater fragmentation of FSPOC, a process which may contribute to shallow mineralization of POC and hence to reduced carbon storage. Biogeochemical models do not generally reproduce this behavior, meaning that they likely overestimate long-term ocean carbon storage.

  5. Alaska ecosystem carbon fluxes estimated from MODIS satellite data inputs from 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trends in Alaska ecosystem carbon fluxes were predicted from inputs of monthly MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index time-series combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model over the past decade. CASA simulates monthly net ecosystem production (NEP) as the difference in carbon fluxes between net primary production (NPP) and soil microbial respiration (Rh). Results Model results showed that NEP on a unit area basis was estimated to be highest (> +10 g C m-2 yr-1) on average over the period 2000 to 2010 within the Major Land Resource Areas (MRLAs) of the Interior Brooks Range Mountains, the Arctic Foothills, and the Western Brooks Range Mountains. The lowest (as negative land C source fluxes) mean NEP fluxes were predicted for the MLRAs of the Cook Inlet Lowlands, the Ahklun Mountains, and Bristol Bay-Northern Alaska Peninsula Lowlands. High levels of interannual variation in NEP were predicted for most MLRAs of Alaska. Conclusions The relatively warm and wet years of 2004 and 2007 resulted in the highest positive NEP flux totals across MLRAs in the northern and western coastal locations in the state (i.e., the Brooks Range Mountains and Arctic Foothills). The relatively cold and dry years of 2001 and 2006 were predicted with the lowest (negative) NEP flux totals for these MLRAs, and likewise across the Ahklun Mountains and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Highlands. PMID:24261829

  6. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Affecting Planetary Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Hörst, Sarah M.; Riemer, Sydney; Sebree, Joshua A.; Pauley, Nicholas; Vuitton, Véronique

    2017-06-01

    CO is an important component in many {{{N}}}2/{{CH}}4 atmospheres, including Titan, Triton, and Pluto, and has also been detected in the atmosphere of a number of exoplanets. Numerous experimental simulations have been carried out in the laboratory to understand the chemistry in {{{N}}}2/{{CH}}4 atmospheres, but very few simulations have included CO in the initial gas mixtures. The effect of CO on the chemistry occurring in these atmospheres is still poorly understood. We have investigated the effect of CO on both gas and solid phase chemistry in a series of planetary atmosphere simulation experiments using gas mixtures of CO, {{CH}}4, and {{{N}}}2 with a range of CO mixing ratios from 0.05% to 5% at low temperature (˜100 K). We find that CO affects the gas phase chemistry, the density, and the composition of the solids. Specifically, with the increase of CO in the initial gases, there is less {{{H}}}2 but more {{{H}}}2{{O}}, HCN, {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}5{{N}}/{HCNO}, and {{CO}}2 produced in the gas phase, while the density, oxygen content, and degree of unsaturation of the solids increase. The results indicate that CO has an important impact on the chemistry occurring in our experiments and accordingly in planetary atmospheres.

  8. Inorganic carbon fluxes across the vadose zone of planted and unplanted soil mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaysen, E. M.; Jacques, D.; Jessen, S.; Andersen, C. E.; Laloy, E.; Ambus, P.; Postma, D.; Jakobsen, I.

    2014-03-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils influences atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thereby climate change. The partitioning of inorganic carbon fluxes in the vadose zone between emission to the atmosphere and to the groundwater was investigated. Carbon dioxide partial pressure in the soil gas (pCO2), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured over depth and time in unplanted and planted (barley) mesocosms. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux was calculated from the pCO2, alkalinity and the water flux at the mesocosm bottom. Carbon dioxide exchange between the soil surface and the atmosphere was measured at regular intervals. The soil diffusivity was determined from soil radon-222 (222Rn) emanation rates and soil air Rn concentration profiles, and was used in conjunction with measured pCO2 gradients to calculate the soil CO2 production. Carbon dioxide fluxes were modelled using the HP1 module of the Hydrus 1-D software. The average CO2 effluxes to the atmosphere from unplanted and planted mesocosm ecosystems during 78 days of experiment were 0.1 ± 0.07 and 4.9 ± 0.07 μmol carbon (C) m-2 s-1, respectively, and largely exceeded the corresponding DIC percolation fluxes of 0.01 ± 0.004 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μmol C m-2 s-1. Post-harvest soil respiration (Rs) was only 10% of the Rs during plant growth, while the post-harvest DIC percolation flux was more than one third of the flux during growth. The Rs was controlled by production and diffusivity of CO2 in the soil. The DIC percolation flux was largely controlled by the pCO2 and the drainage flux due to low solution pH. Plant biomass and soil pCO2 were high in the mesocosms as compared to a standard field situation. Our results indicate no change of the cropland C balance under elevated atmospheric CO2 in a warmer future climate, in which plant biomass and soil pCO2 are expected to increase.

  9. Warmer Boreal Forest Organic Soil Horizons are Associated with Larger Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon than their Cooler Climate Counterparts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowering, K.; Edwards, K. A.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are characterized by large stocks of carbon associated with relatively slow decomposition and deep organic horizons. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss from organic soil horizons occurs through hydrologically-mediated leaching processes, and contributes to downstream carbon both in deeper mineral soils and also in connected aquatic systems. However, the amount of DOC that leaves organic horizons and the environmental controls on this flux are poorly understood and are likely to be affected by climate changes. We sampled zero-tension lysimeters along 3 forested sites of a boreal climate transect to estimate DOC export from organic soil horizons of mesic boreal podzols (spodosols), and to investigate the climatic drivers of this flux. The sites are part of the Newfoundland and Labrador Boreal Ecosystems Latitudinal Transect (NL-BELT) and span approximately 5°C in mean annual temperature. Lysimeters were sampled over 4 years and DOC flux was calculated for each seasonal period (summer, fall, and winter) of each year. DOC flux was greatest in the warmest site (114 mg C day-1 m-2), with the two cooler sites having lower flux rates (40 and 36 mg C day-1 m-2 in the intermediate and coolest sites respectively). Seasonal variation was most pronounced in the warmest site where more DOC exited the organic soil horizons during fall than during summer or winter. DOC flux was correlated with the volume of soil solution collected in the lysimeters (R2 = .46), however the larger sample volumes collected in the warmest climate do not reflect greater overall precipitation. During the 4-year period of this study, similar amounts of precipitation were recorded in all regions, and the number of days with >10mm precipitation did not differ. The greater DOC flux in the warmer climate site may be due to higher rates of both litterfall and decomposition, contributing to increased labile DOC sources in the warmer climate. Analyses of the carbon quality of these samples

  10. A comparison of six methods for measuring soil-surface carbon dioxide fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, J.M.; Kucharik, C.J.; Gower, S.T.; Baldocchi, D.D.; Crill, P.M.; Rayment, M.; Savage, K.; Striegl, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of soil-surface CO2 fluxes are important for characterizing the carbon budget of boreal forests because these fluxes can be the second largest component of the budget. Several methods for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes are available: (1) closed-dynamic-chamber systems, (2) closed-static-chamber systems, (3) open-chamber systems, and (4) eddy covariance systems. This paper presents a field comparison of six individual systems for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes with each of the four basic system types represented. A single system is used as a reference and compared to each of the other systems individually in black spruce (Picea mariana), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), or aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests. Fluxes vary from 1 to 10 ??mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Adjustment factors to bring all of the systems into agreement vary from 0.93 to 1.45 with an uncertainty of about 10-15%.

  11. Genetic algorithm based adaptive neural network ensemble and its application in predicting carbon flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xue, Y.; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Yang, J.; Chen, Q.

    2007-01-01

    To improve the accuracy in prediction, Genetic Algorithm based Adaptive Neural Network Ensemble (GA-ANNE) is presented. Intersections are allowed between different training sets based on the fuzzy clustering analysis, which ensures the diversity as well as the accuracy of individual Neural Networks (NNs). Moreover, to improve the accuracy of the adaptive weights of individual NNs, GA is used to optimize the cluster centers. Empirical results in predicting carbon flux of Duke Forest reveal that GA-ANNE can predict the carbon flux more accurately than Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN), Bagging NN ensemble, and ANNE. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  12. Carbon Fluxes Between the Atmosphere, Terrestrial, and River Systems Across a Glacier-Dominated Landscape in Southcentral Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, R. C.; Welker, J. M.; Tomco, P. L.

    2011-12-01

    The coastal Gulf of Alaska region is experiencing rapid and accelerating changes due to local and regional warming. Predicted high latitude warming may result in rapid recession of glaciers with subsequent changes in river discharge, nutrient fluxes into the rivers, shifts in landscape vegetation cover, and altered CO2 fluxes affecting the regional carbon balance. As glaciers recede an increase in glacier-dominated river discharge and a change in seasonality of the river discharge are expected. Recently deglaciated landscapes will, over time, be occupied by a succession of vegetation cover that are likely to alter the fluxes of carbon both between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, and between terrestrial ecosystems and stream and river systems. As the landscape evolves from deglaciated forelands it is expected that there is low to no CO2 fluxes between the atmosphere and the recently deglaciated landscape, as well as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon inputs into rivers and streams. These recently deglaciated landscapes will transition to early successional plant species and on towards mature spruce forests. Each transitional terrestrial ecosystem will have different carbon cycling between the atmosphere, terrestrial, and aquatic systems until the mature spruce forests which is expected to have high carbon uptake and sequestration as well as increased inputs of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon into the rivers and streams. A new research project was initiated in the summer of 2011 focusing on glacier-dominated landscapes within the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in southcentral Alaska with the objective to quantify how the transition from deglaciated forelands to mature spruce forests (a successional sequence) alters the patterns and magnitudes of CO2 exchange, the dissolved carbon inputs from terrestrial to aquatic systems and the extent to which these are manifested due to changes in glacier coverage. We seek to examine present

  13. [Monitoring the flux of carbon dioxide gas with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Mei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Zeng, Zong-Yong; He, Ying; Cui, Yi-Ben; Chen, Yin; Tian, Yong-Zhi; Zhang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse effect exacerbated by the increase of Carbon-containing gases is the more important causes of the climate change, It is very meaningful to the large-scale flux of carbon dioxide detection for the estimate the contributions of the main greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of various errestrial eco-systems. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a highly sensitive, highly selective and fast time response trace gas detection technique. In the present paper, the authors used a DFB laser was used as the light source, and by employing wavelength modulation method, and measuring the second harmonic signal of one absorption line near 1.573 microm of carbon dioxide molecule, the authors built a system for online monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration within the optical path of more than 700 meters at different heights. Combined with Alonzo Mourning -Obukhov length and characteristic velocity detected by large aperture scintillometer, the flux of carbon dioxide gas within one day calculated by the formula is within--1.5-2.5, breaking through the phenomenon of only providing the flux of trace gases near the ground at present, makking the measurement of trace gas fluxes within a large area possible.

  14. Seasonal and annual distribution of carbon, water and energy fluxes of irrigated agroecosystems in inland Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vote, C. E.; Hafeez, M.; Charlton, P.; Hall, A.

    2012-12-01

    The extent to which agroecosystems contribute to the carbon cycle as net sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide remains relatively uncertain and it appears that in-depth studies of integrated water, carbon and energy fluxes of irrigated broad-acre crops for common Australian conditions and soil types are yet to be reported. Therefore, this study focuses on the use of eddy covariance methodologies to determine the empirical relationship between these fluxes for three of the major irrigated crops grown in inland Australia; maize, rice and wheat. Here we present the uptake or release of carbon dioxide in relation to evapotranspiration at different phenological stages for each crop at the field scale; and the extrapolation of these to provide an estimate of fluxes at the regional scale based on similar soil types. The annual distribution of the mass and energy exchange was also determined and the level of similarities and key differences between the carbon fluxes and energy partitioning under these particular climatic conditions were compared to similar studies of irrigated broad-acre agriculture production conducted elsewhere in the world.

  15. A Contemporary Assessment of Lateral Fluxes of Organic Carbon in Inland Waters of the USA and Delivery to Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in surface waters, as it is an important component of the energy balance and food chains in freshwater and estuarine aquatic ecosystems, is significant in the mobilization and transport of contaminants along flow paths, and is associated with the formation of known carcinogens in drinking water supplies. The importance of OC dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing processes controlling OC fluxes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context. Here, we: 1) quantified lateral OC fluxes in rivers, streams, and reservoirs across the nation; 2) partitioned how much organic carbon that is stored in lakes, rivers and streams comes from allochthonous sources (produced in the terrestrial landscape) versus autochthonous sources (produced in-stream by primary production); and 3) estimated the delivery of dissolved and total forms of organic carbon to coastal estuaries and embayments. To accomplish this, we developed national-scale models of organic carbon in U.S. surface waters using the spatially referenced regression on watersheds (SPARROW) technique. This approach uses mechanistic formulations, imposes mass balance constraints, and provides a formal parameter estimation structure to statistically estimate sources and fate of OC in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We make use of a GIS based framework to describe sources of organic matter and characteristics of the landscape that affect its fate and transport, from spatial databases providing characterizations of climate, land cover, primary productivity, topography, soils, geology, and water routing. We calibrated and evaluated the model with statistical estimates of organic carbon loads that were observed at 1,125 monitoring stations across the nation. Our results illustrate spatial patterns and magnitudes OC loadings in rivers and reservoirs, highlighting hot spots and suggesting origins of the

  16. Quantifying legacies of clearcut on carbon fluxes and biomass carbon stock in northern temperate forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Xiao, J.; Ollinger, S. V.; Desai, A. R.; Chen, J.; Noormets, A.

    2014-06-01

    Stand-replacing disturbances including harvests have substantial impacts on forest carbon (C) fluxes and stocks. The quantification and simulation of these effects is essential for better understanding forest C dynamics and informing forest management in the context of global change. We evaluated the process-based forest ecosystem model, PnET-CN, for how well and by what mechanisms changes of ecosystem C fluxes, aboveground C stocks (AGC), and leaf area index (LAI) arise after clearcuts. We compared the effects of stand-replacing harvesting on C fluxes and stocks using two chronosequences of eddy covariance flux sites for deciduous broadleaf forests (DBF) and evergreen needleleaf forests (ENF) in the Upper Midwest region of northern Wisconsin and Michigan, USA. The average values of normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) and the Willmott index of agreement (d) between simulated and inferred from observation variables including gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), net ecosystem productivity (NEP), LAI, and AGC in the two chronosequences were 20% and 0.90, respectively. Simulated GPP increased with stand age, reaching a maximum (∼1200-1500 g C m-2 yr-1) at 11-30 years of age, and leveled off thereafter (∼900-1000 g C m-2 yr-1). Simulated ER for both forest types was initially as high as ∼700-1000 g C m-2 yr-1 in the first or second year after clearcuts, decreased with age (∼400-800 g C m-2 yr-1) before canopy closure at 10-25 years of age, and increased to ∼800-900 g C m-2 yr-1 with stand development after canopy recovery. Simulated NEP for both forest types was initially negative with the net C losses of ∼400-700 g C m-2 yr-1 for 6-17 years after harvesting, reached the peak values of ∼400-600 g C m-2 yr-1 at 14-29 years of age, and became stable and a weak C sink (∼100-200 g C m-2 yr-1) in mature forests (>60 years old). The decline of NEP with age was caused by the relative flatting of GPP and gradual

  17. Using Airborne Microwave Remotely Sensed Root-Zone Soil Moisture and Flux Measurements to Improve Regional Predictions of Carbon Fluxes in a Terrestrial Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Antonarakis, A. S.; Medvigy, D.; Burgin, M. S.; Crow, W. T.; Milak, S.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Truong-Loi, M.; Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Cuenca, R. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    North American ecosystems are critical components of the global carbon cycle, exchanging large amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases with the atmosphere. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 between atmosphere and ecosystems quantifies these carbon fluxes, but current continental-scale estimates contain high levels of uncertainty. Root-zone soil moisture (RZSM) and its spatial and temporal heterogeneity influences NEE and improved estimates can help reduce uncertainty in NEE estimates. We used the RZSM measurements from the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission, and the carbon, water and energy fluxes observed by the eddy-covariance flux towers to constrain the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.2 (ED2.2) to improve its predictions of carbon fluxes. The parameters of the ED2.2 model were first optimized at seven flux tower sites in North America, which represent six different biomes, by constraining the model against a suite of flux measurements and forest inventory measurements through a Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo framework. We further applied the AirMOSS RZSM products to constrain the ED2.2 model to achieve better estimates of regional NEE. Evaluation against flux tower measurements and forest dynamics measurements shows that the constrained ED2.2 model produces improved predictions of monthly to annual carbon fluxes. The remote sensing based RZSM can further help improve the spatial patterns and temporal variations of model NEE. The results demonstrate that model-data fusion can substantially improve model performance and highlight the important role of RZSM in regulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of carbon fluxes.

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon fluxes on the Sanjiang plain wetland in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbo; Zhu, Tingcheng; Ni, Hongwei; Zhong, Haixiu; Fu, Xiaoling; Wang, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition across the globe may affect ecosystem CO2 exchanges and ecosystem carbon cycles. Additionally, it remains unknown how increased N deposition and N addition will alter the effects of elevated CO2 on wetland ecosystem carbon fluxes. Beginning in 2010, a paired, nested manipulative experimental design was used in a temperate wetland of northeastern China. The primary factor was elevated CO2, accomplished using Open Top Chambers, and N supplied as NH4NO3 was the secondary factor. Gross primary productivity (GPP) was higher than ecosystem respiration (ER), leading to net carbon uptake (measured by net ecosystem CO2 exchange, or NEE) in all four treatments over the growing season. However, their magnitude had interannual variations, which coincided with air temperature in the early growing season, with the soil temperature and with the vegetation cover. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced GPP and ER but overall reduced NEE because the stimulation caused by the elevated CO2 had a greater impact on ER than on GPP. The addition of N stimulated ecosystem C fluxes in both years and ameliorated the negative impact of elevated CO2 on NEE. In this ecosystem, future elevated CO2 may favor carbon sequestration when coupled with increasing nitrogen deposition.

  19. Effects of Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Deposition on Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes on the Sanjiang Plain Wetland in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianbo; Zhu, Tingcheng; Ni, Hongwei; Zhong, Haixiu; Fu, Xiaoling; Wang, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition across the globe may affect ecosystem CO2 exchanges and ecosystem carbon cycles. Additionally, it remains unknown how increased N deposition and N addition will alter the effects of elevated CO2 on wetland ecosystem carbon fluxes. Methodology/Principal Findings Beginning in 2010, a paired, nested manipulative experimental design was used in a temperate wetland of northeastern China. The primary factor was elevated CO2, accomplished using Open Top Chambers, and N supplied as NH4NO3 was the secondary factor. Gross primary productivity (GPP) was higher than ecosystem respiration (ER), leading to net carbon uptake (measured by net ecosystem CO2 exchange, or NEE) in all four treatments over the growing season. However, their magnitude had interannual variations, which coincided with air temperature in the early growing season, with the soil temperature and with the vegetation cover. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced GPP and ER but overall reduced NEE because the stimulation caused by the elevated CO2 had a greater impact on ER than on GPP. The addition of N stimulated ecosystem C fluxes in both years and ameliorated the negative impact of elevated CO2 on NEE. Conclusion/Significance In this ecosystem, future elevated CO2 may favor carbon sequestration when coupled with increasing nitrogen deposition. PMID:23818943

  20. Inorganic carbon fluxes across the vadose zone of planted and unplanted soil mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaysen, E. M.; Jacques, D.; Jessen, S.; Andersen, C. E.; Laloy, E.; Ambus, P.; Postma, D.; Jakobsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils influences atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thereby climate change. The partitioning of inorganic carbon (C) fluxes in the vadose zone between emission to the atmosphere and to the groundwater was investigated to reveal controlling underlying mechanisms. Carbon dioxide partial pressure in the soil gas (pCO2), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured over depth and time in unplanted and planted (barley) mesocosms. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux was calculated from the pCO2, alkalinity and the water flux at the mesocosm bottom. Carbon dioxide exchange between the soil surface and the atmosphere was measured at regular intervals. The soil diffusivity was determined from soil radon-222 (222Rn) emanation rates and soil air Rn concentration profiles and was used in conjunction with measured pCO2 gradients to calculate the soil CO2 production. Carbon dioxide fluxes were modeled using the HP1 module of the Hydrus 1-D software. The average CO2 effluxes to the atmosphere from unplanted and planted mesocosm ecosystems during 78 days of experiment were 0.1 ± 0.07 and 4.9 ± 0.07 μmol C m-2 s-1, respectively, and grossly exceeded the corresponding DIC percolation fluxes of 0.01 ± 0.004 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μmol C m-2 s-1. Plant biomass was high in the mesocosms as compared to a standard field situation. Post-harvest soil respiration (Rs) was only 10% of the Rs during plant growth, while the post-harvest DIC percolation flux was more than one-third of the flux during growth. The Rs was controlled by production and diffusivity of CO2 in the soil. The DIC percolation flux was largely controlled by the pCO2 and the drainage flux due to low solution pH. Modeling suggested that increasing soil alkalinity during plant growth was due to nutrient buffering during root nitrate uptake.

  1. Impact of hydrology on methane flux patterns in a permafrost-affected floodplain in Northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Min Jung; Beulig, Felix; Kuesel, Kirsten; Wildner, Marcus; Heimann, Martin; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergei; Goeckede, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    A large fraction of organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost soil is at risk to be decomposed and released to the atmosphere under climate change. Thawing of ice-rich permafrost will re-structure the surface topography, with potentially significant effects on hydrology: water table depth (WTD) of depressed areas will increase, while that of the surrounding area will decrease. Changes in hydrology will trigger modifications in soil and vegetation, e.g. soil temperature, vegetation and microbial community structure. All of these secondary effects will alter carbon cycle processes, with the magnitude and even sign of the net effect yet unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate effects of drainage on methane fluxes in a floodplain of the Kolyma River near Cherskii, Northeast Siberia. The study site is separated into two areas, one that has been drained since 2004, and a nearby reference site. Methane flux was measured for ~16 weeks during summer and early winter of 2013, and summer of 2014. In addition, to separate different methane emission pathways, plant-mediated methane transport (through aerenchyma) as well as the proportion of ebullition were measured in 2014. Vegetation and microbial community structures were investigated and compared. After a decade of drainage history that lowered WTD by about 20cm in the drained area, Eriophorum (cotton grass) that previously dominated have to a large part been replaced by Carex (tussock-forming sedge) and shrub species. While WTD primarily influenced the methane flux rate, this vegetation change indirectly altered the flux as well in a way that sites with Eriophorum emitted more methane. Concerning the microbial community structure, the relative abundance of methanogen and ratio of methanotrophs to methanogens were well correlated with methane flux rates, implying that the methane flux is highly influenced by microorganisms. As a consequence of these changes, in the drained area less amount of methane was

  2. Carbon fluxes in a heterogeneous estuarine wetland in Northern Ohio. Comparing eddy covariance and chamber measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey Sanchez, C.; Morin, T. H.; Stefanik, K. C.; Wrighton, K. C.; Bohrer, G.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands are important carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks but also the largest source of methane (CH4), a powerful greenhouse gas. Wetlands are often heterogeneous landscapes with highly diverse land covers and different paths of CH4 release and CO2 uptake. Understanding the ecosystem level greenhouse gas budget of a wetland involves understanding several carbon fluxes associated with each of the different land cover patches. We studied CO2 and CH4 fluxes from different land cover types at the Old Woman Creek (OWC) National Estuarine Research Reserve, at the Lake Erie shore in Northern Ohio. OWC is composed of four main types of land cover: open water, emergent cattail vegetation (Typha spp), floating vegetation (Nelimbo spp), and mud flats. CH4 and CO2 gas exchange was measured in each patch type using enclosed chambers monthly during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016. During the same period of time, an eddy covariance tower was deployed in a representative section of the wetland to measure continuous site-level CO2 and CH4 fluxes. A footprint model was used to account for the relative contributions of each patch type to the flux measured by the tower. The chamber measurements were used to constrain the contributions of each patch within the flux tower footprint, and to correct the flux measurements to the whole-wetland total flux. We analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of methane and carbon dioxide and related this variation to some of the most important environmental drivers at the site. We used these data to analyze the implications of different arrangements of land cover types on the carbon balance and greenhouse-gas budget in wetlands.

  3. Annual net community production and the biological carbon flux in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The flux of biologically produced organic matter from the surface ocean (the biological pump), over an annual cycle, is equal to the annual net community production (ANCP). Experimental determinations of ANCP at ocean time series sites using a variety of different metabolite mass balances have made it possible to evaluate the accuracy of sediment trap fluxes and satellite-determined ocean carbon export. ANCP values at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT), the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), Ocean Station Papa (OSP) are 3 ± 1 mol C m-2 yr-1—much less variable than presently suggested by satellite remote sensing measurements and global circulation models. ANCP determined from mass balances at these locations are 3-4 times particulate organic carbon fluxes measured in sediment traps. When the roles of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux, zooplankton migration, and depth-dependent respiration are considered these differences are reconciled at HOT and OSP but not at BATS, where measured particulate fluxes are about 3 times lower than expected. Even in the cases where sediment trap fluxes are accurate, it is not possible to "scale up" these measurements to determine ANCP without independent determinations of geographically variable DOC flux and zooplankton migration. Estimates of ANCP from satellite remote sensing using net primary production determined by the carbon-based productivity model suggests less geographic variability than its predecessor (the vertically generalized productivity model) and brings predictions at HOT and OSP closer to measurements; however, satellite-predicted ANCP at BATS is still 3 times too low.

  4. Potential impacts of carbon taxes on carbon flux in western Oregon private forests

    Treesearch

    Eun Ho Im; Darius M. Adams; Gregory S. Latta

    2007-01-01

    This study considers a carbon tax system as a policy tool for encouraging carbon sequestration through modification of management in existing forests and examines its welfare impacts and costs of the carbon sequestered. The simulated carbon tax leads to reduced harvest and increased carbon stock in the standing trees and understory biomass. Changes in the level of...

  5. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  6. Carbon, Water Vapor, and Energy Fluxes of Grazed and Ungrazed Tallgrass Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owensby, C. E.; Ham, J. M.; Auen, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    To determine the impact of seasonal steer grazing on annual CO2 fluxes of annually-burned native tallgrass prairie, we used conditional sampling (relaxed eddy accumulation) on adjacent pastures of grazed (GR) and ungrazed (UG) tallgrass prairie from 1998 to 2001 and eddy correlation from 2002 to 2004. Fluxes of CO2 were measured almost continuously (24 hr) from immediately following burning through the burn date the following year (365 d). Aboveground biomass and leaf area were determined by clipping biweekly during the growing season. Carbon lost due to burning was estimated by clipping immediately prior to burning and collecting residual surface carbon after the burn. Soil CO2 flux was measured biweekly at midday each year using portable chambers from 1998 to 2002 and diurnally by large autochambers from 2002 to 2004. Steers were stocked at twice the normal season-long stocking rate (0.81 ha steer-1) for the first half of the grazing season (~May 1 to July 15) and the area left ungrazed the remainder of the year. That system of grazing is termed "intensive early stocking" and is commonly used throughout the Kansas Flint Hills. During the early growing season, grazing reduced net carbon exchange relative to the reduction in green leaf area, but as the growing season progressed on the grazed area, regrowth produced younger leaves that had an apparent higher photosynthetic efficiency. Despite a substantially greater green leaf area on the ungrazed area, greater positive net carbon flux occurred on the grazed area during the late season. Nighttime carbon losses were greater on the ungrazed area in the early season, but were greater on the grazed area late in the season. During the peak growth period, an amount equivalent to ~80% of the carbon fixed on a clear day was lost each day through soil CO2 flux and plant respiration. Soil CO2 flux followed a definite diurnal pattern during the growing season with daytime fluxes twice that of nighttime. During the dormant

  7. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Stems, Soils, and Coarse Woody Debris in a Temperate Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, D. L.; Villarreal, S.; McWilliams, K.; Inamdar, S. P.; Vargas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the magnitude and variability of greenhouse gas fluxes from different terrestrial carbon pools is necessary for enhancing understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. While much more is known about variability CO2 fluxes, we have little information on how CH4 fluxes vary across multiple carbon pools within terrestrial ecosystems. We measured fluxes of CH4 and CO2 from living tree stems, soils, and coarse woody debris within a temperate forested watershed during the growing season (May-November). Fluxes of both CH4 and CO2 were significantly different among carbon pools. Living tree stems were weak sources of both CH4 and CO2 with seasonal means (± 1 SD) of 0.08 ± 0.19 nmol CH4 m-2 s-1 and 1.16 ± 1.21 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Soils were sinks of CH4 and sources of CO2 with seasonal means (± 1 SD) of -2.00 ± 1.41 nmol CH4 m-2 s-1 and 3.07 ± 2.10 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Fluxes of CH4 and CO2 from coarse woody debris were largely variable relative to the other pools with seasonal means (± 1 SD) of -0.21 ± 0.76 nmol CH4 m-2 s-1 and 2.61 ± 2.50 μmol CO2m-2 s-1. Gas fluxes varied significantly (p < 0.05) between sampling sites for both living stems and coarse woody debris, but not for soils. For living stems, this variability was explained by differences in tree species, where N. sylvatica had largest seasonal mean flux of CH4 and L. tulipifera had the largest seasonal mean flux of CO2. For woody debris sites, the variability was explained wood density, with dense, fresh wood acting as CH4 sources, and less dense, decayed wood acting as CH4 sinks. Our results show homogeneity in soil CH4 and CO2 fluxes, but a large heterogeneity in fluxes from tree stems and coarse woody debris. These results provide insights on how forest management strategies could influence greenhouse gas emissions from forested watersheds.

  8. Characteristics of medium carbon steel solidification and mold flux crystallization using the multi-mold simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Yong; Ko, Eun-yi; Choi, Joo; Sohn, Il

    2014-11-01

    An oscillating multi-mold simulator with embedded thermocouples was used to study the initial solidification of medium carbon steels and crystallization characteristics of the mold flux. Casting speed variations in the simulator from 0.7 m/min to 1.4 m/min at fixed oscillation frequency and stroke resulted in higher copper mold temperatures. Frequency modifications from 2.5 Hz to 5.0 Hz and stroke changes from 8.1 mm to 5.4 mm at fixed casting speeds also resulted in higher copper mold temperatures. Surface profile analysis of as-cast steel strips showed characteristic oscillation marks comparable to the narrow faces of the industrial cast slabs. The apparent effect of casting variables on the temperature and surface profiles during the solidification of the medium carbon steels could be correlated to the variations in the negative strip time and subsequent changes in the extent of mold flux infiltration. Back scattered scanning electron microscope analysis of the full length of the retrieved flux film after casting showed cuspidine crystallization ratio that increased from the upper to lower portion of the flux film. This dynamic crystallization and growth of the cuspidine phase increases as the flux is sustained at high temperatures for longer periods. Additional experiments with industrial fluxes designed for soft cooling of medium carbon steel grades showed comparable infiltration thickness of the flux, but the crystallization characteristics were significantly different, which could have a significant impact on the heat transfer rate and mechanism through the flux film.

  9. Effects of two abiotic factors and their interaction on Soil Carbon Dioxide flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Armstrong, Alona; Gristina, Luciano; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    Soils release more carbon per annum than current global anthropogenic emissions (Luo and Zhou, 2006). Soils emit carbon dioxide through mineralization and decomposition of organic matter and respiration of roots and soil organism (Houghton 2007) Evaluation of the effects of abiotic factors on microbial activity is of major importance in the context of mitigation greenhouse gases emissions. One of the key greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide (CO2) and previous studies demonstrate that soil CO2 emission is significantly affected by temperature and soil water content. There are a limited number of studies that examine the impact of bulk density and soil surface characteristics as a result of exposure to rain on CO2 emission, however, none examine their relative importance. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of soil compaction and exposure of the soil surface to rainfall and their interaction on CO2 release. We conducted a factorial soil core experiment with three different bulk densities (1.1 g cm-3, 1.3 g cm-3, 1.5 g cm-3) and three difference exposures to rainfall (no rain, 30 minutes and 90 minutes of rainfall). Water was poured on to the cores not exposed to rain and those exposed for 30 minutes through a gauze to ensure all cores received the same volume of water. Immediately the rainfall treatments the soil cores were incubated and soil CO2 efflux and water content were measured 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, and 10 days after the start of the incubation. The results indicate soil CO2 emissions and rate changes significantly through time and with different bulk densities and rain exposures. The relationship between rain exposure and CO2 is positive: CO2 emission was 53% and 42% greater for the 90 min and 30 min rainfall exposure, respectively, compared to those not exposed to rain. Bulk density exhibited a negative relationship with CO2 emission: soil compacted to a bulk density of 1.1 g cm-3 emitted 32% more CO2 than soil compacted to 1.5 g cm-3. Furthermore we found

  10. A case study of carbon fluxes from land change in the southwest Brazilian Amazon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, K.; Rogan, J.; Eastman, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, land change is responsible for one-fifth of anthropogenic carbon emissions. In Brazil, three-quarters of carbon emissions originate from land change. This study represents a municipal-scale study of carbon fluxes from vegetation in Rio Branco, Brazil. Land-cover maps of pasture, forest, and secondary growth from 1993, 1996, 1999, and 2003 were produced using an unsupervised classification method (overall accuracy = 89%). Carbon fluxes from land change over the decade of imagery were estimated from transitions between land-cover categories for each time interval. This article presents new methods for estimating emissions reductions from carbon stored in the vegetation that replaces forests (e.g., pasture) and sequestration by new (>10-15 years) forests, which reduced gross emissions by 16, 15, and 22% for the period of 1993-1996, 1996-1999, and 1999-2003, respectively. The methods used in the analysis are broadly applicable and provide a comprehensive characterization of regional-scale carbon fluxes from land change.

  11. Carbon flux from plants to soil microbes is highly sensitive to nitrogen addition and biochar amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, C.; Solaiman, Z. M.; Kilburn, M. R.; Clode, P. L.; Fuchslueger, L.; Koranda, M.; Murphy, D. V.

    2012-04-01

    The release of carbon through plant roots to the soil has been recognized as a governing factor for soil microbial community composition and decomposition processes, constituting an important control for ecosystem biogeochemical cycles. Moreover, there is increasing awareness that the flux of recently assimilated carbon from plants to the soil may regulate ecosystem response to environmental change, as the rate of the plant-soil carbon transfer will likely be affected by increased plant C assimilation caused by increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. What has received less attention so far is how sensitive the plant-soil C transfer would be to possible regulations coming from belowground, such as soil N addition or microbial community changes resulting from anthropogenic inputs such as biochar amendments. In this study we investigated the size, rate and sensitivity of the transfer of recently assimilated plant C through the root-soil-mycorrhiza-microbial continuum. Wheat plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were grown in split-boxes which were filled either with soil or a soil-biochar mixture. Each split-box consisted of two compartments separated by a membrane which was penetrable for mycorrhizal hyphae but not for roots. Wheat plants were only grown in one compartment while the other compartment served as an extended soil volume which was only accessible by mycorrhizal hyphae associated with the plant roots. After plants were grown for four weeks we used a double-labeling approach with 13C and 15N in order to investigate interactions between C and N flows in the plant-soil-microorganism system. Plants were subjected to an enriched 13CO2 atmosphere for 8 hours during which 15NH4 was added to a subset of split-boxes to either the root-containing or the root-free compartment. Both, 13C and 15N fluxes through the plant-soil continuum were monitored over 24 hours by stable isotope methods (13C phospho-lipid fatty acids by GC-IRMS, 15N/13C in bulk plant

  12. Using Carbon flux network data to investigate the impact of new European greening rules on carbon budgets - a case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Marius; Graf, Alexander; Carsten, Montzka; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    In 2015 the European Commission introduced new greening payments as part of their common agricultural practices to address environmental and sustainability issues. The payment is worth about 30% of the total subsidies for European farmers. Sowing nitrogen fixing catch/cover crops in the off season (generally in fall and winter) is one way to achieve the prerequisite for the greening payments. Therefore it is expected that the proportion of catch/cover crops will increase from 2015 onwards at the expense of bare soil fields. In particular, with regard to more frequently occurring mild weather conditions during fall and winter, we assume that the extensive shift to catch/cover crops will have a significant impact on the carbon cycle of agricultural areas. In this study we aim to evaluate this change in agricultural practice on local and regional CO2 fluxes and carbon budgets of the intensively used northern Rur catchment in Germany. In a preliminary study, we observed the daily courses of net CO2 flux and soil respiration of three different catch/cover crops: greening mix, oil radish, and white mustard (Sinapis alba), by means of a net flux chamber and a soil respiration chamber and compared them against Eddy covariance flux data from fields cultivated with (i) winter barley (Hordeum vulgare), and (ii) without vegetation. In the main study, we compare multi-year measurements of carbon fluxes from a regional network of Eddy Covariance sites, partly included in larger networks like Fluxnet, European Fluxes Database Cluster or ICOS. We especially used site data where comparisons of catch crop seasons and conventional seasons between different sites or years were possible. To allow an assessment of the change in carbon fluxes and budgets on regional scale, a land use comparison based on satellite images for the years 2014 to 2016 was applied. With these results, a first regional evaluation of the impact of the new greening policies on carbon fluxes and budgets for the

  13. Drought impact on forest carbon dynamics and fluxes in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Metcalfe, D. B.; Girardin, C. A. J.; Amézquita, F. Farfán; Cabrera, D. Galiano; Huasco, W. Huaraca; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; da Costa, M. C.; Rocha, W.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Mendoza, A. L. M.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Meir, P.; Phillips, O. L.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-03-01

    In 2005 and 2010 the Amazon basin experienced two strong droughts, driven by shifts in the tropical hydrological regime possibly associated with global climate change, as predicted by some global models. Tree mortality increased after the 2005 drought, and regional atmospheric inversion modelling showed basin-wide decreases in CO2 uptake in 2010 compared with 2011 (ref. 5). But the response of tropical forest carbon cycling to these droughts is not fully understood and there has been no detailed multi-site investigation in situ. Here we use several years of data from a network of thirteen 1-ha forest plots spread throughout South America, where each component of net primary production (NPP), autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration is measured separately, to develop a better mechanistic understanding of the impact of the 2010 drought on the Amazon forest. We find that total NPP remained constant throughout the drought. However, towards the end of the drought, autotrophic respiration, especially in roots and stems, declined significantly compared with measurements in 2009 made in the absence of drought, with extended decreases in autotrophic respiration in the three driest plots. In the year after the drought, total NPP remained constant but the allocation of carbon shifted towards canopy NPP and away from fine-root NPP. Both leaf-level and plot-level measurements indicate that severe drought suppresses photosynthesis. Scaling these measurements to the entire Amazon basin with rainfall data, we estimate that drought suppressed Amazon-wide photosynthesis in 2010 by 0.38 petagrams of carbon (0.23-0.53 petagrams of carbon). Overall, we find that during this drought, instead of reducing total NPP, trees prioritized growth by reducing autotrophic respiration that was unrelated to growth. This suggests that trees decrease investment in tissue maintenance and defence, in line with eco-evolutionary theories that trees are competitively disadvantaged in the

  14. Drought impact on forest carbon dynamics and fluxes in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    In 2005 and 2010 the Amazon basin experienced two strong droughts1, driven by shifts in the tropical hydrological regime2 possibly associated with global climate change3, as predicted by some global models3. Tree mortality increased after the 2005 drought4, and regional atmospheric inversion modelling showed basin-wide decreases in CO2 uptake in 2010 compared with 2011 (ref. 5). But the response of tropical forest carbon cycling to these droughts is not fully understood and there has been no detailed multi-site investigation in situ. Here we use several years of data from a network of thirteen 1-ha forest plots spread throughout South America, where each component of net primary production (NPP), autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration is measured separately, to develop a better mechanistic understanding of the impact of the 2010 drought on the Amazon forest. We find that total NPP remained constant throughout the drought. However, towards the end of the drought, autotrophic respiration, especially in roots and stems, declined significantly compared with measurements in 2009 made in the absence of drought, with extended decreases in autotrophic respiration in the three driest plots. In the year after the drought, total NPP remained constant but the allocation of carbon shifted towards canopy NPP and away from fine-root NPP. Both leaf-level and plot-level measurements indicate that severe drought suppresses photosynthesis. Scaling these measurements to the entire Amazon basin with rainfall data, we estimate that drought suppressed Amazon-wide photosynthesis in 2010 by 0.38 petagrams of carbon (0.23-0.53 petagrams of carbon). Overall, we find that during this drought, instead of reducing total NPP, trees prioritized growth by reducing autotrophic respiration that was unrelated to growth. This suggests that trees decrease investment in tissue maintenance and defence, in line with eco-evolutionary theories that trees are competitively disadvantaged in the

  15. Drought impact on forest carbon dynamics and fluxes in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Christopher E; Metcalfe, D B; Girardin, C A J; Amézquita, F Farfán; Cabrera, D Galiano; Huasco, W Huaraca; Silva-Espejo, J E; Araujo-Murakami, A; da Costa, M C; Rocha, W; Feldpausch, T R; Mendoza, A L M; da Costa, A C L; Meir, P; Phillips, O L; Malhi, Y

    2015-03-05

    In 2005 and 2010 the Amazon basin experienced two strong droughts, driven by shifts in the tropical hydrological regime possibly associated with global climate change, as predicted by some global models. Tree mortality increased after the 2005 drought, and regional atmospheric inversion modelling showed basin-wide decreases in CO2 uptake in 2010 compared with 2011 (ref. 5). But the response of tropical forest carbon cycling to these droughts is not fully understood and there has been no detailed multi-site investigation in situ. Here we use several years of data from a network of thirteen 1-ha forest plots spread throughout South America, where each component of net primary production (NPP), autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration is measured separately, to develop a better mechanistic understanding of the impact of the 2010 drought on the Amazon forest. We find that total NPP remained constant throughout the drought. However, towards the end of the drought, autotrophic respiration, especially in roots and stems, declined significantly compared with measurements in 2009 made in the absence of drought, with extended decreases in autotrophic respiration in the three driest plots. In the year after the drought, total NPP remained constant but the allocation of carbon shifted towards canopy NPP and away from fine-root NPP. Both leaf-level and plot-level measurements indicate that severe drought suppresses photosynthesis. Scaling these measurements to the entire Amazon basin with rainfall data, we estimate that drought suppressed Amazon-wide photosynthesis in 2010 by 0.38 petagrams of carbon (0.23-0.53 petagrams of carbon). Overall, we find that during this drought, instead of reducing total NPP, trees prioritized growth by reducing autotrophic respiration that was unrelated to growth. This suggests that trees decrease investment in tissue maintenance and defence, in line with eco-evolutionary theories that trees are competitively disadvantaged in the

  16. Influence of hydrological, biogeochemical and temperature transients on subsurface carbon fluxes in a flood plain environment

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Bhavna; Spycher, Nicolas F.; Steefel, Carl I.; Molins, Sergi; Bill, Markus; Conrad, Mark E.; Dong, Wenming; Faybishenko, Boris; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2016-02-01

    Flood plains play a potentially important role in the global carbon cycle. The accumulation of organic matter in flood plains often induces the formation of chemically reduced groundwater and sediments along riverbanks. In this study, our objective is to evaluate the cumulative impact of such reduced zones, water table fluctuations, and temperature gradients on subsurface carbon fluxes in a flood plain at Rifle, Colorado located along the Colorado River. 2-D coupled variably-saturated, non-isothermal flow and biogeochemical reactive transport modeling was applied to improve our understanding of the abiotic and microbially mediated reactions controlling carbon dynamics at the Rifle site. Model simulations considering only abiotic reactions (thus ignoring microbial reactions) underestimated CO2 partial pressures observed in the unsaturated zone and severely underestimated inorganic (and overestimated organic) carbon fluxes to the river compared to simulations with biotic pathways. Both model simulations and field observations highlighted the need to include microbial contributions from chemolithoautotrophic processes (e.g., Fe?2 and S-2 oxidation) to match locally-observed high CO2 concentrations above reduced zones. Observed seasonal variations in CO2 concentrations in the unsaturated zone could not be reproduced without incorporating temperature gradients in the simulations. Incorporating temperature fluctuations resulted in an increase in the annual groundwater carbon fluxes to the river by 170 % to 3.3 g m-2 d-1, while including water table variations resulted in an overall decrease in the simulated fluxes. We conclude that spatial microbial and redox zonation as well as temporal fluctuations of temperature and water table depth contribute significantly to subsurface carbon fluxes in flood plains and need to be represented appropriately in model simulations.

  17. How can mountaintop CO2 observations be used to constrain regional carbon fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, John C.; Mallia, Derek V.; Wu, Dien; Stephens, Britton B.

    2017-05-01

    Despite the need for researchers to understand terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes to account for carbon cycle feedbacks and predict future CO2 concentrations, knowledge of these fluxes at the regional scale remains poor. This is particularly true in mountainous areas, where complex meteorology and lack of observations lead to large uncertainties in carbon fluxes. Yet mountainous regions are often where significant forest cover and biomass are found - i.e., areas that have the potential to serve as carbon sinks. As CO2 observations are carried out in mountainous areas, it is imperative that they are properly interpreted to yield information about carbon fluxes. In this paper, we present CO2 observations at three sites in the mountains of the western US, along with atmospheric simulations that attempt to extract information about biospheric carbon fluxes from the CO2 observations, with emphasis on the observed and simulated diurnal cycles of CO2. We show that atmospheric models can systematically simulate the wrong diurnal cycle and significantly misinterpret the CO2 observations, due to erroneous atmospheric flows as a result of terrain that is misrepresented in the model. This problem depends on the selected vertical level in the model and is exacerbated as the spatial resolution is degraded, and our results indicate that a fine grid spacing of ˜ 4 km or less may be needed to simulate a realistic diurnal cycle of CO2 for sites on top of the steep mountains examined here in the American Rockies. In the absence of higher resolution models, we recommend coarse-scale models to focus on assimilating afternoon CO2 observations on mountaintop sites over the continent to avoid misrepresentations of nocturnal transport and influence.

  18. Effects of management of ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes in grassland ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Grasslands represent a large land-use footprint and have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for land managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack robust understanding of C sequestration in grasslands. Previous research has shown that management approaches such as organic amendments or vertical subsoiling can lead to larger soil C pools. These management approaches can both directly and indirectly affect soil C pools. We used well-replicated field experiments to explore the effects of these management strategies on ecosystem C pools and fluxes in two bioclimatic regions of California (Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) and Nicasio Ranch). Our treatments included an untreated control, compost amendments, plowed (vertical subsoil), and compost + plow. The experiment was conducted over two years allowing us to compare dry (360 mm) and average (632 mm) rainfall conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured weekly using a LI-8100 infrared gas analyzer. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured monthly using static flux chambers. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured at the end of the growing season as an index of net primary productivity (NPP) in the annual plant dominated system. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously and averaged on hourly and daily timescales. Soil organic C and N concentrations were measured prior to the application of management treatments and at the ends of each growing season. Soils were collected to a 10 cm depth in year one and at four depth increments (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm) in year two. Soil C and N concentrations were converted to content using bulk density values for each plot. During both growing seasons, soil respiration rates were higher in the composted plots and lower in the plowed plots relative to controls at both sites. The effects on C loss via

  19. Significance of erosion-induced carbon fluxes in the carbon balance of a Mediterranean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeu, Elisabet; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    Large uncertainties surround our knowledge of the processes through which carbon (C) sequestration takes place in terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, terrestrial ecosystems could be capturing up to one fourth of the CO2 that is emitted annually to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels and land use changes. Soils are the third largest C reservoir in the C cycle, storing around 1500 Gt of C. Over the last decades, geomorphologists and soil scientists have claimed the role of soil erosion within the C cycle and its potential contribution to the terrestrial C sink. In order to assess the impact of soil erosion on the C cycle, however, an understanding and quantification of the impact of soil erosion on soil C stocks is needed. This implies quantifying lateral and vertical C fluxes associated to detachment, transport and deposition of soil and sediment at different spatial scales. As an example, we present a C budget for a mountainous catchment in south-eastern Spain for a 28 year study period during which the catchment underwent significant land use changes and hydrological correction works (i.e. check-dam construction and reforestations). We quantified lateral C fluxes induced by soil erosion processes and closed a soil/sediment C budget by combining field measurements and numerical modeling. In addition, correlation analysis was conducted between catchment properties (topographic, land use, lithology) and measured C deposition rates to understand the controlling factors on C yield (export) and C concentration in sediments. The results showed that the highest C yields (associated to high sediment yields) were found in subcatchments dominated by soft lithologies and high drainage densities. On the other hand, C concentration in deposited sediments was higher in areas dominated by forest cover, and presented high variability in those parts of the catchment with smoother slopes. Overall, we estimated that around 4000 Mg of C were mobilized from the catchment

  20. Comparing simulated carbon budget of a Lei bamboo forest with flux tower data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo forest ecosystem is the part of the forest ecosystem. The distribution area of bamboo forest is limited, but in somewhere, like south China, it has been cultivate for a long time with human management. As the climate change has been take great effect on forest carbon budget, many researchers pay attention to the carbon budget in bamboo forest. Moreover cultivative management had a significant impact on the bamboo forest carbon budget. In this study, we modified a terrestrial ecosystem model named Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) according the management of Lei bamboo forest. Some management, like fertilization, shoots harvesting and organic mulching in winter, had been incorporated into model. Then we had compared model results with the observation data from a Lei bamboo flux tower. The simulated and observed results had achieved good consistency. Our simulated Lei bamboo forest yearly net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 0.41 kgC a-1 of carbon, which is very close to the observation data 0.45 kgC a-1 of carbon. And the monthly simulated results can take the change of carbon budget in each month, similar to the data we got from flux tower. It reflects that the modified IBIS model can characterize the growth of bamboo forest and perform the simulation well. And then two groups of simulations were set to evaluate effects of cultivative managements on Lei bamboo forests carbon budget. And results showed that both fertilization and organic mulching had taken positive effects on Lei bamboo forests carbon sequestration.

  1. Using rare earth elements to constrain particulate organic carbon flux in the East China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Chen, Ya-Feng; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Kui; Chen, Jian Feng; Burdige, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer continental shelf. Recent research has shown that POC fluxes in the ECS may be overestimated due to active sediment resuspension. To better characterize the effect of sediment resuspension on particle fluxes in the ECS, rare earth elements (REEs) and organic carbon (OC) were used in separate two-member mixing models to evaluate trap-collected POC fluxes. The ratio of resuspended particles from sediments to total trap-collected particles in the ECS ranged from 82–94% using the OC mixing model, and 30–80% using the REEs mixing model, respectively. These results suggest that REEs may be better proxies for sediment resuspension than OC in high turbidity marginal seas because REEs do not appear to undergo degradation during particle sinking as compared to organic carbon. Our results suggest that REEs can be used as tracers to provide quantitative estimates of POC fluxes in marginal seas. PMID:27670426

  2. Automatic chamber observations of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes at West Siberian wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, O.; Maksyutov, S.; Shimoyama, K.; Suto, H.; Nadeev, A.; Shelevoi, V.; Glagolev, M.; Kosykh, N.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.

    2010-12-01

    An automatic sampling and analysis system for measuring methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from soil was developed and applied to the soil flux measurements at boreal wetland near Plotnikovo in the southern part of West Siberia. The observations cover warm season (May-October) from 1998 to 2010. Measurements were performed with two systems on the two types of open wetlands typical for the area: mesotrophic open bog and patterned wetland with forested ridges, flarks and water pools. Solar powered automated system is used to open and close six static chambers equipped with air actuators. Analysis system uses improved semiconductor sensor for methane and NDIR for carbon dioxide. Seasonally averaged methane flux rate was determined to be 13 mg/m2/h at the open bog and 2 mg/m2/h at the patterned wetland. Seasonal variation of the emissions correlates well with soil temperature. On the patterned wetland, the methane fluxes show correlation with the gross CO2 uptake rate estimated from CO2 uptake by plants and nighttime respiration. The vegetation map was created from high resolution aerial photos and ground survey data. The methane and carbon dioxide fluxes appear clearly related to the vegetation and soil conditions.

  3. Using rare earth elements to constrain particulate organic carbon flux in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Chen, Ya-Feng; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Kui; Chen, Jian Feng; Burdige, David J

    2016-09-27

    Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer continental shelf. Recent research has shown that POC fluxes in the ECS may be overestimated due to active sediment resuspension. To better characterize the effect of sediment resuspension on particle fluxes in the ECS, rare earth elements (REEs) and organic carbon (OC) were used in separate two-member mixing models to evaluate trap-collected POC fluxes. The ratio of resuspended particles from sediments to total trap-collected particles in the ECS ranged from 82-94% using the OC mixing model, and 30-80% using the REEs mixing model, respectively. These results suggest that REEs may be better proxies for sediment resuspension than OC in high turbidity marginal seas because REEs do not appear to undergo degradation during particle sinking as compared to organic carbon. Our results suggest that REEs can be used as tracers to provide quantitative estimates of POC fluxes in marginal seas.

  4. Calculations of automatic chamber flux measurements of methane and carbon dioxide using short time series of concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirk, Norbert; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Lund, Magnus; Crill, Patrick; Christensen, Torben R.

    2016-02-01

    The closed chamber technique is widely used to measure the exchange of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from terrestrial ecosystems. There is, however, large uncertainty about which model should be used to calculate the gas flux from the measured gas concentrations. Due to experimental uncertainties the simple linear regression model (first-order polynomial) is often applied, even though theoretical considerations of the technique suggest the application of other, curvilinear models. High-resolution automatic chamber systems which sample gas concentrations several hundred times per flux measurement make it possible to resolve the curvilinear behavior and study the information imposed by the natural variability of the temporal concentration changes. We used more than 50 000 such flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 from five field sites located in peat-forming wetlands ranging from 56 to 78° N to quantify the typical differences between flux estimates of different models. In addition, we aimed to assess the curvilinearity of the concentration time series and test the general applicability of curvilinear models. Despite significant episodic differences between the calculated flux estimates, the overall differences are generally found to be smaller than the local flux variability on the plot scale. The curvilinear behavior of the gas concentrations within the chamber is strongly influenced by wind-driven chamber leakage, and less so by changing gas concentration gradients in the soil during chamber closure. Such physical processes affect both gas species equally, which makes it possible to isolate biochemical processes affecting the gases differently, such as photosynthesis limitation by chamber headspace CO2 concentrations under high levels of incoming solar radiation. We assess the possibility to exploit this effect for a partitioning of the net CO2 flux into photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration as an example of how high-resolution automatic chamber

  5. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is increasingly expanding, particularly in Indonesia, but information on water and energy fluxes in oil palm plantations is still very limited and on how those are affected by environmental conditions or oil palm age. Using the eddy covariance technique, we studied turbulent fluxes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat and gross primary production (GPP) for 8 months each in a young oil palm plantation (1-year old) and subsequently in a mature plantation (12-year old) in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We measured transpiration (T) simultaneously using a sap flux technique. The energy budget was dominated by LE in both plantations, particularly in the mature one, where it represented up to 70% of the available energy. In the young oil palm plantation, evapotranspiration (ET) was significantly reduced and H fluxes were higher. This affected the Bowen ratio, defined as the ratio of H and LE, which was higher in the 1-year old plantation (0.67±0.33), where it remained constant during the day, than in the mature plantation (0.14±0.09), where it varied considerably over the day, suggesting that water accumulated inside the canopy. Using the Community Land Model (CLM), a process based land surface model that has been adapted to oil palm functional traits (i.e. CLM-Palm), we investigated the contribution of different water sources to the measured fluxes. CLM-Palm differentiates leaf and stem surfaces in modelling water interception and is therefore able to diagnose the fraction of dry leaves that contribute to T and the wet fraction of all vegetation surfaces (leaf and stem) that contributes to evaporation. Results from our simulations strengthen our hypothesis of significant contribution of canopy evaporation to ET. As observed in the field, water accumulates inside the canopy in the mature plantation in oil palm trunk surfaces including epiphytes, creating water reservoirs in the trunk, which potentially contribute to ET when they evaporate. The decoupling

  6. Evaluate the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of carbon fluxes and the associated uncertainties using modeled and observed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, F.; Collatz, G. J.; Ivanoff, A.

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the performance of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach - Global Fire Emissions Database (CASA-GFED3) terrestrial carbon cycle model in simulating seasonal cycle and interannual variability (IAV) of global and regional carbon fluxes and uncertainties associated with model parameterization. Key model parameters were identified from sensitivity analyses and their uncertainties were propagated through model processes using the Monte Carlo approach to estimate the uncertainties in carbon fluxes and pool sizes. Three independent flux data sets, the global gross primary productivity (GPP) upscaled from eddy covariance flux measurements by Jung et al. (2011), the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimated by CarbonTracker, and the eddy covariance flux observations, were used to evaluate modeled fluxes and the uncertainties. Modeled fluxes agree well with both Jung's GPP and CarbonTracker NEE in the amplitude and phase of seasonal cycle, except in the case of GPP in tropical regions where Jung et al. (2011) showed larger fluxes and seasonal amplitude. Modeled GPP IAV is positively correlated (p < 0.1) with Jung's GPP IAV except in the tropics and temperate South America. The correlations between modeled NEE IAV and CarbonTracker NEE IAV are weak at regional to continental scales but stronger when fluxes are aggregated to >40°N latitude. At regional to continental scales flux uncertainties were larger than the IAV in the fluxes for both Jung's GPP and CarbonTracker NEE. Comparisons with eddy covariance flux observations are focused on sites within regions and years of recorded large-scale climate anomalies. We also evaluated modeled biomass using other independent continental biomass estimates and found good agreement. From the comparisons we identify the strengths and weaknesses of the model to capture the seasonal cycle and IAV of carbon fluxes and highlight ways to improve model performance.

  7. Carbon Flux to the Deep in three open sites of the Southern European Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogou*, A.; Sanchez-Vidal*, A.; Stavrakakis, S.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Calafat, A. M.; Stabholz, M.; Psarra, S.; Canals, M.; Heussner, S.; Stavrakaki, I.; Papathanassiou, E.

    2012-04-01

    In this study we investigate the functioning of the biological pump in the Southern European Seas (SES). In order to constrain the rates of carbon production and export to depth, we combine estimations of satellite primary production data, algorithm-generated fluxes out of the euphotic layer and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes, as measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers in three sites located in the Western Mediterranean (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED), and the Black Sea (BS). POC fluxes were monitored during one year period (Sept 2007 - Sept 2008) in the frame of SESAME project. Annual primary production by satellite estimations yielded values of 396 mg C m-2d-1 (EMED), 563 mg C m-2d-1 (WMED) and 617 mg C m-2d-1 (BS) (SeaWiFS; http://emis.jrc.ec.europa.eu). At the scale of the whole Mediterranean and the Black Sea basins, spatiotemporal variability of Chl-a concentrations during the time of our experiments revealed significant differences in the seasonal cycles. While the WMED site showed increased biomass centred around spring (March-April 2008), the EMED site showed higher values in mid-winter (January 2008), even thought almost one order of magnitude lower than those recorded in the western site. In contrast, the BS site showed increased Chl-a concentration in autumn (Nov 2007) and a lower increase in early spring (March 2008). Overall, the observed Chl-a seasonal patterns for the WMED and EMED sites match quite well the typical seasonal patterns ascribed to their hosting areas, corresponding to "blooming" and "non-blooming" biogeographic regions, respectively, as proposed by D'Ortenzio and Ribera d'Alcala (D'Ortenzio and Ribera d'Alcala, 2009). Moreover, based on the timing of the bloom (late fall) the seasonal pattern of the BS site is quite similar to that observed in Mediterranean regions having a "coastal" regime. Thus, specific physical and biogeochemical settings in the three contrasting sites affect the

  8. Influence of Different Environmental Variables on Energy and Carbon Fluxes in a Mediterranean Maquis Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucco, V.; Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies show that, in the Mediterranean area, global climate changes are likely causing an increase in frequency and intensity of drought periods as well as in the number of warmer days and nights. Mediterranean maquis (schlerophyll species) is a typical evergreen ecosystem consisting of short shrubs with leathery leaves sparsely distributed. It is adapted to live in a semi-arid climate as that of Mediterranean coasts and can survive to these environmental stress condition, being able to recover after autumn rainfall. However, increased environmental stress condition may determine changes in vegetation behavior in the long period. The aim of this study is to show the seasonal variability of sensible and latent heat, and CO2 exchanges measured, with the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique, over a Mediterranean Maquis site. It is located, about 600 m far from the sea, in the Capo Caccia peninsula (municipal district of Alghero (SS), Italy) within a natural reserve called "Le Prigionette", also known as Arca di Noé, in the North-West Sardinia coast (40.61° N, 8.15° E, 74 m asl). Due to this proximity of the EC tower to the sea, the ecosystem vertical exchanges and their footprint may be differently affected by sea and land breeze during days and nights, respectively. A four-component net radiometer, a quantum sensor, and a meteorological station were also set up for ancillary measurements as well as four heat plates in four different positions to account for under canopy and bare soil conditions in the Maquis ecosystem. Therefore, the influence of different environmental variables, such as soil/air temperature, atmospheric conditions and soil moisture content, on energy and carbon fluxes will be investigated and their effect on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface fluxes will be analyzed.

  9. Carbon dioxide fluxes in a central hardwoods oak-hickory forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Pallardy; Lianhong Gu; Paul J. Hanson; Tilden Myers; Stan D. Wullschleger; Bai Yang; Jeffery S. Riggs; Kevin P. Hosman; Mark Heuer

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment to measure carbon and water fluxes was initiated in 2004 as part of the Ameriflux network in a second-growth oak-hickory forest in central Missouri. Ecosystem-scale (~ 1 km2) canopy gas exchange (measured by eddy-covariance methods), vertical CO2 profile sampling and soil respiration along with...

  10. Ozone and carbon dioxide fluxes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Karl Zeller

    1995-01-01

    RMFRES RWU 4452 has made several ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) trace gas flux measurements in the Snowy Range, WY GLEES research area over the past few years. These measurements were made using the micrometeorological eddy correlation technique at two sites: one 6 m above tree canopy height on the Brooklyn tower (ozone only); and the other below canopy height, 1-...

  11. Quantifying simultaneous fluxes of ozone, carbon dioxide and water vapor above a subalpine forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    K. F. Zeller; N. T. Nikolov

    2000-01-01

    Assessing the long-term exchange of trace gases and energy between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is an important priority of the current climate change research. In this regard, it is particularly significant to provide valid data on simultaneous fluxes of carbon, water vapor and pollutants over representative ecosystems. Eddy covariance measurements and...

  12. SEASONAL SOIL FLUXES OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BURNED AND UNBURNED BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured from September 1999 through November 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) under different fire regimes using transparent and opaque static chambers. Studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto...

  13. 4.0 Measuring and monitoring forest carbon stocks and fluxes

    Treesearch

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; Peter S. Murdoch; Richard A. Birdsey; John L. Hom

    2008-01-01

    Measuring and monitoring forest productivity and carbon (C) is of growing concern for natural resource managers and policymakers. With the Delaware River Basin (DRB) as a pilot region, this subproject of the CEMRI sought to: improve the ability of the ground-based Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) networks to more completely assess forest C stocks and fluxes,...

  14. Simulation and sensitivity analysis of carbon storage and fluxes in the New Jersey Pinelands

    Treesearch

    Zewei Miao; Richard G. Lathrop; Ming Xu; Inga P. La Puma; Kenneth L. Clark; John Hom; Nicholas Skowronski; Steve. Van Tuyl

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in modeling the carbon dynamics of vegetation communities is the proper parameterization and calibration of eco-physiological variables that are critical determinants of the ecosystem process-based model behavior. In this study, we improved and calibrated a biochemical process-based WxBGC model by using in situ AmeriFlux eddy covariance tower...

  15. Carbon, water, and heat flux responses to experimental burning and drought in a tallgrass prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both natural fire and prescribed burns are disturbances to biogeochemical cycles of grassland ecosystems in the southern Great Plains. This study examined eddy covariance whole ecosystem-atmosphere flux in carbon (C) exchange in response to a prescribed burn. Two, paired 34 ha paddocks in central Ok...

  16. Mapping land-surface fluxes of carbon, water and energy from field to regional scales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A framework for routine mapping of land-surface fluxes of carbon, water, and energy at the field to regional scales has been established for drought monitoring, water resource management, yield forecasting and crop-growth monitoring. The framework uses the ALEXI/DisALEXI suite of land-surface model...

  17. SEASONAL SOIL FLUXES OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BURNED AND UNBURNED BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured from September 1999 through November 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) under different fire regimes using transparent and opaque static chambers. Studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto...

  18. Age-dependent changes in ecosystem carbon fluxes in managed forests in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Asko Noormets; Jiquan Chen; Thomas R. Crow

    2007-01-01

    The age-dependent variability of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes was assessed by measuring the net ecosystem exchange of C (NEE) in five managed forest stands in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites ranged in age from 3-year-old clearcut to mature stands (65 years). All stands, except the clearcut, accumulated C over the study period from May to October 2002. Seasonal...

  19. CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

  20. Response of carbon fluxes to drought in a coastal plain loblolly pine forest

    Treesearch

    Asko Noormets; Michael J. Gavazzi; Steve G. McNulty; Jean-Christophe Domec; Ge Sun; John S. King; Jiquan. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full accounting of ecosystem carbon (C) pools and fluxes in coastal plain ecosystems remains less studied compared with upland systems, even though the C stocks in these systems may be up to an order of magnitude higher, making them a potentially important component in regional C cycle. Here, we report C pools and CO2 exchange rates...

  1. CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

  2. Eddy covariance flux corrections and uncertainties in long-term studies of carbon and energy exchanges

    Treesearch

    W. J. Massman; X. Lee

    2002-01-01

    This study derives from and extends the discussions of a US DOE sponsored workshop held on 30 and 31 May, 2000 in Boulder, CO concerning issues and uncertainties related to long-term eddy covariance measurements of carbon and energy exchanges. The workshop was organized in response to concerns raised at the 1999 annual AmeriFlux meeting about the lack of uniformity...

  3. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    Treesearch

    B. D. Amiro; A. G. Barr; J. G. Barr; T. A. Black; R. Bracho; al. et.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Disturbances are important for renewal of North American forests. Here we summarize more than 180 site years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide flux made at forest chronosequences in North America. The disturbances included standreplacing fire (Alaska, Arizona, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan) and harvest (British Columbia, Florida, New Brunswick, Oregon...

  4. Landscape and environmental controls over leaf and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes under woody plant expansion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many regions of the globe are experiencing a simultaneous change in the dominant plant functional type and regional climatology. We explored how atmospheric temperature and precipitation input control leaf- and ecosystem scale carbon fluxes within a pair of semiarid shrublands that had undergone woo...

  5. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Commane, R.; Dinardo, S.; Henderson, J. M.; Lindaas, J.; Lin, J. C.; Luus, K. A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wolter, S.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large (~ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM/WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. CO2 signals at the tower are larger than predicted, with significant respiration occurring in the fall that is not captured by PolarVPRM. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find emissions persist during some wintertime periods, augmenting those

  6. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, John B.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Commane, Roisin; Dinardo, Steven; Henderson, John M.; Lindaas, Jacob; Lin, John C.; Luus, Kristina A.; Newberger, Tim; Tans, Pieter; Wofsy, Steven C.; Wolter, Sonja; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-04-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large ( ˜ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks, AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM-WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are generally consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. One exception to this good agreement is that during the fall of all 3 years, PolarVPRM cannot reproduce the observed CO2 respiration. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find that enhancements appear to persist during some wintertime

  7. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-07

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end.

  8. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500–750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end. PMID:26739600

  9. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (~2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end.

  10. The Role of Alpine Wetlands as Hot Spots of Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes in the East River, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnick, M.; Rainaldi, G. R.; Lawrence, C. R.; McCormick, M. E.; Hsu, H. T.; Druhan, J. L.; Williams, K. H.; Maher, K.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a critical chemical attribute of freshwater systems, affecting nutrient availability, toxicity and solubility of metals, and biological activity via the absorption of light and microbial consumption of O2 during DOC mineralization. Although DOC contributions to streams are distributed across the landscape in the shallow subsurface, many studies have demonstrated area-outsized contributions from riparian zones with high biological productivity and low subsurface O2 concentrations. In the East River, CO, a high-elevation watershed located in the central Rocky Mountains, initial observations show that DOC concentrations of two tributaries, Rock Creek and Gothic Creek, are elevated by 3-10 times compared to concentrations in the main East River and its other tributaries. These elevated concentrations are qualitatively linked to the unique presence of large wetlands in the headwaters of Rock and Gothic creeks, which due to potential anoxic conditions, experience reduced rates of organic matter decomposition and serve as an elevated source of DOC. In this study we quantify the cycling of organic matter in these alpine wetlands and their area-outsized contributions to East River DOC fluxes. We present concentration profiles of DOC along stream reaches and along subsurface flowpaths that span the transition from hillslope to wetland coupled with high-resolution mapping of chronically-saturated zones and calculate area-weighted fluxes of DOC from wetlands to Rock and Gothic creeks at multiple times through the 2016 growing season. Additionally, soil and groundwater DOC fluxes are compared with depth-resolved organic carbon content from soil cores, substrate quality (C:N), and soil surface CO2 fluxes to evaluate organic carbon budgets in the hillslope and wetland areas feeding Rock Creek. The characterization of these hotspots of DOC generation and transport in the East River is vital to the ability to predict nutrient cycling changes into

  11. Steel slag carbonation in a flow-through reactor system: the role of fluid-flux.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Eleanor J; Williams-Jones, Anthony E; Migdisov, Artashes A

    2015-01-01

    Steel production is currently the largest industrial source of atmospheric CO2. As annual steel production continues to grow, the need for effective methods of reducing its carbon footprint increases correspondingly. The carbonation of the calcium-bearing phases in steel slag generated during basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel production, in particular its major constituent, larnite {Ca2SiO4}, which is a structural analogue of olivine {(MgFe)2SiO4}, the main mineral subjected to natural carbonation in peridotites, offers the potential to offset some of these emissions. However, the controls on the nature and efficiency of steel slag carbonation are yet to be completely understood. Experiments were conducted exposing steel slag grains to a CO2-H2O mixture in both batch and flow-through reactors to investigate the impact of temperature, fluid flux, and reaction gradient on the dissolution and carbonation of steel slag. The results of these experiments show that dissolution and carbonation of BOF steel slag are more efficient in a flow-through reactor than in the batch reactors used in most previous studies. Moreover, they show that fluid flux needs to be optimized in addition to grain size, pressure, and temperature, in order to maximize the efficiency of carbonation. Based on these results, a two-stage reactor consisting of a high and a low fluid-flux chamber is proposed for CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation, allowing dissolution of the slag and precipitation of calcium carbonate to occur within a single flow-through system.

  12. Magnitude and Uncertainty of Carbon Pools and Fluxes in the US Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, N.; Saatchi, S. S.; Fore, A.; Yu, Y.; Woodall, C. W.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.; Hagen, S.; Birdsey, R.; Brown, S.; Salas, W.; Johnson, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sassan Saatchi1,2, Stephan Hagen3, Christopher Woodall4 , Sangram Ganguly,5 Nancy Harris6, Sandra Brown7, Timothy Pearson7, Alexander Fore1, Yifan Yu1, Rama Nemani5, Gong Zhang5, William Salas4, Roger Cooke81 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA2 Institute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA3 Applied Geosolutions, 55 Main Street Suit 125, Newmarket, NH 03857, USA4 USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA5 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA6 Forests Program, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 20002, USA7 Winrock International, Ecosystem Services Unit, Arlington, VA 22202, USA8 Risk Analysis Resources for the Future, Washington DC 20036-1400Assessment of the carbon sinks and sources associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes across the US forestlands is a priority of the national climate mitigation policy. However, estimates of fluxes from the land sector are less precise compared to other sectors because of the large sources of uncertainty in quantifying the carbon pools, emissions, and removals associated with anthropogenic (land use) and natural changes in the US forestlands. As part of the NASA's Carbon Monitoring System, we developed a methodology based on a combination of ground inventory and space observations to develop spatially refined carbon pools and fluxes including the gross emissions and sequestration of carbon at each 1-ha land unit across the forestlands in the continental United States (CONUS) for the period of 2006-2010. Here, we provide the magnitude and uncertainty of multiple pools and fluxes of the US forestlands and outline the observational requirements to reduce the uncertainties for developing national climate mitigation policies based on the carbon sequestration capacity of the US forest lands. Keywords: forests, carbon pools, greenhouse gas, land use, attribution

  13. Evaluating carbon fluxes of global forest ecosystems by using an individual tree-based model FORCCHN.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianyong; Shugart, Herman H; Yan, Xiaodong; Cao, Cougui; Wu, Shuang; Fang, Jing

    2017-05-15

    The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0.72, 0.70 and 0.53, respectively, across all forest biomes. The model underestimated GPP and slightly overestimated ER across most of the eddy-covariance sites. An underestimation of NEP arose primarily from the lower GPP estimates. Model performance was better in capturing both the temporal changes and magnitude of carbon fluxes in deciduous broadleaf forest than in evergreen broadleaf forest, and it performed less well for sites in Mediterranean climate. We then applied the model to estimate the carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems on global scale over 1982-2011. This application of FORCCHN gave a total GPP of 59.41±5.67 and an ER of 57.21±5.32PgCyr(-1) for global forest ecosystems during 1982-2011. The forest ecosystems over this same period contributed a large carbon storage, with total NEP being 2.20±0.64PgCyr(-1). These values are comparable to and reinforce estimates reported in other studies. This analysis highlights individual tree-based model FORCCHN could be used to evaluate carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems on global scale.

  14. Integrating flux, satellite, and proximal optical data for an improved understanding of ecosystem carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Garrity, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The different scales and methods of satellite observations and flux measurements present challenges for data integration that can be partly addressed by the addition of scale-appropriate optical sampling. Proximal optical measurement facilitates experimental approaches that can inform upscaling, satellite validation, and lead to better understanding of controls on carbon fluxes and other ecosystem processes. Using the framework of the light-use efficiency model, this presentation will review efforts to explore the controls on ecosystem-atmosphere carbon fluxes using a variety of novel optical sensors and platforms. Topics of appropriate sampling methodology, scaling and data aggregation will also be considered, with examples of how information content and interpretation of optical data can be scale-dependent. Key challenges include informatics solutions that handle large, multi-dimensional data volumes and contextual information, including information about sampling protocols and scale. Key opportunities include the assessment of vegetation functional diversity with optical sensors.

  15. Improving SWAT for simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Xuesong

    2016-11-01

    As a widely used watershed model for assessing impacts of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on water quantity and quality, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has not been extensively tested in simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems. Here, we examine SWAT simulations of evapotranspiration (ET), net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and plant biomass at ten AmeriFlux forest sites across the U.S. We identify unrealistic radiation use efficiency (Bio_E), large leaf to biomass fraction (Bio_LEAF), and missing phosphorus supply from parent material weathering as the primary causes for the inadequate performance of the default SWAT model in simulating forest dynamics. By further revising the relevant parameters and processes, SWAT’s performance is substantially improved. Based on the comparison between the improved SWAT simulations and flux tower observations, we discuss future research directions for further enhancing model parameterization and representation of water and carbon cycling for forests.

  16. A coupled carbon and plant hydraulic model to predict ecosystem carbon and water flux responses to disturbance and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Roberts, D. E.; McDowell, N. G.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Reed, D. E.; Massman, W. J.; Mitra, B.

    2011-12-01

    Changing climate drivers including temperature, humidity, precipitation, and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations directly control land surface exchanges of CO2 and water. In a profound way these responses are modulated by disturbances that are driven by or exacerbated by climate change. Predicting these changes is challenging given that the feedbacks between environmental controls, disturbances, and fluxes are complex. Flux data in areas of bark beetle outbreaks in the western U.S.A. show differential declines in carbon and water flux in response to the occlusion of xylem by associated fungi. For example, bark beetle infestation at the GLEES AmeriFlux site manifested in a decline in summer water use efficiency to 60% in the year after peak infestation compared to previous years, and no recovery of carbon uptake following a period of high vapor pressure deficit. This points to complex feedbacks between disturbance and differential ecosystem reaction and relaxation responses. Theory based on plant hydraulics and extending to include links to carbon storage and exhaustion has potential for explaining these dynamics with simple, yet rigorous models. In this spirit we developed a coupled model that combines an existing model of canopy water and carbon flow, TREES [e.g., Loranty et al., 2010], with the Sperry et al., [1998] plant hydraulic model. The new model simultaneously solves carbon uptake and losses along with plant hydraulics, and allows for testing specific hypotheses on feedbacks between xylem dysfunction, stomatal and non-stomatal controls on photosynthesis and carbon allocation, and autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. These are constrained through gas exchange, root vulnerability to cavitation, sap flux, and eddy covariance data in a novel model complexity-testing framework. Our analysis focuses on an ecosystem gradient spanning sagebrush to subalpine forests. Our modeling results support hypotheses on feedbacks between hydraulic dysfunction and 1) non

  17. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Frank E.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sara; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002-2003 and 2010-2011. During 2010-2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002-2003 compared to 2010-2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as -10.6 g C m-2 d-1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (-2.9 g C m-2 d-1). CH4 fluxes during 2010-2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m-2 d-1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m-2 d-1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010-2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010-2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m-2 yr-1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  18. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sarah; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002–2003 and 2010–2011. During 2010–2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002–2003 compared to 2010–2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as −10.6 g C m−2 d−1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (−2.9 g C m−2 d−1). CH4 fluxes during 2010–2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m−2 d−1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m−2 d−1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010–2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010–2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m−2 yr−1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  19. The importance of landscape diversity for carbon fluxes at the landscape level: small-scale heterogeneity matters

    Treesearch

    Katrin Premke; Katrin Attermeyer; Jurgen Augustin; Alvaro Cabezas; Peter Casper; Detlef Deumlich; Jorg Gelbrecht; Horst H. Gerke; Arthur Gessler; Hans-Peter Grossart; Sabine Hilt; Michael Hupfer; Thomas Kalettka; Zachary Kayler; Gunnar Lischeid; Michael Sommer; Dominik Zak

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes can be viewed as spatially heterogeneous areas encompassing terrestrial and aquatic domains. To date, most landscape carbon (C) fluxes have been estimated by accounting for terrestrial ecosystems, while aquatic ecosystems have been largely neglected. However, a robust assessment of C fluxes on the landscape scale requires the estimation of fluxes within and...

  20. User-Friendly Predictive Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage in Tidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We developed user-friendly empirical models to predict instantaneous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from coastal wetlands based on a small set of dominant hydro-climatic and environmental drivers (e.g., photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity). The dominant predictor variables were systematically identified by applying a robust data-analytics framework on a wide range of possible environmental variables driving wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The method comprised of a multi-layered data-analytics framework, including Pearson correlation analysis, explanatory principal component and factor analyses, and partial least squares regression modeling. The identified dominant predictors were finally utilized to develop power-law based non-linear regression models to predict CO2 and CH4 fluxes under different climatic, land use (nitrogen gradient), tidal hydrology and salinity conditions. Four different tidal wetlands of Waquoit Bay, MA were considered as the case study sites to identify the dominant drivers and evaluate model performance. The study sites were dominated by native Spartina Alterniflora and characterized by frequent flooding and high saline conditions. The model estimated the potential net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) both in gC/m2 and metric tonC/hectare by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to the growing season and accounting for the lateral C flux exchanges between the wetlands and estuary. The entire model was presented in a single Excel spreadsheet as a user-friendly ecological engineering tool. The model can aid the development of appropriate GHG offset protocols for setting monitoring plans for tidal wetland restoration and maintenance projects. The model can also be used to estimate wetland GHG fluxes and potential carbon storage under various IPCC climate change and sea level rise scenarios; facilitating an appropriate management of carbon stocks in tidal wetlands and their incorporation into a

  1. The influence of drought-heat stress on long term carbon fluxes of bioenergy crops grown in the Midwestern US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perennial grasses are promising feedstocks for bioenergy production in the Midwestern US. Few experiments have addressed how drought influences their carbon fluxes and storage. This study provides a direct comparison of ecosystem-scale measurements of carbon fluxes associated with miscanthus (Miscan...

  2. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Scoping Workshop on Terrestrial and Coastal Carbon Fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico, St. Petersburg, FL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, L. L.; Coble, P. G.; Clayton, T. D.; Cai, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, ocean margins may have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles and, potentially, the global air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide. Margins are characterized by intense geochemical and biological processing of carbon and other elements and exchange large amounts of matter and energy with the open ocean. The area-specific rates of productivity, biogeochemical cycling, and organic/inorganic matter sequestration are high in coastal margins, with as much as half of the global integrated new production occurring over the continental shelves and slopes (Walsh, 1991; Doney and Hood, 2002; Jahnke, in press). However, the current lack of knowledge and understanding of biogeochemical processes occurring at the ocean margins has left them largely ignored in most of the previous global assessments of the oceanic carbon cycle (Doney and Hood, 2002). A major source of North American and global uncertainty is the Gulf of Mexico, a large semi-enclosed subtropical basin bordered by the United States, Mexico, and Cuba. Like many of the marginal oceans worldwide, the Gulf of Mexico remains largely unsampled and poorly characterized in terms of its air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide and other carbon fluxes. The goal of the workshop was to bring together researchers from multiple disciplines studying terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems to discuss the state of knowledge in carbon fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico, data gaps, and overarching questions in the Gulf of Mexico system. The discussions at the workshop were intended to stimulate integrated studies of marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems that will help to establish the role of the Gulf of Mexico in the carbon cycle and how it might evolve in the face of environmental change.

  3. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Scoping Workshop on Terrestrial and Coastal Carbon Fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico, St. Petersburg, FL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, L. L.; Coble, P. G.; Clayton, T. D.; Cai, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, ocean margins may have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles and, potentially, the global air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide. Margins are characterized by intense geochemical and biological processing of carbon and other elements and exchange large amounts of matter and energy with the open ocean. The area-specific rates of productivity, biogeochemical cycling, and organic/inorganic matter sequestration are high in coastal margins, with as much as half of the global integrated new production occurring over the continental shelves and slopes (Walsh, 1991; Doney and Hood, 2002; Jahnke, in press). However, the current lack of knowledge and understanding of biogeochemical processes occurring at the ocean margins has left them largely ignored in most of the previous global assessments of the oceanic carbon cycle (Doney and Hood, 2002). A major source of North American and global uncertainty is the Gulf of Mexico, a large semi-enclosed subtropical basin bordered by the United States, Mexico, and Cuba. Like many of the marginal oceans worldwide, the Gulf of Mexico remains largely unsampled and poorly characterized in terms of its air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide and other carbon fluxes. The goal of the workshop was to bring together researchers from multiple disciplines studying terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems to discuss the state of knowledge in carbon fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico, data gaps, and overarching questions in the Gulf of Mexico system. The discussions at the workshop were intended to stimulate integrated studies of marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems that will help to establish the role of the Gulf of Mexico in the carbon cycle and how it might evolve in the face of environmental change.

  4. Plant species diversity affects soil-atmosphere fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Niklaus, Pascal A; Le Roux, Xavier; Poly, Franck; Buchmann, Nina; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Weigelt, Alexandra; Barnard, Romain L

    2016-07-01

    Plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning can potentially interact with global climate by altering fluxes of the radiatively active trace gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). We studied the effects of grassland species richness (1-16) in combination with application of fertilizer (nitrogen:phosphorus:potassium = 100:43.6:83 kg ha(-1) a(-1)) on N2O and CH4 fluxes in a long-term field experiment. Soil N2O emissions, measured over 2 years using static chambers, decreased with species richness unless fertilizer was added. N2O emissions increased with fertilization and the fraction of legumes in plant communities. Soil CH4 uptake, a process driven by methanotrophic bacteria, decreased with plant species numbers, irrespective of fertilization. Using structural equation models, we related trace gas fluxes to soil moisture, soil inorganic N concentrations, nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activity, and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers, nitrite oxidizers, and denitrifiers (quantified by real-time PCR of gene fragments amplified from microbial DNA in soil). These analyses indicated that plant species richness increased soil moisture, which in turn increased N cycling-related activities. Enhanced N cycling increased N2O emission and soil CH4 uptake, with the latter possibly caused by removal of inhibitory ammonium by nitrification. The moisture-related indirect effects were surpassed by direct, moisture-independent effects opposite in direction. Microbial gene abundances responded positively to fertilizer but not to plant species richness. The response patterns we found were statistically robust and highlight the potential of plant biodiversity to interact with climatic change through mechanisms unrelated to carbon storage and associated carbon dioxide removal.

  5. Scale of Carbon Nanomaterials Affects Neural Outgrowth and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Franca, Eric; Jao, PitFee; Fang, Sheng-Po; Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; Pan, Liangbin; Yoon, Jung Hae; Yoon, Yong-Kyu ‘YK’

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have become increasingly popular microelectrode materials for neuroscience applications. Here we study how the scale of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers affect neural viability, outgrowth, and adhesion. Carbon nanotubes were deposited on glass coverslips via a layer-by-layer method with polyethylenimine (PEI). Carbonized nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning SU-8 and pyrolyzing the nanofiber depositions. Additional substrates tested were carbonized and SU-8 thin films and SU-8 nanofibers. Surfaces were O2-plasma treated, coated with varying concentrations of PEI, seeded with E18 rat cortical cells, and examined at 3, 4, and 7 days in vitro (DIV). Neural adhesion was examined at 4 DIV utilizing a parallel plate flow chamber. At 3 DIV, neural viability was lower on the nanofiber and thin film depositions treated with higher PEI concentrations which corresponded with significantly higher zeta potentials (surface charge); this significance was drastically higher on the nanofibers suggesting that the nanostructure may collect more PEI molecules, causing increased toxicity. At 7 DIV, significantly higher neurite outgrowth was observed on SU-8 nanofiber substrates with nanofibers a significant fraction of a neuron’s size. No differences were detected for carbonized nanofibers or carbon nanotubes. Both carbonized and SU-8 nanofibers had significantly higher cellular adhesion post-flow in comparison to controls whereas the carbon nanotubes were statistically similar to control substrates. These data suggest a neural cell preference for larger-scale nanomaterials with specific surface treatments. These characteristics could be taken advantage of in the future design and fabrication of neural microelectrodes. PMID:26829799

  6. Regional-scale carbon flux estimation using MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova, Vicente D.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Agency NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) platform carried by Terra and Aqua satellites, is providing systematic measurements summarized in high quality, consistent and well-calibrated satellite images and datasets ranging from reflectance in the visible and near infrared bands to estimates of leaf area index, vegetation indices and biome productivity. The objective of this research was to relate the spectral responses and derived MODIS products of ecosystems, to biogeochemical processes and trends in their physiological variables. When different sources of data were compared, discrepancies between the MODIS variables and the corresponding ground measurements were evident. Uncertainties in the input variables of MODIS products algorithms, effects of cloud cover at the studied pixel, estimation algorithm, and local variation in land cover type are considered as the cause. A simple "continuous field" model based on a physiologically-driven spectral index using two ocean-color bands of MODIS satellite sensor showed great potential to track seasonally changing photosynthetic light use efficiency and stress-induced reduction in net primary productivity of terrestrial vegetation. The model explained 88% of the variability in Flux tower-based daily Net Primary Productivity. Also a high correlation between midday gross CO2 exchange with both daily and 8-day mean gross CO2 exchange, consistent across all the studied vegetation types, was found. Although it may not be possible to estimate 8-day mean Light Use Efficiency reliably from satellite data, Light Use Efficiency models may still be useful for estimation of midday values of gross CO2 exchange which could then be related to longer term means of CO2 exchange. In addition, the MODIS enhanced vegetation index shows a high potential for estimation of ecosystem gross primary production, using respiration values from MODIS surface temperature, providing truly per

  7. Decadal and annual changes in biogenic opal and carbonate fluxes to the deep Sargasso Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deuser, W.G.; Jickells, T.D.; Commeau, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Analyses of samples from a 14-year series of sediment-trap deployments in the deep Sargasso Sea reveal a significant trend in the ratio of the sinking fluxes of biogenic calcium carbonate and silica. Although there are pronounced seasonal cycles for both flux components, the overall opal/CaCO3 ratio changed by 50% from 1978 to 1991 (largely due to a decrease of opal flux), while total flux had no significant trend. These results suggest that plankton communities respond rapidly to subtle climate change, such as is evident in regional variations of wind speed, precipitation, wintertime ventilation and midwater temperatures. If the trends we observe in the makeup of sinking particulate matter occur on a large scale, they may in turn modify climate by modulating ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange and albedo over the ocean.

  8. Analysis of field measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Shashi B.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the field measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes is discussed. These data were examined in conjunction with reflectance obtained from helicopter mounted Modular Multiband Radiometer. These measurements are representative of the canopy scale (10 to 100 m)(exp 2) and provide a good basis for investigating the hypotheses/relationship potentially useful in remote sensing applications. All the micrometeorological data collected during FIFE-89 were processed and fluxes of CO2, water vapor, and sensible heat were calculated. Soil CO2 fluxes were also estimated. Employing these soil CO2 flux values, in conjunction with micrometeorological measurements, canopy photosynthesis is being estimated. A biochemical model of leaf photosynthesis was adapted to the prairie vegetation. The modeled leaf photosynthesis rates were scaled up to the canopy level. This model and a multiplicative stomatal conductance model are also used to calculate canopy conductance.

  9. How can mountaintop CO2 observations be used to constrain regional carbon fluxes?

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, John C.; Mallia, Derek V.; Wu, Dien; ...

    2017-05-03

    Despite the need for researchers to understand terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes to account for carbon cycle feedbacks and predict future CO2 concentrations, knowledge of these fluxes at the regional scale remains poor. This is particularly true in mountainous areas, where complex meteorology and lack of observations lead to large uncertainties in carbon fluxes. Yet mountainous regions are often where significant forest cover and biomass are found – i.e., areas that have the potential to serve as carbon sinks. As CO2 observations are carried out in mountainous areas, it is imperative that they are properly interpreted to yield information about carbonmore » fluxes. In this paper, we present CO2 observations at three sites in the mountains of the western US, along with atmospheric simulations that attempt to extract information about biospheric carbon fluxes from the CO2 observations, with emphasis on the observed and simulated diurnal cycles of CO2. We show that atmospheric models can systematically simulate the wrong diurnal cycle and significantly misinterpret the CO2 observations, due to erroneous atmospheric flows as a result of terrain that is misrepresented in the model. This problem depends on the selected vertical level in the model and is exacerbated as the spatial resolution is degraded, and our results indicate that a fine grid spacing of ~4 km or less may be needed to simulate a realistic diurnal cycle of CO2 for sites on top of the steep mountains examined here in the American Rockies. In conclusion, in the absence of higher resolution models, we recommend coarse-scale models to focus on assimilating afternoon CO2 observations on mountaintop sites over the continent to avoid misrepresentations of nocturnal transport and influence.« less

  10. Roles of Climate, Vegetation and Soil in Regulating the Spatial Variations in Ecosystem Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Guirui; Ge, Jianping; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Xianjin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Climate, vegetation, and soil characteristics play important roles in regulating the spatial variation in carbon dioxide fluxes, but their relative influence is still uncertain. In this study, we compiled data from 241 eddy covariance flux sites in the Northern Hemisphere and used Classification and Regression Trees and Redundancy Analysis to assess how climate, vegetation, and soil affect the spatial variations in three carbon dioxide fluxes (annual gross primary production (AGPP), annual ecosystem respiration (ARE), and annual net ecosystem production (ANEP)). Our results showed that the spatial variations in AGPP, ARE, and ANEP were significantly related to the climate and vegetation factors (correlation coefficients, R = 0.22 to 0.69, P < 0.01) while they were not related to the soil factors (R = -0.11 to 0.14, P > 0.05) in the Northern Hemisphere. The climate and vegetation together explained 60 % and 58 % of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, respectively. Climate factors (mean annual temperature and precipitation) could account for 45 - 47 % of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, but the climate constraint on the vegetation index explained approximately 75 %. Our findings suggest that climate factors affect the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE mainly by regulating vegetation properties, while soil factors exert a minor effect. To more accurately assess global carbon balance and predict ecosystem responses to climate change, these discrepant roles of climate, vegetation, and soil are required to be fully considered in the future land surface models. Moreover, our results showed that climate and vegetation factors failed to capture the spatial variation in ANEP and suggest that to reveal the underlying mechanism for variation in ANEP, taking into account the effects of other factors (such as climate change and disturbances) is necessary. PMID:25928452

  11. Roles of climate, vegetation and soil in regulating the spatial variations in ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Guirui; Ge, Jianping; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Xianjin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Climate, vegetation, and soil characteristics play important roles in regulating the spatial variation in carbon dioxide fluxes, but their relative influence is still uncertain. In this study, we compiled data from 241 eddy covariance flux sites in the Northern Hemisphere and used Classification and Regression Trees and Redundancy Analysis to assess how climate, vegetation, and soil affect the spatial variations in three carbon dioxide fluxes (annual gross primary production (AGPP), annual ecosystem respiration (ARE), and annual net ecosystem production (ANEP)). Our results showed that the spatial variations in AGPP, ARE, and ANEP were significantly related to the climate and vegetation factors (correlation coefficients, R = 0.22 to 0.69, P < 0.01) while they were not related to the soil factors (R = -0.11 to 0.14, P > 0.05) in the Northern Hemisphere. The climate and vegetation together explained 60% and 58% of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, respectively. Climate factors (mean annual temperature and precipitation) could account for 45-47% of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, but the climate constraint on the vegetation index explained approximately 75%. Our findings suggest that climate factors affect the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE mainly by regulating vegetation properties, while soil factors exert a minor effect. To more accurately assess global carbon balance and predict ecosystem responses to climate change, these discrepant roles of climate, vegetation, and soil are required to be fully considered in the future land surface models. Moreover, our results showed that climate and vegetation factors failed to capture the spatial variation in ANEP and suggest that to reveal the underlying mechanism for variation in ANEP, taking into account the effects of other factors (such as climate change and disturbances) is necessary.

  12. Influence of landscape disturbance patterns on modeled carbon fluxes and associated uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, E. A.; Kennedy, R. E.; Naithani, K.; Davis, K. J.; Keller, K.; Parker, L. R.; Bianchetti, R. A.; MacEachren, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbances influence terrestrial carbon (C) fluxes directly through C emissions (e.g., fires) and indirectly by modifying successional pathways. However, patterns of forest disturbances are complex at landscape scales, resulting in temporally and spatially heterogeneous patterns of C stocks and fluxes. As a result, the contribution of disturbances to observed CO2 fluxes from eddy flux towers is unclear and the resulting uncertainty in estimation of regional C stocks complicates decision-making for landscape-scale, forest C management. We assessed stand-replacing and partial disturbance patterns in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest using Landsat remotely sensed imagery and LandTrendr algorithms. Resulting stand age information was used with eddy covariance data to inform a hierarchical modeling approach (HBLUE) that estimated CO2 fluxes from 2000 - 2010. Results indicated extensive disturbance patterns in the region including tornados, insects, fire, and harvesting activities that modified stand age structure; the complexity of the disturbance patterns required site-level validation that was informed by scientist-manager communication, and regional-level validation with existing databases of forest harvest activity. Our results indicated that uncertainty in CO2 fluxes varied with stand age, with higher uncertainty during mid-succession. In addition to stand age, a careful consideration of uncertainty in CO2 fluxes should consider attribution of type, timing and magnitude of disturbance events as well as accuracy assessment of the remote sensing workflow (e.g., preprocessing, temporal segmentation) and model parameters (e.g., representativeness of flux towers). The resultant complexity of mean CO2 fluxes and their uncertainty should be considered as related both to the inherent ecosystem dynamics as well as their representation by models over space and time. We conclude that interpretation, analysis, and visual representation of mean CO2 fluxes and associated

  13. Nested Global Inversion for the Carbon Flux Distribution in Canada and USA from 1994 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Deng, F.; Ishizawa, M.; Ju, W.; Mo, G.; Chan, D.; Higuchi, K.; Maksyutov, S.

    2007-12-01

    Based on TransCom inverse modeling for 22 global regions, we developed a nested global inversion system for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America (2 of the 22 regions are divided into 30). Irregular boundaries of these 30 regions are delineated based on ecosystem types and provincial/state borders. Synthesis Bayesian inversion is conducted in monthly steps using CO2 concentration measurements at 88 coastal and continental stations of the globe for the 1994-2003 period (NOAA GlobalView database). Responses of these stations to carbon fluxes from the 50 regions are simulated using the transport model of National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan and reanalysis wind fields of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Terrestrial carbon flux fields modeled using BEPS and Biome-BGC driven by NCEP reanalysis meteorological data are used as two different a priori to constrain the inversion. The inversion (top- down) results are compared with remote sensing-based ecosystem modeling (bottom-up) results in Canada's forests and wetlands. There is a broad consistency in the spatial pattern of the carbon source and sink distributions obtained using these two independent methods. Both sets of results also indicate that Canada's forests and wetlands are carbon sinks in 1994-2003, but the top-down method produces consistently larger sinks than the bottom-up results. Reasons for this discrepancy may lie in both methods, and several issues are identified for further investigation.

  14. Estimating forest and other terrestrial carbon fluxes at a national scale: the U.K. experience.

    PubMed

    Milne, Ronnie; Cannell, Melvin G R

    2005-01-01

    For the U.K. the best understood terrestrial carbon flux is that associated with the expansion of forest area over the past 80 years. Modelling methods are described that have been used to estimate this uptake of carbon for the Land-Use Change and Forestry sector in the Greenhouse Gas Inventory of the UNFCCC. Measurements of losses of carbon from afforested organic soils are also presented and the consequent effect on the net national carbon sink for forests is discussed. These calculations show that the expansion of forests is currently causing about 2.8-4.0 Tg (C) per year to be removed from the atmosphere, the uncertainty depending on assessment of the situation for plantations on organic soils. Within these totals about 1.9 Tg (C) per year is being added to living trees, about 0.4 Tg (C) per year to the stock of wood products and the rest to soils. A preliminary estimate for emissions of greenhouse gases resulting from removal of forests for residential development is also presented. Methods to map the variation in the net flux across Great Britain are discussed. The methods used, and the values estimated, for other UK terrestrial carbon fluxes are summarized. A comparison with emissions of CO2 from energy generation, etc. is made.

  15. Integrating water and carbon fluxes at the ecosystem scale across African ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merbold, Lutz; Brümmer, Christian; Archibald, Sally; Ardö, Jonas; Arneth, Almut; Brüggemann, Nicolas; de Grandcourt, Agnes; Kergoat, Laurent; Moffat, Antje M.; Mougin, Eric; Nouvellon, Yann; Saint-Andre, Laurent; Saunders, Matthew; Scholes, Robert J.; Veenendaal, Elmar; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we report on water and carbon dioxide fluxes, measured using the eddy covariance (EC) technology, from different ecosystems in Sub-Saharan Africa. These sites differed in ecosystem type (C3 plant dominated woodlands to C4 plant dominated grass savannas) and covered the very dry regions of the Sahel (250 mm rainfall, Sudan), the tropical areas in Central Africa (1650 mm in Uganda) further south to the subtropical areas in Botswana, Zambia and South Africa (400-900 mm in precipitation). The link between water and carbon dioxide fluxes were evaluated for time periods (see also the corresponding abstract by Bruemmer et al.) without water limitation during the peak growing season. Our results show that plant stomata control ecosystem scale water and carbon dioxide fluxes and mediate between plant growth and plant survival. On continental scale, this switch between maximizing carbon uptake and minimizing water losses, from here on called the "Carbon-Water-Tipping Point" was positively correlated to the mean annual growing season temperature at each site. Even though similar responses of plants were shown at the individual leaf-level scale this has to our knowledge not yet been shown at the ecosystem scale further suggesting a long-term adaptation of the complete ecosystems to certain climatic regions. It remains unclear how this adaption will influence the ecosystem response to ongoing climate change and according temperature increases and changes in precipitation.

  16. Soil organic carbon stocks and fluxes due to land use conversions at the European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, A.; Campling, P.

    2012-04-01

    European soils store around 73 to 79 billion tonnes of carbon, which is about 50 times the total CO2-equivalent emissions of the 27 Member States of the European Union in 2009 (4.6 billion tones; EEA, 2010). More than twice as much carbon is held in soils as compared to the storage in vegetation or the atmosphere. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are dynamic and changes in land use, land management and climate may result in instant losses, whereas gains accumulate more slowly over several decades. The soil organic carbon cycle is based on continually supplying carbon in the form of organic matter as a food source for microorganisms, the loss of some carbon as carbon dioxide, and the assimilation of stable carbon in the soil. The organic carbon stocks and fluxes to and from the soil across the EU were quantified for agriculture, forestry and peatlands under different land use change and management scenarios taking into account climate change and using a coupled regional balance and multi-compartment soil organic matter model (Roth-C). Abolishing permanent grassland restrictions would have a negative effect on SOC stocks, which at the EU level can be quantified in a loss 30% higher than in the case of maintaining the current permanent grassland restrictions. Promoting the afforestation of 10% and 25% former set-aside land in the EU-15 would reduce the loss of SOC stock by 2030 by 19% and 65% respectively compared to conversions to arable land. An increase of the current afforestation rates by 2% would result in a 10% increase in carbon stock levels by 2030. The combined effect of the land use conversions to and from agricultural land use demonstrate an EU-27 average -9.7 tonnes/ha SOC stock loss for the worst option and a +5.0 tonnes/ha SOC stock gain for C-Rich option. Larger variations between Member States than between scenario options stem from regional differences in bio-geography, soil types and climatic regimes. The amount of stable or humified organic carbon

  17. The Influence of North American Carbon Flux Spatial Distribution on the Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Gourdji, S.; Michalak, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    A small subset of biospheric model estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) are used to assess the ability of the North American CO2 sampling network to detect regional spatial variability (i.e., 1° x 1°) in land-atmospheric carbon flux. The atmospheric signal at continuous observation locations operating in 2004 resulting from biospheric model derived NEE is quantified using the WRF-STILT atmospheric transport model. The resulting CO2 concentration time series are then compared to determine if changes in the spatial distribution and degree of grid-scale variability in surface fluxes translate into detectable differences in their corresponding atmospheric CO2 signal. If no significant differences are observed, then inverse modeling approaches may be unable to infer a unique grid-scale (i.e., 1° x 1°) surface flux distribution (given the current sampling network). Tower-specific model-data mismatch error derived from real data and estimated using Restricted Maximum Likelihood (RML) is used to assess the significance of observed differences among transported CO2 signals. In general, distinct atmospheric CO2 signals of transported fluxes resulting from the different biospheric models are seen more frequently during the growing versus the dormant season and at towers located in areas of greater flux magnitude (e.g., forested regions). In addition, the greatest difference in CO2 time series is observed at towers with larger measurement footprints, such as Park Falls, Wisconsin (WLEF). Although the magnitude of carbon flux variability varies significantly among the biospheric models examined here, in many cases, these differences do not necessarily translate into significant differences in atmospheric CO2 signal at measurement locations. Thus, while inversions using atmospheric measurements may be able to detect ecoregion-scale or coarse resolution differences among surface flux distributions, they may be unable to detect unique distributions of grid-scale flux

  18. A High-Flux, Flexible Membrane with Parylene-encapsulated Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H G; In, J; Kim, S; Fornasiero, F; Holt, J K; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-03-14

    We present fabrication and characterization of a membrane based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and parylene. Carbon nanotubes have shown orders of magnitude enhancement in gas and water permeability compared to estimates generated by conventional theories [1, 2]. Large area membranes that exhibit flux enhancement characteristics of carbon nanotubes may provide an economical solution to a variety of technologies including water desalination [3] and gas sequestration [4]. We report a novel method of making carbon nanotube-based, robust membranes with large areas. A vertically aligned dense carbon nanotube array is infiltrated with parylene. Parylene polymer creates a pinhole free transparent film by exhibiting high surface conformity and excellent crevice penetration. Using this moisture-, chemical- and solvent-resistant polymer creates carbon nanotube membranes that promise to exhibit high stability and biocompatibility. CNT membranes are formed by releasing a free-standing film that consists of parylene-infiltrated CNTs, followed by CNT uncapping on both sides of the composite material. Thus fabricated membranes show flexibility and ductility due to the parylene matrix material, as well as high permeability attributed to embedded carbon nanotubes. These membranes have a potential for applications that may require high flux, flexibility and durability.

  19. Calcium carbonate does not affect imatinib pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tawbi, Hussein; Christner, Susan M; Lin, Yan; Johnson, Matthew; Mowrey, Emily T; Cherrin, Craig; Chu, Edward; Lee, James J; Puhalla, Shannon; Stoller, Ronald; Appleman, Leonard R; Miller, Brian M; Beumer, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec(®)/Glivec(®)) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemias and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and there is evidence for an exposure response relationship. Calcium carbonate is increasingly used as a calcium supplement and in the setting of gastric upset associated with imatinib therapy. Calcium carbonate could conceivably elevate gastric pH and complex imatinib, thereby influencing imatinib absorption and exposure. We aimed to evaluate whether use of calcium carbonate has a significant effect on imatinib pharmacokinetics. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled in a 2-period, open-label, single-institution, randomized crossover, fixed-schedule study. In one period, each subject received 400 mg of imatinib p.o. In the other period, 4,000 mg calcium carbonate (Tums Ultra(®)) was administered p.o. 15 min before 400 mg of imatinib. Plasma concentrations of imatinib and its active N-desmethyl metabolite CGP74588 were assayed by LC-MS; data were analyzed non-compartmentally and compared after log transformation. Calcium carbonate administration did not significantly affect the imatinib area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) (41.2 μg/mL h alone vs. 40.8 μg/mL h with calcium carbonate, P = 0.99), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) (2.35 μg/mL alone vs. 2.39 μg/mL with calcium carbonate, P = 0.89). Our results indicate that the use of calcium carbonate does not significantly affect imatinib pharmacokinetics.

  20. Quantifying the Observability of CO2 Flux Uncertainty in Atmospheric CO2 Records Using Products from Nasa's Carbon Monitoring Flux Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Lesley; Pawson, Steven; Collatz, Jim; Watson, Gregg; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Brix, Holger; Rousseaux, Cecile; Bowman, Kevin; Bowman, Kevin; Liu, Junjie; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael; Kawa, Stephan R.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Pilot Project (FPP) was designed to better understand contemporary carbon fluxes by bringing together state-of-the art models with remote sensing datasets. Here we report on simulations using NASAs Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) which was used to evaluate the consistency of two different sets of observationally constrained land and ocean fluxes with atmospheric CO2 records. Despite the strong data constraint, the average difference in annual terrestrial biosphere flux between the two land (NASA Ames CASA and CASA-GFED) models is 1.7 Pg C for 2009-2010. Ocean models (NOBM and ECCO2-Darwin) differ by 35 in their global estimates of carbon flux with particularly strong disagreement in high latitudes. Based upon combinations of terrestrial and ocean fluxes, GEOS-5 reasonably simulated the seasonal cycle observed at northern hemisphere surface sites and by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) while the model struggled to simulate the seasonal cycle at southern hemisphere surface locations. Though GEOS-5 was able to reasonably reproduce the patterns of XCO2 observed by GOSAT, it struggled to reproduce these aspects of AIRS observations. Despite large differences between land and ocean flux estimates, resulting differences in atmospheric mixing ratio were small, typically less than 5 ppmv at the surface and 3 ppmv in the XCO2 column. A statistical analysis based on the variability of observations shows that flux differences of these magnitudes are difficult to distinguish from natural variability, regardless of measurement platform.