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Sample records for affecting eisosomes reveals

  1. A plasma-membrane E-MAP reveals links of the eisosome with sphingolipid metabolism and endosomal trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Pablo S; Fröhlich, Florian; Rehman, Michael; Shales, Mike; Ulitsky, Igor; Olivera-Couto, Agustina; Braberg, Hannes; Shamir, Ron; Walter, Peter; Mann, Matthias; Ejsing, Christer S; Krogan, Nevan J; Walther, Tobias C

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane delimits the cell and controls material and information exchange between itself and the environment. How different plasma-membrane processes are coordinated and how the relative abundance of plasma-membrane lipids and proteins is homeostatically maintained are not yet understood. Here, we used a quantitative genetic interaction map, or E-MAP, to functionally interrogate a set of ~400 genes involved in various aspects of plasma-membrane biology, including endocytosis, signaling, lipid metabolism and eisosome function. From this E-MAP, we derived a set of 57,799 individual interactions between genes functioning in these various processes. Using triplet genetic motif analysis, we identified a new component of the eisosome, Eis1, and linked the poorly characterized gene EMP70 to endocytic and eisosome function. Finally, we implicated Rom2, a GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rho1 and Rho2, in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:20526336

  2. A plasma-membrane E-MAP reveals links of the eisosome with sphingolipid metabolism and endosomal trafficking.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Pablo S; Fröhlich, Florian; Rehman, Michael; Shales, Mike; Ulitsky, Igor; Olivera-Couto, Agustina; Braberg, Hannes; Shamir, Ron; Walter, Peter; Mann, Matthias; Ejsing, Christer S; Krogan, Nevan J; Walther, Tobias C

    2010-07-01

    The plasma membrane delimits the cell and controls material and information exchange between itself and the environment. How different plasma-membrane processes are coordinated and how the relative abundance of plasma-membrane lipids and proteins is homeostatically maintained are not yet understood. Here, we used a quantitative genetic interaction map, or E-MAP, to functionally interrogate a set of approximately 400 genes involved in various aspects of plasma-membrane biology, including endocytosis, signaling, lipid metabolism and eisosome function. From this E-MAP, we derived a set of 57,799 individual interactions between genes functioning in these various processes. Using triplet genetic motif analysis, we identified a new component of the eisosome, Eis1, and linked the poorly characterized gene EMP70 to endocytic and eisosome function. Finally, we implicated Rom2, a GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rho1 and Rho2, in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

  3. Eisosomes promote the ability of Sur7 to regulate plasma membrane organization in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong X.; Douglas, Lois M.; Veselá, Petra; Rachel, Reinhard; Malinsky, Jan; Konopka, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans forms a protective barrier that also mediates many processes needed for virulence, including cell wall synthesis, invasive hyphal morphogenesis, and nutrient uptake. Because compartmentalization of the plasma membrane is believed to coordinate these diverse activities, we examined plasma membrane microdomains termed eisosomes or membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC), which correspond to ∼200-nm-long furrows in the plasma membrane. A pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutant failed to form eisosomes and displayed strong defects in plasma membrane organization and morphogenesis, including extensive cell wall invaginations. Mutation of eisosome proteins Slm2, Pkh2, and Pkh3 did not cause similar cell wall defects, although pkh2∆ cells formed chains of furrows and pkh3∆ cells formed wider furrows, identifying novel roles for the Pkh protein kinases in regulating furrows. In contrast, the sur7∆ mutant formed cell wall invaginations similar to those for the pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutant even though it could form eisosomes and furrows. A PH-domain probe revealed that the regulatory lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was enriched at sites of cell wall invaginations in both the sur7∆ and pil1∆ lsp1∆ cells, indicating that this contributes to the defects. The sur7∆ and pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutants displayed differential susceptibility to various types of stress, indicating that they affect overlapping but distinct functions. In support of this, many mutant phenotypes of the pil1∆ lsp1∆ cells were rescued by overexpressing SUR7. These results demonstrate that C. albicans eisosomes promote the ability of Sur7 to regulate plasma membrane organization. PMID:27009204

  4. Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Protein Kinase C Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals Slt2 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-dependent Phosphorylation of Eisosome Core Components*

    PubMed Central

    Mascaraque, Victoria; Hernáez, María Luisa; Jiménez-Sánchez, María; Hansen, Rasmus; Gil, Concha; Martín, Humberto; Cid, Víctor J.; Molina, María

    2013-01-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been thoroughly studied as a paradigm of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. It consists of a classic MAPK module comprising the Bck1 MAPK kinase kinase, two redundant MAPK kinases (Mkk1 and Mkk2), and the Slt2 MAPK. This module is activated under a variety of stimuli related to cell wall homeostasis by Pkc1, the only member of the protein kinase C family in budding yeast. Quantitative phosphoproteomics based on stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture is a powerful tool for globally studying protein phosphorylation. Here we report an analysis of the yeast phosphoproteome upon overexpression of a PKC1 hyperactive allele that specifically activates CWI MAPK signaling in the absence of external stimuli. We found 82 phosphopeptides originating from 43 proteins that showed enhanced phosphorylation in these conditions. The MAPK S/T-P target motif was significantly overrepresented in these phosphopeptides. Hyperphosphorylated proteins provide putative novel targets of the Pkc1–cell wall integrity pathway involved in diverse functions such as the control of gene expression, protein synthesis, cytoskeleton maintenance, DNA repair, and metabolism. Remarkably, five components of the plasma-membrane-associated protein complex known as eisosomes were found among the up-regulated proteins. We show here that Pkc1-induced phosphorylation of the eisosome core components Pil1 and Lsp1 was not exerted directly by Pkc1, but involved signaling through the Slt2 MAPK module. PMID:23221999

  5. Eisosome Ultrastructure and Evolution in Fungi, Microalgae, and Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Heuser, John E.; Roth, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Eisosomes are among the few remaining eukaryotic cellular differentations that lack a defined function(s). These trough-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane have largely been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which their associated proteins, including two BAR domain proteins, have been identified, and homologues have been found throughout the fungal radiation. Using quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy to generate high-resolution replicas of membrane fracture faces without the use of chemical fixation, we report that eisosomes are also present in a subset of red and green microalgae as well as in the cysts of the ciliate Euplotes. Eisosome assembly is closely correlated with both the presence and the nature of cell walls. Microalgal eisosomes vary extensively in topology and internal organization. Unlike fungi, their convex fracture faces can carry lineage-specific arrays of intramembranous particles, and their concave fracture faces usually display fine striations, also seen in fungi, that are pitched at lineage-specific angles and, in some cases, adopt a broad-banded patterning. The conserved genes that encode fungal eisosome-associated proteins are not found in sequenced algal genomes, but we identified genes encoding two algal lineage-specific families of predicted BAR domain proteins, called Green-BAR and Red-BAR, that are candidate eisosome organizers. We propose a model for eisosome formation wherein (i) positively charged recognition patches first establish contact with target membrane regions and (ii) a (partial) unwinding of the coiled-coil conformation of the BAR domains then allows interactions between the hydrophobic faces of their amphipathic helices and the lipid phase of the inner membrane leaflet, generating the striated patterns. PMID:26253157

  6. Eisosome Ultrastructure and Evolution in Fungi, Microalgae, and Lichens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Heuser, John E; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula

    2015-10-01

    Eisosomes are among the few remaining eukaryotic cellular differentations that lack a defined function(s). These trough-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane have largely been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which their associated proteins, including two BAR domain proteins, have been identified, and homologues have been found throughout the fungal radiation. Using quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy to generate high-resolution replicas of membrane fracture faces without the use of chemical fixation, we report that eisosomes are also present in a subset of red and green microalgae as well as in the cysts of the ciliate Euplotes. Eisosome assembly is closely correlated with both the presence and the nature of cell walls. Microalgal eisosomes vary extensively in topology and internal organization. Unlike fungi, their convex fracture faces can carry lineage-specific arrays of intramembranous particles, and their concave fracture faces usually display fine striations, also seen in fungi, that are pitched at lineage-specific angles and, in some cases, adopt a broad-banded patterning. The conserved genes that encode fungal eisosome-associated proteins are not found in sequenced algal genomes, but we identified genes encoding two algal lineage-specific families of predicted BAR domain proteins, called Green-BAR and Red-BAR, that are candidate eisosome organizers. We propose a model for eisosome formation wherein (i) positively charged recognition patches first establish contact with target membrane regions and (ii) a (partial) unwinding of the coiled-coil conformation of the BAR domains then allows interactions between the hydrophobic faces of their amphipathic helices and the lipid phase of the inner membrane leaflet, generating the striated patterns.

  7. Eisosomes Are Dynamic Plasma Membrane Domains Showing Pil1-Lsp1 Heteroligomer Binding Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Couto, Agustina; Salzman, Valentina; Mailhos, Milagros; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Aguilar, Pablo S.

    2015-01-01

    Eisosomes are plasma membrane domains concentrating lipids, transporters, and signaling molecules. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these domains are structured by scaffolds composed mainly by two cytoplasmic proteins Pil1 and Lsp1. Eisosomes are immobile domains, have relatively uniform size, and encompass thousands of units of the core proteins Pil1 and Lsp1. In this work we used fluorescence fluctuation analytical methods to determine the dynamics of eisosome core proteins at different subcellular locations. Using a combination of scanning techniques with autocorrelation analysis, we show that Pil1 and Lsp1 cytoplasmic pools freely diffuse whereas an eisosome-associated fraction of these proteins exhibits slow dynamics that fit with a binding-unbinding equilibrium. Number and brightness analysis shows that the eisosome-associated fraction is oligomeric, while cytoplasmic pools have lower aggregation states. Fluorescence lifetime imaging results indicate that Pil1 and Lsp1 directly interact in the cytoplasm and within the eisosomes. These results support a model where Pil1-Lsp1 heterodimers are the minimal eisosomes building blocks. Moreover, individual-eisosome fluorescence fluctuation analysis shows that eisosomes in the same cell are not equal domains: while roughly half of them are mostly static, the other half is actively exchanging core protein subunits. PMID:25863055

  8. Eisosome Organization in the Filamentous AscomyceteAspergillus nidulans▿†

    PubMed Central

    Vangelatos, Ioannis; Roumelioti, Katerina; Gournas, Christos; Suarez, Teresa; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    Eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They comprise two homologue proteins, Pil1 and Lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein Sur7. These proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. We identify in Aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum Pezizomycotina) two homologues of Pil1/Lsp1, PilA and PilB, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the subphylum Saccharomycotina. In the aspergilli there are several Sur7-like proteins in each species, including one strict Sur7 orthologue (SurG in A. nidulans). In A. nidulans conidiospores, but not in hyphae, the three proteins colocalize at the cell cortex and form tightly packed punctate structures that appear different from the clearly distinct eisosome patches observed in S. cerevisiae. These structures are assembled late during the maturation of conidia. In mycelia, punctate structures are present, but they are composed only of PilA, while PilB is diffused in the cytoplasm and SurG is located in vacuoles and endosomes. Deletion of each of the genes does not lead to any obvious growth phenotype, except for moderate resistance to itraconazole. We could not find any obvious association between mycelial (PilA) eisosome-like structures and endocytosis. PilA and SurG are necessary for conidial eisosome organization in ways that differ from those for their S. cerevisiae homologues. These data illustrate that conservation of eisosomal proteins within the ascomycetes is accompanied by a striking functional divergence. PMID:20693301

  9. Assembly of fission yeast eisosomes in the plasma membrane of budding yeast: import of foreign membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Vaskovicova, Katarina; Stradalova, Vendula; Efenberk, Ales; Opekarova, Miroslava; Malinsky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Eisosomes are plasma membrane-associated protein complexes organizing the membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC), a membrane microdomain of specific structure and function in ascomycetous fungi. By heterologous expression of specific components of Schizosaccharomyces pombe eisosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we reconstitute structures exhibiting the composition and morphology of S. pombe eisosome in the host plasma membrane. We show S. pombe protein Pil1 (SpPil1) to substitute the function of its S. cerevisiae homologue in building plasma membrane-associated assemblies recognized by inherent MCC/eisosome constituents Sur7 and Seg1. Our data indicate that binding of SpPil1 to the plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae also induces formation of furrow-like invaginations characteristic for MCC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transfer of a functional plasma membrane microdomain. In the described system, we identify a striking difference between eisosome stabilizer proteins Seg1 and SpSle1. While Seg1 recruits both Pil1 and SpPil1 to the plasma membrane, SpSle1 recognizes only its natural counterpart, SpPil1. In the presence of Pil1, SpSle1 is segregated outside the Pil1-organized eisosomes and forms independent microdomains in the host membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The sphingolipid long-chain base-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway regulates eisosome assembly and turnover.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangzuo; Gruhler, Albrecht; Liu, Ying; Jensen, Ole N; Dickson, Robert C

    2008-04-18

    Eisosomes are recently described fungal structures that play roles in the organization of the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Their major protein components are Pil1 and Lsp1, and previous studies showed that these proteins are phosphorylated by the sphingolipid long-chain base-activated Pkh1 and Pkh2 protein kinases in vitro. We show that Pkh1 and Pkh2 phosphorylate Pil1 and Lsp1 in vivo to produce species B, and that heat stress, which activates Pkh1 and Pkh2, generates a more highly phosphorylated species, C. Cells with low Pkh activity lack species B and C and contain abnormally organized eisosomes. To verify that Pil1 phosphorylation is essential for correct eisosome organization, phosphorylated serine and threonine residues were identified and changed to alanines. A variant Pil1 protein lacking five phosphorylation sites did not form eisosomes during log phase growth, indicating that phosphorylation is critical for eisosome organization. We also found that eisosomes are dynamic structures and disassemble when the Ypk protein kinases, which are activated by the sphingolipid-Pkh signaling pathway, are inactivated or when the sphingolipid signal is pharmacologically blocked with myriocin. We conclude that eisosome formation and turnover are regulated by the sphingolipid-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway. These data and previous data showing that endocytosis is regulated by the sphingolipid-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway suggest that Pkh1 and -2 respond to changes in membrane sphingolipids and transmit this information to eisosomes via Pil1 phosphorylation. Eisosomes then control endocytosis to align the composition and function of the plasma membrane to match demand.

  11. A role for eisosomes in maintenance of plasma membrane phosphoinositide levels.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain; Olson, Daniel K; Alcazar-Roman, Abel; DeCamilli, Pietro; Walther, Tobias C

    2014-09-15

    The plasma membrane delineates the cell and mediates its communication and material exchange with the environment. Many processes of the plasma membrane occur through interactions of proteins with phosphatidylinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), which is highly enriched in this membrane and is a key determinant of its identity. Eisosomes function in lateral organization of the plasma membrane, but the molecular function of their major protein subunits, the BAR domain-containing proteins Pil1 and Lsp1, is poorly understood. Here we show that eisosomes interact with the PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase Inp51/Sjl1, thereby recruiting it to the plasma membrane. Pil1 is essential for plasma membrane localization and function of Inp51 but not for the homologous phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate phosphatases Inp52/Sjl2 and Inp53/Sjl3. Consistent with this, absence of Pil1 increases total and available PI(4,5)P2 levels at the plasma membrane. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model in which the eisosomes function in maintaining PI(4,5)P2 levels by Inp51/Sjl1 recruitment. © 2014 Fröhlich et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. A Pil1-Sle1-Syj1-Tax4 functional pathway links eisosomes with PI(4,5)P2 regulation.

    PubMed

    Kabeche, Ruth; Roguev, Assen; Krogan, Nevan J; Moseley, James B

    2014-03-15

    Stable compartments of the plasma membrane promote a wide range of cellular functions. In yeast cells, cytosolic structures called eisosomes generate prominent cortical invaginations of unknown function. Through a series of genetic screens in fission yeast, we found that the eisosome proteins Pil1 and Sle1 function with the synaptojanin-like lipid phosphatase Syj1 and its ligand Tax4. This genetic pathway connects eisosome function with the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in cells. Defects in PI(4,5)P2 regulation led to eisosome defects, and we found that the core eisosome protein Pil1 can bind to and tubulate liposomes containing PI(4,5)P2. Mutations in components of the Pil1-Sle1-Syj1-Tax4 pathway suppress the growth and morphology defects of TORC2 mutants, indicating that eisosome-dependent regulation of PI(4,5)P2 feeds into signal transduction pathways. We propose that the geometry of membrane invaginations generates spatial and temporal signals for lipid-mediated signaling events in cells.

  13. Emotionally charged earcons reveal affective congruency effects.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P M C; De Haan, A; Van Galen, G P; Meulenbroek, R G J

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, the affective impact of earcons on stimulus classification is investigated. We show, using a picture-categorization task, that the affective connotation of earcons in major and minor mode (representing positive and negative valence, respectively) can be congruent or incongruent with response valence. Twenty participants classified pictures of animals and instruments in 256 trials, using positive and negative Yes or No responses. Together with the pictures, either a chord in major mode or minor mode was played. The affective valence of the chords either did or did not match the valence of responses. Response-time latencies show congruency effects of the matching and non matching sound and response valences, indicating that it is important to carefully investigate human-computer interfaces for potential affective congruency effects, as these can either facilitate or inhibit user performance.

  14. Revealing how network structure affects accuracy of link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-08-01

    Link prediction plays an important role in network reconstruction and network evolution. The network structure affects the accuracy of link prediction, which is an interesting problem. In this paper we use common neighbors and the Gini coefficient to reveal the relation between them, which can provide a good reference for the choice of a suitable link prediction algorithm according to the network structure. Moreover, the statistical analysis reveals correlation between the common neighbors index, Gini coefficient index and other indices to describe the network structure, such as Laplacian eigenvalues, clustering coefficient, degree heterogeneity, and assortativity of network. Furthermore, a new method to predict missing links is proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm yields better prediction accuracy and robustness to the network structure than existing currently used methods for a variety of real-world networks.

  15. Methods of Combinatorial Optimization to Reveal Factors Affecting Gene Length

    PubMed Central

    Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species. PMID:23300345

  16. Methods of combinatorial optimization to reveal factors affecting gene length.

    PubMed

    Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species.

  17. Count ratio model reveals bias affecting NGS fold changes

    PubMed Central

    Erhard, Florian; Zimmer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Various biases affect high-throughput sequencing read counts. Contrary to the general assumption, we show that bias does not always cancel out when fold changes are computed and that bias affects more than 20% of genes that are called differentially regulated in RNA-seq experiments with drastic effects on subsequent biological interpretation. Here, we propose a novel approach to estimate fold changes. Our method is based on a probabilistic model that directly incorporates count ratios instead of read counts. It provides a theoretical foundation for pseudo-counts and can be used to estimate fold change credible intervals as well as normalization factors that outperform currently used normalization methods. We show that fold change estimates are significantly improved by our method by comparing RNA-seq derived fold changes to qPCR data from the MAQC/SEQC project as a reference and analyzing random barcoded sequencing data. Our software implementation is freely available from the project website http://www.bio.ifi.lmu.de/software/lfc. PMID:26160885

  18. Classifying the wandering mind: revealing the affective content of thoughts during task-free rest periods.

    PubMed

    Tusche, Anita; Smallwood, Jonathan; Bernhardt, Boris C; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-15

    Many powerful human emotional thoughts are generated in the absence of a precipitating event in the environment. Here, we tested whether we can decode the valence of internally driven, self-generated thoughts during task-free rest based on neural similarities with task-related affective mental states. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants generated positive and negative thoughts as part of an attribution task (Session A) and while they reported the occurrence of comparable mental states during task-free rest periods (Session B). With the use of multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA), we identified response patterns in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) that encode the affective content of thoughts that are generated in response to an external experimental cue. Importantly, these task driven response patterns reliably predicted the occurrence of affective thoughts generated during unconstrained rest periods recorded one week apart. This demonstrates that at least certain elements of task-cued and task-free affective experiences rely on a common neural code. Furthermore, our findings reveal the role that the mOFC plays in determining the affective tone of unconstrained thoughts. More generally, our results suggest that MVPA is an important methodological tool for attempts to understand unguided subject driven mental states such as mind-wandering and daydreaming based on neural similarities with task-based experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ALE meta-analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch.

    PubMed

    Morrison, India

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally-laden tactile stimulation-such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet-may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis was performed. This meta-analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta-analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta-analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta-analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network-level co-activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective-related PI and discriminative-related SI regions co-activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co-activations. Taken together, these meta-analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct pathways. © 2016 The Authors Human

  20. ALE meta‐analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emotionally‐laden tactile stimulation—such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet—may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta‐analysis was performed. This meta‐analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta‐analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta‐analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta‐analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network‐level co‐activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective‐related PI and discriminative‐related SI regions co‐activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co‐activations. Taken together, these meta‐analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct

  1. Yeast genome-wide screen reveals dissimilar sets of host genes affecting replication of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Panavas, Tadas; Serviene, Elena; Brasher, Jeremy; Nagy, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Viruses are devastating pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. To further our understanding of how viruses use the resources of infected cells, we systematically tested the yeast single-gene-knockout library for the effect of each host gene on the replication of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a positive-strand RNA virus of plants. The genome-wide screen identified 96 host genes whose absence either reduced or increased the accumulation of the TBSV replicon. The identified genes are involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and other compounds and in protein targeting/transport. Comparison with published genome-wide screens reveals that the replication of TBSV and brome mosaic virus (BMV), which belongs to a different supergroup among plus-strand RNA viruses, is affected by vastly different yeast genes. Moreover, a set of yeast genes involved in vacuolar targeting of proteins and vesicle-mediated transport both affected replication of the TBSV replicon and enhanced the cytotoxicity of the Parkinson's disease-related α-synuclein when this protein was expressed in yeast. In addition, a set of host genes involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism affected both TBSV replication and the cytotoxicity of a mutant huntingtin protein, a candidate agent in Huntington's disease. This finding suggests that virus infection and disease-causing proteins might use or alter similar host pathways and may suggest connections between chronic diseases and prior virus infection. PMID:15883361

  2. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals that AICAR Affects Glycerolipid, Ceramide and Nucleotide Synthesis Pathways in INS-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    ElAzzouny, Mahmoud A; Evans, Charles R; Burant, Charles F; Kennedy, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    AMPK regulates many metabolic pathways including fatty acid and glucose metabolism, both of which are closely associated with insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Insulin secretion is regulated by metabolic coupling factors such as ATP/ADP ratio and other metabolites generated by the metabolism of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acid and amino acids. However, the connection between AMPK activation and insulin secretion in β-cells has not yet been fully elucidated at a metabolic level. To study the effect of AMPK activation on glucose stimulated insulin secretion, we applied the pharmacological activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) to an INS-1 (832/13) β-cell line. We measured the change in 66 metabolites in the presence or absence of AICAR using different stable isotopic labeled nutrients to probe selected pathways. AMPK activation by AICAR increased basal insulin secretion and reduced the glucose stimulation index. Although ATP/ADP ratios were not strongly affected by AICAR, several other metabolites and pathways important for insulin secretion were affected by AICAR treatment including long-chain CoAs, malonyl-CoA, 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl CoA, diacylglycerol, and farnesyl pyrophosphate. Tracer studies using 13C-glucose revealed lower glucose flux in the purine and pyrimidine pathway and in the glycerolipid synthesis pathway. Untargeted metabolomics revealed reduction in ceramides caused by AICAR that may explain the beneficial role of AMPK in protecting β-cells from lipotoxicity. Taken together, the results provide an overall picture of the metabolic changes associated with AICAR treatment and how it modulates insulin secretion and β-cell survival.

  3. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals that AICAR Affects Glycerolipid, Ceramide and Nucleotide Synthesis Pathways in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    ElAzzouny, Mahmoud A.; Evans, Charles R.; Burant, Charles F; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    AMPK regulates many metabolic pathways including fatty acid and glucose metabolism, both of which are closely associated with insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Insulin secretion is regulated by metabolic coupling factors such as ATP/ADP ratio and other metabolites generated by the metabolism of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acid and amino acids. However, the connection between AMPK activation and insulin secretion in β-cells has not yet been fully elucidated at a metabolic level. To study the effect of AMPK activation on glucose stimulated insulin secretion, we applied the pharmacological activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) to an INS-1 (832/13) β-cell line. We measured the change in 66 metabolites in the presence or absence of AICAR using different stable isotopic labeled nutrients to probe selected pathways. AMPK activation by AICAR increased basal insulin secretion and reduced the glucose stimulation index. Although ATP/ADP ratios were not strongly affected by AICAR, several other metabolites and pathways important for insulin secretion were affected by AICAR treatment including long-chain CoAs, malonyl-CoA, 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl CoA, diacylglycerol, and farnesyl pyrophosphate. Tracer studies using 13C-glucose revealed lower glucose flux in the purine and pyrimidine pathway and in the glycerolipid synthesis pathway. Untargeted metabolomics revealed reduction in ceramides caused by AICAR that may explain the beneficial role of AMPK in protecting β-cells from lipotoxicity. Taken together, the results provide an overall picture of the metabolic changes associated with AICAR treatment and how it modulates insulin secretion and β-cell survival. PMID:26107620

  4. Sequence analysis reveals genomic factors affecting EST-SSR primer performance and polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunxian; Bock, Clive H; Beckman, Tom G

    2014-12-01

    This study was to explore genomic factors affecting the performance and polymorphism of 340 randomly selected EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) primers through BLAST of primer sequences to a reference genome. Genotyping showed 111 failed and 229 succeeded. The failed types included "no peaks" (NP, 69 primers), "weak peaks" (WP, 30), and "multiple peaks" (MP, 12). The successful types were divided into HM (homozygous between two selected parents, 78 primers) and HT (heterozygous at least in one parent, 151 primers). The BLAST revealed primer alignment status, genomic amplicon size (GAS), and genomic and expressed amplicon size difference (ASD). The alignment status was categorized as: "no hits found" (NHF); "multiple partial alignments" (MPA); "single partial alignment" (SPA); "multiple full alignments" (MFA); and "single full alignment" (SFA). NHF and partial alignment (PA) mainly resulted from discrepant nucleotides in contig-derived primers. The ASD separated 247 non-NHF primers into: "deletion", "same size", "insertion", "intron (GAS ≤500)", "intron (GAS >500)", and "error" categories. Most SFA primers were successful. About 88 % "error", 53 % NHF primers, and 47 % "intron (GAS >500)" failed. The "deletion" and "insertion" primers had the higher HT rates, and the "same size" had the highest HM rate. Optimized primer selection criteria are discussed.

  5. Abnormal affective decision making revealed in adolescent binge drinkers using a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Gong, Qiyong; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Xiangrui; Xue, Gui; Wong, Savio; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Johnson, C Anderson

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of affective decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which are associated with adolescent binge drinking. Fourteen adolescent binge drinkers (16-18 years of age) and 14 age-matched adolescents who had never consumed alcohol--never drinkers--were recruited from local high schools in Chengdu, China. Questionnaires were used to assess academic performance, drinking experience, and urgency. Brain regions activated by the IGT performance were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that, compared to never drinkers, binge drinkers performed worse on the IGT and showed higher activity in the subcomponents of the decision-making neural circuitry implicated in the execution of emotional and incentive-related behaviors, namely, the left amygdala and insula bilaterally. Moreover, measures of the severity of drinking problems in real life, as well as high urgency scores, were associated with increased activity within the insula, combined with decreased activity within the orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that hyperreactivity of a neural system implicated in the execution of emotional and incentive-related behaviors can be associated with socially undesirable behaviors, such as binge drinking, among adolescents. These findings have social implications because they potentially reveal underlying neural mechanisms for making poor decisions, which may increase an individual's risk and vulnerability for alcoholism. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Revealing a latent variable: Individual differences in affective response to repeated injections

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-01-01

    Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals one such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally-naïve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3rd) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3rd) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared to handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses to repeated intraperitoneal injections in rats. Given that such underlying emotional variability exists within standard, outbred rat populations, this study highlights the importance of accounting for such variability in any study investigating the effects of repeated drug administration on depressive-like behavior for reliability and replicability of findings. Thus, we recommend including an uninjected control group in all studies. PMID:26191946

  7. State-Dependent TMS Reveals Representation of Affective Body Movements in the Anterior Intraparietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Noemi; Jacobs, Christianne; Venuti, Paola; Silvanto, Juha; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2017-07-26

    In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined. Here we investigated whether the AOS plays a role in representing dynamic emotional bodily expressions. In the first experiment, we assessed behavioral adaptation effects of observed affective movements. Participants watched series of happy or fearful whole-body point-light displays (PLDs) as adapters and were then asked to perform an explicit categorization of the emotion expressed in test PLDs. Participants were slower when categorizing any of the two emotions as long as it was congruent with the emotion in the adapter sequence. We interpreted this effect as adaptation to the emotional content of PLDs. In the second experiment, we combined this paradigm with TMS applied over either the right aIPS, pSTS, and the right half of the occipital pole (corresponding to Brodmann's area 17 and serving as control) to examine the neural locus of the adaptation effect. TMS over the aIPS (but not over the other sites) reversed the behavioral cost of adaptation, specifically for fearful contents. This demonstrates that aIPS contains an explicit representation of affective body movements.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In humans, a network of areas, the action observation system, encodes voluntary actions. However, the role of these brain regions in processing affective kinematic information has not been investigated. Here we demonstrate that the aIPS contains a representation of affective body movements. First, in a

  8. Personal Informatics and Context: Using Context to Reveal Factors That Affect Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ian Anthony Rosas

    2011-01-01

    Personal informatics systems help people collect and reflect on behavioral information to better understand their own behavior. Because most systems only show one type of behavioral information, finding factors that affect one's behavior is difficult. Supporting exploration of multiple types of contextual and behavioral information in a…

  9. Personal Informatics and Context: Using Context to Reveal Factors That Affect Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ian Anthony Rosas

    2011-01-01

    Personal informatics systems help people collect and reflect on behavioral information to better understand their own behavior. Because most systems only show one type of behavioral information, finding factors that affect one's behavior is difficult. Supporting exploration of multiple types of contextual and behavioral information in a…

  10. A Synthetic Community Approach Reveals Plant Genotypes Affecting the Phyllosphere Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bodenhausen, Natacha; Bortfeld-Miller, Miriam; Ackermann, Martin; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    The identity of plant host genetic factors controlling the composition of the plant microbiota and the extent to which plant genes affect associated microbial populations is currently unknown. Here, we use a candidate gene approach to investigate host effects on the phyllosphere community composition and abundance. To reduce the environmental factors that might mask genetic factors, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was used in a gnotobiotic system and inoculated with a reduced complexity synthetic bacterial community composed of seven strains representing the most abundant phyla in the phyllosphere. From a panel of 55 plant mutants with alterations in the surface structure, cell wall, defense signaling, secondary metabolism, and pathogen recognition, a small number of single host mutations displayed an altered microbiota composition and/or abundance. Host alleles that resulted in the strongest perturbation of the microbiota relative to the wild-type were lacs2 and pec1. These mutants affect cuticle formation and led to changes in community composition and an increased bacterial abundance relative to the wild-type plants, suggesting that different bacteria can benefit from a modified cuticle to different extents. Moreover, we identified ein2, which is involved in ethylene signaling, as a host factor modulating the community's composition. Finally, we found that different Arabidopsis accessions exhibited different communities, indicating that plant host genetic factors shape the associated microbiota, thus harboring significant potential for the identification of novel plant factors affecting the microbiota of the communities. PMID:24743269

  11. Graph theory reveals hyper-functionality in visual cortices of Seasonal Affective Disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Viola; Krause, Anna Linda; Starck, Tuomo; Nissilä, Juuso; Timonen, Markku; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Walter, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent unipolar or bipolar depressive disorder with a higher prevalence in winter than in summer. The biological underpinnings of SAD are so far poorly understood. Studies examining SAD have found disturbances between the molecular and connectivity scales. The aim of the study was to explore changes in functional connectivity typical for SAD. We investigated unmedicated, untreated SAD patients and healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) utilizing graph theory, a data driven and hypothesis free approach, to model functional networks of the brain. Comparing whole brain network properties using graph theory we observed globally affected network topologies with increasing pathlength in SAD. Nodal changes, however, were highly restricted to bilateral inferior occipital cortex. Interestingly, we found a lateralization where hyper-connectedness was restricted to right inferior occipital cortex and hyper-efficiency was found in the left inferior occipital cortex. Furthermore, we found these nodes became more "hub like" in patients, suggesting a greater functional role. Our work stresses the importance of abnormal intrinsic processing during rest, primarily affecting visual areas and subsequently changing whole brain networks, and thus providing an important hint towards potential future therapeutic approaches.

  12. Genome Sequencing of Autism-Affected Families Reveals Disruption of Putative Noncoding Regulatory DNA.

    PubMed

    Turner, Tychele N; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Duyzend, Michael H; McClymont, Sarah A; Hook, Paul W; Iossifov, Ivan; Raja, Archana; Baker, Carl; Hoekzema, Kendra; Stessman, Holly A; Zody, Michael C; Nelson, Bradley J; Huddleston, John; Sandstrom, Richard; Smith, Joshua D; Hanna, David; Swanson, James M; Faustman, Elaine M; Bamshad, Michael J; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Nickerson, Deborah A; McCallion, Andrew S; Darnell, Robert; Eichler, Evan E

    2016-01-07

    We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 208 genomes from 53 families affected by simplex autism. For the majority of these families, no copy-number variant (CNV) or candidate de novo gene-disruptive single-nucleotide variant (SNV) had been detected by microarray or whole-exome sequencing (WES). We integrated multiple CNV and SNV analyses and extensive experimental validation to identify additional candidate mutations in eight families. We report that compared to control individuals, probands showed a significant (p = 0.03) enrichment of de novo and private disruptive mutations within fetal CNS DNase I hypersensitive sites (i.e., putative regulatory regions). This effect was only observed within 50 kb of genes that have been previously associated with autism risk, including genes where dosage sensitivity has already been established by recurrent disruptive de novo protein-coding mutations (ARID1B, SCN2A, NR3C2, PRKCA, and DSCAM). In addition, we provide evidence of gene-disruptive CNVs (in DISC1, WNT7A, RBFOX1, and MBD5), as well as smaller de novo CNVs and exon-specific SNVs missed by exome sequencing in neurodevelopmental genes (e.g., CANX, SAE1, and PIK3CA). Our results suggest that the detection of smaller, often multiple CNVs affecting putative regulatory elements might help explain additional risk of simplex autism. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain network analysis reveals affected connectome structure in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Collin, Guusje; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Abramovic, Lucija; Vreeker, Annabel; de Reus, Marcel A; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Boks, Marco P M; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    The notion that healthy brain function emerges from coordinated neural activity constrained by the brain's network of anatomical connections--i.e., the connectome--suggests that alterations in the connectome's wiring pattern may underlie brain disorders. Corroborating this hypothesis, studies in schizophrenia are indicative of altered connectome architecture including reduced communication efficiency, disruptions of central brain hubs, and affected "rich club" organization. Whether similar deficits are present in bipolar disorder is currently unknown. This study examines structural connectome topology in 216 bipolar I disorder patients as compared to 144 healthy controls, focusing in particular on central regions (i.e., brain hubs) and connections (i.e., rich club connections, interhemispheric connections) of the brain's network. We find that bipolar I disorder patients exhibit reduced global efficiency (-4.4%, P =0.002) and that this deficit relates (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) to reduced connectivity strength of interhemispheric connections (-13.0%, P = 0.001). Bipolar disorder patients were found not to show predominant alterations in the strength of brain hub connections in general, or of connections spanning brain hubs (i.e., "rich club" connections) in particular (all P > 0.1). These findings highlight a role for aberrant brain network architecture in bipolar I disorder with reduced global efficiency in association with disruptions in interhemispheric connectivity, while the central "rich club" system appears not to be particularly affected. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pushing the Limits: Cognitive, Affective, and Neural Plasticity Revealed by an Intensive Multifaceted Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mrazek, Michael D.; Mooneyham, Benjamin W.; Mrazek, Kaita L.; Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific understanding of how much the adult brain can be shaped by experience requires examination of how multiple influences combine to elicit cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity. Using an intensive multifaceted intervention, we discovered that substantial and enduring improvements can occur in parallel across multiple cognitive and neuroimaging measures in healthy young adults. The intervention elicited substantial improvements in physical health, working memory, standardized test performance, mood, self-esteem, self-efficacy, mindfulness, and life satisfaction. Improvements in mindfulness were associated with increased degree centrality of the insula, greater functional connectivity between insula and somatosensory cortex, and reduced functional connectivity between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and somatosensory cortex. Improvements in working memory and reading comprehension were associated with increased degree centrality of a region within the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) that was extensively and predominately integrated with the executive control network. The scope and magnitude of the observed improvements represent the most extensive demonstration to date of the considerable human capacity for change. These findings point to higher limits for rapid and concurrent cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity than is widely assumed. PMID:27047361

  15. Genetic and epigenetic factors affecting meiosis induction in eukaryotes revealed in paramecium research.

    PubMed

    Prajer, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This review presents studies of the induction of meiosis undertaken on the ciliate Paramecium, a unicellular model eukaryotic organism. Meiosis in Paramecium, preceding the process of fertilization, appears in starved cells after passing a defined number of divisions (cell generations), starting from the last fertilization. Investigations were performed on clones of cells entering autogamy, a self-fertilization process. Genetic as well as epigenetic factors, i.e. endo- and exogenous factors, affecting the induction ofmeiosis and changing the duration of the interautogamous interval (IAI), were analyzed. The results show that: (1) Meiosis induction is controlled genetically by the somatic macronucleus. However, besides the nuclear factors, the cytoplasmic protein immaturin also affects this process (Haga & Hiwatashi 1981); (2) Epigenetic factors, such as non-genetically disturbed cytoskeleton structures and changes in the cell architecture observed in doublet Paramecium cells, exert internal mechanical stress (Ingber 2003), which constitutes the endogenous impulse accelerating meiosis; (3) Mild osmotic stress, acting as an exogenous factor, can initiate the specific MAP kinases signaling pathway resulting in earlier meiosis induction, as in other unicellular eukaryotes (Seet & Pawson 2004).

  16. Genome Sequencing of Autism-Affected Families Reveals Disruption of Putative Noncoding Regulatory DNA

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Tychele N.; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Duyzend, Michael H.; McClymont, Sarah A.; Hook, Paul W.; Iossifov, Ivan; Raja, Archana; Baker, Carl; Hoekzema, Kendra; Stessman, Holly A.; Zody, Michael C.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Huddleston, John; Sandstrom, Richard; Smith, Joshua D.; Hanna, David; Swanson, James M.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Nickerson, Deborah A.; McCallion, Andrew S.; Darnell, Robert; Eichler, Evan E.

    2016-01-01

    We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 208 genomes from 53 families affected by simplex autism. For the majority of these families, no copy-number variant (CNV) or candidate de novo gene-disruptive single-nucleotide variant (SNV) had been detected by microarray or whole-exome sequencing (WES). We integrated multiple CNV and SNV analyses and extensive experimental validation to identify additional candidate mutations in eight families. We report that compared to control individuals, probands showed a significant (p = 0.03) enrichment of de novo and private disruptive mutations within fetal CNS DNase I hypersensitive sites (i.e., putative regulatory regions). This effect was only observed within 50 kb of genes that have been previously associated with autism risk, including genes where dosage sensitivity has already been established by recurrent disruptive de novo protein-coding mutations (ARID1B, SCN2A, NR3C2, PRKCA, and DSCAM). In addition, we provide evidence of gene-disruptive CNVs (in DISC1, WNT7A, RBFOX1, and MBD5), as well as smaller de novo CNVs and exon-specific SNVs missed by exome sequencing in neurodevelopmental genes (e.g., CANX, SAE1, and PIK3CA). Our results suggest that the detection of smaller, often multiple CNVs affecting putative regulatory elements might help explain additional risk of simplex autism. PMID:26749308

  17. A dictionary of behavioral motifs reveals clusters of genes affecting C. elegans locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andre; Yemini, Eviatar; Grundy, Laura; Jucikas, Tadas; Schafer, William

    2013-03-01

    Visible phenotypes based on locomotion and posture have played a critical role in understanding the molecular basis of behavior and development in C. elegans and other model organisms. However, it is not known whether these human-defined features capture the most important aspects of behavior for phenotypic comparison nor whether they are sufficient to discover new behaviors. Here we show that four basic shapes, or eigenworms, previously described for wild type worms also capture mutant shapes, and that this representation can be used to build a dictionary of repetitive behavioral motifs in an unbiased way. By measuring the distance between each individual's behavior and the elements in the motif dictionary, we create a fingerprint that can be used to compare mutants to wild type and to each other. This analysis has revealed previously undescribed phenotypes and has allowed clustering of mutants into related groups. Behavioral motifs provide a compact and intuitive representation of behavioral phenotypes.

  18. Brain network analysis reveals affected connectome structure in bipolar I disorder

    PubMed Central

    Collin, G; van den Heuvel, MP; Abramovic, L; Vreeker, A; de Reus, MA; van Haren, NEM; Boks, MPM; Ophoff, RA; Kahn, RS

    2017-01-01

    The notion of healthy brain function emerging from coordinated neural activity constrained by the brain’s network of anatomical connections – i.e. the connectome – suggests that alterations in the connectome’s wiring pattern may underlie brain disorders. Corroborating this hypothesis, studies in schizophrenia are indicative of altered connectome architecture including reduced communication efficiency, disruptions of central brain hubs and affected ‘rich club’ organization. Whether similar deficits are present in bipolar disorder is currently unknown. This study examines structural connectome topology in 216 bipolar I disorder patients as compared to 144 healthy controls, focusing in particular on central regions (i.e., brain hubs) and connections (i.e., rich club connections, inter-hemispheric connections) of the brain’s network. We find that bipolar I disorder patients exhibit reduced global efficiency (−4.4%, p = 0.002) and that this deficit relates (r = 0.56, p < 0.001) to reduced connectivity strength of inter-hemispheric connections (−13.0%, p = 0.001). Bipolar disorder patients were found not to show predominant alterations in the strength of brain hub connections in general, or of connections spanning brain hubs (i.e., ‘rich club’ connections) in particular (all p > 0.1). These findings highlight a role for aberrant brain network architecture in bipolar I disorder with reduced global efficiency related to disruptions in inter-hemispheric connectivity, while the central ‘rich club’ system appears not to be particularly affected. PMID:26454006

  19. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, Cristian; Díaz, Nelson F.; Gomez, Gilda; López, María Eugenia; Iturra, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), various quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners) produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC) that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002) were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10) with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035) mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map. PMID:22888302

  20. Antibody Array Revealed PRL-3 Affects Protein Phosphorylation and Cytokine Secretion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongyong; Lian, Shenyi; Meng, Lin; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) promotes cancer metastasis and progression via increasing cell motility and invasiveness, however the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous reports showed that PRL-3 increases the phosphorylation of many important proteins and suspected that PRL-3-enhanced protein phosphorylation may be due to its regulation on cytokines. To investigate PRL-3's impact on protein phosphorylation and cytokine secretion, we performed antibody arrays against protein phosphorylation and cytokines separately. The data showed that PRL-3 could enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation of diverse signaling proteins. Meanwhile, PRL-3 could affect the secretion of a subset of cytokines. Furthermore, we discovered the PRL-3-increased IL-1α secretion was regulated by NF-κB and Jak2-Stat3 pathways and inhibiting IL-1α could reduce PRL-3-enhanced cell migration. Therefore, our result indicated that PRL-3 promotes protein phosphorylation by acting as an 'activator kinase' and consequently regulates cytokine secretion.

  1. Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization

    PubMed Central

    Bulbulia, Joseph A.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe; Fondevila, Sabela; Sibley, Chris G.; Konvalinka, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negative valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video footage and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage predictions, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers. This result offers the first quantified evidence for rite of passage dynamics within a highly arousing collective ritual. Methodologically, we show that surprisingly simple and non-invasive data structures (rated video images) may be combined with methods from evolutionary ecology (Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models) to clarify poorly understood dimensions of the human condition. PMID:24399979

  2. Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization.

    PubMed

    Bulbulia, Joseph A; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe; Fondevila, Sabela; Sibley, Chris G; Konvalinka, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negative valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video footage and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage predictions, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers. This result offers the first quantified evidence for rite of passage dynamics within a highly arousing collective ritual. Methodologically, we show that surprisingly simple and non-invasive data structures (rated video images) may be combined with methods from evolutionary ecology (Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models) to clarify poorly understood dimensions of the human condition.

  3. Antibody Array Revealed PRL-3 Affects Protein Phosphorylation and Cytokine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lin; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) promotes cancer metastasis and progression via increasing cell motility and invasiveness, however the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous reports showed that PRL-3 increases the phosphorylation of many important proteins and suspected that PRL-3-enhanced protein phosphorylation may be due to its regulation on cytokines. To investigate PRL-3’s impact on protein phosphorylation and cytokine secretion, we performed antibody arrays against protein phosphorylation and cytokines separately. The data showed that PRL-3 could enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation of diverse signaling proteins. Meanwhile, PRL-3 could affect the secretion of a subset of cytokines. Furthermore, we discovered the PRL-3-increased IL-1α secretion was regulated by NF-κB and Jak2-Stat3 pathways and inhibiting IL-1α could reduce PRL-3-enhanced cell migration. Therefore, our result indicated that PRL-3 promotes protein phosphorylation by acting as an ‘activator kinase’ and consequently regulates cytokine secretion. PMID:28068414

  4. Isolation studies reveal a shift in the cultivable microbiome of oak affected with Acute Oak Decline.

    PubMed

    Denman, Sandra; Plummer, Sarah; Kirk, Susan; Peace, Andrew; McDonald, James E

    2016-10-01

    Acute Oak Decline is a syndrome within the Oak Decline complex in Britain. Profuse stem bleeding and larval galleries of the native buprestid, Agrilus biguttatus characterize the disease. A systematic study comparing healthy with diseased trees was undertaken. This work reports the result of isolations from healthy trees, diseased and non-symptomatic tissue within AOD affected trees, at five sites in England. Bacteria and fungi were identified using the DNA gyrase B gene, or ITS 1 sequencing. A significantly higher proportion of diseased tissues (82%) yielded more bacteria than either healthy (18%) or non-symptomatic tissue in diseased trees (33%). Overall bacterial community compositions varied at each site, but significant similarities were evident in diseased tissues at all sites. Enterobacteriaceae dominated in diseased trees whereas Pseudomonadaceae dominated healthy trees. Significant associations between diseased tissues and certain bacterial species occurred, implying that the cause of tissue necrosis was not due to random microbiota. Brenneria goodwinii and Gibbsiella quercinecans were key species consistently isolated from diseased tissue; Rahnella victoriana and an un-named Pseudomonas taxon were also frequently isolated from both healthy and diseased trees. Most fungi isolated were from the outer bark and had no significant association with tree health status. It was concluded that there was a shift in the cultivatable bacterial microbiome of diseased trees, with Enterobacteriaceae strongly represented in symptomatic but not healthy tissues. No single species dominated the isolations from diseased tissues and the tissue degradation in AOD is therefore likely to have a polymicrobial cause. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene Expression Profiles in Paired Gingival Biopsies from Periodontitis-Affected and Healthy Tissues Revealed by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Båge, Tove; Lagervall, Maria; Jansson, Leif; Lundeberg, Joakim; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the soft tissue and bone that surrounds the teeth. Despite extensive research, distinctive genes responsible for the disease have not been identified. The objective of this study was to elucidate transcriptome changes in periodontitis, by investigating gene expression profiles in gingival tissue obtained from periodontitis-affected and healthy gingiva from the same patient, using RNA-sequencing. Gingival biopsies were obtained from a disease-affected and a healthy site from each of 10 individuals diagnosed with periodontitis. Enrichment analysis performed among uniquely expressed genes for the periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues revealed several regulated pathways indicative of inflammation for the periodontitis-affected condition. Hierarchical clustering of the sequenced biopsies demonstrated clustering according to the degree of inflammation, as observed histologically in the biopsies, rather than clustering at the individual level. Among the top 50 upregulated genes in periodontitis-affected tissues, we investigated two genes which have not previously been demonstrated to be involved in periodontitis. These included interferon regulatory factor 4 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18, which were also expressed at the protein level in gingival biopsies from patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, this study provides a first step towards a quantitative comprehensive insight into the transcriptome changes in periodontitis. We demonstrate for the first time site-specific local variation in gene expression profiles of periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues obtained from patients with periodontitis, using RNA-seq. Further, we have identified novel genes expressed in periodontitis tissues, which may constitute potential therapeutic targets for future treatment strategies of periodontitis. PMID:23029519

  6. Event-Related Potentials Reveal Preserved Attention Allocation but Impaired Emotion Regulation in Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    De Taeye, Leen; Pourtois, Gilles; Meurs, Alfred; Boon, Paul; Vonck, Kristl; Carrette, Evelien; Raedt, Robrecht

    2015-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy have a high prevalence of comorbid mood disorders. This study aims to evaluate whether negative affect in epilepsy is associated with dysfunction of emotion regulation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are used in order to unravel the exact electrophysiological time course and investigate whether a possible dysfunction arises during early (attention) and/or late (regulation) stages of emotion control. Fifty epileptic patients with (n = 25) versus without (n = 25) comorbid negative affect plus twenty-five matched controls were recruited. ERPs were recorded while subjects performed a face- or house-matching task in which fearful, sad or neutral faces were presented either at attended or unattended spatial locations. Two ERP components were analyzed: the early vertex positive potential (VPP) which is normally enhanced for faces, and the late positive potential (LPP) that is typically larger for emotional stimuli. All participants had larger amplitude of the early face-sensitive VPP for attended faces compared to houses, regardless of their emotional content. By contrast, in patients with negative affect only, the amplitude of the LPP was significantly increased for unattended negative emotional expressions. These VPP results indicate that epilepsy with or without negative affect does not interfere with the early structural encoding and attention selection of faces. However, the LPP results suggest abnormal regulation processes during the processing of unattended emotional faces in patients with epilepsy and comorbid negative affect. In conclusion, this ERP study reveals that early object-based attention processes are not compromised by epilepsy, but instead, when combined with negative affect, this neurological disease is associated with dysfunction during the later stages of emotion regulation. As such, these new neurophysiological findings shed light on the complex interplay of epilepsy with negative affect during the processing of emotional

  7. Affected-sib-pair analyses reveal support of prior evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder, on 21q

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Badner, J.A.; Goldin, L.R.

    1996-06-01

    In 22 multiplex pedigrees screened for linkage to bipolar disorder, by use of 18 markers on chromosome 21q, single-locus affected-sib-pair (ASP) analysis detected a high proportion (57%-62%) of alleles shared identical by descent (IBD), with P values of .049-.0008 on nine marker loci. Multilocus ASP analyses revealed locus trios in the distal region between D21S270 and D21S171, with excess allele sharing (nominal P values <.01) under two affection-status models, ASM I (bipolars and schizoaffectives) and ASM II (ASM I plus recurrent unipolars). In addition, under ASM I, the proximal interval spanned by D21S1436 and D21S65 showed locus trios with excess allele sharing (nominal P values of .03-.0003). These findings support prior evidence that a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder is on 21q. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. TGF-β stimulation in human and murine cells reveals commonly affected biological processes and pathways at transcription level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The TGF-β signaling pathway is a fundamental pathway in the living cell, which plays a key role in many central cellular processes. The complex and sometimes contradicting mechanisms by which TGF-β yields phenotypic effects are not yet completely understood. In this study we investigated and compared the transcriptional response profile of TGF-β1 stimulation in different cell types. For this purpose, extensive experiments are performed and time-course microarray data are generated in human and mouse parenchymal liver cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells and mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells at different time points. We applied a panel of bioinformatics methods on our data to uncover common patterns in the dynamic gene expression response in respective cells. Results Our analysis revealed a quite variable and multifaceted transcriptional response profile of TGF-β1 stimulation, which goes far beyond the well-characterized classical TGF-β1 signaling pathway. Nonetheless, we could identify several commonly affected processes and signaling pathways across cell types and species. In addition our analysis suggested an important role of the transcription factor EGR1, which appeared to have a conserved influence across cell-types and species. Validation via an independent dataset on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells largely confirmed our findings. Network analysis suggested explanations, how TGF-β1 stimulation could lead to the observed effects. Conclusions The analysis of dynamical transcriptional response to TGF-β treatment experiments in different human and murine cell systems revealed commonly affected biological processes and pathways, which could be linked to TGF-β1 via network analysis. This helps to gain insights about TGF-β pathway activities in these cell systems and its conserved interactions between the species and tissue types. PMID:24886091

  9. Functional delineation of rice MADS29 reveals its role in embryo and endosperm development by affecting hormone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Rice MADS29 has recently been reported to cause programmed cell death of maternal tissues, the nucellus, and the nucellar projection during early stages of seed development. However, analyses involving OsMADS29 protein expression domains and characterization of OsMADS29 gain-of-function and knockdown phenotypes revealed novel aspects of its function in maintaining hormone homeostasis, which may have a role in the development of embryo and plastid differentiation and starch filling in endosperm cells. The MADS29 transcripts accumulated to high levels soon after fertilization; however, protein accumulation was found to be delayed by at least 4 days. Immunolocalization studies revealed that the protein accumulated initially in the dorsal-vascular trace and the outer layers of endosperm, and subsequently in the embryo and aleurone and subaleurone layers of the endosperm. Ectopic expression of MADS29 resulted in a severely dwarfed phenotype, exhibiting elevated levels of cytokinin, thereby suggesting that cytokinin biosynthesis pathway could be one of the major targets of OsMADS29. Overexpression of OsMADS29 in heterologous BY2 cells was found to mimic the effects of exogenous application of cytokinins that causes differentiation of proplastids to starch-containing amyloplasts and activation of genes involved in the starch biosynthesis pathway. Suppression of MADS29 expression by RNAi severely affected seed set. The surviving seeds were smaller in size, with developmental abnormalities in the embryo and reduced size of endosperm cells, which also contained loosely packed starch granules. Microarray analysis of overexpression and knockdown lines exhibited altered expression of genes involved in plastid biogenesis, starch biosynthesis, cytokinin signalling and biosynthesis. PMID:23929654

  10. Integrated Analysis of Transcriptomic and Proteomic Datasets Reveals Information on Protein Expressivity and Factors Affecting Translational Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangxin; Wu, Gang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Integrated analysis of large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic data can provide important insights into the metabolic mechanisms underlying complex biological systems. In this chapter, we present methods to address two aspects of issues related to integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. First, due to the fact that proteomic datasets are often incomplete, and integrated analysis of partial proteomic data may introduce significant bias. To address these issues, we describe a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP)-based model to uncover the complicated relationships between protein abundances and mRNA expression levels, and then apply them to predict protein abundance for the proteins not experimentally detected. The ZIP model takes into consideration the undetected proteins by assuming that there is a probability mass at zero representing expressed proteins that were undetected owing to technical limitations. The model validity is demonstrated using biological information of operons, regulons, and pathways. Second, weak correlation between transcriptomic and proteomic datasets is often due to biological factors affecting translational processes. To quantify the effects of these factors, we describe a multiple regression-based statistical framework to quantitatively examine the effects of various translational efficiency-related sequence features on mRNA-protein correlation. Using the datasets from sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the analysis shows that translation-related sequence features can contribute up to 15.2-26.2% of the total variation of the correlation between transcriptomic and proteomic datasets, and also reveals the relative importance of various features in translation process.

  11. Vps15p regulates the distribution of cup-shaped organelles containing the major eisosome protein Pil1p to the extracellular fraction required for endocytosis of extracellular vesicles carrying metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stein, Kathryn; Winters, Chelsea; Chiang, Hui-Ling

    2017-05-01

    Exosomes are small vesicles secreted from virtually every cell from bacteria to humans. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model system to study trafficking of small vesicles in response to changes in the environment. When yeast cells are grown in low glucose, vesicles carrying gluconeogenic enzymes are present as free vesicles and aggregated clusters in the cytoplasm. These vesicles are also secreted into the periplasm and account for more than 90% of total extracellular organelles, while less than 10% are larger 100-300 nm structures with unknown functions. When glucose is added to glucose-starved cells, secreted vesicles are endocytosed and then targeted to the vacuole. Recent secretomic studies indicated that more than 300 proteins involved in diverse biological functions are secreted during glucose starvation and endocytosed during glucose re-feeding. We hypothesised that extracellular vesicles are internalised using novel mechanisms independent of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our results showed that vesicles carrying metabolic enzymes were endocytosed at a fast rate, whereas vesicles carrying the heat shock protein Ssa1p were endocytosed at a slow rate. The PI3K regulator Vps15p is critical for the fast internalisation of extracellular vesicles. VPS15 regulates the distribution of the 100-300 nm organelles that contain the major eisosome protein Pil1p to the extracellular fraction. These Pil1p-containing structures were purified and showed unique cup-shape with their centres deeper than the peripheries. In the absence of VPS15, PIL1 or when PIL1 was mutated, the 100-300 nm structures were not observed in the extracellular fraction and the rapid internalisation of vesicles was impaired. We conclude that VPS15 regulates the distribution of the 100-300 nm Pil1p-containing organelles to the extracellular fraction required for fast endocytosis of vesicles carrying metabolic enzymes. This work provides the first evidence showing that Pil1p displayed unique

  12. Brain networks of affective mentalizing revealed by the tear effect: The integrative role of the medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Haruka K; Kitada, Ryo; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Shuntaro; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-12-01

    Affective mentalizing involves the integration of various social signals in order to infer the affective states of others. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex, the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, and the temporo-parietal junction constitute the core affective mentalizing network. However, the relative contributions of these regions to affective mentalizing remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which of these nodes are involved in the integration of two social signals: emotional tears and facial expressions. We assumed that this integration would produce a supra-additive effect, indicated by greater activity than the sum of the effects of the individual social signals. Female subjects rated the sadness of faces with either tears or tear-like circles, and either sad or neutral expressions. We observed the supra-additive effect in the medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex but not in the temporo-parietal junction. These results indicate that the medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex play an important role in integrating tears and facial expressions during affective mentalizing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy reveals a convergence of the chemical composition in methanogenic archaea from a Siberian permafrost-affected soil.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Paloma; Hermelink, Antje; Lasch, Peter; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; König, Nicole; Burckhardt, Oliver; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Methanogenic archaea are widespread anaerobic microorganisms responsible for the production of biogenic methane. Several new species of psychrotolerant methanogenic archaea were recently isolated from a permafrost-affected soil in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia), showing an exceptional resistance against desiccation, osmotic stress, low temperatures, starvation, UV and ionizing radiation when compared to methanogens from non-permafrost environments. To gain a deeper insight into the differences observed in their resistance, we described the chemical composition of methanogenic strains from permafrost and non-permafrost environments using confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM). CRM is a powerful tool for microbial identification and provides fingerprint-like information about the chemical composition of the cells. Our results show that the chemical composition of methanogens from permafrost-affected soils presents a high homology and is remarkably different from strains inhabiting non-permafrost environments. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic reconstruction of the studied strains based on the functional gene mcrA to prove the different evolutionary relationship of the permafrost strains. We conclude that the permafrost methanogenic strains show a convergent chemical composition regardless of their genotype. This fact is likely to be the consequence of a complex adaptive process to the Siberian permafrost environment and might be the reason underlying their resistant nature.

  14. Comprehensive Analysis of Tissue-wide Gene Expression and Phenotype Data Reveals Tissues Affected in Rare Genetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Feiglin, Ariel; Allen, Bryce K; Kohane, Isaac S; Kong, Sek Won

    2017-08-23

    Linking putatively pathogenic variants to the tissues they affect is necessary for determining the correct diagnostic workup and therapeutic regime in undiagnosed patients. Here, we explored how gene expression across healthy tissues can be used to infer this link. We integrated 6,665 tissue-wide transcriptomes with genetic disorder knowledge bases covering 3,397 diseases. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis using expression levels in each tissue and across tissues indicated significant but modest associations between elevated expression and phenotype for most tissues (maximum area under ROC curve = 0.69). At extreme elevation, associations were marked. Upregulation of disease genes in affected tissues was pronounced for genes associated with autosomal dominant over recessive disorders. Pathways enriched for genes expressed and associated with phenotypes highlighted tissue functionality, including lipid metabolism in spleen and DNA repair in adipose tissue. These results suggest features useful for evaluating the likelihood of particular tissue manifestations in genetic disorders. The web address of an interactive platform integrating these data is provided. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Upwelling-Affected Brazilian Coastal Seawater Reveals Sequence Domains of Type I PKS and Modular NRPS.

    PubMed

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Cury, Juliano C; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2015-11-27

    Marine environments harbor a wide range of microorganisms from the three domains of life. These microorganisms have great potential to enable discovery of new enzymes and bioactive compounds for industrial use. However, only ~1% of microorganisms from the environment can currently be identified through cultured isolates, limiting the discovery of new compounds. To overcome this limitation, a metagenomics approach has been widely adopted for biodiversity studies on samples from marine environments. In this study, we screened metagenomes in order to estimate the potential for new natural compound synthesis mediated by diversity in the Polyketide Synthase (PKS) and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) genes. The samples were collected from the Praia dos Anjos (Angel's Beach) surface water-Arraial do Cabo (Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), an environment affected by upwelling. In order to evaluate the potential for screening natural products in Arraial do Cabo samples, we used KS (keto-synthase) and C (condensation) domains (from PKS and NRPS, respectively) to build Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models. From both samples, a total of 84 KS and 46 C novel domain sequences were obtained, showing the potential of this environment for the discovery of new genes of biotechnological interest. These domains were classified by phylogenetic analysis and this was the first study conducted to screen PKS and NRPS genes in an upwelling affected sample.

  16. Common and segregated neural substrates for automatic conceptual and affective priming as revealed by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-02-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming with a lexical decision task. A special type of emotional word, a dual-meaning word containing both conceptual meaning and affective meaning, was adopted as target. Short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) (50 ms) was used to emphasize automatic processing. Fifteen participants were scanned in the present study. We found that the left middle/superior temporal gyrus was the brain region involved in both automatic conceptual and affective priming effects, suggesting general lexical-semantic processing that share in the two types of priming. The left inferior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were found to be the conceptual-specific areas in automatic priming effect, consistent with the role of these areas in more extensive within-category semantic processes. The results also revealed that the left fusiform gyrus and left insula were the affective-specific regions in automatic priming effect, demonstrating the involvement of the left fusiform gyrus in automatic affective priming effect, and clarifying the role of the insula in emotional processing rather than conceptual processing. Despite comparable behavioral effects of automatic conceptual priming and affective priming, the present study revealed a neural dissociation of the two types of priming, as well as the shared neural bases.

  17. Water quality and daily temperature cycle affect biofilm formation in drip irrigation devices revealed by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jueying; Horn, Harald; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona; Katz, Sagi; Wagner, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Drip irrigation is a water-saving technology. To date, little is known about how biofilm forms in drippers of irrigation systems. In this study, the internal dripper geometry was recreated in 3-D printed microfluidic devices (MFDs). To mimic the temperature conditions in (semi-) arid areas, experiments were conducted in a temperature controlled box between 20 and 50°C. MFDs were either fed with two different treated wastewater (TWW) or synthetic wastewater. Biofilm formation was monitored non-invasively and in situ by optical coherence tomography (OCT). 3-D OCT datasets reveal the major fouling position and illustrate that biofilm development was influenced by fluid dynamics. Biofilm volumetric coverage of the labyrinth up to 60% did not reduce the discharge rate, whereas a further increase to 80% reduced the discharge rate by 50%. Moreover, the biofilm formation rate was significantly inhibited in daily temperature cycle independent of the cultivation medium used.

  18. Solution NMR Structure of a Ligand/Hybrid-2-G-Quadruplex Complex Reveals Rearrangements that Affect Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Wirmer-Bartoschek, Julia; Bendel, Lars Erik; Jonker, Hendrik R A; Grün, J Tassilo; Papi, Francesco; Bazzicalupi, Carla; Messori, Luigi; Gratteri, Paola; Schwalbe, Harald

    2017-06-12

    Telomeric G-quadruplexes have recently emerged as drug targets in cancer research. Herein, we present the first NMR structure of a telomeric DNA G-quadruplex that adopts the biologically relevant hybrid-2 conformation in a ligand-bound state. We solved the complex with a metalorganic gold(III) ligand that stabilizes G-quadruplexes. Analysis of the free and bound structures reveals structural changes in the capping region of the G-quadruplex. The ligand is sandwiched between one terminal G-tetrad and a flanking nucleotide. This complex structure involves a major structural rearrangement compared to the free G-quadruplex structure as observed for other G-quadruplexes in different conformations, invalidating simple docking approaches to ligand-G-quadruplex structure determination. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The importance of biological factors affecting trace metal concentration as revealed from accumulation patterns in co-occurring terrestrial invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Bogaert, Nicolas; Tojal, Catarina; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M G; Verloo, Marc G

    2004-01-01

    As physicochemical properties of the soil highly influence the bioavailable fraction of a particular trace metal, measured metal body burdens in a particular species are often assumed to be more reliable estimators of the contamination of the biota. To test this we compared the Cd, Cu and Zn content of three spiders (generalist predators) and two amphipods (detritivores), co-occurring in seven tidal marshes along the river Schelde, between each other and with the total metal concentrations and the concentrations of four sequential extractions of the soils. Correlations were significant in only one case and significant site x species interactions for all metals demonstrate that factors affecting metal concentration were species and site specific and not solely determined by site specific characteristics. These results emphasize that site and species specific biological factors might be of the utmost importance in determining the contamination of the biota, at least for higher trophic levels. A hypothetical example clarifies these findings.

  20. Genetic Dissection of Morphometric Traits Reveals That Phytochrome B Affects Nucleus Size and Heterochromatin Organization in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, Basten L.; Pavlova, Penka; Tessadori, Federico; Peeters, Anton J. M.; Bourbousse, Clara; Barneche, Fredy; de Jong, Hans; Fransz, Paul F.; van Zanten, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Microscopically visible chromatin is partitioned into two major components in Arabidopsis thaliana nuclei. On one hand, chromocenters are conspicuous foci of highly condensed “heterochromatic” domains that contain mostly repeated sequences. On the other hand, less condensed and gene-rich “euchromatin” emanates from these chromocenters. This differentiation, together with the dynamic nature of chromatin compaction in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, makes Arabidopsis a powerful system for studying chromatin organization and dynamics. Heterochromatin dynamics can be monitored by measuring the Heterochromatin Index, i.e., the proportion of nuclei displaying well-defined chromocenters, or the DNA fraction of chromocenters (relative heterochromatin fraction). Both measures are composite traits, thus their values represent the sum of effects of various underlying morphometric properties. We exploited genetic variation between natural occurring accessions to determine the genetic basis of individual nucleus and chromocenter morphometric parameters (area, perimeter, density, roundness, and heterogeneity) that together determine chromatin compaction. Our novel reductionist genetic approach revealed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for all measured traits. Genomic colocalization among QTL was limited, which suggests a complex genetic regulation of chromatin compaction. Yet genomic intervals of QTL for nucleus size (area and perimeter) both overlap with a known QTL for heterochromatin compaction that is explained by natural polymorphism in the red/far-red light and temperature receptor Phytochrome B. Mutant analyses and genetic complementation assays show that Phytochrome B is a negative regulator of nucleus size, revealing that perception of climatic conditions by a Phytochrome-mediated hub is a major determinant for coordinating nucleus size and heterochromatin compaction. PMID:28592555

  1. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptome analyses reveal finishing forage affects metabolic pathways related to beef quality and animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José A.; He, Yanghua; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Jianan; Erdman, Richard A.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Song, Jiuzhou

    2016-01-01

    Beef represents a major dietary component and source of protein in many countries. With an increasing demand for beef, the industry is currently undergoing changes towards naturally produced beef. However, the true differences between the feeding systems, especially the biochemical and nutritional aspects, are still unclear. Using transcriptome and metabolome profiles, we identified biological pathways related to the differences between grass- and grain-fed Angus steers. In the latissimus dorsi muscle, we have recognized 241 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.1). The metabolome examinations of muscle and blood revealed 163 and 179 altered compounds in each tissue (P < 0.05), respectively. Accordingly, alterations in glucose metabolism, divergences in free fatty acids and carnitine conjugated lipid levels, and altered β-oxidation have been observed. The anti-inflammatory n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are enriched in grass finished beef, while higher levels of n6 PUFAs in grain finished animals may promote inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, grass-fed animals produce tender beef with lower total fat and a higher omega3/omega6 ratio than grain-fed ones, which could potentially benefit consumer health. Most importantly, blood cortisol levels strongly indicate that grass-fed animals may experience less stress than the grain-fed individuals. These results will provide deeper insights into the merits and mechanisms of muscle development. PMID:27185157

  2. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Alyssa J; Shehan, Catherine V; Hayes, John E

    2016-04-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of ankylosing spondylitis patients before and after TNF-α inhibitor therapy reveals the pathways affected.

    PubMed

    Wang, X B; Ellis, J J; Pennisi, D J; Song, X; Batra, J; Hollis, K; Bradbury, L A; Li, Z; Kenna, T J; Brown, M A

    2017-08-24

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors are highly effective in suppressing inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, and operate by suppression of TFN-α and downstream immunological pathways. To determine the mechanisms of action of TNF-α inhibitors in AS patients, we used transcriptomic and bioinformatic approaches on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AS patients pre and post treatment. We found 656 differentially expressed genes, including the genome-wide significant AS-associated genes, IL6R, NOTCH1, IL10, CXCR2 and TNFRSF1A. A distinctive gene expression profile was found between male and female patients, mainly because of sex chromosome-linked genes and interleukin 17 receptor C, potentially accounting for the differences in clinical manifestation and treatment response between the genders. In addition to immune and inflammation regulatory pathways, like intestinal immune network for IgA production, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Ras signaling pathway, allograft rejection and hematopoietic cell lineage, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses revealed that infection-associated pathways (influenza A and toxoplasmosis) and metabolism-associated pathways were involved in response to TNF-α inhibitor treatment, providing insight into the mechanism of TNF-α inhibitors.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 24 August 2017; doi:10.1038/gene.2017.19.

  4. Quantitative proteome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli exposed to tetracycline reveals multiple affected metabolic and peptidoglycan processes.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Moura, Inês Barata; Manageiro, Vera; Igrejas, Gilberto; Caniça, Manuela; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-03-06

    Tetracyclines are among the most commonly used antibiotics administrated to farm animals for disease treatment and prevention, contributing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Although tetracycline mechanisms of resistance are well known, the role of metabolism in bacterial reaction to antibiotic stress is still an important assignment and could contribute to the understanding of tetracycline related stress response. In this study, spectral counts-based label free quantitative proteomics has been applied to study the response to tetracycline of the environmental-borne Escherichia coli EcAmb278 isolate soluble proteome. A total of 1484 proteins were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry at a false discovery rate threshold of 1%, of which 108 were uniquely identified under absence of tetracycline whereas 126 were uniquely identified in presence of tetracycline. These proteins revealed interesting difference in e.g. proteins involved in peptidoglycan-based cell wall proteins and energy metabolism. Upon treatment, 12 proteins were differentially regulated showing more than 2-fold change and p<0.05 (p value corrected for multiple testing). This integrated study using high resolution mass spectrometry based label-free quantitative proteomics to study tetracycline antibiotic response in the soluble proteome of resistant E. coli provides novel insight into tetracycline related stress.

  5. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals key proteins affecting muscle growth and lipid deposition in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhixiu; Shang, Peng; Li, Qinggang; Wang, Liyuan; Chamba, Yangzom; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Changxin

    2017-01-01

    Growth rate and meat quality, two economically important traits in pigs, are controlled by multiple genes and biological pathways. In the present study, we performed a proteomic analysis of longissimus dorsi muscle from six-month-old pigs from two Chinese native mini-type breeds (TP and DSP) and two introduced western breeds (YY and LL) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). In total, 4,815 peptides corresponding to 969 proteins were detected. Comparison of expression patterns between TP-DSP and YY-LL revealed 288 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), of which 169 were up-regulated and 119 were down-regulated. Functional annotation suggested that 28 DEPs were related to muscle growth and 15 to lipid deposition. Protein interaction network predictions indicated that differences in muscle growth and muscle fibre between TP-DSP and YY-LL groups were regulated by ALDOC, ENO3, PGK1, PGK2, TNNT1, TNNT3, TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, MYL3, MYH4, and TNNC2, whereas differences in lipid deposition ability were regulated by LPL, APOA1, APOC3, ACADM, FABP3, ACADVL, ACAA2, ACAT1, HADH, and PECI. Twelve DEPs were analysed using parallel reaction monitoring to confirm the reliability of the iTRAQ analysis. Our findings provide new insights into key proteins involved in muscle growth and lipid deposition in the pig. PMID:28436483

  6. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals key proteins affecting muscle growth and lipid deposition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixiu; Shang, Peng; Li, Qinggang; Wang, Liyuan; Chamba, Yangzom; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Changxin

    2017-04-24

    Growth rate and meat quality, two economically important traits in pigs, are controlled by multiple genes and biological pathways. In the present study, we performed a proteomic analysis of longissimus dorsi muscle from six-month-old pigs from two Chinese native mini-type breeds (TP and DSP) and two introduced western breeds (YY and LL) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). In total, 4,815 peptides corresponding to 969 proteins were detected. Comparison of expression patterns between TP-DSP and YY-LL revealed 288 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), of which 169 were up-regulated and 119 were down-regulated. Functional annotation suggested that 28 DEPs were related to muscle growth and 15 to lipid deposition. Protein interaction network predictions indicated that differences in muscle growth and muscle fibre between TP-DSP and YY-LL groups were regulated by ALDOC, ENO3, PGK1, PGK2, TNNT1, TNNT3, TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, MYL3, MYH4, and TNNC2, whereas differences in lipid deposition ability were regulated by LPL, APOA1, APOC3, ACADM, FABP3, ACADVL, ACAA2, ACAT1, HADH, and PECI. Twelve DEPs were analysed using parallel reaction monitoring to confirm the reliability of the iTRAQ analysis. Our findings provide new insights into key proteins involved in muscle growth and lipid deposition in the pig.

  7. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Alyssa J.; Shehan, Catherine V.; Hayes, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference. PMID:26752811

  8. Genetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 from pigs affected with PMWS in Chile reveals intergenotypic recombination.

    PubMed

    Neira, Victor; Ramos, Natalia; Tapia, Rodrigo; Arbiza, Juan; Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Quezada, Manuel; Ruiz, Álvaro; Bucarey, Sergio A

    2017-10-04

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a very small, non-enveloped and icosahedral virus, with circular single stranded DNA genome. This virus is the most ubiquitous and persistent pathogen currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. PCV2 has been implicated as the major causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a disease which is characterized by severe immunosuppressive effects in the porcine host. Worldwide PCV2 isolates have been classified into four different genotypes, PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCVd. The goal of this work was to conduct the first phylogenetic analysis of PCV2 in Chile. PCV2 partial ORF2 sequences (462 nt) obtained from 29 clinical cases of PMWS in 22 Chilean intensive swine farms, covering over the 90% of the local pork-production, were analyzed. 14% and 52% of sequences belonged to the genotypes PCV2a and PCV2b, respectively. Surprisingly, 34% of sequences were PCV2a/PCV2d recombinant viruses. Our findings suggested that a novel cluster of Chilean sequences emerged resulting from intergenotypic recombination between PCV2a and PCV2d.

  9. Where does TMS Stimulate the Motor Cortex? Combining Electrophysiological Measurements and Realistic Field Estimates to Reveal the Affected Cortex Position.

    PubMed

    Bungert, Andreas; Antunes, André; Espenhahn, Svenja; Thielscher, Axel

    2016-09-24

    Much of our knowledge on the physiological mechanisms of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) stems from studies which targeted the human motor cortex. However, it is still unclear which part of the motor cortex is predominantly affected by TMS. Considering that the motor cortex consists of functionally and histologically distinct subareas, this also renders the hypotheses on the physiological TMS effects uncertain. We use the finite element method (FEM) and magnetic resonance image-based individual head models to get realistic estimates of the electric field induced by TMS. The field changes in different subparts of the motor cortex are compared with electrophysiological threshold changes of 2 hand muscles when systematically varying the coil orientation in measurements. We demonstrate that TMS stimulates the region around the gyral crown and that the maximal electric field strength in this region is significantly related to the electrophysiological response. Our study is one of the most extensive comparisons between FEM-based field calculations and physiological TMS effects so far, being based on data for 2 hand muscles in 9 subjects. The results help to improve our understanding of the basic mechanisms of TMS. They also pave the way for a systematic exploration of realistic field estimates for dosage control in TMS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Molecular crowding affects diffusion and binding of nuclear proteins in heterochromatin and reveals the fractal organization of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Bancaud, Aurélien; Huet, Sébastien; Daigle, Nathalie; Mozziconacci, Julien; Beaudouin, Joël; Ellenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded. In vitro, molecular crowding induces volume exclusion, hinders diffusion and enhances association, but whether these effects are relevant in vivo remains unclear. Here, we establish that volume exclusion and diffusive hindrance occur in dense nuclear compartments by probing the diffusive behaviour of inert fluorescent tracers in living cells. We also demonstrate that chromatin-interacting proteins remain transiently trapped in heterochromatin due to crowding induced enhanced affinity. The kinetic signatures of these crowding consequences allow us to derive a fractal model of chromatin organization, which explains why the dynamics of soluble nuclear proteins are affected independently of their size. This model further shows that the fractal architecture differs between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and predicts that chromatin proteins use different target-search strategies in the two compartments. We propose that fractal crowding is a fundamental principle of nuclear organization, particularly of heterochromatin maintenance. PMID:19927119

  11. RNA-Seq reveals 10 novel promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration in the Chinese Holstein population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Cai, Wentao; Zhou, Chenghao; Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Ziqi; Loor, Juan J.; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to explore the bovine transcriptome from the mammary tissue of 12 Chinese Holstein cows with 6 extremely high and 6 low phenotypic values for milk protein percentage. We defined the differentially expressed transcripts between the two comparison groups, extremely high and low milk protein percentage during the peak lactation (HP vs LP) and during the non-lactating period (HD vs LD), respectively. Within the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we detected 157 at peak lactation and 497 in the non-lactating period with a highly significant correlation with milk protein concentration. Integrated interpretation of differential gene expression indicated that SERPINA1, CLU, CNTFR, ERBB2, NEDD4L, ANG, GALE, HSPA8, LPAR6 and CD14 are the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration. Similarly, LTF, FCGR3A, MEGF10, RRM2 and UBE2C are the most promising candidates that in the non-lactating period could help the mammary tissue prevent issues with inflammation and udder disorders. Putative genes will be valuable resources for designing better breeding strategies to optimize the content of milk protein and also to provide new insights into regulation of lactogenesis. PMID:27254118

  12. Targeting of several glycolytic enzymes using RNA interference reveals aldolase affects cancer cell proliferation through a non-glycolytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ritterson Lew, Carolyn; Tolan, Dean R

    2012-12-14

    In cancer, glucose uptake and glycolysis are increased regardless of the oxygen concentration in the cell, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Several (but not all) glycolytic enzymes have been investigated as potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment using RNAi. Here, four previously untargeted glycolytic enzymes, aldolase A, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, and enolase 1, are targeted using RNAi in Ras-transformed NIH-3T3 cells. Of these enzymes, knockdown of aldolase causes the greatest effect, inhibiting cell proliferation by 90%. This defect is rescued by expression of exogenous aldolase. However, aldolase knockdown does not affect glycolytic flux or intracellular ATP concentration, indicating a non-metabolic cause for the cell proliferation defect. Furthermore, this defect could be rescued with an enzymatically dead aldolase variant that retains the known F-actin binding ability of aldolase. One possible model for how aldolase knockdown may inhibit transformed cell proliferation is through its disruption of actin-cytoskeleton dynamics in cell division. Consistent with this hypothesis, aldolase knockdown cells show increased multinucleation. These results are compared with other studies targeting glycolytic enzymes with RNAi in the context of cancer cell proliferation and suggest that aldolase may be a useful target in the treatment of cancer.

  13. Molecular crowding affects diffusion and binding of nuclear proteins in heterochromatin and reveals the fractal organization of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Bancaud, Aurélien; Huet, Sébastien; Daigle, Nathalie; Mozziconacci, Julien; Beaudouin, Joël; Ellenberg, Jan

    2009-12-16

    The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded. In vitro, molecular crowding induces volume exclusion, hinders diffusion and enhances association, but whether these effects are relevant in vivo remains unclear. Here, we establish that volume exclusion and diffusive hindrance occur in dense nuclear compartments by probing the diffusive behaviour of inert fluorescent tracers in living cells. We also demonstrate that chromatin-interacting proteins remain transiently trapped in heterochromatin due to crowding induced enhanced affinity. The kinetic signatures of these crowding consequences allow us to derive a fractal model of chromatin organization, which explains why the dynamics of soluble nuclear proteins are affected independently of their size. This model further shows that the fractal architecture differs between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and predicts that chromatin proteins use different target-search strategies in the two compartments. We propose that fractal crowding is a fundamental principle of nuclear organization, particularly of heterochromatin maintenance.

  14. RNA sequencing analysis reveals transcriptomic variations in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves affected by climate, soil, and tillage factors.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bo; Lu, Kun; Ding, Fuzhang; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yi; Zhao, Huina; Zhang, Lin; Ren, Zhu; Qu, Cunmin; Guo, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Pan, Wenjie

    2014-04-11

    The growth and development of plants are sensitive to their surroundings. Although numerous studies have analyzed plant transcriptomic variation, few have quantified the effect of combinations of factors or identified factor-specific effects. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis on tobacco leaves derived from 10 treatment combinations of three groups of ecological factors, i.e., climate factors (CFs), soil factors (SFs), and tillage factors (TFs). We detected 4980, 2916, and 1605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were affected by CFs, SFs, and TFs, which included 2703, 768, and 507 specific and 703 common DEGs (simultaneously regulated by CFs, SFs, and TFs), respectively. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in abiotic stress responses and secondary metabolic pathways were overrepresented in the common and CF-specific DEGs. In addition, we noted enrichment in CF-specific DEGs related to the circadian rhythm, SF-specific DEGs involved in mineral nutrient absorption and transport, and SF- and TF-specific DEGs associated with photosynthesis. Based on these results, we propose a model that explains how plants adapt to various ecological factors at the transcriptomic level. Additionally, the identified DEGs lay the foundation for future investigations of stress resistance, circadian rhythm and photosynthesis in tobacco.

  15. RNA Sequencing Analysis Reveals Transcriptomic Variations in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Leaves Affected by Climate, Soil, and Tillage Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Bo; Lu, Kun; Ding, Fuzhang; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yi; Zhao, Huina; Zhang, Lin; Ren, Zhu; Qu, Cunmin; Guo, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Pan, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    The growth and development of plants are sensitive to their surroundings. Although numerous studies have analyzed plant transcriptomic variation, few have quantified the effect of combinations of factors or identified factor-specific effects. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis on tobacco leaves derived from 10 treatment combinations of three groups of ecological factors, i.e., climate factors (CFs), soil factors (SFs), and tillage factors (TFs). We detected 4980, 2916, and 1605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were affected by CFs, SFs, and TFs, which included 2703, 768, and 507 specific and 703 common DEGs (simultaneously regulated by CFs, SFs, and TFs), respectively. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in abiotic stress responses and secondary metabolic pathways were overrepresented in the common and CF-specific DEGs. In addition, we noted enrichment in CF-specific DEGs related to the circadian rhythm, SF-specific DEGs involved in mineral nutrient absorption and transport, and SF- and TF-specific DEGs associated with photosynthesis. Based on these results, we propose a model that explains how plants adapt to various ecological factors at the transcriptomic level. Additionally, the identified DEGs lay the foundation for future investigations of stress resistance, circadian rhythm and photosynthesis in tobacco. PMID:24733065

  16. Exome and deep sequencing of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma reveal somatic mutations that affect key pathways involved in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lasorsa, Vito Alessandro; Formicola, Daniela; Pignataro, Piero; Cimmino, Flora; Calabrese, Francesco Maria; Mora, Jaume; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Pantile, Marcella; Zanon, Carlo; De Mariano, Marilena; Longo, Luca; Hogarty, Michael D.; de Torres, Carmen; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Iolascon, Achille; Capasso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of somatic mutation of the most aggressive forms of neuroblastoma is not completely determined. We sought to identify potential cancer drivers in clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Whole exome sequencing was conducted on 17 germline and tumor DNA samples from high-risk patients with adverse events within 36 months from diagnosis (HR-Event3) to identify somatic mutations and deep targeted sequencing of 134 genes selected from the initial screening in additional 48 germline and tumor pairs (62.5% HR-Event3 and high-risk patients), 17 HR-Event3 tumors and 17 human-derived neuroblastoma cell lines. We revealed 22 significantly mutated genes, many of which implicated in cancer progression. Fifteen genes (68.2%) were highly expressed in neuroblastoma supporting their involvement in the disease. CHD9, a cancer driver gene, was the most significantly altered (4.0% of cases) after ALK. Other genes (PTK2, NAV3, NAV1, FZD1 and ATRX), expressed in neuroblastoma and involved in cell invasion and migration were mutated at frequency ranged from 4% to 2%. Focal adhesion and regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathways, were frequently disrupted (14.1% of cases) thus suggesting potential novel therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression. Notably BARD1, CHEK2 and AXIN2 were enriched in rare, potentially pathogenic, germline variants. In summary, whole exome and deep targeted sequencing identified novel cancer genes of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Our analyses show pathway-level implications of infrequently mutated genes in leading neuroblastoma progression. PMID:27009842

  17. Different colors reveal different information: how nutritional stress affects the expression of melanin- and structurally based ornamental plumage.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Kevin J; Mackillop, Emiko A; Dale, James; Hauber, Mark E

    2002-12-01

    Avian plumage colors have emerged recently as model systems for investigating the types of information that can be signaled by showy sexual displays in animals. In many species, the brightness of carotenoid-based plumage reflects the health and condition of individuals and is used in mate selection. The information contained in melanin-based and structurally based ornamental colors in birds is less well resolved, however. We subjected male house sparrows Passer domesticus and brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater to stressful nutritional conditions during molt to test the hypothesis that melanin- and structurally based plumage colors are nutritionally condition-dependent. We restricted food access for treatment males during randomized 6 h periods on 4 days per week, while allowing control birds access to food ad libitum throughout the course of the molt. We found that the size and brightness of the melanin-based throat badges in male house sparrows were not affected by nutritional stress. Similarly, there were no differences between treatment and control male cowbirds in the size or brightness of the melanin-based brown hood. However, the structurally based iridescent plumage of cowbirds was indicative of the nutritional condition of males during molt. Nutritionally stressed cowbirds grew significantly less colorful plumage than did males with access to food ad libitum. These results are consistent with observations in other avian species that different types of plumage color communicate different sets of information. Melanin ornaments are less sensitive to nutritional conditions during molt and instead may reflect the hormonal status and/or competitive ability of males, whereas structural coloration appears to be an accurate signal of health and condition.

  18. Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients reveals proteins that affect oxidative stress responses and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hua-Rong; Shi, Hui-Juan; Ma, Duan; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Lin, Biaoyang; Li, Run-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Asthenozoospermia (AS) is a common cause of human male infertility. In one study, more than 80% of the samples from infertile men had reduced sperm motility. Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions from the testis, epididymis and several male accessory glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowper's gland. Studies have shown that seminal plasma contains proteins that are important for sperm motility. To further explore the pathophysiological character of AS, we separated the seminal plasma proteins from AS patients and healthy donors using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion, and then subjected the proteins to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. A total of 741 proteins were identified in the seminal plasma, with a false discovery rate of 3.3%. Using spectral counting, we found that 45 proteins were threefold upregulated and 56 proteins were threefold downregulated in the AS group when compared with the control. Most of these proteins originated from the epididymis and prostate. This study identified a rich source of biomarker candidates for male infertility and indicates that functional abnormalities of the epididymis and prostate can contribute to AS. We identified DJ-1-a protein that has been shown elsewhere to be involved in the control of oxidative stress (OS)-as a downregulated protein in AS seminal plasma. The levels of DJ-1 in AS seminal plasma were about half of those in the control samples. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species were 3.3-fold higher in the AS samples than in the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that downregulation of DJ-1 is involved in OS in semen, and therefore affects the quality of the semen.

  19. A water availability gradient reveals the deficit level required to affect traits in potted juvenile Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Adam B; Potts, Brad M; Hovenden, Mark J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Davies, Noel W; Rodemann, Thomas; McAdam, Scott A M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M

    2017-04-01

    Drought leading to soil water deficit can have severe impacts on plants. Water deficit may lead to plant water stress and affect growth and chemical traits. Plant secondary metabolite (PSM) responses to water deficit vary between compounds and studies, with inconsistent reports of changes to PSM concentrations even within a single species. This disparity may result from experimental water deficit variation among studies, and so multiple water deficit treatments are used to fully assess PSM responses in a single species. Juvenile Eucalyptus globulus were grown for 8 weeks at one of ten water deficit levels based on evapotranspiration from control plants (100 %). Treatments ranged from 90 % of control evapotranspiration (mild water deficit) to 0 % of control evapotranspiration (severe water deficit) in 10 % steps. Plant biomass, foliar abscisic acid (ABA) levels, Ψ leaf , leaf C/N, selected terpenes and phenolics were quantified to assess responses to each level of water deficit relative to a control. Withholding ≥30 % water resulted in higher foliar ABA levels and withholding ≥40 % water reduced leaf water content. Ψ leaf became more negative when ≥60 % water was withheld. Plant biomass was lower when ≥80 % water was withheld, and no water for 8 weeks (0 % water) resulted in plant death. The total oil concentration was lower and C/N was higher in dead and desiccated juvenile E. globulus leaves (0 % water). Concentrations of individual phenolic and terpene compounds, along with condensed tannin and total phenolic concentrations, remained stable regardless of water deficit or plant stress level. These juvenile E. globulus became stressed with a moderate reduction in available water, and yet the persistent concentrations of most PSMs in highly stressed or dead plants suggests no PSM re-metabolization and continued ecological roles of foliar PSMs during drought.

  20. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan K.; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study origanum oil (ORO), garlic oil (GAO), and peppermint oil (PEO) were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L) on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria. PMID:25914694

  1. Deep Sequencing Analysis of RNAs from Citrus Plants Grown in a Citrus Sudden Death-Affected Area Reveals Diverse Known and Putative Novel Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Emilyn E.; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D.; Nouri, Shahideh; Falk, Bryce W.; Nerva, Luca; Oliveira, Tiago S.; Dorta, Silvia O.; Machado, Marcos A.

    2017-01-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) has caused the death of approximately four million orange trees in a very important citrus region in Brazil. Although its etiology is still not completely clear, symptoms and distribution of affected plants indicate a viral disease. In a search for viruses associated with CSD, we have performed a comparative high-throughput sequencing analysis of the transcriptome and small RNAs from CSD-symptomatic and -asymptomatic plants using the Illumina platform. The data revealed mixed infections that included Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) as the most predominant virus, followed by the Citrus sudden death-associated virus (CSDaV), Citrus endogenous pararetrovirus (CitPRV) and two putative novel viruses tentatively named Citrus jingmen-like virus (CJLV), and Citrus virga-like virus (CVLV). The deep sequencing analyses were sensitive enough to differentiate two genotypes of both viruses previously associated with CSD-affected plants: CTV and CSDaV. Our data also showed a putative association of the CSD-symptomatic plants with a specific CSDaV genotype and a likely association with CitPRV as well, whereas the two putative novel viruses showed to be more associated with CSD-asymptomatic plants. This is the first high-throughput sequencing-based study of the viral sequences present in CSD-affected citrus plants, and generated valuable information for further CSD studies. PMID:28441782

  2. X chromosome exome sequencing reveals a novel ALG13 mutation in a nonsyndromic intellectual disability family with multiple affected male siblings.

    PubMed

    Bissar-Tadmouri, Nesrine; Donahue, Whithey L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Nelson, Stanley F; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Kantarci, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a heterogeneous condition associated with mutations in >100 genes, accounting for over 10% of all cases of intellectual impairment. The majority of XLID cases show nonsyndromic forms (NSXLID), in which intellectual disability is the sole clinically consistent manifestation. Here we performed X chromosome exome (X-exome) sequencing to identify the causative mutation in an NSXLID family with four affected male siblings and five unaffected female siblings. The X-exome sequencing at 88× coverage in one affected male sibling revealed a novel missense mutation (p.Tyr1074Cys) in the asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 homolog (ALG13) gene. Segregation analysis by Sanger sequencing showed that the all affected siblings were hemizygous and the mother was heterozygous for the mutation. Recently, a de novo missense mutation in ALG13 has been reported in a patient with X-linked congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. Our study reports the first case of NSXLID caused by a mutation in ALG13 involved in protein N-glycosylation.

  3. The microarray gene profiling analysis of glioblastoma cancer cells reveals genes affected by FAK inhibitor Y15 and combination of Y15 and temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Grace; Ho, Baotran; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Qiang, Hu; Golubovskaya, Vita

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion is known to be highly expressed and activated in glioma cells. Recently, we demonstrated that FAK autophosphorylation inhibitor, Y15 significantly decreased tumor growth of DBTRG and U87 cells, especially in combination with temozolomide. In the present report, we performed gene expression analysis in these cells to reveal genes affected by Y15, temozolomide and combination of Y15 and temozolomide. We tested the effect of Y15 on gene expression by Illumina Human HT12v4 microarray assay and detected 8087 and 6555 genes, which were significantly either up- or down-regulated by Y15-treatment in DBTRG and U87 cells, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, DBTRG and U87 cells treated with Y15 changed expression of 1332 and 462 genes more than 1.5 fold, p<0.05, respectively and had 237 common genes affected by Y15. The common genes up-regulated by Y15 included GADD45A, HSPA6 (heat-shock 70); DUSP1, DUSP 5 (dual-phosphatase 5); CDKN1A (p21) and common down-regulated genes included kinesins, such as KIF11, 14, 20A, 20B; topoisomerase II, TOP2A; cyclin F; cell cycle protein: BUB1; PARP1, POLA1. In addition, we detected genes affected by temozolomide and by combination of Y15 and temozolomide treatment in U87 cells. Among genes up-regulated by Y15 and temozolomide more significantly than by each agent alone were: COX7B; interferon, gamma-inducible transcript: IFI16; DDIT4; GADD45G and down-regulated: KIF3A, AKT1; ABL; JAK1, GLI3 and ALDH1A3. Thus, microarray gene expression analysis can be effective in establishing genes affected in response to FAK inhibitor alone and in response to combination of Y15 with temozolomide that is important for glioblastoma therapy.

  4. Extended gene map reveals tripartite motif, C-type lectin, and Ig superfamily type genes within a subregion of the chicken MHC-B affecting infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Takashi; Briles, W Elwood; Goto, Ronald M; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Shimizu, Sayoko; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Miller, Marcia M

    2007-06-01

    MHC haplotypes have a remarkable influence on whether tumors form following infection of chickens with oncogenic Marek's disease herpesvirus. Although resistance to tumor formation has been mapped to a subregion of the chicken MHC-B region, the gene or genes responsible have not been identified. A full gene map of the subregion has been lacking. We have expanded the MHC-B region gene map beyond the 92-kb core previously reported for another haplotype revealing the presence of 46 genes within 242 kb in the Red Jungle Fowl haplotype. Even though MHC-B is structured differently, many of the newly revealed genes are related to loci typical of the MHC in other species. Other MHC-B loci are homologs of genes found within MHC paralogous regions (regions thought to be derived from ancient duplications of a primordial immune defense complex where genes have undergone differential silencing over evolutionary time) on other chromosomes. Still others are similar to genes that define the NK complex in mammals. Many of the newly mapped genes display allelic variability and fall within the MHC-B subregion previously shown to affect the formation of Marek's disease tumors and hence are candidates for genes conferring resistance.

  5. Functional MRI examination of empathy for pain in people with schizophrenia reveals abnormal activation related to cognitive perspective-taking but typical activation linked to affective sharing

    PubMed Central

    Vistoli, Damien; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Sutliff, Stephanie; Jackson, Philip L.; Achim, Amélie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with important disturbances in empathy that are related to everyday functioning. Empathy is classically defined as including affective (sharing others’ emotions) and cognitive (taking others’ cognitive perspectives) processes. In healthy individuals, studies on empathy for pain revealed specific brain systems associated with these sets of processes, notably the anterior middle cingulate (aMCC) and anterior insula (AI) for affective sharing and the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) for the cognitive processes, but the integrity of these systems in patients with schizophrenia remains uncertain. Methods Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed a pain empathy task while undergoing fMRI scanning. Participants observed pictures of hands in either painful or nonpainful situations and rated the level of pain while imagining either themselves (self) or an unknown person (other) in these situations. Results We included 27 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls in our analyses. For the pain versus no pain contrast, patients showed overall typical activation patterns in the aMCC and AI, with only a small part of the aMCC showing reduced activation compared with controls. For the other versus self contrast, patients showed an abnormal modulation of activation in the TPJ bilaterally (extending to the posterior superior temporal sulcus, referred to as the TPJ/pSTS). Limitations The design included an unnecessary manipulation of the visual perspective that reduced the number of trials for analysis. The sample size may not account for the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Conclusion People with schizophrenia showed relatively intact brain activation when observing others’ pain, but showed abnormalities when asked to take the cognitive perspectives of others. PMID:28556774

  6. Functional MRI examination of empathy for pain in people with schizophrenia reveals abnormal activation related to cognitive perspective-taking but typical activation linked to affective sharing.

    PubMed

    Vistoli, Damien; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Sutliff, Stephanie; Jackson, Philip L; Achim, Amélie M

    2017-06-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with important disturbances in empathy that are related to everyday functioning. Empathy is classically defined as including affective (sharing others' emotions) and cognitive (taking others' cognitive perspectives) processes. In healthy individuals, studies on empathy for pain revealed specific brain systems associated with these sets of processes, notably the anterior middle cingulate (aMCC) and anterior insula (AI) for affective sharing and the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) for the cognitive processes, but the integrity of these systems in patients with schizophrenia remains uncertain. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed a pain empathy task while undergoing fMRI scanning. Participants observed pictures of hands in either painful or nonpainful situations and rated the level of pain while imagining either themselves (self) or an unknown person (other) in these situations. We included 27 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls in our analyses. For the pain versus no pain contrast, patients showed overall typical activation patterns in the aMCC and AI, with only a small part of the aMCC showing reduced activation compared with controls. For the other versus self contrast, patients showed an abnormal modulation of activation in the TPJ bilaterally (extending to the posterior superior temporal sulcus, referred to as the TPJ/pSTS). The design included an unnecessary manipulation of the visual perspective that reduced the number of trials for analysis. The sample size may not account for the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia showed relatively intact brain activation when observing others' pain, but showed abnormalities when asked to take the cognitive perspectives of others.

  7. DNA Microarray and Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis Reveals That a Mutation in opsX Affects Virulence and Chemotaxis in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Il; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-06-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we investigated the effect of a mutation in opsX (XOO1056), which encodes a saccharide biosynthesis regulatory protein, on the virulence and bacterial chemotaxis of Xoo. We performed DNA microarray analysis, which showed that 63 of 2,678 genes, including genes related to bacterial motility (flagellar and chemotaxis proteins) were significantly downregulated (<-2 log2 fold changes) by the mutation in opsX. Indeed, motility assays showed that the mutant strain was nonmotile on semisolid agar swarm plates. In addition, a mutant strain (opsX::Tn5) showed decreased virulence against the susceptible rice cultivar, IR24. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR reaction was performed to confirm the expression levels of these genes, including those related to flagella and chemotaxis, in the opsX mutant. Our findings revealed that mutation of opsX affects both virulence and bacterial motility. These results will help to improve our understanding of Xoo and provide insight into Xoo-rice interactions.

  8. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site.

  9. Meta-analysis reveals an association of PTPN22 C1858T with autoimmune diseases, which depends on the localization of the affected tissue.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Ibrahim, S; Petersen, F; Yu, X

    2012-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is a strong susceptibility gene shared by many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying this relationship. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the association between PTPN22 polymorphism C1858T and autoimmune diseases. The results showed a remarkable pattern; PTPN22 C1858T was strongly associated with type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, immune thrombocytopenia, generalized vitiligo with concomitant autoimmune diseases, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, Graves' disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Addison's disease. By contrast, PTPN22 C1858T showed a negligible association with systemic sclerosis, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, pemphigus vulgaris, ulcerative colitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, Crohn's disease and acute anterior uveitis. Further analysis revealed a clear distinction between the two groups of diseases with regard to their targeted tissues: most autoimmune diseases showing an insignificant association with PTPN22 C1858T manifest in skin, the gastrointestinal tract or in immune privileged sites. These results showed that the association of PTPN22 polymorphism with autoimmune diseases depends on the localization of the affected tissue, suggesting a role of targeted organ variation in the disease manifestations.

  10. Genome-wide association mapping and biochemical markers reveal that seed ageing and longevity are intricately affected by genetic background and developmental and environmental conditions in barley.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Manuela; Kranner, Ilse; Neumann, Kerstin; Rolletschek, Hardy; Seal, Charlotte E; Colville, Louise; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Börner, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Globally, over 7.4 million accessions of crop seeds are stored in gene banks, and conservation of genotypic variation is pivotal for breeding. We combined genetic and biochemical approaches to obtain a broad overview of factors that influence seed storability and ageing in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Seeds from a germplasm collection of 175 genotypes from four continents grown in field plots with different nutrient supply were subjected to two artificial ageing regimes. Genome-wide association mapping revealed 107 marker trait associations, and hence, genotypic effects on seed ageing. Abiotic and biotic stresses were found to affect seed longevity. To address aspects of abiotic, including oxidative, stress, two major antioxidant groups were analysed. No correlation was found between seed deterioration and the lipid-soluble tocochromanols, nor with oil, starch and protein contents. Conversely, the water-soluble glutathione and related thiols were converted to disulphides, indicating a strong shift towards more oxidizing intracellular conditions, in seeds subjected to long-term dry storage at two temperatures or to two artificial ageing treatments. The data suggest that intracellular pH and (bio)chemical processes leading to seed deterioration were influenced by the type of ageing or storage. Moreover, seed response to ageing or storage treatment appears to be significantly influenced by both maternal environment and genetic background.

  11. Complete Proteomic-Based Enzyme Reaction and Inhibition Kinetics Reveal How Monolignol Biosynthetic Enzyme Families Affect Metabolic Flux and Lignin in Populus trichocarpa[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack P.; Naik, Punith P.; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Shuford, Christopher M.; Li, Quanzi; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Williams, Cranos M.; Muddiman, David C.; Ducoste, Joel J.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    We established a predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model for the 21 enzymes and 24 metabolites of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway using Populus trichocarpa secondary differentiating xylem. To establish this model, a comprehensive study was performed to obtain the reaction and inhibition kinetic parameters of all 21 enzymes based on functional recombinant proteins. A total of 104 Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters and 85 inhibition kinetic parameters were derived from these enzymes. Through mass spectrometry, we obtained the absolute quantities of all 21 pathway enzymes in the secondary differentiating xylem. This extensive experimental data set, generated from a single tissue specialized in wood formation, was used to construct the predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model to provide a comprehensive mathematical description of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. The model was validated using experimental data from transgenic P. trichocarpa plants. The model predicts how pathway enzymes affect lignin content and composition, explains a long-standing paradox regarding the regulation of monolignol subunit ratios in lignin, and reveals novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. This model provides an explanation of the effects of genetic and transgenic perturbations of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway in flowering plants. PMID:24619611

  12. Affective decision-making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in 10th grade Chinese adolescent binge drinkers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C Anderson; Xiao, Lin; Palmer, Paula; Sun, Ping; Wang, Qiong; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W; Bechara, Antoine

    2008-01-31

    The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescent binge drinkers, but not lighter drinkers, would show signs of impairment on tasks of affective decision-making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT), when compared to adolescents who never drank. We tested 207 10th grade adolescents in Chengdu City, China, using two versions of the IGT, the original and a variant, in which the reward/punishment contingencies were reversed. This enables one to distinguish among different possibilities of impaired decision-making, such as insensitivity to long-term consequences, or hypersensitivity to reward. Furthermore, we tested working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Paper and pencil questionnaires were used to assess drinking behaviors and school academic performance. Results indicated that relative to never-drinkers, adolescent binge drinkers, but not other (ever, past 30-day) drinkers, showed significantly lower net scores on the original version of the IGT especially in the latter trials. Furthermore, the profiles of behavioral performance from the original and variant versions of the IGT were consistent with a decision-making impairment attributed to hypersensitivity to reward. In addition, working memory and school academic performance revealed no differences between drinkers (at all levels) and never-drinkers. Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for demographic variables, working memory, and school academic performance, the IGT significantly predicted binge-drinking. These findings suggest that a "myopia" for future consequences linked to hypersensitivity to reward is a key characteristic of adolescents with binge-drinking behavior, and that underlying neural mechanisms for this "myopia" for future consequences may serve as a predisposing factor that renders some adolescents more susceptible to future addictive behaviors.

  13. Common and Segregated Neural Substrates for Automatic Conceptual and Affective Priming as Revealed by Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming…

  14. Common and Segregated Neural Substrates for Automatic Conceptual and Affective Priming as Revealed by Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming…

  15. Using activity triggered e-diaries to reveal the associations between physical activity and affective states in older adult's daily living.

    PubMed

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2015-09-17

    Evidence suggests that older adults show positive affects after participating in exercise bouts. However, it is less clear, if and how physical activities in daily living enhance affective states, too. This is dissatisfying, as most of older adults' physical activities are part of their daily living. To answer these questions we used activity-triggered e-diaries to investigate the within-subject effects of physical activity on three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) during everyday life. Older adults (N = 74) between 50 and 70 years took part in the study during three consecutive days. Physical activity in daily living was objectively assessed using accelerometers. Affects were measured 10 min after a study participant surpassed a predefined threshold for activity or inactivity. The participants were prompted by an acoustic signal to assess their momentary affective states on an e-diary. Data were analyzed with hierarchical multilevel analyses. Whenever older individuals were more physically active, they felt more energized (energetic arousal) and agitated (calmness). However, they did not feel better (valence). Interestingly, body mass index (BMI) and valence were associated in a significant cross-level interaction. BMI acts as a moderating variable in the way that lower BMI scores were associated with higher levels of valence scores after being physically active. The innovative ambulatory assessment used here affords an interesting insight to the affective effects of daily activity of older adults. These effects are no simple and no linear ones, i.e. physical activity is not associated with positive affects per se as shown several times in experimental studies with single activity bouts. Rather there is a differentiating association seen as an enhanced feeling of energy and agitation, which is not accompanied by a better feeling. Socio-emotional selectivity theory may support the finding that older individuals are

  16. Familial Dysautonomia (FD) Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived PNS Neurons Reveal that Synaptic Vesicular and Neuronal Transport Genes Are Directly or Indirectly Affected by IKBKAP Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Gal; Cheishvili, David; Even, Aviel; Birger, Anastasya; Turetsky, Tikva; Gil, Yaniv; Even-Ram, Sharona; Aizenman, Einat; Bashir, Nibal; Maayan, Channa; Razin, Aharon; Reubinoff, Benjamim E.; Weil, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes Familial Dysautonomia (FD), affecting the IKAP protein expression levels and proper development and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here we found new molecular insights for the IKAP role and the impact of the FD mutation in the human PNS lineage by using a novel and unique human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line homozygous to the FD mutation originated by pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) analysis. We found that IKBKAP downregulation during PNS differentiation affects normal migration in FD-hESC derived neural crest cells (NCC) while at later stages the PNS neurons show reduced intracellular colocalization between vesicular proteins and IKAP. Comparative wide transcriptome analysis of FD and WT hESC-derived neurons together with the analysis of human brains from FD and WT 12 weeks old embryos and experimental validation of the results confirmed that synaptic vesicular and neuronal transport genes are directly or indirectly affected by IKBKAP downregulation in FD neurons. Moreover we show that kinetin (a drug that corrects IKBKAP alternative splicing) promotes the recovery of IKAP expression and these IKAP functional associated genes identified in the study. Altogether, these results support the view that IKAP might be a vesicular like protein that might be involved in neuronal transport in hESC derived PNS neurons. This function seems to be mostly affected in FD-hESC derived PNS neurons probably reflecting some PNS neuronal dysfunction observed in FD. PMID:26437462

  17. Familial Dysautonomia (FD) Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived PNS Neurons Reveal that Synaptic Vesicular and Neuronal Transport Genes Are Directly or Indirectly Affected by IKBKAP Downregulation.

    PubMed

    Lefler, Sharon; Cohen, Malkiel A; Kantor, Gal; Cheishvili, David; Even, Aviel; Birger, Anastasya; Turetsky, Tikva; Gil, Yaniv; Even-Ram, Sharona; Aizenman, Einat; Bashir, Nibal; Maayan, Channa; Razin, Aharon; Reubinoff, Benjamim E; Weil, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes Familial Dysautonomia (FD), affecting the IKAP protein expression levels and proper development and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here we found new molecular insights for the IKAP role and the impact of the FD mutation in the human PNS lineage by using a novel and unique human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line homozygous to the FD mutation originated by pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) analysis. We found that IKBKAP downregulation during PNS differentiation affects normal migration in FD-hESC derived neural crest cells (NCC) while at later stages the PNS neurons show reduced intracellular colocalization between vesicular proteins and IKAP. Comparative wide transcriptome analysis of FD and WT hESC-derived neurons together with the analysis of human brains from FD and WT 12 weeks old embryos and experimental validation of the results confirmed that synaptic vesicular and neuronal transport genes are directly or indirectly affected by IKBKAP downregulation in FD neurons. Moreover we show that kinetin (a drug that corrects IKBKAP alternative splicing) promotes the recovery of IKAP expression and these IKAP functional associated genes identified in the study. Altogether, these results support the view that IKAP might be a vesicular like protein that might be involved in neuronal transport in hESC derived PNS neurons. This function seems to be mostly affected in FD-hESC derived PNS neurons probably reflecting some PNS neuronal dysfunction observed in FD.

  18. Differentially expressed microRNAs and affected biological pathways revealed by modulated modularity clustering (MMC) analysis of human preeclamptic and IUGR placentas

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling; Tsai, Shengdar; Harding, Nicholas; James, Andra; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Thames, Betty; Stone, Eric; Deng, Changyan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study focuses on the implementation of modulated modularity clustering (MMC) a new cluster algorithm for the identification of molecular signatures of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and the identification of affected microRNAs Methods Eighty-six human placentas from normal (40), growth-restricted (27), and preeclamptic (19) term pregnancies were profiled using Illumina Human-6 Beadarrays. MMC was utilized to generate modules based on similarities in placental transcriptome. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to predict affected microRNAs. Expression levels of these candidate microRNAs were investigated in seventy-one human term placentas as follows: control (29); IUGR (26); and preeclampsia (16). Results MMC identified two modules, one representing IUGR placentas and one representing preeclamptic placentas. 326 differentially expressed genes in the module representing IUGR and 889 differentially expressed genes in a module representing preeclampsia were identified. Functional analysis of molecular signatures associated with IUGR identified P13K/AKT, mTOR, p70S6K, apoptosis and IGF-1 signaling as being affected. Analysis of variance of GSEA-predicted microRNAs indicated that miR-194 was significantly down-regulated both in preeclampsia (p=0.0001) and IUGR (p=0.0304), and miR-149 was significantly down-regulated in preeclampsia (p=0.0168). Discussion Implementation of MMC, allowed identification of genes disregulated in IUGR and preeclampsia. The reliability of MMC was validated by comparing to previous linear modeling analysis of preeclamptic placentas. Conclusion MMC allowed the elucidation of a molecular signature associated with preeclampsia and a subset of IUGR samples. This allowed the identification of genes, pathways, and microRNAs affected in these diseases. PMID:23639576

  19. Laboratory trials reveal that exposure to extreme raining events prior to metamorphosis affect the post-settlement performance of an estuarine crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Felisa; Silva Neto, Gina M.; Rosa, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    Meteorological forcing can impact planktonic communities, with extreme raining events promoting salinity decreases and triggering larval mortality in estuarine plankton. The present study evaluated how exposure to low salinities prior to metamorphosis of Carcinus maenas megalopae (last larval stage) may affect its ability to metamorphose and the post-metamorphosis performance of juvenile crabs. An extreme raining event that promoted a generalized decrease in salinity (from 25 to 10) in the whole water column of one of the main channels of a coastal lagoon was mimicked in the laboratory. Wild megalopae of C. maenas were collected and kept individually without any food at salinities of 10 or 25 (S10 or S25) until they either died or metamorphosed to the first crab instar (C1). Specimens metamorphosing in 5 days or less following their collection were labeled as early settlers (ES10 and ES25), while those taking more than 5 days were labeled as late settlers (LS10 and LS25). All newly metamorphosed crabs were kept individually until C5 at a salinity of 25 and fed ad libitum, with their intermolt periods and carapace width (CW) being recorded. Osmotic stress did not affect the survival or ability to metamorphose of C. maenas megalopae, with 89% of all larvae in both salinities being able to metamorphose. This result is supported by the ability of this larval stage to hyper-regulate. Nonetheless, an exposure of late settling megalopae to low salinities prior to metamorphosis promotes the occurrence of juvenile crabs with a smaller CW. The deleterious effects of exposing late settling megalopae to low salinities appears to be magnified during early benthic life, with C5 originating from treatment LS10 displaying a significantly smaller CW (4.87 ± 0.28 mm) and lower wet weight (WW) (28.95 ± 4.62 mg). On the other side, C5 originating from ES25 exhibited a significantly higher CW (5.90 ± 0.33 mm) and WW (50.89 ± 8.14 mg). The nutritional vulnerability experienced by

  20. V(D)J recombination frequency is affected by the sequence interposed between a pair of recombination signals: sequence comparison reveals a putative recombinational enhancer element.

    PubMed

    Roch, F A; Hobi, R; Berchtold, M W; Kuenzle, C C

    1997-06-15

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain intron enhancer (Emu) not only stimulates transcription but also V(D)J recombination of chromosomally integrated recombination substrates. We aimed at reproducing this effect in recombination competent cells by transient transfection of extrachromosomal substrates. These we prepared by interposing between the recombination signal sequences (RSS) of the plasmid pBlueRec various fragments, including Emu, possibly affecting V(D)J recombination. Our work shows that sequences inserted between RSS 23 and RSS 12, with distances from their proximal ends of 26 and 284 bp respectively, can markedly affect the frequency of V(D)J recombination. We report that the entire Emu, the Emu core as well as its flanking 5' and 3' matrix associated regions (5' and 3' MARs) upregulate V(D)J recombination while the downstream section of the 3' MAR of Emu does not. Also, prokaryotic sequences markedly suppress V(D)J recombination. This confirms previous results obtained with chromosomally integrated substrates, except for the finding that the full length 3' MAR of Emu stimulates V(D)J recombination in an episomal but not in a chromosomal context. The fact that other MARs do not share this activity suggests that the effect is no mediated through attachment of the recombination substrate to a nuclear matrix-associated recombination complex but through cis-activation. The presence of a 26 bp A-T-rich sequence motif in the 5' and 3' MARs of Emu and in all of the other upregulating fragments investigated, leads us to propose that the motif represents a novel recombinational enhancer element distinct from those constituting the Emu core.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Key Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase and Flavonoid 3',5'-Hydroxylase Genes in Affecting the Ratio of Dihydroxylated to Trihydroxylated Catechins in Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Chengcai; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Zhang, Fen; Cheng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechins (RDTC) is an important indicator of tea quality and biochemical marker for the study of genetic diversity. It is reported to be under genetic control but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) are key enzymes involved in the formation of dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. The transcriptome and HPLC analysis of tea samples from Longjing43 and Zhonghuang2 under control and shading treatment were performed to assess the F3'H and F3'5'H genes that might affect RDTC. A total of 74.7 million reads of mRNA seq (2×101bp) data were generated. After de novo assembly, 109,909 unigenes were obtained, and 39,982 of them were annotated using 7 public databases. Four key F3'H and F3'5'H genes (including CsF3'5'H1, CsF3'H1, CsF3'H2 and CsF3'H3) were identified to be closely correlated with RDTC. Shading treatment had little effect on RDTC, which was attributed to the stable expression of these key F3'H and F3'5'H genes. The correlation of the coexpression of four key genes and RDTC was further confirmed among 13 tea varieties by real time PCR and HPLC analysis. The coexpression of three F3'H genes and a F3'5'H gene may play a key role in affecting RDTC in Camellia sinensis. The current results may establish valuable foundation for further research about the mechanism controlling catechin composition in tea.

  2. Analysis of Multiple Families With Single Individuals Affected by Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib (PHP1B) Reveals Only One Novel Maternally Inherited GNAS Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Takatani, Rieko; Molinaro, Angelo; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Tafaj, Olta; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Reyes, Monica; Sharma, Amita; Singhal, Vibha; Raymond, F Lucy; Linglart, Agnès; Jüppner, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are preeminent abnormalities in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B), but resistance toward other hormones as well as variable features of Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) can occur also. Genomic DNA from PHP1B patients shows epigenetic changes at one or multiple differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS, the gene encoding Gαs and splice variants thereof. In the autosomal dominant disease variant, these methylation abnormalities are caused by deletions in STX16 or GNAS on the maternal allele. The molecular defect(s) leading to sporadic PHP1B (sporPHP1B) remains in most cases unknown and we therefore analyzed 60 sporPHP1B patients and available family members by microsatellite markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and methylation-specific MLPA (MS-MLPA). All investigated cases revealed broad GNAS methylation changes, but no evidence for inheritance of two paternal chromosome 20q alleles. Some patients with partial epigenetic modifications in DNA from peripheral blood cells showed more complete GNAS methylation changes when testing their immortalized lymphoblastoid cells. Analysis of siblings and children of sporPHP1B patients provided no evidence for an abnormal mineral ion regulation and no changes in GNAS methylation. Only one patient revealed, based on MLPA and microsatellite analyses, evidence for an allelic loss, which resulted in the discovery of two adjacent, maternally inherited deletions (37,597 and 1427 bp, respectively) that remove the area between GNAS antisense exons 3 and 5, including exon NESP. Our findings thus emphasize that the region comprising antisense exons 3 and 4 is required for establishing all maternal GNAS methylation imprints. The genetic defect(s) leading in sporPHP1B to epigenetic GNAS changes and thus PTH-resistance remains unknown, but

  3. Phylogeographic analysis reveals association of tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, MSP1a sequences with ecological traits affecting tick vector performance

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Naranjo, Victoria; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Mangold, Atilio J; Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José

    2009-01-01

    Background The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale, which is endemic worldwide, is the type species of the genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most important tick vector of A. marginale in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite extensive characterization of the genetic diversity in A. marginale geographic strains using major surface protein sequences, little is known about the biogeography and evolution of A. marginale and other Anaplasma species. For A. marginale, MSP1a was shown to be involved in vector-pathogen and host-pathogen interactions and to have evolved under positive selection pressure. The MSP1a of A. marginale strains differs in molecular weight because of a variable number of tandem 23-31 amino acid repeats and has proven to be a stable marker of strain identity. While phylogenetic studies of MSP1a repeat sequences have shown evidence of A. marginale-tick co-evolution, these studies have not provided phylogeographic information on a global scale because of the high level of MSP1a genetic diversity among geographic strains. Results In this study we showed that the phylogeography of A. marginale MSP1a sequences is associated with world ecological regions (ecoregions) resulting in different evolutionary pressures and thence MSP1a sequences. The results demonstrated that the MSP1a first (R1) and last (RL) repeats and microsatellite sequences were associated with world ecoregion clusters with specific and different environmental envelopes. The evolution of R1 repeat sequences was found to be under positive selection. It is hypothesized that the driving environmental factors regulating tick populations could act on the selection of different A. marginale MSP1a sequence lineages, associated to each ecoregion. Conclusion The results reported herein provided the first evidence that the evolution of A. marginale was linked to ecological traits affecting tick vector performance. These

  4. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  5. Food web of a confined and anthropogenically affected coastal basin (the Mar Piccolo of Taranto) revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analyses.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Fiorentino, Federica; Auriemma, Rocco; Aubry, Fabrizio Bernardi; Camatti, Elisa; Camin, Federica; Nasi, Federica; Pansera, Marco; Ziller, Luca; Grall, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was used to examine the food web of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a coastal basin experiencing several anthropogenic impacts. Main food sources (algal detritus, seaweeds, particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment organic matter (SOM)) and benthic and pelagic consumers were collected during two contrasting seasons (June and April), at four sites distributed over two inlets, and characterized by different level of confinements, anthropogenic inputs and the presence of mussels farming. δ(13)C values of organic sources revealed an important contribution of POM to both planktonic and benthic pathways, as well as the influence of terrigenous inputs within both inlets, probably due to high seasonal land runoff. Although δ(13)C of both sources and consumers varied little between sampling sites and dates, δ(15)N spatial variability was higher and clearly reflected the organic enrichment in the second inlet as well as the uptake of anthropogenically derived material by benthic consumers. On the other hand, within the first inlet, the isotopic composition of consumers did not change in response to chemical contamination. However, the impact of polluted sediments near the Navy Arsenal in the first inlet was detectable at the level of the macrobenthic trophic structure, showing high dominance of motile, upper level consumers capable to face transient conditions and the reduction of the more resident deposit feeders. We therefore underline the great potential of matching stable isotope analysis with quantitative studies of community structure to assess the effects of multiple anthropogenic stressors.

  6. A targeted secretome profiling by multiplexed immunoassay revealed that secreted chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) affects neural differentiation in mesencephalic neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Cicatiello, Anna Emilia; Reccia, Mafalda Giovanna; Volpicelli, Floriana; Severino, Valeria; Russo, Rosita; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Doti, Nunzianna; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Formisano, Pietro; Chambery, Angela

    2015-02-01

    Chemokines and cytokines, primarily known for their roles in the immune and inflammatory response, have also been identified as key components of the neurogenic niche where they are involved in the modulation of neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. However, a complete understanding of the functional role played in neural differentiation and a comprehensive profiling of these secreted molecules are lacking. By exploiting the multiplexing capability of magnetic bead-based immunoassays, we have investigated the changes of the expression levels of a set of chemokines and cytokines released from the pluripotent neural cell line mes-c-myc A1 following its differentiation from a proliferating phenotype (A1P) toward a neural (A1D) phenotype. We found a subset of molecules exclusively released from A1P, whereas others were differentially detected in A1P and A1D conditioned media. Among them, we identified monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) as a proneurogenic factor able to affect neuronal differentiation of A1 cells as well as of neuroblasts from primary cultures and to induce the elongation and/or formation of neuritic processes. Altogether, data are suggestive of a main role played by the CCL2/CCR2 signaling pathway and in general of the network of secreted cytokines/chemokines in the differentiation of neural progenitor cells toward a neural fate.

  7. Paromomycin Affects Translation and Vesicle-Mediated Trafficking as Revealed by Proteomics of Paromomycin –Susceptible –Resistant Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Bhavna; Jhingran, Anupam; Panigrahi, Aswini; Stuart, Kenneth D.; Madhubala, Rentala

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania donovani is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. Increasing resistance towards antimonial drugs poses a great challenge in chemotherapy of VL. Paromomycin is an aminoglycosidic antibiotic and is one of the drugs currently being used in the chemotherapy of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. To understand the mode of action of this antibiotic at the molecular level, we have investigated the global proteome differences between the wild type AG83 strain and a paromomycin resistant (PRr) strain of L. donovani. Stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) followed by quantitative mass spectrometry of the wild type AG83 strain and the paromomycin resistant (PRr) strain identified a total of 226 proteins at ≥95% confidence. Data analysis revealed upregulation of 29 proteins and down-regulation of 21 proteins in the PRr strain. Comparative proteomic analysis of the wild type and the paromomycin resistant strains showed upregulation of the ribosomal proteins in the resistant strain indicating role in translation. Elevated levels of glycolytic enzymes and stress proteins were also observed in the PRr strain. Most importantly, we observed upregulation of proteins that may have a role in intracellular survival and vesicular trafficking in the PRr strain. Furthermore, ultra-structural analysis by electron microscopy demonstrated increased number of vesicular vacuoles in PRr strain when compared to the wild-type strain. Drug affinity pull-down assay followed by mass spectrometery identified proteins in L. donovani wild type strain that were specifically and covalently bound to paromomycin. These results provide the first comprehensive insight into the mode of action and underlying mechanism of resistance to paromomycin in Leishmania donovani. PMID:22046323

  8. An allelic series of mice reveals a role for RERE in the development of multiple organs affected in chromosome 1p36 deletions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jun; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Yu, Zhiyin; Hernández-García, Andrés; Seymour, Michelle L; Oghalai, John S; Pereira, Fred A; Stockton, David W; Justice, Monica J; Lee, Brendan; Scott, Daryl A

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions of chromosome 1p36 have a spectrum of defects that includes eye anomalies, postnatal growth deficiency, structural brain anomalies, seizures, cognitive impairment, delayed motor development, behavior problems, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. The proximal 1p36 genes that contribute to these defects have not been clearly delineated. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats gene (RERE) is located in this region and encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator that plays a critical role in embryonic development as a positive regulator of retinoic acid signaling. Rere-null mice die of cardiac failure between E9.5 and E11.5. This limits their usefulness in studying the role of RERE in the latter stages of development and into adulthood. To overcome this limitation, we created an allelic series of RERE-deficient mice using an Rere-null allele, om, and a novel hypomorphic Rere allele, eyes3 (c.578T>C, p.Val193Ala), which we identified in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-based screen for autosomal recessive phenotypes. Analyses of these mice revealed microphthalmia, postnatal growth deficiency, brain hypoplasia, decreased numbers of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN)-positive hippocampal neurons, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations-aortic arch anomalies, double outlet right ventricle, and transposition of the great arteries, and perimembranous ventricular septal defects-spontaneous development of cardiac fibrosis and renal agenesis. These findings suggest that RERE plays a critical role in the development and function of multiple organs including the eye, brain, inner ear, heart and kidney. It follows that haploinsufficiency of RERE may contribute-alone or in conjunction with other genetic, environmental, or stochastic factors-to the development of many of the phenotypes seen in individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions that include the proximal region of

  9. How mantle heterogeneity can affect geochemistry of magmas and their styles of emplacement: a fascinating tale revealed by Etna alkaline lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viccaro, Marco; Zuccarello, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    . Partial melting should consequently take place as a response of shallow mantle upwelling induced by extensional tectonic structures that affect the eastern Sicily.

  10. Escitalopram affects cytoskeleton and synaptic plasticity pathways in a rat gene-environment interaction model of depression as revealed by proteomics. Part II: environmental challenge.

    PubMed

    Piubelli, Chiara; Vighini, Miriam; Mathé, Aleksander A; Domenici, Enrico; Carboni, Lucia

    2011-07-01

    Large-scale investigations aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanism of action of antidepressant treatment are achievable through the application of proteomic technologies. We performed a proteomic study on the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), a genetically selected rat model of depression, and the control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). To evaluate gene-environment interactions, FSL and FRL animals were separated from their mothers for 3 h from postnatal days 2 to 14 (maternal separation; MS), since early-life trauma is considered an important antecedent of depression. All groups received either escitalopram (Esc) admixed to food pellets (25 mg/kg.d) or vehicle for 1 month. Protein extracts from prefrontal/frontal cortex and hippocampus were separated by 2D electrophoresis. Proteins differentially modulated were identified by mass spectrometry. Bioinformatics analyses were performed to discover gene ontology terms associated with the modulated proteins. This paper was focused on the modifications induced by the environmental challenge of MS, both on the predisposed genetic background and on the resistant phenotype. The combination between Esc treatment and MS was investigated by comparing the MS, Esc-treated rats with rats subjected to each single procedure. In MS rats, antidepressant treatment influenced mainly proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism in FSL rats and in vesicle-mediated transport in FRL rats. When studying the interaction between Esc and MS vs. non-separated rats, proteins playing a role in cytoskeleton organization, neuronal development, vesicle-mediated transport and synaptic plasticity were identified. The results provide further support to the available reports that antidepressant treatment affects intracellular pathways and also suggest new potential targets for future therapeutic intervention.

  11. CD1d Expression in Paneth Cells and Rat Exocrine Pancreas Revealed by Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Which Differentially Affect NKT Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Monzon-Casanova, Elisa; Steiniger, Birte; Schweigle, Stefanie; Clemen, Holger; Zdzieblo, Daniela; Starick, Lisa; Müller, Ingrid; Wang, Chyung-Ru; Rhost, Sara; Cardell, Susanna; Pyz, Elwira; Herrmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background CD1d is a nonpolymorphic MHC class I-like molecule which presents nonpeptide ligands, e.g. glycolipids, to NKT cells. These cells are known to have multiple effects on innate and adaptive immune responses and on the development of pathological conditions. In order to analyze CD1d expression and function in the rat, the first rat CD1d-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated. Methodology/Principal Findings Two mAbs, WTH-1 and WTH-2, were generated which bound equally well to cell surface-expressed rat and mouse CD1d. Their non-overlapping epitopes were mapped to the CD1d heavy chain. Flow cytometry and immunohistological analyses revealed a nearly identical degree and pattern of CD1d expression for hematopoieitic cells of both species. Notable is also the detection of CD1d protein in mouse and rat Paneth cells as well as the extremely high CD1d expression in acinar exocrine cells of the rat pancreas and the expression of CD4 on rat marginal zone B cells. Both mAbs blocked α-galactosylceramide recognition by primary rat and mouse NKT cells. Interestingly, the two mAbs differed in their impact on the activation of various autoreactive T cell hybridomas, including the XV19.2 hybridoma whose activation was enhanced by the WTH-1 mAb. Conclusions/Significance The two novel monoclonal antibodies described in this study, allowed the analysis of CD1d expression and CD1d-restricted T cell responses in the rat for the first time. Moreover, they provided new insights into mechanisms of CD1d-restricted antigen recognition. While CD1d expression by hematopoietic cells of mice and rats was extremely similar, CD1d protein was detected at not yet described sites of non-lymphatic tissues such as the rat exocrine pancreas and Paneth cells. The latter is of special relevance given the recently reported defects of Paneth cells in CD1d−/− mice, which resulted in an altered composition of the gut flora. PMID:20927351

  12. Within-breed and multi-breed GWAS on imputed whole-genome sequence variants reveal candidate mutations affecting milk protein composition in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marie-Pierre; Govignon-Gion, Armelle; Croiseau, Pascal; Fritz, Sébastien; Hozé, Chris; Miranda, Guy; Martin, Patrice; Barbat-Leterrier, Anne; Letaïef, Rabia; Rocha, Dominique; Brochard, Mickaël; Boussaha, Mekki; Boichard, Didier

    2017-09-18

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed at the sequence level to identify candidate mutations that affect the expression of six major milk proteins in Montbéliarde (MON), Normande (NOR), and Holstein (HOL) dairy cattle. Whey protein (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) and casein (αs1, αs2, β, and κ) contents were estimated by mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, with medium to high accuracy (0.59 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.92), for 848,068 test-day milk samples from 156,660 cows in the first three lactations. Milk composition was evaluated as average test-day measurements adjusted for environmental effects. Next, we genotyped a subset of 8080 cows (2967 MON, 2737 NOR, and 2306 HOL) with the BovineSNP50 Beadchip. For each breed, genotypes were first imputed to high-density (HD) using HD single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotypes of 522 MON, 546 NOR, and 776 HOL bulls. The resulting HD SNP genotypes were subsequently imputed to the sequence level using 27 million high-quality sequence variants selected from Run4 of the 1000 Bull Genomes consortium (1147 bulls). Within-breed, multi-breed, and conditional GWAS were performed. Thirty-four distinct genomic regions were identified. Three regions on chromosomes 6, 11, and 20 had very significant effects on milk composition and were shared across the three breeds. Other significant effects, which partially overlapped across breeds, were found on almost all the autosomes. Multi-breed analyses provided a larger number of significant genomic regions with smaller confidence intervals than within-breed analyses. Combinations of within-breed, multi-breed, and conditional analyses led to the identification of putative causative variants in several candidate genes that presented significant protein-protein interactions enrichment, including those with previously described effects on milk composition (SLC37A1, MGST1, ABCG2, CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3, PAEP, DGAT1, AGPAT6) and those with effects reported for the first

  13. A Mutation in cnot8, Component of the Ccr4-Not Complex Regulating Transcript Stability, Affects Expression Levels of Developmental Regulators and Reveals a Role of Fgf3 in Development of Caudal Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Peter; Löhr, Heiko B.; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    While regulation of the activity of developmental control genes at the transcriptional level as well as by specific miRNA-based degradation are intensively studied, little is known whether general cellular mechanisms controlling mRNA decay may contribute to differential stability of mRNAs of developmental control genes. Here, we investigate whether a mutation in the deadenylation dependent mRNA decay pathway may reveal differential effects on developmental mechanisms, using dopaminergic differentiation in the zebrafish brain as model system. In a zebrafish genetic screen aimed at identifying genes controlling dopaminergic neuron development we isolated the m1061 mutation that selectively caused increased dopaminergic differentiation in the caudal hypothalamus, while other dopaminergic groups were not affected. Positional cloning revealed that m1061 causes a premature stop codon in the cnot8 open reading frame. Cnot8 is a component of the Ccr4-Not complex and displays deadenylase activity, which is required for removal of the poly (A) tail in bulk mRNA turnover. Analyses of expression of developmental regulators indicate that loss of Cnot8 activity results in increased mRNA in situ hybridization signal levels for a subset of developmental control genes. We show that in the area of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic differentiation, mRNA levels for several components of the FGF signaling pathway, including Fgf3, FGF receptors, and FGF target genes, are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of FGF signaling or a mutation in the fgf3 gene can compensate the gain of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in cnot8m1061 mutants, indicating a role for Fgf3 in control of development of this dopaminergic population. The cnot8m1061 mutant phenotype provides an in vivo system to study roles of the Cnot8 deadenylase component of the mRNA decay pathway in vertebrate development. Our data indicate that attenuation of Cnot8 activity differentially affects mRNA levels of

  14. A mutation in cnot8, component of the Ccr4-not complex regulating transcript stability, affects expression levels of developmental regulators and reveals a role of Fgf3 in development of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Koch, Peter; Löhr, Heiko B; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    While regulation of the activity of developmental control genes at the transcriptional level as well as by specific miRNA-based degradation are intensively studied, little is known whether general cellular mechanisms controlling mRNA decay may contribute to differential stability of mRNAs of developmental control genes. Here, we investigate whether a mutation in the deadenylation dependent mRNA decay pathway may reveal differential effects on developmental mechanisms, using dopaminergic differentiation in the zebrafish brain as model system. In a zebrafish genetic screen aimed at identifying genes controlling dopaminergic neuron development we isolated the m1061 mutation that selectively caused increased dopaminergic differentiation in the caudal hypothalamus, while other dopaminergic groups were not affected. Positional cloning revealed that m1061 causes a premature stop codon in the cnot8 open reading frame. Cnot8 is a component of the Ccr4-Not complex and displays deadenylase activity, which is required for removal of the poly (A) tail in bulk mRNA turnover. Analyses of expression of developmental regulators indicate that loss of Cnot8 activity results in increased mRNA in situ hybridization signal levels for a subset of developmental control genes. We show that in the area of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic differentiation, mRNA levels for several components of the FGF signaling pathway, including Fgf3, FGF receptors, and FGF target genes, are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of FGF signaling or a mutation in the fgf3 gene can compensate the gain of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in cnot8m1061 mutants, indicating a role for Fgf3 in control of development of this dopaminergic population. The cnot8m1061 mutant phenotype provides an in vivo system to study roles of the Cnot8 deadenylase component of the mRNA decay pathway in vertebrate development. Our data indicate that attenuation of Cnot8 activity differentially affects mRNA levels of

  15. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization.

  16. Fuller Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-16

    MESSENGER's low-altitude campaign has enabled imaging of Fuller crater (named after American architect Buckminster Fuller) in greater detail than previously possible. The top left panel shows an image of Fuller, with the crater rim outlined in pink and the edge of a low-altitude broadband MDIS image in green. The large panel applies a different stretch to the same MDIS broadband image in the first panel, revealing details of the shadowed surface inside Fuller! In particular, as highlighted with yellow arrows in the bottom left panel, the image reveals a region inside Fuller that is lower in reflectance. The edge of the low-reflectance region has a sharp and well-defined boundary, even when imaged at 46 m/pixel, suggesting that the low-reflectance material is sufficiently young to have preserved a sharp boundary against lateral mixing by impact cratering. Models for surface and near-surface temperature within Fuller crater predict a region that is sufficiently cold to host long-lived water ice beneath the surface but too hot to support water ice at the surface. The low-reflectance region revealed in the images matches the thermal characteristics expected for a lag deposit of volatile, organic-rich material that overlies the water ice. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19244

  17. Revealing Rembrandt

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

  18. Characterization of the new AmpC β-lactamase FOX-8 reveals a single mutation, Phe313Leu, located in the R2 loop that affects ceftazidime hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Llarena, Francisco José; Kerff, Frédéric; Zamorano, Laura; Fernández, María Carmen; Nuñez, Maria Luz; Miró, Elisenda; Oliver, Antonio; Navarro, Ferran; Bou, Germán

    2013-10-01

    A novel class C β-lactamase (FOX-8) was isolated from a clinical strain of Escherichia coli. The FOX-8 enzyme possessed a unique substitution (Phe313Leu) compared to FOX-3. Isogenic E. coli strains carrying FOX-8 showed an 8-fold reduction in resistance to ceftazidime relative to FOX-3. In a kinetic analysis, FOX-8 displayed a 33-fold reduction in kcat/Km for ceftazidime compared to FOX-3. In the FOX family of β-lactamases, the Phe313 residue located in the R2 loop affects ceftazidime hydrolysis and alters the phenotype of E. coli strains carrying this variant.

  19. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Muscles Reveals Alterations in Arginine and Proline Metabolism, and Elevations in Glutamic and Oleic Acid In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Kornegay, Joe N.; Honcoop, Aubree; Parry, Traci L.; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Patterson, Cam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model of DMD is characterized by muscle necrosis, progressive paralysis, and pseudohypertrophy in specific skeletal muscles. This severe GRMD phenotype includes moderate atrophy of the biceps femoris (BF) as compared to unaffected normal dogs, while the long digital extensor (LDE), which functions to flex the tibiotarsal joint and serves as a digital extensor, undergoes the most pronounced atrophy. A recent microarray analysis of GRMD identified alterations in genes associated with lipid metabolism and energy production. Methods: We, therefore, undertook a non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the milder/earlier stage disease GRMD BF muscle versus the more severe/chronic LDE using GC-MS to identify underlying metabolic defects specific for affected GRMD skeletal muscle. Results: Untargeted metabolomics analysis of moderately-affected GRMD muscle (BF) identified eight significantly altered metabolites, including significantly decreased stearamide (0.23-fold of controls, p = 2.89 × 10−3), carnosine (0.40-fold of controls, p = 1.88 × 10−2), fumaric acid (0.40-fold of controls, p = 7.40 × 10−4), lactamide (0.33-fold of controls, p = 4.84 × 10−2), myoinositol-2-phosphate (0.45-fold of controls, p = 3.66 × 10−2), and significantly increased oleic acid (1.77-fold of controls, p = 9.27 × 10−2), glutamic acid (2.48-fold of controls, p = 2.63 × 10−2), and proline (1.73-fold of controls, p = 3.01 × 10−2). Pathway enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment for arginine/proline metabolism (p = 5.88 × 10−4, FDR 4.7 × 10−2), where alterations in L-glutamic acid, proline, and carnosine were found. Additionally, multiple Krebs cycle intermediates were significantly decreased (e.g., malic acid, fumaric acid, citric/isocitric acid, and succinic acid), suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be underlying the observed GRMD BF muscle

  20. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Muscles Reveals Alterations in Arginine and Proline Metabolism, and Elevations in Glutamic and Oleic Acid In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Kornegay, Joe N; Honcoop, Aubree; Parry, Traci L; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J; O'Neal, Sara K; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Newgard, Christopher B; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S

    2017-07-29

    Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model of DMD is characterized by muscle necrosis, progressive paralysis, and pseudohypertrophy in specific skeletal muscles. This severe GRMD phenotype includes moderate atrophy of the biceps femoris (BF) as compared to unaffected normal dogs, while the long digital extensor (LDE), which functions to flex the tibiotarsal joint and serves as a digital extensor, undergoes the most pronounced atrophy. A recent microarray analysis of GRMD identified alterations in genes associated with lipid metabolism and energy production. We, therefore, undertook a non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the milder/earlier stage disease GRMD BF muscle versus the more severe/chronic LDE using GC-MS to identify underlying metabolic defects specific for affected GRMD skeletal muscle. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of moderately-affected GRMD muscle (BF) identified eight significantly altered metabolites, including significantly decreased stearamide (0.23-fold of controls, p = 2.89 × 10(-3)), carnosine (0.40-fold of controls, p = 1.88 × 10(-2)), fumaric acid (0.40-fold of controls, p = 7.40 × 10(-4)), lactamide (0.33-fold of controls, p = 4.84 × 10(-2)), myoinositol-2-phosphate (0.45-fold of controls, p = 3.66 × 10(-2)), and significantly increased oleic acid (1.77-fold of controls, p = 9.27 × 10(-2)), glutamic acid (2.48-fold of controls, p = 2.63 × 10(-2)), and proline (1.73-fold of controls, p = 3.01 × 10(-2)). Pathway enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment for arginine/proline metabolism (p = 5.88 × 10(-4), FDR 4.7 × 10(-2)), where alterations in L-glutamic acid, proline, and carnosine were found. Additionally, multiple Krebs cycle intermediates were significantly decreased (e.g., malic acid, fumaric acid, citric/isocitric acid, and succinic acid), suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be underlying the observed GRMD BF muscle dysfunction. In contrast, two

  1. Ex vivo proteomics of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 reveal that FabG affects fatty acid composition to alter bacterial growth fitness in the chicken gut.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Keiko; Murakami, Satoshi; Tachibana, Masato; Kurazono, Hisao; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of foodborne gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Here we performed ex vivo proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 81-176 in chicken, a main reservoir for human infection. At 0, 1 and 4 weeks post-infection (p.i.) with the GFP-expressing 81-176 strain, inocula were recovered from chicken ceca by cell sorting using flow cytometry. iTRAQ-coupled 2D-LC-MS/MS analyses that detected 55 C. jejuni proteins, among which either 3 (FabG, HydB, CJJ81176_0876) or 7 (MscS, CetB, FlhF, PurH, PglJ, LpxC, Icd) proteins exhibited >1.4-fold-increased expression at 1 or 4 week(s) p.i. compared with those at 0 weeks p.i., respectively. Deletion of the fabG gene clearly decreased the proportion of bacterial unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and chicken colonization. The UFA proportion of the parental strain was not altered when grown at 42 °C. These findings suggest that FabG might play a pivotal role in UFA production, linked to bacterial adaptation in the poultry host. To our knowledge, this is the first example of ex vivo C. jejuni proteomics, in which fatty acid metabolism might affect bacterial adaptation to the chicken host.

  2. Alternate Polypurine Tracts (PPTs) Affect the Rous Sarcoma Virus RNase H Cleavage Specificity and Reveal a Preferential Cleavage following a GA Dinucleotide Sequence at the PPT-U3 Junction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kevin W.; Julias, John G.; Alvord, W. Gregory; Oh, Jangsuk; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    Retroviral polypurine tracts (PPTs) serve as primers for plus-strand DNA synthesis during reverse transcription. The generation and removal of the PPT primer requires specific cleavages by the RNase H activity of reverse transcriptases; removal of the PPT primer defines the left end of the linear viral DNA. We replaced the endogenous PPT from RSVP(A)Z, a replication-competent shuttle vector based on Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), with alternate retroviral PPTs and the duck hepatitis B virus “PPT.” Viruses in which the endogenous RSV PPT was replaced with alternate PPTs had lower relative titers than the wild-type virus. 2-LTR circle junction analysis showed that the alternate PPTs caused significant decreases in the fraction of viral DNAs with complete (consensus) ends and significant increases in the insertion of part or all of the PPT at the 2-LTR circle junctions. The last two nucleotides in the 3′ end of the RSV PPT are GA. Examination of the (mis)cleavages of the alternate PPTs revealed preferential cleavages after GA dinucleotide sequences. Replacement of the terminal 3′ A of the RSV PPT with G caused a preferential miscleavage at a GA sequence spanning the PPT-U3 boundary, resulting in the deletion of the terminal adenine normally present at the 5′ end of the U3. A reciprocal G-to-A substitution at the 3′ end of the murine leukemia virus PPT increased the relative titer of the chimeric RSV-based virus and the fraction of consensus 2-LTR circle junctions. PMID:16227289

  3. Alternate polypurine tracts (PPTs) affect the rous sarcoma virus RNase H cleavage specificity and reveal a preferential cleavage following a GA dinucleotide sequence at the PPT-U3 junction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kevin W; Julias, John G; Alvord, W Gregory; Oh, Jangsuk; Hughes, Stephen H

    2005-11-01

    Retroviral polypurine tracts (PPTs) serve as primers for plus-strand DNA synthesis during reverse transcription. The generation and removal of the PPT primer requires specific cleavages by the RNase H activity of reverse transcriptases; removal of the PPT primer defines the left end of the linear viral DNA. We replaced the endogenous PPT from RSVP(A)Z, a replication-competent shuttle vector based on Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), with alternate retroviral PPTs and the duck hepatitis B virus "PPT." Viruses in which the endogenous RSV PPT was replaced with alternate PPTs had lower relative titers than the wild-type virus. 2-LTR circle junction analysis showed that the alternate PPTs caused significant decreases in the fraction of viral DNAs with complete (consensus) ends and significant increases in the insertion of part or all of the PPT at the 2-LTR circle junctions. The last two nucleotides in the 3' end of the RSV PPT are GA. Examination of the (mis)cleavages of the alternate PPTs revealed preferential cleavages after GA dinucleotide sequences. Replacement of the terminal 3' A of the RSV PPT with G caused a preferential miscleavage at a GA sequence spanning the PPT-U3 boundary, resulting in the deletion of the terminal adenine normally present at the 5' end of the U3. A reciprocal G-to-A substitution at the 3' end of the murine leukemia virus PPT increased the relative titer of the chimeric RSV-based virus and the fraction of consensus 2-LTR circle junctions.

  4. Quantitative proteomics reveals that the specific methyltransferases Txr1p and Ezl2p differentially affect the mono-, di- and trimethylation states of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunchao; Molascon, Anthony J; Gao, Shan; Liu, Yifan; Andrews, Philip C

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear DNA in eukaryotic cells is assembled into the hierarchical chromatin structure via a process that is dynamically affected by the combinatorial set of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones in a dynamic manner responsive to physiological and environmental changes. The precise quantification of these complex modifications is challenging. Here we present a robust MS-based quantitative proteomics method for studying histone PTMs using (15)N metabolically labeled histones as the internal reference. Using this approach, we identified Tetrahymena trithorax related 1 (Txr1p) as a histone methyltransferase in Tetrahymena thermophila and characterized the relationships of the Txr1p and Ezl2p methyltransferases to histone H3 modification. We identified 32 PTMs in more than 60 tryptic peptides from histone H3 of the ciliate model organism Tetrahymena thermophila, and we quantified them (average coefficient of variation: 13%). We examined perturbations to histone modification patterns in two knockout strains of SET-domain-containing histone methyltransferases (HMT). Knockout of TXR1 led to progressively decreased mono-, di-, and tri-methylation of H3K27 and apparent reduced monomethylation of H3K36 in vivo. In contrast, EZL2 knockout resulted in dramatic reductions in both di- and tri-methylation of H3K27 in vivo, whereas the levels of monomethylation of H3K27 increased significantly. This buildup of monomethyl H3K27 is consistent with its role as a substrate for Ezl2p. These results were validated via immunoblotting using modification site-specific antibodies. Taken together, our studies define Txr1p as an H3K27 monomethylation-specific HMT that facilitates the buildup of H3K27 di- and trimethylation by the canonical H3K27-specific HMT, Ezl2p. Our studies also delineate some of the interdependences between various H3 modifications, as compensatory increases in monomethylation at H3K4, H3K23, and H3K56 were also observed for both TXR1 and ELZ2 mutants.

  5. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  6. The Climate Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, William

    1999-10-01

    El Niño, La Niña, global warming--terms that crop up frequently in current media coverage of anomalous weather conditions: a spring thaw in January in New York City...a snowstorm in Bakersfield, California...winterlike temperatures in Miami. Such phenomena as these and reports of devastating droughts, floods, and storms around the world bring home the fact of how deeply climate affects our daily lives--and of our inability to control the consequences of climatic events. Extraordinarily timely, The Climate Revealed explores the human-climate "relationship" in all its fascinating complexity. Packed with 250 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume travels the globe to provide a detailed portrait of individual climate zones from the polar icecaps to the fiercest deserts. The expert and highly accessible text uncovers the essential elements--earth, air, fire and water--that make up the world's various climates. William Burroughs reveals the dramatic discoveries and techniques of historians and archaeologists in their search to understand climates of the past. In the book's conclusion he considers the future and presents every facet of the current environmental debate. With its detailed coverage of the past, present, and future, this marvelous work is essential reading for all those who want to understand one of the most critical facets of life, climate. William Burroughs is a well known and successful science author who has written four books on the weather including Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997), Weather Cycles: Real or Imaginary (1992), and Watching the World's Weather (1991), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  7. Reaching affects saccade trajectories.

    PubMed

    Tipper, S P; Howard, L A; Paul, M A

    2001-01-01

    The pre-motor theory suggests that, when attention is oriented to a location, the motor systems that are involved in achieving current behavioural goals are activated. For example, when a task requires accurate reaching, attention to a location activates the motor circuits controlling saccades and manual reaches. These actions involve separate neural systems for the control of eye and hand, but we believe that the selection processes acting on neural population codes within these systems are similar and can affect each other. The attentional effect can be revealed in the subsequent movement. The present study shows that the path the eye takes as it saccades to a target is affected by whether a reach to the target is also produced. This effect is interpreted as the influence of a hand-centred frame used in reaching on the spatial frame of reference required for the saccade.

  8. Affect in electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  9. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  10. US weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

  11. Affect Dynamics, Affective Forecasting, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Knutson, Brian; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2008-01-01

    Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger adults reported increased negative arousal during loss anticipation and positive arousal during gain anticipation. In contrast, older adults reported increased positive arousal during gain anticipation but showed no increase in negative arousal on trials involving loss anticipation. Additionally, younger adults reported large increases in valence after avoiding an anticipated loss, but older adults did not. Younger, but not older, adults exhibited forecasting errors on the arousal dimension, underestimating increases in arousal during anticipation of gains and losses and overestimating increases in arousal in response to gain outcomes. Overall, the findings are consistent with a growing literature suggesting that older people experience less negative emotion than their younger counterparts and further suggest that they may better predict dynamic changes in affect. PMID:18540748

  12. The psychic costs of intense positive affect.

    PubMed

    Diener, E; Colvin, C R; Pavot, W G; Allman, A

    1991-09-01

    Recent research indicates that happiness, or affective well-being, is related primarily to the frequency, not to the intensity, of positive affect (PA). The question arises as to why intense positive affect (PI) is not a larger contributor to subjective well-being. Whether processes that yield PI also produce intense negative affect was examined. Studies 1 and 2 suggested that cognitive mechanisms that amplify or dampen affect can carry over from positive to negative events. Study 3 demonstrated that, because of judgment mechanisms, an extremely positive event can make other events less positive. Study 4 revealed that naturally occurring intensely positive experiences are often preceded by negative ones. Study 5 suggested that the more persons valence success at a task, the happier they will be if they succeed, but unhappier if they fail. The 5 studies reveal that intense positive experiences may sometimes have costs that counterbalance their desirable nature.

  13. Kinesics of Affective Instability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dil, Nasim

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the rationale of studying kinesics of affective instability, describes the phenonmenon of affective instability, examines the role of kinesics in the overall process of communication, and presents three case studies. (Author/AM)

  14. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001532.htm Seasonal affective disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs ...

  15. Revealing power in truth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Jeremy Shiffman’s editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance. PMID:25844390

  16. The Universe Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Pam

    1998-10-01

    The Universe is a bewildering place to the uninitiated. The concepts and theories that govern space seem complex and often contradictory. The Universe Revealed provides the keys to unlocking the wonders of the cosmos. Elegantly written and lavishly illustrated, it begins with the Sun and stretches through our solar system into deepest space. Lucid prose, written by many of the people who have shaped our current thinking on space, and spectacular photographs make the physics of the Universe accessible and provide a solid background for understanding the most recent astronomical discoveries. Covering the most intriguing features of the cosmos, the topics discussed range from the Earth and global warming to cosmic collisions and the size of the Universe. Major sections examine the Solar System, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and the observational techniques used by astronomers, both amateur and professional. The Universe Revealed represents the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in astronomy and cosmology, with contributions from authors including David Malin, F. Duccio Macchetto, Iain Nicholson, Neil Bone, Ian Ridpath, Seth Shostak, Mike Lancaster, Steve Miller, Ken Croswell, Geoff McNamara, and Steven Young. This extraordinary blend of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, will appeal to amateur and armchair astronomers alike.

  17. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-11

    This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together. Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07220

  18. Gusev's Rim Revealed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 91 (April 5, 2004). Spirit is looking to the southeast, and through the martian haze has captured the rim of Gusev Crater approximately 80 kilometers (49.7 miles) away on the horizon.

    The right side of this image reveals the portion of the crater edge that descends into the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis, a channel that opens into Gusev Crater. Spirit is currently traveling toward the informally named 'Columbia Hills,' which lie to the left of the region pictured here.

    This image is similar to a panoramic camera image taken on sol 68, but Gusev's ridge is more visible here because the atmospheric dust caused by winter dust storms has settled. Scientists expect to get even clearer images than this one in upcoming sols.

    This image has been modified to make the crater rim more visible.

  19. Ancient River revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent flights of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) mission aboard the space shuttle Endeavour discovered a previously unknown branch of an ancient river. The images, released at AGU's Spring Meeting, show the river channel buried under thousands of years worth of windblown sand in a region of North Africa's Sahara Desert near the Kufra Oasis in southeast Libya, centered at 23.3°N latitude, 22.9°E longitude. The image from the flight last October reveals a system of old, now inactive stream valleys, called “paleodrainage systems,” which carried running water northward across the Sahara during periods of wetter climate.

  20. Effect of spinning workouts on affect.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Gáspár, Zoltán; Kiss, Nikolett; Radványi, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    Numerous physical exercises trigger positive changes in affect after relatively short workouts. Spinning, also known as indoor-cycling, is a very popular form of exercise, especially among women, but its impact on affect have not been examined to date. The purpose of the current work was to investigate the possible benefits of spinning on affect in self-controlled and in instructor-led exercise sessions. Using baseline measures and pre- to post-exercise design with a psychometrically validated questionnaire, the net effects of spinning (without music) on positive- and negative-affect were measured in two exercise conditions: (1) self-controlled workout (i.e. without an instructor) and (2) instructor-led workout. After both conditions, 18 women rated the extent which they enjoyed the exercise session on a 10-point Likert scale. The findings revealed that positive affect increased while negative affect decreased after both workouts. Exerted effort, measured through the heart rate, did not differ between the two conditions. However, participants enjoyed more the instructor-led exercise session than the self-regulated workout (effect size, Cohen's d = 0.93). This research reveals that spinning improves post-exercise affect, even without music and regardless of instructor's presence. Therefore, it demonstrates the net benefits of this popular exercise on affect.

  1. Affectional Patterns of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a shift with age in affection (1) from parents to friends, (2) from one parent to the other, and (3) from same-sex to opposite-sex friends. Subjects, eighth graders and eleventh graders, completed the Measurement of Family Affective Structure. (Author)

  2. Assessing Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2009-01-01

    Student affect--the attitudes, interests, and values that students exhibit and acquire in school--can play a profoundly important role in students' postschool lives, possibly an even more significant role than that played by students' cognitive achievements. If student affect is so crucial, then why don't teachers assess it? One deterrent is that…

  3. Musical affect regulation in infancy.

    PubMed

    Trehub, Sandra E; Ghazban, Niusha; Corbeil, Mariève

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents and adults commonly use music for various forms of affect regulation, including relaxation, revitalization, distraction, and elicitation of pleasant memories. Mothers throughout the world also sing to their infants, with affect regulation as the principal goal. To date, the study of maternal singing has focused largely on its acoustic features and its consequences for infant attention. We describe recent laboratory research that explores the consequences of singing for infant affect regulation. Such work reveals that listening to recordings of play songs can maintain 6- to 9-month-old infants in a relatively contented or neutral state considerably longer than recordings of infant-directed or adult-directed speech. When 10-month-old infants fuss or cry and are highly aroused, mothers' multimodal singing is more effective than maternal speech at inducing recovery from such distress. Moreover, play songs are more effective than lullabies at reducing arousal in Western infants. We explore the implications of these findings along with possible practical applications.

  4. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions.

  5. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

    2008-03-07

    It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species.

  6. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that comes and goes with the seasons. It ... and summer. Some people do have episodes of depression that start in the spring or summer, but ...

  7. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Stephen J; Gawinski, Barbara; Pierce, Deborah; Rousseau, Sally J

    2006-11-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder have episodes of major depression that tend to recur during specific times of the year, usually in winter. Like major depression, seasonal affective disorder probably is underdiagnosed in primary care settings. Although several screening instruments are available, such screening is unlikely to lead to improved outcomes without personalized and detailed attention to individual symptoms. Physicians should be aware of comorbid factors that could signal a need for further assessment. Specifically, some emerging evidence suggests that seasonal affective disorder may be associated with alcoholism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Seasonal affective disorder often can be treated with light therapy, which appears to have a low risk of adverse effects. Light therapy is more effective if administered in the morning. It remains unclear whether light is equivalent to drug therapy, whether drug therapy can augment the effects of light therapy, or whether cognitive behavior therapy is a better treatment choice.

  8. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  9. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  11. Implicit affectivity and rapid processing of affective body language: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Suslow, Thomas; Ihme, Klas; Quirin, Markus; Lichev, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Nicole; Bauer, Jochen; Bomberg, Luise; Kersting, Anette; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Lobsien, Donald

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has revealed affect-congruity effects for the recognition of affects from faces. Little is known about the impact of affect on the perception of body language. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of implicit (versus explicit) affectivity with the recognition of briefly presented affective body expressions. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, has been found to be more predictive of spontaneous physiological reactions than explicit (self-reported) affect. Thirty-four healthy women had to label the expression of body postures (angry, fearful, happy, or neutral) presented for 66 ms and masked by a neutral body posture in a forced-choice format while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants' implicit affectivity was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Measures of explicit state and trait affectivity were also administered. Analysis of the fMRI data was focused on a subcortical network involved in the rapid perception of affective body expressions. Only implicit negative affect (but not explicit affect) was correlated with correct labeling performance for angry body posture. As expected, implicit negative affect was positively associated with activation of the subcortical network in response to fearful and angry expression (compared to neutral expression). Responses of the caudate nucleus to affective body expression were especially associated with its recognition. It appears that processes of rapid recognition of affects from body postures could be facilitated by an individual's implicit negative affect. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  13. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Revealing the Beast Within

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    Deeply Embedded Massive Stellar Clusters Discovered in Milky Way Powerhouse Summary Peering into a giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way galaxy - known as W49 - astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a whole new population of very massive newborn stars . This research is being presented today at the International Astronomical Union's 25th General Assembly held in Sydney, Australia, by ESO-scientist João Alves. With the help of infrared images obtained during a period of excellent observing conditions with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), the astronomers looked deep into this molecular cloud and discovered four massive stellar clusters, with hot and energetic stars as massive as 120 solar masses. The exceedingly strong radiation from the stars in the largest of these clusters is "powering" a 20 light-year diameter region of mostly ionized hydrogen gas (a "giant HII region"). W49 is one of the most energetic regions of star formation in the Milky Way. With the present discovery, the true sources of the enormous energy have now been revealed for the first time, finally bringing to an end some decades of astronomical speculations and hypotheses. PR Photo 21a/03 : Colour Composite of W49A (NTT+SOFI). PR Photo 21b/03 : Radio and Near-Infrared Composite of W49A Giant molecular clouds Stars form predominantly inside Giant Molecular Clouds which populate our Galaxy, the Milky Way. One of the most prominent of these is W49 , which has a mass of a million solar masses. It is located some 37,000 light-years away and is the most luminous star-forming region known in our home galaxy: its luminosity is several million times the luminosity of our Sun. A smaller region within this cloud is denoted W49A - this is one of the strongest radio-emitting areas known in the Galaxy . Massive stars are excessive in all ways. Compared to their smaller and ligther brethren, they form at an Olympic speed and

  15. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exogenous attention is an automatic mechanism that increases resolution regardless of whether it helps or hinders performance. In contrast, endogenous attention flexibly adjusts resolution to optimize performance according to task demands. We illustrate how psychophysical studies can reveal the underlying mechanisms of these effects and allow us to draw linking hypotheses with known neurophysiological effects of attention. PMID:25948640

  16. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental impairments in visual social cognition. PMID:21713180

  17. Affective care: rhetoric or reality.

    PubMed

    Cutts, D E

    1993-12-01

    Midwives say they are "with women", and philosophies of midwifery espouse "holistic care". A study into the counselling role of midwives revealed that midwives are "physically with women", and adopt a reductionist model of midwifery care. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods was used to explore the counselling attitudes, intention, and behaviour of midwives practising in a large Melbourne metropolitan obstetric and midwifery teaching hospital. This sample of midwives revealed positive attitudes towards the counselling of childbearing women and a high counselling behavioural intention. Reflection on their midwifery practice and support of propositions relating to the affective role of the midwife, highlighted further their claims of attending to the psychosocial needs of childbearing women. However, when observed in practice, the midwives engaged in minimal communication with the women and demonstrated few counselling behaviours. In fact, the focus of midwife care was clearly physical and task oriented, with an emphasis on the giving of practical advice and a lack of attention to the affective needs of their midwifery clients. It is argued that a number of factors are responsible for the discrepancy between midwives' intention and practice. Firstly, midwives adopt self-defence techniques in response to the requirement to deal with the psychosocial needs of childbearing women. Secondly, this mode of self-protection is precipitated by feelings of uncertainty in not knowing what to do, compounded by inadequate role preparation through nursing and midwifery education. Finally, socialisation of midwives within the work culture is a powerful determinant of the model of care they adopt.

  18. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Raymond W.; Fleming, Jonathan A.E.; Buchanan, Alan; Remick, Ronald A.

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recently described mood disorder characterized by recurrent winter depressive episodes and summer remissions. The symptoms of SAD include DSM III-R criteria for recurrent major depression, but atypical depressive symptoms predominate with hypersomnia, hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving, and anergia. Seasonal affective disorder is effectively treated by exposure to bright light (phototherapy or light therapy), a novel antidepressant treatment. The authors review the syndrome of SAD, hypotheses about its pathophysiology, and the use of phototherapy to treat the disorder. PMID:21233986

  19. The Stranger effect: the rejection of affective deviants.

    PubMed

    Szczurek, Lauren; Monin, Benoît; Gross, James J

    2012-10-01

    What happens when affective displays deviate from normative expectations? In this study, participants evaluated target individuals displaying flat, incongruent, or congruent expressions seemingly in response to pictures eliciting positive, neutral, or negative affect. Relative to targets who displayed normative reactions, those who violated affective norms (affective deviants) were rated more negatively on various dimensions of social judgment. Participants also preferred greater social distance from affective deviants, reported more moral outrage in response to them, and inferred that these targets did not share their moral values. Incongruent affect resulted in more negative social judgment than did flat affect, and this relationship was moderated by stimulus valence. Finally, the relationship between targets' affective expressions and participants' avoidant intentions was mediated by the extent to which participants thought the targets shared their moral values. These findings demonstrate the interpersonal costs of affective deviance, revealing the pervasiveness and force of affective norms.

  20. [Affective computing--a mysterious tool to explore human emotions].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Honghong; Dou, Yi; Hou, Yongjie; Li, Changwu

    2013-12-01

    Perception, affection and consciousness are basic psychological functions of human being. Affection is the subjective reflection of different kinds of objects. The foundation of human being's thinking is constituted by the three basic functions. Affective computing is an effective tool of revealing the affectiveness of human being in order to understand the world. Our research of affective computing focused on the relation, the generation and the influent factors among different affections. In this paper, the affective mechanism, the basic theory of affective computing, is studied, the method of acquiring and recognition of affective information is discussed, and the application of affective computing is summarized as well, in order to attract more researchers into this working area.

  1. LITHIUM PROPHYLAXIS IN AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Hariharasubramanian, N.; Devi, S. Parvathi; Sugumar, A.; Srinivasan, V.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Out of 108 patients on the rolls in the Lithium clinic, Madurai Medical College and Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, India, 47 patients suffering from affective disorders receiving lithium continuously for more than three years were analysed with a view to study the recurrences. Thirteen suffered no relapses while on lithium while nineteen experienced them while on lithium. Four were free from recurrences after lithium was withdrawn- Seven defaulted but suffered recurrences while in four the drug was withdrawn and in both the groups remission was achieved with re-administration of lithium. The study reveals that lithium besides averting the recurrences can reduce the frequency, number, duration, intensity of episodes and improve the amenability to drugs. Among the symptoms, suicidal ideas and behaviour and insight were found to be influenced favourably by lithium. Among the factors that help favourable response to lithium were a positive family history of affective disorder, in the first degree relatives and lesser frequency and number of episodes in the pre-lithium period. A reappraisal of the natural history of the illness is called for in the light of lithium prophylaxis of manic depressive psychosis. PMID:21965880

  2. Predicting affective choice.

    PubMed

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J

    2013-08-01

    Affect is increasingly recognized as central to decision making. However, it is not clear whether affect can be used to predict choice. To address this issue, we conducted 4 studies designed to create and test a model that could predict choice from affect. In Study 1, we used an image rating task to develop a model that predicted approach-avoidance motivations. This model quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We then tested the predictive power of this model for two types of decisions involving images: preference based selections (Study 2) and risk-reward trade-offs (Study 3). In both cases, the model derived in Study 1 predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally, we showed that this model has ecological validity: It predicted choices between news articles on the basis of headlines (Study 4). These findings have implications for diverse fields, including neuroeconomics and judgment and decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  4. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  5. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  6. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-09

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory.

  7. Individual Differences in Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  8. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  9. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  10. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  11. Comprehensive affected environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Energy Vision 2020 evaluates the affected environment to help provide a baseline for measuring the environmental consequences of alternative energy strategies. Because this report is also an environmental impact statement, special emphasis is given to the environment. This regional perspective takes in both natural conditions and those resulting from human development. It considers socioeconomic, air, water, and land resources. This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report provides the overview for the environmental assessment.

  12. Conditions affecting the foreskin.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions.

  13. What Facial Appearance Reveals Over Time: When Perceived Expressions in Neutral Faces Reveal Stable Emotion Dispositions

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Reginald B.; Garrido, Carlos O.; Albohn, Daniel N.; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    It might seem a reasonable assumption that when we are not actively using our faces to express ourselves (i.e., when we display nonexpressive, or neutral faces), those around us will not be able to read our emotions. Herein, using a variety of expression-related ratings, we examined whether age-related changes in the face can accurately reveal one’s innermost affective dispositions. In each study, we found that expressive ratings of neutral facial displays predicted self-reported positive/negative dispositional affect, but only for elderly women, and only for positive affect. These findings meaningfully replicate and extend earlier work examining age-related emotion cues in the face of elderly women (Malatesta et al., 1987a). We discuss these findings in light of evidence that women are expected to, and do, smile more than men, and that the quality of their smiles predicts their life satisfaction. Although ratings of old male faces did not significantly predict self-reported affective dispositions, the trend was similar to that found for old female faces. A plausible explanation for this gender difference is that in the process of attenuating emotional expressions over their lifetimes, old men reveal less evidence of their total emotional experiences in their faces than do old women. PMID:27445944

  14. Attentional consequences of pregoal and postgoal positive affects.

    PubMed

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2011-12-01

    Decades of research have suggested that all positive affective states broaden attention. Recent studies have found that positive affects high in approach motivation narrow attention, whereas positive affects low in approach motivation broaden attention. However, these studies were limited because they used only affective pictures to manipulate positive affect. The pictures, rather than the affective states created by them, may have caused individuals to focus on the emotional details of the picture, and this attentional focus may have caused the narrowing of attentional scope. Moreover, no experiment has yet to examine both low and high approach-motivated positive affect within the same individuals in the same study. The current experiments manipulated pregoal (high approach) and postgoal (low approach) positive states by giving participants the opportunity to win money on a game. Results revealed that pregoal positive affect caused a narrowing of attention, whereas postgoal positive affect caused a broadening of attention.

  15. Psychological factors affecting migraine.

    PubMed

    Shulman, B H

    1989-01-01

    Psychological factors are known to increase the severity and intensity of headaches. When they are shown to be present, an appropriate psychiatric diagnosis is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual's (DSMIII-R) category of psychological factors affecting physical condition (code no. 316.0). These factors can be differentiated into stress factors, personality traits, psychodynamic factors, learned behaviors, and mood disturbances. The factors overlap and intertwine in the average headache patient. Attention to these factors in a systematic way should enhance our understanding and treatment of the chronic headache patient.

  16. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Kelly J.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), characterized by fall/winter major depression with spring/summer remission, is a prevalent mental health problem. SAD etiology is not certain, but available models focus on neurotransmitters, hormones, circadian rhythm dysregulation, genetic polymorphisms, and psychological factors. Light therapy is established as the best available treatment for SAD. Alternative and/or supplementary approaches involving medications, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and exercise are currently being developed and evaluated. Given the complexity of the disorder, interdisciplinary research stands to make a significant contribution to advancing our understanding of SAD conceptualization and treatment. PMID:21179639

  17. Assessing affective variability in eating disorders: affect spins less in anorexia nervosa of the restrictive type.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Probst, Michel; Pieters, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Differences in affective variability in eating disorders are examined using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. It is hypothesized that restriction serves to pre-empt the activation of affect whereas bulimic behavior serves to cope with overwhelming affect once activated. Therefore, we expect anorexia nervosa (AN) patients of the restricting type (AN-RT) to have lower mean levels of affect and less affective variability than Bulimia Nervosa (BN) patients. Patients' successive affective states over time are represented as different positions in a two-dimensional space defined by the orthogonal dimensions of valence and activation. Affective variability is measured by the within person variance and the new concepts of pulse and spin. Results of this exploratory study suggest that the diagnostic groups have the same mean levels of affect but affect spins less in patients with AN-RT. Using an EMA protocol and measures like pulse and spin may reveal insights in eating disorders that remain hidden with more traditional assessment methods.

  18. [Nephrocutaneous fistula revealing xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Scotté, M; Sibert, L; Soury, P; Lebret, T; Gobet, F; Grise, P; Tenière, P

    1993-01-01

    A patient presented with a reno-cutaneous fistula revealing a xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis secondary to staghorn calculus. Total nephrectomy was necessary because of renal destruction. This treatment allowed closure of the fistula and a good clinical result.

  19. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference.

  20. Stability of facial affective expressions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fatouros-Bergman, H; Spang, J; Merten, J; Preisler, G; Werbart, A

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature.

  1. Nonverbal Disclosure of Teacher Deception and Interpersonal Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    1976-01-01

    Nonverbal behavior tended to reflect whether a teacher was dissembling or truthful. When being truthful, teachers revealed their underlying affective states; but when lying, there was no difference in nonverbal behavior according to affective state. Teachers' nonverbal behavior also tended to occur differentially according to the publicness of the…

  2. Affect and Low Back Pain: More to Consider than the Influence of Negative Affect Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Afton L.; Goesling, Jenna; Mathur, Sunjay N.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Brummett, Chad M.; Sibille, Kimberly T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Affect balance style, a measure of trait positive and negative affect, is predictive of pain and functioning in fibromyalgia and healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of affect balance styles and the relationship between these styles and clinical factors in low back pain. Methods In this cross-sectional study, patients with low back pain (N=443) completed questionnaires and were categorized as having one of four distinct affect balance styles: Healthy (high levels of positive affect [PA] and low levels of negative affect [NA]), Low (low PA/low NA), Reactive (high PA/high NA) and Depressive (low PA/high NA). Comparisons between groups were made in regard to pain, functioning and psychiatric comorbidity. Results High NA was observed in 63% (n=281), while low positive affect was present in 81% (n=359). We found that having a Depressive style was associated with greater pain severity, increased odds for comorbid fibromyalgia, and worse functioning compared to having a Healthy or Low style. Yet, those with a Low style were at increased risk for depression compared to a Healthy style, while patients with a Reactive style had similar levels of pain, functioning and depression as those with a Healthy affective style Conclusion Our study revealed that there are important differences between trait affect balance styles in regard to pain, mood, and functioning in low back pain. Findings related to Reactive and Low affective styles suggest that relationships between affect, pain and disability in low back pain extend beyond considering negative affect alone. PMID:26889620

  3. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  4. Factors affecting bone growth.

    PubMed

    Gkiatas, Ioannis; Lykissas, Marios; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Korompilias, Anastasios; Batistatou, Anna; Beris, Alexandros

    2015-02-01

    Bone growth and development are products of the complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Longitudinal bone growth depends on the growth plate. The growth plate has 5 different zones-each with a different functional role-and is the final target organ for longitudinal growth. Bone length is affected by several systemic, local, and mechanical factors. All these regulation systems control the final length of bones in a complicated way. Despite its significance to bone stability, bone growth in width has not been studied as extensively as longitudinal bone growth. Bone growth in width is also controlled by genetic factors, but mechanical loading regulates periosteal apposition. In this article, we review the most recent data regarding bone growth from the embryonic age and analyze the factors that control bone growth. An understanding of this complex system is important in identifying metabolic and developmental bone diseases and fracture risk.

  5. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification

    PubMed Central

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience—i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood—affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically “deaf” and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

  6. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.

    PubMed

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  7. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  8. Cultural variation in affect valuation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Knutson, Brian; Fung, Helene H

    2006-02-01

    The authors propose that how people want to feel ("ideal affect") differs from how they actually feel ("actual affect") and that cultural factors influence ideal more than actual affect. In 2 studies, controlling for actual affect, the authors found that European American (EA) and Asian American (AA) individuals value high-arousal positive affect (e.g., excitement) more than do Hong Kong Chinese (CH). On the other hand, CH and AA individuals value low-arousal positive affect (e.g., calm) more than do EA individuals. For all groups, the discrepancy between ideal and actual affect correlates with depression. These findings illustrate the distinctiveness of ideal and actual affect, show that culture influences ideal affect more than actual affect, and indicate that both play a role in mental health. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. [Vulvar oedema revealing systemic mastocytosis].

    PubMed

    Deveza, E; Locatelli, F; Girardin, M; Valmary-Degano, S; Daguindau, E; Aubin, F; Humbert, P; Pelletier, F

    2015-11-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterised by abnormal proliferation of mast cells in various organs. We report an original case of systemic mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema. A 24-year-old patient was examined in the dermatology department for vulvar oedema appearing during sexual intercourse. She presented vasomotor dysfunction of the lower limbs, urticaria on the trunk on exertion, diarrhoea and bone pains. Laboratory tests showed serum tryptase of 29.7μg and plasma histamine at twice the normal value. Myelogram results showed infiltration by dysmorphic mast cells. Screening for c-kit D816V mutation was positive. Duodenal biopsies revealed mast-cell clusters with aggregation involving over 15 mast cells. CD2 staining was inconclusive and CD25 staining could not be done. Trabecular osteopenia was found, and we thus made a diagnosis of indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM variant Ia) as per the WHO 2008 criteria. Symptomatic treatment was initiated (antiH1, H2, antileukotrienes) and clinical and laboratory follow-up was instituted. The cutaneous signs leading to diagnosis in this patient of systemic mastocytosis involving several organs were seemingly minimal signs associated with mastocyte degranulation. This is the third recorded case of mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema and the first case revealing systemic involvement. The two previously reported cases of vulvar oedema revealed cutaneous mastocytosis alone. Mastocytosis, whether systemic or cutaneous, must be included among the differential diagnoses considered in the presence of vulvar oedema. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Daily affect and female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    The specific affective experiences related to changes in various aspects of female sexual function have received little attention as most prior studies have focused instead on the role of clinical mood and anxiety disorders and their influence on sexual dysfunction. We sought to understand the transaction between daily affect and female sexual function in effort to provide a more nuanced understanding of the interplay between affective and sexual experiences. The present study used a 2-week daily diary approach to examine same-day and temporal relations between positive and negative affect states and sexual function in young women. We examined the unique relations between positive (i.e., joviality, serenity, self-assurance) and negative (i.e., fear, sadness, hostility) affects and female sexual response (i.e., desire, subjective arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasmic function, and sexual pain) while controlling for higher order sexual distress, depression, and anxiety, as well as age effects and daily menstruation. Analyses revealed different aspects of both positive and negative affects to be independently related to sexual response indices. Specifically, results indicated that joviality was related to same-day sexual desire and predicted increased desire the following day. This latter relation was partially mediated by sexual activity. Further, greater sexual desire predicted next-day calmness, which was partially mediated by sexual activity. Notably, fear was related to same-day subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasmic function, and vaginal pain, whereas poorer orgasmic function predicted greater next-day sadness. These findings describe the manner in which changes in affect correspond to variations in female sexual function, thus highlighting the inextricability of mental and sexual health. Further, these findings may offer insight into the progression of normative levels of affect and sexual function as they develop into comorbid depression, anxiety, and

  11. Feeling worse to feel better: pain-offset relief simultaneously stimulates positive affect and reduces negative affect.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2013-04-01

    Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.

  12. Sex affects immunity.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Leesa M; Galligan, Carole L; Fish, Eleanor N

    2012-05-01

    Sex based differences in immune responses, affecting both the innate and adaptive immune responses, contribute to differences in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases in males and females, the response to viral vaccines and the prevalence of autoimmune diseases. Indeed, females have a lower burden of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, most evident during their reproductive years. Conversely, females have a higher prevalence of a number of autoimmune diseases, including Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). These observations suggest that gonadal hormones may have a role in this sex differential. The fundamental differences in the immune systems of males and females are attributed not only to differences in sex hormones, but are related to X chromosome gene contributions and the effects of environmental factors. A comprehensive understanding of the role that sex plays in the immune response is required for therapeutic intervention strategies against infections and the development of appropriate and effective therapies for autoimmune diseases for both males and females. This review will focus on the differences between male and female immune responses in terms of innate and adaptive immunity, and the effects of sex hormones in SLE, MS and RA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How Obesity Affects Tendons?

    PubMed

    Abate, Michele; Salini, Vincenzo; Andia, Isabel

    Several epidemiological and clinical observations have definitely demonstrated that obesity has harmful effects on tendons. The pathogenesis of tendon damage is multi-factorial. In addition to overload, attributable to the increased body weight, which significantly affects load-bearing tendons, systemic factors play a relevant role. Several bioactive peptides (chemerin, leptin, adiponectin and others) are released by adipocytes, and influence tendon structure by means of negative activities on mesenchymal cells. The ensuing systemic state of chronic, sub-clinic, low-grade inflammation can damage tendon structure. Metabolic disorders (diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and dislipidemia), frequently associated with visceral adiposity, are concurrent pathogenetic factors. Indeed, high glucose levels increase the formation of Advanced Glycation End-products, which in turn form stable covalent cross-links within collagen fibers, modifying their structure and functionality.Sport activities, so useful for preventing important cardiovascular complications, may be detrimental for tendons if they are submitted to intense acute or chronic overload. Therefore, two caution rules are mandatory: first, to engage in personalized soft training program, and secondly to follow regular check-up for tendon pathology.

  14. Community structure affects behavior.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, C

    1991-06-01

    AID's prevention efforts can benefit from taking into account 5 main aspects (KEPRA) of community structure identified by anthropologists: 1) kinship patterns, 2) economics, 3) politics, 4) religion, and 5) associations. For example, in Uganda among the Basoga and paternal aunt or senga is responsible for female sex education. Such culturally determined patterns need to be targeted in order to enhance education and effectiveness. Economics can reflect differing systems of family support through sexual means. The example given involves a poor family with a teenager in Thailand who exchanges a water buffalo or basic necessity for this daughter's prostitution. Politics must be considered because every society identifies people who have the power to persuade, influence, exchange resources, coerce, or in some way get people to do what is wanted. Utilizing these resources whether its ministers of health, factory owners, or peers is exemplified in the Monterey, Mexico factor floor supervisor and canteen worker introducing to workers the hows and whys of a new AID's education program. His peer status will command more respect than the director with direct authority. Religious beliefs have explanations for causes of sickness or disease, or provide instruction in sex practices. The example given is of a health workers in Uganda discussing AIDS with rural women by saying that we all know that disease and deaths are caused by spells. "But not AIDS - slim. AIDS is different." Associations can help provide educational, economic, and emotional assistance to the AID's effort or families affected.

  15. How eating affects mood.

    PubMed

    Ioakimidis, I; Zandian, M; Ulbl, F; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Södersten, P

    2011-06-01

    IOAKIMIDIS I, M. ZANDIAN, F. ULBL, C. BERGH, M LEON, AND P. SÖDERSTEN. How eating affects mood. PHYSIOL BEHAV 2011 (000) 000-000. We hypothesize that the changes in mood that are associated with eating disorders are caused by a change in eating behavior. When food is in short supply, the rhythm of the neural network for eating, including orbitofrontal cortex and brainstem, slows down and we suggest that this type of neural activity activates a partially overlapping neural network for mood, including dorsal raphe serotonin projections to the orbitofrontal and prefrontal cortex. As a consequence, people who restrict the amount of food that they consume, either by choice or by their limited access to food, become preoccupied with food and food-related behavior. Most eating disorders emerge from a history of dietary restriction and we suggest that disordered eating consequent upon food restriction produces the altered mental state of patients with eating disorders. Based on the present hypothesis, eating disorders are not the result of a primary mental disorder. Rather, this notion suggests that the patients should be treated by learning to eat an appropriate amount of food at an appropriate rate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolomic profiling in tomato reveals diel compositional changes in fruit affected by source–sink relationships

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Camille; Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoît; Osorio, Sonia; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Deborde, Catherine; Colombié, Sophie; Cabasson, Cécile; Jacob, Daniel; Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Hélène; Rolin, Dominique; Génard, Michel; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of the diurnal compositional changes was performed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker) leaves and fruits. Plants were cultivated in a commercial greenhouse under two growth conditions: control and shaded. Expanding fruits and the closest mature leaves were harvested during two different day/night cycles (cloudy or sunny day). High-throughput robotized biochemical phenotyping of major compounds, as well as proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry metabolomic profiling, were used to measure the contents of about 70 metabolites in the leaves and 60 metabolites in the fruits, in parallel with ecophysiological measurements. Metabolite data were processed using multivariate, univariate, or clustering analyses and correlation networks. The shaded carbon-limited plants adjusted their leaf area, decreased their sink carbon demand and showed subtle compositional modifications. For source leaves, several metabolites varied along a diel cycle, including those directly linked to photosynthesis and photorespiration. These metabolites peaked at midday in both conditions and diel cycles as expected. However, transitory carbon storage was limited in tomato leaves. In fruits, fewer metabolites showed diel fluctuations, which were also of lower amplitude. Several organic acids were among the fluctuating metabolites. Diel patterns observed in leaves and especially in fruits differed between the cloudy and sunny days, and between the two conditions. Relationships between compositional changes in leaves and fruits are in agreement with the fact that several metabolic processes of the fruit appeared linked to its momentary supply of sucrose. PMID:25873655

  17. Citizen scientists reveal: Marine litter pollutes Arctic beaches and affects wild life.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Melanie; Lutz, Birgit; Tekman, Mine B; Gutow, Lars

    2017-09-27

    Recent data indicate accumulation areas of marine litter in Arctic waters and significant increases over time. Beaches on remote Arctic islands may be sinks for marine litter and reflect pollution levels of the surrounding waters particularly well. We provide the first quantitative data from surveys carried out by citizen scientists on six beaches of Svalbard. Litter quantities recorded by cruise tourists varied from 9-524gm(-2) and were similar to those from densely populated areas. Plastics accounted for >80% of the overall litter, most of which originated from fisheries. Photographs provided by citizens show deleterious effects of beach litter on Arctic wildlife, which is already under strong pressure from global climate change. Our study highlights the potential of citizen scientists to provide scientifically valuable data on the pollution of sensitive remote ecosystems. The results stress once more that current legislative frameworks are insufficient to tackle the pollution of Arctic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio

    2016-11-29

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.

  19. Proteomic Analysis Reveals That Metabolic Flows Affect the Susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila to Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zujie; Li, Wanxin; Lin, Yi; Wu, Qian; Yu, Feifei; Lin, Wenxiong; Lin, Xiangmin

    2016-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics results in the development of antibiotic resistance and limits the useful life of these drugs in fighting bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, a well-known opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in fish and other animals. In this study, we investigated the adaptive resistance mechanism in A. hydrophila by multiple proteomic methods. Dimethyl labeling and label-free methods were performed to compare the differential expression of proteins in response to various doses of oxytetracycline (OXY). The results point to the conclusions that, in response to OXY stress, translational processes increase the abundance of these proteins whereas largely central metabolic pathways decrease their abundance. To confirm our hypothesis, various exogenous metabolites were compounded with OXY, and the resulting survival capabilities were measured. Results show that 7 metabolites (malic acid, serine, methionine, etc.) significantly decreased the survival capabilities of A. hydrophila in the presence of OXY, whereas 4 metabolites (arginine, lysine, tyrosine, etc.) did the opposite. Further investigation suggests that a compound comprising exogenous metabolites in combination with various antibiotics could have a significant bactericidal effect and might come into widespread use, especially together with tetracycline antibiotics. These findings may provide new clues to the antimicrobial treatment of A. hydrophila infection. PMID:27991550

  20. Screening the budding yeast genome reveals unique factors affecting K2 toxin susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Servienė, Elena; Lukša, Juliana; Orentaitė, Irma; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Urbonavičius, Jaunius

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how biotoxins kill cells is of prime importance in biomedicine and the food industry. The budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) killers serve as a convenient model to study the activity of biotoxins consistently supplying with significant insights into the basic mechanisms of virus-host cell interactions and toxin entry into eukaryotic target cells. K1 and K2 toxins are active at the cell wall, leading to the disruption of the plasma membrane and subsequent cell death by ion leakage. K28 toxin is active in the cell nucleus, blocking DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, thereby triggering apoptosis. Genome-wide screens in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae identified several hundred effectors of K1 and K28 toxins. Surprisingly, no such screen had been performed for K2 toxin, the most frequent killer toxin among industrial budding yeasts. We conducted several concurrent genome-wide screens in S. cerevisiae and identified 332 novel K2 toxin effectors. The effectors involved in K2 resistance and hypersensitivity largely map in distinct cellular pathways, including cell wall and plasma membrane structure/biogenesis and mitochondrial function for K2 resistance, and cell wall stress signaling and ion/pH homeostasis for K2 hypersensitivity. 70% of K2 effectors are different from those involved in K1 or K28 susceptibility. Our work demonstrates that despite the fact that K1 and K2 toxins share some aspects of their killing strategies, they largely rely on different sets of effectors. Since the vast majority of the host factors identified here is exclusively active towards K2, we conclude that cells have acquired a specific K2 toxin effectors set. Our work thus indicates that K1 and K2 have elaborated different biological pathways and provides a first step towards the detailed characterization of K2 mode of action.

  1. Metabolomic profiling in tomato reveals diel compositional changes in fruit affected by source-sink relationships.

    PubMed

    Bénard, Camille; Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoît; Osorio, Sonia; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Deborde, Catherine; Colombié, Sophie; Cabasson, Cécile; Jacob, Daniel; Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Hélène; Rolin, Dominique; Génard, Michel; Fernie, Alisdair R; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick

    2015-06-01

    A detailed study of the diurnal compositional changes was performed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker) leaves and fruits. Plants were cultivated in a commercial greenhouse under two growth conditions: control and shaded. Expanding fruits and the closest mature leaves were harvested during two different day/night cycles (cloudy or sunny day). High-throughput robotized biochemical phenotyping of major compounds, as well as proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry metabolomic profiling, were used to measure the contents of about 70 metabolites in the leaves and 60 metabolites in the fruits, in parallel with ecophysiological measurements. Metabolite data were processed using multivariate, univariate, or clustering analyses and correlation networks. The shaded carbon-limited plants adjusted their leaf area, decreased their sink carbon demand and showed subtle compositional modifications. For source leaves, several metabolites varied along a diel cycle, including those directly linked to photosynthesis and photorespiration. These metabolites peaked at midday in both conditions and diel cycles as expected. However, transitory carbon storage was limited in tomato leaves. In fruits, fewer metabolites showed diel fluctuations, which were also of lower amplitude. Several organic acids were among the fluctuating metabolites. Diel patterns observed in leaves and especially in fruits differed between the cloudy and sunny days, and between the two conditions. Relationships between compositional changes in leaves and fruits are in agreement with the fact that several metabolic processes of the fruit appeared linked to its momentary supply of sucrose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Sequence analysis reveals genomic factors affecting EST-SSR primer performance and polymorphism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Search for simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs and design of flanking primers in expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences can be easily done at a large scale using bioinformatics programs. However, failed amplification and/or detection, along with lack of polymorphism, is often seen among randomly sel...

  3. Screening the Budding Yeast Genome Reveals Unique Factors Affecting K2 Toxin Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Servienė, Elena; Lukša, Juliana; Orentaitė, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding how biotoxins kill cells is of prime importance in biomedicine and the food industry. The budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) killers serve as a convenient model to study the activity of biotoxins consistently supplying with significant insights into the basic mechanisms of virus-host cell interactions and toxin entry into eukaryotic target cells. K1 and K2 toxins are active at the cell wall, leading to the disruption of the plasma membrane and subsequent cell death by ion leakage. K28 toxin is active in the cell nucleus, blocking DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, thereby triggering apoptosis. Genome-wide screens in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae identified several hundred effectors of K1 and K28 toxins. Surprisingly, no such screen had been performed for K2 toxin, the most frequent killer toxin among industrial budding yeasts. Principal Findings We conducted several concurrent genome-wide screens in S. cerevisiae and identified 332 novel K2 toxin effectors. The effectors involved in K2 resistance and hypersensitivity largely map in distinct cellular pathways, including cell wall and plasma membrane structure/biogenesis and mitochondrial function for K2 resistance, and cell wall stress signaling and ion/pH homeostasis for K2 hypersensitivity. 70% of K2 effectors are different from those involved in K1 or K28 susceptibility. Significance Our work demonstrates that despite the fact that K1 and K2 toxins share some aspects of their killing strategies, they largely rely on different sets of effectors. Since the vast majority of the host factors identified here is exclusively active towards K2, we conclude that cells have acquired a specific K2 toxin effectors set. Our work thus indicates that K1 and K2 have elaborated different biological pathways and provides a first step towards the detailed characterization of K2 mode of action. PMID:23227207

  4. Statistical image analysis reveals features affecting fates of Myxococcus xanthus developmental aggregates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Zhang, Haiyang; Shimkets, Lawrence J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2011-04-05

    Starving Myxococcus xanthus bacteria use their motility systems to self-organize into multicellular fruiting bodies, large mounds in which cells differentiate into metabolically inert spores. Despite the identification of the genetic pathways required for aggregation and the use of microcinematography to observe aggregation dynamics in WT and mutant strains, a mechanistic understanding of aggregation is still incomplete. For example, it is not clear why some of the initial aggregates mature into fruiting bodies, whereas others disperse, merge, or split into two. Here, we develop high-throughput image quantification and statistical analysis methods to gain insight into M. xanthus developmental aggregation dynamics. A quantitative metric of features characterizing each aggregate is used to deduce the properties of the aggregates that are correlated with each fate. The analysis shows that small aggregate size but not neighbor-related parameters correlate with aggregate dispersal. Furthermore, close proximity is necessary but not sufficient for aggregate merging. Finally, splitting occurs for those aggregates that are unusually large and elongated. These observations place severe constraints on the underlying aggregation mechanisms and present strong evidence against the role of long-range morphogenic gradients or biased cell exchange in the dispersal, merging, or splitting of transient aggregates. This approach can be expanded and adapted to study self-organization in other cellular systems.

  5. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion

    PubMed Central

    BurnSilver, Shauna B.; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S.; Kofinas, Gary P.

    2016-01-01

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social–ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources. PMID:27856752

  6. The biological affects: a typology.

    PubMed

    Buck, R

    1999-04-01

    This typology of biological affects is based on developmental-interactionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affects--subjectively experienced feelings and desires--involve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivational-emotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal, approach-avoidance, agonistic) and prosocial (cooperative) functions. Selfish and cooperative functions are associated respectively with the right and left hemispheres. Biological affects constitute the physiological bases for higher level affects: social affects (e.g., pride, guilt, shame, pity, jealousy), cognitive affects (e.g., curiosity, surprise), and moral affects.

  7. Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash

    PubMed Central

    Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

  8. Affective incoherence: when affective concepts and embodied reactions clash.

    PubMed

    Centerbar, David B; Schnall, Simone; Clore, Gerald L; Garvin, Erika D

    2008-04-01

    In five studies, the authors examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than did affective incoherence. The authors suggest that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits and that incoherence is costly in terms of cognitive performance. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of affect integration: validation of the affect consciousness construct.

    PubMed

    Solbakken, Ole André; Hansen, Roger Sandvik; Havik, Odd E; Monsen, Jon T

    2011-05-01

    Affect integration, or the capacity to utilize the motivational and signal properties of affect for personal adjustment, is assumed to be an important aspect of psychological health and functioning. Affect integration has been operationalized through the affect consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine discrete affects. A semistructured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs) have been developed to specifically assess these aspects of affect integration. This study explored the construct validity of AC in a Norwegian clinical sample including estimates of reliability and assessment of structure by factor analyses. External validity issues were addressed by examining the relationships between scores on the ACSs and self-rated symptom- and interpersonal problem measures as well as independent, observer-based ratings of personality disorder criteria and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994).

  10. Ischemic Colitis Revealing Polyarteritis Nodosa

    PubMed Central

    Hamzaoui, Amira; Litaiem, Noureddine; Smiti Khanfir, M.; Ayadi, Sofiene; Nfoussi, Haifa; Houman, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is one of the most common intestinal ischemic injuries. It results from impaired perfusion of blood to the bowel and is rarely caused by vasculitis. We report a case of ischemic colitis revealing polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) in a 55-year-old man. Histological examination of the resected colon led to the diagnosis of PAN. PMID:24382967

  11. Two Unique Glioma Subtypes Revealed.

    PubMed

    Poh, Alissa

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive analysis of 1,122 diffuse glioma samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas has revealed two new subtypes of this common brain cancer, with molecular and clinical features that diverge from the norm. The study findings also support the use of DNA methylation profiles to improve glioma classification and treatment.

  12. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    PubMed

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  13. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  14. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  15. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  16. Tetracyclines affect prion infectivity.

    PubMed

    Forloni, Gianluigi; Iussich, Selina; Awan, Tazeen; Colombo, Laura; Angeretti, Nadia; Girola, Laura; Bertani, Ilaria; Poli, Giorgio; Caramelli, Maria; Grazia Bruzzone, Maria; Farina, Laura; Limido, Lucia; Rossi, Giacomina; Giaccone, Giorgio; Ironside, James W; Bugiani, Orso; Salmona, Mario; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2002-08-06

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals for which no effective treatment is available. Conformationally altered, protease-resistant forms of the prion protein (PrP) termed PrP(Sc) are critical for disease transmissibility and pathogenesis, thus representing a primary target for therapeutic strategies. Based on previous findings that tetracyclines revert abnormal physicochemical properties and abolish neurotoxicity of PrP peptides in vitro, we tested the ability of these compounds to interact with PrP(Sc) from patients with the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The incubation with tetracycline hydrochloride or doxycycline hyclate at concentrations ranging from 10 microM to 1 mM resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in protease resistance of PrP(Sc). This finding prompted us to investigate whether tetracyclines affect prion infectivity by using an animal model of disease. Syrian hamsters were injected intracerebrally with 263K scrapie-infected brain homogenate that was coincubated with 1 mM tetracycline hydrochloride, 1 mM doxycycline hyclate, or vehicle solution before inoculation. Hamsters injected with tetracycline-treated inoculum showed a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of disease and prolonged survival time. These effects were paralleled by a delay in the appearance of magnetic-resonance abnormalities in the thalamus, neuropathological changes, and PrP(Sc) accumulation. When tetracycline was preincubated with highly diluted scrapie-infected inoculum, one third of hamsters did not develop disease. Our data suggest that these well characterized antibiotics reduce prion infectivity through a direct interaction with PrP(Sc) and are potentially useful for inactivation of BSE- or vCJD-contaminated products and prevention strategies.

  17. Factors affecting corneoscleral topography.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lee A; Hunt, Chris; Young, Graeme; Wolffsohn, James

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate factors affecting corneoscleral profile (CSP) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in combination with conventional videokeratoscopy. OCT DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM 204 SUBJECTS OF MEAN AGE 34.9 YEARS (SD: ±15.2 years, range 18-65) using the Zeiss Visante AS-OCT and Medmont M300 corneal topographer. Measurements of corneal diameter (CD), corneal sagittal height (CS), iris diameter (ID), corneoscleral junction angle (CSJ), and scleral radius (SR) were extracted from multiple OCT images. Horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID) and vertical palpebral aperture (PA) were measured using a slit lamp graticule. Subject body height was also measured. Associations were then sought between CSP variables and age, height, ethnicity, sex, and refractive error. Significant correlations were found between age and ocular topography variables of HVID, PA, CSJ, SR, and ID (P < 0.0001), while height correlated with HVID, CD, and ID, and power vector terms with vertical plane keratometry, CD, and CS. Significant differences were noted between ethnicities with respect to CD (P = 0.0046), horizontal and vertical CS (P = 0.0068 and P = 0.0095), and horizontal ID (P = 0.0010). The same variables, with the exception of vertical CS, also varied with sex; horizontal CD (P = 0.0018), horizontal CS (P = 0.0018), and ID (P = 0.0012). Age accounted for the greatest variance in topography variables (36%). Age is the main factor influencing CSP; this should be taken into consideration in contact lens design, IOL selection, and in the optimization of surgical procedures. Ocular topography also varied with height, sex, ethnicity, and refractive error.

  18. Positive and negative affective processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs during the viewing of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Pan, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using graph theory metrics have revealed that the functional network of the human brain possesses small-world characteristics and comprises several functional hub regions. However, it is unclear how the affective functional network is organized in the brain during the processing of affective information. In this study, the fMRI data were collected from 25 healthy college students as they viewed a total of 81 positive, neutral, and negative pictures. The results indicated that affective functional networks exhibit weaker small-worldness properties with higher local efficiency, implying that local connections increase during viewing affective pictures. Moreover, positive and negative emotional processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs, emerging mainly in task-positive regions. These functional hubs, which are the centers of information processing, have nodal betweenness centrality values that are at least 1.5 times larger than the average betweenness centrality of the network. Positive affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the right putamen in the positive emotional network; negative affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the left OFC and the left amygdala in the negative emotional network. The local efficiencies in the left superior and inferior parietal lobe correlated with subsequent arousal ratings of positive and negative pictures, respectively. These observations provide important evidence for the organizational principles of the human brain functional connectome during the processing of affective information. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, Jack C; Begoli, Edmon; Jose, Ajith; Griffin, Christopher

    2011-02-01

    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  20. Emotion-specific load disrupts concomitant affective processing.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Niedenthal, Paula M; Pleyers, Gordy; Bayot, Marie; Corneille, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Findings in the neuroimaging literature suggest that separate brain circuitries are involved when individuals perform emotional compared to nonemotional working memory (WM) tasks. Here we test this hypothesis with behavioural measures. We predicted that the conceptual processing of affect would be disrupted more by concurrent affective than nonaffective load. Participants performed a conceptual task in which they verified affective versus sensory properties of concepts, and a second, concurrent, working memory (n-back) task in which the target stimuli were facial expressions. Results revealed that storing and updating affective (as compared with identity) features of facial expressions altered performance more for affective than for sensory properties of concepts. The findings are supportive of the ideas that affective resources exist and that these resources are specifically used during the processing and representation of affective properties of objects and events.

  1. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  2. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  3. [Emotions and affect in psychoanalysisis].

    PubMed

    Carton, Solange; Widlöcher, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to give some indications on the concept of affect in psychoanalysis. There is no single theory of affect, and Freud gave successive definitions, which continue to be deepened in contemporary psychoanalysis. We review some steps of Freud works on affect, then we look into some present major questions, such as its relationship to soma, the nature of unconscious affects and the repression of affect, which is particularly developed in the field of psychoanalytic psychosomatic. From Freud's definitions of affect as one of the drive representative and as a limit-concept between the somatic and the psychic, we develop some major theoretical perspectives, which give a central place to soma and drive impulses, and which agree on the major idea that affect is the result of a process. We then note some parallelism between psychoanalysis of affect and psychology and neurosciences of emotion, and underline the gaps and conditions of comparison between these different epistemological approaches.

  4. Drugs affecting the eye.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  5. Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

  6. Feather corticosterone reveals developmental stress in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Will, Alexis P; Suzuki, Yuya; Elliott, Kyle H; Hatch, Scott A; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    In nest-bound avian offspring, food shortages typically trigger a release of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies indicate that CORT is passively deposited in the tissue of growing feathers and thus may provide an integrated measure of stress incurred during development in the nest. The current hypothesis predicts that, assuming a constant rate of feather growth, elevated CORT circulating in the blood corresponds to higher levels of CORT in feather tissue, but experimental evidence for nutritionally stressed chicks is lacking. Here, we examined how food limitation affects feather CORT content in the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca moncerata). We (i) used captive chicks reared on control versus restricted diets, and (ii) applied this technique to free-living chicks with unknown nutritional histories that fledged at three separate colonies. We found that (i) feather growth was not affected by experimentally induced nutritional stress; (ii) captive chicks raised on a restricted diet had higher levels of CORT in their primary feathers; (iii) feather CORT deposition is a sensitive method of detecting nutritional stress; and (iv) free-living fledglings from the colony with poor reproductive performance had higher CORT in their primary feathers. We conclude that feather CORT is a sensitive integrated measure revealing the temporal dynamics of food limitations experienced by rhinoceros auklet nestlings. The use of feather CORT may be a powerful endocrine tool in ecological and evolutionary studies of bird species with similar preferential allocation of limited resources to feather development.

  7. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  8. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association.

  9. Revealing the microstructure of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to demonstrate how the microstructure of materials may be revealed by abrasive polishing and chemical etching, and to illustrate how microstructural information is used to monitor manufacturing processes, provide in-depth inspection, and perform failure analysis. Microstructural analysis is the procedure used to reveal the internal microstructural details of a material or part by sectioning and polishing the cut surface so that it may be examined under a suitable microscope. A printed wiring board was selected as the test material because it contains both metals and nonmetals that have distinctive microstructures, and because this technique is used throughout the electronic industry as a key quality control tool. The three principle component materials in printed circuit boards are glass/epoxy laminates faced with copper foil; copper, deposited by both electroless and electrolytic plating; and tin/lead solder. Sample preparation, mounting, grinding, polishing, and examination and analysis are discussed.

  10. Revealing the microstructure of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to demonstrate how the microstructure of materials may be revealed by abrasive polishing and chemical etching, and to illustrate how microstructural information is used to monitor manufacturing processes, provide in-depth inspection, and perform failure analysis. Microstructural analysis is the procedure used to reveal the internal microstructural details of a material or part by sectioning and polishing the cut surface so that it may be examined under a suitable microscope. A printed wiring board was selected as the test material because it contains both metals and nonmetals that have distinctive microstructures, and because this technique is used throughout the electronic industry as a key quality control tool. The three principle component materials in printed circuit boards are glass/epoxy laminates faced with copper foil; copper, deposited by both electroless and electrolytic plating; and tin/lead solder. Sample preparation, mounting, grinding, polishing, and examination and analysis are discussed.

  11. [Uterine metastasis revealing gastric adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mambrini, P; Giovanini, M; Seitz, J F; Perrier, H; Allemand, I; Rabia, I; Monges, G; Lebreuil, G

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of metastasis to the uterine corpus revealing a primary gastric adenocarcinoma. A 26-year-old woman suffered from weight loss, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain. An endometrial curettage showed apparently metastatic adenocarcinoma. The primary site of the tumour was gastric. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an ulcus and aspect of linitis plastica in the fundus. Biopsies showed diffuse type adenocarcinoma. Because of extensive disease, laparotomy was not performed and exclusive palliative chemotherapy was started. The patient died 10 months after the diagnosis. Metastasis from primary gastric cancer to the female genital tract are rare and are usually observed in young premenopausal women with diffuse type gastric adenocarcinoma. This case report underlines the interest, for those patients of careful gynaecologic examination at the initial staging and after treatment.

  12. [Seizures revealing phosphocalcic metabolism abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Hmami, F; Chaouki, S; Benmiloud, S; Souilmi, F Z; Abourazzak, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

    2014-01-01

    Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism produces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, but overt symptoms may be sparse. One unusual presentation is onset or aggravation of epilepsy in adolescence revealing hypoparathyroidism. This situation can lead to delayed diagnosis, with inefficacity of the antiepileptic drugs. We report five cases of adolescence-onset epilepsy with unsuccessful antiepileptic therapy, even with gradually increasing dose. Physical examination revealed signs of hypocalcemia, confirmed biologically. Full testing disclosed the origin of the seizures: hypoparathyroidism in three patients and pseudohypoparathyroidism in the other two. In four of five patients, computed tomography showed calcification of the basal ganglia, defining Fahr's syndrome. The patients were treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D (1-alphahydroxy vitamin D3). Seizure frequency progressively decreased and serum calcium levels returned to normal. These cases illustrate the importance of the physical examination and of routine serum calcium assay in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures in order to detect hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism.

  13. Affective Induction and Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Díaz, María D. Martín

    2013-01-01

    Three studies explored the relation between affect and production of creative divergent thinking, assessed with the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural TTCT). In the first study, general, positive, and negative affect, assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were compared with creative production. In the second study,…

  14. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  15. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  16. Affective Induction and Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Díaz, María D. Martín

    2013-01-01

    Three studies explored the relation between affect and production of creative divergent thinking, assessed with the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural TTCT). In the first study, general, positive, and negative affect, assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were compared with creative production. In the second study,…

  17. Structure-revealing data fusion.

    PubMed

    Acar, Evrim; Papalexakis, Evangelos E; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Rasmussen, Morten A; Lawaetz, Anders J; Nilsson, Mathias; Bro, Rasmus

    2014-07-12

    Analysis of data from multiple sources has the potential to enhance knowledge discovery by capturing underlying structures, which are, otherwise, difficult to extract. Fusing data from multiple sources has already proved useful in many applications in social network analysis, signal processing and bioinformatics. However, data fusion is challenging since data from multiple sources are often (i) heterogeneous (i.e., in the form of higher-order tensors and matrices), (ii) incomplete, and (iii) have both shared and unshared components. In order to address these challenges, in this paper, we introduce a novel unsupervised data fusion model based on joint factorization of matrices and higher-order tensors. While the traditional formulation of coupled matrix and tensor factorizations modeling only shared factors fails to capture the underlying structures in the presence of both shared and unshared factors, the proposed data fusion model has the potential to automatically reveal shared and unshared components through modeling constraints. Using numerical experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of identifying shared and unshared components. Furthermore, we measure a set of mixtures with known chemical composition using both LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and demonstrate that the structure-revealing data fusion model can (i) successfully capture the chemicals in the mixtures and extract the relative concentrations of the chemicals accurately, (ii) provide promising results in terms of identifying shared and unshared chemicals, and (iii) reveal the relevant patterns in LC-MS by coupling with the diffusion NMR data. We have proposed a structure-revealing data fusion model that can jointly analyze heterogeneous, incomplete data sets with shared and unshared components and demonstrated its promising performance as well as potential limitations on both simulated and real data.

  18. The dyadic regulation of affect.

    PubMed

    Fosha, D

    2001-02-01

    Accelerated Experiential-Dynamic Psychotherapy integrates experiential, relational, and psychodynamic elements. Deep authentic affective experience and its regulation through coordinated emotional interchanges between patient and therapist are viewed as key transformational agents. When maintaining attachment with caregivers necessitates excluding particular affects, a patient's capacity to regulate emotion becomes compromised. Being in an emotionally alive therapeutic relationship enables patients to better tolerate and communicate affective states; doing so, in turn, fosters security, openness, and intimacy in their other relationships. A clinical vignette will illustrate how using the therapist's affect, and focusing on the patient's experience of it, contributes to the repair of affect regulatory difficulties.

  19. Affect as a Psychological Primitive

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

  20. Non-thermic skin affections.

    PubMed

    Broz, L; Kripner, J

    2000-01-01

    The Centre for Burns can help by its means (material, technical and personal) in the treatment of burns with extensive and deep losses of the skin cover and other tissue structures and in some affections with a different etiology (non-thermic affections). Indicated for admission are, in particular, extensive exfoliative affections--Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS), Lyell's syndrome--toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), deep skin and tissue affections associated with fulminant purpura (PF), possibly other affections (epidermolysis bullosa, posttraumatic avulsions etc.). The similarity with burn injuries with loss of the skin cover grade II is typical, in particular in exfoliative affections with a need for adequate fluid replacement in the acute stage and aseptic surgical treatment of the affected area from the onset of the disease. In conditions leading to full thickness skin loss, in addition to general treatment rapid plastic surgical interventions dominate.

  1. Dusty plasma around Enceladus affects Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    Scientists have been puzzled by periodic bursts of radiation, known as the Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR), that occur in the planet's magnetosphere. These emissions occur at a rate that is close to, but not quite the same as, the rate at which the planet rotates. New observations from the Cassini Spacecraft's flybys of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2008 are revealing new details about the plasma environment around Enceladus and how it may affect Saturn's magnetosphere. These observations could also shed some light on the SKR rotation rate.

  2. Encountering science education's capacity to affect and be affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-09-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.

  3. [Endobronchial hamartoma revealed by hemoptysis].

    PubMed

    Smati, Belhassen; Boudaya, Mohamed Sadok; Mestiri, Taher; Djilani, Habiba; Mezni, Faouzi; Kilani, Tarek

    2005-05-01

    Hamartoma is the most frequent benign tumor of the lung. Its endo bronchial location is rare. We report two cases of endo bronchial hamartoma occurring in 2 men aged 68 and 60 years respectively. The two cases were revealed by hemoptysis. Bronchial fibroscopy showed a bud respectively in the left stump and in the lower left bronchus. Treatment consisted in a pneumonectomy and a lower lobectomy. A histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of endo bronchial hamartoma. Diagnosis of endobronchial hamartoma before surgery is difficult. Pulmonary resections are often necessary because of parenchyma lelions caused bronchial obstruction.

  4. Reactivity of affect and self-esteem during remission in bipolar affective disorder: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Barbara; Uher, Rudolf; Dennington, Louis; Wright, Kim; Donaldson, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) is characterised by a lifelong vulnerability to develop episodes of depressed or elevated mood in response to stressful life events involving achievement or failure. We hypothesised that this latent vulnerability can manifest as reactivity of affect and self-esteem to experimentally induced experiences of success and failure and is shaped by history of childhood adversity. Twenty-four people with remitted BPAD and twenty-four healthy controls underwent anagram-solving tasks designed to generate experiences of success and failure in two separate sessions. Positive and negative affect and implicit and explicit self-esteem were measured before and after each task. Early adversity was measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. People with BPAD showed larger reactivity of affect and explicit self-esteem in response to experimental success and failure than did healthy controls. There were no significant differences in reactivity of implicit self-esteem. History of childhood trauma predicted increased affective reactivity to failure but not to success. We used a convenience sample. The present experimental paradigm reveals reactivity of affect and self-esteem as features of BPAD, which are present even during good remission and thus are accessible as targets of interventions aiming at relapse prevention. Differential associations with childhood adversity indicate aetiological heterogeneity, with reactivity to failure influenced by early trauma and reactivity to success driven by other mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Positive affect and psychobiological processes.

    PubMed

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes is independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes.

  6. Amygdala structure and core dimensions of the affective personality.

    PubMed

    Frühholz, Sascha; Schlegel, Katja; Grandjean, Didier

    2017-05-16

    While biological models of human personality propose that socio-affective traits and skills are rooted in the structure of the amygdala, empirical evidence remains sparse and inconsistent. Here, we used a comprehensive assessment of the affective personality and tested its association with global, local, and laterality measures of the amygdala structure. Results revealed three broad dimensions of the affective personality that were differentially related to bilateral amygdala structures. Dysfunctional and maladaptive affective traits were associated with a global size and local volume reduction of the amygdala, whereas adaptive emotional skills were linked to an increased size of the left amygdala. Furthermore, reduced asymmetry in the bilateral global amygdala volume was linked to higher affective instability and might be a potential precursor of psychiatric disorders. This study demonstrates that structural amygdala measures provide a neural basis for all major dimensions of the human personality related to adaptive and maladaptive socio-affective functioning.

  7. Affective Priming by Eye Gaze Stimuli: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tingji; Peltola, Mikko J.; Ranta, Lotta J.; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study employed the affective priming paradigm and measurements of event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate implicit affective reactions elicited by gaze stimuli. Participants categorized positive and negative words primed by direct gaze, averted gaze and closed eyes. The behavioral response time (RT) results indicated that direct gaze implicitly elicited more positive affective reactions than did closed eyes. Analyses of the ERP responses to the target words revealed a priming effect on the N170 and an interaction on late positive potential (LPP) responses, and congruently with the behavioral results, suggested that, compared to closed eyes, direct gaze was affectively more congruent with positive words and more incongruent with negative words. The priming effect on the N170 response indicated that gaze stimuli influenced the subsequent affective word processing at an early stage of information processing. In conclusion, the present behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggests that direct gaze automatically activates more positive affective reactions than closed eyes. PMID:28003803

  8. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    PubMed

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  9. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders.

  10. Attention to primes modulates affective priming of pronunciation responses.

    PubMed

    De Houwer, Jan; Randell, Tom

    2002-01-01

    In studies on affective priming of pronunciation responses, two words are presented on each trial and participants are asked to read the second word out loud. Whereas some studies revealed shorter reaction times when the two words had the same valence than when they had a different valence, other studies either found no effect of affective congruence or revealed a reversed effect. In the present experiments, a significant effect of affective congruence only emerged when filler trials were presented in which the prime and target were identical and participants were instructed to attend to the primes (Experiment 2). No effects were found when participants were merely instructed to attend to or ignore the primes (Experiment 1), or when affectively incongruent filler trials were presented and participants were instructed to ignore the primes (Experiment 2).

  11. Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2004-02-24

    Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

  12. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition.

  13. Revealing hidden genuine tripartite nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Biswajit; Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Sarkar, Debasis

    2016-11-01

    Nonlocal correlations arising from measurements on tripartite entangled states can be classified into two groups, one genuinely three-way nonlocal and other local with respect to some bipartition. Still, whether a genuinely tripartite entangled quantum state can exhibit genuine three-way nonlocality remains a challenging problem as far as measurement context is concerned. Here we introduce an approach in this regard. We consider three tripartite quantum states, none of which is genuinely three-way nonlocal in a specific Bell scenario (three parties, two measurements per party, two outcomes per measurement), but they can exhibit genuine three-way nonlocality when the initial states are subjected to stochastic local operations and classical communication. So, genuine three-way nonlocality is a resource which can be revealed by using a sequence of measurements.

  14. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  15. Revealing Non-Covalent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erin R.; Keinan, Shahar; Mori-Sánchez, Paula; Contreras-García, Julia; Cohen, Aron J.; Yang, Weitao

    2010-01-01

    Molecular structure does not easily identify the intricate non-covalent interactions that govern many areas of biology and chemistry, including design of new materials and drugs. We develop an approach to detect non-covalent interactions in real space, based on the electron density and its derivatives. Our approach reveals underlying chemistry that compliments the covalent structure. It provides a rich representation of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and steric repulsion in small molecules, molecular complexes, and solids. Most importantly, the method, requiring only knowledge of the atomic coordinates, is efficient and applicable to large systems, such as proteins or DNA. Across these applications, a view of non-bonded interactions emerges as continuous surfaces rather than close contacts between atom pairs, offering rich insight into the design of new and improved ligands. PMID:20394428

  16. [Multiple pulmonary opacities revealing toxocariasis].

    PubMed

    Jorge, D; Strady, C; Guy, B; Deslée, G; Lebargy, F; Dury, S

    2016-08-01

    Toxocariasis is a parasitosis which complicates the accidental infestation of the humans by larvae of a roundworms belonging of the genus Toxocara. In adults, the discovery is often incidental during a hypereosinophilia check-up. Clinical signs are not specific and depend on affected organs. We report the case of a 53-year-old-woman who has consulted for a recent cough, after spontaneous resolution of abdominal pain. The laboratory examination isolated an hypereosinophilia and the liver sonography showed two hypoechogenic nodules. The CT-scan found bilateral lung nodules with ground glass halo. Broncho-alveolar lavage identified an eosinophilic alveolitis. Positive serologic results for toxocariasis and western blot results allowed to conclude to the diagnosis of pulmonary and hepatic toxocariasis. Although rare, pulmonary toxocariasis should be suspect in any lung eosinophilia, especially if the patient has never traveled. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Erosion and what it Reveals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 20 November 2003

    This image is located near the boundary between Syrtis Major and Isidis Planitia. The top of the image shows rough material that has eroded away from the lower portion of the image, revealing an underlying surface that has many small craters. It also reveals an ancient flow lobe that is barely discernable, crossing the southern part of the image (this flow lobe is much easier to see as a smooth region in the context image).

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16.4, Longitude 77.9 East (282.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Erosion and what it Reveals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 20 November 2003

    This image is located near the boundary between Syrtis Major and Isidis Planitia. The top of the image shows rough material that has eroded away from the lower portion of the image, revealing an underlying surface that has many small craters. It also reveals an ancient flow lobe that is barely discernable, crossing the southern part of the image (this flow lobe is much easier to see as a smooth region in the context image).

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16.4, Longitude 77.9 East (282.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Color Reveals Translucent Seasonal Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    In a region near the south pole of Mars translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the ground seasonally. For the first time we can 'see' the translucent ice by the affect it has on the appearance of the surface below.

    Dark fans of dust (figure 1) from the surface drape over the top of the seasonal ice. The surface would be the same color as the dust except that the seasonal ice affecting its appearance. Bright bluish streaks are frost that has re-crystallized from the atmosphere.

    Sunlight can penetrate through the seasonal layer of translucent ice to warm the ground below. That causes the seasonal ice layer to sublime (evaporate) from the bottom rather than the top.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_002942_0935 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 13-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -86.4 degrees latitude, 99.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 245.4 km (153.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.1 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:41 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 82 degrees, thus the sun was about 8 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 199.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  20. Color Reveals Translucent Seasonal Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    In a region near the south pole of Mars translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the ground seasonally. For the first time we can 'see' the translucent ice by the affect it has on the appearance of the surface below.

    Dark fans of dust (figure 1) from the surface drape over the top of the seasonal ice. The surface would be the same color as the dust except that the seasonal ice affecting its appearance. Bright bluish streaks are frost that has re-crystallized from the atmosphere.

    Sunlight can penetrate through the seasonal layer of translucent ice to warm the ground below. That causes the seasonal ice layer to sublime (evaporate) from the bottom rather than the top.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_002942_0935 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 13-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -86.4 degrees latitude, 99.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 245.4 km (153.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.1 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:41 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 82 degrees, thus the sun was about 8 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 199.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  1. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  2. Affect and Graphing Calculator Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Allison W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which…

  3. Affect and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly…

  4. Developing Effective Affective Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, William; Hart, Aaron; Foley, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical educators generally understand the importance of the affective domain for student growth and development. However, many teachers struggle with assessing affective behaviors in a way that can be documented and reported. The five-step process outlined in this article can assist teachers in developing an effective way to assess the affective…

  5. Measurement of Family Affective Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Three studies demonstrate that the Inventory of Family Feelings, a measure of family affective structure, has high reliability and construct and concurrent validity. It is appropriate for affective comparisons by age, sex, and ordinal position of children and for measuring change after family or marital therapy, or after predictable stress…

  6. Developing Effective Affective Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, William; Hart, Aaron; Foley, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical educators generally understand the importance of the affective domain for student growth and development. However, many teachers struggle with assessing affective behaviors in a way that can be documented and reported. The five-step process outlined in this article can assist teachers in developing an effective way to assess the affective…

  7. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  8. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    PubMed

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  9. Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

  10. APEX reveals glowing stellar nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Illustrating the power of submillimetre-wavelength astronomy, an APEX image reveals how an expanding bubble of ionised gas about ten light-years across is causing the surrounding material to collapse into dense clumps that are the birthplaces of new stars. Submillimetre light is the key to revealing some of the coldest material in the Universe, such as these cold, dense clouds. Glowing Stellar Nurseries ESO PR Photo 40/08 Glowing Stellar Nurseries The region, called RCW120, is about 4200 light years from Earth, towards the constellation of Scorpius. A hot, massive star in its centre is emitting huge amounts of ultraviolet radiation, which ionises the surrounding gas, stripping the electrons from hydrogen atoms and producing the characteristic red glow of so-called H-alpha emission. As this ionised region expands into space, the associated shock wave sweeps up a layer of the surrounding cold interstellar gas and cosmic dust. This layer becomes unstable and collapses under its own gravity into dense clumps, forming cold, dense clouds of hydrogen where new stars are born. However, as the clouds are still very cold, with temperatures of around -250˚ Celsius, their faint heat glow can only be seen at submillimetre wavelengths. Submillimetre light is therefore vital in studying the earliest stages of the birth and life of stars. The submillimetre-wavelength data were taken with the LABOCA camera on the 12-m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope, located on the 5000 m high plateau of Chajnantor in the Chilean Atacama desert. Thanks to LABOCA's high sensitivity, astronomers were able to detect clumps of cold gas four times fainter than previously possible. Since the brightness of the clumps is a measure of their mass, this also means that astronomers can now study the formation of less massive stars than they could before. The plateau of Chajnantor is also where ESO, together with international partners, is building a next generation submillimetre telescope, ALMA

  11. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.

    The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.

    The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.

    The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.

    The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.

    This image and

  12. Dilated Cardiomyopathy Revealing Cushing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Lucien; Segrestin, Bérénice; Lapoirie, Marion; Favrel, Véronique; Dementhon, Julie; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Raverot, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular impairments are frequent in Cushing's syndrome and the hypercortisolism can result in cardiac structural and functional changes that lead in rare cases to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Such cardiac impairment may be reversible in response to a eucortisolaemic state. A 43-year-old man with a medical past of hypertension and history of smoking presented to the emergency department with global heart failure. Coronary angiography showed a significant stenosis of a marginal branch and cardiac MRI revealed a nonischemic DCM. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was estimated as 28% to 30%. Clinicobiological features and pituitary imaging pointed toward Cushing's disease and administration of adrenolytic drugs (metyrapone and ketoconazole) was initiated. Despite the normalization of cortisol which had been achieved 2 months later, the patient presented an acute heart failure. A massive mitral regurgitation secondary to posterior papillary muscle rupture was diagnosed as a complication of the occlusion of the marginal branch. After 6 months of optimal pharmacological treatment for systolic heart failure, as well as treatment with inhibitors of steroidogenesis, there was no improvement of LVEF. The percutaneous mitral valve was therefore repaired and a defibrillator implanted. The severity of heart failure contraindicated pituitary surgery and the patient was instead treated by stereotaxic radiotherapy. This is the first case reporting a Cushing's syndrome DCM without improvement of LVEF despite normalization of serum cortisol levels. PMID:26579807

  13. Chandra Reveals Rich Oxygen Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This striking Chandra X-Ray Observatory image of supernova remnant SNR0103-72.6 reveals a nearly perfect ring about 150 light years in diameter surrounding a cloud of gas enriched in oxygen and shock-heated to millions of degrees Celsius. The ring marks the outer limits of a shock wave produced as material ejected in the supernova explosion collides with the interstellar gas. The size of the ring indicates that we see the supernova remnant as it was about 10,000 years after its progenitor star exploded. Located in the Small Magenellanic Cloud (SMC), SNR 0103-72.6 is about 190,000 light years from Earth. The x-rays take about 190,000 years to reach us from the SMC, so the supernova explosion occurred about 200,000 years ago, as measured on Earth. Scientists have know for years that oxygen and many other elements necessary for life are created in massive stars and dispersed in supernova explosions, but few remnants rich in these elements have been observed. This supernova remnant will hence become an important laboratory for studying how stars forge the elements necessary for life.

  14. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    PubMed

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Contributions of Philip Teitelbaum to affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Kent C

    2012-06-01

    As part of a festschrift issue for Philip Teitelbaum, I offer here the thesis that Teitelbaum deserves to be viewed as an important forefather to the contemporary field of affective neuroscience (which studies motivation, emotion and affect in the brain). Teitelbaum's groundbreaking analyses of motivation deficits induced by lateral hypothalamic damage, of roles of food palatability in revealing residual function, and of recovery of 'lost' functions helped shape modern understanding of how motivation circuits operate within the brain. His redefinition of the minimum requirement for identifying motivation raised the conceptual bar for thinking about the topic among behavioral neuroscientists. His meticulous analyses of patterned stages induced by brain manipulations, life development and clinical disorders added new dimensions to our appreciation of how brain systems work. His steadfast highlighting of integrative functions and behavioral complexity helped provide a healthy functionalist counterbalance to reductionist trends in science of the late 20th century. In short, Philip Teitelbaum can be seen to have made remarkable contributions to several domains of psychology and neuroscience, including affective neuroscience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contributions of Philip Teitelbaum to affective neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a festschrift issue for Philip Teitelbaum, I offer here the thesis that Teitelbaum deserves to be viewed as an important forefather to the contemporary field of affective neuroscience (which studies motivation, emotion and affect in the brain). Teitelbaum’s groundbreaking analyses of motivation deficits induced by lateral hypothalamic damage, of roles of food palatability in revealing residual function, and of recovery of ‘lost’ functions helped shape modern understanding of how motivation circuits operate within the brain. His redefinition of the minimum requirement for identifying motivation raised the conceptual bar for thinking about the topic among behavioral neuroscientists. His meticulous analyses of patterned stages induced by brain manipulations, life development and clinical disorders added new dimensions to our appreciation of how brain systems work. His steadfast highlighting of integrative functions and behavioral complexity helped provide a healthy functionalist counterbalance to reductionist trends in science of the late 20th century. In short, Philip Teitelbaum can be seen to have made remarkable contributions to several domains of psychology and neuroscience, including affective neuroscience. PMID:22051942

  17. Revealing tact within postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Paddy, Ann; Heard, Kate

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we explore the nature of good postnatal care through a hermeneutic unpacking of the notion of tact, drawing on the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and van Manen. The tactful encounters considered were from a hermeneutic research study within a small, rural birthing center in New Zealand. Insights drawn from the analysis were as follows: the openness of listening, watching and being attuned that builds a positive mode of engagement, recognizing that the distance the woman needs from her nurse/midwife is a call of tact, that tact is underpinned by a spirit of care, within tact there are moods and tact might require firmness, and that all of these factors come together to build trust. We conclude that the attunement of tact requires that the staff member has time to spend with a woman, enough energy to engage, and a spirit of care. Women know that tactful practice builds their confidence and affects their mothering experience. Tact cannot be assumed; it needs to be nurtured and sheltered.

  18. Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Savage, Kevin J; Hawkeye, Matthew M; Esteban, Rubén; Borisov, Andrei G; Aizpurua, Javier; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2012-11-22

    When two metal nanostructures are placed nanometres apart, their optically driven free electrons couple electrically across the gap. The resulting plasmons have enhanced optical fields of a specific colour tightly confined inside the gap. Many emerging nanophotonic technologies depend on the careful control of this plasmonic coupling, including optical nanoantennas for high-sensitivity chemical and biological sensors, nanoscale control of active devices, and improved photovoltaic devices. But for subnanometre gaps, coherent quantum tunnelling becomes possible and the system enters a regime of extreme non-locality in which previous classical treatments fail. Electron correlations across the gap that are driven by quantum tunnelling require a new description of non-local transport, which is crucial in nanoscale optoelectronics and single-molecule electronics. Here, by simultaneously measuring both the electrical and optical properties of two gold nanostructures with controllable subnanometre separation, we reveal the quantum regime of tunnelling plasmonics in unprecedented detail. All observed phenomena are in good agreement with recent quantum-based models of plasmonic systems, which eliminate the singularities predicted by classical theories. These findings imply that tunnelling establishes a quantum limit for plasmonic field confinement of about 10(-8)λ(3) for visible light (of wavelength λ). Our work thus prompts new theoretical and experimental investigations into quantum-domain plasmonic systems, and will affect the future of nanoplasmonic device engineering and nanoscale photochemistry.

  19. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    PubMed

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers.

  20. Revealing bismuth oxide hollow nanoparticle formation by the Kirkendall effect.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kai-Yang; Park, Jungwon; Zheng, Haimei; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2013-01-01

    We study the formation of bismuth oxide hollow nanoparticles by the Kirkendall effect using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rich dynamics of bismuth diffusion through the bismuth oxide shell have been captured in situ. The diffusion coefficient of bismuth through bismuth oxide shell is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk. Observation reveals that defects, temperature, sizes of the particles, and so forth can affect the diffusion of reactive species and modify the kinetics of the hollowing process.

  1. The QCAE: a Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Drake, Richard; Shryane, Nick M; Völlm, Birgit A

    2011-01-01

    Empathy has been inconsistently defined and inadequately measured. This research aimed to produce a new and rigorously developed questionnaire. Exploratory (n₁ = 640) and confirmatory (n₂ = 318) factor analyses were employed to develop the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE). Principal components analysis revealed 5 factors (31 items). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this structure in an independent sample. The hypothesized 2-factor structure (cognitive and affective empathy) was tested and provided the best and most parsimonious fit to the data. Gender differences, convergent validity, and construct validity were examined. The QCAE is a valid tool for assessing cognitive and affective empathy.

  2. Drama and the Representation of Affect--Structures of Feeling and Signs of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The way in which school students represent affective aspects of human relationships in drama and what this reveals about learning in drama is the focus of this paper. Such an enquiry traverses the borders between affect, intellect, and physicality. Affect and its representation in drama have been themes in the history of drama and theatre and is a…

  3. The Affectional Component of Sexual Permissiveness: A Factor-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kathleen M.; Houlihan, John

    1978-01-01

    The Reiss Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale was administered to 51 male and 54 female undergraduates. Factor analysis revealed three major factors: intercourse with affection, kissing with affection, and nonaffectional sexual activity. It is suggested that permissiveness be defined as lack of affection. (Author)

  4. Drama and the Representation of Affect--Structures of Feeling and Signs of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The way in which school students represent affective aspects of human relationships in drama and what this reveals about learning in drama is the focus of this paper. Such an enquiry traverses the borders between affect, intellect, and physicality. Affect and its representation in drama have been themes in the history of drama and theatre and is a…

  5. Affective ratings of sound stimuli.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Jaime; Fraga, Isabel; Padrón, Isabel; Piñeiro, Ana

    2008-08-01

    This article present the Spanish assessments of the 111 sounds included in the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS; Bradley & Lang, 1999b). The sounds were evaluated by 159 participants in the dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using a computer version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (Bradley & Lang, 1994). Results are compared with those obtained in the American version of the IADS, as well as in the Spanish adaptations of the International Affective Picture System (P. J. Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999; Moltó et al., 1999) and the Affective Norms for English Words (Bradley & Lang, 1999a; Redondo, Fraga, Padrón, & Comesaña, 2007).

  6. Satellites reveal Antarctic mass imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite radar observations have revealed a widespread mass imbalance in western Antarctica and rapid thinning of ice shelves at the Antarctic Peninsula. The former shows grounded ice retreat in a region previously considered unstable to such events, and the latter illuminates an ongoing debate as to the mechanism through which ice shelves have disintegrated over the past decade. Both measurements inform us as to the present state of balance of the cryosphere and its interactions with the southern oceans. Since 1992, the Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has lost 39 cubic kilometers of its volume each year due to an imbalance between snow accumulation and ice discharge. A flow disturbance is responsible for removing the majority of that ice from the trunks of the Pine Island, Thwaites and Smith glacier drainage systems, raising global sea level by over 1 mm during the past decade alone. The coincidence of rapid ice thinning at the Amundsen Coast and warm circumpolar deep water intrusion in Pine Island Bay, coupled with a ~ 50 cubic kilometre annual freshening of the Ross Sea Gyre downstream, makes ocean melting an attractive proposition for the origin of the regional disturbance. At the same time, the Larsen Ice Shelf surface has lowered by up to 0.27 m per year, in tandem with a period of atmospheric warming and ice shelf collapse. The lowering cannot be explained by increased summer melt-water production alone, and must reflect a loss of basal ice through melting. Ocean temperature measurements close to the ice shelf barrier support this conclusion, making enhanced basal ice melting a likely factor linking the regional climate warming and the successive disintegration of sections of the Larsen Ice Shelf.

  7. Comparison of affective and semantic priming in different SOA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongqing; Qu, Yuhong; Xiao, Yanli; Wu, Qi; Xia, Likun; Li, Wenhui; Liu, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Researchers have been at odds on whether affective or semantic priming is faster or stronger. The present study selects a series of facial expression photos and words, which have definite emotional meaning or gender meaning, to set up experiment including both affective and semantic priming. The intensity of emotion and gender information in the prime as well as the strength of emotional or semantic (in gender) relationship between the prime and the target is matched. Three groups of participants are employed separately in our experiment varied with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) as 50, 250 or 500 ms. The results show that the difference between two types of priming effect is revealed when the SOA is at 50 ms, in which the affective priming effect is presented when the prime has negative emotion. It indicates that SOA can affect the comparison between the affective and semantic priming, and the former takes the priority in the automatic processing level.

  8. Assessing collective affect recognition via the Emotional Aperture Measure.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey; Bartel, Caroline A; Rees, Laura; Huy, Quy

    2016-01-01

    Curiosity about collective affect is undergoing a revival in many fields. This literature, tracing back to Le Bon's seminal work on crowd psychology, has established the veracity of collective affect and demonstrated its influence on a wide range of group dynamics. More recently, an interest in the perception of collective affect has emerged, revealing a need for a methodological approach for assessing collective emotion recognition to complement measures of individual emotion recognition. This article addresses this need by introducing the Emotional Aperture Measure (EAM). Three studies provide evidence that collective affect recognition requires a processing style distinct from individual emotion recognition and establishes the validity and reliability of the EAM. A sample of working managers further shows how the EAM provides unique insights into how individuals interact with collectives. We discuss how the EAM can advance several lines of research on collective affect.

  9. Affective Domain Measuring Scale (ADMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Gary E.

    The development, validation, and reliability of the Affective Domain Measuring Scale are described. Values are presented with the techniques used in calculations. The scale is included with the scale value (the median or 50th percentile) for each item. (SA)

  10. Affective disorder: the new imperium.

    PubMed

    Slavney, P R

    1991-01-01

    Eugen Bleuler formulated schizophrenia as a disjunctive category based on universal, dimensional phenomena that were regarded as pathognomonic of the disorder. In consequence, schizophrenia came to dominate diagnostic practice in American psychiatry. This report suggests that affective disorder has been formulated in a similar way, and with a similar result. The nature of disjunctive categories is examined and their replacement by conjunctive categories for schizophrenia and affective disorder is anticipated.

  11. On Patterns in Affective Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ADAMATZKY, ANDREW

    In computational experiments with cellular automaton models of affective solutions, where chemical species represent happiness, anger, fear, confusion and sadness, we study phenomena of space time dynamic of emotions. We demonstrate feasibility of the affective solution paradigm in example of emotional abuse therapy. Results outlined in the present paper offer unconventional but promising technique to design, analyze and interpret spatio-temporal dynamic of mass moods in crowds.

  12. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  13. Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Danhua

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

  14. Economy Affects Students' Academic Performance as Well as Spending Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Like many Americans caught up in the economic downturn, college students are worried about money. Now research indicates that financial worries may affect their academic performance. The author presents the results of this year's National Survey of Student Engagement. The survey reveals that more than a third of seniors and more than a quarter of…

  15. Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

  16. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  17. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

  18. Nonverbal Affective Communication in Children: Theoretical and Clinical Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Joseph G.

    Young children's nonverbal affective expression and communication reveals an emotional complexity and sensitivity which exceeds their verbal abilities. To investigate the development of nonverbal emotional communication in young children, two studies were undertaken. In the first study, equal numbers of 5- and 11-year-old children from two schools…

  19. Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

  20. Resting state correlates of subdimensions of anxious affect.

    PubMed

    Bijsterbosch, Janine; Smith, Stephen; Forster, Sophie; John, Oliver P; Bishop, Sonia J

    2014-04-01

    Resting state fMRI may help identify markers of risk for affective disorder. Given the comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders and the heterogeneity of these disorders as defined by DSM, an important challenge is to identify alterations in resting state brain connectivity uniquely associated with distinct profiles of negative affect. The current study aimed to address this by identifying differences in brain connectivity specifically linked to cognitive and physiological profiles of anxiety, controlling for depressed affect. We adopted a two-stage multivariate approach. Hierarchical clustering was used to independently identify dimensions of negative affective style and resting state brain networks. Combining the clustering results, we examined individual differences in resting state connectivity uniquely associated with subdimensions of anxious affect, controlling for depressed affect. Physiological and cognitive subdimensions of anxious affect were identified. Physiological anxiety was associated with widespread alterations in insula connectivity, including decreased connectivity between insula subregions and between the insula and other medial frontal and subcortical networks. This is consistent with the insula facilitating communication between medial frontal and subcortical regions to enable control of physiological affective states. Meanwhile, increased connectivity within a frontoparietal-posterior cingulate cortex-precunous network was specifically associated with cognitive anxiety, potentially reflecting increased spontaneous negative cognition (e.g., worry). These findings suggest that physiological and cognitive anxiety comprise subdimensions of anxiety-related affect and reveal associated alterations in brain connectivity.

  1. Affective instability in patients with chronic pain: a diary approach.

    PubMed

    Rost, Silke; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Vögele, Claus; Crombez, Geert

    2016-08-01

    Affective instability, conceptualized as fluctuations in mood over time, has been related to ill-health and psychopathology. In this study, we examined the role of affective instability on daily pain outcomes in 70 patients with chronic pain (Mage = 49.7 years; 46 females) using an end-of-day diary. During a baseline phase, patients completed self-reported questionnaires of pain severity, pain duration, disability, depression, and anxiety. During a subsequent diary phase, patients filled out an electronic end-of-day diary over 14 consecutive days assessing daily levels of pain severity, disability, cognitive complaints, negative affect (NA) and positive affect. Affective instability was operationalized as the mean square of successive differences in daily mood (separately for NA and positive affect), which takes into account the size of affective changes over consecutive days. Results indicated that NA instability was positively associated with daily disability, beyond the effects of daily pain severity. Furthermore, NA instability moderated the relationship between daily pain severity and daily disability and the relationship between daily pain severity and daily cognitive complaints. Positive affect instability, however, showed to be unrelated to all outcomes. Current findings extend previous results and reveal the putative role of affective instability on pain-related outcomes and may yield important clinical implications. Indeed, they suggest that targeting NA instability by improving emotion regulation skills may be a strategy to diminish disability and cognitive complaints in patients with chronic pain.

  2. Brightness differences influence the evaluation of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Lakens, Daniël; Fockenberg, Daniel A; Lemmens, Karin P H; Ham, Jaap; Midden, Cees J H

    2013-01-01

    We explored the possibility of a general brightness bias: brighter pictures are evaluated more positively, while darker pictures are evaluated more negatively. In Study 1 we found that positive pictures are brighter than negative pictures in two affective picture databases (the IAPS and the GAPED). Study 2 revealed that because researchers select affective pictures on the extremity of their affective rating without controlling for brightness differences, pictures used in positive conditions of experiments were on average brighter than those used in negative conditions. Going beyond correlational support for our hypothesis, Studies 3 and 4 showed that brighter versions of neutral pictures were evaluated more positively than darker versions of the same picture. Study 5 revealed that people categorised positive words more quickly than negative words after a bright picture prime, and vice versa for negative pictures. Together, these studies provide strong support for the hypotheses that picture brightness influences evaluations.

  3. How Affectively-Based and Cognitively-Based Attitudes Drive Intergroup Behaviours: The Moderating Role of Affective-Cognitive Consistency

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Dovidio, John; Wang, Erping

    2013-01-01

    The moderating role of affective-cognitive consistency in the effects of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes on consummatory and instrumental behaviors was explored using two experimental studies in the intergroup context. Study 1 revealed that affectively-based attitudes were better predictors than cognitively-based attitudes regardless of affective-cognitive consistency for consummatory behaviors (e.g., undergraduates’ supportive behaviors toward government officials). Study 2, which investigated task groups’ supportive behaviors toward an immediate supervisory group, found that for these instrumental behaviors cognitively-based attitudes were better predictors than affectively-based attitudes only when affective-cognitive consistency was high. The present research also examined the mechanism by which affective-cognitive consistency moderates the relative roles of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes in attitude-behavior consistency. Results indicated that attitude-behavior consistency is eroded primarily because of the weaker relationship of affective or cognitive components to behaviors than to general attitudes. The reciprocal implications of research on attitudes and work on intergroup relations are considered. PMID:24244751

  4. PERCEIVED RACISM AND NEGATIVE AFFECT: ANALYSES OF TRAIT AND STATE MEASURES OF AFFECT IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE.

    PubMed

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Brady, Nisha; Thompson, Shola; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Sweeney, Monica; McFarlane, Delano; Contrada, Richard J

    2008-02-01

    Racism is a significant psychosocial stressor that is hypothesized to have negative psychological and physical health consequences. The Reserve Capacity Model (Gallo & Matthews, 2003) suggests that low socioeconomic status may influence health through its effects on negative affect. We extend this model to study the effects of racism, examining the association of lifetime perceived racism to trait and daily negative affect. A multiethnic sample of 362 American-born Black and Latino adults completed the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV). Trait negative affect was assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and state negative affect was measured using ecological momentary assessments (EMA), in the form of an electronic diary. Analyses revealed a significant relationship of lifetime perceived racism to both daily negative affect and trait negative affect, even when controlling for trait hostility and socioeconomic status. The relationship of perceived racism to negative affect was moderated by education, such that the relationships were strongest for those with less than a high school education. The findings support aspects of the Reserve Capacity Model and identify pathways through which perceived racism may affect health status.

  5. How affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes drive intergroup behaviours: the moderating role of affective-cognitive consistency.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Dovidio, John; Wang, Erping

    2013-01-01

    The moderating role of affective-cognitive consistency in the effects of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes on consummatory and instrumental behaviors was explored using two experimental studies in the intergroup context. Study 1 revealed that affectively-based attitudes were better predictors than cognitively-based attitudes regardless of affective-cognitive consistency for consummatory behaviors (e.g., undergraduates' supportive behaviors toward government officials). Study 2, which investigated task groups' supportive behaviors toward an immediate supervisory group, found that for these instrumental behaviors cognitively-based attitudes were better predictors than affectively-based attitudes only when affective-cognitive consistency was high. The present research also examined the mechanism by which affective-cognitive consistency moderates the relative roles of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes in attitude-behavior consistency. Results indicated that attitude-behavior consistency is eroded primarily because of the weaker relationship of affective or cognitive components to behaviors than to general attitudes. The reciprocal implications of research on attitudes and work on intergroup relations are considered.

  6. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  7. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Affective and schizoaffective mixed states.

    PubMed

    Marneros, Andreas; Röttig, Stephan; Wenzel, Andreas; Blöink, Raffaela; Brieger, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Although both DSM-IV and ICD-10 define schizoaffective mixed states, they have not received much attention-neither in the clinical nor in research context. We present preliminary results of a prospective study of bipolar affective (n = 100) and bipolar schizoaffective (n = 177) patients. 25% of the bipolar affective and 32% of the bipolar schizoaffective patients had at least one (schizo)mixed episode during the illness course. Nevertheless, (schizo)mixed episodes were rare-only 5.6% of all episodes. There was a trend that patients with (schizo)mixed episodes were more often women and exhibited more disability (reflected by higher rates of disability payments). Nevertheless, these differences failed to reach significance. Overall, schizo-mixed episodes are as frequent as "pure" affective mixed episodes. They might be linked to a less favourable course. Nevertheless, while their diagnostic criteria are problematic, they are systematically underdiagnosed.

  9. Pharmacotherapy of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Pjrek, Edda; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried

    2005-08-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a common variant of recurrent major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Treatment with bright artificial light has been found to be effective in this condition. However, for patients who do not respond to light therapy or those who lack compliance, conventional drug treatment with antidepressants also has been proposed. Substances with selective serotonergic or noradrenergic mechanisms should be preferred over older antidepressants. Although there are a number of open and controlled studies evaluating different compounds, these studies were often limited by relatively small sample sizes. Furthermore, there are no studies specifically addressing bipolar seasonal depression. This article will review the published literature on pharmacotherapy of seasonal affective disorder.

  10. Affective Intensity and its Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-29

    measurement approach  to evaluate the impact of  learner  affective states on the effectiveness of complex cognitive  training via simulation.    It had three...defense. To date, predictive workload measures analyze a task/workload estimating cognitive,  psychomotor, auditory,  kinesthetic , visual and sensory... learner affective states during complex cognitive training via simulation.   5. METHODS – PILOT TEST ONE A pilot study was conducted in May 2010

  11. Affect intensity in voice recognized by tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-06-01

    Shared acoustic cues in speech, music, and nonverbal emotional expressions were postulated to code for emotion quality and intensity favoring the hypothesis of a prehuman origin of affective prosody in human emotional communication. To explore this hypothesis, we examined in playback experiments using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm whether a solitary foraging, highly vocal mammal, the tree shrew, is able to discriminate two behaviorally defined states of affect intensity (low vs. high) from the voice of conspecifics. Playback experiments with communication calls of two different types (chatter call and scream call) given in the state of low affect intensity revealed that habituated tree shrews dishabituated to one call type (the chatter call) and showed a tendency to do so for the other one (the scream call), both given in the state of high affect intensity. Findings suggest that listeners perceive the acoustic variation linked to defined states of affect intensity as different within the same call type. Our findings in tree shrews provide first evidence that acoustically conveyed affect intensity is biologically relevant without any other sensory cue, even for solitary foragers. Thus, the perception of affect intensity in voice conveyed in stressful contexts represents a shared trait of mammals, independent of the complexity of social systems. Findings support the hypothesis that affective prosody in human emotional communication has deep-reaching phylogenetic roots, deriving from precursors already present and relevant in the vocal communication system of early mammals.

  12. Affective Patterns in Triadic Family Interactions: Associations with Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hollenstein, Tom; Allen, Nicholas; Sheeber, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Affective family processes are associated with the development of depression during adolescence. However, empirical description of these processes is generally based on examining affect at the individual or dyadic level. The purpose of this study was to examine triadic patterns of affect during parent-adolescent interactions in families with or without a depressed adolescent. We used state space grid analysis to characterize the state of all three actors simultaneously. Compared to healthy controls, triads with depressed adolescents displayed a wider range of affect, demonstrated less predictability of triadic affective sequences, spent more time and returned more quickly to discrepant affective states, and spent less time and returned more slowly to matched affective states, particularly while engaged in a problem-solving interaction. Furthermore, we identified seven unique triadic states in which triads with depressed adolescents spent significantly more time than triads with healthy controls. The present study enhances understanding of family affective processes related to depression by taking a more systemic approach and revealing triadic patterns that go beyond individual and dyadic analyses. PMID:25797844

  13. Factors affecting choice of health care plans.

    PubMed Central

    Grazier, K L; Richardson, W C; Martin, D P; Diehr, P

    1986-01-01

    The research reported here examined the factors which affected the decision to remain with either Blue Cross of Washington and Alaska or Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, or to change to an independent practice association (IPA) in which the primary care physicians control all care. The natural setting allowed examination of the characteristics of families with experience in structurally different plans; a decision not influenced by premium differentials; the importance of the role of usual provider; and a family-based decision using multivariate techniques. An expected utility model implied that factors affecting preferences included future need for medical care; access to care; financial resources to meet the need for care; and previous level of experience with plan and provider. Analysis of interview and medical record abstract data from 1,497 families revealed the importance of maintaining a satisfactory relationship with the usual sources of care in the decision to change plans. Adverse selection into the new IPA as measured by health status and previous utilization of medical services was not noted. PMID:3949539

  14. [Cognitive and affective disorders in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Novikova, I A; Soloviev, A G; Popov, V V

    2017-01-01

    To develop algorithm of diagnostics of cognitive and affective disorders in elderly and senile age 98 representatives of this age group were examined (1st group - 68 persons 60-74 years, 2nd group - 30 patients older than 75 years). For the diagnosis of cognitive disorders the developed and adapted «Short rating scale of cognitive functions», to diagnose emotional disorders - «Нospital scale of anxiety and depression HADS» were used. Cognitive impairment was revealed in 39,8% of the elderly (1st group - 28,7% in 2nd group - 61,6%). Affective disorders 51,6% of respondents had; however, signs of anxiety - 40,9% and depression - 27,7%. Algorithm for the diagnosis of cognitive and emotional disorders in elderly and senile age, comprising the steps of: screening and diagnostic, clinical and pathopsychological, laboratory and instrumental diagnostic, psychodiagnostic, can be recommended for use in general medical practice (therapists, general practitioners, geriatrics) for an earlier secondary prevention and, if necessary, early correction of mental health disorders.

  15. Medial humeral epicondylitis in clinically affected cats.

    PubMed

    Streubel, Ronny; Bilzer, Thomas; Grest, Paula; Damur, Daniel; Montavon, Pierre M

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical signs and histologic changes in cats clinically affected with medial humeral epicondylitis (MHE) and evaluate long-term outcome after either conservative or surgical treatment. Prospective cohort study. Client-owned cats (n = 17) with MHE. Cats diagnosed with MHE, based on clinical signs, radiographs and computed tomography (CT), were prospectively recruited. Cats were treated conservatively for an initial 4 weeks, followed by either surgery or continued conservative treatment. Followup examinations were performed at 6 and 12 weeks and at 6-49 months. Cats had a mean age of 10.3 years and presented for chronic lameness. Examination revealed pain on palpation caudodistal to the medial epicondyle and by exerting antebrachial supination/pronation with elbow and carpal flexion. Lameness was restricted to 1 limb although CT revealed bilateral disease in 11/17 cats. Free mineralized joint bodies were identified in 9/17 cats. Nine cats were treated surgically and 8 cats were treated conservatively. Intraoperative findings included new bone formation at the origin of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle with displacement and adhesions of the ulnar nerve. Microscopic examination revealed neurogenic myopathy in 4/9 cats treated surgically. Seven of 9 cats treated surgically were free from lameness by 12 weeks. Seven of 8 cats treated conservatively were chronically lame throughout the study. Cats with forelimb lameness should be evaluated for MHE. This condition is associated with free joint bodies and neurogenic myopathy. Surgical treatment is associated with excellent outcome in the majority of cats. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  17. Supersonic Wave Interference Affecting Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Eugene S.

    1958-01-01

    Some of the significant interference fields that may affect stability of aircraft at supersonic speeds are briefly summarized. Illustrations and calculations are presented to indicate the importance of interference fields created by wings, bodies, wing-body combinations, jets, and nacelles.

  18. Nonverbal Assessment of Interpersonal Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Gary S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two nonverbal methods for assessing degree of interpersonal attraction--placing representative figures on a ruled board and human figure drawing--were explored. Subjects' scores differed as a function of peer liking on the measures of distance, degree of detail, affective peer drawings and peer drawing articulation. (MV)

  19. RACIAL AFFECT IN READING COMPREHENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AARON, ROBERT L.; WHITE, WILLIAM F.

    THREE FIFTH-GRADE CLASSES OF ECONOMICALLY DEPRIVED NEGRO CHILDREN, EQUATED ON INTELLIGENCE AND READING ACHIEVEMENT, PARTICIPATED IN A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF VARYING AMOUNTS AND TYPES OF RACIAL CUEING ON AFFECTIVE SETS TOWARD THE PROTAGONIST AND ANTAGONIST IN A CLOZE TYPE READING SELECTION. ALL THREE CLASSES READ THE SELECTION, BUT CLASS A WAS…

  20. Performativity and Affect in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the concept of performativity in relation to what are perceived to be reasonable and unreasonable affective responses to discourse. It considers how discourse, especially in classrooms and other educational contexts, produces effects, and how it is that those effects are sometimes seen as attached to the discourse, and…

  1. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  2. Does Positive Affect Influence Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Sarah D.; Cohen, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This review highlights consistent patterns in the literature associating positive affect (PA) and physical health. However, it also raises serious conceptual and methodological reservations. Evidence suggests an association of trait PA and lower morbidity and of state and trait PA and decreased symptoms and pain. Trait PA is also associated with…

  3. Decoding Children's Expressions of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Joel A.; Feldman, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Mothers' ability to decode their children's nonverbal expressions of four affects (happiness, sadness, fear, and anger) was contrasted with the decoding ability of a matched group of nonmothers. Results indicate that mothers were accurately able to decode expressions of happiness but had relative difficulty with decoding expressions of sadness,…

  4. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  5. Political Trends Affecting Nonmetropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachtigal, Paul M.

    There are two stories about political trends affecting nonmetropolitan America. The old story, which is the story of declining rural population and declining rural influence on public policy formation, has its roots in early deliberations about governance in this country. Jefferson's republicanism focused on direct citizen involvement in decision…

  6. How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary “choices” were ...

  7. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  8. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  9. Clinical Judgment and Affective Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Addressed the limitations of previous work on counselor clinical judgment in a study involving 20 counselors who were asked to make a series of judgments. Results suggested the judgment processes of experienced counselors making diagnoses of affective disorders differs depending on the type of judgment. (JAC)

  10. Demographic Factors Affecting Faculty Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Allen L.

    1995-01-01

    Specific demographic attributes that influence salary at institutions of higher education were studied through data from 420 faculty members at 9 institutions. Results suggested that experience, publication rates, time at the institution, and possession of a terminal degree affected salary levels. The presence of salary compression was noted. (SLD)

  11. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  12. Affective temperament and personal identity.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Rosfort, René

    2010-10-01

    The complex relationship between temperament and personal identity, and between these and mental disorders, is of critical interest to both philosophy and psychopathology. More than other living creatures, human beings are constituted and characterized by the interplay of their genotype and phenotype. There appears to be an explanatory gap between the almost perfect genetic identity and the individual differences among humans. One reason for this gap is that a human being is a person besides a physiological organism. We propose an outline of a theoretical model that might somewhat mitigate the explanatory discrepancies between physiological mechanisms and individual human emotional experience and behaviour. Arguing for the pervasive nature of human affectivity, i.e., for the assumption that human consciousness and behaviour is characterised by being permeated by affectivity; to envisage the dynamics of emotional experience, we make use of a three-levelled model of human personal identity that differentiates between factors that are simultaneously at work in the constitution of the individual human person: 1) core emotions, 2) affective temperament types/affective character traits, and 3) personhood. These levels are investigated separately in order to respect the methodological diversity among them (neuroscience, psychopathology, and philosophy), but they are eventually brought together in a hermeneutical account of human personhood.

  13. Historiography, affect, and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Larry S

    2017-05-01

    Recent historiography has put to rest debates over whether to address the neurosciences. The question is how? In this article, I stage a dialogue between neurohistory and the history of the emotions. My primary goal is to survey these two clusters and clarify their conceptual commitments. Both center on the role of affect in embodied subjectivity; but their accounts widely diverge. Whereas neurohistorians tend to treat affects as automatic bodily processes, historians of the emotions generally emphasize that affects are meaningful and volitional activities. This divergence entails contrasting understandings of selfhood, embodiment, and historical change. More importantly, I argue, it reflects a broader realm of disputes within the neurosciences. The divisions among methodologies and commitments testify to the importance of historians' selection of evidence as well as the critical perspectives they can bring to scientific debates. The neurosciences do not offer readymade theories. Secondarily, I take stock of the shared limitations of neurohistory and the history of the emotions. Both conceptualize the biological bases of affection as a universal ground for historical inquiry. By reexamining this transhistorical approach to neuroscientific evidence, I suggest that historiography might widen the horizon of interdisciplinary scholarship beyond the present options. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  15. Affecting Critical Thinking through Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Virginia P.

    Intended for teachers, this booklet shows how spoken language can affect student thinking and presents strategies for teaching critical thinking skills. The first section discusses the theoretical and research bases for promoting critical thinking through speech, defines critical thinking, explores critical thinking as abstract thinking, and tells…

  16. Affective Parent Education in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jessie M.

    It is apparent that the family, and the parents in particular, are powerful influences on the child's learning, even before the child reaches school. The home is the place where children learn first, and the extent to which they learn later in life is determined greatly by what goes on at home. The Affective Education Program, a Title I funded…

  17. When bad moods may not be so bad: Valuing negative affect is associated with weakened affect-health links.

    PubMed

    Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Bad moods are considered "bad" not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect-health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14-88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect-health links.

  18. Models of Disability in Children's Pretend Play: Measurement of Cognitive Representations and Affective Expression Using the Affect in Play Scale.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefano; Meloni, Fabio; Catarinella, Antonio; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Play is a natural mode of children's expression and constitutes a fundamental aspect of their life. Cognitive, affective, and social aspects can be assessed through play, considered as a "window" to observe a child's functioning. According to Russ's model, cognitive and affective components and their reciprocal connections can be assessed through the Affect in Play Scale (APS). The aim of the present study was to investigate children's representations of the three main models of disability (medical, social, and biopsychosocial) and how these models affected cognitive and affective components of children's play. Sixty-three children, aged 6-10 years, were assessed by means of the APS. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two APS task orders: the standard APS task followed by the modified APS task (including a wheelchair toy), or vice versa. The standard and modified APS sessions were coded according to the APS system. The modified APS sessions were also coded for the model of disability expressed by children. A one-way ANOVA conducted on the APS affective and cognitive indexes revealed an effect of condition on the affective components of play and no effect on cognitive components and variety of affect as assessed by the APS. In addition, when children are involved in pretend play from which concepts of disability emerge, these concepts are almost exclusively related to the medical model of disability. Results suggested implications for intervention with children in educational contexts that aim to teach children about disability.

  19. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  20. Bodily action penetrates affective perception.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Carlo; Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer's internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer's internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  1. Brain response to affective pictures in the chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Fuwa, Koki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of non-invasive brain imaging techniques has allowed us to examine details of neural activities involved in affective processing in humans; however, no comparative data are available for chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans. In the present study, we measured event-related brain potentials in a fully awake adult chimpanzee as she looked at affective and neutral pictures. The results revealed a differential brain potential appearing 210 ms after presentation of an affective picture, a pattern similar to that in humans. This suggests that at least a part of the affective process is similar between humans and chimpanzees. The results have implications for the evolutionary foundations of emotional phenomena, such as emotional contagion and empathy.

  2. Improvement of affect following exercise: methodological artifact or real finding?

    PubMed

    Wininger, Steven R

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the "sense of relief" effect as a potential explanation for improvement of affect following exercise. The current study included male and female participants, four exercise/expectancy conditions, and assessed six dimensions of affective space. Participants were 134 undergraduates. Heart rate and affect were assessed four times: upon entering the lab, after disclosure of assigned experimental condition, immediately after exercise, and 15-min post exercise. An examination of differences between initial measures and measures taken after disclosure of condition revealed significant changes in feelings of anxiety, calmness, and tiredness, as well as heart rate. No gender differences were observed. The results support the existence of a "sense of relief" effect, but the effect is more pronounced for physiological arousal as opposed to affect.

  3. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective. PMID:23016987

  4. [Life style and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Raboch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Life style significantly affects the health status of each person. Life style medicine is an evidence based practice, which is trying to develop patterns of healthy behavior. Most evidence exists about the effect of suitable diet (eg. unsaturated fatty acids) and adequate aerobic exercise. Combination of lifestyle modification to standard psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic techniques can improve the results of preventive and therapeutic programs for people with depressive issues.

  5. Rodent Empathy and Affective Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jules B.; Lahvis, Garet P.

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. This indicates that rodent behavioral models can be developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that in the future they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp’s theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences. PMID:21672550

  6. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tapp, A.

    1988-05-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

  7. Rodent empathy and affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P

    2011-10-01

    In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. Thus, rodent behavioral models can now be developed to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp's theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences.

  8. Political Dynamics Affected by Turncoats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Salvo, Rosa; Gorgone, Matteo; Oliveri, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    An operatorial theoretical model based on raising and lowering fermionic operators for the description of the dynamics of a political system consisting of macro-groups affected by turncoat-like behaviors is presented. The analysis of the party system dynamics is carried on by combining the action of a suitable quadratic Hamiltonian operator with specific rules (depending on the variations of the mean values of the observables) able to adjust periodically the conservative model to the political environment.

  9. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    SciTech Connect

    Reidy, M.

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  10. fMRI Scanner Noise Interaction with Affective Neural Processes

    PubMed Central

    Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=34, 19 female) were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier) and emotion (fear, neutral, joy) were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus). Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes. PMID:24260420

  11. Primacy and recency effects found using affective word lists.

    PubMed

    Demaree, Heath A; Shenal, Brian V; Everhart, D Erik; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2004-06-01

    This experiment tested hypotheses linking the right cerebral regulation of hostility and affective verbal learning. First, patterns of recall for positive, negative, and neutral affective list learning among high- and low-hostile individuals were examined. It was expected that low-hostiles would recall more items from the positive list and that high-hostiles would recall more words from the negative affective list. Also, independent of groups, it was expected that there would be a primacy effect for negative words and a recency effect for positive words. Exploratory analyses examined the relation between hostility and primacy and recency effects on the positive and negative word lists. High- and low-hostile participants (n = 65) completed the positive list learning task, the negative list learning task, or the neutral list learning task. Data analyses revealed no significant difference between the high- and low-hostile groups on the different affective lists. However, results of the present investigation reliably demonstrated the predicted primacy and recency effects. There was a primacy effect for the negative affective list and a recency effect for the positive affective list. These findings are consistent with previous research investigating the acquisition pattern of affective verbal learning.

  12. The Relationship between Negative Affect and Reported Cognitive Failures.

    PubMed

    Payne, Tabitha W; Schnapp, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the range of negative affect associated with reported problems with everyday functions and activities, measured by the cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ). Evidence from previous research indicates that individuals meeting criteria for mood disorders, such as major depression or seasonal affective disorder, experience cognitive deficits in memory and attention that can lead to problems with everyday activities reported in the CFQ. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) was used to assess potential correlations with a wider range of negative emotions. Findings for a sample of 129 college students revealed that negative affective experiences were significantly correlated with failures of memory and attention on the CFQ (fear = .41, hostility = .38, sadness = .28, and guilt = .43). Conversely, positive affect was negatively correlated with distractibility (r = -.21). Additional affective scales on the PANAS (e.g., shyness and fatigue) were also associated with higher reports of cognitive failures. The results provide converging evidence of a relationship between negative affective experiences and reported frequency of problems on the cognitive failures questionnaire.

  13. Neural correlates of cross-domain affective priming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Li, Xiaohua; Gold, Brian T; Jiang, Yang

    2010-05-06

    The affective priming effect has mostly been studied using reaction time (RT) measures; however, the neural bases of affective priming are not well established. To understand the neural correlates of cross-domain emotional stimuli presented rapidly, we obtained event-related potential (ERP) measures during an affective priming task using short SOA (stimulus onset asynchrony) conditions. Two sets of 480 picture-word pairs were presented at SOAs of either 150ms or 250ms between prime and target stimuli. Participants decided whether the valence of each target word was pleasant or unpleasant. Behavioral results from both SOA conditions were consistent with previous reports of affective priming, with longer RTs for incongruent than congruent pairs at SOAs of 150ms (771 vs. 738ms) and 250ms (765 vs. 720ms). ERP results revealed that the N400 effect (associated with incongruent pairs in affective processing) occurred at anterior scalp regions at an SOA of 150ms, and this effect was only observed for negative target words across the scalp at an SOA of 250ms. In contrast, late positive potentials (LPPs) (associated with attentional resource allocation) occurred across the scalp at an SOA of 250ms. LPPs were only observed for positive target words at posterior parts of the brain at an SOA of 150ms. Our finding of ERP signatures at very short SOAs provides the first neural evidence that affective pictures can exert an automatic influence on the evaluation of affective target words. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural Correlates of Cross-domain Affective Priming

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Li, Xiaohua; Gold, Brian T.; Jiang, Yang

    2010-01-01

    The affective priming effect has mostly been studied using reaction time measures; however, the neural bases of affective priming are not well established. To understand the neural correlates of cross-domain emotional stimuli presented rapidly, we obtained event-related potential (ERP) measures during an affective priming task using short SOA (stimulus onset asynchrony) conditions. Two sets of 480 picture-word pairs were presented at SOAs of either 150 ms or 250 ms between prime and target stimuli. Participants decided whether the valence of each target word was pleasant or unpleasant. Behavioral results from both SOA conditions were consistent with previous reports of affective priming, with longer RTs for incongruent than congruent pairs at SOAs of 150 ms (771 vs. 738 ms) and 250 ms (765 vs. 720 ms). ERP results revealed that the N400 effect (associated with incongruent pairs in affective processing) occurred at anterior scalp regions at an SOA of 150 ms, and this effect was only observed for negative target words across the scalp at an SOA of 250 ms. In contrast, late positive potentials (associated with attentional resource allocation) occurred across the scalp at an SOA of 250 ms. LPPs were only observed for positive target words at posterior parts of the brain at an SOA of 150 ms. Our finding of ERP signatures at very short SOAs provides the first neural evidence that affective pictures can exert an automatic influence on the evaluation of affective target words. PMID:20298681

  15. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  16. Affective temperaments in tango dancers.

    PubMed

    Lolich, María; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Zapata, Stephanie; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2015-03-01

    Links between affective temperaments and folk culture have been infrequently explored systematically. Creativity and personality and temperament studies, conversely, have reported several associations. Tango is one of the most typical Argentinean folk dance-musical repertoires. The main purpose of this study is to compare affective temperaments between Argentinean professional tango dancers and the general population. TEMPS-A was administered to a sample of 63 professional tango dancers and 63 comparison subjects from the general population who did not practice tango. Subscale median scores and total median scores with non-parametric statistics were analyzed. Median scores on hyperthymic subscale (p ≤ 0.001), irritable subscale (p=0.05) and total median score were significantly higher among tango dancers compared to controls (p ≤ 0.001). Self-report measures were used. A larger sample size would have provided greater statistical power for data analysis. Besides, the naturalistic study design did not allow controlling for other clinical variables and limited the generalization of results to broader populations. Our data adds new evidence for the hypothesis that artistic performance is related to one's temperament. Tango passionata, which has both melancholic and vigorous (including "upbeat") features, seems to impart tango dancers' hyperthymic and irritable temperament features. Our study supports the increasing literature on the validity of utilizing temperament as a sub-affective traits in relation to artistic creativity and performing arts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Affective robot for elderly assistance.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Laura; Gaggioli, Andrea; Pioggia, Giovanni; De Rossi, Federico; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several robotic solutions for the elderly have been proposed. However, to date, the diffusion of these devices has been limited: available robots are too cumbersome, awkward, and expensive to become widely adopted. Another key issue which reduces the appeal of assistive robots is the lack of socio-emotional interaction: affective interchanges represent key requirements to create sustainable relationships between elderly and robots. In this paper, we propose a new approach to enhance the acceptability of robotic systems, based on the introduction of affective dimensions in human-robot interaction. This strategy is aimed at designing a new generation of relational and cognitive robots fusing information from embodied unobtrusive sensory interfaces. The final objective is to develop embodied interfaces, which are able to learn and adapt their affective responses to the user's behavior. User and robot will engage in natural interactions, involving verbal and non-verbal communication, improving empathic exchange of moods and feelings. Relevant independent living and quality of life related issues will be addressed: on-going monitoring of health parameters, assistance in everyday's activities, social support and cognitive/physical exercises. We expect that the proposed strategy will enhance the user's acceptance and adoption of the assistive robotic system.

  18. Anthropogenic noise affects vocal interactions.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Heather; Schmidt, Rouven; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2014-03-01

    Animal communication plays a crucial role in many species, and it involves a sender producing a signal and a receiver responding to that signal. The shape of a signal is determined by selection pressures acting upon it. One factor that exerts selection on acoustic signals is the acoustic environment through which the signal is transmitted. Recent experimental studies clearly show that senders adjust their signals in response to increased levels of anthropogenic noise. However, to understand how noise affects the whole process of communication, it is vital to know how noise affects the receiver's response during vocal interactions. Therefore, we experimentally manipulated ambient noise levels to expose male European robins (Erithacus rubecula) to two playback treatments consisting of the same song: one with noise and another one without noise. We found that males responding to a conspecific in a noise polluted environment increased minimum frequency and decreased song complexity and song duration. Thus, we show that the whole process of communication is affected by noise, not just the behaviour of the sender.

  19. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Affective instability, childhood trauma and major affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, S; Gordon-Smith, K; Broome, M; Briley, P M; Perry, A; Forty, L; Craddock, N; Jones, I; Jones, L

    2016-01-15

    Affective instability (AI), childhood trauma, and mental illness are linked, but evidence in affective disorders is limited, despite both AI and childhood trauma being associated with poorer outcomes. Aims were to compare AI levels in bipolar disorder I (BPI) and II (BPII), and major depressive disorder recurrent (MDDR), and to examine the association of AI and childhood trauma within each diagnostic group. AI, measured using the Affective Lability Scale (ALS), was compared between people with DSM-IV BPI (n=923), BPII (n=363) and MDDR (n=207) accounting for confounders and current mood. Regression modelling was used to examine the association between AI and childhood traumas in each diagnostic group. ALS scores in descending order were BPII, BPI, MDDR, and differences between groups were significant (p<0.05). Within the BPI group any childhood abuse (p=0.021), childhood physical abuse (p=0.003) and the death of a close friend in childhood (p=0.002) were significantly associated with higher ALS score but no association was found between childhood trauma and AI in BPII and MDDR. The ALS is a self-report scale and is subject to retrospective recall bias. AI is an important dimension in bipolar disorder independent of current mood state. There is a strong link between childhood traumatic events and AI levels in BPI and this may be one way in which exposure and disorder are linked. Clinical interventions targeting AI in people who have suffered significant childhood trauma could potentially change the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Tracheobronchopathia osteochondrodysplasias. About one case revealed by haemoptysis].

    PubMed

    Abid, Leïla; Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Braham, Emna; Ismail, Olfa; Tritar, Fatma; Meraï, Samira; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2006-11-01

    Tracheobronchopathia osteochondrodysplasias is a benign and rare chronic disease, whose etiology remains obscure. It is characterized by the presence of subepithelial osteocartilaginous focal lesions without any relation to tracheal rings, essentially localized in the lower two thirds of the trachea and the major bronchi. We report a new case of tracheobronchopathia osteochondrodysplasias in a 47-year-old man, localized at the lower half of the trachea, revealed by haemoptysis. The lesion was suspected by bronchoscopy and the diagnosis was made histologically, showing heterotopic bone formation. The evolution of this affection was marked by a good clinical tolerance with only a symptomatic treatment.

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Eyes?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects ...

  3. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects joints, it sometimes causes lung disease ...

  4. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

  5. Diet affects spawning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Michelle L; Rizzuto, Noel V; Brown, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Seven-month-old zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed four different diets to test the hypothesis that diet affects spawning success and resulting characteristics of eggs and offspring. The diets were: the recommended feeding regime for zebrafish (a mixture of Artemia, flake feed, and liver paste); Artemia; a flake feed; and a commercially available trout diet. The number of eggs laid and average egg diameter were significantly different as functions of male, female, and individual matings. Fish fed the flake diet produced significantly fewer eggs (mean, 116) than fish fed all other diets (means, 166-187). However, the percent hatch of eggs from fish fed the flake diet (62.5%) was significantly higher than from fish fed the trout diet (19.5%). The percentages of hatched eggs from fish fed the control diet (36.2%) or Artemia (35.6%) were not significantly different from each other or from fish fed the other two diets. Wet weight and diameter of eggs were not significantly affected by diet. Larval length was significantly higher from parents fed the flake diet (14.5 mm) compared to larvae from parents fed Artemia (13.7 mm). Length of larvae from fish fed the control or trout diets was intermediate and not significantly different from fish fed the flake diet or Artemia. Larval weight was not significantly affected by dietary treatment, but offspring from fish fed the flake diet were heavier than larvae from adults fed any of the other diets. Feeding adult zebrafish the flake diet alone resulted in more viable offspring and larger larvae and is a simpler feeding regime than the current recommendation. The authors recommend feeding adult zebrafish flake diets to satiation three times daily for maximum production of viable offspring.

  6. [Cholangitis revealing an intrahepatic Osler's disease].

    PubMed

    Asma, Kochlef; Dalila, Gargouri; Olfa, Bousnina; Malika, Romani; Afef, Kilani; Najet, BelHadg; Jamel, Kharrat; Abdeljabbar, Gorbel; Sarra, Shili; Chiraz, Jemli; Mohamed, Habib Daghfous; Slim, Khlifi; Anis, Ben Maamer; Abdelmajid, Letaïef

    2005-08-01

    Osler Weber Rendu Disease is an hereditary haemorrhagic télangectasia habitually revealed by reccurent bleeding (epistaxis). Hepatic involvement in Osler disease is found in 8 to 31%, manifested by cholestasis. We report an original observation of a cholangitis revealing Osler disease.

  7. Is Self-Disclosure Self-Revealing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitter, A. George; Black, Harvey

    1976-01-01

    Based on the factorial analysis of data collected from 260 undergraduates, this study found differences in self-revealing associated with information content, target person, and sex of subject. Gilding was found to be related to self-disclosure and intimate rather than superficial information. Dogmatism did not influence either revealing or…

  8. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  9. Does trade affect child health?

    PubMed

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  10. [Affective disorders and personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Maurel, M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Coexistence in an individual of an affective disorder and a personality disorder is very common and there is an abundant literature on it. Articles are numerous and heterogeneous ; the results are sometimes imprecise or discordant. Some data are, despite these reserves, shared by the scientific community. The main consensus is first on a bad prognosis, with a high rate of all DSM axes comorbidities, secondly on the trap of a same phenomenology for different underlying mechanisms. A review is presented. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  11. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  12. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  13. Elevated triglycerides may affect cystatin C recovery.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Samantha H; Butts, Katherine; Filler, Guido

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of triglyceride concentration on cystatin C (CysC) measurements. Serum samples collected from 10 nephrology patients, 43 to 78years of age, were air centrifuged to separate aqueous and lipid layers. The lipid layer from each patient was pooled together to create a mixture with a high triglyceride concentration. This pooled lipid layer was mixed with each of the ten patient aqueous layers in six different ratios. Single factor ANOVA was used to assess whether CysC recovery was affected by triglyceride levels. Regression analysis was used to develop a formula to correct for the effect of triglycerides on CysC measurement, based on samples from 6 randomly chosen patients from our study population. The formula was validated with the 4 remaining samples. The analysis revealed a significant reduction in measured CysC with increasing concentrations of triglycerides (Pearson r=-0.56, p<0.0001). The following formula was developed to correct for the effect of triglycerides: Subsequent Bland-Altman plots revealed a bias (mean±1 standard deviation [SD]) of -3.7±15.6% for the data used to generate the correction formula and a bias of 3.52±9.38% for the validation set. Our results suggest that triglyceride concentrations significantly impact cystatin C measurements and that this effect may be corrected in samples that cannot be sufficiently clarified by air centrifugation using the equation that we developed. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How particle shape affects the flow through granular materials.

    PubMed

    Nemati Hayati, Ali; Ahmadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammadi, Soheil

    2012-03-01

    Flow through the pores of granular materials has many instances in practice. Therefore, it is interesting to realize how some parameters, such as the shape of the particles affect the passing flow. Following the recent mathematical theory proposed by the authors, this paper deals with the issue of how tortuosity and permeability are influenced by the particle shape. Comparison of the results with the experimental data reveals the competency of the theory in predicting the impact of particle geometry.

  15. Desert gerbils affect bacterial composition of soil.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Kam, Michael; Khokhlova, Irina S; Kostina, Natalia V; Dobrovolskaya, Tatiana G; Umarov, Marat M; Degen, A Allan; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Krasnov, Boris R

    2013-11-01

    Rodents affect soil microbial communities by burrow architecture, diet composition, and foraging behavior. We examined the effect of desert rodents on nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) communities by identifying bacteria colony-forming units (CFU) and measuring nitrogen fixation rates (ARA), denitrification (DA), and CO2 emission in soil from burrows of three gerbil species differing in diets. Psammomys obesus is folivorous, Meriones crassus is omnivorous, consuming green vegetation and seeds, and Dipodillus dasyurus is predominantly granivorous. We also identified NFB in the digestive tract of each rodent species and in Atriplex halimus and Anabasis articulata, dominant plants at the study site. ARA rates of soil from burrows of the rodent species were similar, and substantially lower than control soil, but rates of DA and CO2 emission differed significantly among burrows. Highest rates of DA and CO2 emission were measured in D. dasyurus burrows and lowest in P. obesus. CFU differed among bacteria isolates, which reflected dietary selection. Strains of cellulolytic representatives of the family Myxococcaceae and the genus Cytophaga dominated burrows of P. obesus, while enteric Bacteroides dominated burrows of D. dasyurus. Burrows of M. crassus contained both cellulolytic and enteric bacteria. Using discriminant function analysis, differences were revealed among burrow soils of all rodent species and control soil, and the two axes accounted for 91 % of the variance in bacterial occurrences. Differences in digestive tract bacterial occurrences were found among these rodent species. Bacterial colonies in P. obesus and M. crassus burrows were related to bacteria of A. articulata, the main plant consumed by both species. In contrast, bacteria colonies in the burrow soil of D. dasyurus were related to bacteria in its digestive tract. We concluded that gerbils play an important role as ecosystem engineers within their burrow environment and affect the microbial complex of

  16. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  17. Treatment of seasonal affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Willeit, Matthäus

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subform of major depressive disorder, recurrent, or bipolar disorder with a regular onset of depressive episodes at a certain time of year, usually the winter. The treatment of SAD is similar to that of other forms of affective disorder, except that bright light therapy is recommended as the first-line option. Light therapy conventionally involves exposure to visible light of at least 2500 lux intensity at eye level. The effects of light therapy are thought to be mediated exclusively by the eyes, not the skin, although this assumption has not yet been verified. Morning light therapy has proven to be superior to treatment regimens in the evening. Response rates to light therapy are about 80% in selected patient populations, with atypical depressive symptoms being the best predictor of a favorable treatment outcome. Data from randomized, controlled trials suggest that antidepressants are effective in the treatment of SAD. Three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted showing promising results for the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) sertraline and fluoxetine, as well as for moclobemide, a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A. PMID:22033639

  18. Dietary factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount.

  19. How anthropogenic noise affects foraging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhong; Siemers, Björn M; Koselj, Klemen

    2015-09-01

    The influence of human activity on the biosphere is increasing. While direct damage (e.g. habitat destruction) is relatively well understood, many activities affect wildlife in less apparent ways. Here, we investigate how anthropogenic noise impairs foraging, which has direct consequences for animal survival and reproductive success. Noise can disturb foraging via several mechanisms that may operate simultaneously, and thus, their effects could not be disentangled hitherto. We developed a diagnostic framework that can be applied to identify the potential mechanisms of disturbance in any species capable of detecting the noise. We tested this framework using Daubenton's bats, which find prey by echolocation. We found that traffic noise reduced foraging efficiency in most bats. Unexpectedly, this effect was present even if the playback noise did not overlap in frequency with the prey echoes. Neither overlapping noise nor nonoverlapping noise influenced the search effort required for a successful prey capture. Hence, noise did not mask prey echoes or reduce the attention of bats. Instead, noise acted as an aversive stimulus that caused avoidance response, thereby reducing foraging efficiency. We conclude that conservation policies may seriously underestimate numbers of species affected and the multilevel effects on animal fitness, if the mechanisms of disturbance are not considered.

  20. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both.

  1. Evaluative decision latencies mediated by induced affective states.

    PubMed

    Hermans, D; De Houwer, J; Eelen, P

    1996-01-01

    Recent priming studies (e.g. Hermans, De Houwer & Eelen, 1994, Cognition and Emotion, 8, 515-533) have demonstrated that response latencies to target stimuli are mediated by the affective relation between prime and target. The time needed to evaluate or pronounce targets is facilitated if preceded by similarly valenced primes, but is inhibited for trials on which prime and target have an opposite affective valence. These data suggest that information stored in memory is associatively linked with similarly evaluated information, through association with some general representation of goodness or badness. To investigate whether affective priming is merely one type of conventional semantic priming, or whether it is mediated by affective responses, the affective context provided by the primes was replaced in this study by the induction of an emotional state using a Musical Mood Induction procedure (Depression/Elation). Subjects had to evaluate target pictures as quickly as possible. The data revealed a significant Mood Change (More Depressed/Less Depressed/No Change) x Target Valence (Positive/Negative) interaction, indicating that emotional states can mediate evaluate response latencies to affectively valenced target stimuli. The results are interpreted in the context of a biphasic emotion theory, and are related to previous research on mood congruency effects on perceptual responses.

  2. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Affective Meanings of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frances M.; Osgood, Charles E.

    1973-01-01

    Color data from the Osgood et al. 23-culture semantic differential study of affective meanings reveal cross-cultural similarities in feelings about colors. The concept RED is affectively quite salient; BLACK and GREY are bad, and WHITE, BLUE, and GREEN are good; YELLOW, WHITE, and GREY are weak; RED and BLACK are strong. (RJ)

  4. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  5. Word regularity affects orthographic learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2012-01-01

    Share's self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic representations are acquired via phonological decoding. A key, yet untested, prediction of this theory is that there should be an effect of word regularity on the number and quality of word-specific orthographic representations that children acquire. Thirty-four Grade 2 children were exposed to the sound and meaning of eight novel words and were then presented with those words in written form in short stories. Half the words were assigned regular pronunciations and half irregular pronunciations. Lexical decision and spelling tasks conducted 10 days later revealed that the children's orthographic representations of the regular words appeared to be stronger and more extensive than those of the irregular words.

  6. Signaling pathways affecting skeletal health.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pierre J

    2012-09-01

    Skeletal health is dependent on the balance between bone resorption and formation during bone remodeling. Multiple signaling pathways play essential roles in the maintenance of skeletal integrity by positively or negatively regulating bone cells. During the last years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the essential signaling pathways that regulate bone cell commitment, differentiation and survival. New signaling anabolic pathways triggered by parathyroid hormone, local growth factors, Wnt signaling, and calcium sensing receptor have been identified. Novel signals induced by interactions between bone cells-matrix (integrins), osteoblasts/osteocytes (cadherins, connexins), and osteoblasts/osteoclast (ephrins, Wnt-RhoA, semaphorins) have been discovered. Recent studies revealed the key pathways (MAPK, PI3K/Akt) that critically control bone cells and skeletal mass. This review summarizes the most recent knowledge on the major signaling pathways that control bone cells, and their potential impact on the development of therapeutic strategies to improve human bone health.

  7. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  8. Does Ramadan fasting affect sleep?

    PubMed

    Bahammam, A

    2006-12-01

    Experimental fasting has been shown to alter the sleep-wakefulness pattern in various species. As fasting during Ramadan is distinct from experimental fasting, the physiological and behavioural changes occurring during Ramadan fasting may differ from those occurring during experimental fasting. There has been increased interest in recent years in sleep changes and daytime sleepiness during Ramadan. Moreover, many of those who fast during Ramadan associate this fasting with increased daytime sleepiness and decreased performance. This raises the question of whether Ramadan fasting affects sleep. In this review, we discuss the findings of research conducted to assess changes in sleep pattern, chronobiology, circadian rhythms, daytime sleepiness and function and sleep architecture during the month of Ramadan. Where applicable, these findings are compared with those obtained during experimental fasting.

  9. Pemphigus vulgaris affecting 19 nails.

    PubMed

    Patsatsi, A; Sotiriou, E; Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Sotiriadis, D

    2009-03-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with painful erosions in the oral mucosa, pharynx, perineum and perianal area, and multiple plaques with thick adherent crusts on the scalp. Most (nine) of the patient's fingernails had alterations in colour, affecting more than half of the nail plate, and all the toenails had severe inflammation of the nail folds, haemorrhagic paronychia and subungual or intraungual haemorrhage. A diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) was made based on histology and on direct and indirect immunofluorescence findings. Groups of acantholytic cells were also observed in a Tzanck smear obtained from a subungual lesion. Onychomadesis in most of the fingernails and in all the toenails developed gradually. The patient was hospitalized and treated with oral corticosteroids. Complete recovery without residual damage to the nails and persistent remission was achieved. Nail involvement in PV is rarely described and is always of interest, as its presentation varies widely.

  10. Affective Dimensions of Intergroup Humiliation

    PubMed Central

    Leidner, Bernhard; Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame), and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger). Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed. PMID:23029499

  11. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  12. Viral diseases affecting the pleura.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Jennings; Huggins, Terrill; Kummerfeldt, Carlos; DiVietro, Matthew; Walters, Kenneth; Sahn, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Viruses affect the human body in multiple ways producing various disease states. The infections of the pulmonary parenchyma have been well described. However, there has been no current review of the literature pertaining to the pleura. To review the available literature pertaining to diseases of the pleura that are caused by viral infections. A Medline search was performed and available research and review articles relating to viral infections that resulted in pleural effusions, pleural masses, pleural thickening, and pleural nodularity were reviewed. There are numerous viruses that cause diseases of the pleura. Pleural effusions and lesions within the pleura are the most common presentation of the disease state. Polymerase chain reaction has the potential to further diagnose viral infections and expand our knowledge base in this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Does health affect portfolio choice?

    PubMed

    Love, David A; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-01

    A number of recent studies find that poor health is empirically associated with a safer portfolio allocation. It is difficult to say, however, whether this relationship is truly causal. Both health status and portfolio choice are influenced by unobserved characteristics such as risk attitudes, impatience, information, and motivation, and these unobserved factors, if not adequately controlled for, can induce significant bias in the estimates of asset demand equations. Using the 1992-2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we investigate how much of the connection between health and portfolio choice is causal and how much is due to the effects of unobserved heterogeneity. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity with fixed effects and correlated random effects models, we find that health does not appear to significantly affect portfolio choice among single households. For married households, we find a small effect (about 2-3 percentage points) from being in the lowest of five self-reported health categories.

  14. Does diet really affect acne?

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, H R; Levin, S

    2010-03-01

    Acne vulgaris has anecdotally been attributed to diet by individuals affected by this skin condition. In a 2009 systematic literature review of 21 observational studies and 6 clinical trials, the association between acne and diet was evaluated. Observational studies, including 2 large controlled prospective trials, reported that cow's milk intake increased acne prevalence and severity. Furthermore, prospective studies, including randomized controlled trials, demonstrated a positive association between a high-glycemic-load diet, hormonal mediators, and acne risk. Based on these findings, there exists convincing data supporting the role of dairy products and high-glycemic-index foods in influencing hormonal and inflammatory factors, which can increase acne prevalence and severity. Studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between acne and other foods.

  15. Nonverbal assessment of interpersonal affect.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, G S; Kirkland, K D; Rappoport, L

    1977-02-01

    Two nonverbal methods for assessing degree of interpersonal attraction were explored. Twenty children ranging from 11 to 13 years of age were asked to select two liked and two disliked classmates of the same sex. On four different trials, subjects selected one geometric block to represent themselves and one to represent a pre-selected classmate, then placed the figures on a ruled board. Distance between objects was measured and found to be significantly related to degree of peer liking. In addition, subjects were asked to draw each of the four peers. The human figure drawings were rated for total pictorial detail which was found to vary strongly across magnitude of liking for female subjects, and for parts integration which was found to vary with degree of peer liking for both sexes. The degree of rated positive affective tone of drawings was also found to increase with liking. Implications for the use of these two interpersonal assessment techniques in clinical practice were discussed.

  16. Psychological factors affecting oncology conditions.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Biancosino, Bruno; Marmai, Luciana; Rossi, Elena; Sabato, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The area of psychological factors affecting cancer has been the object of research starting from the early 1950s and consolidating from the 1970s with the development of psychooncology. A series of problems in the DSM and ICD nosological systems, such as the difficult application of the criteria for psychiatric diagnoses (i.e. major depression, adjustment disorders) and the scarce space dedicated to the rubric of psychosocial implications of medical illness (i.e. Psychological Factors Affecting a Medical Condition under 'Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention' in the DSM-IV) represent a major challenge in psycho-oncology. The application of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) has been shown to be useful in a more precise identification of several psychological domains in patients with cancer. The DCPR dimensions of health anxiety, demoralization and alexithymia have been shown to be quite frequent in cancer patient (37.7, 28.8 and 26%, respectively). The overlap between a formal DSM-IV diagnosis and the DCPR is low, with 58% of patients being categorized as non-cases on the DSM-IV having at least one DCPR syndrome. The specific quality of the DCPR in characterizing psychosocial aspects secondary to cancer is also confirmed by the fact that some dimensions of coping (e.g. Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer subscale hopelessness) correlate with the DCPR dimension of demoralization, while a quantitative approach on symptom assessment (e.g. stress symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory) is not useful in discriminating the patients with and without DCPR syndromes. More research is needed in order to understand the relationship between DCPR constructs (e.g. alexithymia) and psychosocial factors which have been shown to be significant in oncology (e.g. emotional repression and avoidance). The role of specific DCPR constructs in influencing the course of illness is also an area that should be investigated.

  17. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba

    2017-03-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  18. Oxidative stress markers in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Siwek, Marcin; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Misztakk, Paulina; Pilc, Agnieszka; Wolak, Małgorzata; Nowak, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Affective disorders are a medical condition with a complex biological pattern of etiology, involving genetic and epigenetic factors, along with different environmental stressors. Increasing numbers of studies indicate that induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, which is accompanied by immune-inflammatory response, might play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying many major psychiatric disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been shown to impair the brain function by modulating activity of principal neurotransmitter (e.g., glutamatergic) systems involved in the neurobiology of depression. Both preclinical and clinical studies revealed that depression is associated with altered levels of oxidative stress markers and typically reduced concentrations of several endogenous antioxidant compounds, such as glutathione, vitamin E, zinc and coenzyme Q10, or enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase, and with an impairment of the total antioxidant status. These oxidative stress parameters can be normalized by successful antidepressant therapy. On the other hand, some antioxidants (zinc, N-acetylcysteine, omega-3 free fatty acids) may exhibit antidepressant properties or enhance standard antidepressant therapy. These observations introduce new potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions based on antioxidant compounds. The present paper reviews selected animal and human studies providing evidence that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder.

  19. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba

    2016-09-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  20. Developing Hierarchical Structures Integrating Cognition and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Barbara Martin

    Several categories of the affective domain are important to the schooling process. Schools are delegated the responsibility of helping students to clarify their esthetic, instrumental, and moral values. Three areas of affect are related to student achievement: subject-related affect, school-related affect, and academic self concept. In addition,…

  1. Developing Hierarchical Structures Integrating Cognition and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Barbara Martin

    Several categories of the affective domain are important to the schooling process. Schools are delegated the responsibility of helping students to clarify their esthetic, instrumental, and moral values. Three areas of affect are related to student achievement: subject-related affect, school-related affect, and academic self concept. In addition,…

  2. Medical affective computing: medical informatics meets affective computing.

    PubMed

    Webster, C

    1998-01-01

    "The need to cope with a changing and partly unpredictable world makes it very likely that any intelligent system with multiple motives and limited powers will have emotions." [1] From advisory systems that understand emotional attitudes toward medical outcomes, to wearable computers that compensate for communication disability, to computer simulations of emotions and their disorders, the research agendas of medical informatics and affective computing--how and why to create computers that detect, convey, and even have emotions--increasingly overlap. Some psychiatric and neurological researchers state their theories in terms of actual or hypothetical computer programs. Adaptive intelligent systems will increasingly rely on emotions to compensate for their own conflicting goals and limited resources--emotional reactions about which psychiatrists and neurologists have special insights. DEP2 (Depression Emulation Program 2) is a computer simulation of adaptive depression--learning from explainable patterns of failure in autobiographical memory--that simulates many depressive behaviors. In the terminology of fault-tolerant computing, adaptive depression involves fault detection (triggered by failure), fault location (strategic retreat and failure diagnosis), and fault recovery (return to on-line operation). DEP2 relies on subsystems whose structures and behaviors are based on popular hypotheses about left and right brain hemispheric function during depression and emotion. DEP2 and its predecessors, DEP and DEPlanner, are relevant to psychiatric and neurological informatics, and to the design of adaptive autonomous robots and software agents.

  3. Crater Formed in 2008 Reveals Subsurface Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-24

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveals subsurface ice in a crater formed in 2008. The impact that dug the crater excavated water ice from beneath the surface.

  4. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Structural Biology Reveals the Secrets of Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Joachmiak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Argonne's Structural Biology Center Director, Andrzej Joachimiak, talks about the work done at the SBC in analyzes the genetic makeup of pathogens to better understand how harmful bacteria and viruses can affect humans and animals.

  6. Eye movement monitoring reveals differential influences of emotion on memory.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; Anderson, Adam K; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that memory for emotional aspects of an event may be enhanced at the cost of impaired memory for surrounding peripheral details. However, this has only been assessed directly via verbal reports which reveal the outcome of a long stream of processing but cannot shed light on how/when emotion may affect the retrieval process. In the present experiment, eye movement monitoring (EMM) was used as an indirect measure of memory as it can reveal aspects of online memory processing. For example, do emotions modulate the nature of memory representations or the speed with which such memories can be accessed? Participants viewed central negative and neutral scenes surrounded by three neutral objects and after a brief delay, memory was assessed indirectly via EMM and then directly via verbal reports. Consistent with the previous literature, emotion enhanced central and impaired peripheral memory as indexed by eye movement scanning and verbal reports. This suggests that eye movement scanning may contribute and/or is related to conscious access of memory. However, the central/peripheral tradeoff effect was not observed in an early measure of eye movement behavior, i.e., participants were faster to orient to a critical region of change in the periphery irrespective of whether it was previously studied in a negative or neutral context. These findings demonstrate emotion's differential influences on different aspects of retrieval. In particular, emotion appears to affect the detail within, and/or the evaluation of, stored memory representations, but it may not affect the initial access to those representations.

  7. Heritability of Intraindividual Mean and Variability of Positive and Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; von Stumm, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Positive affect (e.g., attentiveness) and negative affect (e.g., upset) fluctuate over time. We examined genetic influences on interindividual differences in the day-to-day variability of affect (i.e., ups and downs) and in average affect over the duration of a month. Once a day, 17-year-old twins in the United Kingdom (N = 447) rated their positive and negative affect online. The mean and standard deviation of each individual’s daily ratings across the month were used as the measures of that individual’s average affect and variability of affect. Analyses revealed that the average of negative affect was significantly heritable (.53), but the average of positive affect was not; instead, the latter showed significant shared environmental influences (.42). Fluctuations across the month were significantly heritable for both negative affect (.54) and positive affect (.34). The findings support the two-factor theory of affect, which posits that positive affect is more situational and negative affect is more dispositional. PMID:27729566

  8. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  9. Fatigue as it Affects Nursing.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    : Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives highlights articles selected to fit today's topics and times.In this month's article from the January 1935 issue, Lillian M. Gilbreth, a highly respected psychologist and industrial engineer, examines the problem of fatigue in nursing. A nonnurse expert, Gilbreth notes the negative effects of fatigue on skills, a problem "enormously more serious when the product of the work is human comfort and sometimes even human life, as it often is with the work of the nurse." In their article in this issue, "Health Care Worker Fatigue," Lea Anne Gardner and Deborah Dubeck of the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority share examples of fatigue-related adverse events and discuss the need for both personal and institutional fatigue risk management strategies.

  10. Factors affecting apical leakage assessment.

    PubMed

    Karagöz-Küçükay, I; Küçükay, S; Bayirli, G

    1993-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of immediate versus delayed immersion time, and passive dye immersion versus centrifuged dye on apical leakage measurements. Eighty-four extracted human teeth with single straight canals were instrumented and divided into four experimental groups of 20 teeth each plus 2 negative and 2 positive controls. Low-temperature injection thermoplasticized gutta-percha and sealer were used to obturate the root canals. In groups A and B the filling materials were allowed to set for 72 h before the teeth were placed in India ink. In groups C and D the teeth were placed in India ink immediately after obturation. Also, in groups B and D the teeth were centrifuged in India ink for 20 min at 3,000 rpm before being immersed in ink. After 72 h in India ink, the teeth were cleared, and the linear extent of ink penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis of the data revealed no significant difference in leakage among the experimental groups whether the teeth were immersed in ink immediately after obturation or after setting of the filling materials for 72 h, and whether or not the teeth were centrifuged in ink prior to immersion.

  11. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight, and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat, and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and 02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiments with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of the assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and the morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the Biological Research In Canister (BRIC) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-3) flown on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995).

  12. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  13. Quantum Tunneling Affects Engine Performance.

    PubMed

    Som, Sibendu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Dingyu D Y; Magnotti, Gina M; Sivaramakrishnan, Raghu; Longman, Douglas E; Skodje, Rex T; Davis, Michael J

    2013-06-20

    We study the role of individual reaction rates on engine performance, with an emphasis on the contribution of quantum tunneling. It is demonstrated that the effect of quantum tunneling corrections for the reaction HO2 + HO2 = H2O2 + O2 can have a noticeable impact on the performance of a high-fidelity model of a compression-ignition (e.g., diesel) engine, and that an accurate prediction of ignition delay time for the engine model requires an accurate estimation of the tunneling correction for this reaction. The three-dimensional model includes detailed descriptions of the chemistry of a surrogate for a biodiesel fuel, as well as all the features of the engine, such as the liquid fuel spray and turbulence. This study is part of a larger investigation of how the features of the dynamics and potential energy surfaces of key reactions, as well as their reaction rate uncertainties, affect engine performance, and results in these directions are also presented here.

  14. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  15. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology.

    PubMed

    Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A; Brown, C S

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and -02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiment with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-03) flown on STS-63 (Feb. 3-11, 1995).

  16. Bipolar affective disorder and psychoeducation.

    PubMed

    Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Zuzana; Cerna, Monika; Mainerova, Barbora; Sandoval, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder runs a natural course of frequent relapses and recurrences. Despite significant strides in the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder, most bipolar patients cannot be treated only by drugs. The limitations of using medication alone in symptomatic, relapse prevention, and satisfaction/quality of life terms have long prompted interest in wider forms of management. One of the promising way how to enhance remission seems to be combination of pharmacotherapy and psychoeducation. Studies were identified through PUBMED, Web of Science and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "psychoeducation", "psychotherapy", "psychosocial treatment", "family therapy", "individual therapy", "group therapy", and "psychoeducation". The search was performed by repeated use of the words in different combinations with no language or time limitations. This article is a review with conclusions concerned with psychoeducation in bipolar disorder. Randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, individual, group and family psychoeducation show that these approaches augment stabilizing effect of pharmacotherapy. Patients and their families should be educated about bipolar disorder, triggers, warning signs, mood relapse, suicidal ideation, and the effectiveness of early intervention to reduce complications. Psychosocial approaches are important therapeutic strategies for reducing relapse and rehospitalization in bipolar disorder.

  17. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight, and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat, and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and 02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiments with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of the assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and the morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the Biological Research In Canister (BRIC) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-3) flown on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995).

  18. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  19. How Feeling Betrayed Affects Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective. PMID:25922933

  20. Factors affecting radiographers' organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Akroyd, Duane; Jackowski, Melissa B; Legg, Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    A variety of factors influence employees' attitudes toward their workplace and commitment to the organization that employs them. However, these factors have not been well documented among radiologic technologists. To determine the predictive ability of selected organizational, leadership, work-role and demographic variables on organizational commitment for a national sample of radiographers. Three thousand radiographers registered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists working full time in clinical settings were surveyed by mail regarding their commitment to their employers, leadership within the organization that employs them, employer support and demographic information. Overall, radiographers were found to have only a moderate level of commitment to their employers. Among the factors that significantly affected commitment were the radiographer's educational level, perceived level of organizational support, role clarity and organizational leadership. The results of this study could provide managers and supervisors with insights on how to empower and challenge radiographers and offer opportunities that will enhance radiographers' commitment to the organization, thus reducing costly turnover and improving employee performance.

  1. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance.

  2. Affective reactions to acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M M; Lang, P J

    2000-03-01

    Emotional reactions to naturally occurring sounds (e.g., screams, erotica, bombs, etc.) were investigated in two studies. In Experiment 1, subjects rated the pleasure and arousal elicited when listening to each of 60 sounds, followed by an incidental free recall task. The shape of the two-dimensional affective space defined by the mean ratings for each sound was similar to that previously obtained for pictures, and, like memory for pictures, free recall was highest for emotionally arousing stimuli. In Experiment 2, autonomic and facial electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded while a new group of subjects listened to the same set of sounds; the startle reflex was measured using visual probes. Listening to unpleasant sounds resulted in larger startle reflexes, more corrugator EMG activity, and larger heart rate deceleration compared with listening to pleasant sounds. Electrodermal reactions were larger for emotionally arousing than for neutral materials. Taken together, the data suggest that acoustic cues activate the appetitive and defensive motivational circuits underlying emotional expression in ways similar to pictures.

  3. The effects of trait and state affect on diurnal cortisol slope among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihua; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zilioli, Samuele; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Danhua

    2017-08-01

    Affect is believed to be one of the most prominent proximal psychological pathway through which more distal psychosocial factors influence physiology and ultimately health. The current study examines the relative contributions of trait affect and state affect to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, with particular focus on cortisol slope, in children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. A sample of 645 children (8-15 years old) affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China completed a multiple-day naturalistic salivary cortisol protocol. Trait and state affect, demographics, and psychosocial covariates were assessed via self-report. Hierarchical linear modeling was used for estimating the effects of trait affect and state affect on cortisol slope. Confidence intervals for indirect effects were estimated using the Monte Carlo method. Our results indicated that both trait and state negative affect (NA) predicted flatter (less "healthy") diurnal cortisol slopes. Subsequent analyses revealed that children's state NA mediated the effect of their trait NA on diurnal cortisol slope. The same relationships did not emerge for trait and state positive affect. These findings provide a rationale for future interventions that target NA as a modifiable antecedent of compromised health-related endocrine processes among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS.

  4. Hiding personal information reveals the worst

    PubMed Central

    John, Leslie K.; Barasz, Kate; Norton, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Seven experiments explore people’s decisions to share or withhold personal information, and the wisdom of such decisions. When people choose not to reveal information—to be “hiders”—they are judged negatively by others (experiment 1). These negative judgments emerge when hiding is volitional (experiments 2A and 2B) and are driven by decreases in trustworthiness engendered by decisions to hide (experiments 3A and 3B). Moreover, hiders do not intuit these negative consequences: given the choice to withhold or reveal unsavory information, people often choose to withhold, but observers rate those who reveal even questionable behavior more positively (experiments 4A and 4B). The negative impact of hiding holds whether opting not to disclose unflattering (drug use, poor grades, and sexually transmitted diseases) or flattering (blood donations) information, and across decisions ranging from whom to date to whom to hire. When faced with decisions about disclosure, decision-makers should be aware not just of the risk of revealing, but of what hiding reveals. PMID:26755591

  5. Hiding personal information reveals the worst.

    PubMed

    John, Leslie K; Barasz, Kate; Norton, Michael I

    2016-01-26

    Seven experiments explore people's decisions to share or withhold personal information, and the wisdom of such decisions. When people choose not to reveal information--to be "hiders"--they are judged negatively by others (experiment 1). These negative judgments emerge when hiding is volitional (experiments 2A and 2B) and are driven by decreases in trustworthiness engendered by decisions to hide (experiments 3A and 3B). Moreover, hiders do not intuit these negative consequences: given the choice to withhold or reveal unsavory information, people often choose to withhold, but observers rate those who reveal even questionable behavior more positively (experiments 4A and 4B). The negative impact of hiding holds whether opting not to disclose unflattering (drug use, poor grades, and sexually transmitted diseases) or flattering (blood donations) information, and across decisions ranging from whom to date to whom to hire. When faced with decisions about disclosure, decision-makers should be aware not just of the risk of revealing, but of what hiding reveals.

  6. Affective evaluation of simultaneous tone combinations in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Thompson, William Forde; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired pitch processing. Although pitch simultaneities are among the fundamental building blocks of Western tonal music, affective responses to simultaneities such as isolated dyads varying in consonance/dissonance or chords varying in major/minor quality have rarely been studied in amusic individuals. Thirteen amusics and thirteen matched controls enculturated to Western tonal music provided pleasantness ratings of sine-tone dyads and complex-tone dyads in piano timbre as well as perceived happiness/sadness ratings of sine-tone triads and complex-tone triads in piano timbre. Acoustical analyses of roughness and harmonicity were conducted to determine whether similar acoustic information contributed to these evaluations in amusics and controls. Amusic individuals' pleasantness ratings indicated sensitivity to consonance and dissonance for complex-tone (piano timbre) dyads and, to a lesser degree, sine-tone dyads, whereas controls showed sensitivity when listening to both tone types. Furthermore, amusic individuals showed some sensitivity to the happiness-major association in the complex-tone condition, but not in the sine-tone condition. Controls rated major chords as happier than minor chords in both tone types. Linear regression analyses revealed that affective ratings of dyads and triads by amusic individuals were predicted by roughness but not harmonicity, whereas affective ratings by controls were predicted by both roughness and harmonicity. We discuss affective sensitivity in congenital amusia in view of theories of affective responses to isolated chords in Western listeners.

  7. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin; Cross, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation.

  8. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer’s general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  9. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  10. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  11. Focus cues affect perceived depth.

    PubMed

    Watt, Simon J; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O; Banks, Martin S

    2005-12-15

    Depth information from focus cues--accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur--is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space.

  12. Carotenoid pigmentation affects the volatile composition of tomato and watermelon fruits, as revealed by comparative genetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Lewinsohn, Efraim; Sitrit, Yaron; Bar, Einat; Azulay, Yaniv; Meir, Ayala; Zamir, Dani; Tadmor, Yaakov

    2005-04-20

    Tomato near-isogenic lines differing in fruit carotenogenesis genes accumulated different aroma volatiles, in a strikingly similar fashion as compared to watermelon cultivars differing in fruit color. The major volatile norisoprenoids present in lycopene-containing tomatoes and watermelons were noncyclic, such as geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2,6-dimethylhept-5-1-al, 2,3-epoxygeranial, (E,E)-pseudoionone, geranyl acetone, and farnesyl acetone, seemingly derived from lycopene and other noncyclic tetraterpenoids. Beta-ionone, dihydroactinodiolide, and beta-cyclocitral were prominent in both tomato and watermelon fruits containing beta-carotene. Alpha-ionone was detected only in an orange-fleshed tomato mutant that accumulates delta-carotene. A yellow flesh (r) mutant tomato bearing a nonfunctional psy1 gene and the yellow-fleshed watermelon Early Moonbeam, almost devoid of carotenoid fruit pigments, also lacked norisoprenoid derivatives and geranial. This study provides evidence, based on comparative genetics, that carotenoid pigmentation patterns have profound effects on the norisoprene and monoterpene aroma volatile compositions of tomato and watermelon and that in these fruits geranial (trans-citral) is apparently derived from lycopene in vivo.

  13. AFM force spectroscopy reveals how subtle structural differences affect the interaction strength between Candida albicans and DC-SIGN.

    PubMed

    te Riet, Joost; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Figdor, Carl G; Cambi, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is the most common cause of mycotic infections in immunocompromised hosts. Little is known about the initial interactions between Candida and immune cell receptors, such as the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intracellular cell adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), because a detailed characterization at the structural level is lacking. DC-SIGN recognizes specific Candida-associated molecular patterns, that is, mannan structures present in the cell wall of Candida. The molecular recognition mechanism is however poorly understood. We postulated that small differences in mannan-branching may result in considerable differences in the binding affinity. Here, we exploit atomic force microscope-based dynamic force spectroscopy with single Candida cells to gain better insight in the carbohydrate recognition capacity of DC-SIGN. We demonstrate that slight differences in the N-mannan structure of Candida, that is, the absence or presence of a phosphomannan side chain, results in differences in the recognition by DC-SIGN as follows: (i) it contributes to the compliance of the outer cell wall of Candida, and (ii) its presence results in a higher binding energy of 1.6 kB T. The single-bond affinity of tetrameric DC-SIGN for wild-type C. albicans is ~10.7 kB T and a dissociation constant kD of 23 μM, which is relatively strong compared with other carbohydrate-protein interactions described in the literature. In conclusion, this study shows that DC-SIGN specifically recognizes mannan patterns on C. albicans with high affinity. Knowledge on the binding pocket of DC-SIGN and its pathogenic ligands will lead to a better understanding of how fungal-associated carbohydrate structures are recognized by receptors of the immune system and can ultimately contribute to the development of new anti-fungal drugs.

  14. Ab initio simulations reveal that reaction dynamics strongly affect product selectivity for the cracking of alkanes over H-MFI.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Tranca, Diana C; Gomes, Joseph; Lambrecht, Daniel S; Head-Gordon, Martin; Bell, Alexis T

    2012-11-28

    Product selectivity of alkane cracking catalysis in the H-MFI zeolite is investigated using both static and dynamic first-principles quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations. These simulations account for the electrostatic- and shape-selective interactions in the zeolite and provide enthalpic barriers that are closely comparable to experiment. Cracking transition states for n-pentane lead to a metastable intermediate (a local minimum with relatively small barriers to escape to deeper minima) where the proton is shared between two hydrocarbon fragments. The zeolite strongly stabilizes these carbocations compared to the gas phase, and the conversion of this intermediate to more stable species determines the product selectivity. Static reaction pathways on the potential energy surface starting from the metastable intermediate include a variety of possible conversions into more stable products. One-picosecond quasiclassical trajectory simulations performed at 773 K indicate that dynamic paths are substantially more diverse than the potential energy paths. Vibrational motion that is dynamically sampled after the cracking transition state causes spilling of the metastable intermediate into a variety of different products. A nearly 10-fold change in the branching ratio between C2/C3 cracking channels is found upon inclusion of post-transition-state dynamics, relative to static electronic structure calculations. Agreement with experiment is improved by the same factor. Because dynamical effects occur soon after passing through the rate-limiting transition state, it is the dynamics, and not only the potential energy barriers, that determine the catalytic selectivity. This study suggests that selectivity in zeolite catalysis is determined by high temperature pathways that differ significantly from 0 K potential surfaces.

  15. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  16. SVD identifies transcript length distribution functions from DNA microarray data and reveals evolutionary forces globally affecting GBM metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolli, Nicolas M; Drake, Justin A; Tennessen, Jason M; Alter, Orly

    2013-01-01

    To search for evolutionary forces that might act upon transcript length, we use the singular value decomposition (SVD) to identify the length distribution functions of sets and subsets of human and yeast transcripts from profiles of mRNA abundance levels across gel electrophoresis migration distances that were previously measured by DNA microarrays. We show that the SVD identifies the transcript length distribution functions as "asymmetric generalized coherent states" from the DNA microarray data and with no a-priori assumptions. Comparing subsets of human and yeast transcripts of the same gene ontology annotations, we find that in both disparate eukaryotes, transcripts involved in protein synthesis or mitochondrial metabolism are significantly shorter than typical, and in particular, significantly shorter than those involved in glucose metabolism. Comparing the subsets of human transcripts that are overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or normal brain tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we find that GBM maintains normal brain overexpression of significantly short transcripts, enriched in transcripts that are involved in protein synthesis or mitochondrial metabolism, but suppresses normal overexpression of significantly longer transcripts, enriched in transcripts that are involved in glucose metabolism and brain activity. These global relations among transcript length, cellular metabolism and tumor development suggest a previously unrecognized physical mode for tumor and normal cells to differentially regulate metabolism in a transcript length-dependent manner. The identified distribution functions support a previous hypothesis from mathematical modeling of evolutionary forces that act upon transcript length in the manner of the restoring force of the harmonic oscillator.

  17. Family-based linkage and association mapping reveals novel genes affecting Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pagny, Gaëlle; Paulstephenraj, Pauline S; Poque, Sylvain; Sicard, Ophélie; Cosson, Patrick; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Caballero, Mélodie; Chague, Aurélie; Gourdon, Germain; Negrel, Lise; Candresse, Thierry; Mariette, Stéphanie; Decroocq, Véronique

    2012-11-01

    Sharka is a devastating viral disease caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees and few sources of resistance are known in its natural hosts. Since any knowledge gained from Arabidopsis on plant virus susceptibility factors is likely to be transferable to crop species, Arabidopsis's natural variation was searched for host factors essential for PPV infection. To locate regions of the genome associated with susceptibility to PPV, linkage analysis was performed on six biparental populations as well as on multiparental lines. To refine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, a genome-wide association analysis was carried out using 147 Arabidopsis accessions. Evidence was found for linkage on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5 with restriction of PPV long-distance movement. The most relevant signals occurred within a region at the bottom of chromosome 3, which comprises seven RTM3-like TRAF domain-containing genes. Since the resistance mechanism analyzed here is recessive and the rtm3 knockout mutant is susceptible to PPV infection, it suggests that other gene(s) present in the small identified region encompassing RTM3 are necessary for PPV long-distance movement. In consequence, we report here the occurrence of host factor(s) that are indispensable for virus long-distance movement. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. A sensory and chemical analysis of fresh strawberries over harvest dates and seasons reveals factors that affect eating quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to understand the components of eating quality of several strawberry genotypes grown in Florida, over two harvest seasons. Six genotypes of the University of Florida Breeding program, as well as two new cultivars from Australia, 'Rubygem' and 'Sugarbaby', harvested on diffe...

  19. Genome Sequencing of Arabidopsis abp1-5 Reveals Second-Site Mutations That May Affect Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Enders, Tara A; Oh, Sookyung; Yang, Zhenbiao; Montgomery, Beronda L; Strader, Lucia C

    2015-07-01

    Auxin regulates numerous aspects of plant growth and development. For many years, investigating roles for AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) in auxin response was impeded by the reported embryo lethality of mutants defective in ABP1. However, identification of a viable Arabidopsis thaliana TILLING mutant defective in the ABP1 auxin binding pocket (abp1-5) allowed inroads into understanding ABP1 function. During our own studies with abp1-5, we observed growth phenotypes segregating independently of the ABP1 lesion, leading us to sequence the genome of the abp1-5 line described previously. We found that the abp1-5 line we sequenced contains over 8000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in addition to the ABP1 mutation and that at least some of these mutations may originate from the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija accession. Furthermore, a phyB null allele in the abp1-5 background is likely causative for the long hypocotyl phenotype previously attributed to disrupted ABP1 function. Our findings complicate the interpretation of abp1-5 phenotypes for which no complementation test was conducted. Our findings on abp1-5 also provide a cautionary tale illustrating the need to use multiple alleles or complementation lines when attributing roles to a gene product. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. A systems biology approach using transcriptomic data reveals genes and pathways in porcine skeletal muscle affected by dietary lysine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meeting the increasing market demands for pork products requires improvement of the feed efficiency of growing pigs. The use of Affymetrix Porcine Gene 1.0 ST array containing 19,211 genes in this study provides a comprehensive gene expression profile of skeletal muscle of finishing pigs in response...

  1. Factors affecting recall of different types of personal genetic information about Alzheimer's disease risk: the REVEAL study.

    PubMed

    Besser, Andria G; Sanderson, Saskia C; Roberts, J Scott; Chen, Clara A; Christensen, Kurt D; Lautenbach, Denise M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Green, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Data were obtained through a multisite clinical trial in which different types of genetic risk-related information were disclosed to individuals (n = 246) seeking a risk assessment for Alzheimer's disease. Six weeks after disclosure, 83% of participants correctly recalled the number of risk-increasing APOE alleles they possessed, and 74% correctly recalled their APOE genotype. While 84% of participants recalled their lifetime risk estimate to within 5 percentage points, only 51% correctly recalled their lifetime risk estimate exactly. Correct recall of the number of APOE risk-increasing alleles was independently associated with higher education (p < 0.001), greater numeracy (p < 0.05) and stronger family history of Alzheimer's disease (p < 0.05). Before adjustments for confounding, correct recall of APOE genotype was also associated with higher education, greater numeracy and stronger family history of Alzheimer's disease, as well as with higher comfort with numbers and European American ethnicity (all p < 0.05). Correct recall of the lifetime risk estimate was independently associated only with younger age (p < 0.05). Recall of genotype-specific information is high, but recall of exact risk estimates is lower. Incorrect recall of numeric risk may lead to distortions in understanding risk. Further research is needed to determine how best to communicate different types of genetic risk information to patients, particularly to those with lower educational levels and lower numeracy. Health-care professionals should be aware that each type of genetic risk information may be differentially interpreted and retained by patients and that some patient subgroups may have more problems with recall than others. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Development of an Aerosol Model of Cryptococcus Reveals Humidity as an Important Factor Affecting the Viability of Cryptococcus during Aerosolization

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Deborah J.; Saini, Divey; Byrnes, Edmond J.; Heitman, Joseph; Frothingham, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcus is an emerging global health threat that is annually responsible for over 1,000,000 infections and one third of all AIDS patient deaths. There is an ongoing outbreak of cryptococcosis in the western United States and Canada. Cryptococcosis is a disease resulting from the inhalation of the infectious propagules from the environment. The current and most frequently used animal infection models initiate infection via liquid suspension through intranasal instillation or intravenous injection. These models do not replicate the typically dry nature of aerosol exposure and may hinder our ability to decipher the initial events that lead to clearance or the establishment of infection. We have established a standardized aerosol model of murine infection for the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus. Aerosolized cells were generated utilizing a Collison nebulizer in a whole-body Madison Chamber at different humidity conditions. The aerosols inside the chamber were sampled using a BioSampler to determine viable aerosol concentration and spray factor (ratio of viable aerosol concentration to total inoculum concentration). We have effectively delivered yeast and yeast-spore mixtures to the lungs of mice and observed the establishment of disease. We observed that growth conditions prior to exposure and humidity within the Madison Chamber during exposure can alter Cryptococcus survival and dose retained in mice. PMID:23894542

  3. A Circadian Clock Gene, Cry, Affects Heart Morphogenesis and Function in Drosophila as Revealed by Optical Coherence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianxu; Tate, Rebecca E.; McKee, Mary L.; Capen, Diane E.; Zhang, Zhan; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous, entrainable oscillations of physical, mental and behavioural processes in response to local environmental cues such as daylight, which are present in the living beings, including humans. Circadian rhythms have been related to cardiovascular function and pathology. However, the role that circadian clock genes play in heart development and function in a whole animal in vivo are poorly understood. The Drosophila cryptochrome (dCry) is a circadian clock gene that encodes a major component of the circadian clock negative feedback loop. Compared to the embryonic stage, the relative expression levels of dCry showed a significant increase (>100-fold) in Drosophila during the pupa and adult stages. In this study, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system to perform non-invasive and longitudinal analysis of functional and morphological changes in the Drosophila heart throughout its post-embryonic lifecycle for the first time. The Drosophila heart exhibited major morphological and functional alterations during its development. Notably, heart rate (HR) and cardiac activity period (CAP) of Drosophila showed significant variations during the pupa stage, when heart remodeling took place. From the M-mode (2D + time) OCM images, cardiac structural and functional parameters of Drosophila at different developmental stages were quantitatively determined. In order to study the functional role of dCry on Drosophila heart development, we silenced dCry by RNAi in the Drosophila heart and mesoderm, and quantitatively measured heart morphology and function in those flies throughout its development. Silencing of dCry resulted in slower HR, reduced CAP, smaller heart chamber size, pupal lethality and disrupted posterior segmentation that was related to increased expression of a posterior compartment protein, wingless. Collectively, our studies provided novel evidence that the circadian clock gene, dCry, plays an essential role in heart morphogenesis and function. PMID:26348211

  4. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy reveals that tissue culture conditions affect the macromolecular phenotype of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Julie; Ng, Elizabeth S; McNaughton, Don; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G; Tobin, Mark J; Heraud, Philip

    2013-07-21

    We employed Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to investigate the effects of different tissue culture environments on the FTIR spectra of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progeny. First we tested whether there were any possible spectral artifacts resulting from the use of transflectance measurements by comparing them with transmission measurements and found no evidence of these concluding that the lack of any differences resulted from the homogeneity of the dried cytospun cellular monolayers. We found that hESCs that were enzymatically passaged onto mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in KOSR based hESC medium, hESCs enzymatically passaged onto Matrigel in mTESR medium and hESCs mechanically passaged onto MEFs in KOSR-based hESC medium, possessed unique FTIR spectroscopic signatures that reflect differences in their macromolecular chemistry. Further, these spectroscopic differences persisted even upon differentiation towards mesendodermal lineages. Our results suggest that FTIR microspectroscopy is a powerful, objective, measurement modality that complements existing methods for studying the phenotype of hESCs and their progeny, particularly changes induced by the cellular environment.

  5. Single Molecule Microscopy Reveals an Increased Hyaluronan Diffusion Rate in Synovial Fluid from Knees Affected by Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhof, Hendrik; Gravius, Sascha; Kohl, Sandro; Ahmad, Sufian S.; Randau, Thomas; Schmolders, Jan; Rommelspacher, Yorck; Friedrich, Max; Kaminski, Tim P.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common and progressive joint disorder. Despite its widespread, in clinical practice only late phases of osteoarthritis that are characterized by severe joint damage are routinely detected. Since osteoarthritis cannot be cured but relatively well managed, an early diagnosis and thereby early onset of disease management would lower the burden of osteoarthritis. Here we evaluated if biophysical parameters of small synovial fluid samples extracted by single molecule microscopy can be linked to joint damage. In healthy synovial fluid (ICRS-score < 1) hyaluronan showed a slower diffusion (2.2 μm2/s, N = 5) than in samples from patients with joint damage (ICRS-score > 2) (4.5 μm2/s, N = 16). More strikingly, the diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan in healthy synovial fluid was on average 30% slower than expected by sample viscosity. This effect was diminished or missing in samples from patients with joint damage. Since single molecule microscopy needs only microliters of synovial fluid to extract the viscosity and the specific diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan this method could be of use as diagnostic tool for osteoarthritis. PMID:26868769

  6. Genomic Characterization of Non-Mucus-Adherent Derivatives of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Reveals Genes Affecting Pilus Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rasinkangas, Pia; Reunanen, Justus; Douillard, François P.; Ritari, Jarmo; Uotinen, Virva; Palva, Airi

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is one of the best-characterized lactic acid bacteria and can be considered a probiotic paradigm. Comparative and functional genome analysis showed that L. rhamnosus GG harbors a genomic island including the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster, encoding the cell surface-decorating host-interacting pili. Here, induced mutagenesis was used to study pilus biogenesis in L. rhamnosus GG. A combination of two powerful approaches, mutation selection and next-generation sequencing, was applied to L. rhamnosus GG for the selection of pilus-deficient mutants from an enriched population. The isolated mutants were first screened by immuno-dot blot analysis using antiserum against pilin proteins. Relevant mutants were selected, and the lack of pili was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The pilosotype of 10 mutant strains was further characterized by analyzing pilin expression using Western blot, dot blot, and immunofluorescence methods. A mucus binding assay showed that the mutants did not adhere to porcine intestinal mucus. Comparative genome sequence analysis using the Illumina MiSeq platform allowed us to determine the nature of the mutations in the obtained pilus-deficient derivatives. Three major classes of mutants with unique genotypes were observed: class I, with mutations in the srtC1 gene; class II, with a deletion containing the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster; and class III, with mutations in the spaA gene. Only a limited number of collateral mutations were observed, and one of the pilus-deficient derivatives with a deficient srtC1 gene contained 24 other mutations. This strain, PB12, can be considered a candidate for human trials addressing the impact of the absence of pili. PMID:25192985

  7. Factors affecting the interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and fatty acids as revealed in molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Yi, Changhong; Wambo, Thierry O

    2015-09-21

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a bovine dairy protein, is a promiscuously interacting protein that can bind multiple hydrophobic ligands. Fatty acids (FAs), common hydrophobic molecules bound to BLG, are important sources of fuel for life because they yield large quantities of ATP when metabolized. The binding affinity increases with the length of the ligands, indicating the importance of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the hydrocarbon tail and the hydrophobic calyx of BLG. An exception to this rule is caprylic acid (OCA) which is two-carbon shorter but has a stronger binding affinity than capric acid. Theoretical calculations in the current literature are not accurate enough to shed light on the underlying physics of this exception. The computed affinity values are greater for longer fatty acids without respect for the caprylic exception and those values are generally several orders of magnitude away from the experimental data. In this work, we used hybrid steered molecular dynamics to accurately compute the binding free energies between BLG and the five saturated FAs of 8 to 16 carbon atoms. The computed binding free energies agree well with experimental data not only in rank but also in absolute values. We gained insights into the exceptional behavior of caprylic acid in the computed values of entropy and electrostatic interactions. We found that the electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl group of caprylic acid and the two amino groups of K60/69 in BLG is much stronger than the vdW force between the OCA's hydrophobic tail and the BLG calyx. This pulls OCA to the top of the beta barrel where it is easier to fluctuate, giving rise to greater entropy of OCA at the binding site.

  8. Single Molecule Microscopy Reveals an Increased Hyaluronan Diffusion Rate in Synovial Fluid from Knees Affected by Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kohlhof, Hendrik; Gravius, Sascha; Kohl, Sandro; Ahmad, Sufian S; Randau, Thomas; Schmolders, Jan; Rommelspacher, Yorck; Friedrich, Max; Kaminski, Tim P

    2016-02-12

    Osteoarthritis is a common and progressive joint disorder. Despite its widespread, in clinical practice only late phases of osteoarthritis that are characterized by severe joint damage are routinely detected. Since osteoarthritis cannot be cured but relatively well managed, an early diagnosis and thereby early onset of disease management would lower the burden of osteoarthritis. Here we evaluated if biophysical parameters of small synovial fluid samples extracted by single molecule microscopy can be linked to joint damage. In healthy synovial fluid (ICRS-score < 1) hyaluronan showed a slower diffusion (2.2 μm(2)/s, N = 5) than in samples from patients with joint damage (ICRS-score > 2) (4.5 μm(2)/s, N = 16). More strikingly, the diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan in healthy synovial fluid was on average 30% slower than expected by sample viscosity. This effect was diminished or missing in samples from patients with joint damage. Since single molecule microscopy needs only microliters of synovial fluid to extract the viscosity and the specific diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan this method could be of use as diagnostic tool for osteoarthritis.

  9. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA's Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This presentation specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as an overview of the content of the final report for that internship.

  10. Self-compassion, affect, and health-promoting behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sirois, Fuschia M; Kitner, Ryan; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2015-06-01

    Emerging theory and research suggest that self-compassion promotes the practice of health behaviors, and implicates self-regulation as an explanatory factor. However, previous investigations focused only on behavior intentions or health risk behaviors, and did not investigate the role of emotions. This study expands on this research using a small-scale meta-analysis approach with our own data sets to examine the associations of self-compassion with a set of health-promoting behaviors, and test the roles of high positive affect and low negative affect as potential explanatory mechanisms. Fifteen independent samples (N = 3,252) with correlations of self-compassion with the frequency of self-reported health-promoting behaviors (eating habits, exercise, sleep behaviors, and stress management) were meta-analyzed. Eight of these samples completed measures of positive and negative affect. Self-compassion was positively associated with the practice of health-promoting behaviors across all 15 samples. The meta-analysis revealed a small effect size (average r = .25; p < .001) of self-compassion and health behaviors, with low variability. Tests of the indirect effects of self-compassion on health behaviors through positive and negative affect with multiple mediator analyses revealed small effects for each. Separate meta-analyses of the indirect effects (IE) were significant for positive (average IE = .08; p < .001) and negative affect (average IE = .06; p < .001), and their combined indirect effects (average IE = .15; p < .0001). Self-compassion may be an important quality to cultivate for promoting positive health behaviors, due in part to its association with adaptive emotions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Affective value and associative processing share a cortical substrate.

    PubMed

    Shenhav, Amitai; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bar, Moshe

    2013-03-01

    The brain stores information in an associative manner so that contextually related entities are connected in memory. Such associative representations mediate the brain's ability to generate predictions about which other objects and events to expect in a given context. Likewise, the brain encodes and is able to rapidly retrieve the affective value of stimuli in our environment. That both contextual associations and affect serve as building blocks of numerous mental functions often makes interpretation of brain activation ambiguous. A critical brain region where such activation has often resulted in equivocal interpretation is the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), which has been implicated separately in both affective and associative processing. To characterize its role more unequivocally, we tested whether activity in the mOFC was most directly attributable to affective processing, associative processing, or a combination of both. Subjects performed an object recognition task while undergoing fMRI scans. Objects varied independently in their affective valence and in their degree of association with other objects (associativity). Analyses revealed an overlapping sensitivity whereby the left mOFC responded both to increasingly positive affective value and to stronger associativity. These two properties individually accounted for mOFC response, even after controlling for their interrelationship. The role of the mOFC is either general enough to encompass associations that link stimuli both with reinforcing outcomes and with other stimuli or abstract enough to use both valence and associativity in conjunction to inform downstream processes related to perception and action. These results may further point to a fundamental relationship between associativity and positive affect.

  12. A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-09-01

    There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Omics strategies for revealing Yersinia pestis virulence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cui, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. Omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. Mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. In this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of Yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. These studies serve as foundations for further hypothesis-driven research and help us gain insight into Y. pestis pathogenesis. PMID:23248778

  14. Revealing myths about people, energy and buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.; Moezzi, M.

    2000-05-01

    In this essay we take a closer look at some energy myths, focusing on the ways energy professionals and the public alike, talk, write and teach about how energy affects the way in which we design, operate, retrofit and inhabit buildings. What myths about people, energy and buildings are current today? Who tells these myths and why do we believe them? How do myths affect our behavior? Myths are a way of understanding the world we live in. They may represent incomplete understanding, or be based on premises that are scientifically not valid, but they help us understand and explain how the world works, and we shape our behavior accordingly.

  15. A System for Monitoring Affective Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Abby L.; Frommer, Karen

    1982-01-01

    Based on the belief that affective education cannot be left to an informal process of "warm fuzzies," the system described here is a structured instructional program with specific affective objectives and a scale for monitoring achievement. (Author/JM)

  16. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  17. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and style are important considerations. ...

  18. By the Numbers: Hearing Loss Affects Millions

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss affects millions Follow us By the Numbers: Hearing Loss Affects Millions Approximately 15 percent of American adults ( ... to 74). Below are some interesting facts about hearing loss provided by the National Institute on Deafness and ...

  19. Toward a definition of affective instability.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Suzane M; Zacchia, Camillo

    2012-01-01

    Affective instability is a psychophysiological symptom observed in some psychopathologies. It is a complex construct that encompasses (1) primary emotions, or affects, and secondary emotions, with each category having its own characteristics, amplitude, and duration, (2) rapid shifting from neutral or valenced affect to intense affect, and (3) dysfunctional modulation of emotions. Affective instability is often confused with mood lability, as in bipolar disorders, as well as with other terms. To clarify the concept, we searched databases for the term affective instability and read related articles on the topic. In this article we situate the term within the current affective nomenclature and human emotional experience, explore its psychophysiological features, and place it within the context of psychopathology. We explain why the term can potentially be confused with mood pathology and then define affective instability as an inherited temperamental trait modulated by developmental experience.

  20. How Does Lupus Affect the Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print How lupus affects the blood Lupus Foundation of America September 26, ... be safely treated with blood transfusions? How lupus affects white blood cells Blood test may indicate lupus ...

  1. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  2. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  3. Can nutrition affect chemical toxicity?

    PubMed

    Furst, A

    2002-01-01

    . Grapefruit contains a substance that inhibits an isoform of P450, making some cardiac drugs, as substrates, more toxic. There is inadequate information on what specific components are in a variety of foods that are associated with cancer prevention. The experimental carcinogenic compound (and suspected as a human carcinogen) found in overcooked, burnt, and fried meats and fish, namely IQ (2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5f]quinoline, will be used as a prototype for what needs to be known about foods that will affect toxins.

  4. Comparing SessionStateReveal and EphemeralKeyReveal for Diffie-Hellman Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaoglu, Berkant

    Both the "eCK" model, by LaMacchia, Lauter and Mityagin, and the "CK01" model, by Canetti and Krawczyk, address the effect of leaking session specific ephemeral data on the security of key establishment schemes. The CK01-adversary is given a SessionStateReveal query to learn session-specific private data defined by the protocol specification, whereas the eCK-adversary is equipped with an EphemeralKeyReveal query to access all ephemeral private input required to carry session computations. SessionStateReveal cannot be issued against the test session; by contrast EphemeralKeyReveal can be used against the test session under certain conditions. On the other hand, it is not obvious how EphemeralKeyReveal compares to SessionStateReveal. Thus it is natural to ask which model is more useful and practically relevant.

  5. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

  6. Developing/Modifying Student Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, John E.

    At the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, the Instructional Staff Development Program, Component VI, Developing/Modifying Student Affective Behaviors focuses upon some affective behaviors that promote and are considered vital to the inquiry process. Through teachers trained in the development of affective behaviors, this program has achieved changes…

  7. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

    2010-01-01

    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

  8. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on....

  9. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  10. Teaching-Learning in the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Brett J.; Hannon, James C.

    2006-01-01

    Affect is an important domain in which children learn. The affective domain of learning in physical education focuses on feelings, values, social behavior, and attitudes as they relate to human movement. Learning in the affective domain in physical education means that students learn such concepts as sportsmanship, "fair play," respect for others,…

  11. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  12. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on. ...

  13. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on. ...

  14. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on. ...

  15. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on. ...

  16. Empirical Testing of an Affective Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Edward P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…

  17. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  18. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Every cellular process mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. As results from ENCODE show, open chromatin assays can efficiently integrate across diverse regulatory elements, revealing functional non-coding genome. In this study, we use a MNase hypersensitivity assay to discover o...

  19. Revealing Student Teacher's Thinking through Dilemma Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente; Tomanek, Debra; Novodvorsky, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    We explore the potential of dilemma analysis as an assessment tool to reveal student teachers' thinking and concerns about their practice. For this purpose we analyze the dilemma analyses completed by 22 student teachers enrolled in our science teacher preparation program over a period of four semesters. Student teachers' dilemmas fall into two…

  20. [Pneumococcal septic arthritis revealing a multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Renou, F; Gerber, A; Moiton, M-P; Ferrandiz, D; Yvin, J-L

    2007-03-01

    The most common presenting features of multiple myeloma are bone pain, anemia, renal failure or hypercalcemia. Bacterial infection as the initial presentation of this desease is rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with pneumococcal septic arthritis of the knee revealing a multiple myeloma. Pneumococcal infection should lead to a suspicion of underlying illness and especially the multiple myeloma.

  1. Revealing a Child's Pathology: Physicians' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scelles, Regine; Aubert-Godard, Anne; Gargiulo, Marcela; Avant, Monique; Gortais, Jean

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 12 physicians and 12 care-givers were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. We explored physicians' experiences when they revealed a diagnosis. We also tried to understand which family members the physician was thinking of, with whom they identified themselves, and their first choice of the person to whom they prefer to…

  2. Eye Movements Reveal Dynamics of Task Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kuhns, David; Rieter, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    With the goal to determine the cognitive architecture that underlies flexible changes of control settings, we assessed within-trial and across-trial dynamics of attentional selection by tracking of eye movements in the context of a cued task-switching paradigm. Within-trial dynamics revealed a switch-induced, discrete delay in onset of…

  3. Eye Movements Reveal Dynamics of Task Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kuhns, David; Rieter, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    With the goal to determine the cognitive architecture that underlies flexible changes of control settings, we assessed within-trial and across-trial dynamics of attentional selection by tracking of eye movements in the context of a cued task-switching paradigm. Within-trial dynamics revealed a switch-induced, discrete delay in onset of…

  4. The emotional significance of affective inequalities and why they are important to women in old age.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Loretta; Lynch, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Affective inequality is neglected in the study of old age. Using an egalitarian analysis, this article shows how affective inequalities matter to older women. Findings from the first author's PhD study explain the emotional significance of affective inequalities for Irish women. Twenty-one in-depth interviews were conducted to obtain data about experiences and perceptions of inequalities and how they had an impact on older women's well-being. Thematic analysis revealed that women experienced inequalities in old age as devaluation, obligations, exclusion, and misrecognition (DOEM), and they experienced injustices in areas of their lives that were largely outside of their control. Affective inequality implications are discussed.

  5. Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: moderating influence of positive affect.

    PubMed

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether parents of children with developmental disorders are at risk of elevated allostatic load relative to control parents and whether positive affect moderates difference in risk. In all, 38 parents of children with developmental disorders and 38 matched comparison parents were analyzed. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between parent status and positive affect: parents of children with developmental disorders had lower allostatic load when they had higher positive affect, whereas no such association was evident for comparison parents. The findings suggest that promoting greater positive affect may lower health risks among parents of children with developmental disorders.

  6. Treated-skin temperature regularities revealed by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2001-03-01

    Experimental results disclosing temperature change of human skin affected by various unnatural factors are presented in detail. Thermograms are obtained with the IR thermograph containing high performance InAs CID FPA-based photosensitive unit. Using logarithmic scale of time, evolution of skin temperature after moistening, spirit sponging, and olive oil lubrication is investigated. A comparative analysis of the resulting effects of treatments including alpha-hydroxy acid, cosmetic regenerating cream, spirit, and water, is made. Quantitative distinctions between skin regions characterized by ordinary, and depleted blood supply, including areas located directly above surface main vessels, are revealed. Strongly logarithmic time- dependence of a skin temperature is discovered when the skin is cooled down after its preliminary heating with a hot wax. Non-monotonic change of a local temperature during electrically active procedure is described. Low level light therapy equipment is also applied. A special role of the temperature of nose is discussed.

  7. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications.

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals posttranslational responses to aneuploidy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Dephoure, Noah; Hwang, Sunyoung; O'Sullivan, Ciara; Dodgson, Stacie E; Gygi, Steven P; Amon, Angelika; Torres, Eduardo M

    2014-07-29

    Aneuploidy causes severe developmental defects and is a near universal feature of tumor cells. Despite its profound effects, the cellular processes affected by aneuploidy are not well characterized. Here, we examined the consequences of aneuploidy on the proteome of aneuploid budding yeast strains. We show that although protein levels largely scale with gene copy number, subunits of multi-protein complexes are notable exceptions. Posttranslational mechanisms attenuate their expression when their encoding genes are in excess. Our proteomic analyses further revealed a novel aneuploidy-associated protein expression signature characteristic of altered metabolism and redox homeostasis. Indeed aneuploid cells harbor increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, increased protein turnover attenuates ROS levels and this novel aneuploidy-associated signature and improves the fitness of most aneuploid strains. Our results show that aneuploidy causes alterations in metabolism and redox homeostasis. Cells respond to these alterations through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Copyright © 2014, Dephoure et al.

  9. Meaning Making: What Reflective Essays Reveal about Biology Students' Conceptions about Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Montplaisir, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    The process of reflective writing can play a central role in making meaning as learners process new information and connect it to prior knowledge. An examination of the written discourse can therefore be revealing of learners' cognitive understanding and affective (beliefs, feelings, motivation to learn) responses to concepts. Despite reflective…

  10. [Epididymo-orchitis in a newborn: rare illness revealing late-onset Streptococcus agalactiae meningitis].

    PubMed

    Goirand, M; Berthaud, R; Al Ikhtiar, I; Lachtar, M; Montoro, J; Walter-Nicolet, E

    2014-02-01

    Acute scrotum is unusual during the neonatal period. Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency aimed at salvaging the affected testis. Epididymo-orchitis is the main differential diagnosis, but few cases have been described in the newborn. Here, we report the case of a late-preterm infant who presented with late-onset group B streptococcal sepsis revealed by unilateral epididymo-orchitis.

  11. Assortative mating in primary affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Dunner, D L; Fleiss, J L; Addonizio, G; Fieve, R R

    1976-02-01

    Psychiatric illness in spouses of patients with primary affective disorder was determined and compared to psychiatric illness in spouses of a nonpsychiatrically ill control group. An increase in affective illness in wives of bipolar male patients with affective disorder was found. There was no increase in affective illness among husbands of female patients. Marital status of these patients was evaluated and the percentages of patients who had never married or who had married but had ever been divorced or separated were similar to control data. Several of the marriages were quite stable over long time periods in spite of the severe recurrent affective illness experienced by these patients.

  12. An evaluation of affect and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Deaver, Cristine M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Smyth, Joshua; Meidinger, Amy; Crosby, Ross

    2003-09-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating suggests that binge eating occurs because it provides momentary relief from negative affect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in affect during binge eating to evaluate the merits of this model. Participants were young adult women from a midwestern university. Binge eaters recorded their level of pleasantness using the affect grid at 2-minute intervals before, during, and after binge eating episodes and regular meals. Controls recorded in a similar manner during meals. The results showed a different pattern of affect for binge eaters during binge eating episodes and normal meals and for binge eaters and controls at normal meals. The results support the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating is negatively reinforced because it produces momentary relief from negative affect.

  13. Social Anxiety, Affect, Cortisol Response and Performance on a Speech Task.

    PubMed

    Losiak, Wladyslaw; Blaut, Agata; Klosowska, Joanna; Slowik, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by increased emotional reactivity to social stimuli, but results of studies focusing on affective reactions of socially anxious subjects in the situation of social exposition are inconclusive, especially in the case of endocrinological measures of affect. This study was designed to examine individual differences in endocrinological and affective reactions to social exposure as well as in performance on a speech task in a group of students (n = 44) comprising subjects with either high or low levels of social anxiety. Measures of salivary cortisol and positive and negative affect were taken before and after an impromptu speech. Self-ratings and observer ratings of performance were also obtained. Cortisol levels and negative affect increased in both groups after the speech task, and positive affect decreased; however, group × affect interactions were not significant. Assessments conducted after the speech task revealed that highly socially anxious participants had lower observer ratings of performance while cortisol increase and changes in self-reported affect were not related to performance. Socially anxious individuals do not differ from nonanxious individuals in affective reactions to social exposition, but reveal worse performance at a speech task. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Proteomics Reveals Novel Drosophila Seminal Fluid Proteins Transferred at Mating

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Geoffrey D; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J; Swanson, Willie J

    2008-01-01

    Across diverse taxa, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) transferred at mating affect the reproductive success of both sexes. Such reproductive proteins often evolve under positive selection between species; because of this rapid divergence, Sfps are hypothesized to play a role in speciation by contributing to reproductive isolation between populations. In Drosophila, individual Sfps have been characterized and are known to alter male sperm competitive ability and female post-mating behavior, but a proteomic-scale view of the transferred Sfps has been missing. Here we describe a novel proteomic method that uses whole-organism isotopic labeling to detect transferred Sfps in mated female D. melanogaster. We identified 63 proteins, which were previously unknown to function in reproduction, and confirmed the transfer of dozens of predicted Sfps. Relative quantification of protein abundance revealed that several of these novel Sfps are abundant in seminal fluid. Positive selection and tandem gene duplication are the prevailing forces of Sfp evolution, and comparative proteomics with additional species revealed lineage-specific changes in seminal fluid content. We also report a proteomic-based gene discovery method that uncovered 19 previously unannotated genes in D. melanogaster. Our results demonstrate an experimental method to identify transferred proteins in any system that is amenable to isotopic labeling, and they underscore the power of combining proteomic and evolutionary analyses to shed light on the complex process of Drosophila reproduction. PMID:18666829

  15. Reticulated lipid probe fluorescence reveals MDCK cell apical membrane topography.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Pina; Spring, Kenneth R

    2002-02-01

    High spatial resolution confocal microscopy of young MDCK cells stained with the lipophilic probe 1,1'-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'- tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiIC(16)) revealed a reticulated fluorescence pattern on the apical membrane. DiIC(16) was delivered as crystals to live cells to minimize possible solvent perturbations of the membrane lipids. The ratio of the integrated fluorescence intensities in the bright versus dim regions was 1.6 +/- 0.1 (n = 13). Deconvolved images of the cells were consistent with exclusive plasma membrane staining. Multi-spectral and fluorescence anisotropy microscopy did not reveal differences between bright and dim regions. Bright regions coincided with microvilli and microridges observed by differential interference contrast microscopy and were stable for several minutes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching yielded similar diffusion coefficients (pooled D = 1.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s, n = 40) for both bright and dim regions. Line fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed that the reticulated pattern was maintained as the fluorescence recovered in the bleached areas. Cytochalasin D did not affect the staining pattern, but the pattern was eliminated by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. We conclude that the reticulated fluorescence pattern was caused by increased optical path lengths through the microvilli and microridges compared with the flat areas on the apical membrane.

  16. Reticulated lipid probe fluorescence reveals MDCK cell apical membrane topography.

    PubMed Central

    Colarusso, Pina; Spring, Kenneth R

    2002-01-01

    High spatial resolution confocal microscopy of young MDCK cells stained with the lipophilic probe 1,1'-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'- tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiIC(16)) revealed a reticulated fluorescence pattern on the apical membrane. DiIC(16) was delivered as crystals to live cells to minimize possible solvent perturbations of the membrane lipids. The ratio of the integrated fluorescence intensities in the bright versus dim regions was 1.6 +/- 0.1 (n = 13). Deconvolved images of the cells were consistent with exclusive plasma membrane staining. Multi-spectral and fluorescence anisotropy microscopy did not reveal differences between bright and dim regions. Bright regions coincided with microvilli and microridges observed by differential interference contrast microscopy and were stable for several minutes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching yielded similar diffusion coefficients (pooled D = 1.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s, n = 40) for both bright and dim regions. Line fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed that the reticulated pattern was maintained as the fluorescence recovered in the bleached areas. Cytochalasin D did not affect the staining pattern, but the pattern was eliminated by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. We conclude that the reticulated fluorescence pattern was caused by increased optical path lengths through the microvilli and microridges compared with the flat areas on the apical membrane. PMID:11806917

  17. Neural evidence that human emotions share core affective properties.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-06-01

    Research on the "emotional brain" remains centered around the idea that emotions like fear, happiness, and sadness result from specialized and distinct neural circuitry. Accumulating behavioral and physiological evidence suggests, instead, that emotions are grounded in core affect--a person's fluctuating level of pleasant or unpleasant arousal. A neuroimaging study revealed that participants' subjective ratings of valence (i.e., pleasure/displeasure) and of arousal evoked by various fear, happiness, and sadness experiences correlated with neural activity in specific brain regions (orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala, respectively). We observed these correlations across diverse instances within each emotion category, as well as across instances from all three categories. Consistent with a psychological construction approach to emotion, the results suggest that neural circuitry realizes more basic processes across discrete emotions. The implicated brain regions regulate the body to deal with the world, producing the affective changes at the core of emotions and many other psychological phenomena.

  18. Affective journeys: the emotional structuring of medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Harris

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the grid of sentiment that structures medical travel to India. In contrast to studies that render emotion as ancillary, the paper argues that affect is fundamental to medical travel's ability to ease the linked somatic, emotional, financial, and political injuries of being ill 'back home'. The ethnographic approach follows the scenes of medical travel within the Indian corporate hospital room, based on observations and interviews among foreign patients, caregivers, and hospital staff in Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, and Bangalore. Foreign patients conveyed diverse sentiments about their journey to India ranging from betrayal to gratitude, and their expressions of risk, healthcare costs, and cultural difference help sustain India's popularity as a medical travel destination. However, although the affective dimensions of medical travel promise a remedy for foreign patients, they also reveal the fault lines of market medicine in India.

  19. Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness.

    PubMed

    Muse, M R; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models were developed to reveal which structural elements of ice cream affect melting rate and hardness. Ice creams were frozen in a batch freezer with three types of sweetener, three levels of the emulsifier polysorbate 80, and two different draw temperatures to produce ice creams with a range of microstructures. Ice cream mixes were analyzed for viscosity, and finished ice creams were analyzed for air cell and ice crystal size, overrun, and fat destabilization. The ice phase volume of each ice cream were calculated based on the freezing point of the mix. Melting rate and hardness of each hardened ice cream was measured and correlated with the structural attributes by using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Fat destabilization, ice crystal size, and the consistency coefficient of the mix were found to affect the melting rate of ice cream, whereas hardness was influenced by ice phase volume, ice crystal size, overrun, fat destabilization, and the rheological properties of the mix.

  20. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    PubMed

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Olivera La Rosa, Antonio; Munar, Enric

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion) were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms) and extended (SOA = 300 ms) conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.