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Sample records for affecting dairy cattle

  1. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  2. Factors affecting economics of using sexed semen in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McCullock, Katelyn; Hoag, Dana L K; Parsons, Jay; Lacy, Michael; Seidel, George E; Wailes, William

    2013-10-01

    The use of sexed semen in the dairy industry has grown rapidly. However, high costs and low fertility have limited the use of this potentially valuable tool. This study used simulation to evaluate 160,000 combinations of key variables in 3 spheres of influence related to profit feasibility: (1) market (e.g., milk and calf prices), (2) dairy farm management (e.g., conception rates), and (3) technology (e.g., accuracy of sexing). These influential variables were used to determine the most favorable circumstances in which managers or technicians can effect change. Three distinct scenarios were created to model 3 initiatives that a producer might take with sexed semen: (1) using sexed semen on heifers, (2) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and (3) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and breeding all other cows with beef semen. Due to the large number of management, market, and technology combinations, a response surface and interpretive graphs were created to map the scope of influence for the key variables. Technology variables such as the added cost of sexed semen had relatively little effect on profitability, defined as net present value gain per cow, whereas management variables such as conception rate had a significant effect. Milk price had relatively little effect within each scenario, but was important across scenarios. Profitability was very sensitive to the price of dairy heifer calves, relative to beef and dairy bull calves. Scenarios 1 and 2 added about $50 to $75 per cow in net present value, which ranged from $0 to $200 and from $100 to $300, respectively. Scenario 3 usually was not profitable, primarily because fewer excess dairy replacement heifers were available for sale. Dairy heifer price proved to be the most influential variable, regardless of scenario. PMID:23932128

  3. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  4. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the US have been available for Brown Swiss, Holstein and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database, including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations, permitting the investigation and impleme...

  5. A novel model to explain dietary factors affecting hypocalcaemia in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, Javier; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2011-12-01

    Most dairy cows exhibit different degrees of hypocalcaemia around calving because the gestational Ca requirements shift to the disproportionately high Ca requirements of lactation. Ca homeostasis is a robust system that effectively adapts to changes in Ca demand or supply. However, these adaptations often are not rapid enough to avoid hypocalcaemia. A delay in the reconfiguration of intestinal Ca absorption and bone resorption is probably the underlying cause of this transient hypocalcaemia. Several dietary factors that affect different aspects of Ca metabolism are known to reduce the incidence of milk fever. The present review describes the interactions between nutrition and Ca homeostasis using observations from cattle and extrapolations from other species and aims to quantitatively model the effects of the nutritional approaches that are used to induce dry cows into an early adaptation of Ca metabolism. The present model suggests that reducing dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) increases Ca clearance from the blood by dietary induction of systemic acidosis, which results in hypercalciuria due to the loss of function of the renal Ca transient receptor potential vanilloid channel TRPV5. Alternatively, reducing the gastrointestinal availability of Ca by reducing dietary Ca or its nutritional availability will also induce the activation of Ca metabolism to compensate for basal blood Ca clearance. Our model of gastrointestinal Ca availability as well as blood Ca clearance in the transition dairy cow allowed us to conclude that the most common dietary strategies for milk fever prevention may have analogous modes of action that are based on the principle of metabolic adaptation before calving. PMID:22098692

  6. An outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on an Irish dairy farm, following the consumption of raw milk

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is an ongoing problem in Ireland, and herd incidence has remained at approximately 5% for some years. Spillover of infection from cattle to people remains an ever-present possibility, given the ongoing pool of infection in the Irish cattle population. This paper describes an outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on a dairy farm in southeastern Ireland following the consumption of milk from a seven-year-old cow with tuberculous mastitis. Twenty-five of 28 calves born during autumn 2004 and spring 2005 were subsequently identified as TB reactors, and five of six family members were positive on the Mantoux test. During 2005, milk from this cow had mainly been used to feed calves, and was added only occasionally to the bulk tank. Therefore, the calves each received infected milk on an almost continuous basis between birth and weaning. The family collected milk from the bulk milk tank, and consumed it without pasteurisation. This case highlights the risks associated with the consumption of raw milk. In this family, TB has had a very significant impact on the health of two young children. These risks are well recognised, and relevant information for farmers is available. It is of concern, therefore, that raw milk consumption remains prevalent on Irish farms. New strategies are needed, in partnership with industry, to address this important issue. Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, Ireland, mastitis, milk, Mycobacterium bovis, pasteurisation, TB, zoonosis PMID:21851735

  7. Identification of Genetic Associations and Functional Polymorphisms of SAA1 Gene Affecting Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaohua; Gao, Yahui; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2016-01-01

    Our initial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene was differentially expressed in the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high versus low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. To further validate the genetic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of SAA1 gene involved in regulating milk production traits in dairy cattle, we herein performed a study through genotype-phenotype associations. Six identified SNPs were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits (0.00002< P < 0.0025), providing additional evidence for the potential role of SAA1 variants in milk production traits in dairy cows. Subsequently, both luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) clearly demonstrated that the allele A of g.-963C>A increased the promoter activity by binding the PARP factor while allele C did not. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the secondary structure of SAA protein changed by the substitution A/G in the locus c. +2510A>G. Our findings were the first to reveal the significant associations of the SAA1 gene with milk production traits, providing basis for further biological function validation, and two identified SNPs, g.-963C>A and c. +2510A>G, may be considered as genetic markers for breeding in dairy cattle. PMID:27610623

  8. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, S. Jegaveera; Subramanian, M.; Vijayakumar, G.; Balasubramaniam, G. A.; Sukumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy. PMID:27047034

  9. International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...

  10. Clostridium botulinum in cattle and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Miia; Myllykoski, Jan; Sivelä, Seppo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2010-04-01

    The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle with botulism has been reported, thus contamination of the farm environment and raw milk, and further transmission through the dairy chain, are possible. The standard milk pasteurization treatment does not eliminate spores, and the intrinsic factors of many dairy products allow botulinal growth and toxin production. Although rare, several large botulism outbreaks due to both commercial and home-prepared dairy products have been reported. Factors explaining these outbreaks include most importantly temperature abuse, but also unsafe formulation, inadequate fermentation, insufficient thermal processing, post-process contamination, and lack of adequate quality control for adjunct ingredients were involved. The small number of outbreaks is probably explained by a low incidence of spores in milk, the presence of competitive bacteria in pasteurized milk and other dairy products, and growth-inhibitory combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in cultured and processed dairy products. PMID:20301016

  11. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  12. Multibreed Genomic Evaluations in Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic evaluation models were developed and tested using 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2...

  13. Multibreed Genomic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic models were developed and tested using all 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2009 USD...

  14. Dairy cattle genomics evaluation program update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of genomic evaluation has caused profound changes in dairy cattle breeding. All young bulls bought by major artificial-insemination organizations now are selected based on these evaluation. Evaluation reliability can reach ~75% for yield traits, which is adequate for marketing semen o...

  15. Photoperiod length and the estrus synchronization protocol used before AI affect the twin pregnancy rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Vázquez, C; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2012-10-01

    This study addresses potential management risk factors affecting the incidence of twin pregnancies in high-producing dairy cows. Special attention was paid to the estrus synchronization protocol used before the AI resulting in pregnancy. Possible factors affecting the twin pregnancy rate were analyzed through binary logistic regression procedures on 2015 pregnant cows from July 2010 to July 2011. Twin pregnancy was recorded in 361 of the 2015 pregnancy diagnoses made (17.9%). Twin pregnancy rates differed among herds (P < 0.001) and ranged from 12.4% to 23.9%. Based on the odds ratios, the risk of twin pregnancy was reduced by factors of 0.65 or 0.71 when AI was performed during the warm season or an increasing photoperiod, respectively and increased by a factor of 1.11 for each unit increase in lactation number; by factors of 4.57 or 6.33 in cows that received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) plus 500 or 750 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) 28 days before the pregnancy AI, respectively; by a factor of 2.39 in cows with an ovarian cyst diagnosed in the 14 days prior to AI and treated with prostaglandins (PG); by factors of 1.94 or 3.91 in cows that received two PG doses during the 14 days prior to AI or cows that following failed PRID treatment had received PG started over the 28 days prior to AI, respectively; and by a factor of 2.58 in cows that had previously delivered twins compared to cows delivering singletons. Our results indicate that cow factors, such as lactation number and previous twining, as well as environmental factors, such as photoperiod and season and management related to synchronization protocols affect significantly the incidence of twin pregnancies. PMID:22898015

  16. Calculation and delivery of US genomic evaluations for dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April 2013, the responsibility for calculation and distribution of genomic evaluations for dairy cattle was transferred from the USDA to the US dairy industry’s Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding; the responsibility for development of evaluation methodology remained with the USDA. The Council on Da...

  17. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  18. Genetic improvement of dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding goals are determined by the traits that contribute to profit or efficiency of dairy production. Selection toward the breeding goal is on an index of traits that can be measured and subjected to genetic evaluation. Accuracy of selection depends on the correlation between the index and the br...

  19. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well-appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not...

  20. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. PMID:26830740

  1. Embryo development in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Forde, Niamh; Rizos, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    During the past 50 years, the fertility of high-producing lactating dairy cows has decreased, associated with intensive selection for increased milk production. The physiological and metabolic changes associated with high milk production, including decreased (glucose, insulin, IGF-I) or increased (nonesterified fatty acids, ketone bodies) concentrations of circulating metabolites during nutrient partitioning associated with negative energy balance as well as uterine and nonuterine diseases have been linked with poor reproductive efficiency. Fertilization is typically above 80% and does not seem to be the principal factor responsible for the low fertility in dairy cows. However, early embryonic development is compromised in high-producing dairy cows, as observed by most embryonic losses occurring during the first 2 weeks after fertilization and may be linked to compromised oocyte quality due to a poor follicular microenvironment, suboptimal reproductive tract environment for the embryo, and/or inadequate maternal-embryonic communication. These and other factors related to embryo development will be discussed. PMID:27158131

  2. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress affects production and reproduction in dairy cattle. Genetic selection for body temperature might help to decrease the effects of heat stress on those traits. Objectives of the current study were a) to estimate genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows under heat stress cond...

  3. National and international genomic evaluations for dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. More than 35,000 dairy cattle worldwide have been genotyped for 50,000 markers. Reliabilities of 60-70% for young genotyped animals are now possible as compared to 35% for parent average. Gains ...

  4. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. PMID:26700105

  5. Sterigmatocystin in dairy cattle feed contaminated with Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Vesonder, R F; Horn, B W

    1985-01-01

    Sterigmatocystin (7.75 micrograms/g of feed) and a high-propagule-density of Aspergillus versicolor were detected in feed associated with acute clinical symptoms of bloody diarrhea and death in dairy cattle. Nine isolates of A. versicolor from the feed produced 13 to 89 micrograms of sterigmatocystin per g on cracked corn and lower amounts in liquid culture. This is the first report of sterigmatocystin in dairy cattle feed in the United States. PMID:3977312

  6. Improving fertility of dairy cattle using translational genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for higher milk production in United States dairy cattle has been very successful during the past 50 years, however today’s lactating dairy cows exhibit a high incidence of subfertility and infertility with a national pregnancy rate of only 15%. An integrated approach to improve fertility ...

  7. Current status of practical applications: Probiotics in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...

  8. Monitoring nutrient loss in runoff from dairy cattle lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality issue. For dairy, nutrients can be lost from cropland, pastures, barnyards, and outdoor cattle lots. We monitored nutrient runoff for 3.5 years from plots representing cattle lots and corn silage cropland, and tested t...

  9. Comparison of enzyme activities in plasma and leukocytes in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Arai, Toshiro; Inoue, Akira; Takeguchi, Akira; Mizutani, Hisashi; Shimoo, Megumi; Sako, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Itaru; Kimura, Nobuhiro

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and free fatty acid (FFA) and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern in plasma and leukocytes were investigated in lactating Holstein cows (dairy cattle) and fattening Japanese Black Wagyu x Holstein steers (beef cattle). IRI concentrations and LDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities in the plasma of beef cattle were significantly higher than those in dairy cattle. The cytosolic ratio of MDH/LDH activity in the leukocytes of beef cattle was significantly higher than that of dairy cattle. These findings might be associated with the different energy metabolism between dairy and beef cattle. PMID:14665755

  10. Evidence for a natural humoral response in dairy cattle affected by persistent botulism sustained by non-chimeric type C strains.

    PubMed

    Bano, Luca; Drigo, Ilenia; Tonon, Elena; Berto, Giacomo; Tavella, Alexander; Woudstra, Cedric; Capello, Katia; Agnoletti, Fabrizio

    2015-12-01

    Bovine botulism is a sporadic acute disease that usually causes catastrophic losses in the herds. The unusual clinical evolution of a persistent mild outbreak in a dairy herd, prompted us to characterize the neurotoxin gene profile of the strain involved and to evaluate whether seroconversion had occurred. Diagnosis was based on mild classical symptoms and was supported by PCR and bacteriological findings, which revealed the involvement of a non-mosaic type C strain. An in-house ELISA was developed to detect antibodies to botulinum neurotoxin type C and its performance was evaluated in a vaccination study. Fifty days after the index case, fecal and serum samples were collected from the 14 animals of the herd and screened for Clostridium botulinum and anti-botulinum neurotoxin antibodies type C, respectively. The in-house developed ELISA was also used to test 100 sera samples randomly collected from 20 herds. Strong ELISA reactions were observed in 3 convalescent and 5 asymptomatic animals involved in the studied outbreak. The ELISA-positive cows all tested positive for non-mosaic C. botulinum type C in the feces and the same strain was also detected in the alfalfa hay, suspected to be the carrier source. Ten out of the 100 randomly collected sera tested positive for anti-botulinum neurotoxin type C antibodies: 7 had borderline values and 3 from the same herd showed titers three times higher than the cut-off. We concluded that type C botulism in cattle may occur with variable severity and that prolonged exposure to sublethal doses of botulinum neurotoxin C may occur, resulting in detectable antibodies. PMID:26432776

  11. Niacin for dairy cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Niehoff, Inka-Donata; Hüther, Liane; Lebzien, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Due to the incorporation of niacin into the coenzymes NAD and NADP, niacin is of great importance for the metabolism of man and animals. Apart from niacin in feed and endogenous formation, microbial niacin synthesis in the rumen is an important source for dairy cows. But the amount synthesised seems to differ greatly, which might be influenced by the ration fed. Many studies revealed a positive impact of a niacin supplementation on rumen protozoa, but microbial protein synthesis or volatile fatty acid production in the rumen showed inconsistent reactions to supplemental niacin. The amount of niacin reaching the duodenum is usually higher when niacin is fed. However, not the whole quantity supplemented reaches the duodenum, indicating degradation or absorption before the duodenal cannula. Furthermore, supplementation of niacin did not always lead to a higher niacin concentration in blood. Effects on other blood parameters have been inconsistent, but might be more obvious when cows are in a tense metabolic situation, for example, ketosis or if high amounts are infused post-ruminally, since ruminal degradation appears to be substantial. The same is valid for milk parameters. In the few studies where blood niacin and milk parameters have been investigated, enhanced niacin concentrations in blood did not necessarily affect milk production or composition. These results are discussed in the present review, gaps of knowledge of niacin's mode of action on the metabolism of dairy cows are identified and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:18702847

  12. The effect of conspecific removal on behavioral and physiological responses of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica K; Arney, David R; Waran, Natalie K; Handel, Ian G; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-12-01

    Adverse social and welfare implications of mixing dairy cows or separating calves from their mothers have been documented previously. Here we investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of individuals remaining after conspecifics were removed. We conducted a series of 4 experiments incorporating a range of types of different dairy cattle groupings [experiment 1 (E1), 126 outdoor lactating dairy cows; experiment 2 (E2), 120 housed lactating dairy cows; experiment 3 (E3), 18 housed dairy calves; and experiment 4 (E4), 22 housed dairy bulls] from which a subset of individuals were permanently removed (E1, n=7; E2, n=5; E3, n=9; E4, n=18). Associations between individuals were established using near-neighbor scores (based upon identities and distances between animals recorded before removal) in E1, E2, and E3. Behavioral recordings were taken for 3 to 5 d, before and after removal on a sample of cattle in all 4 experiments (E1, n=20; E2, n=20; E3, n=9; E4, n=4). In 2 experiments with relatively large groups of dairy cows, E1 and E2, the responses of cows that did and did not associate with the removed cows were compared. An increase in time that both nonassociates and associates spent eating was observed after conspecific removal in E1. In E2, this increase was restricted to cows that had not associated with the removed cows. A reduction in ruminating in remaining cattle was observed in E3 and eating in E4. Immunoglobulin A concentrations increased after separation in both E3 and E4 cattle, but did not differ significantly between associates and nonassociates in E2. Blood and milk cortisol concentrations were not affected by conspecific removal. These findings suggest that some animals had affected feeding behavior and IgA concentrations after removal of conspecifics. PMID:26454304

  13. Monitoring metabolic health of dairy cattle in the transition period.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the importance of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows, its associations with disease and reproduction, and strategies for monitoring cows under field conditions during this critical time. Essentially all dairy cattle experience a period of insulin resistance, reduced feed intake, negative energy balance, hypocalcemia, reduced immune function, and bacterial contamination of the uterus soon before, or in the weeks after calving. One-third of dairy cows may be affected by some form of metabolic or infectious disease in early lactation. Routine, proactive actions, observations, or analysis are intended to accurately and efficiently provide early detection of problems, to provide an opportunity for investigation and intervention in order to limit the consequences and costs of health problems and reduced animal performance or welfare. Methods of early detection include monitoring of disease and culling records, feed intake, milk production, body condition, and simple metabolic tests. Methods, strategies, and interpretation of measurement of peripartum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as indicators of aspects of energy status and disease risk are reviewed. High NEFA (> 0.4 mmol/l) in the last 7 to 10 days before expected calving is associated with increased risk of displaced abomasum (DA), retained placenta, culling before 60 days in milk, and less milk production in the first 4 months of lactation. Subclinical ketosis (serum BHB >1200 to 1400 micromol/l) in the first or second week after calving is associated with increased risk of DA, metritis, clinical ketosis, endometritis, prolonged postpartum anovulation, increased severity of mastitis, and lower milk production in early lactation. There are several validated and practical tools for cow-side measurement of ketosis. PMID:20629214

  14. Properties of different density genotypes used in dairy cattle evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle breeders have used a 50K chip since April 2008 and a less expensive, lower density (3K) chip since September 2010 in genomic selection. Evaluations from 3K are less reliable because genotype calls are less accurate and missing markers are imputed. After excluding genotypes with < 90% ca...

  15. Genomic evaluation of health traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest from dairy producers in traits related to health and fitness of cattle, which often have low heritabilities but high economic values. Traits with low heritability can be improved by genetic selection, but large numbers of daughter records are required to produce predicted t...

  16. Applications of Genomics to Genetic Improvement of Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of genomic evaluation has caused profound changes in dairy cattle breeding. All young bulls bought by major artificial-insemination (AI) organizations now are selected based on such evaluations. Evaluation reliability can reach about 75% for yield traits, which is adequate for marketi...

  17. Increased use of young bulls in dairy cattle breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of genomic evaluations since 2008 has provided many benefits with regard to improving the rate of genetic gain in dairy cattle breeding programs, one of which is a greater accuracy for young animals. As a result, AI organizations have been aggressively promoting young bulls and producer...

  18. Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 current linear type traits for Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is defined as a composite trait measuring the cow’s ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50-99 were assigned by appraisers fo...

  19. Genomic Selection and its Effects on Dairy Cattle Breeding Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of high-throughput assays for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) has led to the genotyping of thousands of dairy cattle, mostly progeny tested bulls in artificial insemination programs or young bulls that are candidates for such programs, using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip...

  20. Gene expression profiling for genetic merit in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression patterns have been shown to be a heritable trait in dairy cattle. Thus, the pattern of gene expression in many selected tissues may serve as a biomarker for genetic stature or physiological condition. Our laboratory has conducted a 5-year study on the use of gene expression pattern...

  1. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...

  2. Differences among methods to validate genomic evaluations for dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two methods of testing predictions from genomic evaluations were investigated. Data used were from the April 2010 and August 2006 official USDA genetic evaluations of dairy cattle. The training data set consisted of both cows and bulls that were proven (had own or daughter information) as of Augus...

  3. Fecal Shedding of Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I. V.; Wells, S. J.; Harmon, K. M.; Green, A.; Schroeder-Tucker, L.; Glover, M.; Siddique, I.

    2000-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-PCR assays. For C. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. Farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for C. jejuni. Statistical significance was set at a P of 0.20. Using these criteria, application of manure with broadcast spreaders (P = 0.17), feeding of whole cottonseed or hulls (P = 0.17) or alfalfa (P = 0.15), and accessibility of feed to birds (P = 0.17) were identified as possible risk factors for C. jejuni infection. C. coli was detected in at least one animal in 19.4% of operations and 1.8% of individual cows (n = 2,085). At the herd level, use of broadcaster spreaders was not a risk factor for C. coli infection. For Arcobacter, cows from 71% of dairy operations (n = 31) and 14.3% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 1,682) were positive. At the herd level, for Arcobacter spp., feeding of alfalfa (P = 0.11) and use of individual waterers (P = 0.19) were protective. This is the first description of Arcobacter spp. in clinically healthy dairy cattle and the first attempt to correlate their presence with C. jejuni. PMID:10788372

  4. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A K; Singh, Avtar; Upadhyay, Arpan; Singh, Manvendra; Yousuf, Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI) is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The objective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ) (October to March) is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September) and critical HSZ (CHSZ) (May and June). Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate. PMID:27057105

  5. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A. K.; Singh, Avtar; Upadhyay, Arpan; Singh, Manvendra; Yousuf, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI) is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The objective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ) (October to March) is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September) and critical HSZ (CHSZ) (May and June). Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate. PMID:27057105

  6. No incidence of DUMPS carriers in Polish dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Stanisław; Grzybowski, Grzegorz; Prusak, Beata; Ruść, Anna

    2005-01-01

    DUMPS (Deficiency of Uridine Monophosphate Synthase) is a hereditary recessive disorder in Holstein cattle causing early embryo mortality during its implantation in the uterus. The only way to avoid the economic losses is early detection of DUMPS carriers. Because American Holstein semen has been intensively imported to Poland since 1970, there was a risk that DUMPS could have spread in Polish dairy cattle. In our study, 2209 dairy cattle of the Polish Holstein breed have been screened by the DNA test. The dominant group was young bulls entering the testing program (1171) and proven bulls (781). They represented all sires entering Polish breeding programs between 1999 and 2003. Also, 257 sire dams were included in the screening program. No DUMPS carrier has been found. Our results then indicate that the population of dairy cattle reared in Poland is free from DUMPS. Because of the economical significance of the DUMPS mutation and its recessive mode of inheritance, attention has to be paid to any case of a bull having in his origin any known DUMPS carrier. Such a bull should be tested and if positive eliminated from the active population. Also, young bulls (testing bulls) should be screened for DUMPS if in their progeny a high incidence of embryo mortality is observed and their genealogy cannot exclude their relatedness to any DUMPS carriers. PMID:16278513

  7. Exposure of farm laborers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbath use at a dairy farm in New York State.

    PubMed

    Doane, M; Sarenbo, S

    2014-07-15

    Formalin footbaths are commonly used in the dairy industry to prevent cattle hoof diseases. Although formalin is a well-documented disinfectant, it is also a carcinogen and irritant. The aim of this study was to estimate the exposure of farm workers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbaths located in a milking facility and a heifer facility at a dairy farm in western New York, USA. The dairy farm included approximately 3900 dairy cattle including young stock; of these, 1670 cows were milked three times per day in a 60-stall carousel milking parlor, and approximately 800 heifers were located at the heifer facility where footbaths with formalin were in use. The formaldehyde concentration of the air was measured using a Formaldemeter™ htV approximately 50cm above the 3% formalin footbaths in the milking (one footbath location) and heifer (three footbath locations) facilities on three consecutive days. The measured formaldehyde concentrations varied between 0.00 and 2.28ppm, falling within the safety guidelines established by the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States. Significant differences were found in the formaldehyde concentrations at the different footbath locations in the heifer facility, potentially due to the varying levels of ventilation at each location. Changes in the ambient temperature during the 3-day sampling period did not significantly affect the concentrations. We believe that the substantial ventilation at both the heifer and milking facilities ensured that the formaldehyde concentrations did not exceed OSHA guidelines, thus permitting the safe use of formalin footbaths in this farm. PMID:24768913

  8. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    PubMed Central

    Gavrea, R.R.; Iovu, A.; Losson, B.; Cozma, V.

    2011-01-01

    Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves) were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862) and 30.8% for calves (12/39) respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed. PMID:22091468

  9. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in beef and dairy cattle production.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Sawant, Ashish A

    2008-12-01

    Observational studies of cattle production systems usually find that cattle from conventional dairies harbor a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) enteric bacteria compared to organic dairies or beef-cow operations; given that dairies usually use more antimicrobials, this result is not unexpected. Experimental studies have usually verified that application of antimicrobials leads to at least a transient expansion of AMR bacterial populations in treated cattle. Nevertheless, on dairy farms the majority of antibiotics are used to treat mastitis and yet AMR remains relatively low in mastitis pathogens. Other studies have shown no correlation between antimicrobial use and prevalence of AMR bacteria including documented cases where the prevalence of AMR bacteria is non-responsive to antimicrobial applications or remains relatively high in the absence of antimicrobial use or any other obvious selective pressures. Thus, there are multi-factorial events and pressures that influence AMR bacterial populations in cattle production systems. We introduce a heuristic model that illustrates how repeated antimicrobial selection pressure can increase the probability of genetic linkage between AMR genes and niche- or growth-specific fitness traits. This linkage allows persistence of AMR bacteria at the herd level because subpopulations of AMR bacteria are able to reside long-term within the host animals even in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure. This model highlights the need for multiple approaches to manage herd health so that the total amount of antimicrobials is limited in a manner that meets animal welfare and public health needs while reducing costs for producers and consumers over the long-term. PMID:18983724

  11. Invited review: genomic selection in multi-breed dairy cattle populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection has been a valuable tool for increasing the rate of genetic improvement in purebred dairy cattle populations. However, there also are many large populations of crossbred dairy cattle in the world, and multi-breed genomic evaluations may be a valuable tool for improving rates of gen...

  12. SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 IN DAIRY CATTLE FEED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cattle feed waters from two dairy farms were used in a study to determine the survival characteristics of the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli )157:H7 and wild-type E. coli. The E. coli 0157:H7 inoculum consisted of a consortium of isolates obtained from dairy cattle. Fresh ma...

  13. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from U.S. dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To estimate prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci in feces collected in 2007 from U.S. dairy cattle. Methods and Results: A total of 718 fecal samples from 122 dairy cattle operations from 17 U.S. states were collected and cultured for the presence of enterococci. One ...

  14. Neospora caninum associated with epidemic abortions in dairy cattle: the first clinical neosporosis report in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kul, Oğuz; Kabakci, Nalan; Yildiz, Kader; Ocal, Naci; Kalender, Hakan; Ilkme, N Aycan

    2009-01-22

    Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite, has been considered as one of the most important etiological agents responsible for abortion in dairy cattle throughout the world since it was first identified in dogs in 1988. In this report, characteristics of neosporosis, detected in a dairy cow ranch having epidemic abortions as high as 18.4%, were described. Blood samples were collected from 25 infertile or aborted dairy cattle, 6 calves born in 2006 and 40 heifers that were born in 2005 and raised in the same ranch. Necropsy was conducted in a 20-day-old Simmental calf that exhibited neurological signs including incoordination, head shaking, hyperextension in forelimbs and hindlimbs and tremor. The seroprevalance in aborted or infertile dairy cattle, heifers, and calves was 60%, 40%, and 33.3%, respectively. The mothers of seropositive two calves including clinically affected calf and its dam were N. caninum seropositive. In immunoperoxidase examinations, N. caninum antigen immunopositivity was observed in the degenerative and necrotic neurons in the brain, cerebellum as well as neurons in dorsal root ganglia of the cervical and thoracic regions of the spinal cord. In the heart, myocytes and Purkinje cells exhibited granular and linear patterns of immunoreactivity. Striated myofibers around the eyeball also showed immunolocalization for N. caninum antigen. Ultrastructurally, tachyzoites with typical apical complex, rhoptries and double-layered parasitic membrane were detected in the brain and heart sections. In conclusion, this report described clinical neosporosis for the first time in Turkey with tissue localization of the causative agents. This scientific communication also discusses the possible impact of cattle neosporosis by clinical, serologic and pathologic evidences collected from the survey of calves born in two successive generations in a ranch. PMID:19028014

  15. A longitudinal study of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2009-07-01

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was used to amplify a fragment of the internal transcriber spacer region of the rRNA gene. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence was 24% (239/990) with a lower prevalence in pre-weaned calves (less than 8 weeks of age; 11.7%) and heifers (13-24 months of age) than post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age; 44.4%). Over the course of 24 months, the cumulative prevalence of E. bieneusi was 100% since all 30 calves shed spores at some time during the study. One or more of three genotypes of E. bieneusi, J, I, and BEB4, were detected in all 30 animals. Genotype I was detected in all 30 cattle between 1 week and 22 months of age with some cattle remaining infected as long as 17 months. At 4 months of age, 28 cattle were infected with genotype I. Genotype BEB4 was detected briefly in seven cattle, most between 15 and 20 months of age. Genotype J was detected in eight cattle, all between 16 and 24 months of age. This longitudinal study strongly supports the findings of point prevalence, multiple farm studies in which genotypes J, I, and BEB 4 were found. These genotypes appear to be cattle specific and have not been found in humans or other animals. PMID:19259701

  16. Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia’s Earliest Neolithic

    PubMed Central

    Gron, Kurt J.; Montgomery, Janet; Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy. PMID:26146989

  17. Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

    PubMed

    Gron, Kurt J; Montgomery, Janet; Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy. PMID:26146989

  18. Protein feeding and balancing for amino acids in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Patton, Robert A; Hristov, Alexander N; Lapierre, Hélène

    2014-11-01

    This article summarizes the current literature as regards metabolizable protein (MP) and essential amino acid (EAA) nutrition of dairy cattle. Emphasis has been placed on research since the publication of the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition (2001). Postruminal metabolism of EAA is discussed in terms of the effect on requirements. This article suggests methods for practical application of MP and EAA balance in milking dairy cows. PMID:25245615

  19. Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pozzato, N; Capello, K; Comin, A; Toft, N; Nielsen, S S; Vicenzoni, G; Arrigoni, N

    2011-10-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects multiple ruminant species causing important economic losses. Therefore, control programmes at herd and regional levels have been established worldwide and prevalence estimates are needed for their implementation. Although different herd-level prevalence estimations for paratuberculosis have been reported in Europe, very few studies provided comparable and interpretable values, due to poor study designs and lack of knowledge about the accuracy of the diagnostic tests used. To overcome these problems we applied a latent class analysis to the results of two prevalence studies carried out in two neighbouring Northern Italian regions (Lombardy and Veneto) that account for over 50% of the Italian dairy cattle population. Serum samples from a randomly selected number of farms in the two regions were analyzed by different ELISA tests. The herd-level Apparent Prevalences (AP) were 48% (190/391) for Lombardy and 65% (272/419) for Veneto. Median within-herd APs were 2.6% and 4.0% for Lombardy and Veneto, respectively. Posterior estimates for the herd-level True Prevalences (TP) based on a Bayesian model were very similar between the two regions (70% for Lombardy and 71% for Veneto) and close to previous estimates of infected herds in Europe. The two 95% credibility intervals overlap each other, virtually showing only one distribution of the herd-level true prevalence for both regions. On the contrary, estimates of the within-herd TP distributions differed between the two regions (mean values: 6.7% for Lombardy and 14.3% for Veneto), possibly due to the different age distribution within the herds from the two regions. PMID:21807432

  20. Paramphistomum spp. in Dairy Cattle in Québec

    PubMed Central

    Bouvry, M.; Rau, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Few cases of infection with Paramphistomum spp. have been reported from cattle in Canada. During the course of a recent study of bovine fascioliasis both P. microbothrioides and P. liorchis were found in the rumen of dairy cattle slaughtered in a Quebec abattoir. Eggs in feces were distinguished on the basis of their size. Coprological analysis of 932 samples from 601 cows on 17 selected farms in Portneuf County (Quebec) revealed that 34% of the animals were infected with P. microbothrioides and 1% with P. liorchis. Based on data from one herd there appears to be significant seasonal variation in egg passage for P. microbothrioides. Furthermore, old cows exhibited a higher prevalence of infection. PMID:17422453

  1. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from dairy cattle in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Córdoba, María Alejandra; Bilbao, Gladys; de Almeida Castro, Pinto; Basualdo, Juan Angel; Santín, Mónica

    2014-01-17

    Fecal specimens were obtained from a total of 70 dairy calves less than two months old on 11 municipalities in Buenos Aires, Argentina. After removal of fecal debris by sieving and sucrose flotation, specimens were subjected to PCR to detect the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. PCR revealed a 14.3% of prevalence for E. bieneusi with 10 positive calves from 7 municipalities. Gene sequence analysis conducted in all samples positives by PCR revealed the presence of six genotypes; four previously reported in cattle as well as humans (D, I, J, and BEB4), one never reported in cattle before but previously reported in humans (EbpC), and one novel genotype (BEB10). These results constitute the first molecular characterization of E. bieneusi in Argentina, and suggest a potential risk of zoonotic transmission in this area. PMID:24126086

  2. Applying breeding objectives to dairy cattle improvement.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, J C; Gibson, J P

    1998-09-01

    Otherwise well-researched definitions of breeding objectives and selection criteria may never be used in practice if those definitions do not take into account the perceptions and wishes of the breeders for whom they are designed. Finding selection criteria that are widely accepted and implemented is a daunting task that requires considerable time and full interaction between the scientists and the industry. We review various aspects of this process and, in particular, how scientific principles can be used to ensure that the outcome best meets both the perceptions and needs of the users while remaining as close as possible to the technical economic optimum. Alternative methods of presenting and delivering selection indexes, such as index expression, index formulation, focus on response to selection rather than on index weights, construction of component indexes, and the use of direct accounting for costs of constraints rather than rescaling methods can all help in improving acceptance of an index. Development and implementation of selection criteria also involve consideration of the selective mating decisions that form an integral part of selection decisions in the field. The technical basis of factors that foster emphasis on individual mating decisions in the field are discussed in relation to formulation of the breeding goal and selection index and in relation to nonlinear economic and genetic parameters. Strategies that focus on use of a linear index for the selection of sires and dams followed by selective mating of selected parents have the greatest potential for implementation in the industry. We focus on examples taken from the Canadian dairy industry, but principles apply generally. PMID:9777509

  3. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  4. Prevalence of virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli derived from dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  5. Cattle rabies vaccination--A longitudinal study of rabies antibody titres in an Israeli dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, Boris; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, Nelli; Rozenblut, Shira; Tov, Boris Even; Markos, Majid; Gallon, Nadav; Homer, David; Maki, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to many regions of the world where rabies is endemic in terrestrial wildlife species, wildlife rabies has been controlled in Israel by oral rabies vaccination programs, but canine rabies is re-emerging in the northern area of the Golan Heights. From 2009 to 2014 there were 208 animal rabies cases in Israel; 96 (46%) were considered introduced primary cases in dogs, triggering 112 secondary cases. One third (37/112) of the secondary cases were in cattle. Rabies vaccination is voluntary for cattle in Israel, except those on public exhibit. Rabies vaccination schedules for cattle vary based on farm practices and perception of risk. In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. Four groups contained adult cows which had received one previous rabies vaccination, one group of adults had received two previous vaccinations, and one group was unvaccinated calves. Serum samples were collected and the cows were vaccinated with a commercial rabies vaccine. Sera were again collected 39 days later and the calf group re-vaccinated and re-sampled 18 days later. Sera were analyzed for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the rapid immunofluorescent antibody test. Cattle with antibody titres ≥ 0.5 IU/ml were considered to be protected against rabies. Twenty-six of 27 adult cattle (96%) vaccinated once at less than five months old did not have protective titres. Sixty percent (6/10) cattle vaccinated once at around six months of age did have adequate titres. Cattle previously vaccinated twice (n=10; 100%) with an 18 month interval between inoculations, had protective titres and protective antibody titres following booster vaccination (n=51; 100%). The anamnestic response of cattle to a killed rabies vaccine was not affected by the time interval between vaccinations, which ranged from 12 to 36 months. These results suggest that calves from

  6. A method for the simulation of normal, carrier and affected controls for PCR-RFLP screening of a genetic disease in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, P N; Mehta, H H; Rathod, R N

    2000-12-01

    A technique is described that may be used to create in vitro mutations in PCR templates to generate affected and carrier controls for diagnostic testing when DNA from such individuals is not easily obtained. The method is demonstrated for a PCR-RFLP diagnostic test of the genetic disorder BLAD (Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency). PMID:11090268

  7. Hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cattle during the transition period

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Takamizawa, Aya; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z.; Endoh, Daiji; Oikawa, Shin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cows during the transition period. Four clinically healthy, pregnant dairy cattle were used. The cows had no clinical diseases throughout this study. Blood samples were collected and livers were biopsied from the cows at 3 different times: 3 weeks before expected partition (wk −3); during parturition (wk 0), and 3 weeks (wk +3) after parturition. The damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) caused by hepatocytes was evaluated by comet assay. The apoptotic features of hepatocytes were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic analyses. The hepatic triglyceride content markedly increased at wk 0 and wk +3 compared with the values at wk −3. The results of the comet assay showed increases in the mean tail moment values of hepatic cells after parturition in all cows, which suggested increased DNA damage. Histopathologically, the hepatocytes began to contain lipid droplets at wk 0 and were severely opacified at wk +3. Caspase-3-positive and single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA)-positive cells were first detected in the liver after parturition. Condensation of nuclear chromatin, a typical sign of apoptosis, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy after parturition. These results suggest that apoptosis is induced in hepatocytes of dairy cows around parturition and may result from lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. PMID:23543948

  8. Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk.

    PubMed

    Combrink, Michael P; Carr, Graham; Mans, Ben J; Marais, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30) resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11). Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter) of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5) testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6) tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended. PMID:23327323

  9. Investigations on Genetic Architecture of Hairy Loci in Dairy Cattle by Using Single and Whole Genome Regression Approaches.

    PubMed

    Karacaören, B

    2016-07-01

    Development of body hair is an important physiological and cellular process that leads to better adaption in tropical environments for dairy cattle. Various studies suggested a major gene and, more recently, associated genes for hairy locus in dairy cattle. Main aim of this study was to i) employ a variant of the discordant sib pair model, in which half sibs from the same sires are randomly sampled using their affection statues, ii) use various single marker regression approaches, and iii) use whole genome regression approaches to dissect genetic architecture of the hairy gene in the cattle. Whole and single genome regression approaches detected strong genomic signals from Chromosome 23. Although there is a major gene effect on hairy phenotype sourced from chromosome 23: whole genome regression approach also suggested polygenic component related with other parts of the genome. Such a result could not be obtained by any of the single marker approaches. PMID:26954150

  10. The importance of the oxidative status of dairy cattle in the periparturient period: revisiting antioxidant supplementation.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health. PMID:25475653

  11. Detection of genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties in Danish Holstein dairy cattle by analyses of pooled whole-genome sequences from phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, H P; Gregersen, V R; Poulsen, N; Nielsen, R O; Das, A; Madsen, L B; Buitenhuis, A J; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Larsen, L B; Bendixen, C

    2016-04-01

    Rennet-induced milk coagulation is an important trait for cheese production. Recent studies have reported an alarming frequency of cows producing poorly coagulating milk unsuitable for cheese production. Several genetic factors are known to affect milk coagulation, including variation in the major milk proteins; however, recent association studies indicate genetic effects from other genomic regions as well. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties, measured as curd-firming rate (CFR) and milk pH. This was achieved by examining allele frequency differences between pooled whole-genome sequences of phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).. Curd-firming rate and raw milk pH were measured for 415 Danish Holstein cows, and each animal was sequenced at low coverage. Pools were created containing whole genome sequence reads from samples with "extreme" values (high or low) for both phenotypic traits. A total of 6,992,186 and 5,295,501 SNP were assessed in relation to CFR and milk pH, respectively. Allele frequency differences were calculated between pools and 32 significantly different SNP were detected, 1 for milk pH and 31 for CFR, of which 19 are located on chromosome 6. A total of 9 significant SNP, which were selected based on the possible function of proximal candidate genes, were genotyped in the entire sample set ( = 415) to test for an association. The most significant SNP was located proximal to , explaining 33% of the phenotypic variance. , coding for κ-casein, is the most studied in relation to milk coagulation due to its position on the surface of the casein micelles and the direct involvement in milk coagulation. Three additional SNP located on chromosome 6 showed significant associations explaining 7, 3.6, and 1.3% of the phenotypic variance of CFR. The significant SNP on chromosome 6 were shown to be in linkage disequilibrium with the SNP peaking proximal to ; however, after accounting for the genotype of

  12. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  13. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea.

    PubMed

    Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control. PMID:23718833

  14. Reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in healthy Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    There are no accurate reference ranges for hematology parameters and lymphocyte subsets in Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo). This study was performed to establish reliable reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets using a large number of Hanwoo cattle (n = 350) and to compare differences between Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle (n = 334). Additionally, age-related changes in lymphocyte subsets were studied. Bovine leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed using mono or dual color flow cytometry. The leukocyte subpopulations investigated in healthy cattle included: CD2(+) cells, sIgM(+) cells, MHC class II(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) cells, CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, and WC1(+) cells. Although Hanwoo and Holstein cattle are the same species, results showed several differences in hematology and lymphocyte subsets between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. This study is the first report to establish reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in adult Hanwoo cattle. PMID:26419947

  15. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Hitschfeld, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated. PMID:24031386

  16. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-30

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some

  17. Evaluating an intervention to reduce lameness in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Main, D C J; Leach, K A; Barker, Z E; Sedgwick, A K; Maggs, C M; Bell, N J; Whay, H R

    2012-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cattle remains a significant welfare concern for the UK dairy industry. Farms were recruited into a 3-yr study evaluating novel intervention approaches designed to encourage farmers to implement husbandry changes targeted toward reducing lameness. All farms completing the study were visited at least annually and received either monitoring only (MO, n=72) or monitoring and additional support (MS, n = 117) from the research team. The additional support included traditional technical advice on farm-specific solutions, facilitation techniques to encourage farmer participation, and application of social marketing principles to promote implementation of change. Lameness prevalence was lower in the MO (27.0 ± 1.94 SEM) and MS (21.4 ± 1.28) farms at the final visit compared with the same MO (38.9 ± 2.06) and MS (33.3 ± 1.76) farms on the initial visit. After accounting for initial lameness, intervention group status, and year of visit within a multilevel model, we observed an interaction between year and provision of support, with the reduction in lameness over time being greater in the MS group compared with the MO group. Farms in the MS group made a greater number of changes to their husbandry practices over the duration of the project (8.2 ± 0.39) compared with those farms in the MO group (6.5 ± 0.54). Because the lameness prevalence was lower in the MS group than the MO group at the start of the study, the contribution of the additional support was difficult to define. Lameness can be reduced on UK dairy farms although further work is needed to identify the optimum approaches. PMID:22612932

  18. Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy cattle: risk factors for becoming a carrier.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R; Schukken, Y H; Gröhn, Y T; Ersbøll, A K

    2004-08-30

    Long-term Salmonella Dublin carrier animals harbor the pathogen in lymph nodes and internal organs and can periodically shed bacteria through feces or milk, and contribute to transmission of the pathogen within infected herds. Thus, it is of great interest to reduce the number of new carrier animals in cattle herds. An observational field study was performed to evaluate factors affecting the risk that dairy cattle become carrier animals after infection with Salmonella Dublin. Based on repeated sampling, cattle in 12 Danish dairy herds were categorized according to course of infection, as either carriers (n = 157) or transiently infected (n = 87). The infection date for each animal was estimated from fecal excretion and antibody responses. The relationship between the course of infection (carrier versus transiently infected) and risk factors were analyzed using a random effect multilevel, multivariable logistic regression model. The animals with the highest risk of becoming carriers were heifers infected between the age of 1 year and 1st calving, and cows infected around the time of calving. The risk was higher in the first two quarters of the year (late Winter to Spring), and when the prevalence of potential shedders in the herd was low. The risk also varied between herds. The herds with the highest risk of carrier development were herds with clinical disease outbreaks during the study period. These findings are useful for future control strategies against Salmonella Dublin, because they show the importance of optimized calving management and management of heifers, and because they show that even when the herd prevalence is low, carriers are still being produced. The results raise new questions about the development of the carrier state in cattle after infection with low doses of Salmonella Dublin. PMID:15454326

  19. The effect of Jonhe's Disease status on reproduction and culling in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the costs attributed to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle, the impacts on reproduction and culling are the least documented. In order to properly estimate the cost of MAP infections in a dairy herd, the rates of calving and culling were calculated for...

  20. Mycoplasma bovis infections in Swiss dairy cattle: a clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart H P; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress

  1. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robert F.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Nkongho, Egbe F.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent; Andu, Walters N.; Sander, Melissa; Ndip, Lucy; Handel, Ian G.; Mazeri, Stella; Muwonge, Adrian; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases. Study design A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon. Results Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk. Conclusions Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation

  2. Effect of dietary monensin on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monensin is a carboxylic polyether ionophore antibiotic that is routinely used to improve the performance of beef cattle and was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the use in dairy cattle to improve milk yields. Previous studies have suggested that monensin improves anima...

  3. A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...

  4. Public and farmer perceptions of dairy cattle welfare in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C

    2016-07-01

    This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media. PMID:27179876

  5. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boichard, D; Brochard, M

    2012-04-01

    Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen

  6. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock. PMID:16031332

  7. Kosovo’s Public Health Damage from Abusive Use of Antibiotics in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ibraimi, Zana; Shehi, Agim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Krasniqi, Shaip; Agani, Zana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to assess the state of the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle in Kosovo according to different diagnosis as directed by treatment protocol and to evaluate the methods of their application in dairy cattle. Methods: We’ve visited over 80% of dairy farms throughout the territory of Kosovo in 2013. Assessment was carried out through a specific questionnaire, which identifies problems with medical treatment of cattle, the number of cattle treated and untreated, description of dose and type of drugs used, as well as the duration of drugs issuance. Results: In Kosovo for the treatment of sick cows are mainly used beta lactams and sulfonamides. The drugs were not given only to sick cattle by their diagnosis, but they were given to healthy cattle too, as a preventative therapy, mainly through intramuscular route. Conclusion: We conclude that the dairy cattle were not treated correctly as directed by the treatment protocol. In Kosovo’s general health system there are no rules and procedures on monitoring and recording the expenditures on antibiotics. PMID:26244043

  8. Neurological disorder in dairy cattle associated with consumption of beer residues contaminated with Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Corrêa, André Mendes; Bangel, Jorge José; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2003-03-01

    A neurological syndrome in dairy cattle associated with consumption of moldy beer residues is described. The disease occurred on 1 farm in late June 2001, during winter. Six heifers and 1 cow out of 45 cattle were affected during a 3-week period. The affected animals died spontaneously or were euthanized approximately 2-14 days after the onset of clinical signs. The clinical signs were characterized by flaccid paralysis and gait abnormalities. Clinical signs were more pronounced after exercise and included stiff and unsteady gait, knuckling at the fetlocks of the hind limbs, frequent falling, inability to rise, muscular tremors, especially of the head and the hindquarters, and drooling. Main necropsy findings included degenerative and necrotic changes of the larger medial muscle groups of the hindquarters, i.e., adductor, pectineus, quadriceps femoris, rectus femuris, sartorius, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and vastus medialis, and of the forequarters, including pectoralis descendens, pectoralis ascendens, and transversus pectoralis. The main histologic findings consisted of degenerative and necrotic neuronal changes (chromatolysis) of varying severity and extent affecting selected nuclei of the brainstem and neurons of the ventral horns of the spinal cord. Similar microscopic lesions were observed in the neurons of the spinal cord of 1 experimental sheep force-fed for 35 days with 1 kg/day of the same batch of foodstuff that was originally fed to the cattle. Coarse white or gray lumps, interpreted as mycelia, were observed in the beer by-product. Aspergillus clavatus was the dominant fungus isolated. Deaths ceased after the consumption of beer residue was discontinued. Recovery from illness was observed in 1 animal. The diagnosis was based on epidemiological data, clinical signs, necropsy findings, histological lesions, dosing trial, and mycology. A similar condition caused by consumption of barley by-products, sprouted wheat, corn sprouts, and beetroot

  9. Metagenomics of rumen bacteriophage from thirteen lactating dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The bovine rumen hosts a diverse and complex community of Eukarya, Bacteria, Archea and viruses (including bacteriophage). The rumen viral population (the rumen virome) has received little attention compared to the rumen microbial population (the rumen microbiome). We used massively parallel sequencing of virus like particles to investigate the diversity of the rumen virome in thirteen lactating Australian Holstein dairy cattle all housed in the same location, 12 of which were sampled on the same day. Results Fourteen putative viral sequence fragments over 30 Kbp in length were assembled and annotated. Many of the putative genes in the assembled contigs showed no homology to previously annotated genes, highlighting the large amount of work still required to fully annotate the functions encoded in viral genomes. The abundance of the contig sequences varied widely between animals, even though the cattle were of the same age, stage of lactation and fed the same diets. Additionally the twelve animals which were co-habited shared a number of their dominant viral contigs. We compared the functional characteristics of our bovine viromes with that of other viromes, as well as rumen microbiomes. At the functional level, we found strong similarities between all of the viral samples, which were highly distinct from the rumen microbiome samples. Conclusions Our findings suggest a large amount of between animal variation in the bovine rumen virome and that co-habiting animals may have more similar viromes than non co-habited animals. We report the deepest sequencing to date of the rumen virome. This work highlights the enormous amount of novelty and variation present in the rumen virome. PMID:24180266

  10. Seroepidemiologic survey in Thailand of Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle and chickens and presence in ticks attached to dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Usaki, Noriyo; Thongchai, Chalermchaikit; Kramomtong, Indhira; Kriengsak, Poonsuk; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    A seroepidemiologic survey of Coxiella burnetii in cattle and chickens in Thailand was carried out using indirect fluorescent antibody test. Nine of the 130 serum samples from cattle were positive for antibodies against C. burnetii, with antibody titers ranging from 32 to 64. Only one of 113 serum samples from chickens was seropositive, with antibody titer of 16. No C. burnetii-specific DNA was detected using restriction fragment length polymorphism-nested PCR in spleens of cattle and chickens. However, coxiella DNA was detected in two of 102 engorged Rhipicephalus microplus ticks attached to dairy cattle. These results indicated that infestation of C. burnetii among cattle and chickens is considerably low in Thailand. PMID:25417520

  11. Invited review: Genomic selection in dairy cattle: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Bowman, P J; Chamberlain, A J; Goddard, M E

    2009-02-01

    A new technology called genomic selection is revolutionizing dairy cattle breeding. Genomic selection refers to selection decisions based on genomic breeding values (GEBV). The GEBV are calculated as the sum of the effects of dense genetic markers, or haplotypes of these markers, across the entire genome, thereby potentially capturing all the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to variation in a trait. The QTL effects, inferred from either haplotypes or individual single nucleotide polymorphism markers, are first estimated in a large reference population with phenotypic information. In subsequent generations, only marker information is required to calculate GEBV. The reliability of GEBV predicted in this way has already been evaluated in experiments in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and the Netherlands. These experiments used reference populations of between 650 and 4,500 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian bulls, genotyped for approximately 50,000 genome-wide markers. Reliabilities of GEBV for young bulls without progeny test results in the reference population were between 20 and 67%. The reliability achieved depended on the heritability of the trait evaluated, the number of bulls in the reference population, the statistical method used to estimate the single nucleotide polymorphism effects in the reference population, and the method used to calculate the reliability. A common finding in 3 countries (United States, New Zealand, and Australia) was that a straightforward BLUP method for estimating the marker effects gave reliabilities of GEBV almost as high as more complex methods. The BLUP method is attractive because the only prior information required is the additive genetic variance of the trait. All countries included a polygenic effect (parent average breeding value) in their GEBV calculation. This inclusion is recommended to capture any genetic variance not associated with the markers, and to put some selection pressure on low

  12. Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Pryce, J E; Wales, W J; de Haas, Y; Veerkamp, R F; Hayes, B J

    2014-01-01

    Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their breeding objectives by approximating the amount of energy required for milk production, maintenance, etc. However, variation in actual feed intake is currently not captured in dairy selection objectives, although this could be possible by evaluating traits such as residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between actual and predicted feed (or energy) intake. As feed intake is expensive to accurately measure on large numbers of cows, phenotypes derived from it are obvious candidates for genomic selection provided that: (1) the trait is heritable; (2) the reliability of genomic predictions are acceptable to those using the breeding values; and (3) if breeding values are estimated for heifers, rather than cows then the heifer and cow traits need to be correlated. The accuracy of genomic prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) and RFI has been estimated to be around 0.4 in beef and dairy cattle studies. There are opportunities to increase the accuracy of prediction, for example, pooling data from three research herds (in Australia and Europe) has been shown to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction of DMI from 0.33 within country to 0.35 using a three-country reference population. Before including RFI as a selection objective, genetic correlations with other traits need to be estimated. Weak unfavourable genetic correlations between RFI and fertility have been published. This could be because RFI is mathematically similar to the calculation of energy balance and failure to account for mobilisation of body reserves correctly may result in selection for a trait that is similar to selecting for reduced (or negative) energy balance. So, if RFI is to become a

  13. Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in dairy and beef cattle: 11 cases (2001 to 2003)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The medical records of 11 cattle with jejunal hemorrhage syndrome were reviewed. Female and male, lactating and pregnant, dairy and beef cattle were affected. Decreased feed intake and milk production, reduced amounts of dark feces, and abdominal discomfort were common historical findings. Common clinical findings included depressed demeanor, a “ping” and fluid-splashing sounds over the right abdomen, melena, and distended loops of intestine on rectal palpation. Surgery was done on 7 cases, 10 cases were euthanized, and 1 died. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from the intestinal contents from 7 of 7 cases. At necropsy, the characteristic finding was a varying length of a dark purple-red distended jejunum with an intraluminal blood clot. Histologically, there was segmental necrosis, ulceration, and mucosal and transmural hemorrhage of the jejunum. This is a sporadic disease of adult cattle characterized by mechanical obstruction of the small intestines by a large blood clot with a case fatality of almost 100%. PMID:16187715

  14. Association of oxidative status and insulin sensitivity in periparturient dairy cattle: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2016-04-01

    Post-parturient insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature in all mammalian animals. However, in dairy cows, it can be exacerbated because of high milk yield, leading to excessive negative energy balance, which is related with increased disease incidence, reduced milk production and worsened reproductive performance. IR has been extensively investigated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus. In these subjects, it is known that oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in the onset of IR. Although OS occurs in transitional dairy cattle, there are yet no studies that investigated the association between IR and OS in dairy cattle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between OS and IR in dairy cattle. Serum samples were taken repeatedly from 22 dairy cows from 2 months prior to the expected calving date to 2 months after calving and were analysed for markers of metabolic and redox balance. Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity were also calculated. Generalised linear mixed models revealed an effect of the oxidative status on peripheral insulin concentration and on indices of insulin sensitivity. Hence, field trials should investigate the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy on insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues during the transition period of dairy cattle. PMID:26174108

  15. Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galey, F.D.; Terra, R.; Walker, R.; Adaska, J.; Etchebarne, M.A.; Puschener, B.; Whitlock, R.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Willoughby, D.; Tor, E.

    2000-01-01

    Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA.

  16. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P < 0.0001) in actual DMI between the efficient and inefficient groups (±0.5 SD from the mean RFI of 0), with no evidence of differences (P > 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and

  17. High Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia: Implications for the Dairy Industry and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Sombo, Melaku; Hailu, Elena; Erenso, Girume; Kiros, Teklu; Yamuah, Lawrence; Vordermeier, Martin; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen V.; Sahile, Mesfin; Aseffa, Abraham; Berg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has the largest cattle population in Africa. The vast majority of the national herd is of indigenous zebu cattle maintained in rural areas under extensive husbandry systems. However, in response to the increasing demand for milk products and the Ethiopian government's efforts to improve productivity in the livestock sector, recent years have seen increased intensive husbandry settings holding exotic and cross breeds. This drive for increased productivity is however threatened by animal diseases that thrive under intensive settings, such as bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a disease that is already endemic in Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive study was conducted to: estimate the prevalence of BTB in intensive dairy farms in central Ethiopia; identify associated risk factors; and characterize circulating strains of the causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), questionnaire survey, post-mortem examination, bacteriology, and molecular typing were used to get a better understanding of the BTB prevalence among dairy farms in the study area. Based on the CIDT, our findings showed that around 30% of 2956 tested dairy cattle from 88 herds were positive for BTB while the herd prevalence was over 50%. Post-mortem examination revealed gross tuberculous lesions in 34/36 CIDT positive cattle and acid-fast bacilli were recovered from 31 animals. Molecular typing identified all isolates as M. bovis and further characterization by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing indicated low strain diversity within the study area. Conclusions/Significance This study showed an overall BTB herd prevalence of 50% in intensive dairy farms in Addis Ababa and surroundings, signalling an urgent need for intervention to control the disease and prevent zoonotic transmission of M. bovis to human populations consuming dairy products coming from these farms. It is suggested that government and policy makers should work

  18. In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14) and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5) were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2) and mechanically extracted (heated) soybean meal (n = 2) from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration when formulating ruminant

  19. Evaluation of early conception factor lateral flow test to determine nonpregnancy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Divakar J; Radke, Brian; Pitney, Phyllis A; Goonewardene, Laksiri A

    2007-08-01

    The early conception factor (ECF) lateral flow test was evaluated for its ability to accurately determine nonpregnant status in dairy cattle. Results of 2 field trials involving 191 cows and 832 tests indicated the probability that a cow can be correctly diagnosed as nonpregnant by using the ECF test is only about 50%. Agreement of test results between milk and serum obtained from the same cow was 57.5%. The ECF test was not consistent in identifying nonpregnancy when the same cows were tested repeatedly over a period of 4 weeks. We conclude that the ECF lateral flow test does not accurately identify nonpregnancy in dairy cattle. PMID:17824326

  20. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  1. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  2. Seroprevalences of vector-transmitted infections of small-holder dairy cattle in coastal Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maloo, S H; Thorpe, W; Kioo, G; Ngumi, P; Rowlands, G J; Perry, B D

    2001-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to September 1989 in Kaloleni Division, Coast Province, Kenya to estimate the prevalence of vector-transmitted diseases in small-holder dairy cattle and to identify the risk factors associated with different management systems. One hundred and thirty of the 157 herds with dairy cattle in Kaloleni Division were surveyed. These were from three agro-ecological zones (coconut-cassava, cashew nut-cassava and livestock-millet), comprised two management systems (stall-feeding and herded grazing) and were herds with either dairy cattle only or with Zebu and dairy cattle. A formal questionnaire sought answers to questions on cattle health and management practices. A total of 734 dairy and 205 Zebu cattle in 78 dairy and 52 mixed (dairy and Zebu) herds were sampled and screened for haemoparasites (Trypanosoma, Anaplasma, Babesia, and Theileria infections). Sera were tested for antibodies to Theileria parva, using the schizonts-antigen indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test and to antibodies for Babesia bigemina and antigens to Anaplasma marginale by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Packed-cell volume (PCV) also was measured. Tick-control measures were practised by all except three of the farmers. Despite this, overall seroprevalence to T. parva was >70%--suggesting either that control practices were not strictly implemented or they were ineffective. The seroprevalence of T. parva in adult cattle kept in stall-feeding systems in the coconut-cassava zone was significantly lower (57+/-8% (S.E.)) than in herded-grazing systems (79+/-3%) and there was no association between antibody prevalence and age of cattle in this zone. Antibody prevalences in cattle in the cashew nut-cassava and the drier livestock-millet zone increased with age. Cattle in herded-grazing systems had an overall lower seroprevalence of T. parva infection in the livestock-millet zone (45+/-6%) than in the other two zones. Analysis was confined to

  3. Comparison of artificial insemination and natural service cost effectiveness in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Valergakis, G E; Arsenos, G; Banos, G

    2007-03-01

    Reproductive efficiency in the dairy herd is the most important factor for its economic success and a major concern for dairy farmers when using artificial insemination (AI) or natural service (NS). Our objectives were to estimate, compare and analyse the costs associated with breeding cattle by do-it-yourself (DIY) AI and NS and identify the factors that influence them, under typical dairy farming conditions in Greece. A simulation study was designed based on data from 120 dairy cattle farms that differed in size (range 40 to 285 cows) and milk production level (4000 to 9300 kg per cow per year). Different scenarios were employed to estimate costs associated directly with AI and NS as well as potentially extended calving intervals (ECI) due to AI. Results showed that bull maintenance costs for NS were €1440 to €1670 per year ($1,820 to $2,111). Direct AI costs were higher than those for NS for farms with more than 30 cows and ECI constituted a considerable additional burden. In fact, amongst the factors that affected the amount of milk needed to cover total extra AI costs, number of days open was the dominant one. Semen, feed and heifer prices had a very small effect. When, hypothetically, use of NS bulls results in a calving interval of 12 months, AI daughters with a calving interval of 13.5 months have to produce about 705 kg of additional milk in order to cover the extra cost. Their actual milk production, however, exceeds this limit by more than 25%. When real calving intervals are considered (13.0 v. 13.7 months for NS and AI, respectively) AI daughters turn out to produce more than twice the additional amount of milk needed. It was concluded that even under less than average management conditions, AI is more profitable than the best NS scenario. The efficient communication of this message should be a primary concern of the AI industry. PMID:22444295

  4. Molecular epidemiology and public health relevance of Campylobacter isolated from dairy cattle and European starlings in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Sanad, Yasser M; Closs, Gary; Kumar, Anand; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2013-03-01

    Dairy cattle serve as a potential source for Campylobacter infection in humans. Outbreaks associated with consumption of either Campylobacter contaminated raw milk or contaminated milk after treatment were previously recorded in the United States. Further, starlings have been implicated in the spread of bacterial pathogens among livestock. Here, we determined the prevalence, genotypic, and phenotypic properties of Campylobacter isolated from fecal samples of dairy cattle and starlings found on the same establishment in northeastern Ohio. Campylobacter were detected in 83 (36.6%) and 57 (50.4%) out of 227 dairy and 113 starling fecal samples, respectively. Specifically, 79 C. jejuni, five C. coli, and two other Campylobacter spp. were isolated from dairy feces, while all isolates from starlings (n=57) were C. jejuni. Our results showed that the prevalence of C. jejuni in birds was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in dairy cattle. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that C. jejuni were genotypically diverse and host restricted; however, there were several shared genotypes between dairy cattle and starling isolates. Likewise, many shared clonal complexes (CC) between dairy cattle and starlings were observed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. As in humans, both in cattle and starlings, the CC 45 and CC 21 were the most frequently represented CCs. As previously reported, CC 177 and CC 682 were restricted to the bird isolates, while CC 42 was restricted to dairy cattle isolates. Further, two new sequence types (STs) were detected in C. jejuni from dairy cattle. Interestingly, cattle and starling C. jejuni showed high resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. In conclusion, our results highlight starlings as potential reservoirs for C. jejuni, and they may play an important role in the epidemiology of clinically important C. jejuni in dairy population. PMID:23259503

  5. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, M.; Deka, D. K.; Sarmah, P. C.; Islam, S.; Sarma, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535), heifer (641) and adult (1163) cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (<1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (>3 years) cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%), followed by monsoon (15%), winter (9.44%), and pre-monsoon (7.49%) season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season. PMID:27047181

  6. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  7. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers. PMID:25465564

  8. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most

  9. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  10. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, there is a lack of information regarding steam-flaked soybeans. This research evaluated various inclusion rates of steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB) in lactating dairy cattle diets. Twelve multiparous Holstein cow...

  11. Increasing the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms used in genomic evaluation of dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GeneSeek designed a new version of the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler HD BeadChip for Dairy Cattle, which had >77,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A set of >140,000 SNPs was selected that included all SNPs on the existing GeneSeek chip, all SNPs used in U.S. national genomic evaluations, SNPs ...

  12. Effects of oxygenated drinking water on gaseous emissions, rumen microorganisms and milk production in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle production systems contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, predominantly in the form of methane. Enteric methane is formed by methanogenic archaea (methanogens) that require anaerobic conditions to thrive. A water treatment system (Oxion, Hugoton, KS) increases the dissolved oxygen conc...

  13. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  14. Feed management practices to reduce manure phosphorus excretion in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral that needs to be supplied in sufficient quantities for maintenance and growth and milk production in dairy cattle. However, over 60% of the P consumed can be excreted in faeces with a potential to cause environmental pollution. Concern over higher levels of P i...

  15. Short communication: Relationship of call rate and accuracy of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Call rate has been used as a measure of quality on both a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and animal basis since SNP genotypes were first used in genomic evaluation of dairy cattle. The genotyping laboratories perform initial quality control screening and genotypes that fail are usually exclude...

  16. CARBOHYDRATE NUTRITION AND MANURE SCORING. PART II: TOOLS FOR MONITORING RUMEN FUNCTION IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper rumen function is essential to support the profitable lactation performance and health of dairy cattle. Excellent cow performance includes high yields of milk and milk components, but encompasses more elements: efficient conversion of consumed nutrients to milk, appropriate maintenance and r...

  17. Short communication: Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 linear type traits of Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is an overall assessment trait that measures a cow’s ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50 to 99 were assigned by appraisers for the...

  18. Increasing the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms used in genomic evaluations of dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small increase in the accuracy of genomic evaluations of dairy cattle was achieved by increasing the number of SNP used to 61,013. All the 45,195 SNP used previously were retained, and 15,818 SNP were selected from higher density genotyping chips if the magnitude of the SNP effect was among the to...

  19. Regression metamodels of an optimal genomic testing strategy in dairy cattle when selection intensity is low

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic testing of dairy cattle increases reliability and can be used to select animals with superior genetic merit. Genomic testing is not free and not all candidates for selection should necessarily be tested. One common algorithm used to compare alternative decisions is time-consuming and not eas...

  20. Genomic Prediction for Tuberculosis Resistance in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Tsairidou, Smaragda; Woolliams, John A.; Allen, Adrian R.; Skuce, Robin A.; McBride, Stewart H.; Wright, David M.; Bermingham, Mairead L.; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Matika, Oswald; McDowell, Stanley W. J.; Glass, Elizabeth J.; Bishop, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the UK and the limitations of the currently available diagnostic and control methods require the development of complementary approaches to assist in the sustainable control of the disease. One potential approach is the identification of animals that are genetically more resistant to bTB, to enable breeding of animals with enhanced resistance. This paper focuses on prediction of resistance to bTB. We explore estimation of direct genomic estimated breeding values (DGVs) for bTB resistance in UK dairy cattle, using dense SNP chip data, and test these genomic predictions for situations when disease phenotypes are not available on selection candidates. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated DGVs using genomic best linear unbiased prediction methodology, and assessed their predictive accuracies with a cross validation procedure and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Furthermore, these results were compared with theoretical expectations for prediction accuracy and area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC). The dataset comprised 1151 Holstein-Friesian cows (bTB cases or controls). All individuals (592 cases and 559 controls) were genotyped for 727,252 loci (Illumina Bead Chip). The estimated observed heritability of bTB resistance was 0.23±0.06 (0.34 on the liability scale) and five-fold cross validation, replicated six times, provided a prediction accuracy of 0.33 (95% C.I.: 0.26, 0.40). ROC curves, and the resulting AUC, gave a probability of 0.58, averaged across six replicates, of correctly classifying cows as diseased or as healthy based on SNP chip genotype alone using these data. Conclusions/Significance These results provide a first step in the investigation of the potential feasibility of genomic selection for bTB resistance using SNP data. Specifically, they demonstrate that genomic selection is possible, even in populations with no pedigree data and on animals lacking bTB phenotypes

  1. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica

    2016-01-30

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the presence or impact of E. bieneusi on this important population. To fill this knowledge gap, fecal specimens were collected from 452 cattle from pre-weaned calves to adult cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Host factors including age, gender, dairy/beef, body composition, and fecal consistency were included in the study. Using molecular methods, E. bieneusi was found in 79/452 (17.5%) fecal specimens. This represents the first report of this parasite in Brazilian cattle. A significantly higher prevalence was found in calves less than 2 months of age (27.6%) and those 3-8 months of age (28.8%) versus heifers (14.1%) and adults (1.4%) (P<0.05). Dairy cattle (26.2%) had a higher prevalence than beef cattle (9.7%) (P<0.001). No correlation was found between infection and gender, body composition, and fecal consistency. Molecular characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed 12 genotypes; five previously reported in cattle (BEB4, BEB8, D, EbpA and I), and seven novel genotypes (BEB11-BEB17). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 6 genotypes (D, EbpA, BEB12, BEB13, BEB15, and BEB16) identified in 18 animals clustered within the designated zoonotic Group 1 while the other 6 genotypes (I, BEB4, BEB8, BEB11, BEB14, BEB17) identified in 61 animals clustered within Group 2. The identification of genotypes in Brazilian cattle that have previously been reported in humans highlights the potential risk of zoonotic transmission and suggests that the role of cattle in transmission of human infections requires further study. PMID:26801594

  2. Prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle from Northern and Northeastern part of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Jiyipong, Tawisa; Thadtapong, Nalumon; Kengradomkij, Chanya; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis in feces of dairy cattle from the northern part and the northeastern part of Thailand. A total of 900 fecal samples were collected directly from rectum and examined by using zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in dairy cows was 5.0 % (45/900) by zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation and 6.0 % (54/900) by PCR. Genotypes of G. duodenalis found in this study were Assemblage AI and E. The results indicated that dairy cattle may act as a potential risk of Giardia transmission among animals and humans (especially Assemblage AI). PMID:26204183

  3. Direct measurements of the ozone formation potential from dairy cattle emissions using a transportable smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Cody J.; Yang, Wenli; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Malkina, Irina L.; Flocchini, Robert G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    Tropospheric ozone continues to be an air pollution problem in the United States, particularly in California, Texas, and across the eastern seaboard. The obvious sources of ozone precursors have been largely controlled over the past several decades, leading to the critical examination of secondary sources. In particular, California has new air quality rules addressing agricultural sources of ozone precursors, including dairy farms. Some recent estimates predict that dairy cattle are second only to on-road vehicles as a leading source of ozone precursor emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley. The objective of this work was to directly measure the ozone formation potential from dairy housing. A transportable "smog" chamber was constructed and validated using organic gases known to be present in dairy emissions. The ozone formation potential of emissions from eight non-lactating dairy cows and their fresh waste was then directly evaluated in the field at a completely enclosed cow corral on the campus of the University of California, Davis. The results demonstrate that the majority of the ozone formation is explained by ethanol (EtOH) in the emissions from the dairy cows, not by acetone as previously thought. Ozone formation potential is generally small, with <20 ppb of ozone produced under typical conditions when EtOH concentrations were ˜200 ppb and NO x concentrations were ˜50 ppb. The results match our current understanding of atmospheric ozone formation potential, ruling out the possibility of unknown organic compounds in dairy emissions with significant ozone formation potential. Simulations carried out with a modified form of the Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism verify that actual ozone formation from dairy emissions is much lower than what would be predicted using the current regulatory profiles. Based on these results, the ozone formation potential of emissions from dairy cattle in California seems to be lower than previously estimated.

  4. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  5. Prediction and Control of Brucellosis Transmission of Dairy Cattle in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiang-Dong; Hou, Qiang; Li, Mingtao; Huang, Baoxu; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1) The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2) The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3) Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4) For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread. PMID:25386963

  6. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  7. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  8. Some factors affecting the number of days open in Argentinean dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, M; Funes, A Capitaine; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of factors affecting how quickly cattle become pregnant in Argentine dairy herds. Data from 76,401 cows from 249 dairy herds were analyzed. A hazard model was used to explore days open (DO). The factors considered were milk yield, lactation number, calving season, and breeding technique (i.e., type of service: artificial insemination [AI], or combined service). Cows with lower milk yield had 1.09 to 1.38 higher likelihood to become pregnant than those with higher milk yield (P < 0.0001). The number of DO increased linearly with an increasing number of lactations (P < 0.0001). Cows calving in fall-winter had a shorter interval to conception than those calving in summer. The hazard rate for combined service was 1.27; therefore, cows with combined service were more likely to become pregnant during the observation period than those bred by AI. The difference in DO between cows of high versus low milk yield was smaller when dairies used AI as the main breeding technique than when they used combined service. Furthermore, dairies using mainly combined service had lower milk yield (5693.7 L) than those using mainly AI (7684.4 L). Although lactation number and calving season contributed to explain the number of DO, the influence of production level, the type of service, and the interaction between them was also associated with reproductive efficiency in Argentine dairy herds. PMID:23290433

  9. Reproductive Systems for North American Dairy Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Ribeiro, Eduardo S

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive inefficiency compromises the profitability of dairy herds and the health and longevity of individual cows. In the average dairy herd, the combination of estrus detection and ovulation synchronization protocols yields the best economic return. Genomic selection of animals is particularly profitable in situations in which little is known about their genetic potential. Biosensor systems in milking parlors may allow for the design of reproductive strategies tailored for cows according to their physiologic needs while optimizing economic return. PMID:27324450

  10. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elall, Amr M M; Mohamed, Mohamed E M; Awadallah, Maysa A I

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers) were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds) located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes). The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds): Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%), S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%), S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%), Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%), Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%), K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%), Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%), P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%), P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%), Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%), respectively). Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%), A. niger (20% vs 36.7%), A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%), Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%), P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%), P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%), Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%), Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%), Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%), Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%), Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%), Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%), Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%), Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%), Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4%) and yeast (13.3% vs 20%), respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and

  11. Seroepidemiological study of Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fort, Marcelo; Edelsten, Martyn; Maley, Stephen; Innes, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. The aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of Argentina (La Pampa, province). An average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. A total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- Neospora caninum IgG using an indirect-ELISA and 302 seropositive-ELISA sera were re-examined using an Avidity-ELISA procedure for N.caninum. The overall estimated seroprevalence for N.caninun was 9.6% (95%CI: 8.7%; 10.5%). Levels of seroprevalence were significantly different in beef 7.0% and dairy 20.3% cattle. Disease distribution seems to be associated with climatic conditions as well as the management system. Cows in the east and central regions were at a 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold higher risk, respectively, of being N. caninum seropositive compared with cows in west region. Levels of recent infection were evaluated through an avidity ELISA in seropositive animals, being registered a 0.56% and a 1.71% of recent infection in beef and dairy cattle respectively (p = 0.006). The results revealed that dairy cows had 3.1(95%CI: 1.4; 7.0) higher risk of contracting Neoporosis through horizontal transmission than beef cows. A relationship between Brucella abortus and N. caninum seroprevalence was also observed. The risk of being N. caninum seropositive was two times higher where Brucellosis seroprevalence was >3.5%. These results reveal the distribution of N. caninum infection in the cattle population in La Pampa, Argentina. PMID:26203996

  12. Excretion masses and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in typical swine and dairy cattle farms in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui

    2013-02-01

    This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments. PMID:23268145

  13. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. PMID:25648405

  14. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and associated abortion in dairy cattle from central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suteeraparp, P; Pholpark, S; Pholpark, M; Charoenchai, A; Chompoochan, T; Yamane, I; Kashiwazaki, Y

    1999-09-15

    A total of 904 sera from dairy cattle in 11 provinces of central Thailand were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum employing the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Fifty four (6%) cattle were positive in IFAT, titres of 1:200 (16 cattle), 1:400 (9 cattle), 1:800 (14 cattle), 1:1600 (7 cattle), 1:3200 (6 cattle) and two positives. No significant difference was observed among the provinces. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii by a commercial latex agglutination test was 4% (2 out of 50) in positive sera, 2.9% (2 out of 69) in negative sera for anti-Neospora antibodies and 3.4% (4 out of 119) in total. The results of the IFAT were not associated with the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in bovine sera. Furthermore, the cause of abortions experienced in neighbouring three areas in the northeast, where pregnant heifers were newly introduced into small-scale farms from the central region, was investigated. The positive rates for anti-N. caninum antibody were 12, 28 and 44% at a cut-off titre of 1:200, and cattle were suspected to be infected after the introduction. In the area with the highest rate, seven out of eight aborting cattle were positive for antibodies to N. caninum while other two areas had similar abortion rates in both negative and positive cattle. However, in the latter two areas, positive rates for Trypanosoma evansi antigen along with parasitaemic animals were observed by an antigen-detection ELISA, but not for the former area. Considering the endemic diseases of the areas, Neospora was presumed to be responsible for the abortions in the former area while the examination results pointed out T. evansi as the most probable cause in the latter two areas. This is the first report of Neospora-associated abortion in Southeast Asia. PMID:10489202

  15. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  16. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218

  17. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  18. Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of fecal specimens examined from 47 dairy cattle ranging in age from neonates to multiparous cows, 9, 10, 24, and 17 were positive for Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively, as determined by PCR. Eight 3- to 5-month-old cattle were co...

  19. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    SciTech Connect

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X.; Pasquino, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Electroacupuncture and moxibustion for correction of abomasal displacement in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kwang-ho; Lee, Joo-myoung; Nam, Tchi-chou

    2003-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture and moxibustion on abomasal displacement in dairy cattle. After acupuncture needles were inserted bilaterally into the acupoints, 'Pi yu', 'Wei yu' and 'Guan yuan yu' , electronic stimulation (5 Hz and 10 V, 20 minutes) was conducted once a day for 3 days consecutively. Modified moxa patch was also applied at the same acupoints as in acupuncture for 3 days consecutively. Ten among twelve cows with abomasal displacement were recovered by electroacupuncture and moxibustion, but two were treated with paramedian abomasopexy. It is considered that electroacupuncture and moxibustion may be convenient, safe and economical therapeutic alternatives available instead of surgical procedures on abomasal displacement in dairy cattle. PMID:12819371

  1. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mammadova, Nazira

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  2. Application of the support vector machine to predict subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mammadova, Nazira; Keskin, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  3. A dynamic, mechanistic model of metabolism in adipose tissue of lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J P; Huber, K; Kenéz, A

    2016-07-01

    Research in dairy cattle biology has resulted in a large body of knowledge on nutrition and metabolism in support of milk production and efficiency. This quantitative knowledge has been compiled in several model systems to balance and evaluate rations and predict requirements. There are also systems models for metabolism and reproduction in the cow that can be used to support research programs. Adipose tissue plays a significant role in the success and efficiency of lactation, and recent research has resulted in several data sets on genomic differences and changes in gene transcription of adipose tissue in dairy cattle. To fully use this knowledge, we need to build and expand mechanistic, dynamic models that integrate control of metabolism and production. Therefore, we constructed a second-generation dynamic, mechanistic model of adipose tissue metabolism of dairy cattle. The model describes the biochemical interconversions of glucose, acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glycerol, C16 fatty acids, and triacylglycerols. Data gathered from our own research and published references were used to set equation forms and parameter values. Acetate, glucose, BHB, and fatty acids are taken up from blood. The fatty acids are activated to the acyl coenzyme A moieties. Enzymatically catalyzed reactions are explicitly described with parameters including maximal velocity and substrate sensitivity. The control of enzyme activity is partially carried out by insulin and norepinephrine, portraying control in the cow. Model behavior was adequate, with sensitive responses to changing substrates and hormones. Increased nutrient uptake and increased insulin stimulate triacylglycerol synthesis, whereas a reduction in nutrient availability or increase in norepinephrine increases triacylglycerol hydrolysis and free fatty acid release to blood. This model can form a basis for more sophisticated integration of existing knowledge and future studies on metabolic efficiency of dairy cattle. PMID

  4. Environmental and health impact by dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Havlikova, M; Kroeze, C; Huijbregts, M A J

    2008-06-25

    In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NO) to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication, nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) to aquatic eutrophication, nitrogen oxides (NO), particulate matter (PM10) and (PM2.5) to human toxicity and methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO) to global warming. We present large regional differences in the environmental and health impact per unit of agricultural production. The regional acidifying, eutrophying and global warming impact of dairy cattle is calculated to be up to three times the national average, depending on the dairy cattle intensity. Aquatic eutrophication is found to be a problem in regions with relatively high eutrophying emissions per hectare of so-called nitrate vulnerable zones. Human toxicity problems caused by dairy cattle livestock and manure management are problematic in regions with a high population density in rural areas. The strength of our approach is the use of country-specific characterisation factors to assess the potential environmental and health impact of agriculture at the sub-national scale. We were able to analyse the potential environmental impact without explicit quantification of specific effects on humans and ecosystems. The results can be used to identify the most polluted areas as well as appropriate targets for emission reduction. PMID:18394682

  5. Seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in feline population in urban and dairy cattle herds in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talebkhan Garoussi, Massoud; Mehravaran, Mohsen; Abdollahpour, Gholamreza; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2015-01-01

    The importance of cats in the Leptospira epidemiology is due to the possibility of transferring leptospirosis to wild and domesticated animals. The purpose of this survey was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira infection in shorthair cats in different location of Mashhad, Iran. Totally, 147 blood samples were taken from 42 (28.57%), 52 (35.37%) and 53 (36.05%) households, stray and cats which lived in industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad, Iran, respectively. Sera were tested with seven live Leptospira antigens using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera with 50.00% agglutination at the dilution of ≥ 1/100 were considered as positive samples. Agglutination at dilutions of < 1/100 considered as suspected to Leptospira infection. Overall, 19 (12.92%) out of 147 cats showed reaction in MAT. The seroprevalence at a titer ≥ 1:100 and < 1:100 were 10 (6.80%) and 9 (6.12%), respectively. Serum samples showed positive reaction against Leptospira intterogans hardjo (no = 10; 52.63%), pomona (no = 5; 26.31%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (no = 4; 21.05%). Eight cats (42.10%) belong to dairy cattle herds had the most infection only by L. I. hardjo with 1:200 titer. There were no significant differences among the weight‚ age and sex of infected cats. However, there were significant differences between the infected cats in dairy cattle herds and the cats in the urban area (p < 0.05). It is concluded that cats can be infected by Leptospira spp. especially in commercial dairy cattle herds. Cats can be considered as a sanitation hazards in the area for this zoonotic disease. PMID:26973765

  6. Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of U.S. dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% p...

  7. Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of U.S. dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein ...

  8. Identification of gene networks underlying dystocia in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dystocia is a trait with a high impact in the dairy industry. Among its risk factors are calf weight, gestation length, breed and conformation. Biological networks have been proposed to capture the genetic architecture of complex traits, where GWAS show limitations. The objective of this study was t...

  9. Maternal grandsire confirmation and discovery in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate pedigree information is essential for selecting dairy animals to improve economically important traits. Two methods of maternal grandsire (MGS) discovery were compared. The first compared one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time using a genotype from one or both parents (SNP metho...

  10. Breed Composition of the United States Dairy Cattle Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed composition of the gene pool of all cows (purebred and crossbred) with pedigree data in the USDA national dairy database was summarized by birth year of cow. Partial breed contributions were assigned for individual cows. For cows born in 2005, 1.1% of all genes and 35.1% of genes in crossbreds...

  11. Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle from the northwest region of Spain, Galicia.

    PubMed

    Eiras, C; Arnaiz, I; Alvarez-García, G; Ortega-Mora, L M; Sanjuánl, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2011-02-01

    Herd and individual animal seroprevalence for Neospora caninum (N. caninum) in dairy, beef and mixed cattle were obtained in all populations within the Galician Farmer Sanitary Defence Associations (ADSG) in 2004. All animals ≥1 year of age were examined serologically by indirect ELISA. 1147 dairy herds (37,090 animals), 1464 beef herds (20,206 animals) and 141 mixed herds (2292 animals) were surveyed. True herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 80.6% (87.7% dairy, 76.7% beef and 78.4% mixed herds), true animal seroprevalence was estimated to be 23.2% (21.9% dairy, 25.1% beef and 24.9% animal to mixed herds), and within-herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 25.4% (23.6% dairy, 28.3% beef and 28.6% to mixed herds). Seropositivity was significantly associated with herd type (higher in dairies), herd size (increased when herd size increases), animal type (higher in beef) and age (lineal increase with the age). Results obtained in this study will be used for the development of a N. caninum control programme in the ADSG in Galicia. PMID:21145605

  12. Modelling of paratuberculosis spread between dairy cattle farms at a regional scale.

    PubMed

    Beaunée, Gaël; Vergu, Elisabeta; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes Johne's disease, with large economic consequences for dairy cattle producers worldwide. Map spread between farms is mainly due to animal movements. Locally, herd size and management are expected to influence infection dynamics. To provide a better understanding of Map spread between dairy cattle farms at a regional scale, we describe the first spatio-temporal model accounting simultaneously for population and infection dynamics and indirect local transmission within dairy farms, and between-farm transmission through animal trade. This model is applied to Brittany, a French region characterized by a high density of dairy cattle, based on data on animal trade, herd size and farm management (birth, death, renewal, and culling) from 2005 to 2013 for 12,857 dairy farms. In all simulated scenarios, Map infection highly persisted at the metapopulation scale. The characteristics of initially infected farms strongly impacted the regional Map spread. Network-related features of incident farms influenced their ability to contaminate disease-free farms. At the herd level, we highlighted a balanced effect of the number of animals purchased: when large, it led to a high probability of farm infection but to a low persistence. This effect was reduced when prevalence in initially infected farms increased. Implications of our findings in the current enzootic situation are that the risk of infection quickly becomes high for farms buying more than three animals per year. Even in regions with a low proportion of infected farms, Map spread will not fade out spontaneously without the use of effective control strategies. PMID:26407894

  13. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  14. A review of Neospora caninum in dairy and beef cattle — a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in cows. The occurrence of N. caninum infection in beef and dairy cattle has been reported worldwide, and in most provinces in Canada. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of N. caninum in dairy and beef cattle for Canadian bovine practitioners. The review covers the life cycle of the agent, its mechanisms of transmission, clinical signs, and tests for diagnosing the infection. Data on the prevalence of the infection in Canadian dairy and beef cattle are reviewed and briefly compared with estimates from other parts of the world. Most importantly for Canadian bovine practitioners, the impacts of the infection, risk factors for its occurrence, and methods of control are also discussed. By reviewing the scientific literature on N. caninum from a Canadian perspective, culling decisions based on the interpretation of diagnostic tests are more effectively made in the control of N. caninum-associated disease. PMID:15884645

  15. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in Dairy Cattle, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Tan, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Ni, Xiao-Ting; Zhao, Quan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that can infect a range of animals, including dairy cattle. As information regarding the prevalence and genotyping of G. intestinalis infection in dairy cattle in northwestern China is limited, 2,945 feces samples from 1,224 dairy cattle in Gansu Province and from 1,614 in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NXHAR) were examined between December 2012 and March 2014. The overall prevalence of G. intestinalis was 3.63% (107/2,945), with 2.63% and 4.38% in Gansu and NXHAR, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed region, age and season to be significant risk factors for G. intestinalis infection. Assemblage analysis identified 106 assemblage E and one assemblage A at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) locus in this study. Intravariations were also detected at tpi, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and beta giardin (bg) loci within assemblage E, showing seven, three, and five new subtypes, respectively. Moreover, 13 new multilocus genotypes (E20-E32) were observed in assemblage E. Effective strategies and measures should be taken to prevent and control giardiasis in Gansu and NXHAR. PMID:26729604

  16. The association between teat end hyperkeratosis and teat canal microbial load in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2012-08-17

    Most pathogens that cause bovine mastitis invade the udder lumen through the teat canal. Amino acids and intercellular lipids may support microbial colonisation of the teat canal epithelium by pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between teat end hyperkeratosis, which is induced by machine milking, and teat canal microbial load. Contralateral teats, which differed in teat end hyperkeratosis scores, were identified in a split-udder experiment. The teat canal's microbial load was evaluated using the wet and dry swab technique. Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, Streptococcus (Sc.) uberis, Escherichia (E.) coli and other coliforms were detected by agar plate cultures. The positive detection of E. coli and the log(10)-transformed E. coli load of a teat canal were significantly associated with the teat end hyperkeratosis score (P<0.05). There were significant differences with respect to positive findings for E. coli, as well as the microbial load of E. coli and Sc. uberis, between the less-calloused and the more-calloused teat of a pair. For S. aureus, no significant associations between hyperkeratosis score and teat canal microbial load were detected. In general, a teat with a highly calloused teat end had an increased teat canal microbial load compared with the contralateral teat, characterised by a lower callosity. The results of the present study indicate that the environmental pathogen load is associated with teat end hyperkeratosis. Further research is needed to identify factors that may affect teat canal microbial load in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:22445537

  17. A model for precision feeding of dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) predicts cattle requirements and nutrient supply for site-specific situations. This paper describes the CNCPS version 6 (CNCPSv6), which represents a re-engineering and updating of previous versions with the following objectives: 1) improve th...

  18. [Coxiella burnetii infections and infections with bacteria of the genus Chlamydia in dairy cattle].

    PubMed

    Sting, R; Simmert, J; Mandl, J; Seemann, G; Bay, F; Müller, K F; Schmitt, K; Mentrup, T

    2000-01-01

    Comparative studies on the prevalence of infections caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) and Chlamydia were carried out with 592 cattle older than 2 years and 234 cattle younger than 2 years. Of these 477 originated from 24 dairy herds with considerable fertility problems (positive herds) and 349 from 14 dairy herds without major fertility problems (control herds). For the direct detection of these pathogens in the genitals capture ELISAs were employed, for the demonstration of antibodies the complement fixation test (CFT). Direct detection of C. burnetii and Chlamydia single as well as mixed infection revealed significant higher values for cattle from positive herds compared with those from the control herds. Animals revealing insemination ratios of > or = 2 showed significantly more frequent excretion of Chlamydia via the genitals and antibodies against C. burnetii than cattle with an insemination ratio of < 2. Investigations of cows which had had an abortion showed no indications of significantly more frequent C. burnetii or chlamydial infections. Inseminated but non-pregnant cows excreted significantly more C. burnetii and Chlamydia than pregnant cows. Clinical signs of endometritis were associated with an enhanced excretion of Chlamydia. Animals younger than 2 years excreted significantly more frequently C. burnetii but not Chlamydia via the genitals than animals older than 2 years. Indirect test showed results vice versa. PMID:11153221

  19. Financial analysis of various strategies for the control of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, Barbara; Regula, Gertraud; Stärk, Katharina D C; Sager, Heinz; Gottstein, Bruno; Reist, Martin

    2006-12-18

    The present study was conducted to estimate the direct losses due to Neospora caninum in Swiss dairy cattle and to assess the costs and benefits of different potential control strategies. A Monte Carlo simulation spreadsheet module was developed to estimate the direct costs caused by N. caninum, with and without control strategies, and to estimate the costs of these control strategies in a financial analysis. The control strategies considered were "testing and culling of seropositive female cattle", "discontinued breeding with offspring from seropositive cows", "chemotherapeutical treatment of female offspring" and "vaccination of all female cattle". Each parameter in the module that was considered to be uncertain, was described using probability distributions. The simulations were run with 20,000 iterations over a time period of 25 years. The median annual losses due to N. caninum in the Swiss dairy cow population were estimated to be euro 9.7 million euros. All control strategies that required yearly serological testing of all cattle in the population produced high costs and thus were not financially profitable. Among the other control strategies, two showed benefit-cost ratios (BCR) >1 and positive net present values (NPV): "Discontinued breeding with offspring from seropositive cows" (BCR=1.29, NPV=25 million euros ) and "chemotherapeutical treatment of all female offspring" (BCR=2.95, NPV=59 million euros). In economic terms, the best control strategy currently available would therefore be "discontinued breeding with offspring from seropositive cows". PMID:16982104

  20. Model for estimating enteric methane emissions from United States dairy and feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; Johnson, K A; Archibeque, S L; Pape, D; Wirth, T

    2008-10-01

    Methane production from enteric fermentation in cattle is one of the major sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission in the United States and worldwide. National estimates of methane emissions rely on mathematical models such as the one recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC). Models used for prediction of methane emissions from cattle range from empirical to mechanistic with varying input requirements. Two empirical and 2 mechanistic models (COWPOLL and MOLLY) were evaluated for their prediction ability using individual cattle measurements. Model selection was based on mean square prediction error (MSPE), concordance correlation coefficient, and residuals vs. predicted values analyses. In dairy cattle, COWPOLL had the lowest root MSPE and greatest accuracy and precision of predicting methane emissions (correlation coefficient estimate = 0.75). The model simulated differences in diet more accurately than the other models, and the residuals vs. predicted value analysis showed no mean bias (P = 0.71). In feedlot cattle, MOLLY had the lowest root MSPE with almost all errors from random sources (correlation coefficient estimate = 0.69). The IPCC model also had good agreement with observed values, and no significant mean (P = 0.74) or linear bias (P = 0.11) was detected when residuals were plotted against predicted values. A fixed methane conversion factor (Ym) might be an easier alternative to diet-dependent variable Ym. Based on the results, the 2 mechanistic models were used to simulate methane emissions from representative US diets and were compared with the IPCC model. The average Ym in dairy cows was 5.63% of GE (range 3.78 to 7.43%) compared with 6.5% +/- 1% recommended by IPCC. In feedlot cattle, the average Ym was 3.88% (range 3.36 to 4.56%) compared with 3% +/- 1% recommended by IPCC. Based on our simulations, using IPCC values can result in an overestimate of about 12.5% and underestimate of emissions by about 9.8% for

  1. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle from farms in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu

    2012-01-01

    Fecal samples of 2,056 dairy cattle from 14 farms were collected in three geographical regions of China and stained using a modified acid-fast staining technique to identify Cryptosporidium oocysts. A total of 387 (18.82%) positive samples were identified and further analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to amplify DNA fragments from the small subunit ribosomal RNA. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers EU369377-84 and GU070730-33. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a distances matrix generated from these sequences confirmed the existence of Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum 'mouse' genotype, C. bovis, C. andersoni, C. hominis, and C. serpentis in cattle. These results represent the first report on the prevalence and genetic identification of Cryptosporidium species, and may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in cattle in China. PMID:22437531

  2. Severe disease in adult dairy cattle in three UK dairy herds associated with BVD virus infection.

    PubMed

    David, G P; Crawshaw, T R; Gunning, R F; Hibberd, R C; Lloyd, G M; Marsh, P R

    1994-04-30

    During 1993 outbreaks of diarrhoea in adult dairy cows in three geographically unrelated herds were found to be caused by bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The affected animals showed signs of acute watery diarrhoea, agalactia and pyrexia (39.4 to 42 degrees C). Ulceration of the buccal mucosa, a mucoid nasal discharge and stiffness were inconsistent signs. The disease spread rapidly in each case. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of non-cytopathic BVDV from blood and tissues and by the demonstration of significantly rising titres to BVDV by an ELISA. The highest morbidity recorded was 40 per cent with one herd experiencing a 10 per cent mortality. There was no increased incidence of abortion in any of the herds, either at the time of or subsequent to the outbreaks of diarrhoea. In one herd the purchase of a persistently viraemic heifer 14 days before the outbreak was thought to be the source of infection, but in the other two herds the source was not established. PMID:8059512

  3. Time budgets of lactating dairy cattle in commercial freestall herds.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall

  4. Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K.; Stetson, L.E.

    1995-07-01

    Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970`s. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed.

  5. Genetic diversity of bovine papillomavirus types, including two putative new types, in teat warts from dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-06-01

    Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis. PMID:26997614

  6. Reference gene selection for gene expression analysis of oocytes collected from dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Macabelli, Carolina Habermann; Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis. PMID:24676354

  7. Reference Gene Selection for Gene Expression Analysis of Oocytes Collected from Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes during Winter and Summer

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis. PMID:24676354

  8. Prediction of methane production from dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Kebreab, E; Odongo, N E; McBride, B W; Okine, E K; France, J

    2007-07-01

    Methane (CH4) is one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction by the Kyoto protocol. The focus of recent research in animal science has thus been to develop or improve existing CH4 prediction models to evaluate mitigation strategies to reduce overall CH4 emissions. Eighty-three beef and 89 dairy data sets were collected and used to develop statistical models of CH4 production using dietary variables. Dry matter intake (DMI), metabolizable energy intake, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ether extract, lignin, and forage proportion were considered in the development of models to predict CH4 emissions. Extant models relevant to the study were also evaluated. For the beef database, the equation CH4 (MJ/d) = 2.94 (+/- 1.16) + 0.059 (+/- 0.0201) x metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d) + 1.44 (+/- 0.331) x acid detergent fiber (kg/d) - 4.16 (+/- 1.93) x lignin (kg/d) resulted in the lowest root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) value (14.4%), 88% of which was random error. For the dairy database, the equation CH4 (MJ/d) = 8.56 (+/- 2.63) + 0.14 (+/- 0.056) x forage (%) resulted in the lowest RMSPE value (20.6%) and 57% of error from random sources. An equation based on DMI also performed well for the dairy database: CH4 (MJ/d) = 3.23 (+/- 1.12) + 0.81 (+/- 0.086) x DMI (kg/d), with a RMSPE of 25.6% and 91% of error from random sources. When the dairy and beef databases were combined, the equation CH4 (MJ/d) = 3.27 (+/- 0.79) + 0.74 (+/- 0.074) x DMI (kg/d) resulted in the lowest RMSPE value (28.2%) and 83% of error from random sources. Two of the 9 extant equations evaluated predicted CH4 production adequately. However, the new models based on more commonly determined values showed an improvement in predictions over extant equations. PMID:17582129

  9. The effect of estradiol cypionate (ECP) on ovarian follicular development and ovulation in dairy cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Thundathil, J; Kastelic, J P; Mapletoft, R J

    1998-01-01

    The efficacy of estradiol cypionate (ECP) for synchronizing ovarian follicular development was determined in lactating Holstein-Friesian cattle. In Experiment 1, 13 cattle were given simultaneous intramuscular (i.m.) injections of 100 mg progesterone and 0 (control), 0.5 or 1.0 mg ECP on Day 3, after a synchronized ovulation (Day 0). Maximum diameter of the dominant follicle of Wave 1 was significantly larger in control cattle than in those given 0.5 or 1.0 mg ECP (means: 15.7, 13.2, and 12.9 mm, respectively). Mean day of emergence of Wave 2 was significantly later in controls than in those given 1.0 mg ECP, with the 0.5 mg group intermediate (Days 10.2, 8.8 and 9.5, respectively). In Experiment 2, 14 cattle were given a CIDR-B and IM injections of 1 mg ECP and 50 mg progesterone without regard to stage of cycle (treatment = Day 0). On Day 8, the CIDR-B was removed and 500 micrograms cloprostenol injected, IM. Mean days of wave emergence (Day 3.4; range: -2 to 7) and ovulation (Day 12.1; range: 10 to 14) indicated that ECP had limited efficacy for synchronizing follicular development and ovulation in dairy cattle when given at random stages of the estrous cycle. PMID:9798100

  10. Predicting fadeout versus persistence of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd for management and control purposes: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models enable to better understand the dynamics of infectious diseases and to assess ex-ante control strategies. For Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), possible transmission routes have been described, but Map spread in a herd and the relative importance of the routes are currently insufficiently understood to prioritize control measures. We aim to predict early after Map introduction in a dairy cattle herd whether infection is likely to fade out or persist, when no control measures are implemented, using a modelling approach. Both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission via the ingestion of colostrum, milk, or faeces present in the contaminated environment were modelled. Calf-to-calf indirect transmission was possible. Six health states were represented: susceptible, transiently infectious, latently infected, subclinically infected, clinically affected, and resistant. The model was partially validated by comparing the simulated prevalence with field data. Housing facilities and contacts between animals were specifically considered for calves and heifers. After the introduction of one infected animal in a naive herd, fadeout occurred in 66% of the runs. When Map persisted, the prevalence of infected animals increased to 88% in 25 years. The two main transmission routes were via the farm's environment and in utero transmission. Calf-to-calf transmission was minor. Fadeout versus Map persistence could be differentiated with the number of clinically affected animals, which was rarely above one when fadeout occurred. Therefore, early detection of affected animals is crucial in preventing Map persistence in dairy herds. PMID:21324117

  11. Grazing Affects Exosomal Circulating MicroRNAs in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Muroya, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Hojito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with physiological adaptation to acute and chronic aerobic exercise in humans. To investigate the potential effect of grazing movement on miRNA circulation in cattle, here we profiled miRNA expression in centrifugally prepared exosomes from the plasma of both grazing and housed Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Microarray analysis of the c-miRNAs resulted in detection of a total of 231 bovine exosomal miRNAs in the plasma, with a constant expression level of let-7g across the duration and cattle groups. Expression of muscle-specific miRNAs such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-206, miR-208a/b, and miR-499 were undetectable, suggesting the mildness of grazing movement as exercise. According to validation by quantitative RT-PCR, the circulating miR-150 level in the grazing cattle normalized by the endogenous let-7g level was down-regulated after 2 and 4 months of grazing (P < 0.05), and then its levels in housed and grazing cattle equalized when the grazing cattle were returned to a housed situation. Likewise, the levels of miR-19b, miR-148a, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-361, and miR-486 were temporarily lowered in the cattle at 1 and/or 2 month of grazing compared to those of the housed cattle (P < 0.05). In contrast, the miR-451 level was up-regulated in the grazing cattle at 2 months of grazing (P = 0.044). The elevation of miR-451 level in the plasma was coincident with that in the biceps femoris muscle of the grazing cattle (P = 0.008), which suggests the secretion or intake of miR-451 between skeletal muscle cells and circulation during grazing. These results revealed that exosomal c-miRNAs in cattle were affected by grazing, suggesting their usefulness as molecular grazing markers and functions in physiological adaptation of grazing cattle associated with endocytosis, focal adhesion, axon guidance, and a variety of intracellular signaling, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26308447

  12. Grazing Affects Exosomal Circulating MicroRNAs in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Muroya, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Hojito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with physiological adaptation to acute and chronic aerobic exercise in humans. To investigate the potential effect of grazing movement on miRNA circulation in cattle, here we profiled miRNA expression in centrifugally prepared exosomes from the plasma of both grazing and housed Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Microarray analysis of the c-miRNAs resulted in detection of a total of 231 bovine exosomal miRNAs in the plasma, with a constant expression level of let-7g across the duration and cattle groups. Expression of muscle-specific miRNAs such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-206, miR-208a/b, and miR-499 were undetectable, suggesting the mildness of grazing movement as exercise. According to validation by quantitative RT-PCR, the circulating miR-150 level in the grazing cattle normalized by the endogenous let-7g level was down-regulated after 2 and 4 months of grazing (P < 0.05), and then its levels in housed and grazing cattle equalized when the grazing cattle were returned to a housed situation. Likewise, the levels of miR-19b, miR-148a, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-361, and miR-486 were temporarily lowered in the cattle at 1 and/or 2 month of grazing compared to those of the housed cattle (P < 0.05). In contrast, the miR-451 level was up-regulated in the grazing cattle at 2 months of grazing (P = 0.044). The elevation of miR-451 level in the plasma was coincident with that in the biceps femoris muscle of the grazing cattle (P = 0.008), which suggests the secretion or intake of miR-451 between skeletal muscle cells and circulation during grazing. These results revealed that exosomal c-miRNAs in cattle were affected by grazing, suggesting their usefulness as molecular grazing markers and functions in physiological adaptation of grazing cattle associated with endocytosis, focal adhesion, axon guidance, and a variety of intracellular signaling, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26308447

  13. An alternative approach to modeling genetic merit of feed efficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Vandehaar, M J; Spurlock, D M; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Wang, Z; Bello, N M; Tempelman, R J

    2015-09-01

    Genetic improvement of feed efficiency (FE) in dairy cattle requires greater attention given increasingly important resource constraint issues. A widely accepted yet occasionally contested measure of FE in dairy cattle is residual feed intake (RFI). The use of RFI is limiting for several reasons, including interpretation, differences in recording frequencies between the various component traits that define RFI, and potential differences in genetic versus nongenetic relationships between dry matter intake (DMI) and FE component traits. Hence, analyses focusing on DMI as the response are often preferred. We propose an alternative multiple-trait (MT) modeling strategy that exploits the Cholesky decomposition to provide a potentially more robust measure of FE. We demonstrate that our proposed FE measure is identical to RFI provided that genetic and nongenetic relationships between DMI and component traits of FE are identical. We assessed both approaches (MT and RFI) by simulation as well as by application to 26,383 weekly records from 50 to 200 d in milk on 2,470 cows from a dairy FE consortium study involving 7 institutions. Although the proposed MT model fared better than the RFI model when simulated genetic and nongenetic associations between DMI and FE component traits were substantially different from each other, no meaningful differences were found in predictive performance between the 2 models when applied to the consortium data. PMID:26210274

  14. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p < 0.05) among Neospora seropositive cows. In conclusion, the finding discloses the strong association of N. caninum with reproductive disorders compared to Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. PMID:24781154

  15. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  16. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. PMID:19751983

  17. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used. PMID:26062817

  18. Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Dairy Cattle in Henan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyan; Zhao, Guanghui; Chen, Gongyi; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Feng, Chao; Wang, Rongjun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dong, Haiju; Hua, Jun; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite of both humans and animals. Previous epidemiological and molecular studies have identified Giardia infections in different animals and humans, but only limited information is available about the occurrence and genotypes of Giardia in cattle in China. In this study, we determined the occurrence of giardiasis and genetically characterized G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan Province, central China. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 7.2% (128/1777) on microscopic analysis, with the highest infection rate (22.7%) in calves aged less than 1 month. G. duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were identified with multilocus genotyping based on the SSU rRNA, β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Two assemblages were detected in the successfully sequenced samples: assemblage A (n = 58), assemblage E (n = 21), with a mixed E and A assemblage (n = 2). Four novel subtypes of the gdh gene and seven of the bg gene were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates. Using the nomenclature for the multilocus genotype (MLG) model, nine novel multilocus genotypes E (MLGs E1–E9) and three MLGs A (a novel subtype AI, previously detected subtype AII-1, and a combination of both) were identified. MLG AII-1 identified in this study may be an important zoonotic subtype. The dairy cattle in Henan are a potential public health concern. PMID:24971639

  19. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p < 0.001) higher seroprevalence compared to those < 4 years (54.2%). We found no significant statistical association between seroprevalence and pregnancy, lactation status and farming systems as potential risk factors in this study (p > 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288

  20. Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ingvartsen, K L; Moyes, K

    2013-03-01

    The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta

  1. Selenium-Dependent Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Immunity in Periparturient Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Sordillo, Lorraine M.

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled or impaired immune and inflammatory responses in periparturient dairy cows are associated with increased incidence and severity of infectious diseases. The progressive development of oxidative stress during the transition from late gestation to peak lactation is thought to be a significant underlying factor leading to dysfunctional immune cell responses. Certain trace minerals, such as selenium (Se), can ameliorate oxidative stress and reduce the severity of several economically important diseases in dairy cattle including mastitis and metritis. Many of the health benefits of Se can be attributed to the antioxidant functions of selenoproteins. Changes in selenoprotein activity as a consequence of Se nutritional status can directly alter a number of critical cellular functions involved in the inflammatory response. A better understanding of how Se can optimize immune cell responses may facilitate the design of nutritional regimes that will reduce health disorders during the periparturient period. PMID:23401850

  2. Evaluation of pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, A; Shahbazkia, HR; Ronagh, N

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR. Materials and Methods Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN). PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced. Results The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50%) and Pomona (37.5%). The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples. Conclusions Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health. PMID:22347596

  3. Physiological status alters immunological regulation of bovine follicle differentiation in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S W; Fair, T; Browne, J A; Evans, A C O; McGettigan, P A

    2012-12-01

    Lactation in dairy cattle is associated with a multitude of endocrine, metabolic and immunological changes that not only influence animal health, but also affect fertility, and in particular ovarian function. We have previously generated a global transcriptomic profile of bovine follicular tissue using RNA sequencing. This study aimed to: identify key immune-related transcriptional changes that occur during follicle differentiation and luteinisation using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA); and determine if a compromised model of stress (i.e. lactation) influences the temporal expression of these genes. Ovarian follicular tissue from Holstein-Friesian non-lactating heifers (n=17) and lactating cows (n=16) was compared at three stages of preovulatory follicle development: (A) the newly selected dominant follicle in the luteal phase (Selection); (B) the follicular phase before the LH surge (Differentiation), and (C) the preovulatory phase after the LH surge (Luteinisation). IPA revealed an over-representation of immune-related pathways in theca compared with granulosa cells during differentiation; these were related to leucocyte extravasation and chemotaxis. Conversely, luteinisation was characterised by over-representation of immune-related pathways in granulosa compared with theca cells; these were related to inflammation and innate immune response. Notably, comparison of follicles from heifers and lactating cows revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes associated with immune cell subpopulations and chemotaxis. In conclusion, identification of immune-related canonical pathways during follicle development supports the hypothesis that ovulation is an inflammatory event. This process is influenced by the physiological status of lactation and likely contributes to compromised peri-ovulatory follicle function by impairing the inflammatory process of ovulation. PMID:22980436

  4. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection on dairy cattle in farms from southern Romania.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Enachescu, Violeta; Radulescu, Ruxandra; Ionita, Mariana

    2012-02-01

    Neospora caninum, a coccidian parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. Conventional serological techniques, such as the indirect fluorescent antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are routinely used in adult animals and aborted fetuses for the detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies. In Romania, infection with N. caninum in cattle has been reported recently, but only in limited areas from the north and central parts of the country. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain additional seroepidemiological data on infection with N. caninum on dairy farms from the south of Romania. A total of 258 blood samples was analyzed from 230 dairy cows and 28 calves from 9 dairy farms in southern Romania; the presence of specific IgG antibodies against N. caninum was determined using an indirect ELISA test. The average seroprevalence was 40.3%, but the within-herd prevalence ranged between 11.5 and 80.0%; the seroprevalence in dairy cows was 41.7%, while in calves it was 28.6%. Of the positive samples, 74.0% (77/104) had a high positive reaction (S/P ratio more than 1.0), while 26.0% (27/104) had a low positive reaction (S/P ratio between 0.5 and 1.0). This study indicates that N. caninum infection is widespread in the south of Romania, which could explain the causes of abortions registered in some herds in the studied area. However, a serological screening across the country is planned in order to assess the actual national prevalence of N. caninum infection, followed by implementation of a prevention and control program. PMID:21955278

  5. Heat-induced Protein Structure and Subfractions in Relation to Protein Degradation Kinetics and Intestinal Availability in Dairy Cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Doiron, K.; Yu, P; McKinnon, J; Christensen, D

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein structures of feed tissues affected by heat processing at a cellular level, using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a novel approach, and quantify protein structure in relation to protein digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included (1) protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio; (2) protein subfractions profiles; (3) protein degradation kinetics and effective degradability; (4) predicted nutrient supply using the intestinally absorbed protein supply (DVE)/degraded protein balance (OEB) system for dairy cattle. In this study, Vimy flaxseed protein was used as a model feed protein and was autoclave-heated at 120C for 20, 40, and 60 min in treatments T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed and identified the heat-induced protein structure changes. Heating at 120C for 40 and 60 min increased the protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio. There were linear effects of heating time on the ratio. The heating also changed chemical profiles, which showed soluble CP decreased upon heating with concomitant increases in nonprotein nitrogen, neutral, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The protein subfractions with the greatest changes were PB1, which showed a dramatic reduction, and PB2, which showed a dramatic increase, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability. In situ results showed a reduction in rumen-degradable protein and in rumen-degradable dry matter without differences between the treatments. Intestinal digestibility, determined using a 3-step in vitro procedure, showed no changes to rumen undegradable protein. Modeling results showed that heating increased total intestinally absorbable protein (feed DVE value) and decreased degraded protein balance (feed OEB value), but there were no differences

  6. Evidence for the use of ceftiofur for treatment of metritis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Emily J

    2015-03-01

    Metritis is a cause of postparturient uterine disease in dairy cattle and is most commonly associated with watery fetid red-brown uterine discharge occurring in the first 21 days postpartum. The most severe form of metritis (puerperal metritis) often warrants antibiotic therapy. This article analyzes the current literature to determine the efficacy of ceftiofur in the treatment of metritis. Evidence-based review of the current literature suggests that there is evidence for the use of ceftiofur in the treatment of metritis. However, review of the literature also reveals the need for more studies with negative control groups. PMID:25578388

  7. Prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in Nile River delta provinces, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Zidan, Shereif; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn; Xiao, Lihua; Feng, Yaoyu

    2013-11-01

    Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in industrialized nations have mostly shown a dominance of Cryptosporidium parvum, especially its IIa subtypes in pre-weaned calves. Few studies, however, have been conducted on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum subtypes in various age groups of dairy cattle in developing countries. In this study, we examined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in four Nile River delta provinces in Egypt. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast microscopy was used to screen for Cryptosporidium oocysts in 1974 fecal specimens from animals of different ages on 12 farms. Positive fecal specimens were identified from all studied farms with an overall prevalence of 13.6%. By age group, the infection rates were 12.5% in pre-weaned calves, 10.4% in post-weaned calves, 22.1% in heifers, and 10.7% in adults. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of microscopy-positive fecal specimens revealed the presence of four major Cryptosporidium species. In pre-weaned calves, C. parvum was most common (30/69 or 43.5%), but Cryptosporidium ryanae (13/69 or 18.8%), Cryptosporidium bovis (7/69 or 10.2%), and Cryptosporidium andersoni (7/69 or 10.2%) were also present at much higher frequencies seen in most industrialized nations. Mixed infections were seen in 12/69 (17.4%) of genotyped specimens. In contrast, C. andersoni was the dominant species (193/195 or 99.0%) in post-weaned calves and older animals. Subtyping of C. parvum based on sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene showed the presence of subtypes IIdA20G1 in nine specimens, IIaA15G1R1 in 27 specimens, and a rare subtype IIaA14G1R1r1b in one specimen. The common occurrence of non-C. parvum species and IId subtypes in pre-weaned calves is a distinct feature of cryptosporidiosis transmission in dairy cattle in Egypt. The finding of the same two dominant IIa and IId C. parvum subtypes recently found in humans in

  8. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Kafi, Mojtaba; Pour-Teimouri, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34) and cows (n = 61) in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6%) were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran. PMID:25568676

  9. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Kafi, Mojtaba; Pour-Teimouri, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34) and cows (n = 61) in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6%) were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran. PMID:25568676

  10. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and its associated risk factors in cattle from smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Matope, Gift; Bhebhe, Evison; Muma, John Bwalya; Oloya, James; Madekurozwa, Rachel L; Lund, Arve; Skjerve, Eystein

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and the associated risk factors in cattle from smallholder dairy farms in Gokwe, Marirangwe, Mushagashe, Nharira, Rusitu and Wedza areas of Zimbabwe. A total of 1,440 cattle from 203 herds were tested serially for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal test and the competitive ELISA. Weighted seroprevalence estimates were calculated and risk factors in individual cattle investigated using logistic regression analysis. The overall individual animal brucellosis seroprevalence was low, with mean of 5.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.4%, 6.8%). Gokwe had the highest individual (12.6%; 95% CI, 3.9%, 21.4%) and herd-level (40.0%; 95% CI, 22.1%, 58.0%), while Wedza had the lowest individual (2.3%; 95% CI, 0%, 5.3%) and herd-level (8.0%; 95% CI, 0.0%, 18.9%) brucellosis seroprevalence, respectively. In individual cattle, the area of origin, age and history of abortion were independently associated with brucellosis seroprevalence. While the seroprevalence was independent of sex, it decreased with increasing age. Cattle 2-4 years old had higher odds (odds ratio (OR) = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1%, 9.1%) of being seropositive compared to those >7 years. Cows with a history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive (OR = 7.9; 95% CI, 3.1, 20.1) than controls. In conclusion, the area-to-area variation of brucellosis may be linked to ecological factors and differences in management practices. The implementation of stamping out policy, bleeding and testing animals before movement and promoting the use self-contained units are likely to significantly reduce the public health risks associated with Brucella infections in cattle. PMID:21327714

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dairy Cattle with Reproductive Problems in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elfahal, Abdelghafar M; Elhassan, Amira M; Hussien, Mohammed O; Enan, Khalid A; Musa, Azza B; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warm-blooded animals in most parts of the world. The disease is common among sheep and goats and it is recognized as one of the major causes of reproductive failure in these animals. Cattle, on the other hand, can be infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality has not been recorded. This survey was carried out to study the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Khartoum and Gazira States (Sudan). 181 sera samples collected from dairy cattle with reproductive problems were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA. The prevalence rate of T. gondii antibodies in cattle at herd level was 44.8% (13/29). Herd level infection rates were 50% and 33.3% in Khartoum and Gazira States, respectively. The overall prevalence of T. gondii at individual level in both states was 13.3% (24/181). The prevalence was 12.7% (17/134), was 14.9% (7/47) in Khartoum and Gazira State, respectively. There was significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in the age group less than one year old (36.4%) than in other age groups and in males (30.8%) than in females (11.9%) while no significant relationship was discerned regarding breed, location, season, or signs of reproductive disease. PMID:24171116

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dairy Cattle with Reproductive Problems in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elfahal, Abdelghafar M.; Elhassan, Amira M.; Hussien, Mohammed O.; Enan, Khalid A.; Musa, Azza B.; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warm-blooded animals in most parts of the world. The disease is common among sheep and goats and it is recognized as one of the major causes of reproductive failure in these animals. Cattle, on the other hand, can be infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality has not been recorded. This survey was carried out to study the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Khartoum and Gazira States (Sudan). 181 sera samples collected from dairy cattle with reproductive problems were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA. The prevalence rate of T. gondii antibodies in cattle at herd level was 44.8% (13/29). Herd level infection rates were 50% and 33.3% in Khartoum and Gazira States, respectively. The overall prevalence of T. gondii at individual level in both states was 13.3% (24/181). The prevalence was 12.7% (17/134), was 14.9% (7/47) in Khartoum and Gazira State, respectively. There was significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in the age group less than one year old (36.4%) than in other age groups and in males (30.8%) than in females (11.9%) while no significant relationship was discerned regarding breed, location, season, or signs of reproductive disease. PMID:24171116

  13. Spontaneous poisoning by Hovenia dulcis in dairy cattle in Southwest Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Fabricio; Possa, Marina Gabriela; Faccin, Mayane; Gruchouskei, Leonardo; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Pípole, Fernando; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Elias, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Livestock poisoning by plants is a frequent occurrence which determines severe losses, such as the fall in the milk and meat production, the cost of expensive treatments, the state of immunosuppression, or even the animal's death. Cattle ingest toxic plants only when there is food shortage, when they cannot select what they eat, or when they ingest food for preference, which is the case of Hovenia dulcis fruits, very rich in sucrose. This plant is widely distributed in the southern and southeastern Brazilian regions. In literature, there are some cases of severe human liver injury associated with a long-term of H. dulcis leaf and fruit tea intake, and only one report regarding spontaneous poisoning of goats caused by this plant ingestion. However, its toxic effects associated with spontaneous ingestion by cattle have never been reported. This paper reports the first case of spontaneous poisoning in cattle by H. dulcis, which occurred in a dairy farm in southwest Paraná, Brazil. Three cattle individuals showed anorexia, ruminal atony, severe diarrhea and neurological tournament, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, and circling. The necropsy of the animals was done, and the remaining alterations were restricted to the digestive system and brain. The clinical signs presented by the animals are characteristic of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), caused by changes in the thiamine metabolism. Furthermore, clinical signs, gross, and microscopic lesions as well as the large amount of the plant throughout the digestive segment led to a diagnosis. PMID:26415955

  14. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in dairy cattle in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Santín, M; Trout, J M; Fayer, R

    2005-12-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained from 12-24-month-old dairy heifers on farms in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. PCR positive specimens for Enterocytozoon bieneusi were found in 131 of 571 heifers examined (23%) and on all the farms visited. The prevalence of E. bieneusi varied considerably across farms, with the lowest prevalence (4.7%) on MD-2 and the highest prevalence (37.8%) on NY-2. All PCR positive specimens that amplified the ITS region as well as a portion of the flanking large and small subunit ribosomal RNA genes were sequenced to determine the genotype(s) of the E. bieneusi present and six genotypes were identified. Most were identified as cattle-specific genotypes, previously reported from cattle as BEB1, BEB2, BEB3, and BEB4. Two isolates were genetically identical or similar to E. bienesusi reported as the human pathogens Peru 6 and Peru 9 (or D) genotypes. Although our data demonstrate the presence of zoonotic genotypes in cattle, most genotypes found in cattle were host specific. PMID:16167161

  15. Evidence supporting vertical transmission of Salmonella in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hanson, D L; Loneragan, G H; Brown, T R; Nisbet, D J; Hume, M E; Edrington, T S

    2016-04-01

    We set out to investigate whether Salmonella enterica could be recovered from various tissues of viable neonatal calves immediately following parturition. Eleven samples were aseptically collected from each of 20 calves and consisted of both left and right subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes (LN), mesenteric LN, spleen and liver, as well as intestinal tissue (including luminal contents) from the small intestine, caecum, spiral colon and rectum. In addition, a faecal sample was collected from 19 of the dams. Salmonella was recovered from at least one sample from 10 of the 20 neonates. Across all calves, Salmonella was recovered from 12·7% of all samples and from LN in particular, Salmonella was recovered from 10·0%, 5·0%, and 5·0% of subiliac, prescapular, and mesenteric LN, respectively. Within calves, Salmonella was recovered from 0% to 73% of samples and across tissues, estimates of Salmonella prevalence were greatest in the caecum (30%) but was never recovered from the right pre-scapular LN. These data provide evidence of vertical transmission from a dam to her fetus such that viable calves are born already infected and thereby not requiring faecal-oral exposure for transmission. This new knowledge ought to challenge - or at least add to - existing paradigms of Salmonella transmission dynamics within cattle herds. PMID:26419321

  16. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L was 5d. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 5 DIM were 6.1 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 to 16.0] to develop a DA than cows first testing SCK positive at 6 DIM or later. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 7 DIM were 4.5 times more likely (95% CI = 1.7 to 11.7) to be removed from the herd, were 0.7 times as likely (95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8) to conceive to first service, and produced 2.2 kg less milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1

  17. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  18. Processing, mixing, and particle size reduction of forages for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, A J; Buckmaster, D R; Lammers, B P

    1999-01-01

    Adequate forage amounts in both physical and chemical forms are necessary for proper ruminal function in dairy cows. Under conditions in which total amounts of forage or particle size of the forage are reduced, cows spend less time ruminating and have a decreased amount of buoyant digesta in the rumen. These factors reduce saliva production and allow ruminal pH to fall, depressing activity of cellulolytic bacteria and causing a prolonged period of low ruminal pH. Insufficient particle size of the diet decreases the ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and reduces ruminal pH. The mean particle size of the diet, the variation in particle size, and the amount of chemical fiber (i.e., NDF or ADF) are all nutritionally important for dairy cows. Defining amounts and physical characteristics of fiber is important in balancing dairy cattle diets. Because particle size plays such an important role in digestion and animal performance, it must be an important consideration from harvest through feeding. Forages should not be reduced in particle size beyond what is necessary to achieve minimal storage losses and what can be accommodated by existing equipment. Forage and total mixed ration (TMR) particle sizes are potentially reduced in size by all phases of harvesting, storing, taking out of storage, mixing, and delivery of feed to the dairy cow. Mixing feed causes a reduction in size of all feed particles and is directly related to TMR mixing time; field studies show that the longest particles (>27 mm) may be reduced in size by 50%. Forage and TMR particle size as fed to the cows should be periodically monitored to maintain adequate nutrition for the dairy cow. PMID:10064042

  19. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  20. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  1. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  2. Quantifying the influence of ambient temperature on dairy and beef cattle mortality in France from a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane

    2015-07-01

    In the context of climate change, the frequency and severity of extreme weather events are expected to increase in temperate regions, and potentially have a severe impact on farmed cattle through production losses or deaths. In this study, we used distributed lag non-linear models to describe and quantify the relationship between a temperature-humidity index (THI) and cattle mortality in 12 areas in France. THI incorporates the effects of both temperature and relative humidity and was already used to quantify the degree of heat stress on dairy cattle because it does reflect physical stress deriving from extreme conditions better than air temperature alone. Relationships between daily THI and mortality were modeled separately for dairy and beef cattle during the 2003-2006 period. Our general approach was to first determine the shape of the THI-mortality relationship in each area by modeling THI with natural cubic splines. We then modeled each relationship assuming a three-piecewise linear function, to estimate the critical cold and heat THI thresholds, for each area, delimiting the thermoneutral zone (i.e. where the risk of death is at its minimum), and the cold and heat effects below and above these thresholds, respectively. Area-specific estimates of the cold or heat effects were then combined in a hierarchical Bayesian model to compute the pooled effects of THI increase or decrease on dairy and beef cattle mortality. A U-shaped relationship, indicating a mortality increase below the cold threshold and above the heat threshold was found in most of the study areas for dairy and beef cattle. The pooled estimate of the mortality risk associated with a 1°C decrease in THI below the cold threshold was 5.0% for dairy cattle [95% posterior interval: 4.4, 5.5] and 4.4% for beef cattle [2.0, 6.5]. The pooled mortality risk associated with a 1°C increase above the hot threshold was estimated to be 5.6% [5.0, 6.2] for dairy and 4.6% [0.9, 8.7] for beef cattle. Knowing the

  3. Management characteristics, lameness, and body injuries of dairy cattle housed in high-performance dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Cook, N B; Hess, J P; Foy, M R; Bennett, T B; Brotzman, R L

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark the prevalence of lameness, hock and knee injuries, and neck and back injuries among high-performance, freestall-housed dairy herds in Wisconsin. A random selection of 66 herds with 200 or more cows was derived from herds that clustered with high performance in year 2011 Dairy Herd Improvement records for milk production, udder health, reproduction, and other health parameters. Herds were surveyed to collect information about management, facilities, and well-being. Well-being measures were obtained through direct observation of the high-producing mature cow group, surveying 9,690 cows in total. Total herd size averaged (mean ± standard deviation) 851±717 cows, ranging 203 to 2,966 cows, with an energy-corrected milk production of 40.1±4.4kg/cow per day. Prevalence of clinical lameness (5-point scale, locomotion score ≥3) and severe lameness (locomotion score ≥4) averaged 13.2±7.3 and 2.5±2.7%, respectively. The prevalence of all hock and knee injuries, including hair loss, swelling, and ulceration, was similar at 50.3±28.3 and 53.0±24.0%, respectively. Severe (swelling and ulceration) hock and knee injury prevalence were 12.2±15.3 and 6.2±5.5%, respectively. The prevalence of all neck injuries (including hair loss, swelling and ulceration) was 8.6±16.3%; whereas the prevalence of swollen or abraded necks was low, averaging 2.0±4.1%. Back injuries (proportion of cows with missing or abraded spinous processes, hooks, or pins) followed a similar trend with a low mean prevalence of 3.6±3.4%. Overall, physical well-being characteristics of this selection of high-producing, freestall-housed dairy herds provide evidence that lameness and injury are not inevitable consequences of the confinement housing of large numbers of dairy cattle. In particular, lameness prevalence rivals that of lower-production grazing systems. However, hock and other injury risk remains a concern that can be addressed through a choice in

  4. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. PMID:26995127

  5. Organic marker compounds for surface soil and fugitive dust from open lot dairies and cattle feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Fugitive dust emissions from cattle feedlots and open lot dairies are substantial. In order to determine the contribution of intensive cattle operations on ambient PM levels, more knowledge besides the elemental composition is necessary in order to distinguish between airborne PM from nearby agricultural fields, barren lands, or dirt roads. Here, as part of the San Joaquin Valley Fugitive Dust Characterization Study, surface soil samples collected from feedlots and open lot dairy farms are investigated for potential source specific molecular marker compounds. More than 100 organic compounds were quantified including: n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanols, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, steroids, triterpenoids, isoprenoids, and tocopherols (vitamin E) and metabolites. Biohydrogenation of plant lipids and sterols in the rumen results in distinctive alteration products. Animal and plant derived steroids are most abundant. Here, it is shown that 5 β-stigmastanol and epi-5 β-stigmastanol, two biohydrogenation products of sitosterol and stigmasterol, are the most distinctive molecular marker compounds. While stearic (C 18) and palmitic (C 16) acids are as individual compounds not source specific, biohydrogenation of the more abundant C 18 unsaturated fatty acids, causes the ratio of C 18/C 16 fatty acids to shift from below 0.5 for vegetation to an average of 3.0±0.7. Consequently, the C 18/C 16 fatty acid ratio is unique and can be used as well in source apportionment studies.

  6. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolates from dairy cattle in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Su, Yan; Zhou, Mengjiao; Zhao, Jixue; Zhang, Tianyu; Ahmad, Waqas; Lu, Huijun; Jiang, Ning; Chen, Qijun; Xiang, Mei; Yin, Jigang

    2015-07-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic intestinal parasite responsible for diarrhea in humans and other animals worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of bovine giardiosis and to perform molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in the northeast of China. A total of 655 fecal specimens were collected from dairy cattle in 15 farms located in three different provinces. G. duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were determined by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene. As a whole, the G. duodenalis infection rate in dairy cattle was 7.9% (52/655), as determined by Lugol's iodine staining. Two assemblages were identified, namely, the potentially zoonotic assemblage A (n = 1), the livestock-specific assemblage E (n = 50), and a mixed infection case of assemblages A and E. Seven distinct subtypes of E assemblages were identified and E-XI, E-I and E-III are the major subtypes. Only subtype A-I was identified in assemblage A. Findings relevant to assemblage A are of public health importance. The results indicated the livestock-specific assemblage E is the major genotype and zoonotic assemblage A or B occurs very seldomly which is significantly different with previous report in the same area. So that determination of genotypes in individual epidemiological setting can make important contributions to public health. PMID:25845754

  7. Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit.

    PubMed

    Thomasen, J R; Egger-Danner, C; Willam, A; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S; Sørensen, A C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a genomic breeding scheme in a small dairy cattle population that was intermediate in terms of using both young bulls (YB) and progeny-tested bulls (PB). This scheme was compared with a conventional progeny testing program without use of genomic information and, as the extreme case, a juvenile scheme with genomic information, where all bulls were used before progeny information was available. The population structure, cost, and breeding plan parameters were chosen to reflect the Danish Jersey cattle population, being representative for a small dairy cattle population. The population consisted of 68,000 registered cows. Annually, 1,500 bull dams were screened to produce the 500 genotyped bull calves from which 60 YB were selected to be progeny tested. Two unfavorably correlated traits were included in the breeding goal, a production trait (h(2)=0.30) and a functional trait (h(2)=0.04). An increase in reliability of 5 percentage points for each trait was used in the default genomic scenario. A deterministic approach was used to model the different breeding programs, where the primary evaluation criterion was annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG). Discounted profit was used as an indicator of the economic outcome. We investigated the effect of varying the following parameters: (1) increase in reliability due to genomic information, (2) number of genotyped bull calves, (3) proportion of bull dam sires that are young bulls, and (4) proportion of cow sires that are young bulls. The genomic breeding scheme was both genetically and economically superior to the conventional breeding scheme, even in a small dairy cattle population where genomic information causes a relatively low increase in reliability of breeding values. Assuming low reliabilities of genomic predictions, the optimal breeding scheme according to AMGG was characterized by mixed use of YB and PB as bull sires. Exclusive use of YB for production cows increased AMGG up

  8. A meta-analysis of lasalocid effects on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Lean, I J

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lasalocid on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits were evaluated using meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to investigate sources of heterogeneity. Ten studies (20 comparisons) were used in the meta-analysis on rumen measures. Lasalocid increased total VFA and ammonia concentrations by 6.46 and 1.44 m, respectively. Lasalocid increased propionate and decreased acetate and butyrate molar percentage (M%) by 4.62, 3.18, and 0.83%, respectively. Valerate M% and pH were not affected. Meta-regression found butyrate M% linearly increased with duration of lasalocid supplementation (DUR; = 0.017). When >200 mg/d was fed, propionate and valerate M% were higher and acetate M% was lower ( = 0.042, = 0.017, and = 0.005, respectively). Beef performance was assessed using 31 studies (67 comparisons). Lasalocid increased ADG by 40 g/d, improved feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) by 410 g/kg, and improved feed efficiency (FE; combined measure of G:F and the inverse of F:G). Lasalocid did not affect DMI, but heterogeneity in DMI was influenced by DUR ( = 0.004) and the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.011). The combination of ≤100 vs. >100 d DUR and entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg showed that cattle ≤275 kg at entry fed lasalocid for >100 d had the lowest DMI. Heterogeneity of ADG was influenced by the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.028) but not DUR. Combining entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg and DUR showed that cattle entering at >275 kg fed ≤100 d had the highest ADG. The FE ( = 0.025) and F:G ( = 0.015) linearly improved with dose, and entry BW >275 kg improved F:G ( = 0.038). Fourteen studies (25 comparisons) were used to assess carcass traits. Lasalocid increased HCW by 4.73 kg but not dressing percentage, mean fat cover, or marbling score. Heterogeneity of carcass traits was low and not affected by DUR or dose. Seven studies (11 comparisons) were used to assess dairy performance but the study power was relatively low and the evidence base is

  9. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with Map-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation. PMID:16244077

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian inference on genetic and non-genetic components of partial efficiencies determining feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle feed efficiency (FE) can be defined as the ability to convert DMI into milk energy (MILKE) and maintenance or metabolic body weight (MBW). In other words, DMI is conditional on MILKE and MBW (DMI|MILKE,MBW). These partial regressions or partial efficiencies (PE) of DMI on MILKE and MBW ...

  11. Nutrient requirements for dairy cattle of the National Research Council versus some commonly used ration software.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, M L; Bucholtz, H F; Slater, A L; Hall, C S

    1998-11-01

    The first edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle was published by the National Research Council (NRC) in 1945. The current document is the sixth revised edition, published in 1989, and it appears that we are a few years from another edition being in print. Software designed to evaluate and formulate rations for dairy cattle commonly determine nutrient requirements using the NRC as a standard. However, the generation of new knowledge in dairy nutrition occurs more rapidly than the release of the NRC publication, and the developers of the software often modify the requirements based on more recently published research, geographical peculiarities, or factors not explicitly considered by NRC. The first step in evaluating or formulating rations is the prediction of dry matter intake (DMI). The primary variables used by NRC to predict DMI are body weight (BW) and fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield; however, developers of software programs often use different equations based on personal preference, availability of research data with given equations, and incorporation of other factors in addition to BW and FCM yield. The additional factors are included to provide a more dynamic estimation of DMI and, therefore, reduce the difference between predicted and actual DMI. Nutrients required for maintenance, lactation, and growth must be consumed in adequate quantities (e.g., kilograms or calories), but the dietary concentration of nutrients for a given animal group may differ because of DMI. Even when nutrients are fed above the requirements, dietary concentrations of nutrients may be important in some situations to minimize the risk of underfeeding caused by variability in the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and to account for interactions of certain nutrients (e.g., minerals). New research discoveries need to be incorporated into ration formulation strategies promptly, and the strategies used for ration formulation need to be dynamic. PMID:9839245

  12. Explorations in genome-wide association studies and network analyses with dairy cattle fertility traits.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Null, D J; Cole, J B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene networks associated with 3 fertility traits in dairy cattle-daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate-using different approaches. Deregressed predicted transmitting abilities were available for approximately 24,000 Holstein bulls and 36,000 Holstein cows sampled from the National Dairy Database with high-density genotypes. Of those, 1,732 bulls and 375 cows had been genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The remaining animals were genotyped with various chips of lower density that were imputed to high density. Univariate and trivariate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with both medium- (60,671 markers) and high-density (312,614 markers) panels were performed for daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate using GEMMA (version 0.94; http://www.xzlab.org/software.html). Analyses were conducted using bulls only, cows only, and a sample of both bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was used to develop gene interaction networks. The most significant markers were further investigated to identify putatively associated genes. Little overlap in associated genes could be found between GWAS using different reference populations of bulls only, cows only, and combined bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was able to identify several genes that were not identified by ordinary GWAS. The results obtained herein will aid in further dissecting the complex biology underlying fertility traits in dairy cattle, while also providing insight into the nuances of GWAS. PMID:27209127

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  15. Use of metabolic profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, D A; Goodger, W J; Garcia, M; Perera, B M; Wittwer, F

    1999-01-27

    Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multidisciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favorable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low-producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian, and one southern European countries. Data were also collected on feeding, body condition score (BCS) and weight change, parasitism, and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay, and Venezuela, globulin levels were high in > 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Vietnam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay, 49% of cows had high globulin levels at two to three months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela, high beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation, whereas change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were low in only small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and, hence, did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where

  16. Relative contributions of neighbourhood and animal movements to Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Nusinovici, Simon; Hoch, Thierry; Widgren, Stefan; Joly, Alain; Lindberg, Ann; Beaudeau, François

    2014-05-01

    Q fever in dairy cattle herds occurs mainly after inhalation of contaminated aerosols generated from excreta by shedder animals. Propagation of Coxiella burnetii, the cause of the disease between ruminant herds could result from transmission between neighbouring herds and/or the introduction of infected shedder animals in healthy herds. The objective of this study were (i) to describe the spatial distribution C. burnetii-infected dairy cattle herds in two different regions: the Finistère District in France (2,829 herds) and the island of Gotland in Sweden (119 herds) and (ii) to quantify and compare the relative contributions of C. burnetii transmission related to neighbourhood and to animal movements on the risk for a herd to be infected. An enzyme--linked immunosorbent assay was used for testing bulk tank milk in May 2012 and June 2011, respectively. Only one geographical cluster of positive herds was identified in north-western Finistère. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of risk for a herd to test positively with local cattle density (the total number of cattle located in a 5 km radius circle) and the in-degree (ID) parameter, a measure of the number of herds from which each herd had received animals directly within the last 2 years. The risk for a herd to test positively was higher for herds with a higher local cattle density [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-3.2, for herds with a local density between 100 and 120 compared to herds with a local density 60]. The risk was also higher for herds with higher IDs (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.2, for herds with ID 3 compared to herds that did not introduce animals). The proportion of cases attributable to infections in the neighbourhood in high-density areas was twice the proportion attributable to animal movements, suggesting that wind plays a main role in the transmission. PMID:24893024

  17. The efficacy of four anthelmintics against Calicophoron daubneyi in naturally infected dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Arias, M S; Sanchís, J; Francisco, I; Francisco, R; Piñeiro, P; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Cortiñas, F J; Suárez, J L; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A

    2013-10-18

    The paramphistomicidal activity of four anthelmintics in dairy cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron (Paramphistomum) daubneyi was evaluated. Seventy Friesian adult cows were treated at drying-off (19 albendazole; 23 netobimin; 13 closantel and 15 oxyclozanide), and 21 remained untreated as controls. The anthelmintic efficacy was determined by estimating the faecal egg count reduction (FECR) values for each of the anthelmintics. The reduction in the number of cows shedding eggs in the faeces was also estimated. The C. daubneyi egg-output was not fully suppressed following the administration of any of the parasiticides. The FECR values ranged from 0% to 26% in the cows receiving albendazole or netobimin, with 11-39% of cattle becoming negative after therapy. Better results were achieved with closantel and oxyclozanide, with FECR values of 97-99% and CPCR (cattle positive by coprology reduction) percentages of 85-93%. The observation of a similar efficacy with closantel and oxyclozanide against C. daubneyi led us to recommend the administration of closantel in those countries where oxyclozanide is not available. PMID:23830480

  18. Seroprevalence study of the main causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Laura; Benkirane, Abdelali; Hakimi, Imane; El Idrissi, Ahmed; Natale, Alda

    2016-03-31

    Sera from 221 cattle were collected in 25 farms in Morocco to investigate the evidence and circulation of some of the main bovine abortive agents in the dairy cattle farming, where abortions are often reported. All sera were examined for brucellosis, 176 for neosporosis, 88 for leptospirosis, and 42 for Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD/MD), Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) (Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, IBR/IPV), and Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) infections (at least 1 sample per herd). Abortions were reported in 23 (10.4%) of the 221 tested cattle. Antibodies against the investigated pathogens were detected in all samples tested, with an overall seroprevalence of 33.48% for Brucella, 9.09% for Leptospira, 8.52% for Neospora, 37.71% for BVDV, 50% for BHV-1, 9.52% for BHV-4. As for Leptospira antibodies against serovars Hardjo, Pomona, and Tarassovi were identi ed. Mixed infections were common. The lack of evidence of non-infectious factors epidemiologically related to abortions suggested that the investigated agents are to be considered important risk factors in the dynamic of the abortion syndrome, even if further investigations are necessary to identify the abortion cause. Particular attention should be paid on brucellosis, considering the high seroprevalence and its zoonotic relevance. PMID:27033527

  19. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. PMID:26754928

  20. Associations among digestive tract lesions and abnormal serum chemistries in cull dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All animals accrue tissue damage with age, but types and prevalence of damage are not known. Tissue lesions could signal impaired organ function which could affect performance. The study objective was to assess prevalence of microscopic lesions in digestive tracts of cull dairy cows, and determine a...

  1. Genetic and Environmental Factors That Impact Gestation Length in Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated. Data from over 9 million parturitions from 1999 through 2006 for 7 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, and dystocia records from across the United States. Effects examined were year of ...

  2. Valorization of indigenous dairy cattle breed through salami production.

    PubMed

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Maniaci, Giuseppe; Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Giosuè, Cristina; Di Noto, Annamaria; Cardamone, Cinzia; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Portolano, Baldassare; Alabiso, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the research was to produce salami manufactured with meat of three different commercial categories of bovine breed: cow on retirement, beef and young bull. A total of six experimental productions, at small-scale plant, were carried out with and without starter culture inoculums. The evolution of physico-chemical parameters in all trials followed the trend already registered for other fermented meat products. Several LAB species were found during process with different levels of species diversity and frequency of isolation among inoculated (mainly Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus) and uninoculated (mainly Enterococcus devriesei, Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sakei) trials. Enterobacteriaceae were found at very low levels during the entire ripening period and no pathogenic bacteria were found in any samples. The multivariate analysis showed that starter inoculums and meat affected significantly the physico-chemical and the microbiological composition of salami. The sensory analysis evidenced the highest overall acceptability was displayed by salami produced with meat from cow on retirement. PMID:26735574

  3. Genomic selection for tolerance to heat stress in Australian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy T T; Bowman, Phil J; Haile-Mariam, Mekonnen; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Benjamin J

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and humidity levels above a certain threshold decrease milk production in dairy cattle, and genetic variation is associated with the amount of lost production. To enable selection for improved heat tolerance, the aim of this study was to develop genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for heat tolerance in dairy cattle. Heat tolerance was defined as the rate of decline in production under heat stress. We combined herd test-day recording data from 366,835 Holstein and 76,852 Jersey cows with daily temperature and humidity measurements from weather stations closest to the tested herds for test days between 2003 and 2013. We used daily mean values of temperature-humidity index averaged for the day of test and the 4 previous days as the measure of heat stress. Tolerance to heat stress was estimated for each cow using a random regression model with a common threshold of temperature-humidity index=60 for all cows. The slope solutions for cows from this model were used to define the daughter trait deviations of their sires. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction was used to calculate GEBV for heat tolerance for milk, fat, and protein yield. Two reference populations were used, the first consisted of genotyped sires only (2,300 Holstein and 575 Jersey sires), and the other included genotyped sires and cows (2,189 Holstein and 1,188 Jersey cows). The remainder of the genotyped sires were used as a validation set. All animals had genotypes for 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms. When using only genotyped sires in the reference set and only the first parity data, the accuracy of GEBV for heat tolerance in relation to changes in milk, fat, and protein yield were 0.48, 0.50, and 0.49 in the Holstein validation sires and 0.44, 0.61, and 0.53 in the Jersey validation sires, respectively. Some slight improvement in the accuracy of prediction was achieved when cows were included in the reference population for Holsteins. No clear improvements in the accuracy of

  4. Simulation, prediction, and genetic analyses of daily methane emissions in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yin, T; Pinent, T; Brügemann, K; Simianer, H; König, S

    2015-08-01

    This study presents an approach combining phenotypes from novel traits, deterministic equations from cattle nutrition, and stochastic simulation techniques from animal breeding to generate test-day methane emissions (MEm) of dairy cows. Data included test-day production traits (milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, milk urea nitrogen), conformation traits (wither height, hip width, body condition score), female fertility traits (days open, calving interval, stillbirth), and health traits (clinical mastitis) from 961 first lactation Brown Swiss cows kept on 41 low-input farms in Switzerland. Test-day MEm were predicted based on the traits from the current data set and 2 deterministic prediction equations, resulting in the traits labeled MEm1 and MEm2. Stochastic simulations were used to assign individual concentrate intake in dependency of farm-type specifications (requirement when calculating MEm2). Genetic parameters for MEm1 and MEm2 were estimated using random regression models. Predicted MEm had moderate heritabilities over lactation and ranged from 0.15 to 0.37, with highest heritabilities around DIM 100. Genetic correlations between MEm1 and MEm2 ranged between 0.91 and 0.94. Antagonistic genetic correlations in the range from 0.70 to 0.92 were found for the associations between MEm2 and milk yield. Genetic correlations between MEm with days open and with calving interval increased from 0.10 at the beginning to 0.90 at the end of lactation. Genetic relationships between MEm2 and stillbirth were negative (0 to -0.24) from the beginning to the peak phase of lactation. Positive genetic relationships in the range from 0.02 to 0.49 were found between MEm2 with clinical mastitis. Interpretation of genetic (co)variance components should also consider the limitations when using data generated by prediction equations. Prediction functions only describe that part of MEm which is dependent on the factors and effects included in the function. With high

  5. A comparison of dairy cattle systems in an irrigated perimeter and in a suburban region: case study from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; Kiade, Najat; Lyoubi, Rachid; Messad, Samir; Faye, Bernard

    2009-06-01

    Multivariate analyses were used to compare dairy production practices and their consequences on milk yield and profitability in cattle farms from two representative regions of Morocco. A regular follow-up of 118 farms (48 in the Rabat-Salé suburban belt and 70 in the Gharb irrigated perimeter) was undertaken to obtain accurate data. Results show significant differences between the two regions. Intensive milk production was more frequent in the suburban zone (more concentrates and better annual milk yield per cow). When conducting a "within-region" principal components analysis, farms' discrimination appeared to take into account all management variables (feeding, cattle sales, profitability), with no reference to farms' structural parameters (arable land and number of cattle). A typology of farms was then established using cluster analysis, with 4 distinct groups, namely: a) concentrates wasters, b) farms with a relatively important milk yield per cow, c) deficit dairy farms and d) beef oriented farms. The last group included almost exclusively farms from the irrigated perimeter (5 out of 7). These results indicate that dairy production promotion in Morocco requires more than just the intensification of forage production, but should focus also on improving management practices. The extension of complete and balanced dairy rations is urgently needed to enhance milk yield and profitability. PMID:18987985

  6. MLST Subtypes and Population Genetic Structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from Dairy Cattle and Beef Cattle in Northeastern China’s Heilongjiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Weizhe; Liu, Aiqin; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Yang, Fengkun; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12–14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather’s sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825) and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16). Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China. PMID:24999982

  7. Left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cattle: recent developments in epidemiological and etiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Van Winden, Steven C L; Kuiper, Rogier

    2003-01-01

    The research with respect to displacement of the abomasum (DA) in dairy cattle is reviewed. Evaluated articles describe epidemiological and experimental studies. The occurrence is elevated with regard to breed, gender, age, concurrent diseases, environmental aspects and production levels as contributing factors and emphasis is placed on the effects of nutrition and metabolism. Reviewing the experimental work, distinction is made between the research into gas production in the abomasum and hypomotility of the abomasum, since both represent presumed pathways in the development of DA. Although the different fields of research have positive contributions to the understanding of the pathogenesis of DA, contradictions in the different studies are present. This is partly due to extrapolation of results from sheep to cows, or because of a low number of cows in the experiments. Finally, general suggestions are made for further research in the field of the pathogenesis of DA. PMID:12588683

  8. Characterization of coagulase negative staphylococci from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most common pathogens leading to subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cattle in Uganda. Coagulase negative staphylococci can vary between bacterial species in how they cause disease. The aim of the study was to characterize CNS, from cows with SCM in Uganda, at the species level. Findings Quarter milk samples (n = 166) were collected from 78 animals with SCM. Bacteriological analyses were carried out at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda and at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden. The most common pathogens found in milk samples from cows with SCM were CNS (31.7%). Two species of CNS were found, S. epidermidis (85%) and S. haemolyticus (15%). Of the CNS isolates, 16/20 (80%) were positive for β-lactamase production (β+). Conclusions In milk samples from cows with SCM caused by CNS, S. epidermidis was most prevalent, followed by S. haemolyticus. PMID:24917926

  9. Association analysis for feet and legs disorders with whole-genome sequence variants in 3 dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoping; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Identification of genetic variants associated with feet and legs disorders (FLD) will aid in the genetic improvement of these traits by providing knowledge on genes that influence trait variations. In Denmark, FLD in cattle has been recorded since the 1990s. In this report, we used deregressed breeding values as response variables for a genome-wide association study. Bulls (5,334 Danish Holstein, 4,237 Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and 1,180 Danish Jersey) with deregressed estimated breeding values were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine 54k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array. Genotypes were imputed to whole-genome sequence variants, and then 22,751,039 SNP on 29 autosomes were used for an association analysis. A modified linear mixed-model approach (efficient mixed-model association eXpedited, EMMAX) and a linear mixed model were used for association analysis. We identified 5 (3,854 SNP), 3 (13,642 SNP), and 0 quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions associated with the FLD index in Danish Holstein, Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and Danish Jersey populations, respectively. We did not identify any QTL that were common among the 3 breeds. In a meta-analysis of the 3 breeds, 4 QTL regions were significant, but no additional QTL region was identified compared with within-breed analyses. Comparison between top SNP locations within these QTL regions and known genes suggested that RASGRP1, LCORL, MOS, and MITF may be candidate genes for FLD in dairy cattle. PMID:27344389

  10. Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2012-09-01

    Of fecal specimens examined from 47 dairy cattle ranging in age from neonates to multiparous cows, 9, 10, 24, and 17 were positive for Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively, as determined by PCR. Eight 3- to 5-month-old cattle were concurrently infected with three or four of these parasites. This is the first report to identify multiple concurrent infections with these four potentially zoonotic protist pathogens in cattle. None of the cattle exhibited signs of illness or effects of infection on growth and are regarded as healthy carriers. A commercially available immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopic test confirmed six of seven available PCR-positive Blastocystis specimens and identified one IFA-positive cow that was PCR negative. PMID:22710524

  11. Dairy cattle prefer shade over sprinklers: effects on behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Schütz, K E; Rogers, A R; Cox, N R; Webster, J R; Tucker, C B

    2011-01-01

    Cattle will readily use shade in warm weather, but less is known about voluntary use of sprinklers. We examined preferences of 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (milk yield: 12.7±3.48 kg per day; mean±SD) for sprinklers, shade, or ambient conditions after walking 2.0 km or 0.3 km before afternoon milking (n=48 cows/distance). Each cow was individually tested on 3 consecutive days with a different paired choice each day: 1) shade or sprinklers, 2) shade or ambient conditions, 3) sprinklers or ambient conditions. Average air temperature during testing was 22.3°C. Cows preferred shade over sprinklers (62 vs. 38% ± 5.0%; mean ± SE) and shade over ambient conditions (65 vs. 35% ± 5.1%; mean±SE). Cows showed no preference between sprinklers and ambient conditions (44% of the cows chose sprinklers, SE=5.3%). The preference for shade over sprinklers and ambient conditions increased with air temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed. Walking distance did not influence the preference for any treatment. Respiration rate was decreased most by sprinklers (38% decrease) but also decreased in shade and ambient conditions (17 and 13% decrease, respectively; standard error of the difference=4.7%). Similarly, surface temperature was decreased most by sprinklers (11.4% decrease), compared with that by shade (1.0% decrease), or that by ambient conditions (1.4% increase; standard error of the difference=1.82%). Furthermore, sprinklers reduced insect avoidance behaviors, including number of tail flicks and hoof stamps. In conclusion, dairy cattle preferred to use shade in summer despite sprinklers being more efficient in decreasing heat load and insect avoidance behavior. PMID:21183037

  12. Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hare, E; Norman, H D; Wright, J R

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1980 for calving age and calving interval, 2 factors that influence herd life, were examined by parity for 5 breeds of US dairy cattle. Calving data were from cows with records that passed edits for USDA genetic evaluations and were in herds that remained on Dairy Herd Improvement test. First-calf heifers calved at progressively younger ages over time, but the age decline was less for later parities because of longer calving intervals. Breed differences for calving age were evident for all parities; current mean age at first calving ranged from 24 mo for Jerseys to 28 mo for Ayrshires. Mean calving age across all parities declined over time for all breeds, primarily because of increased turnover rate, and ranged from 48 mo for Holsteins to 54 mo for Ayrshires. Across parity, annual increase in calving interval was reasonably consistent (0.90 to 1.07 d/yr) for all breeds except Jersey (0.49 d/yr). Within parity, regressions of calving interval on year were generally similar to overall breed trend. Breed means for first calving interval across time ranged from 390 d for Jerseys to 407 d for Brown Swiss. PMID:16357301

  13. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Coppieters, Wouter; Mes, Ted HM; Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frédéric; Tamma, Nico; Schrooten, Chris; Cornelissen, Albert WCA; Georges, Michel; Ploeger, Harm W

    2009-01-01

    Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping). Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position. PMID:19254385

  14. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-01-01

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil. PMID:26505409

  15. Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli on Bavarian dairy and beef cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Hörmansdorfer, S; Messelhäusser, U; Käsbohrer, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Mansfeld, R

    2013-05-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fecal samples, boot swabs, and dust samples were analyzed for ESBL-producing E. coli using selective media. PCR was performed to screen for CTX-M and ampC resistance genes. A total of 598 samples yielded 196 (32.8%) that contained ESBL-producing E. coli, originating from 39 (86.7%) of 45 farms. Samples obtained from mixed farms were significantly more likely to be ESBL-producing E. coli positive than samples from beef cattle farms (fecal samples, P < 0.001; boot swabs, P = 0.014; and dust samples, P = 0.041). A total of 183 isolates (93.4%) of 196 ESBL-producing E. coli-positive strains harbored CTX-M genes, CTX-M group 1 being the most frequently found group. Forty-six additional isolates contained ampC genes, and 5 of the 46 isolates expressed a blaCMY-2 gene. The study shows that ESBL-producing E. coli strains are commonly found on Bavarian dairy and beef cattle farms. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of blaCMY-2 in cattle in Germany. PMID:23455336

  16. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Cattle and Pigeons in Dairy Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083

  17. Genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from cattle and pigeons in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083

  18. Possible risk factors on Queensland dairy farms for acaricide resistance in cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    PubMed

    Jonsson, N N; Mayer, D G; Green, P E

    2000-02-29

    A case control study was carried out within a cross-sectional survey designed to investigate the management by Queensland dairy farmers of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Although 199 farmers were surveyed, data on acaricide resistance were only obtained from 66 farms. Multiple models were used to predict the probability of acaricide resistance associated with 30 putative risk factors. The region of the state in which the farm was located and the frequency of acaricide application were consistently associated with acaricide resistance. The risk of resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids (Parkhurst strain) was highest in Central Queensland and increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, when spray races were used and when buffalo fly treatments with a synthetic pyrethroid were applied frequently. The probability of resistance to amitraz (Ulam strain) was highest in Central Queensland, increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, and decreased on farms when a hand-spray apparatus was used to apply acaricides to cattle. The probability of resistance to flumethrin (Lamington strain) was highest in the Wide Bay-Burnett region. PMID:10681025

  19. Association of Histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n = 4); necrotizing myocarditis (n = 3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n = 3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n = 2), N. caninum (n = 2), BVDV (n = 1), and BoHV-1 (n = 1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents. PMID:25480485

  20. Differential effect of thermal stress on HSP70 expression, nitric oxide production and cell proliferation among native and crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Bhusan, Bharat; Raja, T V; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Rani; Ashish Kumar; Alyethodi, R R; Kumar, Suresh; Deb, Rajib

    2016-07-01

    In a tropical country like India, thermal stress is one of the major factors which significantly affects the productivity of dairy cattle. The present study was aimed to identify the effect of heat and cold stress on cell viability, mitogen stimulation indices, nitric oxide production and HSP70 expression in Sahiwal and Holstein crossbred (Frieswal) population in India. The results indicated that the Sahiwal breed can better withstand the effect of heat and cold stress significantly (P<0.05) when compared to the crossbred cattle due to the higher survivability of the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) and Phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P) mitogen based stimulation indices. The study also revealed the significant differences (P<0.05) in the level of nitric oxide (µM) production amongst the pre and post thermal stressed samples of Sahiwal and Frieswal crossbred samples. Further, the expression of HSP70 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Sahiwal compared to Frieswal immediately after heat/cold shock to 6h of recovery as indirect ELISA analysis showed gradual rise in the Hsp70 protein concentration (ng/ml) immediately after heat and cold stress (0h) and reached the peak at 6h of recovery. Western blot and immune fluorescent assay results were also corroborated with the findings of indirect ELISA. In Sahiwal cattle the mRNA expression of HSP70 and its protein concentration were higher (P<0.05) during peak summer (44°C) and winter (10°C) as compared to Frieswal cattle. This investigation supports the earlier information on the higher adaptability of indigenous cattle breeds to hot and humid conditions compared to the crossbreds of temperate cattle breeds. PMID:27264883

  1. Association between thermal environment and Salmonella in fecal samples from dairy cattle in midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Likavec, Tasha; Pires, Alda F A; Funk, Julie A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the association between thermal measures in the barn environment (pen temperature and humidity) and fecal shedding of Salmonella in dairy cattle. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted within a commercial dairy herd located in the midwestern United States. Five pooled fecal samples were collected monthly from each pen for 9 mo and submitted for microbiological culture. Negative binomial regression methods were used to test the association [incidence rate ratio (IRR)] between Salmonella pen status (the count of Salmonella-positive pools) and thermal environmental parameters [average temperature and temperature humidity index (THI)] for 3 time periods (48 h, 72 h, and 1 wk) before fecal sampling. Salmonella was cultured from 10.8% [39/360; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.8% to 14.5%] of pooled samples. The highest proportion of positive pools occurred in August. The IRR ranged from 1.26 (95% CI: 1.15 to 1.39, THI 1 wk) to 4.5 (95% CI: 2.13 to 9.51, heat exposure 1 wk) across all thermal parameters and lag time periods measured. For example, the incidence rate of Salmonella-positive pools increased by 54% for every 5°C increment in average temperature (IRR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.85) and 29% for every 5-unit increase in THI (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.42) during the 72 h before sampling. The incidence rate ratio for pens exposed to higher temperatures (> 25°C) was 4.5 times (95% CI: 2.13 to 9.51) the incidence rate ratio for pens exposed to temperatures < 25°C in the 72 h before sampling. Likewise, the incidence rate ratio for pens exposed to THI > 70 was 4.23 times greater (95% CI: 2.1 to 8.28) than when the THI was < 70 in the 72 h before sampling. An association was found between the thermal environment and Salmonella shedding in dairy cattle. Further research is warranted in order to fully understand the component risks associated with the summer season and increased Salmonella shedding. PMID:27408330

  2. Short communication: Pharmacokinetics of intramammary hetacillin in dairy cattle milked 3 times per day.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Danielle A; Baynes, Ronald E; Smith, Geof W

    2015-03-01

    Mastitis remains a critical disease in the dairy industry and the use of intramammary antibiotics plays a critical role in mastitis treatment. Hetacillin is currently approved as an intramammary antibiotic that is used to treat mastitis in dairy cows. It is approved for once a day administration and can be used for a total of 3 d. An increasing number of dairy farms are milking 3 times per day (instead of the traditional 2 times per day) and very little pharmacokinetic data exists on the use of intramammary drugs in a 3×system. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if once a day intramammary infusion of hetacillin is sufficient to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations in cattle milked 3 times per day. Eight Holstein cattle milked 3 times per day were used in this study. After collecting a baseline milk sample, each cow received intramammary infusions of hetacillin in the left front and right rear quarters once a day for 3 d. Milk samples from each of the treated quarters were collected at each milking and frozen until analysis. Milk samples were analyzed for ampicillin concentrations using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method. All treated quarters had antibiotic concentrations well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for gram-positive mastitis pathogens at 8 and 16 h postinfusion. Milk concentrations had fallen well below the MIC by the 24-h period (before the next infusion). All 8 cows in this study consistently had individual quarter milk ampicillin concentrations below the FDA tolerance of 0.01 μg/mL (10 ppb) within 48 h of the last infusion. Based on this study, milk ampicillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC90) for at least 65% of the dosing interval, which is sufficient for once-daily dosing with most cases of gram-positive mastitis. Therefore, intramammary hetacillin should be an effective treatment for the vast majority of gram

  3. Subtype Analysis of Salmonella Isolated from Subclinically Infected Dairy Cattle and Dairy Farm Environments Reveals the Presence of Both Human- and Bovine-Associated Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Rivera, L.D.; Wright, E.M.; Siler, J.D.; Elton, M.; Cummings, K.J.; Warnick, L.D.; Wiedmann, M.

    2014-01-01

    While it is well established that clinically ill livestock represent a reservoir of Salmonella, the importance of subclinical shedders as sources of human salmonellosis is less well defined. The aims of this study were to assess the subtype diversity of Salmonella in healthy dairy cattle and associated farm environments and to compare the subtypes isolated from these sources with the Salmonella subtypes associated with clinical human cases in the same geographic area. A total of 1,349 Salmonella isolates from subclinical dairy cattle and farm environments (46 farms) were initially characterized by traditional or molecular serotyping and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A set of 381 representative isolates was selected for further characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); these isolates represented unique combinations of sampling date, serovar, antimicrobial resistance pattern, farm of origin, and source, to avoid overrepresentation of subtypes that were re-isolated from a given source. These 381 isolates represented 26 Salmonella serovars; the most common serovars were Cerro [(38.8%, 148/381) isolated from 21 farms], Kentucky [16.3%; 10 farms], Typhimurium [9.4%; 7 farms], Newport [7.6%; 8 farms], and Anatum [6.3%; 6 farms]. Among the 381 isolates, 90 (23.6%) were resistant to between 1 and 11 antimicrobial agents, representing 50 different antimicrobial resistance patterns. Overall, 61 XbaI-PFGE types were detected among these 381 isolates, indicating considerable Salmonella diversity on dairy farms without evidence of clinical salmonellosis. Fourteen PFGE types, representing 12 serovars, exactly matched PFGE types from human isolates, suggesting that subclinically infected dairy cattle could be sources of human disease-associated Salmonella. PMID:24636164

  4. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

    2012-09-01

    Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements

  5. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not... this part and this section. Test-eligible cattle which are not brucellosis exposed and are from herds... brucellosis exposed, and are from a herd not known to be affected may be moved interstate from Class...

  6. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not... this part and this section. Test-eligible cattle which are not brucellosis exposed and are from herds... brucellosis exposed, and are from a herd not known to be affected may be moved interstate from Class...

  7. Salmonella Dublin faecal excretion probabilities in cattle with different temporal antibody profiles in 14 endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal cultures and four types of temporal antibody profiles from cattle aged ≥180 days. Age and repeated measurements on animals nested within herds were taken into account. Overall, the prevalence of faecal shedders was low (0·3% and 2·8% in the lowest and highest risk groups, respectively). An important predictor of faecal shedding was young age. There was a significant, but modest increase in risk in cattle with persistently high or recently increased antibody levels, but no difference between these two groups. Contrary to previous recommendations, the detection of carriers by the use of repeated antibody testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds. PMID:23158650

  8. Breeding without Mendelism: theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of

  9. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  10. Model estimation and measurement of ammonia emission from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings with slatted floor designs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoyuan; Li, Baoming; Zhang, Guoqiang; Rom, Hans Benny; Strøom, Jan S

    2006-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel with a model of a slurry pit to investigate the characteristics of ammonia emission from dairy cattle buildings with slatted floor designs. Ammonia emission at different temperatures and air velocities over the floor surface above the slurry pit was measured with uniform feces spreading and urine sprinkling on the surface daily. The data were used to improve a model for estimation of ammonia emission from dairy cattle buildings. Estimates from the updated emission model were compared with measured data from five naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings. The overall measured ammonia emission rates were in the range of 11-88 g per cow per day at air temperatures of 2.3-22.4 degrees C. Ammonia emission rates estimated by the model were in the range of 19-107 g per cow per day for the surveyed buildings. The average ammonia emission estimated by the model was 11% higher than the mean measured value. The results show that predicted emission patterns generally agree with the measured one, but the prediction has less variation. The model performance may be improved if the influence of animal activity and management strategy on ammonia emission could be estimated and more reliable data of air velocities of the buildings could be obtained. PMID:17004680

  11. Effect of rubber flooring on dairy cattle stepping behavior and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Eranda; Winkler, Christoph; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2015-04-01

    Use of compressible flooring, such as rubber, has increased on dairy farms. Rubber improves locomotion and is well used by cattle in preference experiments that combine walking and standing. Previous work has found that rubber is particularly beneficial for lame animals, perhaps because a softer material is particularly useful when a single hoof is compromised. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of flooring while standing, because cattle in freestall housing spend 40 to 50% of their time engaged in this behavior. In a 2 × 2 design, cows (n = 16) were evaluated on 4 standing surfaces that varied in terms of both floor type (concrete or rubber) and presentation [same floor under all 4 legs (all 4 legs on either concrete or rubber) or a rough surface under only one hind leg and the other 3 legs on concrete or rubber] in a crossover design. Surface electromyograms were used to evaluate muscle fatigue, total activity, and movement of muscle activity between legs during 1 h of standing. Muscle fatigue was evaluated in 2 contexts: (1) static contractions when cows continuously transferred weight to each hind leg, before and after 1 h of standing, and (2) dynamic contractions associated with steps during 1 h on treatment surfaces. In addition, stepping rate, time between each consecutive step, and the latency to lie down after testing were measured. No interaction between floor type and presentation was found. Presentation had a significant effect; when one hind leg was on a rough surface, cattle took 1.7 times more steps with this leg and the non-rough hind leg had 1.2 times more muscle activity, compared with when all 4 legs were on the same surface. These changes are consistent with movement away from concrete with protrusions. When standing on rubber, muscle-activity movements among legs remained stable (0.6-0.7 movements per min) over 1 h but increased on concrete (0.6-0.9 movements per min), indicating that, like humans, cattle may sway to counteract

  12. Invited review: Recommendations for reporting intervention studies on reproductive performance in dairy cattle: Improving design, analysis, and interpretation of research on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lean, Ian J; Lucy, Matthew C; McNamara, John P; Bradford, Barry J; Block, Elliot; Thomson, Jennifer M; Morton, John M; Celi, Pietro; Rabiee, Ahmad R; Santos, José E P; Thatcher, William W; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Abundant evidence from the medical, veterinary, and animal science literature demonstrates that there is substantial room for improvement of the clarity, completeness, and accuracy of reporting of intervention studies. More rigorous reporting guidelines are needed to improve the quality of data available for use in comparisons of outcomes (or meta-analyses) of multiple studies. Because of the diversity of factors that affect reproduction and the complexity of interactions between these, a systematic approach is required to design, conduct, and analyze basic and applied studies of dairy cattle reproduction. Greater consistency, clarity, completeness, and correctness of design and reporting will improve the value of each report and allow for greater depth of evaluation in meta-analyses. Each of these benefits will improve understanding and application of current knowledge and better identify questions that require additional modeling or primary research. The proposed guidelines and checklist will aid in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of intervention studies. We propose an adaptation of the REFLECT (Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Trials for Livestock and Food Safety) statement to provide guidelines and a checklist specific to reporting intervention studies in dairy cattle reproduction. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that will assist investigators to produce studies with greater internal and external validity that can more often be included in systematic reviews and global meta-analyses. Such studies will also assist the development of models to describe the physiology of reproduction. PMID:26387020

  13. Anthropogenic and meteorological factors influence vector abundance and prevalence of bluetongue virus infection of dairy cattle in California.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Christie E; Gardner, Ian A; Mullens, Bradley A; Barker, Christopher M; Gerry, Alec C; Guthrie, Alan J; MacLachlan, N James

    2012-03-23

    Bluetongue is an economically important arboviral disease of ruminants that is transmitted by hematophagous Culicoides midges. In light of dramatic recent changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV), the goals of this study were to re-evaluate the prevalence of BTV infection of cattle and abundance of Culicoides midges on individual dairy farms in California. A serosurvey of adult dairy cattle confirmed that BTV infection is prevalent throughout much of the state, although the coastal northwestern region remains free of infection and prevalence varies markedly among farms in the remainder of the state. Intensive sampling for one year of 4 farms in the northern Central Valley of California showed that the abundance of Culicoides midges was markedly different and coincided with the prevalence of BTV infection of sentinel cattle on each farm. Mean maximum and minimum temperatures and other meteorological parameters were similar on all 4 farms, thus we speculate that particular management practices were responsible for both the increased midge abundance and prevalence of BTV infection of cattle at individual farms. Specifically, it is concluded that variation in vector abundance at individual farms most likely is the result of waste-water lagoon and irrigation management practices, leading to higher BTV infection rates among livestock held on farms with more waste-water lagoons and greater acreage of land for waste-water irrigation. PMID:21930352

  14. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies. PMID:27048416

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dutch dairy cattle herds based on bulk tank milk testing.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, E; Schotten, N; Schimmer, B; Hautvast, J L A; van Schaik, G; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

    2014-11-01

    Despite cattle herds can harbor Coxiella burnetii, risk factors for C. burnetii presence in dairy cattle herds are largely unknown. Therefore, C. burnetii herd prevalence and risk factors for bulk tank milk (BTM) positivity were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was filled out by the farmer and BTM from 301 farms was tested by ELISA for presence of C. burnetii antibodies and PCR for presence of C. burnetii DNA. Risk factors were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Antibodies to C. burnetii were detected in 81.6% (CI: 77.2-85.9) and C. burnetii DNA in 18.8% (CI: 14.4-23.1) of the BTM samples. Herd size (OR=1.1 per 10 cows), cleaning the bedding of the cubicles at most every other day (OR=2.8) and purchase of cattle from at least two addresses (OR=3.1) showed a significant and positive association with ELISA positivity and use of an automatic milking system a negative association (OR=0.3). Risk factors for PCR positivity were purchase of cattle from at least two delivery addresses (OR=3.2), presence of cows with ticks (OR=2.0), use of an automatic milking system (OR=0.2) and presence of goats or sheep on the farm (OR=0.4). Biosecurity and general hygiene seem associated with introduction and spread of C. burnetii in dairy herds. PMID:25239684

  16. Farm simulation can help adapt dairy production systems to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is affecting the production of feed on dairy farms. Warming climates also affect the performance of dairy cattle and the interactions between feed production and animal performance. Process level simulation of dairy production systems provides a tool for whole-farm evaluation of the e...

  17. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets.

    PubMed

    Bruns, H R; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-10-01

    Whereas most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, a lack of information exists regarding steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB). This research evaluated various inclusion rates of SFSB in diets for lactating dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (103 ± 39 d in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment consisting of 28-d periods, 14 d for diet transitioning followed by a 14-d sampling period. Treatments were inclusion of SFSB at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dietary dry matter (DM), replacing a mixture of soybean meal, soy hulls, calcium salts of fatty acids, and choice white grease. Animals were fed lactating dairy cow diets formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic, containing 60% of DM as forage and 40% of DM as concentrate. Dry matter intake (mean = 28.8 kg/d), milk production (42.2 kg/d), milk fat percentage (3.52%), and feed efficiency (1.43 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DM intake) were similar across all treatments. Milk protein (2.98%) and lactose (4.87%) were also unaffected by the amount of SFSB in the diet. Milk urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly as the amount of SFSB in the diet increased. Unlike some other soybean supplements, feeding SFSB did not increase trans-11 C18:1 or cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, but instead resulted in increased cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 and α-C18:3. Body weights (752 kg) and body condition scores (3.17) were similar with all diets. This research demonstrated that SFSB can be substituted for soybean meal and commercial fat sources while maintaining milk and milk component production and decrease milk urea nitrogen concentration. PMID:26277308

  18. Mortality related to cold and heat. What do we learn from dairy cattle?

    PubMed

    Cox, Bianca; Gasparrini, Antonio; Catry, Boudewijn; Delcloo, Andy; Bijnens, Esmée; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-08-01

    Extreme temperatures are associated with increased mortality among humans. Because similar epidemiologic studies in animals may add to the existing evidence, we investigated the association between ambient temperature and the risk of mortality among dairy cattle. We used data on 87,108 dairy cow deaths in Belgium from 2006 to 2009, and we combined a case-crossover design with distributed lag non-linear models. Province-specific results were combined in a multivariate meta-analysis. Relative to the estimated minimum mortality temperature of 15.4°C (75th percentile), the pooled cumulative relative risks over lag 0-25 days were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.42) for extreme cold (1st percentile, -3.5°C), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.54) for moderate cold (5th percentile, -0.3°C), 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.17) for moderate heat (95th percentile, 19.7°C), and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08; 1.48) for extreme heat (99th percentile, 22.6°C). The temporal pattern of the temperature-mortality association was similar to that observed in humans, i.e. acute effects of heat and delayed and prolonged effects of cold. Seasonal analyses suggested that most of the temperature-related mortality, including cold effects, occurred in the warm season. Our study reinforces the evidence on the plausibility of causal effects in humans. PMID:27236362

  19. Local Cattle and Badger Populations Affect the Risk of Confirmed Tuberculosis in British Cattle Herds

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Flavie; Johnston, W. Thomas; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles) culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects) by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treatment: repeated widespread proactive culling, localized reactive culling and no culling (survey-only). Methodology/Principal Findings New cases of bTB breakdowns were monitored inside the RBCT areas from the end of the first proactive badger cull to one year after the last proactive cull. The risk of a herd bTB breakdown was modeled using logistic regression and proportional hazard models adjusting for local farm-level risk factors. Inside survey-only and reactive areas, increased numbers of active badger setts and cattle herds within 1500 m of a farm were associated with an increased bTB risk. Inside proactive areas, the number of M. bovis positive badgers initially culled within 1500 m of a farm was the strongest predictor of the risk of a confirmed bTB breakdown. Conclusions/Significance The use of herd-based models provide insights into how local cattle and badger populations affect the bTB breakdown risks of individual cattle herds in the absence of and in the presence of badger culling. These measures of local bTB risks could be integrated into a risk-based herd testing programme to improve the targeting of interventions aimed at reducing the risks of bTB transmission. PMID:21464920

  20. Review: Opportunities and challenges for small populations of dairy cattle in the era of genomics.

    PubMed

    Schöpke, K; Swalve, H H

    2016-06-01

    In modern dairy cattle breeding, genomic breeding programs have the potential to increase efficiency and genetic gain. At the same time, the requirements and the availability of genotypes and phenotypes present a challenge. The set-up of a large enough reference population for genomic prediction is problematic for numerically small breeds but also for hard to measure traits. The first part of this study is a review of the current literature on strategies to overcome the lack of reference data. One solution is the use of combined reference populations from different breeds, different countries, or different research populations. Results reveal that the level of relationship between the merged populations is the most important factor. Compiling closely related populations facilitates the accurate estimation of marker effects and thus results in high accuracies of genomic prediction. Consequently, mixed reference populations of the same breed, but from different countries are more promising than combining different breeds, especially if those are more distantly related. The use of female reference information has the potential to enlarge the reference population size. Including females is advisable for small populations and difficult traits, and maybe combined with genotyping females and imputing those that are un-genotyped. The efficient use of imputation for un-genotyped individuals requires a set of genotyped related animals and well-considered selection strategies which animals to choose for genotyping and phenotyping. Small populations have to find ways to derive additional advantages from the cost-intensive establishment of genomic breeding schemes. Possible solutions may be the use of genomic information for inbreeding control, parentage verification, within-herd selection, adjusted mating plans or conservation strategies. The second part of the paper deals with the issue of high-quality phenotypes against the background of new, difficult and hard to measure

  1. The use of seaweed from the Galician coast as a mineral supplement in organic dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rey-Crespo, F; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control

  2. Smallholder experiences with dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: from introduction to impact.

    PubMed

    Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M

    2015-01-01

    Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator

  3. The periparturient period is associated with structural and transcriptomic adaptations of rumen papillae in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Steele, M A; Schiestel, C; AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Matthews, J C; McBride, B W

    2015-04-01

    The structural and functional adaption of the rumen epithelium during the transition period is largely undescribed. To characterize the adaptation of the rumen epithelium during transition, multiparous dairy cattle (n=12) fitted with rumen fistulas and fed a low-energy dry cow diet (1.37 Mcal/kg, net energy for lactation) were transitioned abruptly to a high-energy lactating cow diet (1.68 Mcal/kg, net energy for lactation) immediately after parturition. Rumen papillae were biopsied at -3, +1, and +6 wk relative to calving. The histology of morphology of the rumen papillae was evaluated under the light microscope and electron microscope, and mRNA profiling was performed using an Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Data preprocessing was conducted using the robust multi-array average method, and detection of significant genes was conducted using ANOVA. Also, the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate of 0.1 was applied. Microscopic examination of rumen papillae revealed an increase in epithelial desquamation during early lactation as sloughing scores increased from 1.7 ± 0.2 at -3 wk to 4.1 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2 at +1 and + 6 wk, respectively. A total of 1,011 (-3 vs. +1 wk) and 729 (-3 vs. +6 wk) differentially expressed genes were identified (false discovery rate of 0.10, P<10(-3), fold-change ± 1.2 cut-off). A group of differentially expressed genes involved in desmosome assembly (DSG1, CDSN), epidermal growth factor signaling (EGFR, EREG), transforming growth factor β signaling (TGFB1), and the insulin-like growth factor-axis (GHR, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, CTGF) was also validated using PCR. Gene network analysis found that EGFR, GHR, and TGFB1 were focal points of the top pathways, thereby supporting the importance of these regulatory genes to the adaptive response of rumen papillae in early lactation. The microscopic and transcriptomic changes in this study provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the rapid rate of

  4. Increasing the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms used in genomic evaluation of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Wiggans, G R; Cooper, T A; VanRaden, P M; Van Tassell, C P; Bickhart, D M; Sonstegard, T S

    2016-06-01

    GeneSeek (Neogen Corp., Lexington, KY) designed a new version of the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler HD BeadChip for Dairy Cattle, which originally had >77,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). A set of >140,000 SNP was selected that included all SNP on the existing GeneSeek chip, all SNP used in US national genomic evaluations, SNP that were possible functional mutations, and other informative SNP. Because SNP with a lower minor allele frequency might track causative variants better, 30,000 more SNP were selected from the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) by choosing SNP to maximize differences in minor allele frequency between a SNP being considered for the new chip and the 2 SNP that flanked it. Single-gene tests were included if their location was known and bioinformatics indicated relevance for dairy cattle. To determine which SNP from the new chip should be included in genomic evaluations, genotypes available from chips already in use were used to impute and evaluate the SNP set. Effects for 134,511 usable SNP were estimated for all breed-trait combinations; SNP with the largest absolute values for effects were selected (5,000 for Holsteins, 1,000 for Jerseys, and 500 each for Brown Swiss and Ayrshires for each trait). To increase overlap with the 60,671 SNP currently used for genomic evaluation, 12,094 more SNP with the largest effects were added. After removing SNP with many parent-progeny conflicts, 84,937 SNP remained. Three cutoff studies were conducted with 3 SNP sets to determine reliability gain over that for parent average when evaluations based on August 2011 data were used to predict December 2014 performance. Across all traits, mean Holstein reliability gains were 32.5, 33.4, and 32.0 percentage points for 60,671, 84,937, and 134,511 SNP, respectively. After genotypes from the new chip became available, the proposed set was reduced from 84,937 to 77,321 SNP to remove SNP that were not included during manufacture

  5. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  6. Prevalence and carrier status of leptospirosis in smallholder dairy cattle and peridomestic rodents in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Chandika D; Koizumi, Nobuo; Muto, Maki; Nwafor-Okoli, Chinyere; Kurukurusuriya, Shanika; Rajapakse, Jayanthe R P V; Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Kanda, Koji; Lee, Romeo B; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Watanabe, Haruo; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2011-08-01

    Leptospirosis is an important bacterial zoonotic disease globally and one of the notifiable diseases in Sri Lanka. Other than human leptospirosis, little information is available on leptospirosis in domestic and feral animals in Sri Lanka. Thus, this study attempted to determine the prevalence and carrier status of leptospirosis in smallholder dairy cattle and peridomestic rodents to understand the impact of the disease on public health in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Cattle and rodent samples were collected from the Yatinuwara and Udunuwara divisional secretaries in Kandy. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antileptospiral antibodies using microscopic agglutination test. DNA was extracted from cattle urine and rodent kidney tissue samples, in which polymerase chain reaction was carried out to detect the Leptospira flaB gene. The cattle in 19 (38.8%) of the 49 farms harbored antileptospiral antibodies. Out of 113 cattle serum samples, 23 (20.3%) were positive; 17 (73.9%) and 6 (26.1%) reacted with serogroups Sejroe and Hebdomadis, respectively. Out of the 74 rodent samples, 13 (17.5%) were positive; 8 (61.5%) and 4 (30.8%) had reactions to serogroups Javanica and Icterohaemorrhagiae, respectively. Leptospiral DNA was detected in one cattle urine sample and identified as Leptospira interrogans. This study revealed a high prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle and rodents in Kandy. These animals were infected with a wide array of leptospiral serogroups, which are consistent with the research findings observed in humans in Kandy. Overall, serological data indicate that relative to rodents, cattle may be a more significant reservoir for human transmission and a greater source of potential risk to local agricultural communities. PMID:21284522

  7. Genomic selection for producer-recorded health event data in US dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2014-05-01

    Emphasizing increased profit through increased dairy cow production has revealed a negative relationship of production with fitness and health traits. Decreased cow health can affect herd profitability through increased rates of involuntary culling and decreased or lost milk sales. The development of genomic selection methodologies, with accompanying substantial gains in reliability for low-heritability traits, may dramatically improve the feasibility of genetic improvement of dairy cow health. Producer-recorded health information may provide a wealth of information for improvement of dairy cow health, thus improving profitability. The principal objective of this study was to use health data collected from on-farm computer systems in the United States to estimate variance components and heritability for health traits commonly experienced by dairy cows. A single-step analysis was conducted to estimate genomic variance components and heritabilities for health events, including cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum, ketosis, lameness, mastitis, metritis, and retained placenta. A blended H matrix was constructed for a threshold model with fixed effects of parity and year-season and random effects of herd-year and sire. The single-step genomic analysis produced heritability estimates that ranged from 0.02 (standard deviation = 0.005) for lameness to 0.36 (standard deviation = 0.08) for retained placenta. Significant genetic correlations were found between lameness and cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum and ketosis, displaced abomasum and metritis, and retained placenta and metritis. Sire reliabilities increased, on average, approximately 30% with the incorporation of genomic data. From the results of these analyses, it was concluded that genetic selection for health traits using producer-recorded data are feasible in the United States, and that the inclusion of genomic data substantially improves reliabilities for these traits. PMID:24612803

  8. Nutritional and Environmental Effects on Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Housing: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bougouin, Adeline; Leytem, April; Dijkstra, Jan; Dungan, Robert S; Kebreab, Ermias

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen excreted in dairy manure can be potentially transformed and emitted as NH, which can create livestock and human respiratory problems and be an indirect source of NO. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate environmental factors influencing NH emissions from dairy housing; and (ii) identify key explanatory variables in the NH emissions prediction from dairy housing using a meta-analytical approach. Data from 25 studies were used for the preliminary analysis, and data from 10 studies reporting 87 treatment means were used for the meta-analysis. Season and flooring type significantly affected NH emissions. For nutritional effect analysis, the between-study variability (heterogeneity) of mean NH emission was estimated using random-effect models and had a significant effect ( < 0.01). Therefore, random-effect models were extended to mixed-effect models to explain heterogeneity regarding the available dietary and animal variables. The final mixed-effect model included milk yield, dietary crude protein, and dry matter intake separately, explaining 45.5% of NH emissions heterogeneity. A unit increase in milk yield (kg d) resulted in a 4.9 g cow d reduction in NH emissions, and a unit increase in dietary crude protein content (%) and dry matter intake (kg d) resulted in 10.2 and 16.3 g cow d increases in NH emissions, respectively, in the scope of this study. These results can be further used to help identify mitigation strategies to reduce NH emissions from dairy housing by developing predictive models that could determine variables with strong association with NH emissions. PMID:27380059

  9. Precision diet formulation to improve performance and profitability across various climates: Modeling the implications of increasing the formulation frequency of dairy cattle diets.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Capper, Judith L

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to use a precision nutrition model to simulate the relationship between diet formulation frequency and dairy cattle performance across various climates. Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS) CattlePro diet-balancing software (Cornell Research Foundation, Ithaca, NY) was used to compare 3 diet formulation frequencies (weekly, monthly, or seasonal) and 3 levels of climate variability (hot, cold, or variable). Predicted daily milk yield (MY), metabolizable energy (ME) balance, and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded for each frequency-variability combination. Economic analysis was conducted to calculate the predicted revenue over feed and labor costs. Diet formulation frequency affected ME balance and MY but did not affect DMI. Climate variability affected ME balance and DMI but not MY. The interaction between climate variability and formulation frequency did not affect ME balance, MY, or DMI. Formulating diets more frequently increased MY, DMI, and ME balance. Economic analysis showed that formulating diets weekly rather than seasonally could improve returns over variable costs by $25,000 per year for a moderate-sized (300-cow) operation. To achieve this increase in returns, an entire feeding system margin of error of <1% was required. Formulating monthly, rather than seasonally, may be a more feasible alternative as this requires a margin of error of only 2.5% for the entire feeding system. Feeding systems with a low margin of error must be developed to better take advantage of the benefits of precision nutrition. PMID:24393175

  10. Field study on evaluation of the efficacy and usability of two disinfectants for drinking water treatment at small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asmaa N

    2016-03-01

    The hygienic quality of drinking water for cattle originated from different sources together with the efficacy and usability of two types of disinfectants against waterborne pathogens were assessed for small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 drinking water samples were collected from water troughs representing three different water sources commonly used for cattle drinking (tap, underground and surface water; n = 65, 25, and 30, respectively). Collected samples were cultured for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria using serological techniques and PCR. The bactericidal efficacy of the disinfectants, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 50%, at different concentrations were evaluated by the determination of total viable and coliform counts of water prior and postwater treatment. In small cattle breeders, Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacterial isolates from surface water (56.7%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (36.7%), Salmonella spp. (26.7%), Streptococcus faecalis (23.3%), Shigella flexneri (16.7%), Proteus spp. (16.7%), and Klebsiella pneumonae (10.0 %) at X(2) = 9, P ≤ 0.01. Prior to the use of disinfectants, the averages of total bacterial and coliform counts were the highest in surface water (3.56 × 10(7), 240.0, and 38.0 CFU/100 ml, respectively). It has been found that hydrogen peroxide 50% at a concentration of 35 mg/l had a lethal effect (100 %) on indicator microorganisms compared with NaDCC at concentration of 2 mg/l. In conclusion, the higher bacterial contaminants in drinking water were found in surface water followed by tap water, particularly for small cattle breeders. Therefore, the usage of more hygienic water troughs with their regular treatment by hydrogen peroxide 50% at concentration of 35 mg/l is highly recommended to control waterborne bacteria and consequently improve and maintain the animal health. PMID:26861741

  11. Adapting dairy farms to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is projected to affect many aspects of dairy production. These aspects include the growing season length, crop growth processes, harvest timing and losses, heat stress on cattle, nutrient emissions and losses, and ultimately farm profitability. To assess the sensitivity of dairy farms...

  12. Cell Biology Symposium: genetics of feed efficiency in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Crowley, J J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing food production for the growing human population off a constraining land base will require greater efficiency of production. Genetic improvement of feed efficiency in cattle, which is cumulative and permanent, is one likely vehicle to achieving efficiency gains. The objective of this review is to summarize genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits in dairy and beef cattle and also to address some of the misconceptions associated with feed efficiency in these sectors, as well as discuss the potential use of feed efficiency in breeding programs. A meta-analysis of up to 39 scientific publications in growing cattle clearly showed that genetic variation in feed efficiency exists with a pooled heritability for residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion efficiency of 0.33 ± 0.01 (range of 0.07 to 0.62) and 0.23 ± 0.01 (range of 0.06 to 0.46), respectively. Heritability estimates for feed efficiency in cows were lower; a meta-analysis of up to 11 estimates revealed heritability estimates for gross feed efficiency and RFI of 0.06 ± 0.010 and 0.04 ± 0.008, respectively. Meta-analysis of genetic correlations between feed intake, feed efficiency and other performance traits are presented, and selection index theory is used to calculate the proportion of genetic variation in feed intake that can be explained by easy to measure, and often already collected, data. A large proportion of the genetic variation in feed intake could be explained in both growing animals and lactating animals using up to 5 predictor traits, including BW, growth rate, milk yield, body composition, and linear type traits reflecting body size and muscularity. Knowledge of genetic merit for feed intake can be used, along with estimates of genetic merit for energy sinks, to calculate genetic merit for feed efficiency. Therefore, the marginal benefit of collecting actual feed intake data, using the genetic parameters used in this study, appears to be low. There is now sufficient

  13. Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; VandeHaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A

    2013-10-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150 d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring

  14. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315

  15. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH ₄ emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal's CH ₄ yield (g CH ₄ /kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH ₄ yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH ₄ (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD - 0.113 (±0.023) × EE - 2.47 (±0.29) × (feeding level - 1), with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH ₄ yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information. PMID:27618107

  16. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strip for equipment-free detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in dairy cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Dong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Long-Xian; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Ma, Jian-Gang; Wang, Meng; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Xu, Min-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects a large number of vertebrate animals, resulting in varying degrees of diarrhea or even death. As dairy cattle feces is an important source of Cryptosporidium spp. infection, development of a handy and accurate detection method via its oocysts in dairy cattle feces would be interesting and necessary. We herein developed a quick detecting method using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strip to detect DNA of Cryptosporidium oocysts in dairy cattle feces. The DNA was released by boiled water with 0.1 % N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (LSS). The established method was proven to be of higher sensitivity than normal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with the lowest detection of 0.5 oocyst per reaction, and specificity with no cross reactivity to other common protozoan species in the intestine of dairy cattle. The diagnostic method established herein is simple, rapid, and cost-effective, and has potential for further development as a diagnostic kit for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis of dairy cattle. PMID:27174027

  17. A method for the dynamic management of genetic variability in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Colleau, Jean-Jacques; Moureaux, Sophie; Briend, Michèle; Bechu, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    According to the general approach developed in this paper, dynamic management of genetic variability in selected populations of dairy cattle is carried out for three simultaneous purposes: procreation of young bulls to be further progeny-tested, use of service bulls already selected and approval of recently progeny-tested bulls for use. At each step, the objective is to minimize the average pairwise relationship coefficient in the future population born from programmed matings and the existing population. As a common constraint, the average estimated breeding value of the new population, for a selection goal including many important traits, is set to a desired value. For the procreation of young bulls, breeding costs are additionally constrained. Optimization is fully analytical and directly considers matings. Corresponding algorithms are presented in detail. The efficiency of these procedures was tested on the current Norman population. Comparisons between optimized and real matings, clearly showed that optimization would have saved substantial genetic variability without reducing short-term genetic gains. PMID:15231230

  18. Genome-Wide Diversity and Phylogeography of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Canadian Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P; McKenna, Shawn L B; Tahlan, Kapil; De Buck, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative bacterium of Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants. The control of JD in the dairy industry is challenging, but can be improved with a better understanding of the diversity and distribution of MAP subtypes. Previously established molecular typing techniques used to differentiate MAP have not been sufficiently discriminatory and/or reliable to accurately assess the population structure. In this study, the genetic diversity of 182 MAP isolates representing all Canadian provinces was compared to the known global diversity, using single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through whole genome sequencing. MAP isolates from Canada represented a subset of the known global diversity, as there were global isolates intermingled with Canadian isolates, as well as multiple global subtypes that were not found in Canada. One Type III and six "Bison type" isolates were found in Canada as well as one Type II subtype that represented 86% of all Canadian isolates. Rarefaction estimated larger subtype richness in Québec than in other Canadian provinces using a strict definition of MAP subtypes and lower subtype richness in the Atlantic region using a relaxed definition. Significant phylogeographic clustering was observed at the inter-provincial but not at the intra-provincial level, although most major clades were found in all provinces. The large number of shared subtypes among provinces suggests that cattle movement is a major driver of MAP transmission at the herd level, which is further supported by the lack of spatial clustering on an intra-provincial scale. PMID:26871723

  19. Differential expression of genes in milk of dairy cattle during lactation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Jiang, Jicai; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Haifei; Guo, Gang; Zhang, Qin; Jiang, Li

    2016-04-01

    The milk fat globule (MFG) is one of the most representative of mammary gland tissues and can be utilized to study gene expression of lactating cows during lactation. In this study, RNA-seq technology was employed to detect differential expression of genes in MFGs at day 10 and day 70 after calving between two groups of cows with extremely high (H group) and low (L group) 305-day milk yield, milk fat yield and milk protein yield. In total, 1232, 81, 429 and 178 significantly differentially expressed genes (false discovery rate q < 0.05) were detected between H10 and L10, H70 and L70, H10 and H70, and L10 and L70 respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were enriched in biological processes involved in mammary gland development, protein and lipid metabolism process, signal transduction, cellular process, differentiation and immune function. Among these differentially expressed genes, 178 (H10 vs. L10), 4 (H70 vs. L70), 68 (H10 vs. H70) and 22 (L10 vs. L70) were found to be located within previously reported QTL regions for milk production traits. Based on these results, some promising candidate genes for milk production traits in dairy cattle were suggested. PMID:26692495

  20. Prediction of breeding values for dairy cattle using artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems.

    PubMed

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A

    2012-01-01

    Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

  1. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

  2. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine. PMID:21968538

  3. Low-dose natural prostaglandin F2α (dinoprost) at timed insemination improves conception rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Divakar J; Gobikrushanth, Mohanathas; Zuidhof, Sjoert; Kastelic, John P

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine if low doses of PGF2α (dinoprost) given intramuscularly (im) concurrent with timed artificial insemination (TAI) would improve conception rates in dairy cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if body condition score (BCS) and parity would influence conception rates, either independently or in interaction with PGF2α treatment. In experiment I, 307 lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either 5-mg PGF2α im (PGF2α treated, n = 154) or 0-mg PGF2α (control, n = 153) at TAI (Day 0). Blood samples were obtained on Days -10, -3, 0, and 7 to determine plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. Pregnancy was confirmed 30 to 32 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment II, 451 cows were randomly assigned to receive either 10-mg PGF2α im (PGF2α treated, n = 226) or 0-mg PGF2α (control, n = 225) at TAI, and pregnancy was confirmed 45 to 50 days after TAI by palpation per rectum. Pregnancy data were analyzed by CATMOD (SAS). In experiment I, PGF2α treatment, BCS, and parity did not affect conception rate (35.7% vs. 37.0% for PGF2α treated vs. control; P > 0.05). However, in experiment II, conception rates were higher in cows given 10-mg PGF2α than those in control cows (45.8% vs. 36.0%; P < 0.05), in cows with high BCS than in cows with low BCS (52.1% vs. 30.4%; P < 0.01), and in primiparous than in multiparous cows (47.6% vs. 34.4%; P < 0.01), but their interaction with PGF2α treatment did not affect conception rates. In summary, 5 mg of PGF2α given im concurrent with TAI failed to enhance conception rate in lactating dairy cows, whereas 10 mg of PGF2α significantly increased conception rate. PMID:25434776

  4. Influence of sprinklers, used to alleviate heat stress, on faecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Enterococcus in lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effect of sprinklers on fecal shedding of E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella in lactating dairy cattle and examine isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility, sprinklers were applied to lactating dairy cattle on two commercial farms at either the feedbunk or in the holding pen prior to m...

  5. Dairy manure and plant nutrient management issues affecting water quality and the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, L E

    1994-07-01

    Specific requirements for dairy manure management to protect water quality from nutrient pollution depend on the organization of individual farms. Further, the management requirements and options are different for point (farmstead) and nonpoint (field-applied) sources of pollution from farms. A formal management process can guide decisions about existing crop nutrient utilization potential, provide a framework for tracking nutrients supplied to crops, and identify future requirements for dairy manure management to protect water quality. Farm managers can use the process to plan daily activities, to assess annual nutrient management performance, and to chart future requirements as herd size increases. Agronomic measures of nutrient balance and tracking of inputs and outputs for various farm management units can provide the quantitative basis for management to allocate better manure to fields, to modify dairy rations, or to develop alternatives to on-farm manure application. Changes in agricultural production since World War II have contributed to a shift from land-based dairy production to a reliance on capital factors of production supplied by the dairy industry. Meanwhile, management of dairy manure to meet increasingly stringent water quality protection requirements is still a land-based activity. Involving the dairy industry and off-farm stakeholders as participants in the management process for field, farm, and regional dairy production can be the basis for decision-making to reconcile the sometimes conflicting demands of production and water quality protection. PMID:7929961

  6. Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L

    2003-05-15

    Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional farmers had not any form of worm control practice. Worm infection was ranked the second most important constraint of productivity in cattle in the three production systems. Most farms (57.6% traditional, 35.8% small-scale dairy, 66.7% large-scale dairy) used anthelmintics with a combination of levamisole and oxyclozanide. Benzimidazoles were used only in traditional (25.4%) and small-scale dairy (32.1%) farms while nitroxynil (Trodax) was mostly used in large-scale dairy farms (33.3%). Generally, 40% of farmers treated three or four times a year and the frequency in some farms was surprisingly high for resource poor small-scale farmers. The frequency of anthelmintic treatment was mostly the same regardless of the management system. Treatments in most farms depended on availability of money and drugs and not the epidemiology of parasites. A significant proportion (46.3%, P=0.007) of farmers especially in rural areas failed to follow their pre-planned treatment schedules due to lack of money (86%) and unavailability of drugs (6.6%). Many farmers (58.9%) had used the same type of anthelmintic for four or more consecutive years and 85.3% of them would continue with the same anthelmintic. Farmers in all management systems mostly purchased anthelmintics from private veterinary drug shops and about 43% traditional and 33.3% small-scale dairy farmers mostly in rural areas obtained anthelmintics from village extension officers. Despite the fact that all farmers were aware of worm

  7. Short communication: Dairy bedding type affects survival of Prototheca in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, N; Bonaiuto, H E; Lichtenwalner, A B

    2013-01-01

    Protothecae are algal pathogens, capable of causing bovine mastitis, that are unresponsive to treatment; they are believed to have an environmental reservoir. The role of bedding management in control of protothecal mastitis has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth of either environmental or mastitis-associated Prototheca genotypes in dairy bedding materials that are commonly used in Maine. Prototheca zopfii genotypes 1 and 2 (gt1 and gt2) were inoculated into sterile broth only (control ), kiln-dried spruce shavings, "green" hemlock sawdust, sand, or processed manure-pack beddings with broth, and incubated for 2 d. Fifty microliters of each isolate was then cultured onto plates and the resulting colonies counted at 24 and 48 h postinoculation. Shavings were associated with significantly less total Prototheca growth than other bedding types. Growth of P. zopfii gt1 was significantly higher than that of gt2 in the manure-pack bedding material. Spruce shavings, compared with manure, sand, or sawdust, may be a good bedding type to prevent growth of Prototheca. Based on these in vitro findings, bedding type may affect Prototheca infection of cattle in vivo. PMID:24119794

  8. Schmallenberg virus epidemic: impact on milk production, reproductive performance and mortality in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and Kleve district, Germany.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, A M B; Santman-Berends, I M G A; Gethmann, J M; Mars, M H; van Wuyckhuise, L; Vellema, P; Holsteg, M; Höreth-Böntgen, D; Conraths, F J; van Schaik, G

    2014-10-15

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus that rapidly spread throughout north-western Europe in 2011, caused congenital malformations in lambs and goat kids (Van den Brom et al., 2012) and newborn calves (Hoffmann et al., 2012). The impact of the SBV epidemic seemed limited however, in terms of the number of affected herds with malformed offspring (European Food Safety Authority, 2012b). Nevertheless, little is known with regard to the overall within-herd impact of SBV infection. The objective of the current study was to quantify the impact of the 2011 SBV epidemic on the productivity of dairy cattle in the Netherlands and the district of Kleve, Germany. For the Netherlands, several multilevel multivariable statistical models were applied on eight productivity parameters regarding milk production, reproductive performance and mortality. All four fertility parameters analysed were slightly but significantly reduced between August 1st and November 1st 2011 compared to the reference period in 2009-2010. Between August 15th and September 19th 2011, the average loss in milk production per cow was -0.26kg (95% CI: -0.30; -0.22) per day in dairy herds, compared to the reference period (p<0.001). The total loss per cow in a subgroup of dairy herds that notified malformations in newborn calves during the mandatory notification period in the Netherlands was -0.43kg (95% CI: -0.59; -0.28) per day (p<0.001). For Germany, a study was carried out in the district of Kleve, situated in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia near the Dutch border. Data on milk yield, two fertility parameters and the number of rendered calves in this specific region were analysed. There was a small but significant increase in the number of secondary and third inseminations between August 1st and November 1st 2011, indicating reduced fertility. No significant change in calf mortality was observed in the assumed SBV period. Milk production at district level did not seem to be affected by SBV in

  9. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  10. Genetic analysis of longevity in Dutch dairy cattle using random regression.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, M L; Meuwissen, T H E; de Jong, G; Veerkamp, R F

    2015-06-01

    Longevity, productive life, or lifespan of dairy cattle is an important trait for dairy farmers, and it is defined as the time from first calving to the last test date for milk production. Methods for genetic evaluations need to account for censored data; that is, records from cows that are still alive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these methods also need to take account of survival being genetically a different trait across the entire lifespan of a cow. The data set comprised 112,000 cows with a total of 3,964,449 observations for survival per month from first calving until 72 mo in productive life. A random regression model with second-order Legendre polynomials was fitted for the additive genetic effect. Alternative parameterizations were (1) different trait definitions for the length of time interval for survival after first calving (1, 3, 6, and 12 mo); (2) linear or threshold model; and (3) differing the order of the Legendre polynomial. The partial derivatives of a profit function were used to transform variance components on the survival scale to those for lifespan. Survival rates were higher in early life than later in life (99 vs. 95%). When survival was defined over 12-mo intervals survival curves were smooth compared with curves when 1-, 3-, or 6-mo intervals were used. Heritabilities in each interval were very low and ranged from 0.002 to 0.031, but the heritability for lifespan over the entire period of 72 mo after first calving ranged from 0.115 to 0.149. Genetic correlations between time intervals ranged from 0.25 to 1.00. Genetic parameters and breeding values for the genetic effect were more sensitive to the trait definition than to whether a linear or threshold model was used or to the order of Legendre polynomial used. Cumulative survival up to the first 6 mo predicted lifespan with an accuracy of only 0.79 to 0.85; that is, reliability of breeding value with many daughters in the first 6 mo can be, at most, 0.62 to 0.72, and

  11. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    PubMed

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance

  12. Ammonia and methane emissions from cattle and dairy feedlots in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golston, L.; Pan, D.; Stanton, L. G.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are recognized as a major contributor of both methane and ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia is released by volatilization of urea and nitrogen containing wastes from the feedlot surface and waste management systems, while methane is produced from enteric fermentation and primarily exhaled into the atmosphere. Our objective was to survey plumes downwind of open lot feedyards near Greeley, Colorado and surrounding areas, to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of agricultural emissions in this area. Research was conducted during the month-long NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July-August 2014, with over 4000 km of on-road measurements. Methane and ammonia concentrations were measured using open-path laser spectroscopy, along with water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide on a roof-mounted, mobile platform. The open-path design enables high resolution measurements of ammonia with minimized sampling issues. Concurrent measurements during the campaign by other groups on stationary and aircraft platforms help characterize the meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemistry. We present measurements from 65 of the 67 registered CAFOs in Weld County, which contain up to 660,000 cattle-equivalent animals units. The ammonia to methane enhancement ratio, ΔNH3:ΔCH4, was positively skewed with a median of 0.14 ± 0.04 ppmv/ppmv, consistent with our previous measurements during DISCOVER-AQ California. Due to the much greater variability of ammonia compared to methane, the emissions ratio is used to provide an estimate of feedyard ammonia emissions, with results divided for cattle, dairy, and sheep. Using the most recent emissions estimates of methane, we calculated a total of ≈28.8 TgNH3/yr released globally from feedlots alone, nearly as large as the IPCC's estimate of 30.4 Tg/yr from all agriculture sources. This discrepancy suggests feedyard ammonia is underrepresented in current inventories and models, and

  13. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P < 0.01); farms that provided milk to other industries previously (OR = 4.13; CI 95% = 1.17-14.49; P = 0.02); and isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P < 0.01); isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations. PMID:24661884

  14. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49%) of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010) in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3%) and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy) (> 1.9) occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49%) in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle. PMID:22289165

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes and their relation with somatic cell scores in Argentinean dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Nani, Juan P; Raschia, Maria A; Carignano, Hugo; Poli, Mario A; Calvinho, Luis F; Amadio, Ariel F

    2015-11-01

    The prevention and control of bovine mastitis by enhancing natural defenses in animals is important to improve the quality of dairy products. Mastitis resistance is a complex trait which depends on genetic components, as well as environmental and physiological factors. The limitations of classical control measures have led to the search for alternative approaches to minimize the use of antibiotics by selecting naturally resistant animals. Polymorphisms in genes associated with the innate immune system are strong candidates to be evaluated as genetic markers. In this work, we evaluated a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for health and production traits, and determined their association with the somatic cell score (SCS) as an indicator of mastitis in Argentinean dairy cattle. We evaluated 941 cows: Holstein (n = 677) and Holstein × Jersey (n = 264) crossbred, daughters from 22 bulls from 14 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. Two of the 21 successfully genotyped markers were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the SCS: GHR_140 and OPN_8514C-T. The heterozygote genotype for GHR_140 showed a favorable effect in reducing the SCS. On the other hand, heterozygote genotypes for OPN8514C-T caused an increase in the SCS; moreover, combined genotypes for OPN SNPs showed an even larger effect. These findings can contribute to the design of effective marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:25783851

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961-2010.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China׳s beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961-2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18Mt to 5.86Mt and from 7.93kt-29.56kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09Mt and 0.12 to 7.90kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961-2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961-2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. PMID:25262083

  17. Multiple promoters and targeted microRNAs direct the expressions of HMGB3 gene transcripts in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Liming; Huang, Jinming; Ju, Zhihua; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Changfa; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Hou, Qinlei; Hang, Suqin; Zhong, Jifeng

    2013-06-01

    HMGB3 (high-mobility group box 3) is an X-linked member of a family of sequence-independent chromatin-binding proteins and functions as a universal sentinel for nucleic acid-mediated innate immune responses. The splice variant expression, promoter characterization and targeted microRNAs of the bovine HMGB3 gene were investigated to explore its expression pattern and possible regulatory mechanism. The results revealed that the expression of HMGB3 transcript variants 1 and 2 (HMGB3-TV1 and HMGB3-TV2) mRNA in the mastitis-infected mammary gland tissues was up-regulated by 8.46- and 5.31-fold respectively compared with that in healthy tissues (P < 0.05). HMGB3-TV1 was highly expressed in the mammary gland tissues, whereas HMGB3-TV2 was expressed primarily in liver. Functional analyses indicated that HMGB3 transcription is regulated by three distinct promoters - promoters 1, 2 and 3 (P1, P2 and P3) - resulting in two alternative transcripts with the same 3'-untranslated region. Promoter luciferase activity analysis suggested that the core sequences of P1 and P2 were mapped in the region of g.1535 to ~g.2076 and g.2074 to ~g.2491 respectively. The g.5880C>T SNP in P3 affected its base promoter activity, and different genotypes were associated with the bovine somatic count score. The expression of targets bovine miR-17-5p, miR-20b and miR-93 of the HMGB3 gene was down-regulated 1.56-, 1.72- and 2.94-fold respectively in mammary gland tissues as compared with that in healthy tissues (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that HMGB3 expression is under complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional control by alternate promoter usage, alternative splicing mechanism and microRNAs in dairy cattle. PMID:23206268

  18. Prevalence of Latent and Active Tuberculosis among Dairy Farm Workers Exposed to Cattle Infected by Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Gonzalez, Pedro; Soberanis-Ramos, Orbelin; Martinez-Gamboa, Areli; Chavez-Mazari, Barbara; Barrios-Herrera, Ma Teresa; Torres-Rojas, Martha; Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes; Singh, Mahavir; Gonzalez-Aguirre, Adrian; Ponce de Leon-Garduño, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Bobadilla-del-Valle, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Background Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW) exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Tuberculin skin test (TST) and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4–80.9%) by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0–64.0%) by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31–5.64) and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31–4.30) adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. Conclusions We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting. PMID:23638198

  19. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P < 0.05). PCR-RFLP analysis leads to three banding patterns for CXCR1c.735C>G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations. PMID:26126595

  20. Arcobacter lanthieri sp. nov., isolated from pig and dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Whiteduck-Léveillée, Kerri; Whiteduck-Léveillée, Jenni; Cloutier, Michel; Tambong, James T; Xu, Renlin; Topp, Edward; Arts, Michael T; Chao, Jerry; Adam, Zaky; André Lévesque, C; Lapen, David R; Villemur, Richard; Talbot, Guylaine; Khan, Izhar U H

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and diversity of species of the genus Arcobacter in pig and dairy cattle manure, which led to the identification of strains AF1440T, AF1430 and AF1581. Initially identified as Arcobacter butzleri based on colony morphology and initial PCR-confirmation tests, analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains confirmed that they belonged to the genus Arcobacter and were different from all known species of the genus. The isolates formed a distinct group within the genus Arcobacter based on their 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, cpn60, gyrA and atpA gene sequences and fatty acid profiles. Their unique species status was further supported by physiological properties and DNA-DNA hybridization that allowed phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of the strains from other species of the genus Arcobacter. The isolates were found to be oxidase, catalase and esterase positive and urease negative; they grew well at 30 °C under microaerophilic conditions and produced nitrite and acetoin. Based on their common origin and various physiological properties, it is proposed that the isolates are classified as members of a novel species with the name Arcobacter lanthieri sp. nov. The type strain is AF1440T ( = LMG 28516T = CCUG 66485T); strains AF1430 ( = LMG 28515 = CCUG 66486) and AF1581 ( = LMG 28517 = CCUG 66487) are reference strains. PMID:25977280

  1. Airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli in a dairy cattle farm and its environment.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Martínez-Olarte, Roberto; Navajas-Benito, Enrique V; Alonso, C Andrea; Hidalgo-Sanz, Sara; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2015-03-16

    There are multiple ways bacteria can be transported from its origin to another area or substrate. Water, food handlers, insects and other animals are known to serve as a vehicle for bacterial dispersion. However, the importance of the air in open areas as a possible way of bacterial dissemination has not been so well analyzed. In this study, we investigated the airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli from the inside of a dairy cattle farm to the immediate environment. The air samples were taken inside the farm (area 0) and from the immediate outside farm surroundings at distance of 50, 100 and 150m in four directions (north, south, east, and west). At each point, the air was collected at different heights: 40cm, 70cm and 1m. The sampling was carried out in two weather seasons (November and July). E. coli was isolated in both inside and outside air, even in samples taken 150m from the farm. A seasonal effect was observed with more bacterial isolates when temperature was higher. Regarding the distribution of the isolates, wind direction appeared as a determining factor. In order to verify that E. coli strains isolated from animal housing facilities were identical to those isolated from the air of the immediate farm environment, their genomic DNA profiles were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with the endonuclease XbaI. The comparison of genetic profiles suggested that the strains isolated from inside and outside the farm were related, leading to the conclusion that the air is an important vehicle for E. coli dissemination. PMID:25555228

  2. Invited review: The use of distillers products in dairy cattle diets.

    PubMed

    Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Garcia, A D

    2009-12-01

    Distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the major coproduct of ethanol production, usually made from corn, which is fed to dairy cattle. It is a good protein (crude protein, CP) source (>30% CP) high in ruminally undegradable protein (approximately 55% of CP) and is a good energy source (net energy for lactation of approximately 2.25 Mcal/kg of dry matter). The intermediate fat concentration (10% of dry matter) and readily digestible fiber (approximately 39% neutral detergent fiber) contribute to the high energy content in DGS. Performance was usually similar when animals were fed wet or dried products, although some research results tended to favor the wet products. Diets can contain DGS as partial replacement for both concentrates and forages, but DGS usually replaces concentrates. Adequate effective fiber was needed to avoid milk fat depression when DGS replaced forages in lactating cow diets. Nutritionally balanced diets can be formulated that contain 20% or more of the diet dry matter as DGS. Such diets supported similar or higher milk production compared with when cows were fed traditional feeds. Although DGS can constitute more than 30% of diet dry matter, gut fill may limit dry matter intake and production in diets with more than 20% wet DGS and that also contain other moist feeds. The fiber in DGS, which often replaces high-starch feeds, does not eliminate acidosis but minimizes its problems. Distillers solubles, which are often blended with distillers grains to provide DGS, can be fed separately as condensed corn distillers solubles. Other distillers coproducts besides DGS such as high-protein distillers grains, corn germ, corn bran, and low-fat distillers grains are becoming available. PMID:19923586

  3. A comparative assessment of culture and serology in the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, D; Byrne, W; Kelleher, P; O'Callaghan, H; Kenny, K; Heneghan, T; Power, S; Egan, J; Ryan, F

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the usefulness of culture for the confirmation of brucellosis in cattle, a comparison of culture and serology was undertaken on 248 animals in four dairy herds where the disease was active. Paired supramammary (SM), retropharyngeal (RP), and internal iliac (IL) lymph nodes were cultured, and five serological tests were deployed: the microserum agglutination test (MSAT), complement fixation test (CFT), the indirect (iELISA) and competitive ELISA, and the fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA). Brucella abortus was isolated from 86.8% of animals on combined culture of all three lymph nodes. Individually, the highest isolation rate was from the RP (90.5% of culture positives). Of culture positive animals, 13.7% and 6.2% were positive from the RP and SM alone, respectively. Approximately half of the positive cultures yielded <10 colonies/culture plate. Although 80.9% of animals were positive in at least one serological test, only 45.2% were positive in all five. For culture-positive animals, the MSAT was the most sensitive test (71.8%). Of the culture-negative animals 67.7% were positive in at least one test, while 12.9% were positive in all five. Titres were higher in animals culture-positive from the SM, and there was a direct correlation between higher titres and higher colony counts in SM cultures. Only 8.9% of animals were both culture-negative and seropositive (in at least one test), while 16.5% were culture-positive and seronegative in all five tests. The results highlight and validate the sensitivity of bacteriological culture in confirming a diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. While the MSAT and FPA were the most sensitive serological tests, a significant percentage of infected animals were undetectable using these standard serological assays. PMID:24507882

  4. Genome-Wide Diversity and Phylogeography of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Canadian Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W.; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F.; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P.; McKenna, Shawn L. B.; Tahlan, Kapil; De Buck, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative bacterium of Johne’s disease (JD) in ruminants. The control of JD in the dairy industry is challenging, but can be improved with a better understanding of the diversity and distribution of MAP subtypes. Previously established molecular typing techniques used to differentiate MAP have not been sufficiently discriminatory and/or reliable to accurately assess the population structure. In this study, the genetic diversity of 182 MAP isolates representing all Canadian provinces was compared to the known global diversity, using single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through whole genome sequencing. MAP isolates from Canada represented a subset of the known global diversity, as there were global isolates intermingled with Canadian isolates, as well as multiple global subtypes that were not found in Canada. One Type III and six “Bison type” isolates were found in Canada as well as one Type II subtype that represented 86% of all Canadian isolates. Rarefaction estimated larger subtype richness in Québec than in other Canadian provinces using a strict definition of MAP subtypes and lower subtype richness in the Atlantic region using a relaxed definition. Significant phylogeographic clustering was observed at the inter-provincial but not at the intra-provincial level, although most major clades were found in all provinces. The large number of shared subtypes among provinces suggests that cattle movement is a major driver of MAP transmission at the herd level, which is further supported by the lack of spatial clustering on an intra-provincial scale. PMID:26871723

  5. Comparing local and commercial breeds on functional traits and profitability: the case of Reggiana dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gandini, G; Maltecca, C; Pizzi, F; Bagnato, A; Rizzi, R

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fertility, longevity, milkability, and profitability of cows from the Reggiana and Holstein breeds in northern Italy. Profitability was gauged for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. Calving to first service interval, days open, and calving interval were significantly shorter in Reggiana than in Holstein cows. Reggiana cows conceived approximately one estrus cycle before Holstein and had a calving interval 33 d shorter. Holstein cows released a significantly higher quantity of milk per unit of time (1.81 vs. 1.28 kg/min). Reggiana cows had longer expected total and productive lives than Holstein cows, by 5.8 and 10.0 mo, respectively. Replacement rate was 26% higher in the Holstein. Standard 305-d milk production was 5,360 and 7,870 kg in Reggiana and Holstein, respectively. Comparing breeds on annual milk and meat production, instead of standard 305-d milk yield, changed marginally the difference in annual profitability between the Reggiana and Holstein, from -696 euros to -679 euros per cow per year. Including feeding, milking, replacement, and insemination costs reduced the gap between breeds by 32%, from -679 euros, measured on annual milk and meat production, to -460 euros. These differences in profitability assumed a pricing scenario referring to milk sold to the dairy industry where protein and fat contents are valued but not the breed origin of milk. Incentive payments to farmers of endangered cattle compensated partially (22%) the lower income from Reggiana cows. When Reggiana milk production was sold as branded Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, Reggiana cows were more profitable than Holstein cows by 1,953 euros per cow per year. PMID:17369242

  6. Dietary interactions and interventions affecting Escherichia coli 0157 colonization and shedding in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157 is an important foodborne pathogen affecting human health and the beef cattle industry. Contamination of carcasses at slaughter is correlated to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle feces. Many associations have been made between dietary factors and E. coli O157 prevalenc...

  7. Variance components and genetic parameters for milk production and lactation pattern in an ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population.

    PubMed

    Gebreyohannes, Gebregziabher; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Elzo, Mauricio A; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY), lactation length (LL), average milk yield per day (YD), initial milk yield (IY), peak milk yield (PY), days to peak (DP) and parameters (ln(a) and c) of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG) in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta) in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus) Boran (B) and Horro (H) and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F), Jersey (J) and Simmental (S). There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S) in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (p<0.001) by the considered fixed effects. High grade B×F cows (3/16B 13/16F) had the highest least squares means (LSM) for LY (2,490±178.9 kg), IY (10.5±0.8 kg), PY (12.7±0.9 kg), YD (7.6±0.55 kg) and LL (361.4±31.2 d), while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single

  8. Apparent seroprevalence, isolation and identification of risk factors for brucellosis among dairy cattle in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ajay D; Dubal, Z B; Karunakaran, M; Doijad, Swapnil P; Raorane, Abhay V; Dhuri, R B; Bale, M A; Chakurkar, Eaknath B; Kalorey, Dewanand R; Kurkure, Nitin V; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonotic infection affecting livestock and human beings. The disease has been reported worldwide except in few countries where it has been eradicated. The prevalence of brucellosis among cattle from 11 farms having a history of abortions was studied. A total of 481 samples comprising of blood, milk, vaginal swabs, vaginal discharges, placental tissues and fetal tissues were collected from 296 animals. Clinical samples were processed for the isolation of Brucella. Serum samples (n=296) were tested by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and indirect ELISA. A total of 90 (30.40%) and 123 (41.55%) samples were positive by RBPT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Also 27.02% samples were positive by both the tests. Brucella isolates (n= 8) were recovered from clinical samples using Brucella selective media. All the isolates demonstrated PCR amplification for the bcsp31 and IS711 genes. Amplification of Brucella abortus specific primer was demonstrated by all the isolates in AMOS PCR indicating isolates to be of either B. abortus biotype 1, 2 or 4. Risk factors for transmission of brucellosis among cattle population were studied by field surveys. It was observed that lack of awareness about brucellosis (OR=8.739, P=0.138) and inadequate floor space (OR=0.278, P=0.128) were crucial risk factors for transmission of bovine brucellosis. PMID:27477501

  9. The Failure of Purified T-2 Mycotoxin to Produce Hemorrhaging in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, G. A.; Kurtz, H. J.; Mirocha, C. J.; Bates, F. Y.; Behrens, J. C.; Robison, T. S.; Swanson, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    A Holstein cow was intubated with 182 mg of 97% pure T-2 toxin (0.44 mg/kg of body weight) for 15 days. A dairy ration containing 50 mg/kg (50 ppm) of T-2 toxin was refused. A calf, born four days after onset of maternal treatment, was intubated with 26.2 mg of purified T-2 toxin (0.6 mg/kg of body weight) for seven consecutive days and then on alternate days for a total of 16 days. The calf was severely affected clinically by the T-2 toxin. The T-2 toxin failed to cause bovine hemorrhagic syndrome in either animal. Unspecific gastrointestinal lesions were noted in the cow but none were detected in the calf. In the calf, severe depression, hindquarter ataxia, knuckling of the rear feet, listlessness and anorexia were caused by the T-2 toxin. PMID:7427850

  10. Longitudinal study of udder cleft dermatitis in 5 Dutch dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Bouma, A; Nielen, M; van Soest, E; Sietsma, S; van den Broek, J; Dijkstra, T; van Werven, T

    2016-06-01

    Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a skin lesion in dairy cows, most often located between anterior parts of the udder and abdomen, but also found between the front quarters. A few recent studies have investigated the prevalence of UCD, but relatively little is known about its pathogenesis, clinical course, and duration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and recovery of UCD on high-prevalence herds. Five Dutch dairy herds with a UCD prevalence of at least 6% were visited weekly for 19 wk, followed by visits every other week for 26 wk. During each visit, all dry and lactating cows were inspected for the presence of UCD signs. If a UCD case was detected, the affected skin was photographed and the photo was subsequently examined by a research assistant. Cows were then classified according to the appearance of the skin into 3 categories: healthy (no photo: no signs), mild (photo: affected skin but no wound), or severe (photo: open wound). The overall mean within-herd prevalence of UCD was 38% and the overall mean incidence was 1.94 UCD episodes per 100 cow-weeks at risk. Incidence of UCD was significantly higher in cows in third or higher parity and significantly increased with DIM. Median observed duration of UCD was 16 wk. The UCD recovery was 3 times more likely for mild than for severe lesions. The probability of moving from one category to another between 2 consecutive visits was very low, indicating that rapid changes in appearance did not occur. The observed incidence of UCD was rather low, and the relatively high prevalence in the selected herds was most likely due to the long duration of lesions rather than a high incidence of new UCD cases. PMID:27016832

  11. Effects of prolonged consumption of water with elevated nitrate levels on certain metabolic parameters of dairy cattle and use of clinoptilolite for their amelioration.

    PubMed

    Katsoulos, P D; Karatzia, M A; Polizopoulou, Z; Florou-Paneri, P; Karatzias, H

    2015-06-01

    Elevated levels of nitrates in feed and water can pose a significant risk for dairy cattle, due to their cumulative action. The effect of prolonged consumption of water naturally contaminated with nitrates on some metabolic parameters in dairy cows was investigated at the present study. Concurrently, whether in-feed inclusion of clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite with high selectivity for ammonia cations, could ameliorate nitrate consumption consequences was examined. Two experiments were run simultaneously in two farms each. In both, farms were assigned into two groups according to nitrate levels in borehole water (NG > 40 ppm; CG < 40 ppm). Furthermore, in experiment 2, the incorporation of clinoptilolite in the ration was taken into account (NC-clinoptilolite feeding; CNC-controls). In experiment 1, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations appeared to be affected by nitrate consumption and were significantly higher in NG animals. In experiment 2, BUN concentration was significantly lower in the NC group. The prolonged consumption of water with increased nitrate levels seemed, to some degree, to impair protein metabolism and glucose utilization, while the dietary administration of clinoptilolite could alleviate the nitrates' effects. PMID:25874417

  12. Infection by Neospora caninum in dairy cattle belonging to family farmers in the northern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boas, Ricardo Vilas; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura; Pacheco, Richard de Campos

    2015-01-01

    Neosporosis is considered a major cause of abortion among cattle worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and correlate them with possible risk factors on 63 small farms (family farms) in the municipality of Ji-Paraná, the main milk-producing region of the state of Rondônia, northern Brazil. For this purpose, 621 serum samples were collected from cows and were evaluated by means of the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The overall herd prevalence of N. caninum antibodies among the farms (38/63; 60.31%) showed that N. caninum are widespread among the dairy herds in this region, despite only infecting a small proportion of animals (66/621, 10.62%). Occurrences of abortion and birth of weak calves were the only variables that showed as risk factors for the presence of N. caninum. The result from the spatial lag model strongly indicated that birth of weak calves and presence of N. caninum are occurring on farms that are located close to each other, indicating aggregation of disease occurrence. PMID:26154960

  13. A Pilot Study to Compare Oxidative Status between Organically and Conventionally Managed Dairy Cattle During the Transition Period.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the redox balance of organically managed dairy cattle (OMC; n = 40) during the transition period and to compare this with conventionally managed cattle (CMC; n = 22). Serum samples of dairy cows from two organic and one conventional farm were taken. Markers of oxidants production [reactive oxygen species] and total serum antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) far-off dry (2 to 1 months before calving; 44 samples in CMC and 48 in OMC); (ii) close-up dry (1 month until 3 days before calving; 44 CMC; 54 OMC); (iii) fresh (3 days to +1 month after calving; 44 CMC; 49 OMC); and (iv) peak of lactation (+1 to +3 months; 71 CMC; 78 OMC). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (4th-5th month of pregnancy; 40 CMC; 30 OMC). Our results indicated that throughout the periparturient period, OMC had lower concentrations of reactive oxygen species, but also a lower antioxidant capacity than CMC. Indeed, when the two components of the redox balance were assessed together through the Oxidative Stress index, the values of this parameter were higher for OMC than for CMC, thereby implying a higher risk of oxidative stress. Therefore, further larger studies are needed to confirm the current observations, as organically reared animals might be exposed to a lack of antioxidants supply. PMID:25845278

  14. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  15. Surveillance of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dairy Cattle Farms in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Sascha D.; Ahmed, Marwa F. E.; El-Adawy, Hosny; Hotzel, Helmut; Engelmann, Ines; Weiß, Daniel; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Industrial livestock farming is a possible source of multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins. Limited information is currently available on the situation of ESBL producers in livestock farming outside of Western Europe. A surveillance study was conducted from January to May in 2014 in four dairy cattle farms in different areas of the Nile delta, Egypt. Materials and Methods: In total, 266 samples were collected from 4 dairy farms including rectal swabs from clinically healthy cattle (n = 210), and environmental samples from the stalls (n = 56). After 24 h pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water, all samples were screened for 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli using Brilliance™ ESBL agar. Suspected colonies of putatively ESBL-producing E. coli were sub-cultured and subsequently genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Susceptibility testing using the VITEK-2 system was performed. All suspect isolates were genotypically analyzed using two DNA-microarray based assays: CarbDetect AS-1 and E. coli PanType AS-2 kit (ALERE). These tests allow detection of a multitude of genes and their alleles associated with resistance toward carbapenems, cephalosporins, and other frequently used antibiotics. Serotypes were determined using the E. coli SeroGenotyping AS-1 kit (ALERE). Results: Out of 266 samples tested, 114 (42.8%) ESBL-producing E. coli were geno- and phenotypically identified. 113 of 114 phenotypically 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant isolates harbored at least one of the ESBL resistance genes covered by the applied assays [blaCTX-M15 (n = 105), blaCTX-M9 (n = 1), blaTEM (n = 90), blaSHV (n = 1)]. Alarmingly, the carbapenemase genes blaOXA-48 (n = 5) and blaOXA-181 (n = 1) were found in isolates that also were phenotypically resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Using the array-based serogenotyping

  16. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  17. Evaluation in beef cattle of six deoxyribonucleic acid markers developed for dairy traits reveals an osteopontin polymorphism associated with postweaning growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six DNA markers have been reported to be associated with variation in dairy production traits. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate allele frequencies in U.S. beef cattle and 2) evaluate association of marker genotype with beef production traits. Several genetic markers have been assoc...

  18. Phylogenomic approaches to determine the zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from Zambian dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mainda, Geoffrey; Lupolova, Nadejda; Sikakwa, Linda; Bessell, Paul R.; Muma, John B.; Hoyle, Deborah V.; McAteer, Sean P.; Gibbs, Kirsty; Williams, Nicola J.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Cordoni, Guido; Argyle, Sally A.; Wagner, Sam; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Dallman, Timothy J.; Stevens, Mark P.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Gally, David L.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) sampled from 104 dairy units in the central region of Zambia and compared these with isolates from patients presenting with diarrhoea in the same region. A subset of 297 E. coli strains were sequenced allowing in silico analyses of phylo- and sero-groups. The majority of the bovine strains clustered in the B1 ‘commensal’ phylogroup (67%) and included a diverse array of serogroups. 11% (41/371) of the isolates from Zambian dairy cattle contained Shiga toxin genes (stx) while none (0/73) of the human isolates were positive. While the toxicity of a subset of these isolates was demonstrated, none of the randomly selected STEC belonged to key serogroups associated with human disease and none encoded a type 3 secretion system synonymous with typical enterohaemorrhagic strains. Positive selection for E. coli O157:H7 across the farms identified only one positive isolate again indicating this serotype is rare in these animals. In summary, while Stx-encoding E. coli strains are common in this dairy population, the majority of these strains are unlikely to cause disease in humans. However, the threat remains of the emergence of strains virulent to humans from this reservoir. PMID:27220895

  19. Phylogenomic approaches to determine the zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from Zambian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mainda, Geoffrey; Lupolova, Nadejda; Sikakwa, Linda; Bessell, Paul R; Muma, John B; Hoyle, Deborah V; McAteer, Sean P; Gibbs, Kirsty; Williams, Nicola J; Sheppard, Samuel K; La Ragione, Roberto M; Cordoni, Guido; Argyle, Sally A; Wagner, Sam; Chase-Topping, Margo E; Dallman, Timothy J; Stevens, Mark P; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Gally, David L

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) sampled from 104 dairy units in the central region of Zambia and compared these with isolates from patients presenting with diarrhoea in the same region. A subset of 297 E. coli strains were sequenced allowing in silico analyses of phylo- and sero-groups. The majority of the bovine strains clustered in the B1 'commensal' phylogroup (67%) and included a diverse array of serogroups. 11% (41/371) of the isolates from Zambian dairy cattle contained Shiga toxin genes (stx) while none (0/73) of the human isolates were positive. While the toxicity of a subset of these isolates was demonstrated, none of the randomly selected STEC belonged to key serogroups associated with human disease and none encoded a type 3 secretion system synonymous with typical enterohaemorrhagic strains. Positive selection for E. coli O157:H7 across the farms identified only one positive isolate again indicating this serotype is rare in these animals. In summary, while Stx-encoding E. coli strains are common in this dairy population, the majority of these strains are unlikely to cause disease in humans. However, the threat remains of the emergence of strains virulent to humans from this reservoir. PMID:27220895

  20. Dairy cattle management factors that influence on-farm density of European starlings in Ohio, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Medhanie, Genet A; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Guerin, Michele T; Jardine, Claire M; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-15

    Potential dairy farm management and environmental factors that attract European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to dairy farms were explored. During the period from 2007 to 2009, 150 dairy farms were each visited twice (once during the summer and again in the fall) and the number of starlings was recorded. Risk factors were assessed for possible association with the number of starlings per milking cow (starling density), using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Starling density was higher on farms visited in 2007 compared to those visited in 2008 or 2009. The interaction term between feeding method and feeding site was significantly associated with starling density on farm; generally, feeding outdoors was associated with increased starling density. The odds of a zero starling count (compared to a count greater than zero) was higher on farms that removed manure from barns weekly or less frequently than weekly compared to those that removed manure daily or after every milking. The odds of a zero starling count decreased with increasing distance of a farm from the closest night roost. Identifying on farm risk factors that expose farms to starlings will help farmers develop strategies that minimize the number of birds on their farms and thereby reduce physical damage to the farms as well as the potential for pathogen transmission from birds to cattle and humans. PMID:25940010

  1. Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Faeces of Dairy Cattle in the High Plains Region of the USA

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Hattie E.; Bugarel, Marie; den Bakker, Henk C.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Granier, Sophie A.; Scott, H. Morgan; Loneragan, Guy H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A study was conducted to recover carbapenem-resistant bacteria from the faeces of dairy cattle and identify the underlying genetic mechanisms associated with reduced phenotypic susceptibility to carbapenems. Methods One hundred and fifty-nine faecal samples from dairy cattle were screened for carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Phenotypic screening was conducted on two media containing ertapenem. The isolates from the screening step were characterised via disk diffusion, Modified Hodge, and Carba NP assays. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria and carbapenemase-producing isolates were subjected to Gram staining and biochemical testing to include Gram-negative bacilli. Whole genome sequencing was performed on bacteria that exhibited either a carbapenemase-producing phenotype or were not susceptible to ertapenem and were presumptively Enterobacteriaceae. Results Of 323 isolates collected from the screening media, 28 were selected for WGS; 21 of which were based on a carbapenemase-producing phenotype and 7 were presumptively Enterobacteriaceae and not susceptible to ertapenem. Based on analysis of WGS data, isolates included: 3 Escherichia coli harbouring blaCMY-2 and truncated ompF genes; 8 Aeromonas harbouring blacphA-like genes; 1 Acinetobacter baumannii harbouring a novel blaOXA gene (blaOXA-497); and 6 Pseudomonas with conserved domains of various carbapenemase-producing genes. Conclusions Carbapenem resistant bacteria appear to be rare in cattle. Nonetheless, carbapenem-resistant bacteria were detected across various genera and were found to harbour a variety of mechanisms conferring reduced susceptibility. The development and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant bacteria in livestock would have grave implications for therapeutic treatment options in human medicine; thus, continued monitoring of carbapenem susceptibility among enteric bacteria of livestock is warranted. PMID:26824353

  2. Use of body linear measurements to estimate liveweight of crossbred dairy cattle in smallholder farms in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lukuyu, M N; Gibson, J P; Savage, D B; Duncan, A J; Mujibi, F D N; Okeyo, A M

    2016-01-01

    Body linear measurements, and specifically heart girth (HG), have been shown to be useful predictors of cattle liveweight. To test the accuracy of body linear measurements for predicting liveweight, crossbred dairy cattle of different genotypes were measured and weighed. A total of 352 mature cows and 100 heifers were weighed using an electronic weighing scale and measurements of HG, body length, height at withers were taken using an ordinary measuring tape and body condition scored (BCS) using a five-point scale. The animals were grouped according to genotype and age. Genotype classification was undertaken from farmer recall and by visual appraisal as 40-60, 61-80 or 81-100 % exotic (non-indigenous). Age classification was simply as mature cows or heifers. Liveweight of the animals ranged from 102 to 433 kg. Liveweight was strongly correlated with HG (r = 0.84) and body condition scores (r = 0.70) and moderately correlated with body length (r = 0.64) and height at withers (0.61). Regressing LW on HG measurements gave statistically significant (P < 0.01) equations with R(2) ranging from of 0.53 to 0.78 and residual standard deviation ranging from 18.11 to 40.50 kg. The overall model developed (adjusted R(2) = 0.71) had a prediction error of 26 kg (or 11 % of the mean) and predicted LW of over 95 % of crossbred dairy cattle in the range of 100-450 kg, regardless of age and breed group. Including BCS in the model slightly improved the model fit but not the prediction error. It was concluded that the model can be useful in making general management decisions in smallholder farms. PMID:26839756

  3. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds-- Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO)--was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the

  4. Joint genomic evaluation of French dairy cattle breeds using multiple-trait models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Using a multi-breed reference population might be a way of increasing the accuracy of genomic breeding values in small breeds. Models involving mixed-breed data do not take into account the fact that marker effects may differ among breeds. This study was aimed at investigating the impact on accuracy of increasing the number of genotyped candidates in the training set by using a multi-breed reference population, in contrast to single-breed genomic evaluations. Methods Three traits (milk production, fat content and female fertility) were analyzed by genomic mixed linear models and Bayesian methodology. Three breeds of French dairy cattle were used: Holstein, Montbéliarde and Normande with 2976, 950 and 970 bulls in the training population, respectively and 964, 222 and 248 bulls in the validation population, respectively. All animals were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 array. Accuracy of genomic breeding values was evaluated under three scenarios for the correlation of genomic breeding values between breeds (rg): uncorrelated (1), rg = 0; estimated rg (2); high, rg = 0.95 (3). Accuracy and bias of predictions obtained in the validation population with the multi-breed training set were assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2) and by the regression coefficient of daughter yield deviations of validation bulls on their predicted genomic breeding values, respectively. Results The genetic variation captured by the markers for each trait was similar to that estimated for routine pedigree-based genetic evaluation. Posterior means for rg ranged from −0.01 for fertility between Montbéliarde and Normande to 0.79 for milk yield between Montbéliarde and Holstein. Differences in R2 between the three scenarios were notable only for fat content in the Montbéliarde breed: from 0.27 in scenario (1) to 0.33 in scenarios (2) and (3). Accuracies for fertility were lower than for other traits. Conclusions Using a multi-breed reference population

  5. Factors affecting body weight loss during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify several factors affecting shrink in cattle during commercial long-haul transport (≥400 km; n = 6,152 journeys). Surveys were designed and delivered to transport carriers to collect relevant information regarding the characteristics of animals, time of loading, origin and destination, and loaded weight before and after transport. In contrast to fat cattle, feeder cattle exhibited greater shrink (4.9 vs. 7.9 ± 0.2% of BW, respectively; P < 0.01), and experienced longer total transport durations (12.4 vs. 14.9 ± 0.99, respectively; P < 0.01) due to border crossing protocols which require mandatory animal inspection. Shrink was greater (P < 0.001) for feeder cattle loaded at ranches/farms and feed yards compared with those loaded at auction markets. Cattle loaded during the afternoon and evening shrank more than those loaded during the night and morning (P < 0.05). Shrinkage was less in cattle transported by truck drivers having 6 or more years of experience hauling livestock compared with those with 5 yr or less (P < 0.05). Shrink increased with both midpoint ambient temperature (% of BW/°C; P < 0.001) and time on truck (% of BW/h; P < 0.001). Temperature and time on truck had a multiplicative effect on each other because shrink increased most rapidly in cattle transported for both longer durations and at higher ambient temperatures (P < 0.001). The rate of shrink over time (% of BW/h) was greatest in cull cattle, intermediate in calves and feeder cattle, and slowest in fat cattle (P < 0.05) but such differences disappeared when the effects of place of origin, loading time, and experience of truck drivers were included in the model. Cull cattle, calves and feeder cattle appear to be more affected by transport compared with fat cattle going to slaughter because of greater shrink. Several factors should be considered when developing guidelines to reduce cattle transport stress and shrink including type

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-15

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH{sub 4} EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} emissions dominated the CO{sub 2}-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH{sub 4} emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions but tended to grow.

  7. Short communication: Genomic selection in a crossbred cattle population using data from the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project.

    PubMed

    Brown, A; Ojango, J; Gibson, J; Coffey, M; Okeyo, M; Mrode, R

    2016-09-01

    Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is potential for implementing genomic selection for young bulls in crossbred small-holder cattle populations, and targeted genotyping and phenotyping should be pursued to facilitate this. PMID:27423951

  8. The cumulative methane production from dairy cattle slurry can be explained by its volatile solid, temperature and length of storage.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Megumi; Nekomoto, Kenji; Hoshiba, Shinji; Minato, Keiko; Nakayama, Motoo; Osada, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    In order to refine the national estimate of methane emission from stored cattle slurry, it is important to comprehend the basic characteristics of methane production. Two dairy cattle slurries were obtained from livestock farms located in Hokkaido (a northern island) and Kyushu (a southern island). The slurries were diluted with water into three levels: undiluted, three times diluted, and 10 times diluted. Three hundred mL of the slurries were put into a bottle with a headspace volume of 2.0 L, which was filled with nitrogen gas and then sealed by butyl rubber. Four levels of temperature were used for incubation: 35, 25, 15 and 5 °C. The time course of the cumulative methane production per volatile solid (VS) was satisfactorily expressed by an asymptotic regression model. The effect of dilution on the methane production per VS was not distinctive, but that of temperature was of primary importance. In particular, higher temperature yields a higher potential production and a shorter time when the cumulative production reaches half of the potential production. The inclusive and simple models obtained in this study indicate that the cumulative methane production from stored cattle slurry can be explained by VS, temperature and length of storage. PMID:26387490

  9. Shotgun Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from Dairy Cattle Suffering from Footrot: Characterization of Potential Disease-Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dongbo; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Donghua; Sun, Anguo; Wang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    The plasma proteome of healthy dairy cattle and those with footrot was investigated using a shotgun LC-MS/MS approach. In total, 648 proteins were identified in healthy plasma samples, of which 234 were non-redundant proteins and 123 were high-confidence proteins; 712 proteins were identified from footrot plasma samples, of which 272 were non-redundant proteins and 138 were high-confidence proteins. The high-confidence proteins showed significant differences between healthy and footrot plasma samples in molecular weight, isoelectric points and the Gene Ontology categories. 22 proteins were found that may differentiate between the two sets of plasma proteins, of which 16 potential differential expression (PDE) proteins from footrot plasma involved in immunoglobulins, innate immune recognition molecules, acute phase proteins, regulatory proteins, and cell adhesion and cytoskeletal proteins; 6 PDE proteins from healthy plasma involved in regulatory proteins, cytoskeletal proteins and coagulation factors. Of these PDE proteins, haptoglobin, SERPINA10 protein, afamin precursor, haptoglobin precursor, apolipoprotein D, predicted peptidoglycan recognition protein L (PGRP-L) and keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KS-PG) were suggested to be potential footrot-associated factors. The PDE proteins PGRP-L and KS-PG were highlighted as potential biomarkers of footrot in cattle. The resulting protein lists and potential differentially expressed proteins may provide valuable information to increase understanding of plasma protein profiles in cattle and to assist studies of footrot-associated factors. PMID:23418487

  10. Evaluation of insecticide ear tags containing ethion for control of pyrethroid resistant Haematobia irritans (L.) on dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Anziani, O S; Zimmermann, G; Guglielmone, A A; Forchieri, M; Volpogni, M M

    2000-07-24

    A field study was conducted in central Argentina to evaluate the efficacy of ear tags containing 36% ethion against pyrethroid resistant populations of Haematobia irritans on grazing dairy cattle. The treated group consisted of 45 milking Holstein cows which received two tags per head and the control consisted of 22 dry cows from the same cohort. Treated and control groups were grazed on similar lucerne pastures separated for a minimum distance of 800 m but they were not isolated from other cattle herds on the same or contiguous properties. In both groups, horn fly estimation were made weekly by examining cattle in the pastures with the aid of binoculars. The percentage reduction of fly numbers on treated cows was considered as efficacy of control provided by the tags. The ethion ear tags provided a range of 85-99% reduction in horn fly numbers for 16 weeks. During this period, the weekly mean number of H. irritans on the tagged cows ranged between 0.44 and 28.26 compared with 143.5 and 239.1 in control animals. The ethion ear tags could be a useful tool for the control of H. irritans mainly in areas where populations of this insect have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. PMID:10889367

  11. A survey of the efficacy of sustained-release monensin capsules in the control of bloat in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A R; Malmo, J

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-four farms in the Macalister Irrigation District in Gippsland, Victoria, using sustained-release monensin capsules in 5102 cattle in the 1990 bloat season were surveyed. Questions were asked about the prevention and incidence of bloat in 1989 and 1990. Eight farms not using the capsules were selected to act as controls. Relatively low rates of broken capsules (0.6%), injury to animals at administration (0.06%) and regurgitation (1.02%) were reported. A variety of preventive techniques were used. There was a significant decrease in the use of pasture spraying, drinking water administration and flank spraying of anti-bloat substances on the farms using the capsules in the 1990 season, with no compensatory rise in the use of other techniques. There was no significant change in bloat prevention techniques used on the control farms over the same period. Significantly fewer cattle on the farms using capsules were treated for, and fewer died of clinical bloat in 1990 than in 1989. There was no significant change in the incidence of bloat on the control farms over the same period. It was considered that the anti-bloat capsules were effective in reducing the incidence of clinical bloat in pasture-fed dairy cattle. PMID:8460981

  12. Nutritional and environmental effects on ammonia emissions from dairy cattle housing: A meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) excreted in urine by dairy cows can be potentially transformed to ammonia (NH3) and emitted to the atmosphere. Dairy production contributes to NH3 emission, which can create human respiratory problems and odor issues, reduces manure quality, and is an indirect source of nitrous oxide (N...

  13. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-09-01

    Using behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort, that is, shade seeking, panting scores (PS) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium). During the summer of 2012, both herds were kept on pasture without access to shade (NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013 each herd was divided into one group with (S) and one without (NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees with shade cloth (80% reduction in solar radiation) hung between them. For S cows, we investigated how shade use was related to hot conditions as quantified by six climatic indices. The heat load index (HLI), which incorporates air temperature and humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, was the best predictor of the six indices tested. In 2011, there was a relatively high threshold for use of shade. When HLI=90, shade use probability reached 17% for dairy cows and 27% for beef cows. In 2013, however, at HLI=90, shade use probability reached 48% for dairy cows and 41% for beef cows. For animals from the NS treatment we determined the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS (with 0=no panting and 4.5=extreme panting). In both types of cattle, an increase in black globe temperature was the best predictor for increasing RR and PS. Furthermore, we determined how the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS was affected by the use of shade. Under hot conditions (black globe temperature ⩾ 30°C), >50% of the animals under shade retained normal PS and RR (PS<1 and RR<90 breaths per minute), whereas normal RR and PS were significantly less prevalent for animals outside shade. Our findings suggest that, even in temperate summers, heat can induce thermal discomfort in cattle, as evidenced by increases in shade use, RR and PS, and that shade increases thermal comfort. PMID:25994098

  14. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the pre...

  15. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most important arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The most recent detailed estimate of the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production, $608 million, was published in 1992. Subsequently, several studies on the impact of stable flies on...

  16. Estimates of marker effects for measures of milk flow in the Italian brown Swiss dairy cattle population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    . This provides further evidence of the complexity of milk flow traits and the underlying relationship it has with other economically important traits for dairy cattle. Improved understanding of the overall milking pattern will aid in identification of cows with lower management costs and improved udder health. PMID:23092401

  17. Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for dairy cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinggao; Bell, Alois A; Wheeler, Michael H; Stipanovic, Robert D; Puckhaber, Lorraine S

    2011-11-01

    A unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. vasinfectum (Atk) Sny. & Hans., found in Australia in 1993 is favored by neutral or alkaline heavy soils and does not require plant parasitic nematodes to cause disease. This makes it a threat to 4-6 million acres of USA Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) that is grown on heavy alkaline soil and currently is not affected by Fusarium wilt. In 2001-2002, several shiploads of live cottonseed were imported into California for dairy cattle feed. Thirteen F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum isolates and four isolates of a Fusarium spp. that resembled F. oxysporum were isolated from the imported cottonseed. The isolates, designated by an AuSeed prefix, formed four vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) all of which were incompatible with tester isolates for 18 VCGs found in the USA. Isolate AuSeed14 was vegetatively compatible with the four reference isolates of Australian biotype VCG01111. Phylogenetic analyses based on EF-1α, PHO, BT, Mat1-1, and Mat1-2 gene sequences separated the 17 seed isolates into three lineages (race A, race 3, and Fusarium spp.) with AuSeed14 clustering into race 3 lineage or race A lineage depending on the genes analyzed. Indel analysis of the EF-1α gene sequences revealed a close evolutionary relationship among AuSeed14, Australian biotype reference isolates, and the four Fusarium spp. isolates. The Australian seed isolates and the four Australian biotype reference isolates caused disease with root-dip inoculation, but not with stem-puncture inoculation. Thus, they were a vascular incompetent pathotype. In contrast, USA race A lineage isolates readily colonized vascular tissue and formed a vascular competent pathotype when introduced directly into xylem vessels. The AuSeed14 isolate was as pathogenic as the Australian biotype, and it or related isolates could cause a severe Fusarium wilt problem in USA cotton fields if they become established. PMID:22004096

  18. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    He, M; Armentano, L E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. PMID:21524540

  19. Effects of dry period length on milk production and health of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Watters, R D; Guenther, J N; Brickner, A E; Rastani, R R; Crump, P M; Clark, P W; Grummer, R R

    2008-07-01

    Holstein cows (n = 781) in a commercial dairy herd were used in a randomized design to evaluate 2 dry period (DP) management strategies on milk production, milk components, milk quality, colostrum quality, and incidence of metabolic disorders. Cows were randomly assigned to a traditional 55 d (T) or shortened 34 d (S) DP. Cows assigned to T were fed a low-energy diet until 34 d before expected calving at which time all cows were fed a moderate-energy transition diet until calving. Postpartum, cows assigned to T produced more milk and tended to produce more solids-corrected milk than cows on S. Treatment differences in milk and solids-corrected milk yield were accounted for by cows in their second lactation. Milk fat percentage did not differ between treatments, but milk protein percentage was greater for cows assigned to S. Colostrum quality measured as IgG concentration did not differ between management strategies. Somatic cell score and cases of mastitis were not affected by management strategy. There was a tendency for prepartum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) to be lower for cows assigned to T compared with S. However, postpartum, cows assigned to S had significantly lower NEFA concentrations than those assigned to T. The incidences of ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and metritis did not differ between treatments. Postpartum energy balance, as indicated by plasma NEFA, may have been improved for cows assigned to S; there was no detectable effect on animal health. PMID:18565918

  20. Prevalence of leptospirosis in dairy cattle from small rural production units in Toluca Valley, State of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leon, L L; Garcia, R C; Diaz, C O; Valdez, R B; Carmona, G C A; Velazquez, B L G

    2008-12-01

    In order to know the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in stabled dairy cattle, a study was conducted from 2004 to 2006 in which 416 sera were tested using a microscopic agglutination test conducted on microplates. A collection of culture reference antigens, each representing a serogroup, was used for these tests. Results showed that 10.33% (43) of the animals had antibody titers ranging from 1:100 to 1:1600. The main serovars detected in these tests were L. interrogans serovar hardjo and L. interrogans serovar canicola. It is important to note that these serovars represent a high risk for transmission to other susceptible animal species, between individuals, and to human health. This serological survey provides useful information establishing the presence or absence of these serovars in this type of herd. The range of antigens used in this study included serovars representative of all common serogroups. PMID:19120231

  1. Comparison of methods for the implementation of genome-assisted evaluation of Spanish dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Montero, J A; González-Recio, O; Alenda, R

    2013-01-01

    difference between genomic predictions and progeny test results. The R-Boosting algorithm provided genomic predictions with regression coefficients closer to unity, which is an alternative measure of bias, for 4 out of 5 traits and also resulted in mean squared errors estimates that were 2%, 10%, and 12% smaller than B-LASSO, Bayes-A, and G-BLUP, respectively. The observed prediction accuracy obtained with these methods was within the range of values expected for a population of similar size, suggesting that the prediction method and reference population described herein are appropriate for implementation of routine genome-assisted evaluations in Spanish dairy cattle. R-Boost is a competitive marker regression methodology in terms of predictive ability that can accommodate large data sets. PMID:23102955

  2. Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotope Fractionation in Body Fluid Compartments of Dairy Cattle According to Season, Farm, Breed, and Reproductive Stage

    PubMed Central

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  3. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.

    PubMed

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  4. Seasonal variation in the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in dairy cattle in the New York City Watershed.

    PubMed

    Szonyi, Barbara; Bordonaro, Rebecca; Wade, Susan E; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2010-07-01

    We conducted cross-sectional studies in the New York City Watershed to ensure a valid estimate of the risk associated with Cryptosporidium infection in dairy herds. Our aims were to obtain species-specific estimates of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle and to investigate seasonal variations in prevalence. We validated our empirical estimates using a Bayesian approach. Samples were collected on 32 study farms, once in each of 3 different seasons using an age-stratified sampling design. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum-like species and Cryptosporidium andersoni among the 1911 animals tested by the flotation method was 5% and 1%, respectively. Among preweaned calves (<65 days of age), the prevalence of C. parvum-like species was twice as high in the summer (26%) compared with the winter (11%). Herd prevalence showed the same seasonal trend. Preweaned calves were also shedding C. andersoni at an average intensity of 20 oocysts per gram of feces. We did not detect C. parvum-like oocysts in cattle older than 5 months. Sequencing of a portion of the 18s rRNA gene revealed that in the summer, 42% of the C. parvum-like oocysts shed by preweaned calves were zoonotic, compared with >74% during the rest of the year. Both empirical and stochastic methods revealed a summer peak in the prevalence of C. parvum-like oocysts in preweaned calves. Determining whether seasonal variation in the prevalence and proportion of Cryptosporidium species shed by preweaned calves is due to management practices or ecological factors will have important implications for effective control of this parasite. PMID:20397026

  5. The effect of mixed-enzyme addition in anaerobic digestion on methane yield of dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Ward, Alastair James; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of applying a mixture of enzymes (ME) to dairy cattle manure (DCM) as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD). The aims of this study were to evaluate different methods of ME application to DCM at different temperatures and to investigate the effect of adding ME during the pre-treatment of the solid fractions of dairy cattle manure (SFDCM). The results showed that there was no positive effect of direct ME addition to substrate at either mesophilic (35 degrees C) or thermophilic (50 degrees C) process temperatures, but there was a significant 4.44% increase in methane yield when DCM, which had been incubated with ME addition at 50 degrees C for three days, was fed to a digester when compared to a control digester operating at the same retention time. Methane production was detected during the pre-treatment incubation, and the total sum methane yield during pre-treatment and digestion was found to be 8.33% higher than in the control. The addition of ME to the SFDCM in a pre-incubation stage of 20 h at 35 degrees C gave a significant increase in methane yield by 4.15% in a digester treating a mixed substrate (30% liquid fractions DCM and 70% enzyme-treated SFDCM) when compared with the control digester treating a similar mixed substrate with inactivated enzyme addition. The results indicate that direct physical contact of enzyme molecules and organic material in DCM prior to AD, without the intervention of extracellular enzymes from the indigenous microorganism population, was needed in order to increase methane yields. PMID:25145202

  6. Assessing experimental visceral pain in dairy cattle: A pilot, prospective, blinded, randomized, and controlled study focusing on spinal pain proteomics.

    PubMed

    Rialland, P; Otis, C; de Courval, M-L; Mulon, P-Y; Harvey, D; Bichot, S; Gauvin, D; Livingston, A; Beaudry, F; Hélie, P; Frank, D; Del Castillo, J R E; Troncy, E

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have verified the validity of behavioral and physiological methods of pain assessment in cattle. This prospective, blinded, randomized controlled experimental study aimed to validate different methods of pain assessment during acute and chronic (up to 21 d postintervention) conditions in dairy cattle, in response to 3 analgesic treatments for traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and mechanical sensitization were measured as indicators of centralized pain. Proteomics in the CSF were examined to detect specific (to pain intensity) and sensitive (responsive to analgesia) markers. Recordings of spontaneous behavior with video analysis, telemetered motor activity, pain scales, electrodermal activity, and plasma cortisol concentration were quantified at regular intervals. Cows were assigned to group 1 (n=4, standard control receiving aspirin), group 2 (n=5, test group receiving preemptive tolfenamic acid), or group 3 (n=3, positive control receiving preemptive multimodal analgesia composed of epidural morphine, plus tolfenamic acid and butorphanol). Rescue analgesia was administered as needed. Generalized estimating equations tested group differences and the influence of rescue analgesia on the measurements. All 3 groups demonstrated a long-term decrease in a CSF protein identified as transthyretin. The decrease in transthyretin expression inversely correlated with the expected level of analgesia (group 1<2<3). Moreover, in group 1, CSF noradrenaline decreased long term, cows were hypersensitive to mechanical stimulation, and they demonstrated signs of discomfort with higher motor activity and "agitation while lying" recorded from video analysis. Decreased "feeding behavior," observer-reported pain scales, electrodermal activity, and plasma cortisol concentration were inconsistent to differentiate pain intensity between groups. In summary, changes in CSF biomarkers and mechanical sensitization reflected modulation of central

  7. Whole-genome resequencing of two elite sires for the detection of haplotypes under selection in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Denis M; Daetwyler, Hans D; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Hetrick, Lorie A; Boucek, Lisa; Bachman, Sharon L; Band, Mark R; Akraiko, Tatsiana V; Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Macleod, Iona M; Harkins, Timothy T; McCague, Jennifer E; Goddard, Michael E; Hayes, Ben J; Lewin, Harris A

    2012-05-15

    Using a combination of whole-genome resequencing and high-density genotyping arrays, genome-wide haplotypes were reconstructed for two of the most important bulls in the history of the dairy cattle industry, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief ("Chief") and his son Walkway Chief Mark ("Mark"), each accounting for ∼7% of all current genomes. We aligned 20.5 Gbp (∼7.3× coverage) and 37.9 Gbp (∼13.5× coverage) of the Chief and Mark genomic sequences, respectively. More than 1.3 million high-quality SNPs were detected in Chief and Mark sequences. The genome-wide haplotypes inherited by Mark from Chief were reconstructed using ∼1 million informative SNPs. Comparison of a set of 15,826 SNPs that overlapped in the sequence-based and BovineSNP50 SNPs showed the accuracy of the sequence-based haplotype reconstruction to be as high as 97%. By using the BovineSNP50 genotypes, the frequencies of Chief alleles on his two haplotypes then were determined in 1,149 of his descendants, and the distribution was compared with the frequencies that would be expected assuming no selection. We identified 49 chromosomal segments in which Chief alleles showed strong evidence of selection. Candidate polymorphisms for traits that have been under selection in the dairy cattle population then were identified by referencing Chief's DNA sequence within these selected chromosome blocks. Eleven candidate genes were identified with functions related to milk-production, fertility, and disease-resistance traits. These data demonstrate that haplotype reconstruction of an ancestral proband by whole-genome resequencing in combination with high-density SNP genotyping of descendants can be used for rapid, genome-wide identification of the ancestor's alleles that have been subjected to artificial selection. PMID:22529356

  8. Whole-genome resequencing of two elite sires for the detection of haplotypes under selection in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Denis M.; Daetwyler, Hans D.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Hetrick, Lorie A.; Boucek, Lisa; Bachman, Sharon L.; Band, Mark R.; Akraiko, Tatsiana V.; Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Macleod, Iona M.; Harkins, Timothy T.; McCague, Jennifer E.; Goddard, Michael E.; Hayes, Ben J.; Lewin, Harris A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of whole-genome resequencing and high-density genotyping arrays, genome-wide haplotypes were reconstructed for two of the most important bulls in the history of the dairy cattle industry, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief (“Chief”) and his son Walkway Chief Mark (“Mark”), each accounting for ∼7% of all current genomes. We aligned 20.5 Gbp (∼7.3× coverage) and 37.9 Gbp (∼13.5× coverage) of the Chief and Mark genomic sequences, respectively. More than 1.3 million high-quality SNPs were detected in Chief and Mark sequences. The genome-wide haplotypes inherited by Mark from Chief were reconstructed using ∼1 million informative SNPs. Comparison of a set of 15,826 SNPs that overlapped in the sequence-based and BovineSNP50 SNPs showed the accuracy of the sequence-based haplotype reconstruction to be as high as 97%. By using the BovineSNP50 genotypes, the frequencies of Chief alleles on his two haplotypes then were determined in 1,149 of his descendants, and the distribution was compared with the frequencies that would be expected assuming no selection. We identified 49 chromosomal segments in which Chief alleles showed strong evidence of selection. Candidate polymorphisms for traits that have been under selection in the dairy cattle population then were identified by referencing Chief’s DNA sequence within these selected chromosome blocks. Eleven candidate genes were identified with functions related to milk-production, fertility, and disease-resistance traits. These data demonstrate that haplotype reconstruction of an ancestral proband by whole-genome resequencing in combination with high-density SNP genotyping of descendants can be used for rapid, genome-wide identification of the ancestor’s alleles that have been subjected to artificial selection. PMID:22529356

  9. Congenital Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle and associated calfhood mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Paré, J; Thurmond, M C; Hietala, S K

    1996-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken on two central California dairies, A and B, to estimate prevalence of congenital infection with Neospora caninum, to characterize temporal variation in prevalence, to determine if occurrence of congenital infection was associated with specific dam and calf attributes, and to estimate the effect of congenital infection on calfhood mortality. Of the 405 calves enrolled over a period of 2 1/2 y on dairy A and dairy B, 30.6% (85/278) and 53.5% (68/127), respectively, were seropositive precolostrally to N. caninum, as determined by an ELISA test. Adult cow seroprevalence at calving was 36.0% (82/228) for dairy A, and 57.9% (33/57) for dairy B. No evidence was found for a significant increasing or decreasing trend in adult and precolostral seroprevalence through the study period (P > or = 0.26). For both herds combined, 81% of seropositive cows (93/115) and 5% of seronegative cows (8/170) had congenitally infected calves. Seroprevalence did not increase with cow age on either dairy (P > or = 0.47). The probability of a calf being congenitally infected was not associated with dam age, dam lactation number, dam history of abortion, calf gender, or length of gestation (P > or = 0.11). High dam ELISA values at calving were significantly associated (P < or = 0.001) with an increased probability of congenital infection in her calf. Results of survival analyses of female calves available for follow-up indicated a consistently greater survivorship to 90 d in congenitally infected calves than in noninfected calves on both dairies, which was significant for dairy A (P = 0.07, n = 186) but not for dairy B (P = 0.69, n = 72), thus indicating that congenital infection does not necessarily have a detrimental effect on calf health. The findings of a similar magnitude in congenital infection rate and adult cow prevalence, the lack of increasing seroprevalence with cow age, the lack of an effect of dam age on precolostral seropositivity, and the

  10. Effect of complementation of cattle cooling systems with feedline soakers on lactating dairy cows in a desert environment.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Oddy, A

    2011-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted on a commercial dairy farm in eastern Saudi Arabia to investigate the effects of Korral Kool (KK; Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ) cattle cooling systems complemented with feedline soakers on core body temperature (CBT) of dairy cows. In both experiments, cows had access to KK 24h/d. In the first experiment, 7 primiparous and 6 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence over 4 d in a switchback design. Soakers were on (ON24) or off (OFF24) for 24h/d. For the second experiment, 20 multiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence in a switchback design. This experiment lasted 4 d and feedline soakers alternately remained off or were on (ON12) for 12h/d. In experiment 1, average ambient temperature was 30 ± 0.9°C and average relative humidity was 44 ± 14% (mean ± SD). Feedline soakers complementing KK systems for 24 h/d decreased the mean CBT of lactating dairy cows compared with KK systems alone (38.80 vs. 38.98 ± 0.061°C, respectively). A significant treatment by time interaction was found. The greatest treatment effects occurred at 2100 h; treatment means at this time were 39.26 and 38.85 ± 0.085°C for OFF24 and ON24 treatments, respectively. In experiment 2, average ambient temperature was 35 ± 1.5°C and average relative humidity was 33 ± 16%. Feedline soakers running for 12 h/d significantly decreased the mean 24-h CBT from 39.16 to 38.99 ± 0.084°C. Treatment by time interaction was also significant; the greatest treatment effects occurred at 1500 h, when ON12 reduced CBT from 39.38 to 38.81 ± 0.088°C. These results demonstrate that complementing the KK system with feedline soakers decreased the CBT of dairy cows housed in desert environments. However, the combined systems were not sufficient to lower CBT to normal temperatures in this extreme environment. PMID

  11. Isolation and characterization of a virulent bacteriophage SPW specific for Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis of lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Longping; Zhang, Zhiying

    2014-09-01

    Mastitis in dairy cattle continues to be an economically important disease. However, control is complicated by a high prevalence of resistance to antibiotics. Phage therapy, therefore, is considered as an alternative way of controlling bacterial infections and contaminations. In this study, we have described isolation and characterization of a highly virulent phage SPW from wastewater of dairy farm, which possesses a strong lytic capability against mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus, the most important pathogen in bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis. The phage SPW produced large, round and clear plaques on bacterial culture plates. TEM showed phage SPW has an icosahedral head 62.5 nm in diameter and long tail of 106 nm, head and tail were held together by a connector of 18 ± 1.5 nm long and can be classified as a member of the Myoviridae family. Restriction analysis indicated that phage SPW was a dsDNA virus with an approximate genome size of 65-69 kb. One-step growth kinetics showed a short latency period of about 10-15 min and a rise period of 50 min and a relatively small burst size was 44 ± 3 phages particles/infected cell. Moreover, adsorption rates were not influenced by calcium ions and phage SPW was relatively stable in a wide range of temperature and pH values, and resistant to chloroform and isopropanol. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 0.01. When phage SPW was used to infect five other clinically isolated pathogenic isolates, it showed relatively wide spectrum host range. Phage SPW was capable of eliciting efficient lysis of S. aureus, revealing it potentially as an effective approach to prophylaxis or treatment of S. aureus-associated mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:24981924

  12. Recurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum during mycological and toxicological study of bioaerosols collected in a dairy cattle shed.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Caroline; André, Véronique; Séguin, Virginie; Heutte, Natacha; El Kaddoumi, Anne; Bouchart, Valérie; Picquet, Rachel; Garon, David

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural occupations associated with animal breeding and the processing of animal materials in confinement systems could potentially lead to bioaerosol exposures. Moulds and mycotoxins could be constituents of bioaerosols and should be studied because of their possible involvement in respiratory diseases and cancers. In order to characterize the fungal contamination of the indoor air in a dairy barn, bioaerosols were collected during 20 days in a cattle farm located in Normandy (France). Mycobiota, mycotoxins and the mutagenicity of bioaerosols were studied. The toxigenic ability of Aspergillus flavus group and Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was also evaluated in vitro. The prevalent airborne moulds were from the following potentially toxigenic species: Aspergillus flavus group, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, and the allergenic species Ulocladium chartarum, Cladosporium cladosporioides. In comparison with harvesting, grain handling or broiler breeding, the concentrations of viable moulds were lower in the cattle shed. Seasonal variations in levels of several species were also observed. This study revealed that aflatoxins were detected in bioaerosols and, for the first time, showed that farmers are possibly exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum during routine barn work. Moreover, the finding of mutagenicity from bioaerosols needs further investigations on bioaerosol composition. PMID:22462447

  13. The effect of subclinical ketosis on activity at estrus and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Andrew J; Oikonomou, Georgios; Smith, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to investigate the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) on physical activity at estrus using a neck accelerometer device and on future reproductive performance. Two hundred three Holstein-Friesian cows were studied on 3dairy farms in Northwest England between September 2013 and March 2014. Seventeen percent (35 of 203) of the enrolled cows were affected with SCK between 7 and 21d in milk, defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9mmol/L. Time to event analyses and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effect of SCK on reproductive performance and activity at estrus. The SCK cows exhibited a lower peak activity (measured as the number of standard deviations above mean activity) and shorter duration in activity clusters associated with first estrus and first insemination postpartum, compared with non-SCK cows. Peak activity and cluster duration associated with the insemination that led to a pregnancy were not different between SCK and non-SCK cows. Calving to first estrus, calving to first insemination, and calving to pregnancy intervals were prolonged in SCK cows. First insemination was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval=1.6 to 15.0) less likely to be successful in SCK cows compared with non-SCK cows. Adjusted mean number of inseminations per pregnancy was 2.8 for SCK cows and 2.0 for non-SCK cows. The current study confirms the long-lasting effects of SCK on reproductive efficiency. Furthermore, it is indicated that physical activity around estrus is reduced by SCK in early lactation, but this negative effect appears to diminish as cows progress through lactation. PMID:26995121

  14. Lameness, Activity Time-Budgets, and Estrus Expression in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S. L.; Smith, R. F.; Routly, J. E.; Jones, D. N.; Morris, M. J.; Dobson, H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify specific behavioral patterns that contribute to diminished estrus expression in lame cows. Behavioral scan and focal sampling were used to examine the effect of lameness on daily activity budgets, sexual behavior, feeding activities, and body condition score. A total of 59 milking cows (51.8 ± 1.4 d postpartum) were monitored on a commercial dairy farm for 5 d following estrus synchronization. Overall, lame cows (n = 39) spent proportionately less time elevated on their feet and more time lying down compared with nonlame cows (n = 20). This included lame cows spending less time walking or standing. Overall, the total proportion of scans in which an estrous behavior was observed was very small but tended to be smaller for lame compared with nonlame cows. Throughout a day, lame cows displayed a lower proportion of estrous behaviors in the early morning. Lameness did not affect durations of drinking, grazing, or ruminating, or how these behavioral states fluctuated throughout the day. Similarly, rumination chewing rates were the same for lame and nonlame cows, and there was no association between lameness and dominance/displacement while feeding at a feed-fence. Lame cows did, however, have a slower bite rate at pasture and had a lower body condition score. Lame cows were also nearer the rear of the herd, both as they left the field and when entering the milking parlor. In conclusion, lame cows have longer lying times and spend less time standing, walking, and expressing an estrous behavior. Lame cows also have a lower bite rate at pasture and are more likely to be of lower body condition score. PMID:19038930

  15. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Ginja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Tresset, Anne; Stock, Frauke; Gama, Luis T.; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Nijman, Isaäc J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings Haplogroup data were collected for 2087 animals from 138 breeds. For 111 breeds, these were resolved further by genotyping microsatellites INRA189 (10 alleles) and BM861 (2 alleles). European cattle carry exclusively taurine haplotypes, with the zebu Y-chromosomes having appreciable frequencies in Southwest Asian populations. Y1 is predominant in northern and north-western Europe, but is also observed in several Iberian breeds, as well as in Southwest Asia. A single Y1 haplotype is predominant in north-central Europe and a single Y2 haplotype in central Europe. In contrast, we found both Y1 and Y2 haplotypes in Britain, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Y-chromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea and Baltic coasts and the spotted, yellow or brown breeds from Switzerland, respectively. The present Y1-Y2 contrast in central Europe coincides with historic, linguistic, religious and cultural boundaries. PMID:21253012

  16. Imputation Accuracy from Low to Moderate Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in a Thai Multibreed Dairy Cattle Population

    PubMed Central

    Jattawa, Danai; Elzo, Mauricio A.; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of imputation from low density (LDC) to moderate density SNP chips (MDC) in a Thai Holstein-Other multibreed dairy cattle population. Dairy cattle with complete pedigree information (n = 1,244) from 145 dairy farms were genotyped with GeneSeek GGP20K (n = 570), GGP26K (n = 540) and GGP80K (n = 134) chips. After checking for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) quality, 17,779 SNP markers in common between the GGP20K, GGP26K, and GGP80K were used to represent MDC. Animals were divided into two groups, a reference group (n = 912) and a test group (n = 332). The SNP markers chosen for the test group were those located in positions corresponding to GeneSeek GGP9K (n = 7,652). The LDC to MDC genotype imputation was carried out using three different software packages, namely Beagle 3.3 (population-based algorithm), FImpute 2.2 (combined family- and population-based algorithms) and Findhap 4 (combined family- and population-based algorithms). Imputation accuracies within and across chromosomes were calculated as ratios of correctly imputed SNP markers to overall imputed SNP markers. Imputation accuracy for the three software packages ranged from 76.79% to 93.94%. FImpute had higher imputation accuracy (93.94%) than Findhap (84.64%) and Beagle (76.79%). Imputation accuracies were similar and consistent across chromosomes for FImpute, but not for Findhap and Beagle. Most chromosomes that showed either high (73%) or low (80%) imputation accuracies were the same chromosomes that had above and below average linkage disequilibrium (LD; defined here as the correlation between pairs of adjacent SNP within chromosomes less than or equal to 1 Mb apart). Results indicated that FImpute was more suitable than Findhap and Beagle for genotype imputation in this Thai multibreed population. Perhaps additional increments in imputation accuracy could be achieved by increasing the completeness of pedigree information. PMID:26949946

  17. Imputation Accuracy from Low to Moderate Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in a Thai Multibreed Dairy Cattle Population.

    PubMed

    Jattawa, Danai; Elzo, Mauricio A; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of imputation from low density (LDC) to moderate density SNP chips (MDC) in a Thai Holstein-Other multibreed dairy cattle population. Dairy cattle with complete pedigree information (n = 1,244) from 145 dairy farms were genotyped with GeneSeek GGP20K (n = 570), GGP26K (n = 540) and GGP80K (n = 134) chips. After checking for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) quality, 17,779 SNP markers in common between the GGP20K, GGP26K, and GGP80K were used to represent MDC. Animals were divided into two groups, a reference group (n = 912) and a test group (n = 332). The SNP markers chosen for the test group were those located in positions corresponding to GeneSeek GGP9K (n = 7,652). The LDC to MDC genotype imputation was carried out using three different software packages, namely Beagle 3.3 (population-based algorithm), FImpute 2.2 (combined family- and population-based algorithms) and Findhap 4 (combined family- and population-based algorithms). Imputation accuracies within and across chromosomes were calculated as ratios of correctly imputed SNP markers to overall imputed SNP markers. Imputation accuracy for the three software packages ranged from 76.79% to 93.94%. FImpute had higher imputation accuracy (93.94%) than Findhap (84.64%) and Beagle (76.79%). Imputation accuracies were similar and consistent across chromosomes for FImpute, but not for Findhap and Beagle. Most chromosomes that showed either high (73%) or low (80%) imputation accuracies were the same chromosomes that had above and below average linkage disequilibrium (LD; defined here as the correlation between pairs of adjacent SNP within chromosomes less than or equal to 1 Mb apart). Results indicated that FImpute was more suitable than Findhap and Beagle for genotype imputation in this Thai multibreed population. Perhaps additional increments in imputation accuracy could be achieved by increasing the completeness of pedigree information. PMID:26949946

  18. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV. PMID:26119170

  19. Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and water buffaloes and associated abortions in the plateau of Southern Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P P; Balumahendiran, M; Raghavendra, A G; Honnappa, T G; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K

    2013-01-01

    A seroprevalence study of bovine neosporosis was conducted among 1,927 dairy cattle and 341 water buffaloes from Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states in plateau of southern peninsular India by employing competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 12.61 and 9.97 % sera samples were found positive for the presence of Neospora caninum antibody, respectively, among cattle and water buffaloes. Out of 1,927 sera samples from cattle, 912 and 1,015 samples were collected from unorganized and organized herds, respectively. The cattle screened were of upgraded Holstein-Friesian and water buffaloes were of graded Surti breed. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence was found in the cattle in unorganized herds (16.66 %) in comparison to organized herds (8.96 %). The highest seroprevalence was recorded in the age group of 4 years and above in both type of cattle herds and water buffaloes. There was a significant variation of seroprevalence (p < 0.05) observed between different age groups of cattle. The rate of seroprevalence increased with the increment in the age of the animals suggesting a possibility of horizontal mode of transmission of the infection from the environment. The percentage of abortion history was more in seropositive group (51.65 %) in comparison to the seronegative group (5.84 %) and the seropositive cattle were 8.84 times more likely to experience abortion than the seronegative cattle. The occurrence of abortion among different age groups varied significantly (p < 0.05). The findings revealed the presence of neosporosis in the southern peninsular India among cattle and water buffaloes and a strong association between the seroprevalence and abortion. PMID:22644733

  20. Genomic inbreeding estimation in small populations: evaluation of runs of homozygosity in three local dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, S; Tolone, M; Di Gerlando, R; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2016-05-01

    In the local breeds with small population size, one of the most important problems is the increase of inbreeding coefficient (F). High levels of inbreeding lead to reduced genetic diversity and inbreeding depression. The availability of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays has facilitated the quantification of F by genomic markers in farm animals. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes and represent an estimate of the degree of autozygosity at genome-wide level. The current study aims to quantify the genomic F derived from ROH (F ROH) in three local dairy cattle breeds. F ROH values were compared with F estimated from the genomic relationship matrix (F GRM), based on the difference between observed v. expected number of homozygous genotypes (F HOM) and the genomic homozygosity of individual i (F MOL i ). The molecular coancestry coefficient (f MOL ij ) between individuals i and j was also estimated. Individuals of Cinisara (71), Modicana (72) and Reggiana (168) were genotyped with the 50K v2 Illumina BeadChip. Genotypes from 96 animals of Italian Holstein cattle breed were also included in the analysis. We used a definition of ROH as tracts of homozygous genotypes that were >4 Mb. Among breeds, 3661 ROH were identified. Modicana showed the highest mean number of ROH per individual and the highest value of F ROH, whereas Reggiana showed the lowest ones. Differences among breeds existed for the ROH lengths. The individuals of Italian Holstein showed high number of short ROH segments, related to ancient consanguinity. Similar results showed the Reggiana with some extreme animals with segments covering 400 Mb and more of genome. Modicana and Cinisara showed similar results between them with the total length of ROH characterized by the presence of large segments. High correlation was found between F HOM and F ROH ranged from 0.83 in Reggiana to 0.95 in Cinisara and Modicana. The correlations among F ROH and other

  1. Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle: Diagnostic Parameters Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    HAGIWARA, Seiichi; MORI, Kouichiro; OKADA, Hiroyuki; OIKAWA, Shin; NAGAHATA, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677

  2. Estimation of the time of seroconversion to the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus in sentinel cattle of dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To estimate time to seroconversion to vesicular stomatitis 1 New Jersey virus (VSNJV) in sentinel cattle in southern Mexico, ninety-two sentinel cattle in four free-ranging dairy herds at high- (=500 mts) and low-elevation (<500 mts) locations in southern Mexico were studied. A prospective cohort s...

  3. Prevalence and distribution of foot lesions in dairy cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Mason, S; Pajor, E A; LeBlanc, S J; Orsel, K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence and distribution of foot lesions and associated cow- and herd-level risk factors in dairy cows in Alberta, Canada. Foot lesion data were recorded electronically by 7 hoof trimmers on 28,607 cows in 156 dairy farms from June 2009 to November 2012. Foot lesion prevalence estimates differed between farms that had the whole herd trimmed at once (≥80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=69 farms and 8,020 cows) and farms on which part of the herd was trimmed (selection of cows was determined by farmer and <80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=87 and 20,587 cows). Estimates were consistently higher for the latter likely because farmers presumably prioritized lame cows in partial-herd trims. On farms with whole-herd trims, digital dermatitis was the most common lesion among all housing types, present in 15% of cows and 94% of herds. Sole ulcers and white line disease were detected in 6 and 4% of the cows and 92 and 93% of herds, respectively. Other infectious and claw horn lesions each affected 1 to 2% of cows and 62 to 78% of herds. Intraclass correlation coefficients for hoof trimmers ranged from 0.01 to 0.20 for all lesions, indicating some clustering of recorded lesions by trimmer. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including hoof trimmer as fixed and farm as random effects) for the 3 most frequently identified lesions. Prevalence of digital dermatitis decreased with increasing parity, but this effect interacted with days in milk (DIM); primiparous cows had higher odds of digital dermatitis in mid lactation (100-199 DIM) and late lactation (≥200 DIM) compared with cows at other stages of lactation. In contrast, prevalence of sole ulcers and white line disease increased with increasing parity; compared with cows in parity 1, those in parity 4 had 5 or 7 times higher odds of having these lesions, respectively. Cows in mid lactation and late lactation had higher

  4. Improving the performance of dairy cattle with a xylanase-rich exogenous enzyme preparation.

    PubMed

    Romero, J J; Macias, E G; Ma, Z X; Martins, R M; Staples, C R; Beauchemin, K A; Adesogan, A T

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine effects of adding 2 exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) to the total mixed ration (TMR) on the performance of lactating dairy cows (experiment 1) and the kinetics of ruminal degradation of the diet (experiment 2). Twelve EFE had been screened in a series of in vitro assays that identified the most potent EFE and their optimal doses for increasing the digestibility of bermudagrass. In experiment 1, 66 Holstein cows (21±5 d in milk) were grouped by previous milk production and parity (45 multiparous and 21 primiparous) and assigned randomly to 1 of the following 3 treatments: (1) control (CON, untreated), (2) Xylanase Plus [2A, 1mL/kg of TMR dry matter (DM); Dyadic International, Jupiter, FL], and (3) a 75:25 (vol/vol) mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus EFE (3A, 3.4mL/kg of TMR DM; Dyadic International). The EFE were sprayed twice daily onto a TMR (10% bermudagrass silage, 35% corn silage, 5% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay mixture, and 50% concentrates; DM basis) and fed for a 14-d training and covariate period and a 70-d measurement period. Experiment 2 aimed to examine the in situ DM ruminal degradability and ruminal fermentation measurements of the diets fed in experiment 1. Three ruminally fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to the diets. The experiment had a 3×3 Latin square design with 23-d periods. In experiment 1, application of 2A increased intakes (kg/d) of DM (23.5 vs. 22.6), organic matter (21.9 vs. 20.9), and crude protein (3.9 vs. 3.7) and tended to increase yields (kg/d) of fat-corrected milk (41.8 vs. 40.7) and milk fat (1.48 vs. 1.44). In particular, 2A increased milk yield (kg/d) during wk 3 (41.2 vs. 39.8, tendency), 6 (41.9 vs. 40.1), and 7 (42.1 vs. 40.4), whereas 3A increased milk yield (kg/d) during wk 6 (41.5 vs. 40.1, tendency), 8 (41.8 vs. 40.0), and 9 (40.9 vs. 39.5, tendency). In experiment 2, EFE treatment did not affect ruminal DM degradation kinetics or ruminal pH, ammonia

  5. Survey of beef quality assurance on California dairies.

    PubMed

    Aly, S S; Rossow, H A; Acetoze, G; Lehenbauer, T W; Payne, M; Meyer, D; Maas, J; Hoar, B

    2014-03-01

    In October 2011, a mail and online survey of California dairy personnel was conducted to assess producer familiarity with and support of the Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) program. The DACQA program addresses cattle of all ages (birth to culling) and standard practices that affect the use of dairy cattle for beef. The survey was mailed to a random sample of 1,071 California dairies (65%) stratified by county, proportional to the number of dairies in each respective county. Data from the 158 responses received (15%) showed that 90% of culled cows on California dairies were sold for beef. However, personnel on more than one-half of California dairies (56%) had no knowledge of how their herd cull cows ranked in terms of beef quality measures (body condition score, US Department of Agriculture carcass grade, and hot carcass weight). Survey results showed that a considerable proportion of California dairy personnel were aware of recommended injection practices including a preference for subcutaneous injections (45%). A drug inventory was maintained on approximately 50% of the state's dairies. Management at these dairies was twice as likely to test for drug residues compared with dairies that did not maintain a drug inventory. More information about the DACQA program was requested by more than half of California dairies. PMID:24418277

  6. Factors that Affect Student Motivation in a Dairy Products Elective Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Baraem; Hayes, Kirby

    2005-01-01

    Student motivation is influenced by instructional approach. Motivation is a function of initiating and sustaining goal-directed behavior. The objective of this study was to identify factors (positive and negative) that affect motivation in a junior-level dairy products elective course. Student attitudes were surveyed each year half-way through the…

  7. Behavioral and physiological effects of a short-term feed restriction in lactating dairy cattle with different body condition scores at calving.

    PubMed

    Schütz, K E; Cox, N R; Macdonald, K A; Roche, J R; Verkerk, G A; Rogers, A R; Tucker, C B; Matthews, L R; Meier, S; Webster, J R

    2013-07-01

    Body condition score (BCS) around calving, and the typical BCS loss for up to 100 d after parturition, is associated with both production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. In addition, there is public concern that thin cows may have impaired welfare, particularly in early lactation where feed demand exceeds pasture growth, and a lag exists between peak milk energy requirements and intake. The aim of this experiment was to determine how BCS at calving influences behavioral and physiological responses to a short-term feed restriction at 47 DIM. Body condition score (on a 10-point scale) at calving was manipulated by modifying the diets in the previous lactation of healthy dairy cattle to generate 3 treatment groups: low BCS (3.4; n=17), medium BCS (4.6; n=18), or high BCS (5.4; n=20). Cows were tested in 4 groups for 8 consecutive days; testing consisted of different levels of feed allocation (d 1 and 2: 100%; d 3 and 4: 75%; d 5: 50%; d 6 to 8: 125%), where 100% was 15kg of DM/cow per day. All BCS groups had similar and marked behavioral and physiological responses to feed restriction. For example, they increased vocalization, time spent eating silage and grazing, aggressive behavior, and fat metabolism (as measured by concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids), and reduced milk production. Body condition affected some of these responses. Fewer cows with low BCS engaged in aggressive interactions in a feed competition test (trough filled with silage that could be consumed in 15 min) on the first day of feed restriction (low: 32%; medium: 74%; high: 64%; standard error of difference=15.4%). High BCS cows had greater concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids throughout the experimental period, which suggests more fat mobilization; however, plasma leptin and fecal glucocorticosteroid metabolite concentrations were unaffected by BCS. Whereas cows demonstrated marked responses to feed restriction, the results

  8. Genomic selection for producer-recorded health event data in US dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emphasizing increased profit through increased dairy cow production has revealed a negative relationship with fitness and health traits. Decreased cow health can impact herd profitability through increased rates of involuntary culling and decreased or lost milk sales. Improvement of health traits t...

  9. Dairy Cattle Management Impacts Manure Nitrogen Collection and Cycling Through Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escalating energy and fertilizer N prices, and regulatory limits on ammonia emissions from livestock facilities require methods that reduce manure management costs, enhance the fertilizer value of manure and reduce gaseous ammonia losses. We compared two dairy herd management practices on manure N c...

  10. Alteration of dairy cattle diets for beneficial on-farm recycling of manure nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed and manure nutrients pass through a continuous cycle on dairy farms. Cows are fed forages, grain, protein and mineral supplements to produce milk; land applied manure recycles nutrients through crops and pastures; and so on. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how the types and amount...

  11. Protein and Carbohydrate Interactions Alter Ruminal Fermentation, Digesta Characteristics, and Behavior in Lactating Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of altering dietary nonfiber carbohydrate complement and ruminally degradable protein was evaluated in an incomplete partially balanced Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (trt) and two 21-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein dairy cows were rand...

  12. ICAR guidelines for recording, evaluation and genetic improvement of female fertility in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertility refers to the ability of a cow to conceive and maintain pregnancy within a specific time period, and is of substantial economic importance in the dairy industry because lactations begin with the birth of a calf. Culling rates due to infertility are much higher than two or three decades ago...

  13. Dairy Cattle Management Impacts Manure N Collection and Cycling Through Crops in Wisconsin, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escalating energy and fertilizer N prices and regulatory limits on ammonia emissions from livestock facilities require new methods that reduce manure management costs, enhance the fertilizer value of manure and reduce ammonia volatilization. We compared two dairy herd management practices on manure ...

  14. A longitudinal study of Cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 mo of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence mic...

  15. Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 subtypes in dairy cattle from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum from 73 dairy calves less than two months old from Buenos Aires province (Argentina) were molecularly characterized using sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Seventy five sequences were obtained, and seven different subtypes were identified, all belonging to the IIa subtype f...

  16. Estimating feed efficiency of lactating dairy cattle using residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising feed costs and ever increasing concerns about the negative impacts of agriculture and animal production on the environment have made the improvement of feed efficiency of all livestock species a high-priority area of agricultural research. Improving production efficiency of lactating dairy ca...

  17. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection for body temperature regulation during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Present objectives were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows reared in free stall barns und...

  18. PREVALENCE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN MATURE DAIRY CATTLE ON FARMS IN EASTERN UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces collected from 541 milking cows on two dairy farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Oocysts were concentrated from 15 g of feces from each cow and DNA was extracted. A two-step ne...

  19. Confirmation and discovery of maternal grandsires and great grandsires in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement and selection of dairy animals has required accurate pedigree information. Genomic tools allow paternal ancestors to be easily confirmed or discovered because most sires are genotyped for many markers, but maternal ancestors are more difficult to discover because most female ance...

  20. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from dairy cattle in South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were obtained from a total of 70 dairy calves less than two months old on 11 municipalities in Buenos Aires, Argentina. After removal of fecal debris by sieving and sucrose flotation, specimens were subjected to PCR to detect the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. PCR revealed a 14...

  1. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  2. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  3. Effect of thermal processing on estimated metabolizable protein supply to dairy cattle from camelina seeds: relationship with protein molecular structural changes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Quanhui; Khan, Nazir A; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-08-20

    This study evaluated the effect of thermal processing on the estimated metabolizable protein (MP) supply to dairy cattle from camelina seeds (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) and determined the relationship between heat-induced changes in protein molecular structural characteristics and the MP supply. Seeds from two camelina varieties were sampled in two consecutive years and were either kept raw or were heated in an autoclave (moist heating) or in an air-draft oven (dry heating) at 120 °C for 1 h. The MP supply to dairy cattle was modeled by three commonly used protein evaluation systems. The protein molecular structures were analyzed by Fourier transform/infrared-attenuated total reflectance molecular spectroscopy. The results showed that both the dry and moist heating increased the contents of truly absorbable rumen-undegraded protein (ARUP) and total MP and decreased the degraded protein balance (DPB). However, the moist-heated camelina seeds had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) content of ARUP and total MP and a significantly lower (P < 0.05) content of DPB than did the dry-heated camelina seeds. The regression equations showed that intensities of the protein molecular structural bands can be used to estimate the contents of ARUP, MP, and DPB with high accuracy (R(2) > 0.70). These results show that protein molecular structural characteristics can be used to rapidly assess the MP supply to dairy cattle from raw and heat-treated camelina seeds. PMID:25046194

  4. Factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions in 2005.

    PubMed

    Barham, B L; Troxel, T R

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected from 15 Arkansas livestock auctions to determine factors affecting selling price. Data included how calves were sold (single or groups), sex, breed or breed type, color, muscle thickness, horn status, frame score, fill, body condition, age, health, BW, and price. Data were randomly collected on 52,401 lots consisting of 105,542 calves. Selling prices for steers ($124.20 +/- 0.07), bulls ($117.93 +/- 0.12), and heifers ($112.81 +/- 0.07) were different from each other (P <0.001). Hereford x Charolais feeder calves sold for the highest price ($122.66 +/- 0.14) and Longhorns sold for the lowest price ($74.52 +/- 0.46). Yellow feeder cattle received the highest selling price ($96.47 +/- 0.12), and spotted or striped feeder cattle received the lowest price ($83.84 +/- 0.23). The selling price of singles was lower than the price for calves sold in groups of 6 or more ($117.26 +/- 0.06 vs. $122.61 +/- 0.21; P <0.001). For cattle classified as having muscle scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, selling prices were $120.45 +/- 0.05, $111.31 +/- 0.09, $96.28 +/- 0.44, and $82.21 +/- 1.87, respectively. Polled feeder cattle sold for $118.57 +/- 0.05, and horned feeder cattle sold for $114.87 +/- 0.14 (P <0.001). Interactions (P <0.001) were detected between frame score and BW groups, and muscle score and BW groups on the selling price of cattle. A number of management and genetic factors affected the selling price of feeder cattle. PMID:17709785

  5. Estimating the costs of rearing young dairy cattle in the Netherlands using a simulation model that accounts for uncertainty related to diseases.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2012-10-01

    The costs of rearing young dairy cattle are a part of the cost of the price of milk, as rearing produces the future dairy cows. As most dairy farmers are not aware of the rearing costs, the rearing of dairy replacements often does not get the attention it deserves. Calculating the distribution of the rearing costs throughout the rearing process is difficult as the costs are correlated with biological processes, such as variation in growth rate and disease uncertainty. In this study, a calf level simulation model was built to estimate the rearing costs and their distribution from 2 weeks of age until first calving in the Netherlands. The uncertainties related to calf diseases (calf scours and bovine respiratory disease) were included, in which both the probabilities of disease and the effects of diseases (growth reduction) differ at different ages. In addition, growth was modeled stochastically and in a detailed manner using a two-phase growth function. The total cost of rearing young dairy cattle was estimated as €1567 per successfully reared heifer and varied between €1423 and €1715. Reducing the age of first calving by 1 month reduced the total cost between 2.6% and 5.7%. The difference in the average cost of rearing between heifers that calved at 24 months and those calving at 30 months was €400 per heifer reared. Average rearing costs were especially influenced by labor efficiency and cost of feed. The rearing costs of a heifer that experienced disease at least once (20% of the simulated heifers) were on average €95 higher than those of healthy heifers. Hence, for an individual diseased heifer, disease costs can be rather high, while the relative contribution to the average rearing cost for a standard Dutch dairy farm is low (approx. 3%). Overall, the model developed proved to be a useful tool to investigate the total cost of rearing young dairy cattle, providing insights to dairy farmers with respect to the cost-efficiency of their own rearing

  6. Dissociation and ammonia mass transfer from ammonium solution and dairy cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia (NH**3) emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficient for NH**3 volatilization from media of buffered ...

  7. Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolates in cattle and house sparrows on two Czech dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Dolejská, M; Senk, D; Cízek, A; Rybaríková, J; Sychra, O; Literák, I

    2008-12-01

    Rectal smears of calves, cows and young bulls, as well as cloacal smears of house sparrows (Passer domesticus), from farms at the villages of Sumice and Troskotovice, Czech Republic, were examined for E. coli resistant to 12 antimicrobials. The resistant isolates were tested for antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons. Totals of 40% (n=183), 3% (n=95), 0% (n=33), and 9% (n=54) of Escherichia coli isolates from calves, cows, young bulls and house sparrows, respectively, were antimicrobial resistant. The following genes were identified in cattle E. coli isolates: tetA, tetB (isolates resistant to tetracycline), bla(TEM) (beta-lactams), strA, aadA (streptomycin), sul1, sul2 (sulphonamides), and cat, floR (chloramphenicol). Seven of 16 antimicrobial-resistant calf isolates from the Sumice farm possessed class 1 integrons with the aadA1 gene cassette integrated, 1 kb in size. On the Troskotovice farm, eight of 57 antimicrobial-resistant calf isolates possessed class 1 integrons. Integrons of 1.5kb with the dhfr1- aadA1 gene cassette were found in four isolates, followed by a 1kb integron with the aadA1 gene found in three isolates, and a 1.7kb integron with the dhfr17-aadA5 gene cassette and the phenotype ASSuTSxtNaCipCCfG. The prevalence of resistant E. coli in calves compared to adult cattle was much higher and probably was influenced by oral antimicrobial usage in calves, feeding with milk and colostrum from treated cows, as well as mechanisms unrelated to antimicrobial drug selection. Although house sparrows lived together with the cattle and came into contact with cattle waste on the farm, they were not infected by resistant E. coli isolates with the same characteristics as those found in cattle. PMID:18471838

  8. Application of a microfluidic sperm sorter to in vitro production of dairy cattle sex-sorted embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingchun; Zhu, Sibing; He, Xianjing; Sun, Rui; He, Qianyu; Gan, Yi; Liu, Shengjun; Funahashi, Hiroaki; Li, Yanbing

    2016-04-15

    Viable sperm from sex-sorted semen without centrifugal treatment was separated by a microfluidic sperm sorter (MFSS) for IVF to improve in vitro embryo production of dairy cattle. The MFSS was originally developed to isolate motile human sperm by two laminar flows in the micro-channel (there are four chambers in an MFSS. Chamber A is the inlet for semen, chamber B is the inlet for the medium, chamber C is the exit chamber for motile sperm, and chamber D is the outlet for nonmotile sperm). Sex-sorted sperm were adjusted to 1 × 10(7) spermatozoa/mL (2 million cells/dose, sperm motility was 30% above after thawing). In a first experiment, diluted sex-sorted semen was mixed with modified Medium199(mM199) containing 5-mM caffeine for 5 minutes, resulting in variations in sperm concentration and quality parameters at chambers A, C, and D. In a second experiment, medium containing sperm from three MFSS chambers was collected and mitochondrial activity of the sperm was determined by flow cytometry, the relative activity of sperm mitochondria in chamber C (1.56 ± 0.03) was the highest in three observation areas (P < 0.05). Thus, sperm motility and mitochondrial activity of sperm was high in chamber C. In a third experiment, different concentrations of sperm were added to chamber A and dairy cattle IVM oocytes were placed in chamber C, where motile spermatozoa will accumulate, with mM199 containing 5-mM caffeine for 5 minutes, and then cultured in caffeine-free mM199 for 8 hours. The results showed that sperm penetration rate, the monospermic penetration rate, and blastocyst rate of the 10 × 10(6) group (10 × 10(6) sperm/mL) were higher than in the 1 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(6) groups (P < 0.05). In the last experiment, we compared sperm penetration in the MFSS-IVF system with a modified standard IVF method (cocultured in droplets for 8 hours). The normal fertilization index (the ratio of monospermic oocytes to the number of oocytes examined) 8

  9. Effects of forage source and extruded linseed supplementation on methane emissions from growing dairy cattle of differing body weights.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K J; Humphries, D J; Crompton, L A; Kirton, P; Reynolds, C K

    2015-11-01

    Changes in diet carbohydrate amount and type (i.e., starch vs. fiber) and dietary oil supplements can affect ruminant methane emissions. Our objectives were to measure methane emissions, whole-tract digestibility, and energy and nitrogen utilization from growing dairy cattle at 2 body weight (BW) ranges, fed diets containing either high maize silage (MS) or high grass silage (GS), without or with supplemental oil from extruded linseed (ELS). Four Holstein-Friesian heifers aged 13 mo (BW range from start to finish of 382 to 526 kg) were used in experiment 1, whereas 4 lighter heifers aged 12 mo (BW range from start to finish of 292 to 419 kg) were used in experiment 2. Diets were fed as total mixed rations with forage dry matter (DM) containing high MS or high GS and concentrates in proportions (forage:concentrate, DM basis) of either 75:25 (experiment 1) or 60:40 (experiment 2), respectively. Diets were supplemented without or with ELS (Lintec, BOCM Pauls Ltd., Wherstead, UK; 260 g of oil/kg of DM) at 6% of ration DM. Each experiment was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 33-d periods, with measurements during d 29 to 33 while animals were housed in respiration chambers. Heifers fed MS at a heavier BW (experiment 1) emitted 20% less methane per unit of DM intake (yield) compared with GS (21.4 vs. 26.6, respectively). However, when repeated with heifers of a lower BW (experiment 2), methane yield did not differ between the 2 diets (26.6g/kg of DM intake). Differences in heifer BW had no overall effect on methane emissions, except when expressed as grams per kilogram of digestible organic matter (OMD) intake (32.4 vs. 36.6, heavy vs. light heifers). Heavier heifers fed MS in experiment 1 had a greater DM intake (9.4kg/d) and lower OMD (755 g/kg), but no difference in N utilization (31% of N intake) compared with heifers fed GS (7.9 kg/d and 799 g/kg, respectively). Tissue energy retention was nearly double for heifers fed MS compared with GS in experiment 1 (15 vs. 8

  10. Selected metabolic biochemical and enzyme activities associated with Besnoitia besnoiti infection in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Alshehabat, Musa; Alekish, Myassar; Talafha, Abdelsalam

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to explore, compare, and identify whether there is an association between Besnoitia besnoiti seropositivity in apparently healthy dairy cows with some biochemical parameters, enzyme activities, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). A total of 98 dairy cows were included in the study, of which there was 50 seropositive and 48 seronegative cows. Analysis of serum antibodies against B. besnoiti antibodies was performed using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Student's independent t test showed that there was a significant difference in BHBA, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) between the seropositive and seronegative groups. Univariable regression analysis showed no significant association between seropositivity status with any of the evaluated parameters except BHBA level, mastitis, and abomasum displacement. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that there was a strong association between seropositivity with BHBA level. The significant association between BHBA and B. besnoiti seropositivity represents preliminary finding that needs further exploration. PMID:27154214

  11. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  12. 9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... generalized edema. 309.8 Section 309.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca in advanced stages and characterized by an extensive and generalized edema shall be identified as...

  13. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  14. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  15. 9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... generalized edema. 309.8 Section 309.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca in advanced stages and characterized by an extensive and generalized edema shall be identified as...

  16. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  17. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  18. 9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... generalized edema. 309.8 Section 309.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca in advanced stages and characterized by an extensive and generalized edema shall be identified as...

  19. 9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... generalized edema. 309.8 Section 309.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca in advanced stages and characterized by an extensive and generalized edema shall be identified as...

  20. 9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... generalized edema. 309.8 Section 309.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca in advanced stages and characterized by an extensive and generalized edema shall be identified as...

  1. Efficacy of monensin sodium for the reduction of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in infected dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Steven H; Kelton, David F; Leslie, Ken E; Lissemore, Kerry D; Archambault, Marie; Bagg, Randy; Dick, Paul; Duffield, Todd F

    2006-08-17

    Reducing the quantity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) being shed by cows with Johne's disease should decrease the risk of spread of this disease to young stock. Previous work has suggested that monensin sodium decreases the pathologic lesions associated with Johne's disease, but the impact on shedding of viable MAP remains unknown. After serologic screening of 32 dairy herds in southwestern Ontario, 228 cows from 13 of these herds were enrolled into a randomized clinical trial. Fecal culture and PCR were used to identify 114 cows as potential fecal shedders, while another 114 cows were enrolled as ELISA negative, herd and parity matched controls. All cows were randomized to receive either a monensin controlled release capsule (CRC) or a placebo capsule. Serial fecal and blood samples were collected for fecal culture and serum ELISA testing over a 98-day period. On day 98 of the study, treatments were switched for all cows continuing in the trial. These remaining cows were followed for another 98 days with a similar sampling protocol. Mixed effect models were used to measure the impact of treatment on the number of colony forming units identified on fecal cultures over time. During the first 98 days of the study, cows treated with a monensin CRC were found to shed 3.4cfu per tube less than placebo treated cows (P=0.05). The serum ELISA S/P ratio was reduced by 1.39 units in cows given monensin (P=0.06). However, treatment with monensin did not reduce the odds of testing positive on serology. Only the cows shedding MAP on day 0 were found to have a reduced odds of testing positive on fecal culture when treated with monensin (OR=0.27; P=0.03). Monensin sodium administered to infected animals at 335mg/day marginally reduced fecal shedding of MAP in mature dairy cattle, but the biological significance of this reduction is unknown. PMID:16631972

  2. The effect of injectable butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum serum beta-hydroxybutyrate, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rollin, E; Berghaus, R D; Rapnicki, P; Godden, S M; Overton, M W

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an injection of 10% butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (Catosal, Bayer, Shawnee Mission, KS) on the day of calving and 1 d later on the prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in the early postpartum period. Cows from 4 herds (n=1,122) were randomized to receive either 25mL of 10% butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin or 25mL of sterile water subcutaneously on both days. Each milliliter of Catosal contained 0.05mg of cyanocobalamin and 100mg of butaphosphan, which provided 17.3mg of P in the form of [1-(butylamino)-1-methylethyl]-phosphonic acid. Serum was sampled for beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at calving (pretreatment) and again between 3 and 10 d in milk. A subset of samples from mature cows was also evaluated for serum Ca and P concentrations. When cows from all age groups were included in the analysis, there was no difference between the median serum BHBA concentrations of cows in the 2 treatment groups, and no difference in the proportion of hyperketonemic cows (serum BHBA >or=1,200micromol/L) during the first week postpartum. When the analysis was restricted to mature cows (lactation >or=3), both the median BHBA concentration and the proportion of hyperketonemic cows were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the placebo group. Serum Ca and P concentrations did not differ between treatment groups. Our results suggest that injection of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on the day of calving and 1 d later may decrease the prevalence of subclinical ketosis during the week after calving in mature dairy cows, but not in first- and second-lactation animals. PMID:20172218

  3. Refractometer assessment of colostral and serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimation of the quantity of colostral IgG or serum IgG absorbed following ingestion of colostrum by calves is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of colostrum feeding practices on dairy farms. Milk total solids concentrations determination is a critical part of quality assessment of nonsaleable whole milk prior to feeding to calves. To date, on-farm methods to assess colostral IgG, serum IgG or milk total solids concentrations have been performed separately with various instruments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a single electronic, hand-held refractometer for assessing colostral and serum IgG concentrations and milk total solids in dairy cattle. Colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations were determined by the refractometer. Corresponding analysis of colostral and serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID) while milk total solids were determined by spectrophotometry. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for colostrum and serum samples were calculated as determined by RID. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for milk samples was calculated as determined by spectrophotometry. Results The sensitivity of the refractometer was 1 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations. Specificity of the refractometer was 0.66, 0.24 and 0 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations, respectively. The refractometer underestimated colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations compared to the concentrations determined by RID or spectrophotometry. Conclusions The refractometer was an acceptable, rapid, convenient on-farm method for determining colostral IgG and milk total solids. The refractometer was not an acceptable method for determination of serum IgG concentrations as it severely underestimated the serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25125217

  4. Detecting Loci under Recent Positive Selection in Dairy and Beef Cattle by Combining Different Genome-Wide Scan Methods

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Pérez O’Brien, Ana Maria; Sonstegard, Tad Stewart; Van Tassell, Curtis Paul; do Carmo, Adriana Santana; Mészáros, Gábor; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José Fernando

    2013-01-01

    As the methodologies available for the detection of positive selection from genomic data vary in terms of assumptions and execution, weak correlations are expected among them. However, if there is any given signal that is consistently supported across different methodologies, it is strong evidence that the locus has been under past selection. In this paper, a straightforward frequentist approach based on the Stouffer Method to combine P-values across different tests for evidence of recent positive selection in common variations, as well as strategies for extracting biological information from the detected signals, were described and applied to high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data generated from dairy and beef cattle (taurine and indicine). The ancestral Bovinae allele state of over 440,000 SNP is also reported. Using this combination of methods, highly significant (P<3.17×10−7) population-specific sweeps pointing out to candidate genes and pathways that may be involved in beef and dairy production were identified. The most significant signal was found in the Cornichon homolog 3 gene (CNIH3) in Brown Swiss (P = 3.82×10−12), and may be involved in the regulation of pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. Other putative pathways under selection are the glucolysis/gluconeogenesis, transcription machinery and chemokine/cytokine activity in Angus; calpain-calpastatin system and ribosome biogenesis in Brown Swiss; and gangliosides deposition in milk fat globules in Gyr. The composite method, combined with the strategies applied to retrieve functional information, may be a useful tool for surveying genome-wide selective sweeps and providing insights in to the source of selection. PMID:23696874

  5. Evaluation of data loggers, sampling intervals, and editing techniques for measuring the lying behavior of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, D N; Winckler, C; Tucker, C B

    2010-11-01

    Lying behavior in dairy cattle can provide insight into how cows interact with their environment. Although lying behavior is a useful indicator of cow comfort, it can be time consuming to measure. In response to these time constraints, using data loggers to automate behavioral recording has become increasingly common. We tested the accuracy of the Onset Pendant G data logger (Onset Computer Corporation, Bourne, MA) for measuring lying behavior in dairy cattle (n=24 cows; 12 in each of 2 experiments). Cows wore the logger on the lateral (experiment 1) or medial (experiment 2) side of the hind leg above the metatarsophalangeal joint. Loggers recorded behavior at 4 sampling intervals (6, 30, 60, and 300 s) for at least 1.5 d. Data were smoothed using 3 editing methods to examine the effects of short, potentially erroneous readings. For this purpose, Microsoft Excel macros (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) converted readings (i.e., lying events bordered by standing or vice versa) occurring singly or in consecutive runs of ≤2 or ≤6. Behavior was simultaneously recorded with digital video equipment. The logger accurately measured lying and standing. For example, predictability, sensitivity, and specificity were >99% using 30-s sampling and the single-event filter compared with continuously scored video recordings. The 6- and 30-s sampling intervals were comparable for all aspects of lying behavior when short events were filtered from the data set. Estimates of lying time generated from the 300-s interval unfiltered regimen were positively related (R(2) ≥ 0.99) to estimates of lying time from video, but this sampling regimen overestimated the number of lying bouts. This is likely because short standing and lying bouts were missed (12 and 34% of lying and standing bouts were <300 s in experiment 1 and 2, respectively). In summary, the data logger accurately measured all aspects of lying behavior when the sampling interval was ≤30 s and when short readings of lying and

  6. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure. PMID:25475613

  7. Combining evidence of selection with association analysis increases power to detect regions influencing complex traits in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hitchhiking mapping and association studies are two popular approaches to map genotypes to phenotypes. In this study we combine both approaches to complement their specific strengths and weaknesses, resulting in a method with higher statistical power and fewer false positive signals. We applied our approach to dairy cattle as they underwent extremely successful selection for milk production traits and since an excellent phenotypic record is available. We performed whole genome association tests with a new mixed model approach to account for stratification, which we validated via Monte Carlo simulations. Selection signatures were inferred with the integrated haplotype score and a locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score that works with a folded frequency spectrum and provides a formal test of signifance to identify selection signatures. Results About 1,600 out of 34,851 SNPs showed signatures of selection and the locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score showed overall good accordance with the whole genome association study. Each approach provides distinct information about the genomic regions that influence complex traits. Combining whole genome association with hitchhiking mapping yielded two significant loci for the trait protein yield. These regions agree well with previous results from other selection signature scans and whole genome association studies in cattle. Conclusion We show that the combination of whole genome association and selection signature mapping based on the same SNPs increases the power to detect loci influencing complex traits. The locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score provides a formal test of significance in selection signature mapping. Importantly it does not rely on knowledge of ancestral and derived allele states. PMID:22289501

  8. Human-animal interactions and safety during dairy cattle handling--Comparing moving cows to milking and hoof trimming.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, C; Pinzke, S; Herlin, A; Keeling, L J

    2016-03-01

    Cattle handling is a dangerous activity on dairy farms, and cows are a major cause of injuries to livestock handlers. Even if dairy cows are generally tranquil and docile, when situations occur that they perceive or remember as aversive, they may become agitated and hazardous to handle. This study aimed to compare human-animal interactions, cow behavior, and handler safety when moving cows to daily milking and moving cows to more rarely occurring and possibly aversive hoof trimming. These processes were observed on 12 Swedish commercial dairy farms. The study included behavioral observations of handler and cows and cow heart rate recordings, as well as recording frequencies of situations and incidents related to an increased injury risk to the handler. At milking, cows were quite easily moved using few interactions. As expected, the cows showed no behavioral signs of stress, fear, or resistance and their heart rate only rose slightly from the baseline (i.e., the average heart rate during an undisturbed period before handling). Moving cows to hoof trimming involved more forceful and gentle interactions compared with moving cows to milking. Furthermore, the cows showed much higher frequencies of behaviors indicative of aversion and fear (e.g., freezing, balking, and resistance), as well as a higher increase in heart rate. The risk of injury to which handlers were exposed also increased when moving cows to hoof trimming rather than to routine milking. Some interactions (such as forceful tactile interactions with an object and pulling a neck strap or halter) appeared to be related to potentially dangerous incidents where the handler was being kicked, head-butted, or run over by a cow. In conclusion, moving cows to hoof trimming resulted in higher frequencies of behaviors indicating fear, more forceful interactions, and increased injury risks to the handler than moving cows to milking. Improving potentially stressful handling procedures (e.g., by better animal handling

  9. Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yano, Takahisa; Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Chuma, Takehisa; Misawa, Naoaki

    2010-03-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 23 Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions in Japan were investigated by a broth microdilution method using 15 antimicrobial agents. Although all MIC values showed a monomodal distribution, the MICs of the antimicrobial agents for 90% (MIC(90)) of the isolates tested varied among the agents examined. The MIC(90) values for penicillin G, ampicillin, and erythromycin were <0.06 microg/ml. In contrast, the MIC(90) values for kanamycin, streptomycin, rifampicin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and colistin were >128 microg/ml. Oxytetracycline, lincomycin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftiofur, and gentamicin showed intermediate values, i.e., 0.5~32 microg/ml. The present study suggested that no isolate had acquired resistance to the antimicrobial agents examined, although they may have natural resistance to some agents. Furthermore, the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data would provide helpful information for PDD treatment and the development of a selective medium for isolating the organism effectively. PMID:19996562

  11. Schmallenberg virus antibody development and decline in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd in Germany, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Holsteg, Mark; Sasserath, Michael; Beer, Martin

    2015-12-31

    In late 2011, the novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Central Europe. Since that year, a dairy cattle herd kept in the German region in which the virus was initially detected was continuously monitored. In order to evaluate the development of the within-herd seroprevalence, but also to assess the long-term persistence of antibodies against SBV in individual animals, blood samples of all cows older than 24 months were taken yearly after the respective vector season and serologically analyzed. In December 2011, in 74% of the tested animals SBV-specific antibodies were detectable. Additional scattered seroconversions were observed between the 2011 and 2012 vector seasons, thereafter all seronegative animals remained negative. Until December 2014, the intra-herd seroprevalence decreased to 58%. A total of 122 cows infected presumable in autumn 2011 were sampled every year, 9 of them became seronegative until December 2014. Consequently, though SBV-specific antibodies were detected in about 90% of the monitored animals for more than three years, a lifelong antibody-based immunity is not expected in every animal. The loss of anti-SBV antibodies in individual animals combined with the missing infection of young stock results in a declining herd seroprevalence and increases the risk of a renewed virus circulation to a greater extent within the next years. PMID:26518458

  12. Breeding for nobility or for production? Cultures of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands, 1945-1995.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Bert

    2012-06-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s Dutch farmers replaced their dual-purpose Friesian cows with Holsteins, a highly specialized American dairy breed. The changeover was related to a major turnabout in breeding practices that involved the adoption of quantitative genetics. Dutch commercial breeders had long resisted the quantitative approach to breeding that scientists had been recommending since World War II. After about 1970, however, they gave up their resistance: the art of breeding, it was said, finally became a science. In historical overviews this turnabout is seen as part of what is called the "modernization project" in Dutch agriculture that the government instigated after the war. Economic developments are assumed to have necessitated this project, and specialization of production is seen as a natural consequence. This essay argues that the idea that the art of breeding was turned into a science is to a certain extent misleading. Furthermore, it aims to show that economic pressures and government policies cannot adequately explain the turn toward Holsteins. A better understanding can be obtained by framing the Holsteinization process as the result of a changeover in breeding culture--that is, in the ensemble of shared convictions, beliefs, conventions, methods, practices, and the like that characterized practical cattle breeding and that involved scientific, technical, economic, aesthetic, normative, and commercial considerations. PMID:22908422

  13. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuhuang; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhenjie; Li, Junqiang; Wang, Chenrong; Zhao, Jinfeng; Hu, Suhui; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Ming

    2016-03-30

    822 fecal samples from cattle in six areas of Beijing were examined with microscopy for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. The overall infection rates for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis were 2.55% and 1.09%, respectively. Cryptosporidium was only detected in calves and heifers, whereas G. duodenalis was found in all age groups. Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized with a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Two Cryptosporidium species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum (n=12) and Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=9). Six C. parvum isolates were successfully subtyped with the gp60 gene and three subtypes were detected: IIdA19G1 (n=1), IIdA17G1 (n=1), and IIdA15G1 (n=4). Subtype IIdA17G1 is reported for the first time in cattle worldwide. Nine G. duodenalis isolates were analyzed by sequencing the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene, and only G. duodenalis assemblage E was identified. Therefore, the predominance of C. parvum detected in calves was identical to that found in the Xinjiang Uyghur and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Regions, but differed considerably from that in Henan, Heilongjiang, and Shannxi Provinces. In contrast, the predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage E was more or less similar to its predominance in other areas of China or countries. Our findings confirm the unique character of the C. parvum IId subtypes in China. More systematic studies are required to better understand the transmission of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in cattle in China. PMID:26921041

  14. [Chorioptic mange in dairy cattle: a new assessment for its control].

    PubMed

    Kollbrunner, Markus; Pfister, Kurt; Luginbühl, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    In the western region of Switzerland, the canton of Freiburg, the clinical and subclinical distribution of Chorioptes spp. was studied in 14 stables with tethered housing and 10 stables with loose housing, for a total of 667 dairy cows. Chorioptes infestations were diagnosed in 22 out of the 24 herds. In the 14 stables with tethered housing 33.8% of the dairy cows were clinically suspicious and 31% were found parasitologically positive. These values were higher than in the 10 stables with loose housing that had 26.5% clinically suspicious cases and 17.8% parasitologically positive cows. The collected clinical findings and parasitological diagnoses, as well as the analysed data of Chorioptes infestations allowed to determine a reference value for these herds which could be used by the practicing veterinarian as an aid in deciding whether to treat the whole herd or the single animal. In a cow population an amount of more than 12% of cows with clinically manifest Chorioptes spp. infestation reflects a problem concerning the whole herd and therefore the whole herd needs to be treated. If less than 12% of the cows are visibly infested and no subclinical Chorioptes cases are proven, then it only constitutes a problem of single animals and therefore can be dealt with individually. The treatment of the herds of two farms with tethered housing with Eprinomectin was very effective and showed a long lasting 100% antiparasitic effect which lasted more than 92 days after treatment. PMID:19863007

  15. Prevalence of Giardia in dairy cattle in Lusaka and Chilanga districts, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Kakandelwa, Cliff; Siwila, Joyce; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B; Phiri, Isaac G K

    2016-01-15

    Giardia is an intestinal protozoan parasite of mammals including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of Giardia infections in smallholder and commercial dairy herds in Chilanga and Lusaka districts of Zambia. A total of 377 calves aged from 1 to 365 days were sampled on 34 farms. All faecal samples were analyzed for Giardia antigen using a commercially available ELISA kit. Overall prevalence of Giardia was 34.5% (95% CI=29.7-39.3). Among smallholder farms, animal level prevalence ranged from 0 to 100% (mean=44.6±36.9 standard deviations) and 12.5 to 60.9% (mean=33.5±16.7 standard deviations) within commercial herds. Prevalence was highest in calves less than three months old (p=0.010), and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between smallholder and commercial farms (p=0.300). Giardia prevalence was not associated with occurrence of diarrhoea in the calves (p=0.205). The study demonstrates that Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the study areas, especially in calves less than three months of age. PMID:26790746

  16. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days) < Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

  17. Imputation of ungenotyped parental genotypes in dairy and beef cattle from progeny genotypes.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; McParland, S; Kearney, J F; Sargolzaei, M; Mullen, M P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy of imputing the genotype of parents using information on the genotype of their progeny and a family-based and population-based imputation algorithm. Two separate data sets were used, one containing both dairy and beef animals (n=3122) with high-density genotypes (735 151 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) and the other containing just dairy animals (n=5489) with medium-density genotypes (51 602 SNPs). Imputation accuracy of three different genotype density panels were evaluated representing low (i.e. 6501 SNPs), medium and high density. The full genotypes of sires with genotyped half-sib progeny were masked and subsequently imputed. Genotyped half-sib progeny group sizes were altered from 4 up to 12 and the impact on imputation accuracy was quantified. Up to 157 and 258 sires were used to test the accuracy of imputation in the dairy plus beef data set and the dairy-only data set, respectively. The efficiency and accuracy of imputation was quantified as the proportion of genotypes that could not be imputed, and as both the genotype concordance rate and allele concordance rate. The median proportion of genotypes per animal that could not be imputed in the imputation process decreased as the number of genotyped half-sib progeny increased; values for the medium-density panel ranged from a median of 0.015 with a half-sib progeny group size of 4 to a median of 0.0014 to 0.0015 with a half-sib progeny group size of 8. The accuracy of imputation across different paternal half-sib progeny group sizes was similar in both data sets. Concordance rates increased considerably as the number of genotyped half-sib progeny increased from four (mean animal allele concordance rate of 0.94 in both data sets for the medium-density genotype panel) to five (mean animal allele concordance rate of 0.96 in both data sets for the medium-density genotype panel) after which it was relatively stable up to a half-sib progeny group size

  18. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided cumulus oocyte complexes aspiration and in vitro embryo production in suckled beef and lactating dairy cattle on pasture-based management conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratto, M H; Peralta, O A; Mogollon, G; Strobel, P; Correa, J

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the use of repeated transvaginal ultrasound-guided cumulus oocyte complex (COC) aspiration on COC recovery rate, in vitro embryo production (IVP) and subsequent pregnancy rates in Holstein Friesian (HF) and Aberdeen Angus (AA) cows (Experiment 1), and in pregnant and non-pregnant Holstein Friesian cows (Experiment 2). Cycling, non-pregnant HF (n=17) and AA (n=32) cows with 40-70 days postpartum, between 3 and 5 years of age were used in the Experiment 1. All cows were submitted to repeated transvaginal ultrasound-guided COC aspiration twice a week for 5-7 weeks. Cumulus ooctye complexes (COC) were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured for 8 days. An overall of 100 and 350 embryos from HF and AA cows respectively were cryopreserved using a conventional slow freezing (Experiment 1). A total of 81 and 285 frozen-thawed embryos from HF and AA cows respectively were transferred to recipient cows. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 60 and 150 days of gestation using transrectal ultrasonography. In Experiment 2, cycling non-pregnant (n=9) and pregnant (n=8) HF cows were submitted to repeated ultrasound-guided COC aspiration and COC were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured as in Experiment 1, except that embryos were cryopreserved but not thawed and transferred as described for Experiment 1. The results of this study indicate that COC recovery rate and blastocyts production are affected by the breed of the donor cow. The quality of blastocyts produced from both breed did not differ in terms of pregnancy and calving rates (Experiment 1). The physiologic state of pregnancy did not affect COC recovery rate and blastocysts production per donor/session (Experiment 2). The use of ultrasound-guided COC aspiration and IVP could be a powerful technique to improve the genetic of beef and dairy cattle managed under pasture-based conditions management in the southern Chile. PMID:22030337

  19. Metabolic differences in temperamental Brahman cattle can affect productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors may adversely affect the growth and productivity of livestock. These include stressors associated with management practices, such as weaning, handling relative to transportation, and vaccination, that can modulate growth through the production of stress-related hormones (i.e., cortisol,...

  20. Reaction norm model to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in dairy cattle under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; El Faro, Lenira; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Ayres, Denise Rocha; Machado, Paulo Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Santana, Mário Luiz

    2015-10-01

    Reaction norm models have been widely used to study genotype by environment interaction (G × E) in animal breeding. The objective of this study was to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in Brazilian Holstein cows using a reaction norm approach. A total of 50,168 individual monthly test day (TD) milk yields (10 test days) from 7476 complete first lactations of Holstein cattle were analyzed. The statistical models for all traits (10 TDs and for 305-day milk yield) included the fixed effects of contemporary group, age of cow (linear and quadratic effects), and days in milk (linear effect), except for 305-day milk yield. A hierarchical reaction norm model (HRNM) based on the unknown covariate was used. The present study showed the presence of G × E in milk yield across first lactation of Holstein cows. The variation in the heritability estimates implies differences in the response to selection depending on the environment where the animals of this population are evaluated. In the average environment, the heritabilities for all traits were rather similar, in range from 0.02 to 0.63. The scaling effect of G × E predominated throughout most of lactation. Particularly during the first 2 months of lactation, G × E caused reranking of breeding values. It is therefore important to include the environmental sensitivity of animals according to the phase of lactation in the genetic evaluations of Holstein cattle in tropical environments. PMID:26143280

  1. Coxiella burnetii shedding during the peripartum period and subsequent fertility in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Helguera, I; Tutusaus, J; Serrano, B; Monleón, E; Badiola, J J; López-Gatius, F

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of Coxiella burnetii shedding or seropositivity on post-partum recovery and subsequent fertility in high-producing dairy cows. Given the difficulty in diagnosing C. burnetii infection at the farm level, an exhaustive series of tests in 43 pregnant animals that delivered at least one live calf were conducted, including blood serology and PCR of milk or colostrum, cotyledons (only at parturition), faeces, vaginal fluid against C. burnetii on gestation Day 171-177, at parturition and on Days 1-7, 8-14, 15-21, 22-28, 29-35 and 90-97 post-partum. During scheduled herd visits, ultrasonography (US) of the genital tract and examination of vaginal fluid were performed on Days 15-21 (V1), 22-28 (V2), 29-35 (V3) and 51-57 (V4) post-partum by the same veterinarian. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of suffering endometritis (the presence of echogenic intrauterine fluid (IUF), cervical diameter of ≥4 cm or endometrial thickness ≥0.75 cm) was lower in C. burnetii-seropositive animals (OR = 0.10), compared with C. burnetii-seronegative animals. According to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, C. burnetii-seronegative and non-shedding cows showed a delayed return to luteal activity and conception was delayed in non-shedding animals, compared with the remaining animals. Overall, the results of our study provide useful insight into the effects of C. burnetii infection on post-partum recovery and subsequent fertility. In particular, animals not infected with Coxiella seem to be susceptible to infection and not protected against the bacterium in dairy herds. The elevated costs of determining an infection at the farm level, make monitoring of cows virtually impossible from a clinical point of view. PMID:23106514

  2. Distribution of Fasciola hepatica in Swedish dairy cattle and associations with pasture management factors.

    PubMed

    Novobilský, Adam; Sollenberg, Sofia; Höglund, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of Fasciola hepatica infection in relation to management routines was studied in Swedish dairy herds by testing for F. hepatica antibodies with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, all farmers were sent a questionnaire asking for information about type of production, management routines and historical record of F. hepatica at slaughter. A total of 176 farmers (41%) responded to the questionnaire. A total of 426 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were randomly selected from the period September to October 2012 representing approximately 10% of all herds in Sweden. The overall seroprevalence was 25% (n = 107; 95% confidence interval = 21-29%) with a concentration of herds located in south-western Sweden. Among the seropositive herds, 31 (29%) had antibody levels indicating production loss. There were no significant differences in seropositivity between organic and conventional herds or due to pasture management routines. The length of grazing period, which increased the risk for heifers, was found to be the most influential factor. A discrepancy was noted between reported F. hepatica presence at meat inspection and herds that were seropositive based on BTM-ELISA results. Although the largest proportion of seropositive BTM samples (80%) came from herds where liver fluke presence had been observed at meat inspection after slaughter, seropositive BTM samples were also diagnosed in five herds (17%) with no remarks at slaughter. In conclusion, F. hepatica is a common parasite in Swedish dairy herds and the month of heifer turn-out and the grazing period length were the most influential factors observed. PMID:25826310

  3. Cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A

    2015-10-01

    Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis. PMID:26302854

  4. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in mature dairy cattle on farms in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Fayer, R; Santín, M; Trout, J M

    2007-12-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained from mature milking cows on farms in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive specimens for Enterocytozoon bieneusi were found in 24 of 541 cows examined (4.4%) and on 12 of 14 farms. The prevalence of E. bieneusi varied considerably from farm to farm, with the lowest prevalence (2.3%) on FL-2 and the highest prevalence (12.5%) on VT-2. None of the cows exhibited signs of diarrhea. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype of E. bieneusi. Five genotypes were identified. Three were identified as cattle-specific genotypes previously reported as BEB1, BEB2, and BEB4, and two new genotypes, BEB 6 and BEB7, were found. None have been reported to infect humans. PMID:17899197

  5. Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Transmission in Preweaned Dairy Cattle in Henan, China▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongjun; Wang, Helei; Sun, Yanru; Zhang, Longxian; Jian, Fuchun; Qi, Meng; Ning, Changshen; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in preweaned calves in China, 801 fecal samples from eight farms in seven areas in Henan Province were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The overall infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 21.5%, with the farm in Xinxiang having the highest prevalence (40%). No significant difference in infection rates was observed between seasons. Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. The SSU rRNA-based PCR identified four Cryptosporidium species, including Cryptosporidium parvum (54/172), C. bovis (65/172), C. ryanae (19/172), and C. andersoni (12/172), and the occurrence of infections with mixed species (22/172). The earliest detection of C. bovis was in calves of 1 week of age, showing that the prepatent period was shorter than the previously stated 10 to 12 days. Infections with C. parvum peaked in summer, whereas C. bovis dominated in autumn and winter. There was no apparent difference in the age of cattle infected with either C. parvum or C. bovis. Sequencing analysis of the gp60 gene showed all 67 C. parvum samples belonged to subtype IIdA19G1. These findings suggested that the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in preweaned calves in Henan, China, appeared to be different from other areas both at genotype and subtype levels. Further molecular epidemiologic studies (including samples from both calves and humans) are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics and public significance of C. parvum in cattle in China. PMID:21177898

  6. Detection and expression of bovine papillomavirus in blood of healthy and papillomatosis-affected cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A R; De Albuquerque, B M F; Pontes, N E; Coutinho, L C A; Leitão, M C G; Reis, M C; Castro, R S; Freitas, A C

    2013-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PV) are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause benignant and malignant tumors in amniotes. There are 13 types of bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1 to -13); they have been found in reproductive tissues and body fluids. Normally these viruses are detected in epithelial tissue. We looked for BPV in the blood of healthy cattle and cattle with papillomatosis, using PCR and RT-PCR. BPV types 1 and 2 were detected in 8/12 blood samples of asymptomatic bovines and in 8/9 samples from cattle with papillomatosis. Six of 8 asymptomatic samples positive for BPV also showed expression for BPV. Five of 6 samples were positive for E2 expression, while 3/6 samples were positive for E5 expression. Five of 8 symptomatic samples positive for BPV also showed BPV expression. Five of 5 were positive for E2 expression, while 1/5 was positive for E5 expression. Two of 6 blood samples of asymptomatic cattle and 1/5 symptomatic blood samples scored positive for both E2 and E5 expression. This is the first study showing expression of BPV genes in the blood of asymptomatic and papillomatosis-affected animals. PMID:23479176

  7. Dairy cattle in a temperate climate: the effects of weather on milk yield and composition depend on management.

    PubMed

    Hill, D L; Wall, E

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of how livestock respond to weather is essential to enable farming to adapt to a changing climate. Climate change is mainly expected to impact dairy cattle through heat stress and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. We investigated the effects of weather on milk yield and composition (fat and protein content) in an experimental dairy herd in Scotland over 21 years. Holstein Friesian cows were either housed indoors in winter and grazed over the summer or were continuously housed. Milk yield was measured daily, resulting in 762 786 test day records from 1369 individuals, and fat and protein percentage were sampled once a week, giving 89 331 records from 1220 cows/trait. The relative influence of 11 weather elements, measured from local outdoor weather stations, and two indices of temperature and humidity (THI), indicators of heat stress, were compared using separate maximum likelihood models for each element or index. Models containing a direct measure of temperature (dry bulb, wet bulb, grass or soil temperature) or a THI provided the best fits to milk yield and fat data; wind speed and the number of hours of sunshine were most important in explaining protein content. Weather elements summarised across a week's timescale from the test day usually explained milk yield and fat content better than shorter-scale (3 day, test day, test day -1) metrics. Then, examining a subset of key weather variables using restricted maximum likelihood, we found that THI, wind speed and the number of hours of sunshine influenced milk yield and composition. The shape and magnitude of these effects depended on whether animals were inside or outside on the test day. The milk yield of cows outdoors was lower at the extremes of THI than at average values, and the highest yields were obtained when THI, recorded at 0900 h, was 55 units. Cows indoors decreased milk yield as THI increased. Fat content was lower at higher THIs than at intermediate THIs

  8. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    PubMed

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p < 0.001) in cows following ultrasonographic vs PSPB diagnosis of pregnancy at 29-35 days (8.1 vs 19.3%, respectively), but was higher in cows following ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis on 29-35 vs 36-42 days (8.1 vs 7.1%, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, 72.9% of pregnancies with ultrasound-detected morphological abnormalities resulted in pregnancy loss. As a subset of PSPB data, a fully quantitative PSPB assay was used for 20 430 samples; PPL in cows with a high PSPB concentration (>1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and <2 ng/ml, respectively) had the highest PPL (76.3%; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, PPL was higher in cows with advanced parity and with high milk production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of

  9. Effect of propionate on mRNA expression of key genes for gluconeogenesis in liver of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Koser, Stephanie L; Bequette, Brian J; Donkin, Shawn S

    2015-12-01

    Elevated needs for glucose in lactating dairy cows are met through a combination of increased capacity for gluconeogenesis and increased supply of gluconeogenic precursors, primarily propionate. This study evaluated the effects of propionate on mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1), mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), key gluconeogenic enzymes, and capacity for glucose synthesis in liver of dairy cattle. In experiment 1, six multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design consisting of a 6-d acclimation or washout phase followed by 8h of postruminal infusion of either propionate (1.68mol), glucose (0.84mol), or an equal volume (10mL/min) of water. In experiment 2, twelve male Holstein calves [39±4 kg initial body weight (BW)] were blocked by birth date and assigned to receive, at 7d of age, either propionate [2mmol·h(-1)·(BW(0.75))(-1)], acetate [3.5mmol·h(-1)·(BW(.75))(-1)], or an equal volume (4mL/min) of saline. In both experiments, blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8h relative to the start of infusion and liver biopsy samples were collected at the end of the infusion for mRNA analysis. Liver explants from experiment 1 were used to measure tricarboxylic acid cycle flux and gluconeogenesis using (13)C mass isotopomer distribution analysis from (13)C3 propionate. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not altered by infusions in cows. Serum insulin concentration in cows receiving propionate was elevated than cows receiving water, but was not different from cows receiving glucose. Hepatic expression of PCK1 and G6PC mRNA and glucose production in cows receiving propionate were not different from cows receiving water, but tended to be higher compared with cows receiving glucose. Hepatic expression of PCK2 and PC mRNA was not altered by propionate infusion in cows. Blood glucose, insulin, and

  10. Progression of Coxiella burnetii infection after implementing a two-year vaccination program in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds recently reported and the long survival time of the bacterium in the environment pose a risk to human and animal health that calls for the implementation of control measures at herd level. This study presents the results of a 2-year vaccination program with an inactivated phase I vaccine in a Spanish dairy herd naturally infected with C. burnetii. Calves older than 3 months and non-pregnant heifers and cows were vaccinated in April 2011 and the farm was subsequently visited at a monthly basis for vaccination of recently calved cows and calves that reached the age of 3 months. Annual booster doses were given to previous vaccinated animals as well. The effectiveness of the vaccine was assessed in terms of level of C. burnetii shedding through milk and uterine fluids and environmental contamination as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The percentage of shedder animals through uterine fluids and milk progressively decreased, and C. burnetii DNA load in bulk-tank milk samples was low at the end of the study. The average seroconversion rate in not yet vaccinated animals, which acted as control group, was 8.6% during the first year and 0% in the second year. DNA of C. burnetii was found in aerosols and dust samples taken in the calving area only at the beginning of the study, whereas slurry samples remained C. burnetii PCR positive for at least 18 months. Multiple Locus Variable number tandem-repeat Analysis identified the same genotype in all C. burnetii DNA positive samples. Conclusions In the absence of any changes in biosecurity, the overall reduction of C. burnetii infection in animals to 1.2% milk shedders and the reduced environment contamination found at the end of the study was ascribed to the effects of vaccination together with the culling of milk shedders. Vaccination has to be planned as a medium-long term strategy to suppress risks of re

  11. An economic analysis of hyperketonemia testing and propylene glycol treatment strategies in early lactation dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R; Guard, C L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose was to develop stochastic economic models which address variation in disease risks and costs in order to evaluate different simulated on-farm testing and propylene glycol (PG) treatment strategies based on herd hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence during the first 30 DIM. Data used in model development concerning the difference in health and production consequences between HYK and non-ketotic cows were based on results from 10 studies representing over 13,000 cows from 833 dairy farms in North America, Canada, and Europe. Inputs for PG associated variables were based on a large field trial using cows from 4 free-stall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin). Four simulated on-farm testing and treatment strategies were analyzed at herd HYK incidences ranging from 5% to 80% and included: 1) treating all cows with 5d of PG starting at 5 DIM, 2) testing all cows for HYK 1 day per week (e.g. Mondays) from 3 to 16 DIM and treating all positive cows with 5d of oral PG, 3) testing all cows for HYK 2 days per week (e.g. Mondays and Thursdays) from 3 to 9 DIM and treating all positive cows with 5d of oral PG, and 4) testing all cows for HYK 3 days per week (e.g. Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from 3 to 16 DIM and treating all positive cows with 5d of oral PG. Cost-benefit analysis included the costs associated with labor to test cows, β-hydroxybutyrate test strips, labor to treat cows, PG, and the associated gain in milk production, decrease in DA and early removal risks of PG treated HYK positive cows compared to non-treated HYK positive cows. Stochastic models were developed to account for variability in the distribution of input variables. Per 100 fresh cows in a herd with an HYK incidence of 40%, the mean economic benefits of the 4 different strategies were $1088, $744, $1166, and $760, respectively. Testing cows 2 days per week from 3 to 9 DIM was the most cost-effective strategy for herds with HYK incidences between 15% and 50%; above 50%, treating all

  12. Housing and management factors associated with indicators of dairy cattle welfare.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Reenen, C G; Engel, B; van Schaik, G; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of potential synergies and trade-offs between housing and management factors for different aspects of animal welfare is essential for farmers who aim to improve the level of welfare in their herds. The aim of this research was to identify and compare housing and management factors associated with prevalence of lameness, prevalence of lesions or swellings, prevalence of dirty hindquarters, and frequency of displacements (social behavior) in dairy herds in free-stall housing. Seven observers collected data regarding housing and management characteristics of 179 Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22-211 cows) in free-stall housing during winter. Lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, and cows with dirty hindquarters were counted and occurrence of displacements was recorded during 120 min of observation. For each of the four welfare indicators, housing and management factors associated with the welfare indicator were selected in a succession of logistic or log-linear regression analyses. Prevalence of lameness was associated with surface of the lying area, summer pasturing, herd biosecurity status, and far-off and close-up dry cow groups (P<0.05). Prevalence of lesions or swellings was associated with surface of the lying area, summer pasturing, light intensity in the barn, and days in milk when the maximum amount of concentrates was fed (P<0.05). Prevalence of dirty hindquarters was associated with surface of the lying area, proportion of stalls with fecal contamination, head lunge impediments in stalls, and number of roughage types (P<0.05). Average frequency of displacements was associated with the time of introducing heifers in the lactating group, the use of cow brushes, continuous availability of roughage, floor scraping frequency, herd size, and the proportion cows to stalls (P<0.05). Prevalences of lameness and of lesions or swellings were lower in herds with soft mats or mattresses (odd ratio (OR)=0.66 and 0.58, confidence interval (CI)=0.48-0.91 and

  13. Evaluation of timed insemination during summer heat stress in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    de la Sota, R L; Burke, J M; Risco, C A; Moreira, F; DeLorenzo, M A; Thatcher, W W

    1998-03-01

    We wished to compare the effect of summer heat stress on pregnancy rate in cows that were inseminated at a set interval associated with a synchronized ovulation vs those inseminated upon routine estrus detection. The study was carried out on a commercial dairy farm in Florida from May to September 1995. Lactating dairy cows were given PGF2 alpha (25 mg i.m.) at 30 + 3 d postpartum and randomly assigned to be inseminated at a set time (Timed group) or when estrus was detected (Control group). Cows in the Timed group were synchronized by sequential administration of Buserelin (8 micrograms i.m.) on Day 0 at 1600 h, PGF2 alpha (25 mg i.m.) on Day 7 at 1600 h and Buserelin (8 micrograms i.m.) on Day 9 at 1600 h. They were inseminated on Day 10 between 0800 and 0900 h (Day 9 + 16 h). Cows in the Control group were given PGF2 alpha at 57 + 3 d postpartum and inseminated when detected in estrus. Estrus detection or insemination rate for control insemination cows was 18.1 +/- 2.5% versus 100% for time inseminated cows (P < 0.01). Mean interval from PGF2 alpha to insemination was shorter for time inseminated cows (3 +/- 2.1 d < 35.5 +/- 1.9 d; P < 0.01). Pregnancy rate was greater for time inseminated cows (13.9 +/- 2.6 > 4.8 +/- 2.5%; P < 0.01) as was overall pregnancy rate by 120 d postpartum (27.0 +/- 3.6 > 16.5 +/- 3.5%; P < 0.05). Number of days open for cows conceiving by 120 d postpartum was less for time inseminated cows (77.6 +/- 3.8 < 90.0 +/- 4.2 d; P < 0.05), as was interval to first service (58.7 +/- 2.1 < 91.0 +/- 1.9 d; P < 0.01). Services per conception were greater for time inseminated cows (1.63 +/- 0.10 > 1.27 +/- 0.11; P < 0.05). The timed insemination program did improve group reproductive performance. However, the timed insemination program will not protect the embryo from temperature-induced embryonic mortality, but management limitations induced by heat stress on estrus detection are eliminated. An economical evaluation of the timed insemination

  14. Use of herd management programmes to improve the reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Heuer, C; Morton, J; Brownlie, T

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of herd health and production management programmes in many dairy industries around the world, but evidence for the efficacy of such programmes is limited. In response to a perceived decline in fertility of dairy cows, a herd reproductive management programme (InCalf) was introduced in New Zealand in 2007. This programme uses a management cycle approach that includes an assessment of the current herd status, identification of areas for improvement, development of a plan, implementation of this plan and finally a review process. The programme uses facilitators who work with farmers either in a one-to-one manner or in a formalised group setting that involves a series of meetings over a 12-month period (the farmer action group). The hypothesis that involvement in a reproductive management programme would improve herd reproductive performance was tested using a herd-level controlled randomised study (the National Herd Fertility Study) involving herds in four geographic regions of New Zealand over 2 years. Within each region, herds were ranked on the basis of the 6-week in-calf rate (i.e. the proportion of the herd pregnant in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal breeding programme) in the year preceding commencement of the study and then randomly assigned to be involved in a farmer action group or left as untreated controls. The key outcome variable of the study was the 6-week in-calf rate. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken at 12 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding programme, which allowed determination of conception dates and hence calculation of the 6-week in-calf rate. Additional measurements including heifer live weight and body condition score (pre-calving and pre-mating) were undertaken to test whether treatment resulted in measurable changes in some of the key determinants of herd reproductive performance. Involvement in the farmer action group of InCalf resulted in a 2 percentage point increase in the 6-week in-calf rate

  15. Multibreed genome wide association can improve precision of mapping causative variants underlying milk production in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in most cattle breeds result in large genomic intervals of significant associations making it difficult to identify causal mutations. This is due to the extensive, low-level linkage disequilibrium within a cattle breed. As there is less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, multibreed GWAS may improve precision of causal variant mapping. Here we test this hypothesis in a Holstein and Jersey cattle data set with 17,925 individuals with records for production and functional traits and 632,003 SNP markers. Results By using a cross validation strategy within the Holstein and Jersey data sets, we were able to identify and confirm a large number of QTL. As expected, the precision of mapping these QTL within the breeds was limited. In the multibreed analysis, we found that many loci were not segregating in both breeds. This was partly an artefact of power of the experiments, with the number of QTL shared between the breeds generally increasing with trait heritability. False discovery rates suggest that the multibreed analysis was less powerful than between breed analyses, in terms of how much genetic variance was explained by the detected QTL. However, the multibreed analysis could more accurately pinpoint the location of the well-described mutations affecting milk production such as DGAT1. Further, the significant SNP in the multibreed analysis were significantly enriched in genes regions, to a considerably greater extent than was observed in the single breed analyses. In addition, we have refined QTL on BTA5 and BTA19 to very small intervals and identified a small number of potential candidate genes in these, as well as in a number of other regions. Conclusion Where QTL are segregating across breed, multibreed GWAS can refine these to reasonably small genomic intervals. However, such QTL appear to represent only a fraction of the genetic variation. Our results suggest a significant proportion of QTL affecting milk

  16. Lack of association between the occurrence of Crohn's disease and occupational exposure to dairy and beef cattle herds infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Qual, D A; Kaneene, J B; Varty, T J; Miller, R; Thoen, C O

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify associations between Crohn's disease (CD) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) exposure. A questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to cattle infected with Map, and personal and family history of CD in dairy and beef cattle producers with and without Map-infected herds, and in veterinarians who did or did not have contact with Map-infected herds. Cases of CD were selected from respondents and matched 1:4 with controls on occupation, age, and sex. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between Map exposure and CD. There were 3 cases of CD in 702 producers and 4 cases in 774 veterinarians, yielding a prevalence of 0.47%. No association was found between exposure to JD and CD in any phase of the analysis. However, the number of cases of CD is not large and limits the power to detect important differences. PMID:20494145

  17. Improved milk production efficiency in early lactation dairy cattle with dietary addition of a developmental fibrolytic enzyme additive.

    PubMed

    Holtshausen, L; Chung, Y-H; Gerardo-Cuervo, H; Oba, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2011-02-01

    A 3-part study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a developmental fibrolytic enzyme additive on the digestibility of selected forages and the production performance of early-lactation dairy cows. In part 1, 4 replicate 24-h batch culture in vitro incubations were conducted with alfalfa hay, alfalfa silage, and barley silage as substrates and ruminal fluid as the inoculum. A developmental fibrolytic enzyme additive (AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) was added at 5 doses: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μL/g of forage dry matter (DM). After the 24-h incubation, DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) disappearance were determined. For alfalfa hay, DM, NDF, and ADF disappearance was greater at the highest dosage compared with no enzyme addition. Barley silage NDF and ADF and alfalfa silage NDF disappearance tended to be greater for the highest enzyme dosage compared with no enzyme addition. In part 2, 6 ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein dairy cows were used to determine in situ degradation of alfalfa and barley silage, with (1.0 mL/kg of silage DM) and without added enzyme. Three cows received a control diet (no enzyme added) and the other 3 received an enzyme-supplemented (1.0 mL/kg of diet DM) diet. Enzyme addition after the 24h in situ incubation did not affect the disappearance of barley silage or alfalfa silage. In part 3, 60 early-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed 1 of 3 diets for a 10-wk period: (1) control (CTL; no enzyme), (2) low enzyme (CTL treated with 0.5 mL of enzyme/kg of diet DM), and (3) high enzyme (CTL treated with 1.0 mL of enzyme/kg of diet DM). Adding enzyme to the diet had no effect on milk yield, but dry matter intake was lower for the high enzyme treatment and tended to be lower for the low enzyme treatment compared with CTL. Consequently, milk production efficiency (kg of 3.5% fat-corrected milk/kg of DM intake) linearly increased with increasing enzyme addition. Cows fed the low and high enzyme diets were 5

  18. National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program is a continuation of ongoing USDA collaboration with the U.S. dairy industry on genetic evaluation of dairy cattle since 1908. Data are provided by dairy records processing centers (yield, health, pedigree, and reproduction traits), breed registry societ...

  19. Impact of chemical amendment of dairy cattle slurry on phosphorus, suspended sediment and metal loss to runoff from a grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R B; Fenton, O; Grant, J; Healy, M G

    2011-11-01

    Emerging remediation technologies such as chemical amendment of dairy cattle slurry have the potential to reduce phosphorus (P) solubility and consequently reduce P losses arising from land application of dairy cattle slurry. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chemical amendment of slurry to reduce incidental losses of P and suspended sediment (SS) from grassland following application of dairy cattle slurry and to examine the effect of amendments on metal concentrations in runoff water. Intact grassed-soil samples were placed in two laboratory runoff boxes, each 200-cm-long by 22.5-cm-wide by 5-cm-deep, before being amended with dairy cattle slurry (the study control) and slurry amended with either: (i) alum, comprising 8% aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) (1.11:1 aluminium (Al):total phosphorus (TP) of slurry) (ii) poly-aluminium chloride hydroxide (PAC) comprising 10% Al(2)O(3) (0.93:1 Al:TP) (iii) analytical grade ferric chloride (FeCl(2)) (2:1 Fe:TP), (iv) and lime (Ca(OH)(2)) (10:1 Ca:TP). When compared with the study control, PAC was the most effective amendment, reducing dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) by up to 86% while alum was most effective in reducing SS (88%), TP (94%), particulate phosphorus (PP) (95%), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) (81%), and dissolved unreactive phosphorus (DUP) (86%). Chemical amendment of slurry did not appear to significantly increase losses of Al and Fe compared to the study control, while all amendments increased Ca loss compared to control and grass-only treatment. While chemical amendments were effective, the reductions in incidental P losses observed in this study were similar to those observed in other studies where the time from slurry application to the first rainfall event was increased. Timing of slurry application may therefore be a much more feasible way to reduce incidental P losses. Future work must examine the long-term effects of amendments on P loss to runoff and not only incidental

  20. High prevalence of fasciolosis and evaluation of drug efficacy against Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in the Maffra and Bairnsdale districts of Gippsland, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T P; Kelley, J M; Rawlin, G; Spithill, T W

    2015-04-15

    Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a common parasite amongst grazing livestock in the south-eastern region of Australia and is responsible for significant production losses in the beef and dairy industries. Gippsland in Victoria is a major region for dairy production but no fluke prevalence data in livestock has been obtained in this region since the late 1970s prior to the introduction of Triclabendazole (TCBZ). TCBZ resistance is also now widespread in cattle in south east Australia. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and intensity of liver fluke infections in dairy cattle in Gippsland and assessed the efficacy of TCBZ and other drenches against F. hepatica on one farm. We obtained 30 individual faecal samples from each of 15 different farms and, using the liver fluke coproantigen ELISA, tested bulk faecal samples pooled from each farm. Any farm that returned a positive bulk sample had all of the samples tested individually to assess the intra-herd prevalence. One farm in the Maffra district also had a coproantigen reduction test and faecal egg count reduction test to assess the efficacy of TCBZ, Clorsulon (CLOR) and Oxyclozanide (OXY). The coproantigen ELISA proved to be a highly sensitive test for liver fluke with a high correlation (R(2)=0.8849) observed between ELISA data from bulk samples and individual samples, suggesting that future larger scale screening on farms for fasciolosis could use the bulk analysis technique. The ELISA data revealed that animals on six of the 15 farms were infected with F. hepatica and the herd prevalence of the infected herds ranged from 47 to 100% (mean 81%) which exceeds the prevalence value for production losses of 25%. The intensity of fluke infection in cattle varied considerably both within and between herds with a proportion of animals exhibiting a positive control value in the coproantigen ELISA of 50-88%. We also confirmed that TCBZ resistance was present on one farm but that CLOR or OXY can be used to remove the

  1. Determination of GHG and ammonia emissions from stored dairy cattle slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber.

    PubMed

    Minato, Keiko; Kouda, Yasuyuki; Yamakawa, Masaaki; Hara, Satoshi; Tamura, Tadashi; Osada, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    We developed a system for measuring emissions from stored slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber. CH(4) , CO(2) , N(2) O and NH(3) emitted from the storage tank of a dairy cattle farm in eastern Hokkaido were measured during summer 2008 (7/16-8/6), fall 2008 (10/2-10/26), spring 2009 (6/2-6/21) and winter 2009 (3/11). Average daily gas emission rates in summer, fall and spring were, respectively, 54.8, 54.2 and 34.3 g/m(2) for CH(4) ; 602, 274 and 254 g/m(2) for CO(2) ; 55.4, 68.2 and trace mg/m(2) for N(2) O; and 0.55, 0.73 and 0.46 g/m(2) for NH(3) . CH(4) , CO(2) and NH(3) emission rates during the brief measurement period in winter were reduced to 1/4, 1/23 and 1/2, respectively, of summer emission rate levels. All gas emissions showed diurnal fluctuation and were greatest during the daytime, when the ambient temperature rose. CH(4) , NH(3) and CO(2) emissions increased significantly during the daytime, and the daily emission (in grams) of each gas was positively correlated with maximum daily temperature. According to the combined spring, summer and fall measurements, the CH(4) , N(2) O and NH(3) annual emission factors were 1.42% (g CH(4) /g volatile solids), 0.02% (g N(2) O-N/g total N) and 0.43% (g NH(3) -N/g total N), respectively. PMID:23384359

  2. Wind tunnel study of ammonia transfer from a manure pit fitted with a dairy cattle slatted floor.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Merlijn; Pieters, Jan G; Mendes, Luciano B; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Merci, Bart; Demeyer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In dairy cattle systems, most of the feces and urine go to the pit. At the manure pit level, mass transfer of NH3 ([Formula: see text]) has many factors, but practical difficulties hamper a controlled field evaluation. In this study, we propose a methodology for the determination of an alternative, more practical, pit transfer coefficient of NH3 (PTC), and compare it with [Formula: see text] determined from other scientific studies. The aims of this research study were: (1) to develop a wind tunnel set-up which mimics air flow patterns between the slats and above a clean section of a slatted floor section, featuring an aqueous NH3-emitting solution; and (2) to assess how air velocity, turbulence intensity, NH3 concentration ([NH3]) and PTC are influenced by inlet airflow ventilation rate (VR) forced deflection of the air above the slats into the manure pit through varying the deflection angle (DA) of a deflection panel and varying pit headspace height (HH). Main conclusions were: (1) the calculated PTC values presented a good fit to the power function of the air speed near the slats (u) (p < .001) while the average PTC (0.0039 m s(-1)) was comparable to [Formula: see text] values obtained from other studies, by remaining within the range of average values of 0.0015-0.0043 m s(-1); (2) VR and DA significantly impacted [NH3] profiles and PTC (p < .001) and (3) changing slurry pit from 0.10 to 0.90 m HH did not significantly impact [NH3] or PTC (p = .756 and p = .854, respectively). PMID:26119757

  3. The use of multilevel models to evaluate sources of variation in reproductive performance in dairy cattle in Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, I R; Tillard, E; Stryhn, H; Faye, B

    2001-07-19

    Sources of variation in measures of reproductive performance in dairy cattle were evaluated using data collected from 3207 lactations in 1570 cows in 50 herds from five geographic regions of Reunion Island (located off the east coast of Madagascar). Three continuously distributed reproductive parameters (intervals from calving-to-conception, calving-to-first-service and first-service-to-conception) were considered, along with one Binomial outcome (first-service-conception risk). Multilevel models which take into account the hierarchical nature of the data were used to fit all models. For the overall measure of calving-to-conception interval, 86% of the variation resided at the lactation level with only 7, 6 and 2% at the cow, herd and regional levels, respectively. The proportion of variance at the herd and cow levels were slightly higher for the calving-to-first-service interval (12 and 9%, respectively) - but for the other two parameters (first-service-conception risk and first-service-to-conception interval), >90% of the variation resided at the lactation level. For the three continuous dependent variables, comparison of results between models based on log-transformed data and Box-Cox-transformed data suggested that minor departures from the assumption of normality did not have a substantial effect on the variance estimates. For the Binomial dependent variable, five different estimation procedures (penalised quasi-likelihood, Markov-Chain Monte Carlo, parametric and non-parametric bootstrap estimates and maximum-likelihood) yielded substantially different results for the estimate of the cow-level variance. PMID:11448500

  4. Changes in genetic selection differentials and generation intervals in US Holstein dairy cattle as a result of genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Cole, John B.; VanRaden, Paul M.; Wiggans, George R.; Ruiz-López, Felipe J.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2016-01-01

    Seven years after the introduction of genomic selection in the United States, it is now possible to evaluate the impact of this technology on the population. Selection differential(s) (SD) and generation interval(s) (GI) were characterized in a four-path selection model that included sire(s) of bulls (SB), sire(s) of cows (SC), dam(s) of bulls (DB), and dam(s) of cows (DC). Changes in SD over time were estimated for milk, fat, and protein yield; somatic cell score (SCS); productive life (PL); and daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) for the Holstein breed. In the period following implementation of genomic selection, dramatic reductions were seen in GI, especially the SB and SC paths. The SB GI reduced from ∼7 y to less than 2.5 y, and the DB GI fell from about 4 y to nearly 2.5 y. SD were relatively stable for yield traits, although modest gains were noted in recent years. The most dramatic response to genomic selection was observed for the lowly heritable traits DPR, PL, and SCS. Genetic trends changed from close to zero to large and favorable, resulting in rapid genetic improvement in fertility, lifespan, and health in a breed where these traits eroded over time. These results clearly demonstrate the positive impact of genomic selection in US dairy cattle, even though this technology has only been in use for a short time. Based on the four-path selection model, rates of genetic gain per year increased from ∼50–100% for yield traits and from threefold to fourfold for lowly heritable traits. PMID:27354521

  5. Changes in genetic selection differentials and generation intervals in US Holstein dairy cattle as a result of genomic selection.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Cole, John B; VanRaden, Paul M; Wiggans, George R; Ruiz-López, Felipe J; Van Tassell, Curtis P

    2016-07-12

    Seven years after the introduction of genomic selection in the United States, it is now possible to evaluate the impact of this technology on the population. Selection differential(s) (SD) and generation interval(s) (GI) were characterized in a four-path selection model that included sire(s) of bulls (SB), sire(s) of cows (SC), dam(s) of bulls (DB), and dam(s) of cows (DC). Changes in SD over time were estimated for milk, fat, and protein yield; somatic cell score (SCS); productive life (PL); and daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) for the Holstein breed. In the period following implementation of genomic selection, dramatic reductions were seen in GI, especially the SB and SC paths. The SB GI reduced from ∼7 y to less than 2.5 y, and the DB GI fell from about 4 y to nearly 2.5 y. SD were relatively stable for yield traits, although modest gains were noted in recent years. The most dramatic response to genomic selection was observed for the lowly heritable traits DPR, PL, and SCS. Genetic trends changed from close to zero to large and favorable, resulting in rapid genetic improvement in fertility, lifespan, and health in a breed where these traits eroded over time. These results clearly demonstrate the positive impact of genomic selection in US dairy cattle, even though this technology has only been in use for a short time. Based on the four-path selection model, rates of genetic gain per year increased from ∼50-100% for yield traits and from threefold to fourfold for lowly heritable traits. PMID:27354521

  6. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. PMID:22612955

  7. Genome-wide association study for calving traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Purfield, D C; Bradley, D G; Kearney, J F; Berry, D P

    2014-02-01

    Dystocia and perinatal mortality are quantitative traits that significantly impact animal productivity and welfare. Their economic importance is reflected by their inclusion in the national breeding goals of many cattle populations. The genetic architecture that influences these traits, however, has still yet to be thoroughly defined. Regions of the bovine genome associated with calving difficulty (direct and maternal) and perinatal mortality were detected in this study using a Bayesian approach with 43 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on up to 1970 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Several SNPs on chromosomes 5, 6, 11, 12, 17,18 and 28 were detected to be strongly associated with these calving performance traits. Novel genomic regions with previously reported associations with growth, stature, birth weight and bone morphology were identified in the present study as being associated with the three calving performance traits. Morphological abnormalities are a known contributor to perinatal mortality and the most significantly associated SNP for perinatal mortality in the present study was located in a region in linkage disequilibrium with the gene SLC26A7. This gene, SLC26A7, has similarities and colocalises with SLC4A2, which has previously been associated with osteoporosis and mortality in cattle populations. The HHIP gene that is known to be associated with stature in humans was strongly associated with direct calving difficulty in the present study; large calves are known to, on average, have a greater likelihood of dystocia. A stemloop microRNA, bta-mir-1256, on chromosome 12, involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression was associated with maternal calving difficulty. Previously reported quantitative trait loci associated with calving performance traits in other populations were again identified in this study; with one genomic region on chromosome 18 supporting very strong evidence of an underlying causative mutation and accounting for 2

  8. Costs and practicability of clean feeding of dairy cattle during radioactive contamination of grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rantavaara, A; Karhula, T; Puurunen, M; Lampinen, K; Taulavuori, T

    2005-01-01

    Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season. PMID:15922495

  9. Effect of prepartum injection of vitamin E and selenium on postpartum reproductive function of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga, C F; Ortíz, O; Hansen, P J

    1994-01-01

    A total of 198 cows were randomly assigned to treatment with a single intramuscular injection of 10 ml of a preparation containing vitamin E and selenium or placebo 3 wk before expected parturition. Incidence of retained fetal membranes was 3.0% for the treated group and 10.1% for the control group (P=0.06). Administration of MU-SE also increased the percentage of cows pregnant to the first service (41.2 vs 25.3%; P=0.02), reduced the number of services per conception (2.3 vs 2.8; P=0.03), and reduced the interval from calving to conception (121 vs 141 days; P=0.06). The effect of MU-SE on fertility was apparent in cows with and without retained fetal membranes. There was no effect of MU-SE on the interval from calving to the first estrus. In conclusion, prepartum supplementation with vitamin E and selenium can decrease the incidence of retained fetal membranes, increase pregnancy rates and, thereby, reduce the interval from calving to conception in lactating dairy cows. PMID:16727478

  10. A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of the SSU-rDNA gene amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. All 30 calves shed Cryptosporidium oocysts at some time during the 24 months of the study. Of 990 specimens, 190 were Cryptosporidium-positive (19.2%). The highest prevalence of infection was at 2 weeks of age when 29 of the 30 calves were excreting oocysts. Prevalence was higher in pre-weaned calves (1-8 weeks of age) (45.8%) than in post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age) (18.5%) and heifers (12-24 months of age) (2.2%). Sequence data for 190 PCR-positive specimens identified: C. parvum, C. bovis, the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and C. andersoni, with cumulative prevalences of 100, 80, 60, and 3.3%, respectively. C. parvum constituted 97% of infections in pre-weaned calves but only 4% and 0% of infections in post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. All C. parvum GP60 nucleotide sequences were subtype IIaA15G2R1. PMID:18565677

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5′ promoter, intronic, and 3′ regulatory regions, encompassing ~5 kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P < 0.05) were identified between six SNPs (four novel and two previously identified) and milk composition, survival, body condition score, and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T) in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P < 0.05) with increased cow carcass weight (i.e., an indicator of mature cow size). Novel SNPs were identified in the 3′ region of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with functional survival and chest width. The remaining four SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation, and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle. PMID:22303302

  12. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Dairy Cattle in the Northeast of China: Genetic Diversity of ITS Gene and Evaluation of Zoonotic Transmission Potential.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Yang, Fengkun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Liu, Aiqin

    2015-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans. It has been found in a wide range of animals and is considered an important zoonotic pathogen. To date, little information is available on the role that cattle play in the epidemiology of human microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi in China. In this study, 133 fecal specimens from dairy cattle were collected in Heilongjiang Province, China. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified and genotyped by nested PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene, with 30.1% positive. Nine ITS genotypes were identified: six known genotypes-O (n = 26), EbpA (n = 2), I (n = 2), J (n = 2), D (n = 1) and BEB4 (n = 1)-and three novel genotypes named as CC-I to CC-III (two each). Genotype O was identified in cattle for the first time. The observation of all the six known genotypes here reported previously in humans, and also the fact of all the three novel genotypes (CHN-DC1 to CHN-DC3) falling into zoonotic group 1, indicate the possibility of cattle in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans. PMID:25712195

  13. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Commercial Dairy and Beef Cattle in Northern and Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Lv, Wen-Fa; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are important pathogens, commonly responsible for economical loss to cattle farms all over the world, yet their epidemiology in commercial dairy and beef cattle in China is still unknown. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with MAP and BLV infection. The source sample was 3674 cattle from 113 herds in northern and northeastern China. Antibodies against MAP and BLV were detected using ELISA tests. At animal-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 11.79% (433/3674) and 18.29% (672/3674), respectively. At herd-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 20.35% and 21.24% (24/113), respectively. Herd size was identified to be associated with MAP infection while herd size and presence of cattle introduced from other farms were significantly associated with BLV infection. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and improve the knowledge of the epidemiology of these two pathogens in these regions and elsewhere in China. PMID:26504798

  14. Historical and current perspectives on the treatment, control and pathogenesis of milk fever in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Murray, R D; Horsfield, J E; McCormick, W D; Williams, H J; Ward, D

    2008-11-01

    Milk fever has been recognised in cattle for about 215 years and its clinical signs have not changed since they were described by Victorian veterinary surgeons in the mid-nineteenth century. It was only 80 years ago that abnormal parathyroid gland function was associated with the pathogenesis of the hypocalcaemia characteristic of the disease, and the current basis for its treatment with intravenous calcium salts was established. Although this treatment is effective, most recent research has focused on preventing the disease through an understanding of the endocrine control of extracellular calcium homeostasis. In the 1970s the synthetic vitamin D analogue 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol was developed for intramuscular injection before a cow calved, but variable results encouraged other preventive strategies to be considered, including restricting the dietary intake of calcium, and manipulating the dietary cation-anion balance of cows before they calved. Currently, the role of extracellular calcium receptors in the parathyroid gland is under investigation as a preliminary step to devising more effective treatments and/or preventive methods for milk fever. PMID:18997185

  15. Structural study of skeletal muscle fibres in healthy and pseudomyotonia affected cattle.

    PubMed

    Mascarello, Francesco; Sacchetto, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    Cattle congenital pseudomyotonia (PMT), recognized as naturally occurring animal model of human Brody disease, is an inherited recessive autosomal muscular disorder due to missense mutations in ATP2A1 gene, encoding sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase protein, isoform 1 (SERCA1). PMT has been described in the Chianina and Romagnola italian cattle breeds and as a single case in Dutch improved Red and White cross-breed. The genetic defect turned out to be heterogeneous in different cattle breeds, even though clinical symptoms were homogeneous. Skeletal muscles of affected animals are characterized by a selective deficiency of SERCA1 in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Recently, we provided evidence that in Chianina breed, the ubiquitin proteasome system is responsible for SERCA1 mutant premature disposal, even when the mutation does not affect the catalytic properties of the pump. Results presented here show that all SERCA1 mutants described until now, although expressed at low level, are correctly targeted to SR membranes. Ultrastructural studies confirm that in pathological muscle fibres, structure, as well as triads, is well preserved. All together these results suggest that a possible therapeutical approach based on the rescue of the defective protein at SR membranes could be hypothesized. Only fully functionally active missense mutants, whem located at the SR membrane could restore the efficient control of Ca(2+) homeostasis and prevent the appearance of the pathological signs. Moreover, these data demonstrate the increasing importance of domestic animals as genetic models of human pathologies. PMID:27210062

  16. Measurement of acceleration while walking as an automated method for gait assessment in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, N; de Passillé, A M; Pastell, M; Hänninen, L; Munksgaard, L; Rushen, J

    2011-06-01

    The aims were to determine whether measures of acceleration of the legs and back of dairy cows while they walk could help detect changes in gait or locomotion associated with lameness and differences in the walking surface. In 2 experiments, 12 or 24 multiparous dairy cows were fitted with five 3-dimensional accelerometers, 1 attached to each leg and 1 to the back, and acceleration data were collected while cows walked in a straight line on concrete (experiment 1) or on both concrete and rubber (experiment 2). Cows were video-recorded while walking to assess overall gait, asymmetry of the steps, and walking speed. In experiment 1, cows were selected to maximize the range of gait scores, whereas no clinically lame cows were enrolled in experiment 2. For each accelerometer location, overall acceleration was calculated as the magnitude of the 3-dimensional acceleration vector and the variance of overall acceleration, as well as the asymmetry of variance of acceleration within the front and rear pair of legs. In experiment 1, the asymmetry of variance of acceleration in the front and rear legs was positively correlated with overall gait and the visually assessed asymmetry of the steps (r ≥ 0.6). Walking speed was negatively correlated with the asymmetry of variance of the rear legs (r=-0.8) and positively correlated with the acceleration and the variance of acceleration of each leg and back (r ≥ 0.7). In experiment 2, cows had lower gait scores [2.3 vs. 2.6; standard error of the difference (SED)=0.1, measured on a 5-point scale] and lower scores for asymmetry of the steps (18.0 vs. 23.1; SED=2.2, measured on a continuous 100-unit scale) when they walked on rubber compared with concrete, and their walking speed increased (1.28 vs. 1.22 m/s; SED=0.02). The acceleration of the front (1.67 vs. 1.72 g; SED=0.02) and rear (1.62 vs. 1.67 g; SED=0.02) legs and the variance of acceleration of the rear legs (0.88 vs. 0.94 g; SED=0.03) were lower when cows walked on rubber

  17. Metabolic predictors of post-partum disease and culling risk in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Hesam A; Leblanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; Duffield, Todd F

    2011-05-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the relationship between serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose and calcium (Ca) with the occurrence of displaced abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis and culling in Holstein cows. Eight hundred and forty-nine cows from 16 farms were sampled weekly for the first 3 weeks post-partum. The cows were under clinical observation from calving until 60 days in milk (DIM) and during this time there were 22 cases of DA, 31 cases of clinical ketosis and 39 cows were culled. Elevated concentrations of BHBA were associated with DA, clinical ketosis and culling. In the first week after calving, cows with serum BHBA ≥1000μmol/L had 13.6 times greater odds of developing DA than cows with lower values. Serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations during week 1 were associated with the subsequent occurrence of clinical ketosis. The odds of clinical ketosis were 6.3 times greater in cows with serum NEFA ≥ 1.0mmol/L in the first week after calving. In addition, cows with BHB ≥1200μmol/L in the first week after calving, were at 4.7 times greater risk of developing clinical ketosis. In the first and second weeks after calving the serum Ca concentration was associated with subsequent culling. In addition, cows with NEFA concentration ≥ 1.0mmol/L were 3.6 times more likely to be culled within the following 2 months. The study indicated that early post-partum serum BHBA, NEFA and Ca concentrations have potential as indicators of disease and culling risk in dairy cows. PMID:20457532

  18. Anti-inflammatory salicylate treatment alters the metabolic adaptations to lactation in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Farney, Jaymelynn K.; Mamedova, Laman K.; Coetzee, Johann F.; KuKanich, Butch; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Stoakes, Sara K.; Minton, J. Ernest; Hollis, Larry C.

    2013-01-01

    Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in physiological state. To investigate the role of inflammation-associated pathways in these homeorhetic adaptations, we treated cows with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (SS) for the first 7 days of lactation. Administration of SS decreased liver TNF-α mRNA and marginally decreased plasma TNF-α concentration, but plasma eicosanoids and liver NF-κB activity were unaltered during treatment. Despite the mild impact on these inflammatory markers, SS clearly altered metabolic function. Plasma glucose concentration was decreased by SS, but this was not explained by a shift in hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression or by altered milk lactose secretion. Insulin concentrations decreased in SS-treated cows on day 7 compared with controls, which was consistent with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was then used to assess whether altered insulin sensitivity may have influenced glucose utilization rate with SS. The RQUICKI estimate of insulin sensitivity was significantly elevated by SS on day 7, coincident with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. Salicylate prevented postpartum insulin resistance, likely causing excessive glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and hypoglycemia. These results represent the first evidence that inflammation-associated pathways are involved in homeorhetic adaptations to lactation. PMID:23678026

  19. Behavioural responses of dairy cattle to the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in an open field environment.

    PubMed

    Mullens, B A; Lii, K-S; Mao, Y; Meyer, J A; Peterson, N G; Szijj, C E

    2006-03-01

    Individual cows (25 in each of four herds) were monitored 8-10 times weekly for 12 weeks (stable fly season) on a southern California dairy, with 100 observations per cow. The numbers of biting stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) on the front legs and the frequencies of four fly-repelling behaviours per 2-min observation period [head throws, front leg stamps, skin twitches (panniculus reflex) and tail flicks] were recorded. Fly numbers varied, peaking at 3.0-3.5 flies per leg in week 9 (late May). Weekly herd mean frequencies of fly-repelling behaviours were highly dependent on fly numbers, with a linear regression r(2) > 0.8. Head throws and stamps were less frequent than skin twitches and tail flicks. Individual cows differed in numbers of stable flies and behaviours. Behaviours were correlated with flies for individual cows, but at a lower level than were herd means (r = 0.3-0.7). Cows that stamped more within a herd tended to have lower fly counts; other fly-repelling behaviours were less effective. Cows maintained ranks within a herd with regard to fly numbers (r = 0.47), head throws (0.48), leg stamps (0.64), skin twitches (0.69) and tail flicks (0.64). Older cows tended to harbour higher fly numbers and to stamp less relative to younger adult cows. Ratios of leg stamps and head throws to fly numbers dropped significantly through time, suggesting habituation to pain associated with fly biting. Tail flicks were not effective for repelling Stomoxys, but were easiest to quantify and may help in monitoring pest intensity. At this low-moderate fly pressure, no consistent impacts on milk yield were detected, but methods incorporating cow behaviour are recommended for future studies of economic impact. PMID:16608497

  20. Short communication: Imputation performances of 3 low-density marker panels in beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dassonneville, R; Fritz, S; Ducrocq, V; Boichard, D

    2012-07-01

    Low-density chips are appealing alternative tools contributing to the reduction of genotyping costs. Imputation enables researchers to predict missing genotypes to recreate the denser coverage of the standard 50K (∼50,000) genotype. Two alternative in silico chips were defined in this study that included markers selected to optimize minor allele frequency and spacing. The objective of this study was to compare the imputation accuracy of these custom low-density chips with a commercially available 3K chip. Data consisted of genotypes of 4,037 Holstein bulls, 1,219 Montbéliarde bulls, and 991 Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls. Criteria to select markers to include in low-density marker panels are described. To mimic a low-density genotype, all markers except the markers present on the low-density panel were masked in the validation population. Imputation was performed using the Beagle software. Combining the directed acyclic graph obtained with Beagle with the PHASEBOOK algorithm provides fast and accurate imputation that is suitable for routine genomic evaluations based on imputed genotypes. Overall, 95 to 99% of alleles were correctly imputed depending on the breed and the low-density chip used. The alternative low-density chips gave better results than the commercially available 3K chip. A low-density chip with 6,000 markers is a valuable genotyping tool suitable for both dairy and beef breeds. Such a tool could be used for preselection of young animals or large-scale screening of the female population. PMID:22720970

  1. Genetic parameters for functional traits in dairy cattle from daily random regression models.

    PubMed

    Karacaören, B; Jaffrézic, F; Kadarmideen, H N

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research was to estimate genetic parameters, such as heritabilities and genetic correlations, using daily test day data for milk yield (MY), milking speed (MS), dry matter intake (DMI), and body weight (BW) using random regression methodology. Data were from first lactation dairy cows (n = 320) from the Chamau research farm of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland over the period from April 1994 to 2004. All traits were recorded daily using automated machines. Estimated heritabilities (h(2)) varied from 0.18 to 0.30 (mean h(2) = 0.24) for MY, 0.003 to 0.098 (mean h(2) = 0.03) for MS, 0.22 to 0.53 (mean h(2) = 0.43) for BW, and 0.12 to 0.34 (mean h(2) = 0.23) for DMI. A permanent environmental effect was included in both the univariate and bivariate models, but was assumed constant in estimating some genetic correlations because of convergence problems. Estimated genetic correlations varied from 0.31 to 0.41 between MY and MS, from -0.47 to 0.29 between MY and DMI, from -0.60 to 0.54 between MY and BW, from 0.17 to 0.26 between MS and DMI, from -0.18 to 0.25 between MS and BW, and from -0.89 to 0.29 between DMI and BW. Genetic correlations for MY, MS, DMI, and BW from calving to midlactation decreased similarly to 0.40, 0.36, 0.14, and 0.36 and, at the end of the lactation, decreased to -0.06, 0.23, -0.07, and 0.09, respectively. Daily genetic variance-covariance of many functional traits are reported for the first time and will be useful when constructing selection indexes for more than one trait based on longitudinal genetic parameters. PMID:16428647

  2. Associated effects of copy number variants on economically important traits in Spanish Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ben Sassi, Neila; González-Recio, Óscar; de Paz-Del Río, Raquel; Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia T; Fernández, Ana I

    2016-08-01

    Copy number variants (CNV) are structural variants consisting of duplications or deletions of genomic fragments longer than 1 kb that present variability in the population and are heritable. The objective of this study was to identify CNV regions (CNVR) associated with 7 economically important traits (production, functional, and type traits) in Holstein cattle: fat yield, protein yield, somatic cell count, days open, stature, foot angle, and udder depth. Copy number variants were detected by using deep-sequencing data from 10 sequenced bulls and the Bovine SNP chip array hybridization signals. To reduce the number of false-positive calls, only CNV identified by both sequencing and Bovine SNP chip assays were kept in the final data set. This resulted in 823 CNVR. After filtering by minor allele frequency >0.01, a total of 90 CNVR appeared segregating in the bulls that had phenotypic data. Linear and quadratic CNVR effects were estimated using Bayesian approaches. A total of 15 CNVR were associated with the traits included in the analysis. One CNVR was associated with fat and protein yield, another 1 with fat yield, 3 with stature, 1 with foot angle, 7 with udder depth, and only 1 with days open. Among the genes located within these regions, highlighted were the MTHFSD gene that belongs to the folate metabolism genes, which play critical roles in regulating milk protein synthesis; the SNRPE gene that is related to several morphological pathologies; and the NF1 gene, which is associated with potential effects on fertility traits. The results obtained in the current study revealed that these CNVR segregate in the Holstein population, and therefore some potential exists to increase the frequencies of the favorable alleles in the population after independent validation of results in this study. However, genetic variance explained by the variants reported in this study was small. PMID:27209136

  3. Cubicle housing systems for cattle: Comfort of dairy cows depends on cubicle adjustment.

    PubMed

    Veissier, I; Capdeville, J; Delval, E

    2004-11-01

    Housing is important for the welfare of cows. Although recommendations have been proposed, abnormal movements and injury problems are still observed in cubicle houses. We conducted a survey on 70 French dairy farms that used cubicles. We examined the design of the cubicles, and the behavior, injuries, and cleanliness of the cows. Most of the cubicles did not comply with the recommendations, often being too narrow and/or too short. Difficulties in lying behavior and injuries were more common when the neck rail was high. No improvement was noted when cubicles of a recent design were used ("U.S." cubicles), apparently because these cubicles were most often cantilevered on a double head rail rather than fixed on freestanding posts. An experiment was conducted, making similar measurements, on 84 cows to compare two configurations for U.S. cubicles (cantilevered on a double head rail as observed in the survey with a high and rear neck rail vs. fixed on freestanding posts as recommended) and another recent cubicle type (Euroconfort, cantilevered on head rails, but with a large space between the rails and fixed as recommended), with and without a brisket board. In U.S. cubicles on rails, cows spent more time lying and less time fully standing inside the cubicles than in the other cubicles (percentage of time: lying, 53.9 vs. 51.5; fully standing, 7.3 vs. 8.5); in Euroconfort cubicles, they hit bars more often when getting up than in U.S. Cubicles (percentage of observations: 42.4 vs. 26.4. Without a brisket board, cows lay down more often in a fore position in U.S. cubicles than in Euroconfort ones. Somatic cell counts increased with time in U.S. cubicles on rails and decreased in the other cubicles. It is suggested that the position of the neck rail in U.S. cubicles cantilevered on rails did not leave enough space for the cow to stand inside the cubicle, thereby encouraging the cow to lie down. This could in turn favor udder contamination and/or inflammation. It is

  4. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  5. Comparison between different protocols of synchronization and their efficiency on pregnancy rate of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Karami, H; Moini, M M; Ahmadi Sefat, A A; Haghvirdilu, E

    2007-10-15

    In order to determine different protocols of synchronization and their efficiency on pregnancy rate after fixed-timed AI (TAI), 120 dairy Holstein cows (n=120) were assigned randomly to six groups: (1) two injections of Prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG(f2alpha)) with 12 days apart as a control group, (2) two injections of Gonadotropin Releasing hormone (GnRH) with 9 days apart and an injection of PG(f2alpha) at day 7, (3) injection of GnRH and PG(f2alpha) with 7 days apart, then single injection of Estradiol Benzoate (EB) after 48 h, 4) injection of progesterone (P4) in conjugation with EB then after 7 days PG(f2alpha) injection and after 48 h an injection of GnRH were done, 5) as group 4 but EB was used instead of GnRH, 6)injections of PG(f2alpha) and EB conjugated with Human Chronic Gonadotrophin (hCG) with 12 h apart. Animals in group 1 (control), groups 2-5 and group 6 were inseminated after 72, 20 and 36 h, respectively. Serum P4 concentration of group 4 (4.43 +/- 1.50 ng mL(-1)) was higher than control group (2.34 +/- 1.36 ng mL(-1)) at day 5 after insemination (p < 0.05); P4 concentrations of groups 3 and 4 have significant differences with control group (2.69 +/- 2.64 and 2.56 +/- 1.40 versus 0.81 +/- 0.41 ng mL(-1), respectively, p < 0.05) at a day after second injection and groups 4 and 5 were in higher level of P4 concentration than control group at insemination time (3.14 +/- 1.9 and 2.89 +/- 1.8 versus 0.45 +/- 0.19 ng mL(-1) respectively, p < 0.05). Pregnancy rate were 0, 50, 45, 10, 30 and 45% for group 1 (control) through 6, respectively. PMID:19093462

  6. Production and physiological responses of heat-stressed lactating dairy cattle to conductive cooling.

    PubMed

    Perano, Kristen M; Usack, Joseph G; Angenent, Largus T; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this research was to test the effectiveness of conductive cooling in alleviating heat stress of lactating dairy cows. A conductive cooling system was built with waterbeds (Dual Chamber Cow Waterbeds, Advanced Comfort Technology Inc., Reedsburg, WI) modified to circulate chilled water. The experiment lasted 7 wk. Eight first-lactation Holstein cows producing 34.4±3.7kg/d of milk at 166±28 d in milk were used in the study. Milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and rectal temperature were recorded twice daily, and respiration rate was recorded 5 times per day. During wk 1, the cows were not exposed to experimental heat stress or conductive cooling. For the remaining 6 wk, the cows were exposed to heat stress from 0900 to 1700h each day. During these 6 wk, 4 of the 8 cows were cooled with conductive cooling (experimental cows), and the other 4 were not cooled (control cows). The study consisted of 2 thermal environment exposures (temperature-humidity index mean ± standard deviation of 80.7±0.9 and 79.0±1.0) and 2 cooling water temperatures (circulating water through the water mattresses at temperatures of 4.5°C and 10°C). Thus, a total of 4 conductive cooling treatments were tested, with each treatment lasting 1 wk. During wk 6, the experimental and control cows were switched and the temperature-humidity index of 79.0±1.0 with 4.5°C cooling water treatment was repeated. During wk 7, waterbeds were placed directly on concrete stalls without actively cooling the water. Least squares means and P-values for the different treatments were calculated with multivariate mixed models. Conductively cooling the cows with 4.5°C water decreased rectal temperature by 1.0°C, decreased respiration rate by 18 breaths/min, increased milk yield by 5%, and increased DMI by 14% compared with the controls. When the results from the 2 cooling water temperatures (4.5°C and 10°C circulating water) were compared, we found that the rectal temperature from 4.5

  7. Evaluation of remote monitoring of parturition in dairy cattle as a new tool for calving management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proper calving management of dairy herds is a crucial aspect of the bovine life cycle, as it has profound effects on calf viability and on the post-partum course of the dam. The objectives of this study were to monitor the calving process through the use of a remote alarm system and to determine the impact of prompt emergency obstetric procedures in case of dystocia for the prevention of stillbirths and post-partum reproductive pathologies, and for improving herd fertility. Six groups of experimental animals were studied: monitored heifers (n = 60) and multiparous cows (n = 60) were compared with non-observed animals (n = 60 heifers and n = 60 multiparous) giving birth during the same time period and housed in the calving barn, and with unmonitored animals placed in a dry zone (n = 240 heifers and n = 112 multiparous cows). Results The incidence of dystocia ranged from a minimum of 23.4% (monitored multiparous cows) to a maximum of 33.3% (monitored heifers), and there were no differences compared with control groups. However, the rate of stillbirth was higher in control groups than in the monitored groups (P < 0.01). Among both heifers and multiparous cows, the incidence of post-partum uterine infections was higher in the unmonitored animals both in the calving barn (P < 0.01) and in the dry zone (P < 0.05) compared with monitored animals. Among both heifers and multiparous cows, the control groups showed higher rates of foetal membrane retention than did the monitored groups (P < 0.001). The calving-to-conception interval was shorter; in particular, observed heifers showed a significant advantage of approximately 46 days compared with the unmonitored group (P < 0.001) and 32 days compared with the group in the calving barn (P < 0.05). Multiparous cows also had a reduction in the number of days open. Conclusions The remote alarm system used to monitor the calving process assured the prompt presence of

  8. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (P<0.001). Resulting models were validated with an independent dataset of 172 treatment means from 20 studies. To illustrate the scale of improvement on predicted CH4 outputs from the current whole-farm prediction approach (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]), equations developed in the present study (NewEqs) were compared with the IPCC equation {CH4 (g/d)=[(GEI×Ym)×1,000]/55.65}, in which GEI is GE intake and Ym is the CH4 emission factor, in calculating CH4 outputs from 4 diverse beef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total

  9. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across-Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S

    2016-01-01

    Sequence data are expected to increase the reliability of genomic prediction by containing causative mutations directly, especially in cases where low linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations limits prediction reliability, such as across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. In practice, the causative mutations are unknown, and prediction with only variants in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutations is not realistic, leading to a reduced reliability compared to knowing the causative variants. Our objective was to use sequence data to investigate the potential benefits of sequence data for the prediction of genomic relationships, and consequently reliability of genomic breeding values. We used sequence data from five dairy cattle breeds, and a larger number of imputed sequences for two of the five breeds. We focused on the influence of linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across-breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare causative mutations, and all causative mutations were rare. Our results show that sequence data can potentially improve genomic prediction, but careful selection of markers is essential. PMID:27317779

  10. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across-Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.

    2016-01-01

    Sequence data are expected to increase the reliability of genomic prediction by containing causative mutations directly, especially in cases where low linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations limits prediction reliability, such as across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. In practice, the causative mutations are unknown, and prediction with only variants in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutations is not realistic, leading to a reduced reliability compared to knowing the causative variants. Our objective was to use sequence data to investigate the potential benefits of sequence data for the prediction of genomic relationships, and consequently reliability of genomic breeding values. We used sequence data from five dairy cattle breeds, and a larger number of imputed sequences for two of the five breeds. We focused on the influence of linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across-breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare causative mutations, and all causative mutations were rare. Our results show that sequence data can potentially improve genomic prediction, but careful selection of markers is essential. PMID:27317779

  11. Evidence for quantitative trait loci affecting twinning rate in North American Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, J; Dentine, M R; Berger, P J; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2004-06-01

    Twinning in dairy cattle has been associated with many negative health and reproductive events that cause economic loss to the producer. Reports have suggested that twinning rates are increasing and that there may be a positive relationship between milk production and twinning frequency. Putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for twinning and ovulation rate on bovine chromosomes 5, 7, 19 and 23 have been previously identified in other populations. The objective of this study was to detect and possibly confirm the existence and effects of these QTL in the North American Holstein population. Half-sib families of 20 North American Holstein sires with above average twinning rate predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) comprised the sample population under investigation. Twinning rate PTA values had been estimated from calving data. DNA extracted from semen samples was analysed using 45-61 microsatellite markers across the four chromosomes. Marker heterozygosity of the patriarchs averaged 62%. Evidence of twinning QTL was found in multiple families on chromosomes 5, 7 and 23