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Sample records for affecting gas exchange

  1. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    PubMed

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production. PMID:17803646

  2. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    PubMed

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production.

  3. Blood lactate concentrations are mildly affected by mobile gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Scharhag-Rosenberger, F; Wochatz, M; Otto, C; Cassel, M; Mayer, F; Scharhag, J

    2014-06-01

    We sought to investigate the effects of wearing a mobile respiratory gas analysis system during a treadmill test on blood lactate (bLa) concentrations and commonly applied bLa thresholds. A total of 16 recreational athletes (31±3 years, VO2max: 58±6 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)) performed one multistage treadmill test with and one without gas exchange measurements (GEM and noGEM). The whole bLa curve, the lactate threshold (LT), the individual anaerobic thresholds according to Stegmann (IATSt) and Dickhuth (IATDi), and a fixed bLa concentration of 4 mmol ∙ l(-1) (OBLA) were evaluated. The bLa curve was shifted slightly leftward in GEM compared to noGEM (P<0.05), whereas the heart rate response was not different between conditions (P=0.89). There was no difference between GEM and noGEM for LT (2.61±0.34 vs. 2.64±0.39 m · s(-1), P=0.49) and IATSt (3.47±0.42 vs. 3.55±0.47 m · s(-1), P=0.12). However, IATDi (3.57±0.39 vs. 3.66±0.44 m · s(-1), P<0.01) and OBLA (3.85±0.46 vs. 3.96±0.47 m · s(-1), P<0.01) occurred at slower running velocities in GEM. The bLa response to treadmill tests is mildly affected by wearing a mobile gas analysis system. This also applies to bLa thresholds located at higher exercise intensities. While the magnitude of the effects is of little importance for recreational athletes, it might be relevant for elite athletes and scientific studies.

  4. Vasomotor tone does not affect perfusion heterogeneity and gas exchange in normal primate lungs during normoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenny, R. W.; Robertson, H. T.; Hlastala, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether vasoregulation is an important cause of pulmonary perfusion heterogeneity, we measured regional blood flow and gas exchange before and after giving prostacyclin (PGI(2)) to baboons. Four animals were anesthetized with ketamine and mechanically ventilated. Fluorescent microspheres were used to mark regional perfusion before and after PGI(2) infusion. The lungs were subsequently excised, dried inflated, and diced into approximately 2-cm(3) pieces (n = 1,208-1,629 per animal) with the spatial coordinates recorded for each piece. Blood flow to each piece was determined for each condition from the fluorescent signals. Blood flow heterogeneity did not change with PGI(2) infusion. Two other measures of spatial blood flow distribution, the fractal dimension and the spatial correlation, did not change with PGI(2) infusion. Alveolar-arterial O(2) differences did not change with PGI(2) infusion. We conclude that, in normal primate lungs during normoxia, vasomotor tone is not a significant cause of perfusion heterogeneity. Despite the heterogeneous distribution of blood flow, active regulation of regional perfusion is not required for efficient gas exchange.

  5. Fluoride inhibits root water transport and affects leaf expansion and gas exchange in aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, Mohammed; Zwiazek, Janusz J.

    2003-03-01

    The effects of sodium fluoride (0.3, 5 and 10 mM NaF) on root hydraulic conductivity, and gas exchange processes were examined in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) seedlings grown in solution culture. A long-term exposure of roots to NaF significantly decreased root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) and stomatal conductance ( gs). Root absorbed NaF significantly affected electrolyte leakage in leaf tissues and substantially restricted leaf expansion. NaF did not significantly affect leaf chlorophyll contents but decreased net photosynthesis (Pn). A short-term exposure of excised roots to 5 mM NaF and KF significantly decreased root water flow (Qv) with a concomitant decline in root respiration and reduced gs when applied through intact roots or excised stems. The same molar concentration of NaCl also decreased Qv and gs in intact seedlings, but to a lesser extent than NaF or KF, and did not significantly affect root respiration. The results suggest that fluoride metabolically inhibited Qv or Lp, probably by affecting water channel activity. We suggest that the metabolic inhibition of Lp by root-absorbed fluoride affected gas exchange and leaf expansion in aspen seedlings.

  6. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianwei; Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A; Skelly, John M; Steiner, Kim C; Savage, James E

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(wv)), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N(L)) to tropospheric ozone (O(3)) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g(wv), foliar injury, and N(L) (P < 0.05) among O(3) treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g(wv) due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g(wv), N(L), and higher foliar injury (P < 0.001) than younger leaves. Leaf age affected the response of A, g(wv), and foliar injury to O(3). Both VPD and N(L) had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O(3)-induced injury appeared when cumulative O(3) uptake reached 8-12 mmol m(-2), depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O(3)-induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O(3) risk assessment for forest trees. PMID:20537450

  7. Discontinuous gas-exchange cycle characteristics are differentially affected by hydration state and energy metabolism in gregarious and solitary desert locusts.

    PubMed

    Talal, Stav; Ayali, Amir; Gefen, Eran

    2015-12-01

    The termination of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) in severely dehydrated insects casts doubt on the generality of the hygric hypothesis, which posits that DGCs evolved as a water conservation mechanism. We followed DGC characteristics in the two density-dependent phases of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria throughout exposure to an experimental treatment of combined dehydration and starvation stress, and subsequent rehydration. We hypothesized that, under stressful conditions, the more stress-resistant gregarious locusts would maintain DGCs longer than solitary locusts. However, we found no phase-specific variations in body water content, water loss rates (total and respiratory) or timing of stress-induced abolishment of DGCs. Likewise, locusts of both phases re-employed DGCs after ingesting comparable volumes of water when rehydrated. Despite comparable water management performances, the effect of exposure to stressful experimental conditions on DGC characteristics varied significantly between gregarious and solitary locusts. Interburst duration, which is affected by the ability to buffer CO2, was significantly reduced in dehydrated solitary locusts compared with gregarious locusts. Moreover, despite similar rehydration levels, only gregarious locusts recovered their initial CO2 accumulation capacity, indicating that cycle characteristics are affected by factors other than haemolymph volume. Haemolymph protein measurements and calculated respiratory exchange ratios suggest that catabolism of haemolymph proteins may contribute to a reduced haemolymph buffering capacity, and thus a compromised ability for CO2 accumulation, in solitary locusts. Nevertheless, DGC was lost at similar hydration states in the two phases, suggesting that DGCs are terminated as a result of inadequate oxygen supply to the tissues. PMID:26486365

  8. [Pathophysiology of gas exchange in ARDS].

    PubMed

    Fernández Fernández, R

    2006-11-01

    ARDS is produced in a pulmonary edema picture due to increased vascular patency. In this way, the initial alteration consists in an alveolar occupation due to protein rich edema. This occupation reduces the alveolar surface available for gas exchange, increasing the pulmonary areas with poor or null V/Q ratio. As ARDS progresses, vascular phenomena occur that affect the gas exchange differently, giving rise to heterogeneity in the V/Q ratio. This situation worsens due to the appearance of areas with null ventilation in relationship with the appearance of atelectasis in lung dependent zones. All these factors form the hypoxemia picture refractory to the increase of the inspired oxygen fraction characteristic of this clinical entity. In this article, we make a review of these physiological mechanisms and the effect on the oxygenation of different ventilatory and drug maneuvers.

  9. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research. PMID:23833883

  10. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  11. Alcohol breath test: gas exchange issues.

    PubMed

    Hlastala, Michael P; Anderson, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    The alcohol breath test is reviewed with a focus on gas exchange factors affecting its accuracy. The basis of the alcohol breath test is the assumption that alveolar air reaches the mouth during exhalation with no change in alcohol concentration. Recent investigations have shown that alcohol concentration is altered during its transit to the mouth. The exhaled alcohol concentration is modified by interaction with the mucosa of the pulmonary airways. Exhaled alcohol concentration is not an accurate indicator of alveolar alcohol concentration. Measuring alcohol concentration in the breath is very different process than measuring a blood level from air equilibrated with a blood sample. Airway exchange of alcohol leads to a bias against certain individuals depending on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics. Methodological modifications are proposed to improve the accuracy of the alcohol breath test to become fair to all. PMID:27197859

  12. [Phylogeny of gas exchange systems].

    PubMed

    Jürgens, K D; Gros, G

    2002-04-01

    Several systems of gas transport have developed during evolution, all of which are able to sufficiently supply oxygen to the tissues and eliminate the CO2 produced by the metabolism, in spite of great distances between the environment and the individual cells of the tissues. Almost all these systems utilize a combination of convection and diffusion steps. Convection achieves an efficient transport of gas over large distances, but requires energy and cannot occur across tissue barriers. Diffusion, on the other hand, achieves gas transport across barriers, but requires optimization of diffusion paths and diffusion areas. When two convectional gas flows are linked via a diffusional barrier (gas/fluid in the case of the avian lung, fluid/fluid in the case of gills), the directions in which the respective convectional movements pass each other are important determinants of gas exchange efficiency (concurrent, countercurrent and cross-current systems). The tracheal respiration found in insects has the advantage of circumventing the convective gas transport step in the blood, thereby avoiding the high energy expenditure of circulatory systems. This is made possible by a system of tracheae, ending in tracheoles, that reaches from the body surface to every cell within the body. The last step of gas transfer in these animals occurs by diffusion from the tracheoles ("air capillaries") to the mitochondria of cells. The disadvantage is that the tracheal system occupies a substantial fraction of body volume and that, due to limited mechanical stability of tracheal walls, this system would not be able to operate under conditions of high hydrostatic pressures, i. e. in large animals. Respiration in an "open" system, i. e. direct exposure of the diffusional barrier to the environmental air, eliminates the problem of bringing the oxygen to the barrier by convection, as is necessary in the avian and mammalian lung, in the insects' tracheal system and in the gills. An open system is

  13. History of respiratory gas exchange.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 6th century B.C. the Greeks speculated on a substance pneuma that meant breath or soul, and they argued that this was essential for life. An important figure in the 2nd century A.D. was Galen whose school developed an elaborate cardiopulmonary system that influenced scientific thinking for 1400 years. A key concept was that blood was mixed with pneuma from the lung in the left ventricle thus forming vital spirit. It was also believed that blood flowed from the right to the left ventricle of the heart through pores in the interventricular septum but this view was challenged first by the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis in the 13th century and later by Michael Servetus in the 16th century. The 17th century saw an enormous burgeoning of knowledge about the respiratory gases. First Torricelli explained the origin of atmospheric pressure, and then a group of physiologists in Oxford clarified the properties of inspired gas that were necessary for life. This culminated in the work of Lavoisier who first clearly elucidated the nature of the respiratory gases, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. At that time it was thought that oxygen was consumed in the lung itself, and the fact that the actual metabolism took place in peripheral tissues proved to be a very elusive concept. It was not until the late 19th century that the issue was finally settled by Pflüger. In the early 20th century there was a colorful controversy about whether oxygen was secreted by the lung. During and shortly after World War II, momentous strides were made on the understanding of pulmonary gas exchange, particularly the role of ventilation-perfusion inequality. A critical development in the 1960s was the introduction of blood gas electrodes, and these have transformed the management of patients with severe lung disease. PMID:23733651

  14. BOREAS TE-12 Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Yang, Litao

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-12 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the reflectance, transmittance, and gas exchange of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of leaf gas exchange conducted in the SSA during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1995 using a portable gas exchange system. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Center (DAAC).

  15. Gas exchange under altered gravitational stress.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G Kim

    2011-01-01

    Efficient gas exchange in the lung depends on the matching of ventilation and perfusion. However, the human lung is a readily deformable structure and as a result gravitational stresses generate gradients in both ventilation and perfusion. Nevertheless, the lung is capable of withstanding considerable change in the applied gravitational load before pulmonary gas exchange becomes impaired. The postural changes that are part of the everyday existence for most bipedal species are well tolerated, as is the removal of gravity (weightlessness). Increases in the applied gravitational load result only in a large impairment in pulmonary gas exchange above approximately three times that on the ground, at which point the matching of ventilation to perfusion is so impaired that efficient gas exchange is no longer possible. Much of the tolerance of the lung to alterations in gravitation stress comes from the fact that ventilation and perfusion are inextricably coupled. Deformations in the lung that alter ventilation necessarily alter perfusion, thus maintaining a degree of matching and minimizing the disruption in ventilation to perfusion ratio and thus gas exchange.

  16. Gas exchange in the respiratory distress syndromes.

    PubMed

    Albert, Richard K; Jobe, Alan

    2012-07-01

    This article describes the gas exchange abnormalities occurring in the acute respiratory distress syndrome seen in adults and children and in the respiratory distress syndrome that occurs in neonates. Evidence is presented indicating that the major gas exchange abnormality accounting for the hypoxemia in both conditions is shunt, and that approximately 50% of patients also have lungs regions in which low ventilation-to-perfusion ratios contribute to the venous admixture. The various mechanisms by which hypercarbia may develop and by which positive end-expiratory pressure improves gas exchange are reviewed, as are the effects of vascular tone and airway narrowing. The mechanisms by which surfactant abnormalities occur in the two conditions are described, as are the histological findings that have been associated with shunt and low ventilation-to-perfusion. PMID:23723019

  17. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Justin H.; Bassett, Erik K.; Penson, Elliot J. N.; Hoganson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas oxygenators based on microfluidic technologies can address this need, provided they operate both efficiently and biocompatibly. Incorporating biomimetic materials into such devices can help replicate native gas exchange function and additionally support cellular components. In this work, we have developed microfluidic devices that enable blood gas exchange across ultra-thin collagen membranes (as thin as 2 μm). Endothelial, stromal, and parenchymal cells readily adhere to these membranes, and long-term culture with cellular components results in remodeling, reflected by reduced membrane thickness. Functionally, acellular collagen-membrane lung devices can mediate effective gas exchange up to ∼288 mL/min/m2 of oxygen and ∼685 mL/min/m2 of carbon dioxide, approaching the gas exchange efficiency noted in the native lung. Testing several configurations of lung devices to explore various physical parameters of the device design, we concluded that thinner membranes and longer gas exchange distances result in improved hemoglobin saturation and increases in pO2. However, in the design space tested, these effects are relatively small compared to the improvement in overall oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer by increasing the blood flow rate. Finally, devices cultured with endothelial and parenchymal cells achieved similar gas exchange rates compared with acellular devices. Biomimetic blood oxygenator design opens the possibility of creating portable or implantable microfluidic devices that achieve efficient gas transfer while also maintaining physiologic conditions. PMID:26020102

  18. BOREAS TE-5 Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. The leaf photosynthetic gas exchange data were collected in the BOREAS NSA and the SSA from 06-Jun- 1994 to 13-Sep- 1994 using a LI-COR 6200 portable photosynthesis system. The data were collected to compare the photosynthetic capacity, stomata] conductance, and leaf intercellular CO, concentrations among the major tree species at the BOREAS sites. The data are average values from diurnal measurements on the upper canopy foliage (sun leaves). The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING AIR EXCHANGE IN TWO HOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air exchange rate is critical to determining the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of hazardous pollutants. Approximately 150 air exchange experiments were completed in two residences: a two-story detached house located in Redwood City, CA and a three-story...

  20. Closed system respirometry may underestimate tissue gas exchange and bias the respiratory exchange ratio (RER).

    PubMed

    Malte, Christian Lind; Nørgaard, Simon; Wang, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Closed respirometry is a commonly used method to measure gas exchange in animals due to its apparent simplicity. Typically, the rates of O2 uptake and CO2 excretion (VO2 and VCO2, respectively) are assumed to be in steady state, such that the measured rates of gas exchange equal those at tissue level. In other words, the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is assumed to equal the respiratory quotient (RQ). However, because the gas concentrations change progressively during closure, the animal inspires air with a progressively increasing CO2 concentration and decreasing O2 concentration. These changes will eventually affect gas exchange causing the O2 and CO2 stores within the animal to change. Because of the higher solubility/capacitance of CO2 in the tissues of the body, VCO2 will be more affected than VO2, and we hypothesize therefore that RER will become progressively underestimated as closure time is prolonged. This hypothesis was addressed by a combination of experimental studies involving closed respirometry on ball pythons (Python regius) as well as mathematical models of gas exchange. We show that increased closed duration of the respirometer reduces RER by up to 13%, and these findings may explain previous reports of RER values being below 0.7. Our model reveals that the maximally possible reduction in RER is determined by the storage capacity of the body for CO2 (product of size and specific capacitance) relative to the respirometer storage capacity. Furthermore, modeling also shows that pronounced ventilatory and circulatory response to hypercapnia can alleviate the reduction in RER.

  1. BOREAS TE-10 Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Middleton, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-10 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the reflectance, transmittance, gas exchange, chlorophyll content, carbon content, hydrogen content, and nitrogen content of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration, internal CO2 concentration, and water use efficiency conducted in the Southern Study Area (SSA) during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1996 using a portable gas exchange system. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  2. Artificial lung and extracorporeal gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Bensberg, R; Dembinski, R; Kopp, R; Kuhlen, R

    2005-03-01

    Over the last years, several observational studies have suggested that extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) may be an important contribution to clinical algorithms for the treatment of most severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Today ECLA is used only as a rescue therapy in life threatening gas exchange disorders if maximal conventional therapy fails to prevent from hypoxemia. With subsequent reduction of complications and improvement of biocompability, extracorporeal membrane oxygentation (ECMO) indications may be extendend to treat patients earlier and not only in rescue situations along the original idea to buy the lung some time to heal by avoiding further ventilator associated lung injury. Veno-venous ECMO therapy at present is an important therapeutic option in severe ARDS with persisiting life threatening gas exchange disorder as a rescue therapy. The development of smaller, less complex and more secure ECMO or pumpless veno-arterial ECLA systems has the potential to perform controlled studies of its use in ARDS and potentially expand indications.

  3. Stomatal aperture, photosythesis and water fluxes in mesophyll cells as affected by the abscission of leaves. Simultaneous measurements of gas exchange, light scattering and chlorphyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Heber, U; Neimanis, S; Lange, O L

    1986-04-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange, transpiration, chlorophyll fluorescence and light scattering of leaves of Lycopersicom esculentum, Helianthus annuus and Arbutus unedo were measured simultaneously before and after abscission of leaves. Scattering of a weak green measuring beam was used to monitor water fluxes across the thylakoid membranes of the mesophyll. When leaves were cut under water, stomata initially closed partially and then occasionally exhibited distinct regulatory oscillations. As stomata closed, light scattering decreased indicating water influx into the mesophyll. Stomatal oscillations were accompanied, with small but noticeable phase shifts, by oscillations of water fluxes at the thylakoid level. These fluxes could be distinguished from the water fluxes accompanying light-dependent ion pumping across the thylakoids by the concomitant chlorophyll fluorescence signals. The latter record energy-dependent ion fluxes in addition to redox changes of the electron-transport chain. As stomata closed partially after cutting a leaf under water, photosynthesis decreased. In Arbutus unedo and Helianthus annuus leaves, transient stomatal closure was insufficient to account for transient inhibition of photosynthesis which appeared to be brought about by transfer of an inhibitory solute through the petiole into the mesophyll. This solute also stimulated respiration in the dark. When leaves were cut in air, stomata opened transiently (Iwanoff effect) before wilting enforced closure. Photosynthesis followed the stomatal responses, increasing during opening and decreasing during closure.

  4. Microscale mechanisms of gas exchange in fruit tissue.

    PubMed

    Ho, Q T; Verboven, P; Mebatsion, H K; Verlinden, B E; Vandewalle, S; Nicolaï, B M

    2009-01-01

    * Gas-filled intercellular spaces are considered the predominant pathways for gas transport through bulky plant organs such as fruit. Here, we introduce a methodology that combines a geometrical model of the tissue microstructure with mathematical equations to describe gas exchange mechanisms involved in fruit respiration. * Pear (Pyrus communis) was chosen as a model system. The two-dimensional microstructure of cortex tissue was modelled based on light microscopy images. The transport of O(2) and CO(2) in the intercellular space, cell wall network and cytoplasm was modelled using diffusion laws, irreversible thermodynamics and enzyme kinetics. * In silico analysis showed that O(2) transport mainly occurred through intercellular spaces and less through the intracellular liquid, while CO(2) was transported at equal rates in both phases. Simulations indicated that biological variation of the apparent diffusivity appears to be caused by the random distribution of cells and intercellular spaces in tissue. Temperature does not affect modelled gas exchange properties; it rather acts on the respiration metabolism. * This modelling approach provides, for the first time, detailed information about gas exchange mechanisms at the microscopic scale in bulky plant organs, such as fruit, and can be used to study conditions of anoxia.

  5. ASGAMAGE, the Air-Sea Gas Exchange/MAGE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oost, Wiebe; Jacobs, Cor; Kohsiek, Wim; Goossens, Guus; van der Horn, Jaap; Sprung, Detlev; Rapsomanikis, Spyros; Kenntner, Thomas; Reiner, Thomas; Bowyer, Peter; Larsen, Søren; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kunz, Gerard; Hall, Alan; Liss, Peter; Malin, Gill; Upstill-Goddard, Rob; Woolf, David; Graham, Angus; Nightingale, Phil; Fairall, Chris; Hare, Jeff; Dissly, Richard; Tans, Pieter; Anderson, Bob; Smith, Stu

    The ASGAMAGE project addressed the problem of the large discrepancy between the chemistry based and micrometeorological methods and aimed to determine any geophysical parameters apart from the wind speed that affect air-sea gas exchange in an effort to reduce the uncertainty in the global carbon balance. Experiments were performed in the spring and fall of 1996 at and near a research platform off the Dutch coast and two surface layer models were developed for the gas exchange process. The results gave a reduction of the difference between the two types of methods from an order of magnitude to a factor of two as well as indications for the causes of the remaining difference.

  6. BOREAS TE-11 Leaf Gas Exchange Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Saugier, Bernard; Pontailler, J. Y.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-11 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the sap flow, gas exchange, and lichen photosynthesis of boreal vegetation and meteorological data of the area studied. This data set contains measurements of assimilation and transpiration conducted at the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site during the growing seasons of 1993 and 1994. The data are stored in ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. BOREAS TF-11 SSA-Fen Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team gathered a variety of data to complement its tower flux measurements collected at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains single-leaf gas exchange data from the SSA-Fen site during 1994 and 1995. These leaf gas exchange properties were measured for the dominant vascular plants using portable gas exchange systems. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  8. High temperature heat exchanger studies for applications to gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, June Kee; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Ha, Man Yeong; Kim, Kui Soon

    2009-12-01

    Growing demand for environmentally friendly aero gas-turbine engines with lower emissions and improved specific fuel consumption can be met by incorporating heat exchangers into gas turbines. Relevant researches in such areas as the design of a heat exchanger matrix, materials selection, manufacturing technology, and optimization by a variety of researchers have been reviewed in this paper. Based on results reported in previous studies, potential heat exchanger designs for an aero gas turbine recuperator, intercooler, and cooling-air cooler are suggested.

  9. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  10. Trace Gas Exchange of Biofuel Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Li, R.; Eller, A. S.; Gray, C.; Fierer, N.; Fall, R.; Harley, P. C.; Roberts, J. M.; Yuan, B.; Qian, Y.; Westra, P.; Fryrear, C.; Collins, M.; Whitman, K.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2010 leaf level gas exchange and VOC fluxes from switchgrass and corn grown at the CSU horticultural farm in Ft Collins (CO) were measured using a PTR-MS coupled to a modified Li6400 cuvette system. Both species are C4 plants with corn currently being the dominant biofuel crop in the USA whilst switchgrass being a promising candidate for cellulosic fuel ethanol production. Amongst the strongest VOC emissions from both plants were methanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, acetone and toluene. The switchgrass VOC emissions compare reasonably well with the only published data measured from potted plants in a whole plant enclosure (Eller et al. 2011). VOC emission studies on corn are almost as scarce as those of switchgrass. Considering the acreage of corn grown in the USA every year, VOC flux measurements of this plant species are largely under-represented in the literature. The emission rates that do exist in the literature do not compare well with the numbers found in this study (e.g. Das et al. 2003; 35μg methanol per hour per gram biomass). To investigate the biosphere atmosphere exchange of corn fields in more detail the field campaign BioCORN 2011 was initiated. In summer 2011 an eddy covariance system was set up in a corn field at ARDEC (CSU, Ft Collins, CO) to investigate the energy flux and the trace gas exchange of the US' dominant biofuel crop. Besides energy flux, evapotranspiration and CO2 flux a comprehensive suite of volatile organic compounds and inorganic species (O3, NO, NO2, CO) are measured for virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) analysis and true eddy covariance (EC) fluxes, respectively. VOCs are monitored by PTR-MS and, for the first time, fluxes of formic acid are measured utilizing NI-CIMS data for vDEC analysis. Besides the EC approach leaf level flux measurements and soil flux measurements are performed using a GC-MS system (TACOH) coupled to a modified Li6400 system and to soil chambers, respectively. Ethanol and methanol are amongst the

  11. Pine needle holders for use in gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Edwards, N T

    1989-12-01

    Simple holders for positioning pine needles in a gas exchange cuvette are described. The holders make it easy to enclose a standard length of needles in the cuvette in a single plane without mutual shading. The holders also make it possible, following gas exchange measurements, to harvest for further analysis just those needle portions that were enclosed in the leaf chamber. Field observations, which were made with a gas exchange cuvette incorporating the needle holders, on the relationship between carbon exchange rate and photon flux density in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles are reported.

  12. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and

  13. FASTGAS: Fast Gas Sampling for palladium exchange tests

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.; VerBerkmoes, A.A.

    1991-06-01

    A mass spectrometric technique for measuring the composition of gas flows in rapid H/D exchange reactions in palladium compacts has been developed. This method, called FASTGAS (Fast Gas Sampling)'' has been used at atmospheric pressures and above with a time response of better than 100 ms. The current implementation of the FASTGAS technique is described in detail and examples of its application to palladium hydride exchange tests are given. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Reversible brain inactivation induces discontinuous gas exchange in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2013-06-01

    Many insects at rest breathe discontinuously, alternating between brief bouts of gas exchange and extended periods of breath-holding. The association between discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) and inactivity has long been recognised, leading to speculation that DGCs lie at one end of a continuum of gas exchange patterns, from continuous to discontinuous, linked to metabolic rate (MR). However, the neural hypothesis posits that it is the downregulation of brain activity and a change in the neural control of gas exchange, rather than low MR per se, which is responsible for the emergence of DGCs during inactivity. To test this, Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches had their brains inactivated by applying a Peltier-chilled cold probe to the head. Once brain temperature fell to 8°C, cockroaches switched from a continuous to a discontinuous breathing pattern. Re-warming the brain abolished the DGC and re-established a continuous breathing pattern. Chilling the brain did not significantly reduce the cockroaches' MR and there was no association between the gas exchange pattern displayed by the insect and its MR. This demonstrates that DGCs can arise due to a decrease in brain activity and a change in the underlying regulation of gas exchange, and are not necessarily a simple consequence of low respiratory demand.

  15. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory; Quinn, Gregory; Strange, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system's liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems, but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.6 lb. The water side and gas side pressure drops were 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively. Performance of the heat exchanger at the nominal pressure of 4.1 psia was measured at 94%, while a gas inlet pressure of 25 psia resulted in an effectiveness of 84%. These results compared well with the model, which was scaled for the small size. Modeling of certain phenomena that affect performance, such as flow distribution in the headers was particularly difficult due to the small size of the heat exchanger. Data from the tests has confirmed the correction factors that were used in these parts of the model.

  16. Effect of Impeller Design and Spacing on Gas Exchange in a Percutaneous Respiratory Assist Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, R. Garrett; Frankowski, Brian J.; Burgreen, Greg W.; Federspiel, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Providing partial respiratory assistance by removing carbon dioxide (CO2) can improve clinical outcomes in patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome. An intravenous respiratory assist device with a small (25 Fr) insertion diameter eliminates the complexity and potential complications associated with external blood circuitry and can be inserted by nonspecialized surgeons. The impeller percutaneous respiratory assist catheter (IPRAC) is a highly efficient CO2 removal device for percutaneous insertion to the vena cava via the right jugular or right femoral vein that utilizes an array of impellers rotating within a hollow-fiber membrane bundle to enhance gas exchange. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of new impeller designs and impeller spacing on gas exchange in the IPRAC using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and in vitro deionized water gas exchange testing. A CFD gas exchange and flow model was developed to guide a progressive impeller design process. Six impeller blade geometries were designed and tested in vitro in an IPRAC device with 2- or 10-mm axial spacing and varying numbers of blades (2–5). The maximum CO2 removal efficiency (exchange per unit surface area) achieved was 573 ± 8 mL/min/m2 (40.1 mL/min absolute). The gas exchange rate was found to be largely independent of blade design and number of blades for the impellers tested but increased significantly (5–10%) with reduced axial spacing allowing for additional shaft impellers (23 vs. 14). CFD gas exchange predictions were within 2–13% of experimental values and accurately predicted the relative improvement with impellers at 2- versus 10-mm axial spacing. The ability of CFD simulation to accurately forecast the effects of influential design parameters suggests it can be used to identify impeller traits that profoundly affect facilitated gas exchange. PMID:24749994

  17. Peptide Orientation Affects Selectivity in Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, Andrew J.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Kangas, Lars J.; Smith, Richard D.; Mechtler, Karl; Mitulovic, Goran; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J.

    2010-06-15

    Here we demonstrate that separation of proteolytic peptides, having the same net charge and one basic residue, is affected by their specific orientation toward the stationary phase in ion-exchange chromatography. In electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) with an anion-exchange material, the C-terminus of the peptides is, on average, oriented toward the stationary phase. In cation exchange, the average peptide orientation is the opposite. Data with synthetic peptides, serving as orientation probes, indicate that in tryptic/Lys-C peptides the C-terminal carboxyl group appears to be in a zwitterionic bond with the side chain of the C-terminal Lys/Arg residue. In effect, the side chain is then less basic than the N-terminus, accounting for the specific orientation of tryptic and Lys-C peptides. Analyses of larger sets of peptides, generated from lysates by either Lys-N, Lys-C, or trypsin, reveal that specific peptide orientation affects the ability of harged side chains, such as phosphate residues, to influence retention. Phosphorylated residues that are remote in the sequence from the binding site affect retention less than those that are closer. When a peptide contains multiple charged sites, then orientation is observed to be less rigid and retention tends to be governed by the peptide’s net charge rather than its sequence. These general observations could be of value in confirming a peptide’s identification and, in particular, phosphosite assignments in proteomics analyses. More generally, orientation accounts for the ability of chromatography to separate peptides of the same compositionbut different sequence.

  18. Carbon dioxide control in an open system that measures canopy gas exchanges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration affects both C3 carbon net assimilation as well as crop water use. Methods for measuring whole canopy gas exchange responses under carbon dioxide enrichment are needed for breeding programs aiming to develop crop cultivars resistant to stresses like drought i...

  19. Naphthenic acids inhibit root water transport, gas exchange and leaf growth in aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, M; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2002-12-01

    Effects of sodium naphthenates (NAs) on root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) and gas exchange processes were examined in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) seedlings grown in solution culture. Exposure of roots to NAs for 3-5 weeks significantly decreased Lp and stomatal conductance. Root-absorbed NAs also decreased leaf chlorophyll concentration, net photosynthesis and leaf growth. Short-term (< or = 2 h) exposure of excised roots to NAs significantly decreased root water flow (Qv) with a concomitant decline in root respiration. We conclude that NAs metabolically inhibited Lp, likely by affecting water channel activity, and that this inhibition could be responsible for the observed reductions in gas exchange and leaf growth.

  20. Structure, function and evolution of the gas exchangers: comparative perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Maina, JN

    2002-01-01

    Over the evolutionary continuum, animals have faced similar fundamental challenges of acquiring molecular oxygen for aerobic metabolism. Under limitations and constraints imposed by factors such as phylogeny, behaviour, body size and environment, they have responded differently in founding optimal respiratory structures. A quintessence of the aphorism that ‘necessity is the mother of invention’, gas exchangers have been inaugurated through stiff cost–benefit analyses that have evoked transaction of trade-offs and compromises. Cogent structural–functional correlations occur in constructions of gas exchangers: within and between taxa, morphological complexity and respiratory efficiency increase with metabolic capacities and oxygen needs. Highly active, small endotherms have relatively better-refined gas exchangers compared with large, inactive ectotherms. Respiratory structures have developed from the plain cell membrane of the primeval prokaryotic unicells to complex multifunctional ones ofthe modern Metazoa. Regarding the respiratory medium used to extract oxygen from, animal life has had only two choices – water or air – within the biological range of temperature and pressure the only naturally occurring respirable fluids. In rarer cases, certain animalshave adapted to using both media. Gills (evaginated gas exchangers) are the primordial respiratory organs: they are the archetypal water breathing organs. Lungs (invaginated gas exchangers) are the model air breathing organs. Bimodal (transitional) breathers occupy the water–air interface. Presentation and exposure of external (water/air) and internal (haemolymph/blood) respiratory media, features determined by geometric arrangement of the conduits, are important features for gas exchange efficiency: counter-current, cross-current, uniform pool and infinite pool designs have variably developed. PMID:12430953

  1. Structure, function and evolution of the gas exchangers: comparative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Maina, J N

    2002-10-01

    Over the evolutionary continuum, animals have faced similar fundamental challenges of acquiring molecular oxygen for aerobic metabolism. Under limitations and constraints imposed by factors such as phylogeny, behaviour, body size and environment, they have responded differently in founding optimal respiratory structures. A quintessence of the aphorism that 'necessity is the mother of invention', gas exchangers have been inaugurated through stiff cost-benefit analyses that have evoked transaction of trade-offs and compromises. Cogent structural-functional correlations occur in constructions of gas exchangers: within and between taxa, morphological complexity and respiratory efficiency increase with metabolic capacities and oxygen needs. Highly active, small endotherms have relatively better-refined gas exchangers compared with large, inactive ectotherms. Respiratory structures have developed from the plain cell membrane of the primeval prokaryotic unicells to complex multifunctional ones of the modern Metazoa. Regarding the respiratory medium used to extract oxygen from, animal life has had only two choices--water or air--within the biological range of temperature and pressure the only naturally occurring respirable fluids. In rarer cases, certain animals have adapted to using both media. Gills (evaginated gas exchangers) are the primordial respiratory organs: they are the archetypal water breathing organs. Lungs (invaginated gas exchangers) are the model air breathing organs. Bimodal (transitional) breathers occupy the water-air interface. Presentation and exposure of external (water/air) and internal (haemolymph/blood) respiratory media, features determined by geometric arrangement of the conduits, are important features for gas exchange efficiency: counter-current, cross-current, uniform pool and infinite pool designs have variably developed. PMID:12430953

  2. Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

    1987-01-01

    The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

  3. Diffusion-limited gas exchange across amphibian skin.

    PubMed

    Gatz, R N

    1982-04-01

    Cutaneous gas exchange function of amphibians is conveniently analyzed in lungless salamanders in which all gas exchange is through the skin. Measurements in Desmognathus fuscus (Plethodontidae) have yielded the following results: 1) Cutaneous transfer of O2 and CO2 is limited predominantly by diffusion. 2) Accordingly, in environmental hypoxia, O2 uptake decreases. 3) Anaerobiosis contributes to energy balance during the first few hours of hypoxia only. Thereafter unknown biochemical adjustments take place that allow the animal to restore metabolite levels characteristic of normoxia regardless of the continued reduced oxygen uptake.

  4. [The physiology of gas exchange in divers].

    PubMed

    Rieder, H U

    1989-04-01

    After a short reminder of Boyle's law and the physiology of oxygen and nitrogen, a mathematical model will be discussed (without formulas). Its limitations are shown in relation to the calculation of partial gas pressures in different human organs. Such models are already used in closed circuit anesthesia delivery systems and valuable insights can be obtained by this way, which enable us to calculate better nitrogen decompression tables. PMID:2727653

  5. Automated measurement of respiratory gas exchange by an inert gas dilution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    A respiratory gas analyzer (RGA) has been developed wherein a mass spectrometer is the sole transducer required for measurement of respiratory gas exchange. The mass spectrometer maintains all signals in absolute phase relationships, precluding the need to synchronize flow and gas composition as required in other systems. The RGA system was evaluated by comparison with the Douglas bag technique. The RGA system established the feasibility of the inert gas dilution method for measuring breath-by-breath respiratory gas exchange. This breath-by-breath analytical capability permits detailed study of transient respiratory responses to exercise.

  6. In calm seas, precipitation drives air-sea gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-05-01

    In a series of experiments run in what resembles a heavily instrumented fish tank, Harrison et al. investigated the interwoven roles of wind and rain on air-sea gas exchange rates. Working with a 42-meterlong, 1-meter-wide, and 1.25-meter-tall experimental pool, the authors were able to control the wind speed, rainfall rate, water circulation speed, and other parameters, which they used to assess the effect of 24 different wind speed-rainfall rate combinations on the gas exchange rate of sulfur hexafuoride, a greenhouse gas. In trials that lasted up to 3 hours, the authors collected water samples from the tank at regular intervals, tracking the concentration of the dissolved gas.

  7. Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik

    1992-01-01

    A quadratic dependence of gas exchange on wind speed is employed to analyze the relationship between gas transfer and wind speed with particular emphasizing variable and/or low wind speeds. The quadratic dependence is fit through gas-transfer velocities over the ocean determined by methods based on the natural C-14 disequilibrium and the bomb C-14 inventory. The variation in the CO2 levels is related to these mechanisms, but the results show that other causes play significant roles. A weaker dependence of gas transfer on wind is suggested for steady winds, and long-term averaged winds demonstrate a stronger dependence in the present model. The chemical enhancement of CO2 exchange is also shown to play a role by increasing CO2 fluxes at low wind speeds.

  8. Tracheal gas exchange: perfusion-related differences in inert gas elimination.

    PubMed

    Souders, J E; George, S C; Polissar, N L; Swenson, E R; Hlastala, M P

    1995-09-01

    Exchange of inert gases across the conducting airways has been demonstrated by using an isolated dog tracheal preparation and has been characterized by using a mathematical model (E. R. Swenson, H. T. Robertson, N. L. Polissar, M. E. Middaugh, and M. P. Hlastala, J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 1581-1588, 1992). Theory predicts that gas exchange is both diffusion and perfusion dependent, with gases with a higher blood-gas partition coefficient exchanging more efficiently. The present study evaluated the perfusion dependence of airway gas exchange in an in situ canine tracheal preparation. Eight dogs were studied under general anesthesia with the same isolated tracheal preparation. Tracheal perfusion (Q) was altered from control blood flow (Qo) by epinephrine or papaverine instilled into the trachea and was measured with fluorescent microspheres. Six inert gases of differing blood-gas partition coefficients were used to measure inert gas elimination. Gas exchange was quantified as excretion (E), equal to exhaled partial pressure divided by arterial partial pressure. Data were plotted as ln [E/(l-E)] vs. In (Q/Qo), and the slopes were determined by least squares. Excretion was a positive function of Q, and the magnitude of the response of each gas to changes in Q was similar and highly significant (P < or = 0.0002). These results confirm a substantial perfusion dependence of airway gas exchange.

  9. The effect of high temperatures on tropical forest gas exchange.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C. E.; Goulden, M.; Miller, S.; Da Rocha, H.

    2006-12-01

    Further research is required to understand the sensitivity of tropical forest to climate warming. Previous research has shown that tropical forest photosynthesis decreases and respiration increases at high leaf temperatures and that tree growth is reduced in years with higher average air temperatures (Clark et al 2003). Models indicate that the climate related destruction of the Amazon forest will amplify global warming by 1.5¢ª C, resulting in a mean temperature increase of 5.5¢ª C, as compared with 4¢ª C without this carbon cycle feedback (Cox et al 2000). These studies demonstrate the importance of temperature on tropical forest gas exchange. At the LBA Tapajos km 83 site we determined what controls tropical leaf temperature and how temperature affects photosynthesis and respiration. Sunlit leaves were substantially warmer than air temperatures and this had a negative effect on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. We used eddy flux data to compare intervals of 10 minute cloudy periods followed by 20 minute sunny periods to see if similar trends could be seen at both the leaf and canopy level. The longer the sunny interval the warmer the canopy became and canopy conductance and CO2 exchange declined correspondingly. As the canopy warmed u* increased which increased turbulence and kept the canopy temperature from rising more. Long light intervals can cause heat stress in tropical forests but due to the very cloudy nature of the tropics such intervals are rare. However, if the tropics become both warmer and less cloudy such heat stress will increase.

  10. Novel scalable and monolithically integrated extracorporeal gas exchange device.

    PubMed

    Rieper, Tina; Müller, Claas; Reinecke, Holger

    2015-10-01

    A novel extracorporeal gas exchange device (EGED) is developed, implemented and characterized. The aim hereby is to overcome drawbacks of state-of-the-art devices and of state-of-science approaches, like their labor intensive fabrication and their low volume density of the gas exchange area, respectively. As a consequence of the stacked setup of alternating layers of the blood compartment and the ventilation gas compartment, the developed EGED allows for double sided gas exchange. Furthermore, it enables an adaption to the diversity of medical requirements by scaling the amount of layers. The developed fabrication chain is used to fabricate leakage-free evaluation models and allows for a transition to automated fabrication. The EGED is completely fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and features diffusion membranes, which are separating the compartments, with a mean thickness of 90 μm. With the evaluation models and oxygen as ventilation gas an oxygen transfer of 60 ml/lblood (25 ml/(min m(2))) and a carbon dioxide transfer of 70 ml/lblood (30 ml/(min m(2))) are achieved. The linear scalability of the concept as well as the functionality of the EGED with air as ventilation gas is shown. PMID:26249794

  11. Lung Structure and the Intrinsic Challenges of Gas Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Connie C.W.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Weibel, Ewald R.

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional complexities of the mammalian lung evolved to meet a unique set of challenges, namely, the provision of efficient delivery of inspired air to all lung units within a confined thoracic space, to build a large gas exchange surface associated with minimal barrier thickness and a microvascular network to accommodate the entire right ventricular cardiac output while withstanding cyclic mechanical stresses that increase several folds from rest to exercise. Intricate regulatory mechanisms at every level ensure that the dynamic capacities of ventilation, perfusion, diffusion, and chemical binding to hemoglobin are commensurate with usual metabolic demands and periodic extreme needs for activity and survival. This article reviews the structural design of mammalian and human lung, its functional challenges, limitations, and potential for adaptation. We discuss (i) the evolutionary origin of alveolar lungs and its advantages and compromises, (ii) structural determinants of alveolar gas exchange, including architecture of conducting bronchovascular trees that converge in gas exchange units, (iii) the challenges of matching ventilation, perfusion, and diffusion and tissue-erythrocyte and thoracopulmonary interactions. The notion of erythrocytes as an integral component of the gas exchanger is emphasized. We further discuss the signals, sources, and limits of structural plasticity of the lung in alveolar hypoxia and following a loss of lung units, and the promise and caveats of interventions aimed at augmenting endogenous adaptive responses. Our objective is to understand how individual components are matched at multiple levels to optimize organ function in the face of physiological demands or pathological constraints. PMID:27065169

  12. Phlebotomy improves pulmonary gas exchange in chronic mountain polycythemia.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J C; Diaz, C; Marticorena, E; Hilario, V

    1979-01-01

    There is not unanimous agreement in the literature regarding the effects of bleeding on pulmonary gas exchange in polycythemic patients. Spirometry, alveolar arterial O2 and CO2 tension differences, PaO2 breathing 100% oxygen and carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity were measured before and after 1 week of chronic phlebotomy in 4 chronic mountain polycythemic patients. Studies were carried out at 3,700 m above sea level (PB = 491 mm Hg). Before phlebotomy, 2 patients showed abnormal spirometry and gas exchange. Only 1 patient had high PaCO2 and all of them showed low values of PaO2 breathing oxygen. Phlebotomy improved both spirometry and gas exchange. Improvement in arterial oxygen saturation and PaO2 could not be attributed to changes in alveolar ventilation, but rather to better distribution of VA/Qc ratios since physiological dead space decreased. Our results are similar to those reported in polycythemia vera patients. A significant correlation between the changes in PaO2 with phlebotomy and the control PaO2 have been found from 45 polycythemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease collected from the literature. It is concluded that excessive polycythemia worsened hypoxemia and that phlebotomy improved gas exchange.

  13. Scaling leaf measurements to estimate cotton canopy gas exchange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diurnal leaf and canopy gas exchange of well watered field grown cotton were measured. Leaf measurements were made with a portable photosynthesis system and canopy measurements with open Canopy Evapo-Transpiration and Assimilation (CETA) systems. Leaf level measurements were arithmetically scaled to...

  14. Lung Structure and the Intrinsic Challenges of Gas Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Connie C W; Hyde, Dallas M; Weibel, Ewald R

    2016-03-15

    Structural and functional complexities of the mammalian lung evolved to meet a unique set of challenges, namely, the provision of efficient delivery of inspired air to all lung units within a confined thoracic space, to build a large gas exchange surface associated with minimal barrier thickness and a microvascular network to accommodate the entire right ventricular cardiac output while withstanding cyclic mechanical stresses that increase several folds from rest to exercise. Intricate regulatory mechanisms at every level ensure that the dynamic capacities of ventilation, perfusion, diffusion, and chemical binding to hemoglobin are commensurate with usual metabolic demands and periodic extreme needs for activity and survival. This article reviews the structural design of mammalian and human lung, its functional challenges, limitations, and potential for adaptation. We discuss (i) the evolutionary origin of alveolar lungs and its advantages and compromises, (ii) structural determinants of alveolar gas exchange, including architecture of conducting bronchovascular trees that converge in gas exchange units, (iii) the challenges of matching ventilation, perfusion, and diffusion and tissue-erythrocyte and thoracopulmonary interactions. The notion of erythrocytes as an integral component of the gas exchanger is emphasized. We further discuss the signals, sources, and limits of structural plasticity of the lung in alveolar hypoxia and following a loss of lung units, and the promise and caveats of interventions aimed at augmenting endogenous adaptive responses. Our objective is to understand how individual components are matched at multiple levels to optimize organ function in the face of physiological demands or pathological constraints.

  15. [External respiration, pulmonary gas exchange and energy expenditure in weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Kas'ian, I I; Makarov, G F

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the data on external respiration and energy expenditures of men exposed to zero-g for 185 days and to 1/6 g on the lunar surface reported by Soviet and foreign authors. The paper also discusses factors that may be responsible for a higher level of gas exchange processes at reduced g. PMID:6392736

  16. Lung Structure and the Intrinsic Challenges of Gas Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Connie C W; Hyde, Dallas M; Weibel, Ewald R

    2016-04-01

    Structural and functional complexities of the mammalian lung evolved to meet a unique set of challenges, namely, the provision of efficient delivery of inspired air to all lung units within a confined thoracic space, to build a large gas exchange surface associated with minimal barrier thickness and a microvascular network to accommodate the entire right ventricular cardiac output while withstanding cyclic mechanical stresses that increase several folds from rest to exercise. Intricate regulatory mechanisms at every level ensure that the dynamic capacities of ventilation, perfusion, diffusion, and chemical binding to hemoglobin are commensurate with usual metabolic demands and periodic extreme needs for activity and survival. This article reviews the structural design of mammalian and human lung, its functional challenges, limitations, and potential for adaptation. We discuss (i) the evolutionary origin of alveolar lungs and its advantages and compromises, (ii) structural determinants of alveolar gas exchange, including architecture of conducting bronchovascular trees that converge in gas exchange units, (iii) the challenges of matching ventilation, perfusion, and diffusion and tissue-erythrocyte and thoracopulmonary interactions. The notion of erythrocytes as an integral component of the gas exchanger is emphasized. We further discuss the signals, sources, and limits of structural plasticity of the lung in alveolar hypoxia and following a loss of lung units, and the promise and caveats of interventions aimed at augmenting endogenous adaptive responses. Our objective is to understand how individual components are matched at multiple levels to optimize organ function in the face of physiological demands or pathological constraints. PMID:27065169

  17. Effects of Ozone on Gas Exchange in Invasive Forest Plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, E. E.

    2006-12-01

    Evaluations of invasive plant biology have failed to investigate the relationship between leaf structure and effects of ozone among closely related native and non-native plants. When exposed to toxic pollutants plants with lower stomatal density and lower stomatal conductance might experience reduced exposure and consequently be more competitive. To test for systematic differences between invasive and native species, experiments assessed the stomatal density and stomatal conductance of nine non-native invasive species and thirteen native species. Field sites, used for forest surveys, centered on three urban areas including sites with differing ozone levels (low 0-60 ppb, medium 80-99 ppb, high 111-125+ ppb). Three sites were selected within each of the three urban areas, and surveys were taken at each of the nine sites determining the native and non-native plant composition. The low level sites had greater densities of native plants than the high ozone level sites. Leaf impressions revealed a significantly higher (t = 14.13, p < 0.0001) stomatal density for the natives, and a LI-COR 1600 showed significantly higher (Fndf,ddf = 12.88, p = 0.0004) stomatal conductance for native plants. Dissimilar gas-exchange capacities are likely to be linked to the observed differences in plant composition among study sites. The importance of addressing air and biotic pollution grows every year as human health, agriculture, and ecosystem function are negatively affected in new areas.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in

  19. Gas Exchange Models for a Flexible Insect Tracheal System.

    PubMed

    Simelane, S M; Abelman, S; Duncan, F D

    2016-06-01

    In this paper two models for movement of respiratory gases in the insect trachea are presented. One model considers the tracheal system as a single flexible compartment while the other model considers the trachea as a single flexible compartment with gas exchange. This work represents an extension of Ben-Tal's work on compartmental gas exchange in human lungs and is applied to the insect tracheal system. The purpose of the work is to study nonlinear phenomena seen in the insect respiratory system. It is assumed that the flow inside the trachea is laminar, and that the air inside the chamber behaves as an ideal gas. Further, with the isothermal assumption, the expressions for the tracheal partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, rate of volume change, and the rates of change of oxygen concentration and carbon dioxide concentration are derived. The effects of some flow parameters such as diffusion capacities, reaction rates and air concentrations on net flow are studied. Numerical simulations of the tracheal flow characteristics are performed. The models developed provide a mathematical framework to further investigate gas exchange in insects. PMID:27209375

  20. Respiratory gas exchange using a triaxial alveolar gas diagram.

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, J. F.; Pages, T.; Palacios, L.

    1993-01-01

    A triaxial alveolar gas diagram to depict fractional concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen is described, in which the R = 1 line is always implicit. Although it is not claimed that this representation leads to new insights into respiratory physiology, a method of plotting on a triaxial coordinate system has been found to be well suited to many applications when a direct display of fractional nitrogen concentration is required. PMID:8303637

  1. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  2. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  3. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  4. A Continuum Model for Metabolic Gas Exchange in Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Q. Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Vandewalle, Stefan; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange of O2 and CO2 of plants with their environment is essential for metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. In some fruits such as pears, which are typically stored under a controlled atmosphere with reduced O2 and increased CO2 levels to extend their commercial storage life, anoxia may occur, eventually leading to physiological disorders. In this manuscript we have developed a mathematical model to predict the internal gas concentrations, including permeation, diffusion, and respiration and fermentation kinetics. Pear fruit has been selected as a case study. The model has been used to perform in silico experiments to evaluate the effect of, for example, fruit size or ambient gas concentration on internal O2 and CO2 levels. The model incorporates the actual shape of the fruit and was solved using fluid dynamics software. Environmental conditions such as temperature and gas composition have a large effect on the internal distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in fruit. Also, the fruit size has a considerable effect on local metabolic gas concentrations; hence, depending on the size, local anaerobic conditions may result, which eventually may lead to physiological disorders. The model developed in this manuscript is to our knowledge the most comprehensive model to date to simulate gas exchange in plant tissue. It can be used to evaluate the effect of environmental stresses on fruit via in silico experiments and may lead to commercial applications involving long-term storage of fruit under controlled atmospheres. PMID:18369422

  5. Oxygen-induced plasticity in tracheal morphology and discontinuous gas exchange cycles in cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Bartrim, Hamish; Matthews, Philip G D; Lemon, Sussan; White, Craig R

    2014-12-01

    The function and mechanism underlying discontinuous gas exchange in terrestrial arthropods continues to be debated. Three adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolutionary origin or maintenance of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), which may have evolved to reduce respiratory water loss, facilitate gas exchange in high CO2 and low O2 micro-environments, or to ameliorate potential damage as a result of oversupply of O2. None of these hypotheses have unequivocal support, and several non-adaptive hypotheses have also been proposed. In the present study, we reared cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea in selected levels of O2 throughout development, and examined how this affected growth rate, tracheal morphology and patterns of gas exchange. O2 level in the rearing environment caused significant changes in tracheal morphology and the exhibition of DGCs, but the direction of these effects was inconsistent with all three adaptive hypotheses: water loss was not associated with DGC length, cockroaches grew fastest in hyperoxia, and DGCs exhibited by cockroaches reared in normoxia were shorter than those exhibited by cockroaches reared in hypoxia or hyperoxia.

  6. Evolutionary responses of discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    PubMed Central

    White, Craig R.; Blackburn, Tim M.; Terblanche, John S.; Marais, Elrike; Gibernau, Marc; Chown, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    The discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGCs) observed in many quiescent insects have been a cause of debate for decades, but no consensus on their evolutionary origin or adaptive significance has been achieved. Nevertheless, three main adaptive hypotheses have emerged: (i) the hygric hypothesis suggests that DGCs reduce respiratory water loss; (ii) the chthonic hypothesis suggests that DGCs facilitate gas exchange during environmental hypoxia, hypercapnia, or both; and (iii) the oxidative-damage hypothesis suggests that DGCs minimize oxidative tissue damage. However, most work conducted to date has been based on single-species investigations or nonphylogenetic comparative analyses of few species, despite calls for a strong-inference, phylogenetic approach. Here, we adopt such an approach by using 76 measurements of 40 wild-caught species to examine macrophysiological variation in DGC duration in insects. Potential patterns of trait variation are first identified on the basis of the explicit a priori predictions of each hypothesis, and the best phylogenetic generalized least-squares fit of the candidate models to the data is selected on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. We find a significant positive relationship between DGC duration and habitat temperature and an important interaction between habitat temperature and precipitation. This result supports the hygric hypothesis. We conclude that the DGCs of insects reduce respiratory water loss while ensuring adequate gas exchange. PMID:17485672

  7. Gas Diodes for Thermoacoustic Self-circulating Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Greg; Backhaus, Scott

    2006-05-01

    An asymmetrical constriction in a pipe functions as an imperfect gas diode for acoustic oscillations in the gas in the pipe. One or more gas diodes in a resonant loop of pipe create substantial steady flow, which can carry substantial heat between a remote heat exchanger and a thermoacoustic or Stirling engine or refrigerator; the flow is driven directly by the oscillations in the engine or refrigerator itself. This invention gives Stirling and thermoacoustic devices unprecedented flexibility, and may lead to Stirling engines of unprecedented power. We have built two of these resonant self-circulating heat exchangers, one as a fundamental test bed and the other as a demonstration of practical levels of heat transfer. Measurements of flow and heat transfer are in factor-of-two agreement with either of two simple calculation methods. One calculation method treats the oscillating and steady flows as independent and simply superimposed, except in the gas diodes. The other method accounts for the interaction between the oscillating and steady flow with the quasi-steady approximation. The mutual influence of superimposed turbulent oscillating and steady flows is a theoretical challenge.

  8. Observational Studies of Parameters Influencing Air-sea Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimpf, U.; Frew, N. M.; Bock, E. J.; Hara, T.; Garbe, C. S.; Jaehne, B.

    A physically-based modeling of the air-sea gas transfer that can be used to predict the gas transfer rates with sufficient accuracy as a function of micrometeorological parameters is still lacking. State of the art are still simple gas transfer rate/wind speed relationships. Previous measurements from Coastal Ocean Experiment in the Atlantic revealed positive correlations between mean square slope, near surface turbulent dis- sipation, and wind stress. It also demonstrated a strong negative correlation between mean square slope and the fluorescence of surface-enriched colored dissolved organic matter. Using heat as a proxy tracer for gases the exchange process at the air/water interface and the micro turbulence at the water surface can be investigated. The anal- ysis of infrared image sequences allow the determination of the net heat flux at the ocean surface, the temperature gradient across the air/sea interface and thus the heat transfer velocity and gas transfer velocity respectively. Laboratory studies were carried out in the new Heidelberg wind-wave facility AELOTRON. Direct measurements of the Schmidt number exponent were done in conjunction with classical mass balance methods to estimate the transfer velocity. The laboratory results allowed to validate the basic assumptions of the so called controlled flux technique by applying differ- ent tracers for the gas exchange in a large Schmidt number regime. Thus a modeling of the Schmidt number exponent is able to fill the gap between laboratory and field measurements field. Both, the results from the laboratory and the field measurements should be able to give a further understanding of the mechanisms controlling the trans- port processes across the aqueous boundary layer and to relate the forcing functions to parameters measured by remote sensing.

  9. A novel technique for highly accurate gas exchange measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkenings, R. K.; Jähne, B. J.

    2003-04-01

    The Heidelberg Aeolotron is a circular wind-wave facility for investigating air-sea gas exchange. In this contribution a novel technique for measuring highly accurate transfer velocities k of mass transfer will be presented. Traditionally, in mass balance techniques the constant of decay for gas concentrations over time is measured. The major drawback of this concept is the long time constant. At low wind speeds and a water height greater than 1 m the period of observation has to be several days. In a gas-tight facility such as the Aeolotron, the transfer velocity k can be computed from the concentration in the water body and the change of concentration in the gas space. Owing to this fact, transfer velocities are gained while greatly reducing the measuring times to less than one hour. The transfer velocity k of a tracer can be parameterized as k=1/β \\cdot u_* \\cdot Sc^n, with the Schmidt Number Sc, shear velocity u_* and the dimensionless transfer resistance β. The Schmidt Number exponent n can be derived from simultaneous measurements of different tracers. Since these tracers are of different Schmidt number, the shear velocity is not needed. To allow for Schmidt numbers spanning a hole decade, in our experiments He, H_2, N_2O and F12 are used. The relative accuracy of measuring the transfer velocity was improved to less than 2%. In 9 consecutive experiments conducted at a wind speed of 6.2 m/s, the deviation of the Schmidt number exponent was found to be just under 0.02. This high accuracy will allow precisely determining the transition of the Schmidt number exponent from n=2/3 to n=0.5 from a flat to wavy water surface. In order to quantify gas exchange not only the wind speed is important. Surfactants have a pronounced effect on the wave field and lead to a drastic reduction in the transfer velocity. In the Aeolotron measurements were conducted with a variety of measuring devices, ranging from an imaging slope gauge (ISG) to thermal techniques with IR

  10. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  11. Atmosphere-ocean gas exchange based on radiocarbon data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byalko, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, the intensity of global atmospheric convection has accelerated faster than climate warming; it is possible to judge this process from indirect data. Increasing ocean salinity contrasts provide evidence that evaporation has intensified [1]; sea surface wind velocities and wave heights have increased [2]. The CO2 gas exchange between the atmosphere and ocean must also simultaneously increase. Monthly measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration have been published since 1958 [3], but directly measuring its fluxes from the atmosphere to the ocean and back is hardly possible. We show they can be reconstructed from 14C isotope concentration data. In the past century, two processes influenced the atmospheric 14C concentration in opposite directions: burning fossil fuels and testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. We compare the gas exchange theory with measurements of radiocarbon content in the atmosphere [4—6], which allows assessing the gas exchange quantitatively for the ocean to atmosphere and atmosphere to ocean fluxes separately for period 1960—2010 [7]. References 1. Durack P. J. and Wijffels S. E., J. Climate 23, 4342 (2010). 2. Young I. R., Sieger S., and Babanin A.V., Science 332, 451 (2011). 3. NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Data: ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccg/co2/trends/co2_mm_mlo.txt. 4. Nydal R., Lövseth K. // J. Geophys. Res. 1983. V. 88. P. 3579. 5. Levin I., Kromer B. // Radiocarbon. 1997. V. 39. P. 205. 6. Miller J.B., Lehman S.J., Montzka S.A., et al. // J. Geophys. Res. 2012. V. 117. D08302. 7. Byalko A.V. Doklady Physics, 2013. V. 58, 267-271.

  12. Gas exchange theory and the lactic acidosis (anaerobic) threshold.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, K; Beaver, W L; Whipp, B J

    1990-01-01

    The physiological requirements of performing exercise above the anaerobic threshold are considerably more demanding than for lower work rates. Lactic acidosis develops at a metabolic rate that is specific to the individual and the task being performed. Although numerous pyruvate-dependent mechanisms can lead to an elevated blood lactate, the increase in lactate during muscular exercise is accompanied by an increase in lactate/pyruvate ratio (i.e., increased NADH/NAD ratio). This is typically caused by an inadequate O2 supply to the mitochondria. Thus, the anaerobic threshold can be considered to be an important assessment of the ability of the cardiovascular system to supply O2 at a rate adequate to prevent muscle anaerobiosis during exercise testing. In this paper, we demonstrate, with statistical justification, that the pattern of arterial lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio increase during exercise evidences threshold dynamics rather than the continuous exponential increase proposed by some investigators. The pattern of change in arterial bicarbonate (HCO3-) and pulmonary gas exchange supports this threshold concept. To estimate the anaerobic threshold by gas exchange methods, we measure CO2 output (VCO2) as a continuous function of O2 uptake (VO2) (V-slope analysis) as work rate is increased. The break-point in this plot reflects the obligate buffering of increasing lactic acid production by HCO3-. The anaerobic threshold measured by the V-slope analysis appears to be a sensitive index of the development of metabolic acidosis even in subjects in whom other gas exchange indexes are insensitive, owing to irregular breathing, reduced chemoreceptor sensitivity, impaired respiratory mechanics, or all of these occurrences.

  13. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability.

  14. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability. PMID:24504355

  15. Leaf gas exchange characteristics of three neotropical mangrove species in response to varying hydroperiod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Gardiner, Emile S.

    2006-01-01

    We determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings (2002) and saplings (2003) of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., and Rhizophora mangle L. Hydroperiod treatments included no flooding (unflooded), intermittent flooding (intermittent), and permanent flooding (flooded). Plants in the intermittent treatment were measured under both flooded and drained states and compared separately. In the greenhouse study, plants of all species maintained different leaf areas in the contrasting hydroperiods during both years. Assimilation–light response curves indicated that the different hydroperiods had little effect on leaf gas exchange characteristics in either seedlings or saplings. However, short-term intermittent flooding for between 6 and 22 days caused a 20% reduction in maximum leaf-level carbon assimilation rate, a 51% lower light requirement to attain 50% of maximum assimilation, and a 38% higher demand from dark respiration. Although interspecific differences were evident for nearly all measured parameters in both years, there was little consistency in ranking of the interspecific responses. Species by hydroperiod interactions were significant only for sapling leaf area. In a field study, R. mangle saplings along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park either demonstrated no significant effect or slight enhancement of carbon assimilation and water-use efficiency while flooded. We obtained little evidence that contrasting hydroperiods affect leaf gas exchange characteristics of mangrove seedlings or saplings over long time intervals; however, intermittent flooding may cause short-term depressions in leaf gas exchange. The resilience of mangrove systems to flooding, as demonstrated in the permanently flooded treatments, will likely promote photosynthetic and morphological adjustment to slight hydroperiod shifts in many settings..

  16. Leaf gas exchange characteristics of three neotropical mangrove species in response to varying hydroperiod.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Ken W; Twilley, Robert R; Doyle, Thomas W; Gardiner, Emile S

    2006-07-01

    We determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings (2002) and saplings (2003) of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., and Rhizophora mangle L. Hydroperiod treatments included no flooding (unflooded), intermittent flooding (intermittent), and permanent flooding (flooded). Plants in the intermittent treatment were measured under both flooded and drained states and compared separately. In the greenhouse study, plants of all species maintained different leaf areas in the contrasting hydroperiods during both years. Assimilation-light response curves indicated that the different hydroperiods had little effect on leaf gas exchange characteristics in either seedlings or saplings. However, short-term intermittent flooding for between 6 and 22 days caused a 20% reduction in maximum leaf-level carbon assimilation rate, a 51% lower light requirement to attain 50% of maximum assimilation, and a 38% higher demand from dark respiration. Although interspecific differences were evident for nearly all measured parameters in both years, there was little consistency in ranking of the interspecific responses. Species by hydroperiod interactions were significant only for sapling leaf area. In a field study, R. mangle saplings along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park either demonstrated no significant effect or slight enhancement of carbon assimilation and water-use efficiency while flooded. We obtained little evidence that contrasting hydroperiods affect leaf gas exchange characteristics of mangrove seedlings or saplings over long time intervals; however, intermittent flooding may cause short-term depressions in leaf gas exchange. The resilience of mangrove systems to flooding, as demonstrated in the permanently flooded treatments, will likely promote photosynthetic and morphological adjustment to slight hydroperiod shifts in many settings. PMID:16585041

  17. Steady-state canopy gas exchange: system design and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a commercial growth chamber for canopy photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration measurements. The system was designed to measure transpiration via water vapor fluxes, and the importance of this measurement is discussed. Procedures for continuous measurement of root-zone respiration are described, and new data is presented to dispel myths about sources of water vapor interference in photosynthesis and in the measurement of CO2 by infrared gas analysis. Mitchell (1992) has described the fundamentals of various approaches to measuring photosynthesis. Because our system evolved from experience with other types of single-leaf and canopy gas-exchange systems, it is useful to review advantages and disadvantages of different systems as they apply to various research objectives.

  18. Steady-state canopy gas exchange: system design and operation.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, B

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the use of a commercial growth chamber for canopy photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration measurements. The system was designed to measure transpiration via water vapor fluxes, and the importance of this measurement is discussed. Procedures for continuous measurement of root-zone respiration are described, and new data is presented to dispel myths about sources of water vapor interference in photosynthesis and in the measurement of CO2 by infrared gas analysis. Mitchell (1992) has described the fundamentals of various approaches to measuring photosynthesis. Because our system evolved from experience with other types of single-leaf and canopy gas-exchange systems, it is useful to review advantages and disadvantages of different systems as they apply to various research objectives.

  19. Sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Demello, William Zamboni; Porter, Carolyn A.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur gases are important components of the global cycle of S. They contribute to the acidity of precipitation and they influence global radiation balance and climate. The role of terrestrial sources of biogenic S and their effect on atmospheric chemistry remain as major unanswered questions in our understanding of the natural S cycle. The role of northern wetlands as sources and sinks of gaseous S was investigated by measuring rates of S gas exchange as a function of season, hydrologic conditions, and gradients in trophic status. The effects of inorganic S input on the production and emission of gaseous S were also investigated. Experiments were conducted in wetlands in New Hampshire, particularly a poor fen, fens within the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario, Canada and in freshwater and marine tundra. Emissions were determined using Teflon enclosures, gas cryotrapping methods, and gas chromatography (GC) with flame photometric detection. Dynamic (sweep flow) and static enclosures were employed. Dissolved gases were determined by gas stripping followed by GC.

  20. Measuring gas temperature during spin-exchange optical pumping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, E.; Jiang, C. Y.; Brown, D. R.; Robertson, L.; Crow, L.; Tong, X.

    2016-04-01

    The gas temperature inside a Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) laser-pumping polarized 3He cell has long been a mystery. Different experimental methods were employed to measure this temperature but all were based on either modelling or indirect measurement. To date there has not been any direct experimental measurement of this quantity. Here we present the first direct measurement using neutron transmission to accurately determine the number density of 3He, the temperature is obtained using the ideal gas law. Our result showed a surprisingly high gas temperature of 380°C, compared to the 245°C of the 3He cell wall temperature and 178°C of the optical pumping oven temperature. This experiment result may be used to further investigate the unsolved puzzle of the "X-factor" in the SEOP process which places an upper bound to the 3He polarization that can be achieved. Additional spin relaxation mechanisms might exist due to the high gas temperature, which could explain the origin of the X-factor.

  1. Air-water gas exchange by waving vegetation stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster-Martinez, M. R.; Variano, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    Exchange between wetland surface water and the atmosphere is driven by a variety of motions, ranging from rainfall impact to thermal convection and animal locomotion. Here we examine the effect of wind-driven vegetation movement. Wind causes the stems of emergent vegetation to wave back and forth, stirring the water column and facilitating air-water exchange. To understand the magnitude of this effect, a gas transfer velocity (k600 value) was measured via laboratory experiments. Vegetation waving was studied in isolation by mechanically forcing a model canopy to oscillate at a range of frequencies and amplitudes matching those found in the field. The results show that stirring due to vegetation waving produces k600 values from 0.55 cm/h to 1.60 cm/h. The dependence of k600 on waving amplitude and frequency are evident from the laboratory data. These results indicate that vegetation waving has a nonnegligible effect on gas transport; thus, it can contribute to a mechanistic understanding of the fluxes underpinning biogeochemical processes.

  2. Assimilate transport in phloem sets conditions for leaf gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Nikinmaa, Eero; Hölttä, Teemu; Hari, Pertti; Kolari, Pasi; Mäkelä, Annikki; Sevanto, Sanna; Vesala, Timo

    2013-03-01

    Carbon uptake and transpiration in plant leaves occurs through stomata that open and close. Stomatal action is usually considered a response to environmental driving factors. Here we show that leaf gas exchange is more strongly related to whole tree level transport of assimilates than previously thought, and that transport of assimilates is a restriction of stomatal opening comparable with hydraulic limitation. Assimilate transport in the phloem requires that osmotic pressure at phloem loading sites in leaves exceeds the drop in hydrostatic pressure that is due to transpiration. Assimilate transport thus competes with transpiration for water. Excess sugar loading, however, may block the assimilate transport because of viscosity build-up in phloem sap. Therefore, for given conditions, there is a stomatal opening that maximizes phloem transport if we assume that sugar loading is proportional to photosynthetic rate. Here we show that such opening produces the observed behaviour of leaf gas exchange. Our approach connects stomatal regulation directly with sink activity, plant structure and soil water availability as they all influence assimilate transport. It produces similar behaviour as the optimal stomatal control approach, but does not require determination of marginal cost of water parameter. PMID:22934921

  3. Optimal allocation of leaf epidermal area for gas exchange.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Price, Charles A; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C; Franks, Peter J; Veneklaas, Erik J

    2016-06-01

    A long-standing research focus in phytology has been to understand how plants allocate leaf epidermal space to stomata in order to achieve an economic balance between the plant's carbon needs and water use. Here, we present a quantitative theoretical framework to predict allometric relationships between morphological stomatal traits in relation to leaf gas exchange and the required allocation of epidermal area to stomata. Our theoretical framework was derived from first principles of diffusion and geometry based on the hypothesis that selection for higher anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax ) involves a trade-off to minimize the fraction of the epidermis that is allocated to stomata. Predicted allometric relationships between stomatal traits were tested with a comprehensive compilation of published and unpublished data on 1057 species from all major clades. In support of our theoretical framework, stomatal traits of this phylogenetically diverse sample reflect spatially optimal allometry that minimizes investment in the allocation of epidermal area when plants evolve towards higher gsmax . Our results specifically highlight that the stomatal morphology of angiosperms evolved along spatially optimal allometric relationships. We propose that the resulting wide range of viable stomatal trait combinations equips angiosperms with developmental and evolutionary flexibility in leaf gas exchange unrivalled by gymnosperms and pteridophytes. PMID:26991124

  4. Direct Energy Exchange Enhancement in Distributed Injection Light Gas Launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, T W; Finucane, R G; Hall, J P; Penetrante, B M; Uphaus, T M

    2000-04-06

    initially contained in the reservoir. This results deserves emphasis: whereas conventional guns apply a few percent of the reservoir pressure to a fast moving projectile, our design is paradoxically capable of applying nearly double the contained pressure. We later confirmed this experimental result analytically and related it to a type of direct energy exchange between unsteady fluid flows. This physical approach was the basis for the German V-1 ''buzz bomb'' of World War II; it has been applied to a limited number of commercial applications. (This work should not be confused with the German WWII distributed injection missile launchers.) Direct fluid-energy exchange has not previously been applied to any gas-launcher technology. As a result of these discoveries, we estimate that a practical, 15 km/s, high-velocity launcher could be built using our direct-energy-exchange, distributed-injection approach. However, the radical nature of the results, the lack of confirming or allied work being carried out anywhere else, and the fact that it would take extensive time and resources to demonstrate targeted performance precluded further development. We plan to submit the results to a refereed journal to ensure that the work will not be lost to the launcher community.

  5. The effects of oxygen induced pulmonary vasoconstriction on bedside measurement of pulmonary gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Ulla M; Thomsen, Lars P; Rees, Stephen E; Rasmussen, Bodil S

    2016-04-01

    In patients with respiratory failure measurements of pulmonary gas exchange are of importance. The bedside automatic lung parameter estimator (ALPE) of pulmonary gas exchange is based on changes in inspired oxygen (FiO2) assuming that these changes do not affect pulmonary circulation. This assumption is investigated in this study. Forty-two out of 65 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) had measurements of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), cardiac output and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure thus enabling the calculation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at each FiO2 level. The research version of ALPE was used and FiO2 was step-wise reduced a median of 0.20 and ultimately returned towards baseline values, allowing 6-8 min' steady state period at each of 4-6 levels before recording the oxygen saturation (SpO2). FiO2 reduction led to median decrease in SpO2 from 99 to 92 %, an increase in MPAP of 4 mmHg and an increase in PVR of 36 dyn s cm(-5). Changes were immediately reversed on returning FiO2 towards baseline. In this study changes in MPAP and PVR are small and immediately reversible consistent with small changes in pulmonary gas exchange. This indicates that mild deoxygenation induced pulmonary vasoconstriction does not have significant influences on the ALPE parameters in patients after CABG.

  6. How is Order 636 affecting the gas distribution industry

    SciTech Connect

    Margossian, K.M. )

    1993-12-01

    This paper is part of a six part series on how interstate gas pipelines have been affected by Order 636. These papers are written in an interview format with different individuals representing the pipeline, natural gas, utility, and regulatory side of this new regulation. The issues deal with how it has affected these industries; how the relationships have changed between suppliers, marketers, distributors, etc.; the risks now involved in marketing, shipping, and buying gas products; and new technology developments have resulted to comply with the new regulations. This paper is an interview with Kenneth M. Magossian, president and chief operating officer of Commonwealth Gas Co. and Hopkinton LNG Corp.

  7. [Theoretical analysis of factors affecting heat exchange stability of human body with environment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Wang, X

    1998-06-01

    Life could not be normal without the heat produced by metabolism of human body being transmitted into environment. This paper discussed the ways of heat exchange of human body with the environment, and analyzed their effects on the stability of heat exchange theoretically. In addition, factors that affects the stability of heat exchange were studied. The results indicate that the environmental temperature is the most important factor.

  8. Thermal Efficiency in a Direct Contact Heat Exchanger of Gas and Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Isamu; Tsuji, Katsuhiko

    Co-generation systems have many practical applications for energy-saving, utilization of various energy resources and energy recovery of waste gas. However, it is pointed out that heat exchangers of co-generation system involve some problems which are corrosion of heat surface, decrease of heat transfer rate due to accumulation of soot and NOx in waste gas. Then. the heat exchange which contacts waste gas with liquid are studied to solve the above problems. The contacting state of gas and liquid has not been researched on the direct contact heat exchanger of gas and liquid. For it is considered that the contacting state has direct effects on a thermal efficiency and gas absorption. Then, we try to investigate the contacting state of gas and liquid by experiments of heating and image processing on the direct contact heat exchanger. From the results, the contacting state of gas and liquid can be evaluate by a gas-liquid contacting area.

  9. Daily Social Exchanges and Affect in Middle and Later Adulthood: The Impact of Loneliness and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…

  10. Gas exchange of algae. IV. Reliability of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Ammann, E C; Fraser-Smith, A

    1968-05-01

    A single culture of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (700 ml) was grown continuously under uniform environmental conditions for a period of 11 months. During this time, the culture remained uncontaminated and its oxygen production, carbon dioxide consumption, and photosynthetic quotient (PQ = CO(2)/O(2)) were monitored on a 24-hr basis. The gas exchange characteristics of the alga were found to be extremely reliable; the average oxygen production was 1.21 +/- 0.03 ml per min, the carbon dioxide consumption was 1.09 +/- 0.03 ml per min, and the PQ was 0.90 +/- 0.01 when changes in both lamp intensity and instrument accuracy were taken into consideration. Such long-term dependability in the production of oxygen, consumption of carbon dioxide, and maintenance of a uniform PQ warrants the use of C. pyrenoidosa in a regenerative life support system for space travel.

  11. Electrostatic enhancement of heat transfer in gas-to-gas heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohadi, M. M.

    1991-06-01

    Basic study of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) enhancement of heat transfer in heat exchangers was the subject of an investigation. The author's efforts over the three-year project time period can be categorized into three consecutive phases. In phase 1, EHD heat transfer enhancements and pressure drop characteristics for conventional pipe flows as a function of electric field potential, field polarity, number of electrodes (single or double configuration), and flow regime (Reynolds number ranging from fully laminar to fully turbulent conditions) were studied. Study of heat transfer enhancements and pressure drop characteristics in a shell-and-tube, gas-to-gas heat exchanger were performed in Phase 2 of the project. To address the applicability of the EHD technique under operating conditions of gas-fired equipment, the role of various working fluid properties were studied in Phase 3 of the project. Specifically, effects of working fluid humidity, temperature, pressure, and impurity level on the magnitude and nature of the EHD heat transfer enhancements were studied. A maximum of 322 percent heat transfer enhancement with only 112 percent increase in pressure drops was achieved under simultaneous excitation of the tube and shell sides of the heat exchanger in the study. With optimized electric and flow field parameters, much higher enhancements can be expected.

  12. Human Regional Pulmonary Gas Exchange with Xenon Polarization Transfer (XTC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradian, Iga; Butler, James; Hrovat, Mirko; Topulos, George; Hersman, Elizabeth; Ruset, Iulian; Covrig, Silviu; Frederick, Eric; Ketel, Stephen; Hersman, F. W.; Patz, Samuel

    2007-03-01

    Xenon Transfer Contrast (XTC) is an existing imaging method (Ruppert et al, Magn Reson Med, 51:676-687, 2004) that measures the fraction F of ^129Xe magnetization that diffuses from alveolar gas spaces to septal parenchymal tissue in lungs in a specified exchange time. As previously implemented, XTC is a 2-breath method and has been demonstrated in anesthetized animals. To use XTC in humans and to avoid issues associated with obtaining identical gas volumes on subsequent breath-hold experiments as well as precise image registration in post-processing, a single breath XTC method was developed that acquires three consecutive gradient echo images in an 8s acquisition. We report here initial measurements of the mean and variance of F for 5 normal healthy subjects as well as 7 asymptomatic smokers. The experiments were performed at two lung volumes (˜45 and 65% of TLC). We found that both the mean and variance of F increased with smoking history. In comparison, standard pulmonary function tests such as DLCO FEV1 showed no correlation with smoking history.

  13. Respiratory gas exchange of high altitude adapted chick embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangensteen, O. D.; Rahn, H.; Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Study of gas exchange by embryos from chickens acclimatized to an altitude of 3800 m. The oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure differences across the egg shell were measured and found to be less than the values previously reported for sea-level eggs by about a factor of two. Further measurements of embryonic oxygen consumption and shell conductivity to oxygen indicated that, compared to eggs at sea level, oxygen consumption was reduced by a factor of 0.58 while conductivity to oxygen was increased only by a factor of 1.07 in the high-altitude eggs. These independent measurements predict the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell of the high-altitude eggs to be only 0.54 times that of sea-level eggs; the directly measured factor was 0.53. The authors conclude that at high altitude, a major adaptation of the chick embryo is a reduced metabolism which decreases the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell since its gas conductivity remains essentially unchanged.

  14. Pulmonary and Cutaneous O[subscript 2] Gas Exchange: A Student Laboratory Exercise in the Frog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Glenn J.; Currie, Suzanne; LeBlanc, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Gas exchange in animals is ultimately diffusion based, generally occurring across dedicated respiratory organs. In many aquatic amphibians, however, multiple modes of gas exchange exist, allowing for the partitioning of O[subscript 2] uptake and CO[subscript 2] excretion between respiratory organs with different efficiencies. For example, due to…

  15. Risk factors for transient dysfunction of gas exchange after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Cristiane Delgado Alves; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Lima, Núbia Maria Freire Vieira; de Figueirêdo, Luciana Castilho; Falcão, Antônio Luis Eiras; Petrucci, Orlando; Dragosavac, Desanka

    2015-01-01

    Objective A retrospective cohort study was preformed aiming to verify the presence of transient dysfunction of gas exchange in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and determine if this disorder is linked to cardiorespiratory events. Methods We included 942 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery and cardiac procedures who were referred to the Intensive Care Unit between June 2007 and November 2011. Results Fifteen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (2%), 199 (27.75%) had mild transient dysfunction of gas exchange, 402 (56.1%) had moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange, and 39 (5.4%) had severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange. Hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the emergence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange postoperatively (P=0.02 and P=0.019, respectively) and were risk factors for this dysfunction (P=0.0023 and P=0.0017, respectively). Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.03). Pneumonia was present in 8.9% of cases and correlated with the presence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.001). Severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange was associated with patients who had renal replacement therapy (P=0.0005), hemotherapy (P=0.0001), enteral nutrition (P=0.0012), or cardiac arrhythmia (P=0.0451). Conclusion Preoperative hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the occurrence of postoperative transient dysfunction of gas exchange. The preoperative risk factors included hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and diabetes. Postoperatively, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, renal replacement therapy, hemotherapy, and cardiac arrhythmia were associated with the appearance of some degree of transient dysfunction of gas exchange, which was a risk factor for reintubation, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal replacement therapy in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and cardiac

  16. Automatable Measurement of Gas Exchange Rate in Streams: Oxygen-Carbon Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, R.; Haggerty, R.; Argerich, A.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Gas exchange rates between streams and the atmosphere are critically important to measurement of in-stream ecologic processes, as well as fate and transport of hazardous pollutants such as mercury and PCBs. Methods to estimate gas exchange rates include empirical relations to hydraulics, and direct injection of a tracer gas such as propane or SF6. Empirical relations are inconsistent and inaccurate, particularly for lower order, high-roughness streams. Gas injections are labor-intensive, and measured gas exchange rates are difficult to extrapolate in time since they change with discharge and stream geometry. We propose a novel method for calculation of gas exchange rates utilizing O2, pCO2, pH, and temperature data. Measurements, which can be automated using data loggers and probes, are made on the upstream and downstream end of the study reach. Gas exchange rates are then calculated from a solution to the transport equations for oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon. Field tests in steep, low order, high roughness streams of the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest indicate the method to be viable along stream reaches with high downstream gas concentration gradients and high rates of gas transfer velocity. Automated and continuous collection of oxygen and carbonate chemistry data is increasingly common, thus the method may be used to estimate gas exchange rates through time, and is well suited for interactivity with databases.

  17. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Woods, H Arthur; Smith, Jennifer N

    2010-05-01

    For terrestrial animals and plants, a fundamental cost of living is water vapor lost to the atmosphere during exchange of metabolic gases. Here, by bringing together previously developed models for specific taxa, we integrate properties common to all terrestrial gas exchangers into a universal model of water loss. The model predicts that water loss scales to gas exchange with an exponent of 1 and that the amount of water lost per unit of gas exchanged depends on several factors: the surface temperature of the respiratory system near the outside of the organism, the gas consumed (oxygen or carbon dioxide), the steepness of the gradients for gas and vapor, and the transport mode (convective or diffusive). Model predictions were largely confirmed by data on 202 species in five taxa--insects, birds, bird eggs, mammals, and plants--spanning nine orders of magnitude in rate of gas exchange. Discrepancies between model predictions and data seemed to arise from biologically interesting violations of model assumptions, which emphasizes how poorly we understand gas exchange in some taxa. The universal model provides a unified conceptual framework for analyzing exchange-associated water losses across taxa with radically different metabolic and exchange systems.

  18. Long-term gas exchange characteristics as markers of deterioration in patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) the architecture of the developing lungs and the ventilation of lung units are progressively affected, influencing intrapulmonary gas mixing and gas exchange. We examined the long-term course of blood gas measurements in relation to characteristics of lung function and the influence of different CFTR genotype upon this process. Methods Serial annual measurements of PaO2 and PaCO2 assessed in relation to lung function, providing functional residual capacity (FRCpleth), lung clearance index (LCI), trapped gas (VTG), airway resistance (sReff), and forced expiratory indices (FEV1, FEF50), were collected in 178 children (88 males; 90 females) with CF, over an age range of 5 to 18 years. Linear mixed model analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to define predominant lung function parameters influencing oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. Results PaO2 decreased linearly from age 5 to 18 years, and was mainly associated with FRCpleth, (p < 0.0001), FEV1 (p < 0.001), FEF50 (p < 0.002), and LCI (p < 0.002), indicating that oxygenation was associated with the degree of pulmonary hyperinflation, ventilation inhomogeneities and impeded airway function. PaCO2 showed a transitory phase of low PaCO2 values, mainly during the age range of 5 to 12 years. Both PaO2 and PaCO2 presented with different progression slopes within specific CFTR genotypes. Conclusion In the long-term evaluation of gas exchange characteristics, an association with different lung function patterns was found and was closely related to specific genotypes. Early examination of blood gases may reveal hypocarbia, presumably reflecting compensatory mechanisms to improve oxygenation. PMID:19909502

  19. Ethylene directly inhibits foliar gas exchange in Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, C.A.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Gas exchange of individual attached leaves of soybean, Glycine max (L,) Merr cv Davis, was monitored during exposure to exogenous ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) to test the hypothesis that the effects of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on net photosynthesis (P{sub n}) and stomatal conductance to H{sub 2}O{sub 4} vapor (g{sub s}) are direct and not mediated by changes in leaf orientation to light. Leaflets were held perpendicular to incident light in a temperature-controlled cuvette throughout a 5.5 hour exposure to 10 microliters per liter C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Declines in both P{sub N} and g{sub s} were evident within 2 hours and became more pronounced throughout the exposure period. In C{sub 2}H{sub 4} treated plants, P{sub N} and g{sub s} decreased to 80 and 62%, respectively, of the rates in control plants. Because epinastic movement of the leaflets was prohibited by the cuvette, the observed declines in P{sub N} and g{sub s} were a direct effect of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} rather than the result of reduced light interception caused by changing leaf angle.

  20. Gas circulation and mass exchange between animal and plant units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Hu, Enzhu

    To investigate the gas circulation and mass exchange relations among animal, plant and other biological units in the bioregenarative life support system, a closed cultivating system consisting of animal breeding chamber and plant growing chamber was established. This facility is 1.4 m high with the bottom area measuring 1.4 m X 0.8 m. In the animal chamber, silkworms in the multistage instars from the first instar to the third day in the fifth instar were bred; in the plant chamber, lettuce with sharp leaves were grown in a staggered manner. After transferring the silkworms in different instars hatched in the artificial climate box proportionally, utilizing mulberry leaves supplied from the outside of the closed cultivating system to feed the silkworms from the first instar to the third instar; fed the silkworms after the third instar to the third day in the fifth instar with the lettuce leaves grown in the closed facility, meanwhile, took out silkworms' excretion whose amount was in proportion to that of the mulberry leaves input into the facility. Furthermore, the silkworms on the third day in the fifth instar were took out to provide animal protein with high quality for astronauts at certain intervals and the next batch of the silkworms in the first instar were put into the animal chamber. In this cultivating process, the O2 cycle period and CO2 concentration change were investigated, moreover, the transfer and transforming ways of carbon and other elements were determined.

  1. Ethylene Directly Inhibits Foliar Gas Exchange in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, C A; Taylor, G E

    1991-01-01

    Gas exchange of individual attached leaves of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr cv Davis, was monitored during exposure to exogenous ethylene (C(2)H(4)) to test the hypothesis that the effects of C(2)H(4) on net photosynthesis (P(N)) and stomatal conductance to H(2)O vapor (g(s)) are direct and not mediated by changes in leaf orientation to light. Leaflets were held perpendicular to incident light in a temperature-controlled cuvette throughout a 5.5 hour exposure to 10 microliters per liter C(2)H(4). Declines in both P(N) and g(s) were evident within 2 hours and became more pronounced throughout the exposure period. In C(2)H(4) treated plants, P(N) and g(s) decreased to 80 and 62%, respectively, of the rates in control plants. Because epinastic movement of the leaflets was prohibited by the cuvette, the observed declines in P(N) and g(s) were a direct effect of C(2)H(4) rather than the result of reduced light interception caused by changing leaf angle.

  2. BOREAS TE-4 Gas Exchange Data from Boreal Tree Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Collatz, G. James; Berry, Joseph A.; Gamon, John; Fredeen, Art; Fu, Wei

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-4 team collected steady-state gas exchange and reflectance data from several species in the BOREAS SSA during 1994 and in the NSA during 1996. Measurements of light, CO2, temperature, and humidity response curves were made by the BOREAS TE-4 team during the summers of 1994 and 1996 using intact attached leaves of boreal forest species located in the BOREAS SSA and NSA. These measurements were conducted to calibrate models used to predict photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration. The 1994 and 1996 data can be used to construct plots of response functions or for parameterizing models. Parameter values are suitable for application in SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model of Collatz et al. (1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. Regulation and acclimation of leaf gas exchange in a piñon-juniper woodland exposed to three different precipitation regimes.

    PubMed

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Bickford, Christopher P; Dickman, Lee T; Pangle, Robert E; Hudson, Patrick J; Boutz, Amanda L; Gehres, Nathan; Osuna, Jessica L; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2013-10-01

    Leaf gas-exchange regulation plays a central role in the ability of trees to survive drought, but forecasting the future response of gas exchange to prolonged drought is hampered by our lack of knowledge regarding potential acclimation. To investigate whether leaf gas-exchange rates and sensitivity to drought acclimate to precipitation regimes, we measured the seasonal variations of leaf gas exchange in a mature piñon-juniper Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma woodland after 3 years of precipitation manipulation. We compared trees receiving ambient precipitation with those in an irrigated treatment (+30% of ambient precipitation) and a partial rainfall exclusion (-45%). Treatments significantly affected leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis for both isohydric piñon and anisohydric juniper. Leaf gas exchange acclimated to the precipitation regimes in both species. Maximum gas-exchange rates under well-watered conditions, leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf water potential at zero photosynthetic assimilation all decreased with decreasing precipitation. Despite their distinct drought resistance and stomatal regulation strategies, both species experienced hydraulic limitation on leaf gas exchange when precipitation decreased, leading to an intraspecific trade-off between maximum photosynthetic assimilation and resistance of photosynthesis to drought. This response will be most detrimental to the carbon balance of piñon under predicted increases in aridity in the southwestern USA.

  4. Observations on gas exchange and element recycle within a gas-closed algal-mouse system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, D. T.; Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Averner, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Algae are potentially useful for a variety of Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) functions including the revitalization of atmospheres, production of food and for nitrogen fixation. The results of experiments conducted with a gas-closed algal-mouse system designed to investigate gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions, and the ability of algae to utilize oxidized mouse solid waste are reported. Inherent instabilities exist between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) by the mouse and algae in a gas-closed system. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable short-term steady-state concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations were examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system.

  5. Flue gas carbon dioxide sequestration during water softening with ion-exchange fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Greenleaf, J.E.; SenGupta, A.K.

    2009-06-15

    This study examines the use of ion-exchange fibers (IX fibers) to permanently sequester carbon dioxide present in flue gas into an aqueous phase as calcium or magnesium alkalinity while concurrently softening hard water. The only process inputs besides carbon dioxide (or flue gas) are snowmelt (or rainwater); no other chemicals are required for the regeneration of the IX fibers. Importantly, the process is not energy intensive and carbon dioxide does not need to be compressed to excessive pressures (>150 psi) for efficient use. Sources of carbon dioxide do not require concentration and, therefore, the use of raw flue gas (similar to 17% CO{sub 2}) is feasible with the rate of sequestration governed only by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. While valid for flue gas obtained from any combustion process (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), emissions from oil or gas combustion may be more appropriate for use in the described process due to the absence of mercury and particulates. It should also be noted that the presence of sulfur dioxide in flue gas would not adversely affect the process and may even enhance regeneration efficiency. The only product of the proposed process is an environmentally benign regenerant stream containing calcium and/or magnesium alkalinity. The unique property of IX fibers that makes the proposed process both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible is amenability to efficient regeneration with carbon dioxide and harvested snowmelt. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason why IX fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration using snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide; 95% calcium recovery was attained at a CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 6.8 atm. The energy balance for a typical electric utility shows that up to 1% of carbon dioxide emitted during combustion would be sequestered in the softening process.

  6. Estimating Riverine Air-Water Gas Exchange and Metabolism from Long Oxygen Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R. O., Jr.; Appling, A.; Yackulic, C. B.; Arroita, M.

    2015-12-01

    To accurately depict the role of streams and rivers in carbon cycling requires estimating air- water gas exchange, productivity, and respiration. It is possible to estimate gas exchange and metabolism (gross primary production and ecosystem respiration) simultaneously from oxygen data themselves, but estimates from any single day often contain a substantial (and unknown) amount of parameter error. Here we developed a statistical method to leverage the extra information in a long time series to better estimate daily rates of gas exchange and metabolism. Such time series are ubiquitous in water quality monitoring programs, and these data are readily available over broad spatial scales. We developed a hierarchical model that estimates gas exchange as a function of discharge for a year-long time series of dissolved oxygen data. Gas exchange, and therefore metabolism, had much lower temporal variability than if we estimated parameters on separate days. Rates of gas exchange were positively related with discharge, but the relationship was river specific and often nonlinear. Our approach provides a robust means to estimate gas exchange and metabolism from the many rivers that have oxygen time series collected as part of water quality monitoring.

  7. Quantifying air-sea gas exchange using noble gases in a coastal upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. C.; Stanley, R. H. R.; Nicholson, D. P.; Squibb, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    The diffusive and bubble-mediated components of air-sea gas exchange can be quantified separately using time-series measurements of a suite of dissolved inert gases. We have evaluated the performance of four published air-sea gas exchange parameterizations using a five-day time-series of dissolved He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe concentration in Monterey Bay, CA. We constructed a vertical model including surface air-sea gas exchange and vertical diffusion. Diffusivity was measured throughout the cruise from profiles of turbulent microstructure. We corrected the mixed layer gas concentrations for an upwelling event that occurred partway through the cruise. All tested parameterizations gave similar results for Ar, Kr, and Xe; their air-sea fluxes were dominated by diffusive gas exchange during our study. For He and Ne, which are less soluble, and therefore more sensitive to differences in the treatment of bubble-mediated exchange, the parameterizations gave widely different results with respect to the net gas exchange flux and the bubble flux. This study demonstrates the value of using a suite of inert gases, especially the lower solubility ones, to parameterize air-sea gas exchange.

  8. The effect of wind and currents on gas exchange in an estuarine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, W. S.; Ledwell, J. R.; Bopp, R.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives were to develop a non-volatile tracer to use in gas exchange experiments in laterally unconfined systems and to study applications of deliberate tracers in limnology and oceanography. Progress was made on both fronts but work on the development of the non-volatile tracer proved to be more difficult and labor intensive that anticipated so no field experiments using non-volatile tracers was performed as yet. In the search for a suitable non-volatile tracer for an ocean scale gas exchange experiment a tracer was discovered which does not have the required sensitivity for a large scale experiment, but is very easy to analyze and will be well suited for smaller experiments such as gas exchange determinations on rivers and streams. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, was used successfully as a volatile tracer along with tritium as a non-volatile tracer to study gas exchange rates from a primary stream. This is the first gas exchange experiment in which gas exchange rates were determined on a head water stream where significant groundwater input occurs along the reach. In conjunction with SF6, Radon-222 measurements were performed on the groundwater and in the stream. The feasibility of using a combination of SF6 and radon is being studied to determine groundwater inputs and gas exchange of rates in streams with significant groundwater input without using a non-volatile tracer.

  9. Leaf gas exchange in the frankincense tree (Boswellia papyrifera) of African dry woodlands.

    PubMed

    Mengistu, Tefera; Sterck, Frank J; Fetene, Masresha; Tadesse, Wubalem; Bongers, Frans

    2011-07-01

    A conceptual model was tested for explaining environmental and physiological effects on leaf gas exchange in the deciduous dry tropical woodland tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. For this species we aimed at (i) understanding diurnal patterns in leaf gas exchange, (ii) exploring cause-effect relationships among external environment, internal physiology and leaf gas exchange, and (iii) exploring site differences in leaf gas exchange in response to environmental variables. Diurnal courses in gas exchange, underlying physiological traits and environmental variables were measured for 90 trees on consecutive days at two contrasting areas, one at high and the other at low altitude. Assimilation was highest in the morning and slightly decreased during the day. In contrast, transpiration increased from early morning to midday, mainly in response to an increasing vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and gradual stomatal closure. The leaf water potential varied relatively little and did not influence gas exchange during the measurement period. Our results suggest that the same cause-effect relationships function at contrasting areas. However, leaves at the higher altitude had higher photosynthetic capacity, reflecting acclimation to higher light levels. Trees at both areas nevertheless achieved similar leaf assimilation rates since assimilation was down-regulated by stomatal closure due to the higher VPD at the higher altitude, while it became more light limited at the lower altitude. Gas exchange was thus limited by a high VPD or low light levels during the wet season, despite the ability of the species to acclimate to different conditions.

  10. Gas exchange-wind speed relation measured with sulfur hexafluoride on a lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, R.; Broecker, W. S.; Ledwell, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-exchange processes control the uptake and release of various gases in natural systems such as oceans, rivers, and lakes. Not much is known about the effect of wind speed on gas exchange in such systems. In the experiment described here, sulfur hexafluoride was dissolved in lake water, and the rate of escape of the gas with wind speed (at wind speeds up to 6 meters per second) was determined over a 1-month period. A sharp change in the wind speed dependence of the gas-exchange coefficient was found at wind speeds of about 2.4 meters per second, in agreement with the results of wind-tunnel studies. However the gas-exchange coefficients at wind speeds above 3 meters per second were smaller than those observed in wind tunnels and are in agreement with earlier lake and ocean results.

  11. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have reported that stomata regulate leaf gas-exchange around &ldq...

  12. Atmospheric dust accumulation on native and non-native species: effects on gas exchange parameters.

    PubMed

    González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E; Piacentini, Ruben D

    2014-05-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to atmospheric particulate matter (dust), and their leaves are the main receptors of deposited dust. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dust deposition on leaf gas exchange parameters of 17 native and non-native tree and shrub species growing in Gran San Miguel de Tucumán in northwestern Argentina. Maximum assimilation rate (), stomatal conductance (), transpiration rate (), internal CO concentration (), and instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE) were measured in cleaned leaves (CL) and dusted leaves (DL) of different species on November 2010, July 2011, and September 2011. In almost all studied species, gas exchange parameters were significantly affected by dust deposition. Values for , , and of DL were significantly reduced in 11, 12, and 14 species compared with CL. Morphological leaf traits seem to be related to reduction. Indeed, L. and (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. species with pubescent leaves and thick ribs showed the highest reduction percentages. Contrarily, and WUE were increased in DL but were less responsive to dust deposition than other parameters. Increases of and WUE were significant in 5 and 11 species, respectively. Correlation analyses between /, /, and / pairs showed significant positive linear correlations in CL and DL of many studied species, including small and tall plants. These results suggest that leaf stomatal factors and shade-induced effect by accumulated dust are primarily responsible for the observed reductions in photosynthesis rate of DL.

  13. Gas-dynamics characteristics of wave energy exchanger as high-temperature preheater-compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Zubatov, N.

    1983-12-01

    In the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion and high-temperature steel production technological processes the air preheater is an essential component. It preheats the air used in fuel combustion, so that the flame temperature can reach the high levels required by the process. Many studies have indicated that air preheat temperature significantly affects MHD plant efficiency and blast-furnace performance. Combustion air preheating can be accomplished by either of two methods. One method (MHD power plant) utilizes the heat energy of the MHD generator exhaust gas directly. In this case, the preheater, classified as directly-fired, is located in the MHD generator exhaust gas stream as part of the bottoming plant. The alternate method of preheating the combustion air (blast-furnace systems) utilizes a separate heat source and fires the preheater with a clean fuel. This type of preheater is classified as indirectly-fired. The regenerative heat exchangers are used for both methods to achieve the high air preheat temperature required for combustion. Such heat exchangers operate on the principle of transferring heat through a separating medium that is heated for a time by a hot fluid, then cooled by a fluid of lower temperature. The preheater system requires several regenerators, arranged in parallel and with switchover valves, in order to deliver a continuous flow of preheated air.

  14. Effect of posture on regional gas exchange in pigs.

    PubMed

    Altemeier, William A; McKinney, Steve; Krueger, Melissa; Glenny, Robb W

    2004-12-01

    Although recent high-resolution studies demonstrate the importance of nongravitational determinants for both pulmonary blood flow and ventilation distributions, posture has a clear impact on whole lung gas exchange. Deterioration in arterial oxygenation with repositioning from prone to supine posture is caused by increased heterogeneity in the distribution of ventilation-to-perfusion ratios. This can result from increased heterogeneity in regional blood flow distribution, increased heterogeneity in regional ventilation distribution, decreased correlation between regional blood flow and ventilation, or some combination of the above (Wilson TA and Beck KC, J Appl Physiol 72: 2298-2304, 1992). We hypothesize that, although repositioning from prone to supine has relatively small effects on overall blood flow and ventilation distributions, regional changes are poorly correlated, resulting in regional ventilation-perfusion mismatch and reduction in alveolar oxygen tension. We report ventilation and perfusion distributions in seven anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs measured with aerosolized and injected microspheres. Total contributions of pulmonary structure and posture on ventilation and perfusion heterogeneities were quantified by using analysis of variance. Regional gradients of posture-mediated change in ventilation, perfusion, and calculated alveolar oxygen tension were examined in the caudocranial and ventrodorsal directions. We found that pulmonary structure was responsible for 74.0 +/- 4.7% of total ventilation heterogeneity and 63.3 +/- 4.2% of total blood flow heterogeneity. Posture-mediated redistribution was primarily oriented along the caudocranial axis for ventilation and along the ventrodorsal axis for blood flow. These mismatched changes reduced alveolar oxygen tension primarily in the dorsocaudal lung region. PMID:15298981

  15. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory J.; Strange, Jeremy; Jennings, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system s liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS), but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.57 lb. Performance of the heat exchanger met the requirements and the model predictions. The water side and gas side pressure drops were less 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively, and an effectiveness of 94% was measured at the nominal air side pressure of 4.1 psia.

  16. Breathing hypoxic gas affects the physiology as well as the diving behaviour of tufted ducks.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Butler, Patrick J; Woakes, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    We measured the effects of exposure to hypoxia (15% and 11% oxygen) and hypercapnia (up to 4.5% carbon dioxide) on rates of respiratory gas exchange both between and during dives in tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula, to investigate to what extent these may explain changes in diving behaviour. As found in previous studies, the ducks decreased dive duration (t(d)) and increased surface duration when diving from a hypoxic or hypercapnic gas mix. In the hypercapnic conditions, oxygen consumption during the dive cycle was not affected. Oxygen uptake between dives was reduced by only 17% when breathing a hypoxic gas mix of 11% oxygen. However, estimates of the rate of oxygen metabolism during the foraging periods of dives decreased nearly threefold in 11% oxygen. Given that tufted ducks normally dive well within their aerobic dive limits and that they significantly reduced their t(d) during hypoxia, it is not at all clear why they make this physiological adjustment. PMID:15778946

  17. Pulmonary and cutaneous O₂gas exchange: a student laboratory exercise in the frog.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Currie, Suzanne; LeBlanc, Danielle M

    2013-03-01

    Gas exchange in animals is ultimately diffusion based, generally occurring across dedicated respiratory organs. In many aquatic amphibians, however, multiple modes of gas exchange exist, allowing for the partitioning of O2 uptake and CO2 excretion between respiratory organs with different efficiencies. For example, due to the physical properties of O2 being vastly different between air and water phases, the lung and skin play disproportionately important roles in O2 uptake. Many aquatic frogs are renowned for their cutaneous gas exchange capacity, where often the majority of CO2 is excreted across the skin. Furthermore, the roles of these gas exchange organs change with the animal's behavior. Under diving conditions, most of the frog's gas exchange needs must be met by the skin. In this article, we describe an interactive undergraduate laboratory that allows a class of students to share equipment while assessing pulmonary and cutaneous respiration in frogs provided with an air/water choice and under enforced dive conditions. Concepts explored in this laboratory exercise include animal energetics, diving reflex, pulmonary and cutaneous gas exchange processes, diffusion-based gas flux, and O2 debt.

  18. Mother-Toddler Affect Exchanges and Children's Mastery Behaviours during Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jun; Morgan, George A.; Biringen, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relations of mother-child affect exchanges at 18?months with children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Observation and questionnaire data were collected from mother-child dyads when children were 18?months; 43 mothers again rated their children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Results suggested…

  19. The Relationships between Clan Culture, Leader-Member Exchange, and Affective Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Emily Carter

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities face the challenge of transitioning to a scheme of funding based on student retention and graduation rates, it is imperative that all variables that can effect enrollment be considered. This study focused on the relationships between clan culture, leader-member exchange, and affective organizational commitment.…

  20. Discontinuous gas exchange exhibition is a heritable trait in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, N G; Matthews, P G D; White, C R

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of insect respiratory gas exchange has long been an area of interest. In particular, the reason why insects from at least five orders exhibit patterns of gas exchange that include regular periods of spiracular closure has been the source of much controversy. Three adaptive hypotheses propose that these discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGCs) evolved to either limit water loss across respiratory surfaces, facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. It is possible that DGCs evolved independently multiple times and for different reasons, but for DGCs to be a plausible target for natural selection, they must be heritable and confer a fitness benefit. In a previous study of cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, we demonstrated that DGCs are repeatable and extend survival under food and water restriction. Here, we show for the first time that DGCs are heritable, suggesting that they are a plausible target for natural selection.

  1. [Prone position: effect on gas exchange and functional capacity for exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Bastidas-L, Andrea Carolina; Colina-Chourio, José A; Guevara, Jesnel M; Nunez, Alexis

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate gas exchange and cardiopulmonary functional behavior in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) before, during and after the change to a prone position. Thirty patients with PH and alterations in gas exchange were included in the study. Gas exchange measurements were performed in four stages: at the baseline supine position and after 30, 120 and 240 minutes in prone position. Also, the patients were evaluated by the six minutes walking test (6MWT) after 30 days in prone position during night's sleep. After four hours in prone position, all patients showed an increase of PaO2 and arterial saturation of oxygen (SaO2), with a decrease of intrapulmonary shunts, improving the gas exchange and therefore the physiological demand imposed by exercise in patients with PH. PMID:25920183

  2. Tuning a High Transmission Ion Guide to Prevent Gas-Phase Proton Exchange During H/D Exchange MS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttman, Miklos; Wales, Thomas E.; Whittington, Dale; Engen, John R.; Brown, Jeffery M.; Lee, Kelly K.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for protein structural analysis has been adopted for many purposes, including biopharmaceutical development. One of the benefits of examining amide proton exchange by mass spectrometry is that it can readily resolve different exchange regimes, as evidenced by either binomial or bimodal isotope patterns. By careful analysis of the isotope pattern during exchange, more insight can be obtained on protein behavior in solution. However, one must be sure that any observed bimodal isotope patterns are not artifacts of analysis and are reflective of the true behavior in solution. Sample carryover and certain stationary phases are known as potential sources of bimodal artifacts. Here, we describe an additional undocumented source of deuterium loss resulting in artificial bimodal patterns for certain highly charged peptides. We demonstrate that this phenomenon is predominantly due to gas-phase proton exchange between peptides and bulk solvent within the initial stages of high-transmission conjoined ion guides. Minor adjustments of the ion guide settings, as reported here, eliminate the phenomenon without sacrificing signal intensity. Such gas-phase deuterium loss should be appreciated for all HDX-MS studies using such ion optics, even for routine studies not focused on interpreting bimodal spectra.

  3. Exchange interaction and oscillations of the magnetization of the electron gas in a quantum cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Eminov, P. A. Sezonov, Yu. I.; Al'pern, A. V.; Sal'nikov, N. V.

    2006-10-15

    The exchange energy of the electron gas on a cylindrical surface in a constant magnetic field has been calculated. Analytical formulas describing the contribution of the exchange interaction into oscillations of the magnetization of the electron gas in a quantum cylinder have been obtained. It is shown that the magnetic response of the system exhibits Aharonov-Bohm oscillations for both degenerate and Boltzmann electron gases.

  4. The effects of dobutamine and dopamine on intrapulmonary shunt and gas exchange in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Tracey L.; van Diepen, Sean; Bhutani, Mohit; Shanks, Miriam; Welsh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of intrapulmonary shunts with increased cardiac output during exercise in healthy humans has been reported in several recent studies, but mechanisms governing their recruitment remain unclear. Dobutamine and dopamine are inotropes commonly used to augment cardiac output; however, both can increase venous admixture/shunt fraction (Qs/Qt). It is possible that, as with exercise, intrapulmonary shunts are recruited with increased cardiac output during dobutamine and/or dopamine infusion that may contribute to the observed increase in Qs/Qt. The purpose of this study was to examine how dobutamine and dopamine affect intrapulmonary shunt and gas exchange. Nine resting healthy subjects received serial infusions of dobutamine and dopamine at incremental doses under normoxic and hyperoxic (inspired O2 fraction = 1.0) conditions. At each step, alveolar-to-arterial Po2 difference (A-aDo2) and Qs/Qt were calculated from arterial blood gas samples, intrapulmonary shunt was evaluated using contrast echocardiography, and cardiac output was calculated by Doppler echocardiography. Both dobutamine and dopamine increased cardiac output and Qs/Qt. Intrapulmonary shunt developed in most subjects with both drugs and paralleled the increase in Qs/Qt. A-aDo2 was unchanged due to a concurrent rise in mixed venous oxygen content. Hyperoxia consistently eliminated intrapulmonary shunt. These findings contribute to our present understanding of the mechanisms governing recruitment of these intrapulmonary shunts as well as their impact on gas exchange. In addition, given the deleterious effect on Qs/Qt and the risk of neurological complications with intrapulmonary shunts, these findings could have important implications for use of dobutamine and dopamine in the clinical setting. PMID:22700799

  5. Noninvasive detection of gas exchange rate by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guodong; Mao, Zongzhen; Wang, Bangde

    2008-12-01

    In order to study the relationship among the oxygen concentration in skeletal muscle tissues and the heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during incremental running exercises on a treadmill, a near-infrared spectroscopy muscle oxygen monitor system is employed to measure the relative change in muscle oxygenation, with the heart rate, oxygen uptake, production of carbon dioxide (VCO2) and respiratory exchange ratio are recorded synchronously. The results indicate parameters mentioned above present regular changes during the incremental exercise. High correlations are discovered between relative change of oxy-hemoglobin concentration and heart rate, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio at the significance level (P=0.01). This research might introduce a new measurement technology and/or a novel biological monitoring parameter to the evaluation of physical function status, control the training intensity, estimation of the effectiveness of exercise. Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; muscle oxygen concentration; heart rate; oxygen uptake; respiratory exchange ratio.

  6. Lake-Atmosphere Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Relation to Atmospheric Forcing and Water Clarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiskanen, J. J.; Ojala, A.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, T.

    2015-12-01

    Even though lakes cover only 2 % of the world's land surface, it has been estimated that lakes release about 10 % of the carbon fixed annually by the terrestrial ecosystems back to the atmosphere. A critical parameter in the gas exchange estimates is the gas transfer velocity (k), which is governed by turbulence. The aim of our study was to assess the current global CO2 evasion estimates from lakes to the atmosphere by comparing parameterizations for kand the significance of wind and heat flux to the gas transfer in small lakes. To improve future predictions of gas evasion from lakes, we focused on the changes in water clarity and how they affect water column physics and processes in the air-water interface. We studied a small boreal lake and used the eddy covariance (EC) method for the high precision data needed, and therefore also aimed to improve the EC methodology on lakes. The air-water gas transfer was related to both wind and heat loss during times of seasonal stratification, but only to wind during autumn overturn. When wind-induced thermocline tilting and resulting spatial variability in surface water CO2 concentrations was accounted for, average k derived from the measurements dropped from 6.0 cm h-1 to 5.2 cm h-1. This was still over twice the estimate (2.2 cm h-1) calculated with a widely used model for kin lakes suggesting that the global estimates of gas evasion from lakes might be underestimations. Water clarity was a significant parameter defining the thermal stratification of the lake: a change from clear to dark water would lead to shorter stratification period and lower water column temperatures in small lakes and therefore have significant impact on the lake-atmosphere exchange processes. Figure 1. The isotherms of Lake Kuivajärvi throughout the open-water period 2013. The top left are the measured temperatures and the others are modeled with LAKE model using fixed light extinction coefficient, Kd. The horizontal dashed black line represents

  7. Hydraulically actuated gas exchange valve assembly and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, Thomas S.; Taylor, Gregory O.

    2002-09-03

    An engine comprises a housing that defines a hollow piston cavity that is separated from a gas passage by a valve seat. The housing further defines a biasing hydraulic cavity and a control hydraulic cavity. A gas valve member is also included in the engine and is movable relative to the valve seat between an open position at which the hollow piston cavity is open to the gas passage and a closed position in which the hollow piston cavity is blocked from the gas passage. The gas valve member includes a ring mounted on a valve piece and a retainer positioned between the ring and the valve piece. A closing hydraulic surface is included on the gas valve member and is exposed to liquid pressure in the biasing hydraulic cavity.

  8. Respiratory dynamics of discontinuous gas exchange in the tracheal system of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Hetz, Stefan K; Chown, Steven L; Terblanche, John S

    2012-07-01

    Gas exchange dynamics in insects is of fundamental importance to understanding evolved variation in breathing patterns, such as discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). Most insects do not rely solely on diffusion for the exchange of respiratory gases but may also make use of respiratory movements (active ventilation) to supplement gas exchange at rest. However, their temporal dynamics have not been widely investigated. Here, intratracheal pressure, V(CO2) and body movements of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria were measured simultaneously during the DGC and revealed several important aspects of gas exchange dynamics. First, S. gregaria employs two different ventilatory strategies, one involving dorso-ventral contractions and the other longitudinal telescoping movements. Second, although a true spiracular closed (C)-phase of the DGC could be identified by means of subatmospheric intratracheal pressure recordings, some CO(2) continued to be released. Third, strong pumping actions do not necessarily lead to CO(2) release and could be used to ensure mixing of gases in the closed tracheal system, or enhance water vapour reabsorption into the haemolymph from fluid-filled tracheole tips by increasing the hydrostatic pressure or forcing fluid into the haemocoel. Finally, this work showed that the C-phase of the DGC can occur at any pressure. These results provide further insights into the mechanistic basis of insect gas exchange. PMID:22675191

  9. High effectiveness liquid droplet/gas heat exchanger for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Mattick, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    A high-effectiveness liquid droplet/gas heat exchanger (LDHX) concept for thermal management in space is described. Heat is transferred by direct contact between fine droplets (approx. 100 to 300 micron diameter) of a suitable low vapor pressure liquid and an inert working gas. Complete separation of the droplet and gas media in the zero-g environment is accomplished by configuring the LDHX as a vortex chamber. The large heat transfer area presented by the small droplets permits heat exchanger effectiveness of 0.9 to 0.95 in a compact, lightweight geometry which avoids many of the limitations of conventional plate and fin or tube and shell heat exchangers, such as their tendency toward single point failure. The application of the LDHX in a high temperature Bryaton cycle is discussed to illustrate the performance and operational characteristics of this heat exchanger concept.

  10. High effectiveness liquid droplet/gas heat exchanger for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Mattick, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    A high-effectiveness liquid droplet/gas heat exchanger (LDHX) concept for thermal management in space is described. Heat is transferred by direct contact between fine droplets (approximately 100-300 microns in diameter) of a suitable low vapor pressure liquid and an inert working gas. Complete separation of the droplet and gas media in the zero-g environment is accomplished by configuring the LDHX as a vortex chamber.The large heat transfer area presented by the small droplets permits heat exchanger effectiveness of 0.9-0.95 in a compact, lightweight geometry which avoids many of the limitations of conventional plate and fin or tube and shell heat exchangers, such as their tendency toward single point failure. The application of the LDHX in a high temperature Brayton cycle is discussed to illustrate the performance and operational characteristics of this new heat exchanger concept.

  11. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A. N.

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  12. Teaching Pulmonary Gas Exchange Physiology Using Computer Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapitan, Kent S.

    2008-01-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding the relationship of O[subscript 2] consumption, CO[subscript 2] production, cardiac output, and distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios in the lung to the final arterial blood gas composition. To overcome this difficulty, I have developed an interactive computer simulation of pulmonary gas exchange…

  13. Fundamental structural aspects and features in the bioengineering of the gas exchangers: comparative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Maina, J N

    2002-01-01

    Over its life, an organism's survival and success are determined by the inventory of vital adaptations that its progenitors have creatively appropriated, devised and harnessed along the evolutionary pathway. Such conserved attributes provide the armamentarium necessary for withstanding the adverse effects of natural selection. Refinements of the designs of the respiratory organs have been critical for survival and phylogenetic advancement of animal life. Gas exchangers have changed in direct response to the respiratory needs of whole organisms in different environmental states and conditions. Nowhere else is the dictum that in biology 'there are no rules but only necessities' more manifest than in the evolutionary biology of the gas exchangers. The constructions have been continually fashioned and refined to meet specific needs. Solutions to common respiratory needs have been typified by profound structural convergence. Over the evolutionary continuum, as shifts in environmental situations occurred, infinitely many designs should theoretically have emerged. Moreover, without specific selective pressures and preference for certain designs, considering that there are only two naturally occurring respirable fluid media (air and water), air-lungs, water-lungs, air-gills and water-gills would have formed to similar extents. Factors such as body size, phylogenetic level of development, respiratory medium utilized and habitats occupied have permutatively prescribed the design of the gas exchangers. The construction of the modern gas exchangers has eventuated through painstaking cost-benefit analysis. Trade-offs and compromises have decreed only a limited number of structurally feasible and functionally competent outcomes. The morphological congruity (analogy) of the gas exchangers indicates that similar selective pressures have compelled the designs. Solutions to metabolic demands for molecular O2 have only differed in details. Passive physical diffusion, for example, is

  14. The role of bubbles during air-sea gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Steven; Bushinsky, Seth

    2016-06-01

    The potential for using the air-sea exchange rate of oxygen as a tracer for net community biological production in the ocean is greatly enhanced by recent accuracy improvements for in situ measurements of oxygen on unmanned platforms. A limiting factor for determining the exchange process is evaluating the air-sea flux contributed by bubble processes produced by breaking waves, particularly during winter months under high winds. Highly accurate measurements of noble gases (Ne, Ar & Kr) and nitrogen, N2, in seawater are tracers of the importance of bubble process in the surface mixed layer. We use measured distributions of these gases in the ventilated thermocline of the North Pacific and an annual time series of N2 in the surface ocean of the NE Subarctic Pacific to evaluate four different air-water exchange models chosen to represent the range of model interpretation of bubble processes. We find that models must have an explicit bubble mechanism to reproduce concentrations of insoluble atmospheric gases, but there are periods when they all depart from observations. The recent model of Liang et al. (2013) stems from a highly resolved model of bubble plumes and categorizes bubble mechanisms into those that are small enough to collapse and larger ones that exchange gases before they resurface, both of which are necessary to explain the data.

  15. Extremely low flow tracheal gas insufflation of helium-oxygen mixture improves gas exchange in a rabbit model of piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to show the effects of the tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) technique on gas exchange using helium-oxygen mixtures during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). We hypothesized that a helium-oxygen mixture delivered into the trachea using the TGI technique (0.3 L/min) would enhance gas exchange during HFOV. Methods Three rabbits were prepared and ventilated by HFOV with carrier 70% helium/oxygen or 70% nitrogen/oxygen gas mixture with TGI in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen70% to helium70% and back was performed three times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Results Compared with the nitrogen-oxygen mixture, the helium-oxygen mixture of TGI reduced PaCO2 by 7.6 mmHg (p < 0.01) and improved PaO2 by 14 mmHg (p < 0.01). Amplitude during TGI was significantly lower with the helium-oxygen mixture than with the nitrogen-oxygen mixture (p < 0.01) and did not significantly affect mean airway pressure. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a helium-oxygen mixture delivered into the trachea using the TGI technique would enhance CO2 elimination and improve oxygenation during HFOV. PMID:23566050

  16. More than just CO2: Multiple trace gas exchange measurements at a temperate mountain grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Bamberger, Ines; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems exchange a large number of different trace gases to/from the atmosphere, however the vast majority of FLUXNET sites quantifies only the fluxes of carbon dioxide and when assessing the carbon or greenhouse gas balance neglect other carbon or greenhouse gas fluxes. This causes an overestimation of the role of carbon dioxid exchange for the ecosystem carbon and greenhouse gas balance, the magnitude of which is largely unconstrained Here we use the eddy covariance method (and variants thereof) with a large variety of analytical methods to quantify the exchange of multiple trace gases to/from a mountain grassland, partly for a time period of over a decade. The monitored trace gas fluxes cover: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and several volatile organic compounds. The main result of our study is that carbon dioxide is the major contributor to the gaseous carbon and greenhouse gas budget at this temperate mountain grassland, which however may be significantly modulated by other trace gases may, at least during some years. Differences between source and sink periods for the different trace gases and the underlying drivers are discussed and annual budgets, for some compounds covering multiple years up to decades, are presented. We conclude that multiple trace gas flux measurements help to elucidate the importance of the exchange of carbon dioxide for the ecosystem carbon and greenhouse gas budget.

  17. Discontinuous gas exchange, water loss, and metabolism in Protaetia cretica (Cetoniinae, Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    Insects are at high risk of desiccation because of their small size, high surface-area-to-volume ratio, and air-filled tracheal system that ramifies throughout their bodies to transport O(2) and CO(2) to and from respiring cells. Although the tracheal system offers a high-conductance pathway for the movement of respiratory gases, it has the unintended consequence of allowing respiratory transpiration to the atmosphere. When resting, many species exchange respiratory gases discontinuously, and an early hypothesis for the origin of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) is that they serve to reduce respiratory water loss. In this study, we test this "hygric" hypothesis by comparing rates of CO(2) exchange and water loss among flower beetles Protaetia cretica (Cetoniinae, Scarabaeidae) breathing either continuously or discontinuously. We show that, consistent with the expectations of the hygric hypothesis, rates of total water loss are higher during continuous gas exchange than during discontinuous gas exchange and that the ratio of respiratory water loss to CO(2) exchange is lower during discontinuous gas exchange. This conclusion is in agreement with other studies of beetles and cockroaches that also support the hygric hypothesis. However, this result does not exclude other adaptive hypotheses supported by work on ants and moth pupae. This ambiguity may arise because there are multiple independent evolutionary origins of DGCs and no single adaptive function underlying their genesis. Alternatively, the observed reduction in water loss during DGCs may be a side effect of a nonadaptive gas exchange pattern that is elicited during periods of inactivity.

  18. Discontinuous gas exchange, water loss, and metabolism in Protaetia cretica (Cetoniinae, Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    Insects are at high risk of desiccation because of their small size, high surface-area-to-volume ratio, and air-filled tracheal system that ramifies throughout their bodies to transport O(2) and CO(2) to and from respiring cells. Although the tracheal system offers a high-conductance pathway for the movement of respiratory gases, it has the unintended consequence of allowing respiratory transpiration to the atmosphere. When resting, many species exchange respiratory gases discontinuously, and an early hypothesis for the origin of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) is that they serve to reduce respiratory water loss. In this study, we test this "hygric" hypothesis by comparing rates of CO(2) exchange and water loss among flower beetles Protaetia cretica (Cetoniinae, Scarabaeidae) breathing either continuously or discontinuously. We show that, consistent with the expectations of the hygric hypothesis, rates of total water loss are higher during continuous gas exchange than during discontinuous gas exchange and that the ratio of respiratory water loss to CO(2) exchange is lower during discontinuous gas exchange. This conclusion is in agreement with other studies of beetles and cockroaches that also support the hygric hypothesis. However, this result does not exclude other adaptive hypotheses supported by work on ants and moth pupae. This ambiguity may arise because there are multiple independent evolutionary origins of DGCs and no single adaptive function underlying their genesis. Alternatively, the observed reduction in water loss during DGCs may be a side effect of a nonadaptive gas exchange pattern that is elicited during periods of inactivity. PMID:22418709

  19. Effects of hypobaria on parabronchial gas exchange in normoxic and hypoxic ducks.

    PubMed

    Shams, H; Scheid, P

    1993-03-01

    Cardio-respiratory parameters and air sac and blood gases were measured in the unrestrained, unanesthetized duck during exposure to normobaric (PB = 746 Torr) or hypobaric (PB = 253 Torr) normoxia (PIO2 = 143 Torr) and hypoxia (PIO2 = 41.5 Torr). Compared with normobaria at the same PIO2, hypobaria caused a statistically significant increase in ventilation during both normoxia and hypoxia, resulting in elevated PO2 and diminished PCO2 in the caudal thoracic and clavicular air sac, and in increased PaO2 and decreased PaCO2. Similarly, lactic acid production was elevated in hypobaria, and the resulting decrease in arterial pH may be responsible for the increase in ventilation. Despite these changes, there was no evidence for altered gas exchange efficiency during hypobaria. This suggests that no significant diffusion limitation is present in the air capillary gas phase in normobaria, that could have been diminished with hypobaria. It also suggests that the aerodynamic valving efficiency, present during inspiration at the level of the medioventral bronchi, is not affected by hypobaria. Although the mechanisms underlying the increased lactic acid production and ventilation are not understood, they may exert an advantageous effect on high altitude tolerance of the bird.

  20. A meta-analysis of leaf gas exchange and water status responses to drought.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weiming; Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be one of the most devastating natural hazards, and it is predicted to become increasingly frequent and severe in the future. Understanding the plant gas exchange and water status response to drought is very important with regard to future climate change. We conducted a meta-analysis based on studies of plants worldwide and aimed to determine the changes in gas exchange and water status under different drought intensities (mild, moderate and severe), different photosynthetic pathways (C3 and C4) and growth forms (herbs, shrubs, trees and lianas). Our results were as follows: 1) drought negatively impacted gas exchange and water status, and stomatal conductance (gs) decreased more than other physiological traits and declined to the greatest extent in shrubs and C3 plants. Furthermore, C4 plants had an advantage compared to C3 plants under the same drought conditions. 2) The decrease in gs mainly reduced the transpiration rate (Tr), and gs could explain 55% of the decrease in the photosynthesis (A) and 74% of the decline in Tr. 3). Finally, gas exchange showed a close relationship with the leaf water status. Our study provides comprehensive information about the changes in plant gas exchange and water status under drought. PMID:26868055

  1. A meta-analysis of leaf gas exchange and water status responses to drought

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Weiming; Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be one of the most devastating natural hazards, and it is predicted to become increasingly frequent and severe in the future. Understanding the plant gas exchange and water status response to drought is very important with regard to future climate change. We conducted a meta-analysis based on studies of plants worldwide and aimed to determine the changes in gas exchange and water status under different drought intensities (mild, moderate and severe), different photosynthetic pathways (C3 and C4) and growth forms (herbs, shrubs, trees and lianas). Our results were as follows: 1) drought negatively impacted gas exchange and water status, and stomatal conductance (gs) decreased more than other physiological traits and declined to the greatest extent in shrubs and C3 plants. Furthermore, C4 plants had an advantage compared to C3 plants under the same drought conditions. 2) The decrease in gs mainly reduced the transpiration rate (Tr), and gs could explain 55% of the decrease in the photosynthesis (A) and 74% of the decline in Tr. 3). Finally, gas exchange showed a close relationship with the leaf water status. Our study provides comprehensive information about the changes in plant gas exchange and water status under drought. PMID:26868055

  2. Evaluation of Fiber Bundle Rotation for Enhancing Gas Exchange in a Respiratory Assist Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Eash, Heide J.; Mihelc, Kevin M.; Frankowski, Brain J.; Hattler, Brack G.; Federspiel, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Supplemental oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal through an intravenous respiratory assist catheter can be used as a means of treating patients with acute respiratory failure. We are beginning development efforts toward a new respiratory assist catheter with an insertional size <25F, which can be inserted percutaneously. In this study, we evaluated fiber bundle rotation as an improved mechanism for active mixing and enhanced gas exchange in intravenous respiratory assist catheters. Using a simple test apparatus of a rotating densely packed bundle of hollow fiber membranes, water and blood gas exchange levels were evaluated at various rotation speeds in a mock vena cava. At 12,000 RPM, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates were 449 and 523 mL/min per m², water and blood, respectively, but the rate of increase with increasing rotation rate diminished beyond 7500 RPM. These levels of gas exchange efficiency are two‐ to threefold greater than achieved in our previous respiratory catheters using balloon pulsation for active mixing. In preliminary hemolysis tests, which monitored plasma‐free hemoglobin levels in vitro over a period of 6 hours, we established that the rotating fiber bundle per se did not cause significant blood hemolysis compared with an intra‐aortic balloon pump. Accordingly, fiber bundle rotation appears to be a potential mechanism for increasing gas exchange and reducing insertional size in respiratory catheters. PMID:17515731

  3. Leaf-level and whole-plant gas exchange characteristics of shortleaf pine exposed to ozone and simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Flagler, R B; Lock, J E; Elsik, C G

    1994-04-01

    Field-grown shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seedlings were exposed to ozone (O(3)) and simulated acid rain (SAR) in open-top chambers over three growing seasons. Ranges of O(3) and SAR spanned ambient levels found in the southern USA. Effects of O(3) on leaf-level and whole-plant gas exchange were characterized for a single measurement period immediately before the third summer of exposure. Decreased photosynthesis rates were attributed to O(3), but not SAR. Stomatal conductance decreased in response to O(3) exposure, and either increased or was unaffected by SAR. Increased internal CO(2) concentration (c(i)) in response to O(3) treatment indicated a greater effect of O(3) on photosynthetic capacity than stomatal conductance. Whole-seedling gas exchange characteristics indicated that whole-seedling carbon assimilation was more severely affected by O(3) than was evident from leaf-level gas exchange characteristics. Seedlings exposed to O(3) retained fewer flushes than seedlings grown in charcoal-filtered air.

  4. Effects of elastic loading and exercise on pulmonary gas exchange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chonan, T; Hida, W; Kikuchi, Y; Shindoh, C; Taguchi, O; Miki, H; Takishima, T

    1991-06-01

    We assessed the effects of negative intrathoracic pressure induced by inspiratory elastic loading on pulmonary, gas exchange with and without electrically induced hindlimb exercise in 8 normal, anesthetized dogs. Two elastic loads (EL) were used; one of 81 and one of 140 cmH2O/liter. These are equivalent to doubling and tripling the normal elastance of the dog's respiratory system, respectively. Elastic loading decreased ventilation and caused hypoxemia and hypercapnia, but it did not affect systemic arterial pressure or heart rate. During exercise, increase in ventilation was limited, whereas increase in cardiac output was not affected by elastic loading. Alveolar-arterial O2 tension difference (A-aDO2) was not changed significantly by exercise alone. However, elastic loading accompanied by exercise increased A-aDO2. Although comparable end-inspiratory pleural pressure was achieved with large EL (-29 +/- 2 cmH2O, mean +/- SE) and small EL with exercise (-30 +/- 2 cmH2O), the latter increased A-aDO2 whereas the former did not. Large negative intrapleural pressure combined with increased cardiac output may have caused transient interstitial edema.

  5. A simple, closed-form, mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Potkay, Joseph A

    2013-06-01

    Microfabrication techniques are attractive for constructing artificial lungs due to the ability to create features similar in size to those in the natural lung. However, a simple and intuitive mathematical model capable of accurately predicting the gas exchange performance of microchannel artificial lungs does not currently exist. Such a model is critical to understanding and optimizing these devices. Here, we describe a simple, closed-form mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs and qualify it through application to experimental data from several research groups. We utilize lumped parameters and several assumptions to obtain a closed-form set of equations that describe gas exchange. This work is intended to augment computational models by providing a more intuitive, albeit potentially less accurate, understanding of the operation and trade-offs inherent in microchannel artificial lung devices.

  6. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  7. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  8. Greenhouse gas exchange in tropical mountain ecosystems in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kikoti, Imani; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Tropical mountain ecosystems with their mostly immense biodiversity are important regions for natural resources but also for agricultural production. Their supportive ecosystem processes are particularly vulnerable to the combined impacts of global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes. Data of impacts of climate and land use change on soil-atmosphere interactions due to GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) exchange from these ecosystems are still scarce, in particular for Africa. Tropical forest soils are underestimated as sinks for atmospheric CH4 with regard to worldwide GHG budgets (Werner et al. 2007, J GEOPHYS RES Vol. 112). Even though these soils are an important source for the atmospheric N2O budget, N2O emissions from tropical forest ecosystems are still poorly characterized (Castaldi et al. 2013, Biogeosciences 10). To obtain an insight of GHG balances of selected ecosystems soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 was investigated along the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We will present results for tropical forests in three different altitudes (lower montane, Ocotea, and Podocarpus forest), home garden (extensive agro-forestry), and coffee plantation (intensive agro-forestry). Therefore we used a combined approach consisting of a laboratory parameterization experiment (3 temperature and 2 moisture levels) and in situ static chamber measurements for GHG exchange. Field measurements were conducted during different hygric seasons throughout two years. Seasonal variation of temperature and especially of soil moisture across the different ecosystems resulted in distinct differences in GHG exchange. In addition environmental parameters like soil bulk density and substrate availability varying in space strongly influenced the GHG fluxes within sites. The results from parameterization experiments and in situ measurements show that natural forest ecosystems and extensive land use had higher uptakes of CH4. For the investigated

  9. A computational model of insect discontinuous gas exchange: A two-sensor, control systems approach.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, Beverley J; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-01

    The insect gas exchange system is characterised by branching air-filled tubes (tracheae/tracheoles) and valve-like structures in their outer integument (spiracles) which allow for a periodic gas exchange pattern known as the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). The DGC facilitates the temporal decoupling of whole animal gas exchange from cellular respiration rates and may confer several physiological benefits, which are nevertheless highly controversial (primarily reduction of cellular oxidative damage and/or respiratory water saving). The intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing DGCs are the focus of extensive ongoing research and little consensus has been reached on the evolutionary genesis or mechanistic costs and benefits of the pattern. Despite several hypotheses and much experimental and evolutionary biology research, a mechanistic physical model, which captures various key elements of the DGC pattern, is currently lacking. Here, we present a biologically realistic computational, two-sensor DGC model (pH/carbon dioxide and oxygen setpoints) for an Orthopteran gas exchange system, and show computationally for the first time that a control system of two interacting feedback loops is capable of generating a full DGC pattern with outputs which are physiologically realistic, quantitatively matching experimental results found in this taxonomic model elsewhere. A finite-element mathematical approach is employed and various trigger sets are considered. Parameter sensitivity analyses suggest that various aspects of insect DGC are adequately captured in this model. In particular, with physiologically relevant input parameters, the full DGC pattern is induced; and the phase durations, endotracheal carbon dioxide partial pressure ranges, and pH fluctuations which arise are physically realistic. The model results support the emergent property hypothesis for the existence of DGC, and indicate that asymmetric loading and off-loading (hysteresis) in one of the sensor

  10. A computational model of insect discontinuous gas exchange: A two-sensor, control systems approach.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, Beverley J; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-01

    The insect gas exchange system is characterised by branching air-filled tubes (tracheae/tracheoles) and valve-like structures in their outer integument (spiracles) which allow for a periodic gas exchange pattern known as the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). The DGC facilitates the temporal decoupling of whole animal gas exchange from cellular respiration rates and may confer several physiological benefits, which are nevertheless highly controversial (primarily reduction of cellular oxidative damage and/or respiratory water saving). The intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing DGCs are the focus of extensive ongoing research and little consensus has been reached on the evolutionary genesis or mechanistic costs and benefits of the pattern. Despite several hypotheses and much experimental and evolutionary biology research, a mechanistic physical model, which captures various key elements of the DGC pattern, is currently lacking. Here, we present a biologically realistic computational, two-sensor DGC model (pH/carbon dioxide and oxygen setpoints) for an Orthopteran gas exchange system, and show computationally for the first time that a control system of two interacting feedback loops is capable of generating a full DGC pattern with outputs which are physiologically realistic, quantitatively matching experimental results found in this taxonomic model elsewhere. A finite-element mathematical approach is employed and various trigger sets are considered. Parameter sensitivity analyses suggest that various aspects of insect DGC are adequately captured in this model. In particular, with physiologically relevant input parameters, the full DGC pattern is induced; and the phase durations, endotracheal carbon dioxide partial pressure ranges, and pH fluctuations which arise are physically realistic. The model results support the emergent property hypothesis for the existence of DGC, and indicate that asymmetric loading and off-loading (hysteresis) in one of the sensor

  11. Gamma radiation effect on gas production in anion exchange resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traboulsi, A.; Labed, V.; Dauvois, V.; Dupuy, N.; Rebufa, C.

    2013-10-01

    Radiation-induced decomposition of Amberlite IRA400 anion exchange resin in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied at various doses in different atmospheres (anaerobic, anaerobic with liquid water, and aerobic). The effect of these parameters on the degradation of ion exchange resins is rarely investigated in the literature. We focused on the radiolysis gases produced by resin degradation. When the resin was irradiated under anaerobic conditions with liquid water, the liquid phase over the resin was also analyzed to identify any possible water-soluble products released by degradation of the resin. The main products released are trimethylamine (TMA), molecular hydrogen (H2g) and carbon dioxide (CO2g). TMA and H2g are produced in all the irradiation atmospheres. However, TMA was in gaseous form under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and in aqueous form in presence of liquid water. In the latter conditions, TMAaq was associated with aqueous dimethylamine (DMAaq), monomethylamine (MMAaq) and ammonia (NH). CO2g is formed in the presence of oxygen due to oxidation of organic compounds present in the system, in particular the degradation products such as TMAg.

  12. Heat exchanger design considerations for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.; Van Hagan, T.H.; King, J.H.; Spring, A.H.

    1980-02-01

    Various aspects of the high-temperature heat exchanger conceptual designs for the gas turbine (HTGR-GT) and process heat (HTGR-PH) plants are discussed. Topics include technology background, heat exchanger types, surface geometry, thermal sizing, performance, material selection, mechanical design, fabrication, and the systems-related impact of installation and integration of the units in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. The impact of future technology developments, such as the utilization of nonmetallic materials and advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction, is also discussed.

  13. Relationship between gas exchange, wind speed, and radar backscatter in a large wind-wave tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Richard H.; Bliven, L. F.

    1991-01-01

    The relationships between the gas exchange, wind speed, friction velocity, and radar backscatter from the water surface was investigated using data obtained in a large water tank in the Delft (Netherlands) wind-wave tunnel, filled with water supersaturated with SF6, N2O, and CH4. Results indicate that the gas-transfer velocities of these substances were related to the wind speed with a power law dependence. Microwave backscatter from water surface was found to be related to gas transfer velocities by a relationship in the form k(gas) = a 10 exp (b A0), where k is the gas transfer velocity for the particular gas, the values of a and b are obtained from a least squares fit of the average backscatter cross section and gas transfer at 80 m, and A0 is the directional (azimuthal) averaged return.

  14. Glyphosate effects on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of two Lolium perenne L. biotypes with differential herbicide sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yanniccari, Marcos; Tambussi, Eduardo; Istilart, Carolina; Castro, Ana María

    2012-08-01

    Despite the extensive use of glyphosate, how it alters the physiology and metabolism of plants is still unclear. Photosynthesis is not regarded to be a primary inhibitory target of glyphosate, but it has been reported to be affected by this herbicide. The aim of the current research was to determine the effects of glyphosate on the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis by comparing glyphosate-susceptible and glyphosate-resistant Lolium perenne biotypes. After glyphosate treatment, accumulation of reduced carbohydrates occurred before a decrease in gas exchange. Stomatal conductance and CO(2) assimilation were reduced earlier than chlorophyll fluorescence and the amount of chlorophyll in susceptible plants. In the glyphosate-resistant biotype, stomatal conductance was the only parameter slightly affected only 5 days post-application. In susceptible plants, the initial glyphosate effects on gas exchange could be a response to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Since the herbicide affects actively growing tissues regardless of the inhibition of photosynthesis, the demand of assimilates decreased and consequently induced an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves. We concluded that stomatal conductance could be a very sensitive parameter to assess both the susceptibility/resistance to glyphosate before the phytotoxic symptoms become evident.

  15. Microgravity does not alter plant stand gas exchange of wheat at moderate light levels and saturating CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Monje, O; Stutte, G; Chapman, D

    2005-10-01

    Plant stand gas exchange was measured nondestructively in microgravity during the Photosynthesis Experiment Subsystem Testing and Operations experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station. Rates of evapotranspiration and photosynthesis measured in space were compared with ground controls to determine if microgravity directly affects whole-stand gas exchange of Triticum aestivum. During six 21-day experiment cycles, evapotranspiration was determined continuously from water addition rates to the nutrient delivery system, and photosynthesis was determined from the amount of CO2 added to maintain the chamber CO2 concentration setpoint. Plant stand evapotranspiration, net photosynthesis, and water use efficiency were not altered by microgravity. Although leaf area was significantly reduced in microgravity-grown plants compared to ground control plants, leaf area distribution was not affected enough to cause significant differences in the amounts of light absorbed by the flight and ground control plant stands. Microgravity also did not affect the response of evapotranspiration to changes in chamber vapor pressure difference of 12-day-old wheat plant stands. These results suggest that gravity naïve plants grown at moderate light levels (300 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) behave the same as ground control plants. This implies that future plant-based regenerative life support systems can be sized using 1 g data because water purification and food production rates operate at nearly the same rates as in 1 g at moderate light levels. However, it remains to be verified whether the present results are reproducible in plants grown under stronger light levels.

  16. Effects of stomata clustering on leaf gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-09-01

    A general theoretical framework for quantifying the stomatal clustering effects on leaf gaseous diffusive conductance was developed and tested. The theory accounts for stomatal spacing and interactions among 'gaseous concentration shells'. The theory was tested using the unique measurements of Dow et al. (2014) that have shown lower leaf diffusive conductance for a genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana with clustered stomata relative to uniformly distributed stomata of similar size and density. The model accounts for gaseous diffusion: through stomatal pores; via concentration shells forming at pore apertures that vary with stomata spacing and are thus altered by clustering; and across the adjacent air boundary layer. Analytical approximations were derived and validated using a numerical model for 3D diffusion equation. Stomata clustering increases the interactions among concentration shells resulting in larger diffusive resistance that may reduce fluxes by 5-15%. A similar reduction in conductance was found for clusters formed by networks of veins. The study resolves ambiguities found in the literature concerning stomata end-corrections and stomatal shape, and provides a new stomata density threshold for diffusive interactions of overlapping vapor shells. The predicted reduction in gaseous exchange due to clustering, suggests that guard cell function is impaired, limiting stomatal aperture opening.

  17. Impaired gas exchange: accuracy of defining characteristics in children with acute respiratory infection1

    PubMed Central

    Pascoal, Lívia Maia; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Chaves, Daniel Bruno Resende; Beltrão, Beatriz Amorim; da Silva, Viviane Martins; Monteiro, Flávia Paula Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the accuracy of the defining characteristics of the Impaired gas exchange nursing diagnosis in children with acute respiratory infection. METHOD: open prospective cohort study conducted with 136 children monitored for a consecutive period of at least six days and not more than ten days. An instrument based on the defining characteristics of the Impaired gas exchange diagnosis and on literature addressing pulmonary assessment was used to collect data. The accuracy means of all the defining characteristics under study were computed. RESULTS: the Impaired gas exchange diagnosis was present in 42.6% of the children in the first assessment. Hypoxemia was the characteristic that presented the best measures of accuracy. Abnormal breathing presented high sensitivity, while restlessness, cyanosis, and abnormal skin color showed high specificity. All the characteristics presented negative predictive values of 70% and cyanosis stood out by its high positive predictive value. CONCLUSION: hypoxemia was the defining characteristic that presented the best predictive ability to determine Impaired gas exchange. Studies of this nature enable nurses to minimize variability in clinical situations presented by the patient and to identify more precisely the nursing diagnosis that represents the patient's true clinical condition. PMID:26155010

  18. Unsteady Conjugate Heat Exchange of Oil-Gas Pipe Line in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavljuchenko, A. M.; Papkov, A. N.

    2002-07-01

    The problem of conjugate beat exchange of main gas-oil pipe lines is of special importance for pipelines laying in the permafrost regions, because the energy saving reliability and ecology problems ought to be solved. In this work, this complex mathematical task without allowance for a movable thawing bound was numerically simulated.

  19. Carbon dioxide control in an open system that measures canopy gas exchanges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) effects both C3 net assimilation (A) as well as crop water use. Methods for measuring whole canopy gas exchange responses under [CO2] enrichment are needed for breeding programs aiming to develop crop cultivars resistant to stresses like drought in a...

  20. Leaf gas exchange traits of domestic and exotic tree species in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Tateishi, M.; Kumagai, T.; Otsuki, K.

    2009-12-01

    In forests under the management by community villagers, exotic tree species with rapid growth rate are introduced in wide range of Cambodia. To evaluate the influence of the introduction on the forest gas exchange and water budget, we investigated the leaf gas exchange traits of two domestic (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and exotic tree species (Acasia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camadilansis). We sampled shoots of each species and measured the leaf gas exchange traits (photosynthetic rates under different CO2 concentrations, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance) (6 leaves x 3 trees x 4 species). We carried out this measurement at 2 months intervals for a year from the beginning of rainy season and compared the obtained traits among species. Light saturated rate of net photosynthesis was higher in E. camadilansis but did not differ among other species both in rainy and dry seasons. Seasonal patter in photosynthetic traits was not obvious. Each species changed stomatal conductance in response to changes in environmental conditions. The response was more sensitive than reported values. In this presentation, we show details about the basic information about the leaf-level gas exchange traits, which are required to run soil- vegetation - atmosphere transfer model.

  1. Changes in gas exchange, tissue respiration and glycolysis in rats during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorya, L. V.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experiment which studied changes in oxygen balance under conditions of hypokinesia in rats is presented. The effect of the stress during hypokinesia is expressed most clearly in the changes of general gas exchange, and in the intensity of liver and myocardial tissue respiration.

  2. Guest Molecule Exchange Kinetics for the 2012 Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Field Trial

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; Lee, Won Suk

    2014-05-14

    A commercially viable technology for producing methane from natural gas hydrate reservoirs remains elusive. Short-term depressurization field tests have demonstrated the potential for producing natural gas via dissociation of the clathrate structure, but the long-term performance of the depressurization technology ultimately requires a heat source to sustain the dissociation. A decade of laboratory experiments and theoretical studies have demonstrated the exchange of pure CO2 and N2-CO2 mixtures with CH4 in sI gas hydrates, yielding critical information about molecular mechanisms, recoveries, and exchange kinetics. Findings indicated the potential for producing natural gas with little to no production of water and rapid exchange kinetics, generating sufficient interest in the guest-molecule exchange technology for a field test. In 2012 the U.S. DOE/NETL, ConocoPhillips Company, and Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation jointly sponsored the first field trial of injecting a mixture of N2-CO2 into a CH4-hydrate bearing formation beneath the permafrost on the Alaska North Slope. Known as the Ignik Sikumi #1 Gas Hydrate Field Trial, this experiment involved three stages: 1) the injection of a N2-CO2 mixture into a targeted hydrate-bearing layer, 2) a 4-day pressurized soaking period, and 3) a sustained depressurization and fluid production period. Data collected during the three stages of the field trial were made available after an extensive quality check. These data included continuous temperature and pressure logs, injected and recovered fluid compositions and volumes. The Ignik Sikumi #1 data set is extensive, but contains no direct evidence of the guest-molecule exchange process. This investigation is directed at using numerical simulation to provide an interpretation of the collected data. A numerical simulator, STOMP-HYDT-KE, was recently completed that solves conservation equations for energy, water, mobile fluid guest molecules, and hydrate guest

  3. Direct effects of nitroprusside do not alter gas exchange in canine oleic acid edema.

    PubMed

    Angle, M; Ducas, J; Schick, U; Girling, L; Prewitt, R M

    1984-11-01

    The authors investigated why intrapulmonary shunt (QS/QT) increases with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in canine oleic acid pulmonary edema. To determine the effects of flow alone on QS/QT, a peripheral arteriovenous fistula with a variable resistor was employed to increase cardiac output (Q) 26 and 52% above base line in a stepwise fashion (P less than 0.01). To examine the direct effects of SNP, distinct from changes in flow, the drug was given to produce matched increments in Q in each dog (P less than 0.01). To control for time, base-line measurements were obtained before and after each intervention, the sequence of which was alternated. At each increment in Q, SNP and the arteriovenous fistula increased QS/QT a similar amount. The mixed venous O2 tension (P-vO2) followed Q similarly in each group. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) fell more (P less than 0.01) with SNP than with the arteriovenous fistula at identical Q and P-vO2. The authors conclude that, in this model, a direct pharmacological effect of SNP does not contribute to the deterioration in QS/QT. In fact, SNP exerts a pulmonary vasoactive effect that does not adversely affect gas exchange. PMID:6520043

  4. Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2004-01-01

    An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

  5. Seasonal differences in needle gas exchange between mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D. )

    1991-05-01

    In 1990, an interactive study was initiated to understand the differing physiological and morphological response of mature tissue and seedling tissue to stress. The study was conducted at the Air Pollution and Climate Change Exposure Facility in a Pinus ponderosa seed production orchard at the US Forest Service Tree Improvement Center in Chico, CA. The orchard consists of clonal trees and the authors have planted half-sibling seedlings which correspond to the mature clones which were measured. Both the mature trees and seedlings were regularly irrigated and fertilized. The result is that they have minimized the genetic and environmental differences that might otherwise influence the physiological differences between mature and seedling tissue. One of the physiological parameters which was measured was seasonal and diurnal gas exchange using a LICOR 6200. They measured gas exchange in November 1989, March, July, and October 1990. They found that throughout the year, all gas exchange components (eg. photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance) were significantly greater for seedling tissue. Photosynthetic differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 1.1 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and 0.5 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Transpiration differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 2.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}2{sup {minus}1} and 1.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Finally, gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue were greater for current needles than one-year old needles. The results of this study demonstrate that gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue observed in the field may be the result of inherent physiological differences, and not merely genetic and environmental differences.

  6. Leaf gas exchange characteristics differ among Sonoran Desert riparian tree species.

    PubMed

    Horton, J L; Kolb, T E; Hart, S C

    2001-03-01

    We investigated leaf gas exchange responses to leaf temperature, leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and predawn and midday shoot water potential (psipd and psimd, respectively) of two native Sonoran Desert riparian tree species, Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii S. Wats.) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii Ball), and one exotic riparian tree species, saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis Lour. and related species). Measurements were made at two sites over 2 years that differed climatically. Because multiple linear regression models explained less than 29% of the variation in stomatal conductance (gs) and less than 48% of the variation in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of all species, we used boundary-line analysis to compare gas exchange responses among species. Gas exchange rates were high in all species. The hyperbolic relationship between Pn and gs suggested that initial reductions in gs at high gs did not inhibit Pn. Reductions in gs of cottonwood and willow occurred at psimd values at or below previously reported xylem cavitation thresholds (-1.6 and -1.4 MPa, respectively), indicating tight stomatal regulation of water loss and a narrow cavitation safety margin. In contrast, reductions in gs of saltcedar occurred at psimd values well above the cavitation threshold (-7.0 MPa), but at much lower psimd values than in cottonwood and willow, suggesting a wider cavitation safety margin and less tight regulation of water loss in saltcedar. High VPD had a smaller effect on leaf gas exchange in willow than in cottonwood. In contrast, willow had a less negative psipd threshold for stomatal closure than cottonwood. Compared with cottonwood and willow, leaf gas exchange of saltcedar was more tolerant of high VPD and low psipd. These physiological characteristics of saltcedar explain its widespread success as an invader of riparian ecosystems containing native Fremont cottonwood and Goodding willow in the Sonoran Desert.

  7. Heat exchangers and thermal energy storage concepts for the off-gas heat of steelmaking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinparzer, T.; Haider, M.; Fleischanderl, A.; Hampel, A.; Enickl, G.; Zauner, F.

    2012-11-01

    The fluctuating thermal emissions of electric arc furnaces require energy storage systems to provide downstream consumers with a continuous amount of thermal energy or electricity. Heat recovery systems based on thermal energy storage are presented. A comparison of different thermal energy storage systems has been performed. For the purpose, suitable heat exchangers for the off-gas heat have been developed. Dynamic process simulations of the heat recovery plants were necessary to check the feasibility of the systems and consider the non-steady-state off-gas emissions of the steelmaking devices. The implementation of a pilot plant into an existing off-gas duct of an electric arc furnace was required to check the real behavior of the heat exchanger and determine suitable materials in view of corrosion issues. The pilot plant is presented in this paper.

  8. Potassium concentration effect on growth, gas exchange and mineral accumulation in potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the responses of potatoes to six K solution concentrations maintained with a flow-through nutrient film system. Potato plants were grown for 42 days in sloping shallow trays containing a 1 cm layer of quartz gravel with a continuous flow of 4 ml min-1 of nutrient solutions having K concentrations of 0.10, 0.55, 1.59, 3.16, 6.44, 9.77 meq L-1. Plant leaf area, total and tuber dry weights were reduced over 25% at 0.10 meq L-1 of K and over 17% at 9.77 meq L-1 of K compared to concentrations of 0.55, 1.59, 3.16 and 6.44 meq L-1 of K. Gas exchange measurements on leaflets in situ after 39 days of growth demonstrated no significant differences among different K treatments in CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration. Further measurements made only on plants grown at 0.10, 1.59, 6.44 meq L-1 of K showed similar responses of CO2 assimilation rate to different intercellular CO2 concentrations. This suggested that the photosynthetic systems were not affected by different K nutrition. The leaves of plants accumulated about 60% less K at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. However, Ca and Mg levels in the leaves were higher at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. This indicates that low K nutrition not only reduced plant growth, but also affected nutrient balance between major cations.

  9. Analysis of effect of the solubility on gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, W. E., Jr.; Evans, J. W.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison is made of the gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lung models and in homogeneous lung models with the same total blood flow and ventilation. It is shown that the ratio of the rate of gas transfer of the inhomogeneous lung model over the rate of gas transfer of the homogeneous lung model as a function of gas solubility always has the qualitative features for gases with linear dissociation curves. This ratio is 1 for a gas with zero solubility and decreases to a single minimum. It subsequently rises to approach 1 as the solubility tends to infinity. The early portion of the graph of this function is convex, then after a single inflection point it is concave.

  10. How does the Porosity of Interstellar Ice Affect Chemical Complexity and Deuteration Exchange?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Helen Jane; Noble, Jennifer; Hill, Catherine Rachel; Bowron, Daniel; Youngs, Tristan; Loerting, Thomas; Mitteldorfer, Christian; Millar, James; Elkind, Pavel; Cousan, Stephane; Lui, Yuan; Ojamae, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The porosity of interstellar water ice, Amorphous Solid Water (ASW), greatly enhances the ability of ice to uptake, then release small gas adsorbates. This provides the strongest evidence that interstellar ices must be porous, accounting for the differences between predicted and observed gas-phase abundances, and provides a mechanism to enhance reagent diversity for complex chemistry in the ice. However, no dangling OH (d-OH) bond features, to-date associated with ice porosity, have been reported in interstellar ice spectra, so some conclude that interstellar ices must be non-porous, given that the d-OH spectra disappear in laboratory studies when ASW is energetically processed. But are d-OH features and gas-uptake reliable experimental measures of ice porosity? Here we combine fundamental studies of ASW with observational data to determine ASW porosity and understand its role in the chemical evolution of interstellar ices.We show upper-limit detections of d-OH in observational spectra towards a handful of sources (Fraser et al (2015)). Laboratory experiments on selective irradiation of d-OH features (Noble et al (2013), (2014)), combined with quantum chemical calculations (Lui et al (2015)), show that the d-OH bonds probe the density of defect sites in the surface and sub-surface structure. Consequently surfaces with d-OH bonds are significantly more reactive and therefore promote chemical complexity across extra-terrestrial regions where they are found, but do not reflect ice porosity.Our neutron scattering data show that ASW ices actually contain cylindrical pores of around 10 Å diameter (Mitteldorfer et al (2014)). The pore collapse process can only be initiated by long range molecular diffusion at T > 121 K, and follows complex kinetics (Hill et al (2015a); such effects can be reproduced by molecular dynamics simulations of ASW ice-heating (Elkind et al (2015): Miller et al (2015)), and are directly linked to deuteration exchange. We explain the implications

  11. Plant mineral nutrition, gas exchange and photosynthesis in space: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, S. A.; Coelho, L. H.; Zabrodina, M.; Brinckmann, E.; Kittang, A.-I.

    2013-02-01

    Successful growth and development of higher plants in space rely on adequate availability and uptake of water and nutrients, and efficient energy distribution through photosynthesis and gas exchange. In the present review, literature has been reviewed to assemble the relevant knowledge within space plant research for future planetary missions. Focus has been on fractional gravity, space radiation, magnetic fields and ultimately a combined effect of these factors on gas exchange, photosynthesis and transport of water and solutes. Reduced gravity prevents buoyancy driven thermal convection in the physical environment around the plant and alters transport and exchange of gases and liquids between the plant and its surroundings. In space experiments, indications of root zone hypoxia have frequently been reported, but studies on the influences of the space environment on plant nutrition and water transport are limited or inconclusive. Some studies indicate that uptake of potassium is elevated when plants are grown under microgravity conditions. Based on the current knowledge, gas exchange, metabolism and photosynthesis seem to work properly in space when plants are provided with a well stirred atmosphere and grown at moderate light levels. Effects of space radiation on plant metabolism, however, have not been studied so far in orbit. Ground experiments indicated that shielding from the Earth's magnetic field alters plant gas exchange and metabolism, though more studies are required to understand the effects of magnetic fields on plant growth. It has been shown that plants can grow and reproduce in the space environment and adapt to space conditions. However, the influences of the space environment may result in a long term effect over multiple generations or have an impact on the plants' role as food and part of a regenerative life support system. Suggestions for future plant biology research in space are discussed.

  12. Reduced soil wettability can affect greenhouse gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is known to be an important factor affecting the carbon (C) dynamics in soils including decomposition of organic matter and exchange of gases like CO2 and CH4 between the soil and the atmosphere. Most studies and process models looking at the soil C dynamics assume, however, that soils are easily wettable and water is relatively uniformly distributed within the soil pores. Most soils, however, do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist, but instead exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity), which can restrict infiltration and conductivity of water for weeks or months. This is world-wide occurring phenomenon which affects all soil textural types but is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. Soil water repellency is most profound during drier seasons, when the soil moisture content is relatively low. Although prolonged contact with water can gradually decrease water repellency, some soils do not recover to being completely wettable even after very wet winter months or substantial rainfall events. It has been recognized that with the predicted climatic changes the phenomenon of soil water repellency will become even more pronounced and severe, additionally it may occur in the areas and climatic zones where the effect have not been currently recognized. One of the main implications of soil water repellency is restricted water infiltration and reduced conductivity, which results in reduced soil water availability for plants and soil biota, even after prolonged periods of rainfall. As the process of C mineralization and consequently CO2 efflux from soil is driven by the accessibility of organic matter to decomposing organisms, which in turn is directly dependent on (i) soil moisture and (ii) soil temperature it is, therefore hypothesised that carbon decomposition and CO2 efflux in water repellent soils will also be affected when soil in the water repellent state. The CO2

  13. A Comparative Data-Based Modeling Study on Respiratory CO2 Gas Exchange during Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Ansermino, J. Mark; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to derive a minimally complex but credible model of respiratory CO2 gas exchange that may be used in systematic design and pilot testing of closed-loop end-tidal CO2 controllers in mechanical ventilation. We first derived a candidate model that captures the essential mechanisms involved in the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process. Then, we simplified the candidate model to derive two lower-order candidate models. We compared these candidate models for predictive capability and reliability using experimental data collected from 25 pediatric subjects undergoing dynamically varying mechanical ventilation during surgical procedures. A two-compartment model equipped with transport delay to account for CO2 delivery between the lungs and the tissues showed modest but statistically significant improvement in predictive capability over the same model without transport delay. Aggregating the lungs and the tissues into a single compartment further degraded the predictive fidelity of the model. In addition, the model equipped with transport delay demonstrated superior reliability to the one without transport delay. Further, the respiratory parameters derived from the model equipped with transport delay, but not the one without transport delay, were physiologically plausible. The results suggest that gas transport between the lungs and the tissues must be taken into account to accurately reproduce the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process under conditions of wide-ranging and dynamically varying mechanical ventilation conditions. PMID:26870728

  14. Cryogenic Heat-Exchanger Design for Freeze-out Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Landfill Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Chung, Myung Jin; Park, Seong Bum

    A cryogenic heat exchanger to remove carbon dioxide from landfill gas (LFG) is proposed and designed for applications to LNG production in distributed-scale. Since the major components of LFG are methane and carbon dioxide, CO2 removal is a significant pre-process in the liquefaction systems. A new and simple approach is proposed to directly remove carbon dioxide as frost on the surface wall along the cooling passage in a liquefying heat exchanger and to install two identical heat exchangers in parallel for alternative switching. As a first step of feasibility study, combined heat and mass transfer analysis is performed on the freeze-out process of CO2 in a counterflow heat exchanger, where CH4-CO2 mixture is cooled below its frost temperature in thermal contact with cold refrigerant. Engineering correlations for the analogy of heat and mass transfer are incorporated into numerical heat exchanger analysis with detailed fluid properties. The developed analytical model is used to estimate the distribution of CO2 accumulation and the required heat exchanger size with latent thermal load for the cryogenic CO2 removal in various operating conditions.

  15. Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  16. Direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Masaki; Sakurai, Hiromu; Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Günther, Detlef

    2015-09-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique was applied to the direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in ambient air. The ultra-trace semiconductor gases such as arsine (AsH3) and phosphine (PH3) were converted to particles by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonia (NH3) gases within a gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The converted particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS through a gas exchange device (GED), which could penetrate the particles as well as exchange to Ar from either non-reacted gases such as an air or remaining gases of O3 and NH3. The particle size distribution of converted particles was measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the results supported the elucidation of particle agglomeration between the particle converted from semiconductor gas and the particle of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which was produced as major particle in GPD. Stable time-resolved signals from AsH3 and PH3 in air were obtained by GPD-GED-ICPMS with continuous gas introduction; however, the slightly larger fluctuation, which could be due to the ionization fluctuation of particles in ICP, was observed compared to that of metal carbonyl gas in Ar introduced directly into ICPMS. The linear regression lines were obtained and the limits of detection (LODs) of 1.5 pL L(-1) and 2.4 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, were estimated. Since these LODs revealed sufficiently lower values than the measurement concentrations required from semiconductor industry such as 0.5 nL L(-1) and 30 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, the GPD-GED-ICPMS could be useful for direct and high sensitive analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in air.

  17. The Impact of a Lower Sea Ice Extent on Arctic Greenhouse Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Christensen, Torben R.; Lotte Sørensen, Lise; Rysgaard, Søren; McGuire, A. David; Miller, Paul A.; Walker, Donald A.

    2013-04-01

    years has the potential to influence greenhouse gas exchange across terrestrial ecosystems and the Arctic Ocean, but the overall impact remains unclear. In this study, we therefore try to reduce this uncertainty by addressing the influence of the decline in sea ice extent on all affected greenhouse gas fluxes in the high latitudes. Also, we will address the need for more research, on the ocean and on the land, to understand the impact of a lower sea ice extent on Arctic greenhouse gas exchange. References: Bates, N. R., Moran, S. B., Hansell, D. A. and Mathis, J. T.: An increasing CO2 sink in the Arctic Ocean due to sea-ice loss, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23609, doi:10.1029/2006GL027028, 2006. Cai, W.-J., Chen, L., Chen, B., Gao, Z., Lee, S. H., Chen, J., Pierrot, D., Sullivan, K., Wang, Y., Hu, X., Huang, W.-J., et al.: Decrease in the CO2 Uptake Capacity in an Ice-Free Arctic Ocean Basin, Science, 329(5991), 556-559, doi:10.1126/science.1189338, 2010. Kort, E. A., Wofsy, S. C., Daube, B. C., Diao, M., Elkins, J. W., Gao, R. S., Hintsa, E. J., Hurst, D. F., Jimenez, R., Moore, F. L., Spackman, J. R., et al.: Atmospheric observations of Arctic Ocean methane emissions up to 82 degrees north, Nature Geosci., 5(5), 318-321, doi:10.1038/NGEO1452, 2012. Nomura, D., Yoshikawa-Inoue, H. and Toyota, T.: The effect of sea-ice growth on air-sea CO2 flux in a tank experiment, vol. 58, pp. 418-426. 2006. Post, E., Forchhammer, M. C., Bret-Harte, M. S., Callaghan, T. V., Christensen, T. R., Elberling, B., Fox, A. D., Gilg, O., Hik, D. S., Høye, T. T., Ims, R. A., et al.: Ecological Dynamics Across the Arctic Associated with Recent Climate Change, Science, 325(5946), 1355-1358, doi:10.1126/science.1173113, 2009. Rysgaard, S., Glud, R. N., Sejr, M. K., Bendtsen, J. and Christensen, P. B.: Inorganic carbon transport during sea ice growth and decay: A carbon pump in polar seas, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03016, doi:10.1029/2006JC003572, 2007. Schuur, E. A. G., Abbott, B. and Network, P. C

  18. Operation of an experimental algal gas exchanger for use in a CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Averner, Maurice M.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts of a CELSS anticipate the use of photosynthetic organisms for air revitalization. The rates of production and uptake of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the crew and the photosynthetic organisms are mismatched. An algal system used for gas exchange only will have the difficulty of an accumulation or depletion of these gases beyond physiologically tolerable limits. The results of a study designed to test the feasibility of using environmental manipulations to maintain physiologically appropriate atmospheres for algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and mice (Mus musculus strain DW/J) in a gas-closed system is reported. Specifically, the atmosphere behavior of this system with Chlorella grown on nitrate or urea and at different light intensities and optical densities is considered. Manipulation of both the photosynthetic rate and the assimilatory quotient of the alga has been found to reduce the mismatch of gas requirements and allow operation of the system in a gas-stable manner.

  19. Gas exchange and hatchability of chicken eggs incubated at simulated high altitude.

    PubMed

    Visschedijk, A H

    1985-02-01

    Chicken eggs laid at sea level were incubated at sea level (control conditions), at a simulated altitude of 5.5 km without any further measures (natural conditions), and at a simulated altitude of 5.7 km at optimal incubator gas composition (optimal conditions). Under optimal conditions the incubator relative humidity was 70% throughout incubation, the gas mixture supplied to the incubator contained 45% O2-55% N2, and the ventilation rate was reduced to 6% of control in order to maintain the normal air-space gas tensions and to compensate for the increased eggshell conductance at altitude. The embryos that developed under control conditions showed a normal CO2 production with 94% hatchability of fertile eggs. Under natural conditions at altitude all embryos died within a few days. Optimal conditions resulted in an almost normal gas exchange and in an improvement of hatchability from 0 to 81% of fertile eggs.

  20. Experimental investigation of a reticulated porous alumina heat exchanger for high temperature gas heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A; Chandran, RB; Davidson, JH

    2015-01-22

    The present study presents an experimental study of a prototype counter-flow heat exchanger designed to recover sensible heat from inert and reactive gases flowing through a high temperature solar reactor for splitting CO2. The tube-in-tube heat exchanger is comprised of two concentric alumina tubes, each filled with reticulated porous alumina with a nominal porosity of 80% and pore density of 5 pores per inch (ppi). The RPC provides high heat transfer surface area per unit volume (917 m(-1)) with low pressure drop. Measurements include the permeability, inertial coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness and pressure drop. For laminar flow and an inlet gas temperature of 1240 K, the overall heat transfer coefficients are 36-41 W m(-2) K-1. The measured performance is in good agreement with a prior CFD model of the heat exchanger. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gas exchange in NASA's biomass production chamber: a preprototype closed human life support system.

    PubMed

    Corey, K A; Wheeler, R M

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of environmental control in a life-support system is the monitoring and regulation of atmospheric gases (Sager et al. 1988) at concentrations required for the maintenance of all life forms. It will be necessary to know the rates of CO2 use, oxygen evolution, and water flux through evapotranspiration by a crop stand under various environmental conditions, so that appropriate designs and control systems for maintaining mass balances of those gases can be achieved for a full range of environmental regimes. Mass budgets of gases will also enable evaluation of crop health by monitoring directly the rates of gas exchange and indirectly the rate of accumulation of dry matter, based on rates of carbon dioxide use. This article focuses on the unique capabilities of the NASA biomass production chamber for monitoring and evaluating gas exchange rates, with special emphasis on results with wheat and soybean, two candidate species identified by NASA for CELSS.

  2. Conversion of deuterium gas to heavy water by catalytic isotopic exchange using wetproof catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Quaiattini, R.J.; McGauley, M.P.; Burns, D.L.; Tichler, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    The invention at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of a simple method of wetproofing platinum catalysts allows them to retain their activity in liquid water. High performance catalysts for the hydrogen-water isotope exchange reaction that remain active for years can now be routinely produced. The first commercial application using the ordered-bed-type wetproofed isotope exchange catalyst developed and patented by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. has been successfully completed. Approximately 9100 m/sup 3/ of deuterium gas stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory was converted to high grade heavy water. Conversion efficiency exceeded 99.8%. The product D/sub 2/O concentration was 6.7 percentage points higher than the feed D/sub 2/ gas.

  3. Involvement of plant growth substances in the alteration of leaf gas exchange of flooded tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Bradford, K J

    1983-10-01

    Ethylene, abscisic acid, and cytokinins were tested for their ability to either induce or prevent the changes which occur in gas exchange characteristics of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) leaves during short-term soil flooding. Ethylene, which increases in the shoots of flooded plants, had no effect on stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity of drained plants. Abscisic acid, which also accumulates in the shoots of flooded plants, could reproduce the stomatal behavior of flooded plants when sprayed on the leaves of drained plants. However, photosynthetic capacity of drained plants was unaffected by abscisic acid sprays. Cytokinin export from the roots to the shoots declines in flooded plants. Spray applications of benzyladenine increased stomatal conductance in both flooded and drained plants. In addition, the decline in photosynthetic capacity during flooding was largely prevented by supplementary cytokinin applications. The possible involvement of these growth substances in modifying leaf gas exchange during flooding is discussed.

  4. Air-water gas exchange and CO2 flux in a mangrove-dominated estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ho, David T.; Ferrón, Sara; Engel, Victor C.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems, but the fate of mangrove-derived carbon remains uncertain. Part of that uncertainty stems from the fact that gas transfer velocities in mangrove-surrounded waters are not well determined, leading to uncertainty in air-water CO2 fluxes. Two SF6 tracer release experiments were conducted to determine gas transfer velocities (k(600) = 8.3 ± 0.4 and 8.1 ± 0.6 cm h−1), along with simultaneous measurements of pCO2 to determine the air-water CO2 fluxes from Shark River, Florida (232.11 ± 23.69 and 171.13 ± 20.28 mmol C m−2 d−1), an estuary within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The gas transfer velocity results are consistent with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation measurements, indicating a higher rate of turbulence and gas exchange than predicted by commonly used wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations. The results have important implications for carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems.

  5. Impaired Gas Exchange at Birth and Risk of Intellectual Disability and Autism: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Mollon, Josephine; Boffetta, Paolo; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    We conducted meta-analyses of 67 studies on the association between neonatal proxies of impaired gas exchange and intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Neonatal acidosis was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.55 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.23-5.49] for ID and an OR of 1.10 (95% CI 0.91-1.31) for ASD.…

  6. Surviving submerged--Setal tracheal gills for gas exchange in adult rheophilic diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Siegfried; Dettner, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    The gas exchange in adult diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) relies on a subelytral air store, which has to be renewed in regular intervals at the water surface. The dive duration varies from a few minutes to 24 h depending on the species, activity, and temperature. However, some species remain submerged for several weeks. Stygobiont species do not ascend to the surface and gas exchange of these species remains unclear, but it is assumed that they require air filled voids for respiration or they use cutaneous respiration. In this study, we investigate the gas exchange in the running water diving beetle Deronectes aubei, which survive submerged for over 6 weeks. The diffusion distance through the cuticle is too great for cutaneous respiration. Therefore, the dissolved oxygen uptake of submerged beetles was determined and an oxygen uptake via the rich tracheated elytra was observed. Fine structure analyses (SEM and TEM) of the beetles showed tracheated setae mainly on the elytral surface, which acts as tracheal gills. Prevention of the air bubble formation at the tip of the abdomen, which normally act as physical gill in Dytiscidae, resulted in no effect in oxygen uptake in D. aubei, but this was the sole way for a submerged Hydroporus palustris to get oxygen. The setal gas exchange technique explains the restriction of D. aubei to rivers and brooks with high oxygen concentration and it may also be used by subterran living diving beetles, which lack access to atmospheric oxygen. The existence of setal tracheal gills in species in running water which are often found in the hyporheic zone and in stygobiont species supports the known evolution of stygobiont Dytiscidae from species of the hyporheic zone. For species in running water, setal tracheal gills could be seen as an adaptation to avoid drifting downstream by the current.

  7. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and stem diameter changes during freezing and thawing of Scots pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Lauri; Hölttä, Teemu; Lintunen, Anna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2015-12-01

    Boreal trees experience repeated freeze-thaw cycles annually. While freezing has been extensively studied in trees, the dynamic responses occurring during the freezing and thawing remain poorly understood. At freezing and thawing, rapid changes take place in the water relations of living cells in needles and in stem. While freezing is mostly limited to extracellular spaces, living cells dehydrate, shrink and their osmotic concentration increases. We studied how the freezing-thawing dynamics reflected on leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and xylem and living bark diameter changes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings in controlled experiments. Photosynthetic rate quickly declined following ice nucleation and extracellular freezing in xylem and needles, almost parallel to a rapid shrinking of xylem diameter, while that of living bark followed with a slightly longer delay. While xylem and living bark diameters responded well to decreasing temperature and water potential of ice, the relationship was less consistent in the case of increasing temperature. Xylem showed strong temporal swelling at thawing suggesting water movement from bark. After thawing xylem diameter recovered to a pre-freezing level but living bark remained shrunk. We found that freezing affected photosynthesis at multiple levels. The distinct dynamics of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance reveals that the decreased photosynthetic rate reflects impaired dark reactions rather than stomatal closure. Freezing also inhibited the capacity of the light reactions to dissipate excess energy as heat, via non-photochemical quenching, whereas photochemical quenching of excitation energy decreased gradually with temperature in agreement with the gas exchange data.

  8. A two-dimensional microscale model of gas exchange during photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Retta, Moges; Ho, Quang Tri; Yin, Xinyou; Verboven, Pieter; Berghuijs, Herman N C; Struik, Paul C; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2016-05-01

    CO2 exchange in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined using a microscale model of combined gas diffusion and C4 photosynthesis kinetics at the leaf tissue level. Based on a generalized scheme of photosynthesis in NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plants, the model accounted for CO2 diffusion in a leaf tissue, CO2 hydration and assimilation in mesophyll cells, CO2 release from decarboxylation of C4 acids, CO2 fixation in bundle sheath cells and CO2 retro-diffusion from bundle sheath cells. The transport equations were solved over a realistic 2-D geometry of the Kranz anatomy obtained from light microscopy images. The predicted responses of photosynthesis rate to changes in ambient CO2 and irradiance compared well with those obtained from gas exchange measurements. A sensitivity analysis showed that the CO2 permeability of the mesophyll-bundle sheath and airspace-mesophyll interfaces strongly affected the rate of photosynthesis and bundle sheath conductance. Carbonic anhydrase influenced the rate of photosynthesis, especially at low intercellular CO2 levels. In addition, the suberin layer at the exposed surface of the bundle sheath cells was found beneficial in reducing the retro-diffusion. The model may serve as a tool to investigate CO2 diffusion further in relation to the Kranz anatomy in C4 plants. PMID:26993234

  9. Kinetics of response of foliar gas exchange to exogenously applied ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Gunderson, C.A.

    1987-04-01

    While the sensitivity of foliar gas exchange to ethylene in some species is documented, the kinetics of response, including reaction rates, effective concentrations, and mode of action, are not well characterized. The responses of carbon dioxide assimilation and stomatal conductance were investigated in Glycine max grown in a controlled environment and exposed to a range of exogenously applied ethylene concentrations. The gas-exchange responses exhibited first-order kinetics at low concentrations (less than 20 ..mu..moles per cubic meter) but zero-order kinetics at all higher concentrations. In the region of first-order kinetics, the rate of inhibition per unit change is ethylene concentration was twice as great for stomatal conductance as for carbon dioxide assimilation. The ethylene concentrations resulting in one-half maximal inhibition of stomatal conductance and carbon dioxide assimilation were 7.4 and 15.6 ..mu..moles per cubic meter, respectively. The ethylene influence on foliar gas exchange exhibited features of capacity-limited or saturation kinetics.

  10. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines.

  11. Plantecophys--An R Package for Analysing and Modelling Leaf Gas Exchange Data.

    PubMed

    Duursma, Remko A

    2015-01-01

    Here I present the R package 'plantecophys', a toolkit to analyse and model leaf gas exchange data. Measurements of leaf photosynthesis and transpiration are routinely collected with portable gas exchange instruments, and analysed with a few key models. These models include the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of leaf photosynthesis, the Ball-Berry models of stomatal conductance, and the coupled leaf gas exchange model which combines the supply and demand functions for CO2 in the leaf. The 'plantecophys' R package includes functions for fitting these models to measurements, as well as simulating from the fitted models to aid in interpreting experimental data. Here I describe the functionality and implementation of the new package, and give some examples of its use. I briefly describe functions for fitting the FvCB model of photosynthesis to measurements of photosynthesis-CO2 response curves ('A-Ci curves'), fitting Ball-Berry type models, modelling C3 photosynthesis with the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model, modelling C4 photosynthesis, numerical solution of optimal stomatal behaviour, and energy balance calculations using the Penman-Monteith equation. This open-source package makes technically challenging calculations easily accessible for many users and is freely available on CRAN. PMID:26581080

  12. BOREAS TE-9 In Situ Diurnal Gas Exchange of NAS Boreal Forest Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie; Dang, Qinglai

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. The purpose of the BOREAS TE-09 study was threefold: 1) to provide in situ gas exchange data that will be used to validate models of photosynthetic responses to light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2); 2) to compare the photosynthetic responses of different tree crown levels (upper and lower); and 3) to characterize the diurnal water potential curves for these sites to get an indication of the extent to which soil moisture supply to leaves might be limiting photosynthesis. The gas exchange data of the BOREAS NSA were collected to characterize diurnal gas exchange and water potential of two canopy levels of five boreal canopy cover types: young jack pine, old jack pine, old aspen, lowland old black spruce, and upland black spruce. These data were collected between 27-May-1994 and 17-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  13. Gas exchange pattern transitions in the workers of the harvester termite.

    PubMed

    Inder, Isabelle M; Duncan, Frances D

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionary genesis and the current adaptive significance of the use of the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) for respiration by insects is the subject of intense debate. Years of research have resulted in several leading hypotheses, one of which is the emergent-property hypothesis. This hypothesis states that DGC is an emergent property or consequence of interactions between the O2 and CO2 set points that regulate spiracular function, i.e. opening and closing. Workers of the harvester termite, Hodotermes mossambicus were selected as a model to test this hypothesis. The respiratory patterns of major workers, investigated using flow-through respirometry, were obtained at 100% relative humidity (RH) under varying temperature to evaluate the assumptions of the emergent-property hypothesis. Metabolic rate, measured as VCO2 increased significantly after 15 °C. As VCO2 increased in response to increasing temperature and activity, the gas exchange pattern displayed by workers transitioned to a continuous gas exchange. A true DGC, defined as showing all three phases and a coefficient of variation value close to 2, was not expressed under the experimental conditions. The conclusion drawn from this study of termite workers is that changes in respiratory patterns are most likely an emergent property of the insects' nervous and respiratory system. PMID:25770978

  14. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines. PMID:21882698

  15. Gas exchange pattern transitions in the workers of the harvester termite.

    PubMed

    Inder, Isabelle M; Duncan, Frances D

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionary genesis and the current adaptive significance of the use of the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) for respiration by insects is the subject of intense debate. Years of research have resulted in several leading hypotheses, one of which is the emergent-property hypothesis. This hypothesis states that DGC is an emergent property or consequence of interactions between the O2 and CO2 set points that regulate spiracular function, i.e. opening and closing. Workers of the harvester termite, Hodotermes mossambicus were selected as a model to test this hypothesis. The respiratory patterns of major workers, investigated using flow-through respirometry, were obtained at 100% relative humidity (RH) under varying temperature to evaluate the assumptions of the emergent-property hypothesis. Metabolic rate, measured as VCO2 increased significantly after 15 °C. As VCO2 increased in response to increasing temperature and activity, the gas exchange pattern displayed by workers transitioned to a continuous gas exchange. A true DGC, defined as showing all three phases and a coefficient of variation value close to 2, was not expressed under the experimental conditions. The conclusion drawn from this study of termite workers is that changes in respiratory patterns are most likely an emergent property of the insects' nervous and respiratory system.

  16. Nax loci affect SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchanger expression and activity in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Shabala, Lana; Cuin, Tracey A; Huang, Xin; Zhou, Meixue; Munns, Rana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress tolerance in durum wheat is strongly associated with a plant’s ability to control Na+ delivery to the shoot. Two loci, termed Nax1 and Nax2, were recently identified as being critical for this process and the sodium transporters HKT1;4 and HKT1;5 were identified as the respective candidate genes. These transporters retrieve Na+ from the xylem, thus limiting the rates of Na+ transport from the root to the shoot. In this work, we show that the Nax loci also affect activity and expression levels of the SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchanger in both root cortical and stelar tissues. Net Na+ efflux measured in isolated steles from salt-treated plants, using the non-invasive ion flux measuring MIFE technique, decreased in the sequence: Tamaroi (parental line)>Nax1=Nax2>Nax1:Nax2 lines. This efflux was sensitive to amiloride (a known inhibitor of the Na+/H+ exchanger) and was mirrored by net H+ flux changes. TdSOS1 relative transcript levels were 6–10-fold lower in Nax lines compared with Tamaroi. Thus, it appears that Nax loci confer two highly complementary mechanisms, both of which contribute towards reducing the xylem Na+ content. One enhances the retrieval of Na+ back into the root stele via HKT1;4 or HKT1;5, whilst the other reduces the rate of Na+ loading into the xylem via SOS1. It is suggested that such duality plays an important adaptive role with greater versatility for responding to a changing environment and controlling Na+ delivery to the shoot. PMID:26585227

  17. Gas exchange

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs to the bloodstream, and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to the lungs. It occurs ... membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory system and the ...

  18. Volatile exchange between undamaged plants - a new mechanism affecting insect orientation in intercropping.

    PubMed

    Ninkovic, Velemir; Dahlin, Iris; Vucetic, Andja; Petrovic-Obradovic, Olivera; Glinwood, Robert; Webster, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Changes in plant volatile emission can be induced by exposure to volatiles from neighbouring insect-attacked plants. However, plants are also exposed to volatiles from unattacked neighbours, and the consequences of this have not been explored. We investigated whether volatile exchange between undamaged plants affects volatile emission and plant-insect interaction. Consistently greater quantities of two terpenoids were found in the headspace of potato previously exposed to volatiles from undamaged onion plants identified by mass spectrometry. Using live plants and synthetic blends mimicking exposed and unexposed potato, we tested the olfactory response of winged aphids, Myzus persicae. The altered potato volatile profile deterred aphids in laboratory experiments. Further, we show that growing potato together with onion in the field reduces the abundance of winged, host-seeking aphids. Our study broadens the ecological significance of the phenomenon; volatiles carry not only information on whether or not neighbouring plants are under attack, but also information on the emitter plants themselves. In this way responding plants could obtain information on whether the neighbouring plant is a competitive threat and can accordingly adjust their growth towards it. We interpret this as a response in the process of adaptation towards neighbouring plants. Furthermore, these physiological changes in the responding plants have significant ecological impact, as behaviour of aphids was affected. Since herbivore host plants are potentially under constant exposure to these volatiles, our study has major implications for the understanding of how mechanisms within plant communities affect insects. This knowledge could be used to improve plant protection and increase scientific understanding of communication between plants and its impact on other organisms.

  19. Volatile Exchange between Undamaged Plants - a New Mechanism Affecting Insect Orientation in Intercropping

    PubMed Central

    Ninkovic, Velemir; Dahlin, Iris; Vucetic, Andja; Petrovic-Obradovic, Olivera; Glinwood, Robert; Webster, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Changes in plant volatile emission can be induced by exposure to volatiles from neighbouring insect-attacked plants. However, plants are also exposed to volatiles from unattacked neighbours, and the consequences of this have not been explored. We investigated whether volatile exchange between undamaged plants affects volatile emission and plant-insect interaction. Consistently greater quantities of two terpenoids were found in the headspace of potato previously exposed to volatiles from undamaged onion plants identified by mass spectrometry. Using live plants and synthetic blends mimicking exposed and unexposed potato, we tested the olfactory response of winged aphids, Myzus persicae. The altered potato volatile profile deterred aphids in laboratory experiments. Further, we show that growing potato together with onion in the field reduces the abundance of winged, host-seeking aphids. Our study broadens the ecological significance of the phenomenon; volatiles carry not only information on whether or not neighbouring plants are under attack, but also information on the emitter plants themselves. In this way responding plants could obtain information on whether the neighbouring plant is a competitive threat and can accordingly adjust their growth towards it. We interpret this as a response in the process of adaptation towards neighbouring plants. Furthermore, these physiological changes in the responding plants have significant ecological impact, as behaviour of aphids was affected. Since herbivore host plants are potentially under constant exposure to these volatiles, our study has major implications for the understanding of how mechanisms within plant communities affect insects. This knowledge could be used to improve plant protection and increase scientific understanding of communication between plants and its impact on other organisms. PMID:23922710

  20. Laboratory Measurements of Oxygen Gas Release from Basaltic Minerals Exposed to UV- Radiation: Implications for the Viking Gas Exchange Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurowitz, J. A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    The biology experiments onboard the Viking Landers determined that the Martian soils at Chryse and Utopia Planitia contain an unknown chemical compound of a highly oxidizing nature. The Gas Exchange Experiments (GEx) demonstrated that the humidification of a 1-cc Martian soil sample resulted in the production of as much as 790 nanomoles of oxygen gas. Yen et al. (2000) have provided experimental evidence that superoxide radicals can be generated on plagioclase feldspar (labradorite) grain surfaces by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of oxygen gas. Adsorbed superoxide radicals are thought to react readily with water vapor, and produce oxygen gas in quantities sufficient to explain the Viking GEx results. Direct evidence for the formation of oxygen gas, however, was not provided in the experiments of Yen et al (2000). Accordingly, the motivation of this study is to determine whether superoxide radicals adsorbed on labradorite surfaces are capable of producing oxygen gas upon exposure to water vapor. We have constructed an experimental apparatus that is capable of monitoring oxygen gas release from basaltic mineral powders that have been exposed to UV-radiation under Martian atmospheric pressure conditions. The apparatus consists of a stainless-steel vacuum chamber with a UV- transparent window where sample radiation exposures are performed. The vacuum chamber has multiple valved ports for injection of gases and water vapor. The vacuum chamber is connected via a precision leak valve to a quadrupole mass spectrometer, which measures changes in the composition of the headspace gases over our mineral samples. We will report on the results of our experiments, which are aimed at detecting and quantifying oxygen gas release from UV-exposed basaltic mineral samples using this new experimental facility. These results will further constrain whether superoxide ions adsorbed on mineral surfaces provide a viable explanation for the Viking GEx results, which have

  1. Exergy destruction analysis of a vortices generator in a gas liquid finned tube heat exchanger: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazikhani, M.; Khazaee, I.; Monazzam, S. M. S.; Takdehghan, H.

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, the effect of using different shapes of vortices generator (VG) on a gas liquid finned heat exchanger is investigated experimentally with irreversibility analysis. In this project the ambient air with mass flow rates of 0.047-0.072 kg/s is forced across the finned tube heat exchanger. Hot water with constant flow rate of 240 L/h is circulated inside heat exchanger tubes with inlet temperature range of 45-73 °C. The tests are carried out on the flat finned heat exchanger and then repeated on the VG finned heat exchanger. The results show that using the vortex generator can decrease the ratio of air side irreversibility to heat transfer (ASIHR) of the heat exchanger. Also the results show that the IASIHR is >1.05 for all air mass flow rates, which means that ASIHR for the initial heat exchanger is higher than 5 % greater than that of improved heat exchanger.

  2. Exergy destruction analysis of a vortices generator in a gas liquid finned tube heat exchanger: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazikhani, M.; Khazaee, I.; Monazzam, S. M. S.; Takdehghan, H.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of using different shapes of vortices generator (VG) on a gas liquid finned heat exchanger is investigated experimentally with irreversibility analysis. In this project the ambient air with mass flow rates of 0.047-0.072 kg/s is forced across the finned tube heat exchanger. Hot water with constant flow rate of 240 L/h is circulated inside heat exchanger tubes with inlet temperature range of 45-73 °C. The tests are carried out on the flat finned heat exchanger and then repeated on the VG finned heat exchanger. The results show that using the vortex generator can decrease the ratio of air side irreversibility to heat transfer (ASIHR) of the heat exchanger. Also the results show that the IASIHR is >1.05 for all air mass flow rates, which means that ASIHR for the initial heat exchanger is higher than 5 % greater than that of improved heat exchanger.

  3. Surfactant control of gas transfer velocity along an offshore coastal transect: results from a laboratory gas exchange tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, R.; Schneider-Zapp, K.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the physical and biogeochemical controls of air-sea gas exchange is necessary for establishing biogeochemical models for predicting regional- and global-scale trace gas fluxes and feedbacks. To this end we report the results of experiments designed to constrain the effect of surfactants in the sea surface microlayer (SML) on the gas transfer velocity (kw; cm h-1), seasonally (2012-2013) along a 20 km coastal transect (North East UK). We measured total surfactant activity (SA), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the SML and in sub-surface water (SSW) and we evaluated corresponding kw values using a custom-designed air-sea gas exchange tank. Temporal SA variability exceeded its spatial variability. Overall, SA varied 5-fold between all samples (0.08 to 0.38 mg L-1 T-X-100), being highest in the SML during summer. SML SA enrichment factors (EFs) relative to SSW were ˜ 1.0 to 1.9, except for two values (0.75; 0.89: February 2013). The range in corresponding k660 (kw for CO2 in seawater at 20 °C) was 6.8 to 22.0 cm h-1. The film factor R660 (the ratio of k660 for seawater to k660 for "clean", i.e. surfactant-free, laboratory water) was strongly correlated with SML SA (r ≥ 0.70, p ≤ 0.002, each n = 16). High SML SA typically corresponded to k660 suppressions ˜ 14 to 51 % relative to clean laboratory water, highlighting strong spatiotemporal gradients in gas exchange due to varying surfactant in these coastal waters. Such variability should be taken account of when evaluating marine trace gas sources and sinks. Total CDOM absorbance (250 to 450 nm), the CDOM spectral slope ratio (SR = S275 - 295/S350 - 400), the 250 : 365 nm CDOM absorption ratio (E2 : E3), and Chl a all indicated spatial and temporal signals in the quantity and composition of organic matter in the SML and SSW. This prompts us to hypothesise that spatiotemporal variation in R660 and its relationship with SA is a consequence of compositional

  4. Effect of gas composition and gas utilisation on the dynamic response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weydahl, Helge; Møller-Holst, Steffen; Børresen, Børre

    The transient response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was measured for various cathode gas compositions and gas utilisations (fraction of supplied reactant gas which is consumed in the fuel cell reaction). For a PEMFC operated on pure hydrogen and oxygen, the cell voltage response to current steps was fast, with response times in the range 0.01-1 s, depending on the applied current. For a PEMFC supplied with air as cathode gas, an additional relaxation process related to oxygen transport caused a slower response (approximately 0.1-2 s depending on the applied current). Response curves up to approximately 0.01 s were apparently unaffected by gas composition and utilisation and were most likely dominated by capacitive discharge of the double layer and reaction with surplus oxygen residing in the cathode. The utilisation of hydrogen had only a minor effect on the response curves, while the utilisation of air severely influenced the PEMFC dynamics. Results suggested that air flow rates should be high to obtain rapid PEMFC response.

  5. Proteomics of juvenile senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) affected by gas bubble disease in hyperoxygenated ponds.

    PubMed

    Salas-Leiton, E; Cánovas-Conesa, B; Zerolo, R; López-Barea, J; Cañavate, J P; Alhama, J

    2009-01-01

    Solea senegalensis is a commercial flat fish traditionally farmed in earth ponds in coastal wetlands that might also become important to more intensive aquaculture. Gas bubble disease (GBD) is a potential risk for outdoor fish farming, particularly in certain periods of the year, related to improper management leading to macroalgae blooms. Physical-chemical conditions inducing hyperoxia, including radiation, temperature, and high levels of dissolved oxygen, have been monitored in fish affected by GBD together with observed symptoms. Exophthalmia, subcutaneous emphysemas, obstruction of gill lamellae, hemorrhages, and anomalous swimming were the main effects of oxygen supersaturation. A proteomic study was carried out for the first time under aquaculture conditions and protein expression changes are described for fish that were subject to hyperoxic conditions. Proteins identified in gill of GBD-affected fish are related to oxidative alteration of cytoskeleton structure/function (beta-tubulin, beta-actin), motility (light myosin chain, alpha-tropomyosin), or regulatory pathways (calmodulin, Raf kinase inhibitor protein), reflecting the central role of gill in oxygen exchange. Hepatic proteins identified are related to protein oxidative damages (beta-globin, FABPs), protection from oxidative stress (DCXR, GNMT), and inflammatory response (C3), in agreement with the predominant metabolic role of liver. Comparison of protein expression patterns and protein identification are suggested as potentially specific hyperoxia biomarkers that would facilitate prevention of GBD outbreaks.

  6. Effects of air current speed on gas exchange in plant leaves and plant canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tsuruyama, J.; Shibuya, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kiyota, M.

    To obtain basic data on adequate air circulation to enhance plant growth in a closed plant culture system in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), an investigation was made of the effects of the air current speed ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 m s-1 on photosynthesis and transpiration in sweetpotato leaves and photosynthesis in tomato seedlings canopies. The gas exchange rates in leaves and canopies were determined by using a chamber method with an infrared gas analyzer. The net photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate increased significantly as the air current speeds increased from 0.01 to 0.2 m s-1. The transpiration rate increased gradually at air current speeds ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 m s-1 while the net photosynthetic rate was almost constant at air current speeds ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 m s-1. The increase in the net photosynthetic and transpiration rates were strongly dependent on decreased boundary-layer resistances against gas diffusion. The net photosynthetic rate of the plant canopy was doubled by an increased air current speed from 0.1 to 1.0 m s-1 above the plant canopy. The results demonstrate the importance of air movement around plants for enhancing the gas exchange in the leaf, especially in plant canopies in the CELSS.

  7. Canopy photosynthesis and transpiration in microgravity: gas exchange measurements aboard Mir.

    PubMed

    Monje, O; Bingham, G E; Carman, J G; Campbell, W F; Salisbury, F B; Eames, B K; Sytchev, V; Levinskikh, M A; Podolsky, I

    2000-01-01

    The SVET Greenhouse on-board the Orbital Station Mir was used to measure canopy photosynthesis and transpiration rates for the first time in space. During the Greenhouse IIB experiment on Mir (June-January 1997), carbon and water vapor fluxes from two wheat (cv. Superdwarf) canopies were measured using the US developed Gas Exchange Measurement System (GEMS). Gas analyzers capable of resolving CO2 concentration differences of 5 micromoles mol-1 against a background of 0.9% CO2, are necessary to measure photosynthetic and respiratory rates on Mir. The ability of the GEMS gas analyzers to measure these CO2 concentration differences was determined during extensive ground calibrations. Similarly, the sensitivity of the analyzers to water vapor was sufficient to accurately measure canopy evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration, which accounted for over 90% of the water added to the root zone, was estimated using gas exchange and used to estimate substrate moisture content. This paper presents canopy photosynthesis and transpiration data during the peak vegetative phase of development in microgravity.

  8. Dynamics of Exchange at Gas-Zeolite Interfaces 1: Pure Component n-Butane and Isobutane

    SciTech Connect

    CHANDROSS,MICHAEL E.; WEBB III,EDMUND B.; GREST,GARY S.; MARTIN,MARCUS G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.; ROTH,M.W.

    2000-07-13

    The authors present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of n-butane and isobutane in silicalite. They begin with a comparison of the bulk adsorption and diffusion properties for two different parameterizations of the interaction potential between the hydrocarbon species, both of which have been shown to reproduce experimental gas-liquid coexistence curves. They examine diffusion as a function of the loading of the zeolite, as well as the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant at loading and for infinite dilution. They continue with simulations in which interfaces are formed between single component gases and the zeolite. After reaching equilibrium, they examine the dynamics of exchange between the bulk gas and the zeolite. Finally, they calculate the permeability of the zeolite for n-butane and isobutane as a function of pressure. Their simulations are performed for a number of different gas temperatures and pressures, covering a wide range of state points.

  9. Polarized {sup 3}He gas compression system using metastability-exchange optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, D.S.; Rich, D.R.; Belov, A.S.; Tong, X.; Yang, H.; Bailey, C.; Keith, C.D.; Hartfield, J.; Hall, G.D.R.; Black, T.C.; Snow, W.M.; Gentile, T.R.; Chen, W.C.; Jones, G.L.; Wildman, E.

    2005-05-15

    Dense samples (10-100 bar cm) of nuclear spin polarized {sup 3}He are utilized in high energy physics, neutron scattering, atomic physics, and magnetic resonance imaging. Metastability exchange optical pumping can rapidly produce high {sup 3}He polarizations ({approx_equal}80%) at low pressures (few mbar). We describe a polarized {sup 3}He gas compressor system which accepts 0.26 bar l h{sup -1} of {sup 3}He gas polarized to 70% by a 4 W neodymium doped lanthanum magnesium hexaluminate (Nd:LMA) laser and compresses it into a 5 bar cm target with final polarization of 55%. The spin relaxation rates of the system's components have been measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and a model of the {sup 3}He polarization loss based on the measured relaxation rates and the gas flow is in agreement with a {sup 3}He polarization measurement using neutron transmission.

  10. Polarized 3He gas compression system using metastability-exchange optical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, D. S.; Rich, D. R.; Belov, A. S.; Tong, X.; Yang, H.; Bailey, C.; Keith, C. D.; Hartfield, J.; Hall, G. D. R.; Black, T. C.; Snow, W. M.; Gentile, T. R.; Chen, W. C.; Jones, G. L.; Wildman, E.

    2005-05-01

    Dense samples (10-100barcm) of nuclear spin polarized He3 are utilized in high energy physics, neutron scattering, atomic physics, and magnetic resonance imaging. Metastability exchange optical pumping can rapidly produce high He3 polarizations (≈80%) at low pressures (few mbar). We describe a polarized He3 gas compressor system which accepts 0.26barlh-1 of He3 gas polarized to 70% by a 4W neodymium doped lanthanum magnesium hexaluminate (Nd:LMA) laser and compresses it into a 5barcm target with final polarization of 55%. The spin relaxation rates of the system's components have been measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and a model of the He3 polarization loss based on the measured relaxation rates and the gas flow is in agreement with a He3 polarization measurement using neutron transmission.

  11. The Viking gas exchange experiment results from Chryse and Utopia surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, V. I.; Berdahl, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Immediate gas changes occurred when untreated Martian surface samples were humidified and/or wet by an aqueous nutrient medium in the Viking lander gas exchange experiment. The evolutions of N2, CO2, and Ar are mainly associated with soil surface desorption caused by water vapor, while O2 evolution is primarily associated with decomposition of superoxides inferred to be present on Mars. On recharges with fresh nutrient and test gas, only CO2 was given off, and its rate of evolution decreased with each recharge. This CO2 evolution is thought to come from the oxidation of organics present in the nutrient by gamma Fe2O3 in the surface samples. Atmospheric analyses were also performed at both sites. The mean atmospheric composition from four analyses is N2, 2.3%; O2, not greater than 0.15%; Ar, 1.5% and CO2, 96.2%.

  12. Are carbon and nitrogen exchange between fungi and the orchid Goodyera repens affected by irradiance?

    PubMed Central

    Liebel, Heiko T.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The green orchid Goodyera repens has been shown to transfer carbon to its mycorrhizal partner, and this flux may therefore be affected by light availability. This study aimed to test whether the C and N exchange between plant and fungus is dependent on light availability, and in addition addressed the question of whether flowering and/or fruiting individuals of G. repens compensate for changes in leaf chlorophyll concentration with changes in C and N flows from fungus to plant. Methods The natural abundances of stable isotopes of plant C and N were used to infer changes in fluxes between orchid and fungus across natural gradients of irradiance at five sites. Mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of G. repens were identified by molecular analyses. Chlorophyll concentrations in the leaves of the orchid and of reference plants were measured directly in the field. Key Results Leaf δ13C values of G. repens responded to changes in light availability in a similar manner to autotrophic reference plants, and different mycorrhizal fungal associations also did not affect the isotope abundance patterns of the orchid. Flowering/fruiting individuals had lower leaf total N and chlorophyll concentrations, which is most probably explained by N investments to form flowers, seeds and shoot. Conclusions The results indicate that mycorrhizal physiology is relatively fixed in G. repens, and changes in the amount and direction of C flow between plant and fungus were not observed to depend on light availability. The orchid may instead react to low-light sites through increased clonal growth. The orchid does not compensate for low leaf total N and chlorophyll concentrations by using a 13C- and 15N-enriched fungal source. PMID:25538109

  13. Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange across contrasting biogeochemical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Ryan; Schneider-Zapp, Klaus; Upstill-Goddard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Air-sea gas exchange is important to the global partitioning of CO2.Exchange fluxes are products of an air-sea gas concentration difference, ΔC, and a gas transfer velocity, kw. The latter is controlled by the rate of turbulent diffusion at the air-sea interface but it cannot be directly measured and has a high uncertainty that is now considered one of the greatest challenges to quantifying net global air-sea CO2 exchange ...(Takahashi et al., 2009). One important control on kw is exerted by sea surface surfactants that arise both naturally from biological processes and through anthropogenic activity. They influence gas exchange in two fundamental ways: as a monolayer physical barrier and through modifying sea surface hydrodynamics and hence turbulent energy transfer. These effects have been demonstrated in the laboratory with artificial surfactants ...(Bock et al., 1999; Goldman et al., 1988) and through purposeful surfactant releases in coastal waters .(.).........().(Brockmann et al., 1982) and in the open ocean (Salter et al., 2011). Suppression of kwin these field experiments was ~5-55%. While changes in both total surfactant concentration and the composition of the natural surfactant pool might be expected to impact kw, the required in-situ studies are lacking. New data collected from the coastal North Sea in 2012-2013 shows significant spatio-temporal variability in the surfactant activity of organic matter within the sea surface microlayer that ranges from 0.07-0.94 mg/L T-X-100 (AC voltammetry). The surfactant activities show a strong winter/summer seasonal bias and general decrease in concentration with increasing distance from the coastline possibly associated with changing terrestrial vs. phytoplankton sources. Gas exchange experiments of this seawater using a novel laboratory tank and gas tracers (CH4 and SF6) demonstrate a 12-45% reduction in kw compared to surfactant-free water. Seasonally there is higher gas exchange suppression in the summer

  14. A mass balance method for non-intrusive measurements of surface-air trace gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denmead, O. T.; Harper, L. A.; Freney, J. R.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Leuning, R.; Sharpe, R. R.

    A mass balance method is described for calculating gas production from a surface or volume source in a small test plot from measurements of differences in the horizontal fluxes of the gas across upwind and downwind boundaries. It employs a square plot, 24 m×24 m, with measurements of gas concentration at four heights (up to 3.5 m) along each of the four boundaries. Gas concentrations are multiplied by the appropriate vector winds to yield the horizontal fluxes at each height on each boundary. The difference between these fluxes integrated over downwind and upwind boundaries represents production. Illustrations of the method, which involve exchanges of methane and carbon dioxide, are drawn from experiments with landfills, pastures and grazing animals. Tests included calculation of recovery rates from known gas releases and comparisons with a conventional micrometeorological approach and a backward dispersion model. The method performed satisfactorily in all cases. Its sensitivity for measuring exchanges of CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O in various scenarios was examined. As employed by us, the mass balance method can suffer from errors arising from the large number of gas analyses required for a flux determination, and becomes unreliable when there are light winds and variable wind directions. On the other hand, it is non-disturbing, has a simple theoretical basis, is independent of atmospheric stability or the shape of the wind profile, and is appropriate for flux measurement in situations where conventional micrometeorological methods can not be used, e.g. for small plots, elevated point sources, and heterogeneous surface sources.

  15. Effect of a patent foramen ovale on pulmonary gas exchange efficiency at rest and during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, Andrew T.; Stickland, Michael K.; Amann, Markus; O'Brien, Matthew J.; Hokanson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is ∼30%, and this source of right-to-left shunt could result in greater pulmonary gas exchange impairment at rest and during exercise. The aim of this work was to determine if individuals with an asymptomatic PFO (PFO+) have greater pulmonary gas exchange inefficiency at rest and during exercise than subjects without a PFO (PFO−). Separated by 1 h of rest, 8 PFO+ and 8 PFO− subjects performed two incremental cycle ergometer exercise tests to voluntary exhaustion while breathing either room air or hypoxic gas [fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) = 0.12]. Using echocardiography, we detected small, intermittent boluses of saline contrast bubbles entering directly into the left atrium within 3 heart beats at rest and during both exercise conditions in PFO+. These findings suggest a qualitatively small intracardiac shunt at rest and during exercise in PFO+. The alveolar-to-arterial oxygen difference (AaDo2) was significantly (P < 0.05) different between PFO+ and PFO− in normoxia (5.9 ± 5.1 vs. 0.5 ± 3.5 mmHg) and hypoxia (10.1 ± 5.9 vs. 4.1 ± 3.1 mmHg) at rest, but not during exercise. However, arterial oxygen saturation was significantly different between PFO+ and PFO− at peak exercise in normoxia (94.3 ± 0.9 vs. 95.8 ± 1.0%) as a result of a significant difference in esophageal temperature (38.4 ± 0.3 vs. 38.0 ± 0.3°C). An asymptomatic PFO contributes to pulmonary gas exchange inefficiency at rest but not during exercise in healthy humans and therefore does not explain intersubject variability in the AaDo2 at maximal exercise. PMID:21372097

  16. A parameter model of gas exchange for the seasonal sea ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, B.; McGillis, W. R.; Perovich, D.; Zappa, C. J.; Schlosser, P.

    2013-07-01

    Carbon budgets for the polar oceans require better constraint on air-sea gas exchange in the sea ice zone (SIZ). Here, we utilize recent advances in the theory of turbulence, mixing and air-sea flux in the ice-ocean boundary layer (IOBL) to formulate a simple model for gas exchange when the surface ocean is partially covered by sea ice. The gas transfer velocity (k) is related to shear-driven and convection-driven turbulence in the aqueous mass boundary layer, and to the mean-squared wave slope at the air-sea interface. We use the model to estimate k along the drift track of Ice-Tethered Profilers (ITPs) in the Arctic. Individual estimates of daily-averaged k from ITP drifts ranged between 1.1 and 22 m d-1, and the fraction of open water (f) ranged from 0 to 0.83. Converted to area-weighted effective transfer velocities (keff), the minimum value of keff was 10-5 m d-1 near f = 0 with values exceeding keff = 5 m d-1 at f = 0.4. The largest values of k occurred during the periods when ice cover around the ITP was changing rapidly; either in advance or retreat. The model indicates that effects from shear and convection in the sea ice zone contribute an additional 40% to the magnitude of keff, beyond what would be predicted from an estimate of keff based solely upon a windspeed parameterization. Although the ultimate scaling relationship for gas exchange in the sea ice zone will require validation in laboratory and field studies, the basic parameter model described here demonstrates that it is feasible to formulate estimates of k based upon properties of the IOBL using data sources that presently exist.

  17. A parameter model of gas exchange for the seasonal sea ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, B.; McGillis, W. R.; Perovich, D.; Zappa, C. J.; Schlosser, P.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon budgets for the polar oceans require better constraint on air-sea gas exchange in the sea ice zone (SIZ). Here, we utilize advances in the theory of turbulence, mixing and air-sea flux in the ice-ocean boundary layer (IOBL) to formulate a simple model for gas exchange when the surface ocean is partially covered by sea ice. The gas transfer velocity (k) is related to shear-driven and convection-driven turbulence in the aqueous mass boundary layer, and to the mean-squared wave slope at the air-sea interface. We use the model to estimate k along the drift track of ice-tethered profilers (ITPs) in the Arctic. Individual estimates of daily-averaged k from ITP drifts ranged between 1.1 and 22 m d-1, and the fraction of open water (f) ranged from 0 to 0.83. Converted to area-weighted effective transfer velocities (keff), the minimum value of keff was 10-55 m d-1 near f = 0 with values exceeding keff = 5 m d-1 at f = 0.4. The model indicates that effects from shear and convection in the sea ice zone contribute an additional 40% to the magnitude of keff, beyond what would be predicted from an estimate of keff based solely upon a wind speed parameterization. Although the ultimate scaling relationship for gas exchange in the sea ice zone will require validation in laboratory and field studies, the basic parameter model described here demonstrates that it is feasible to formulate estimates of k based upon properties of the IOBL using data sources that presently exist.

  18. An Experimental Investigation of an Exhaust-gas-to-air Heat Exchanger for Use on Jet-stack-equipped Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalder, Jackson R; Spies, Ray J , Jr

    1948-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the loss in exhaust-jet thrust and engine power resulting from the insertion of an exhaust-gas-to-air heat exchanger in a jet-type exhaust stack of an aircraft engine. The thermal performance of the heat exchanger was also determined.

  19. 30 CFR 250.120 - How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my royalty payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does injecting, storing, or treating gas... Performance Standards § 250.120 How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my royalty payments? (a... and treat it at an off-lease or off-unit location, you must pay royalties when the gas is...

  20. Leaf-level gas exchange and scaling-up of forest understory carbon fixation rates with a ``patch-scale'' canopy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedler, M.; Geyer, R.; Heindl, B.; Hahn, S.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    1996-03-01

    During the Hartheim experiment (HartX) 1992, conducted in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany, we estimated water vapor flux from the understory by several methods as reported in Wedler et al. (this issue). We also examined the photosynthetic gas exchange of the dominant understory species Brachypodium pinnatum, Carex alba, and Carex flacca at the leaf level with an CO2/H2O porometer. A mechanisticallybased leaf gas exchange model was parameterized for these understory species and validated via the measured diurnal courses of carbon dioxide exchange. Leaf CO2 gas exchange was scaled-up to patch- and then to stand-level utilizing the leaf gas exchange model as a component of the canopy light interception/energy balance model GAS-FLUX, and by further considering variation in vegetation “patch-type” distribution, patch-specific spatial structure, patch-type leaf area index, and microclimate beneath the tree canopy. At patch-level, C. alba exhibited the lowest net CO2 uptake of ca. 75 mmol m-2 d-1 due to a low leaf-level photosynthetic capacity, whereas net CO2 fixation of B. pinnatum- and C. flacca-patches was approx. 178 and 184 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively. Highest CO2 uptake was estimated for mixed patches where B. pinnatum grew together with the sedge species C. alba or C. flacca. Scaling-up of leaf gas exchange to stand level resulted in an estimated average rate of total CO2 fixation by the graminoid understory patches of approximately 93 mmol m-2 d-1 during the HartX period. The conservative gas exchange behavior of C. alba at Hartheim and its apparent success in space capture seems to affect overall functioning of this pine forest ecosystem by limiting understory CO2 uptake. The CO2 uptake by the understory is approximately 20% of stand total CO2 uptake. CO2 uptake fluxes mirror the relative differences in water loss from the understory and crown layer during the HartX period. Comparative measurements indicate that understory vegetation in spruce and pine

  1. Experimental Investigation of Gas-Side Performance of a Compact Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, Louis

    1959-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure-drop data were obtained experimentally for the gas side of a liquid-metal to air, compact finned-tube heat exchanger. The heat exchanger was fabricated from 0.185-inch Inconel tubing in an inline array. The fins were made of 310 stainless-steel- clad copper with a total thickness of 0.010 inch, and the fin pitch was 15.3 fins per inch. The liquid used as the heating medium was sodium. The heat-exchanger inlet gas temperature was varied from 5100 to 1260 R by burning JP fuel for airflow rates of 0.4 to 10.5 pounds per second corresponding to an approximate Reynolds number range of 300 to 9000. The sodium inlet temperature was held at 1400 R with the exception of a few runs taken at 1700 and 1960 R. The maximum ratio of surface temperature to air bulk temperature was 1.45. Friction-factor data with heat transfer were best represented by a single line when the density and viscosity of Reynolds number were evaluated at the average film temperature. At the lower Reynolds numbers reported, the friction data with heat transfer plotted slightly above the friction data without heat transfer. The density of the friction factor was calculated at the average bulk temperature. Heat-transfer results of this investigation were correlated by evaluating the physical properties of air (specific heat, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) at the film temperature.

  2. The impact of lower sea-ice extent on Arctic greenhouse-gas exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Christensen, Torben R.; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Rysgaard, Søren; McGuire, A. David; Miller, Paul A.; Walker, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, Arctic sea-ice extent plummeted to a new record low: two times lower than the 1979–2000 average. Often, record lows in sea-ice cover are hailed as an example of climate change impacts in the Arctic. Less apparent, however, are the implications of reduced sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean for marine–atmosphere CO2 exchange. Sea-ice decline has been connected to increasing air temperatures at high latitudes. Temperature is a key controlling factor in the terrestrial exchange of CO2 and methane, and therefore the greenhouse-gas balance of the Arctic. Despite the large potential for feedbacks, many studies do not connect the diminishing sea-ice extent with changes in the interaction of the marine and terrestrial Arctic with the atmosphere. In this Review, we assess how current understanding of the Arctic Ocean and high-latitude ecosystems can be used to predict the impact of a lower sea-ice cover on Arctic greenhouse-gas exchange.

  3. Peach Water Relations, Gas Exchange, Growth and Shoot Mortality under Water Deficit in Semi-Arid Weather Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Génard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i) reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS) and severe (SS) water stress compared to low (LS) stress during growth season) and (ii) reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest). Our field data analysis suggested a Ψstem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves – may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality. PMID:25830350

  4. Peach water relations, gas exchange, growth and shoot mortality under water deficit in semi-arid weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Génard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i) reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS) and severe (SS) water stress compared to low (LS) stress during growth season) and (ii) reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest). Our field data analysis suggested a Ψstem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves--may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality.

  5. Ethylene reduces plant gas exchange and growth of lettuce grown from seed to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure.

    PubMed

    He, Chuanjiu; Davies, Fred T

    2012-03-01

    Naturally occurring high levels of ethylene can be a problem in spaceflight and controlled environment agriculture (CEA) leading to sterility and irregular plant growth. There are engineering and safety advantages of growing plants under hypobaria (low pressure) for space habitation. The goals of this research were to successfully grow lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Buttercrunch) in a long-term study from seed to harvest under hypobaric conditions, and to investigate how endogenously produced ethylene affects gas exchange and plant growth from seed germination to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure conditions. Lettuce was grown under two levels of total gas pressure [hypobaric or ambient (25 or 101 kPa)] in a long-term, 32-day study. Significant levels of endogenous ethylene occurred by day-15 causing reductions in photosynthesis, dark-period respiration, and a subsequent decrease in plant growth. Hypobaria did not mitigate the adverse ethylene effects on plant growth. Seed germination was not adversely affected by hypobaria, but was reduced by hypoxia (6 kPa pO(2)). Under hypoxia, seed germination was higher under hypobaria than ambient total pressure. This research shows that lettuce can be grown from seed to harvest under hypobaria (≅25% of normal earth ambient total pressure).

  6. Effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on performance of natural gas liquefaction with mixed refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2012-12-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out to investigate the effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on the performance of natural gas (NG) liquefaction with mixed refrigerant (MR). A cold stream (low-pressure MR) is in thermal contact with opposite flow of two hot streams (high-pressure MR and NG feed) at the same time. In typical process simulation with commercial software (such as Aspen HYSYS®), the liquefaction performance is estimated with a method of minimum temperature approach, simply assuming that two hot streams have the same temperature. In this study, local energy balance equations are rigorously solved with temperature-dependent properties of MR and NG feed, and are linked to the thermodynamic cycle analysis. The figure of merit (FOM) is quantitatively examined in terms of UA (the product of overall heat transfer coefficient and heat exchange area) between respective streams. In a single-stage MR process, it is concluded that the temperature profile from HYSYS is difficult to realize in practice, and the FOM value from HYSYS is an over-estimate, but can be closely achieved with a proper heat-exchanger design. It is also demonstrated that there exists a unique optimal ratio in three UA's, and no direct heat exchanger between hot streams is recommended.

  7. Hypoxia and hypercarbia in endophagous insects: Larval position in the plant gas exchange network is key.

    PubMed

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Casas, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Gas composition is an important component of any micro-environment. Insects, as the vast majority of living organisms, depend on O2 and CO2 concentrations in the air they breathe. Low O2 (hypoxia), and high CO2 (hypercarbia) levels can have a dramatic effect. For phytophagous insects that live within plant tissues (endophagous lifestyle), gas is exchanged between ambient air and the atmosphere within the insect habitat. The insect larva contributes to the modification of this environment by expiring CO2. Yet, knowledge on the gas exchange network in endophagous insects remains sparse. Our study identified mechanisms that modulate gas composition in the habitat of endophagous insects. Our aim was to show that the mere position of the insect larva within plant tissues could be used as a proxy for estimating risk of occurrence of hypoxia and hypercarbia, despite the widely diverse life history traits of these organisms. We developed a conceptual framework for a gas diffusion network determining gas composition in endophagous insect habitats. We applied this framework to mines, galls and insect tunnels (borers) by integrating the numerous obstacles along O2 and CO2 pathways. The nature and the direction of gas transfers depended on the physical structure of the insect habitat, the photosynthesis activity as well as stomatal behavior in plant tissues. We identified the insect larva position within the gas diffusion network as a predictor of risk exposure to hypoxia and hypercarbia. We ranked endophagous insect habitats in terms of risk of exposure to hypoxia and/or hypercarbia, from the more to the less risky as cambium mines>borer tunnels≫galls>bark mines>mines in aquatic plants>upper and lower surface mines. Furthermore, we showed that the photosynthetically active tissues likely assimilate larval CO2 produced. In addition, temperature of the microhabitat and atmospheric CO2 alter gas composition in the insect habitat. We predict that (i) hypoxia indirectly favors

  8. Hypoxia and hypercarbia in endophagous insects: Larval position in the plant gas exchange network is key.

    PubMed

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Casas, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Gas composition is an important component of any micro-environment. Insects, as the vast majority of living organisms, depend on O2 and CO2 concentrations in the air they breathe. Low O2 (hypoxia), and high CO2 (hypercarbia) levels can have a dramatic effect. For phytophagous insects that live within plant tissues (endophagous lifestyle), gas is exchanged between ambient air and the atmosphere within the insect habitat. The insect larva contributes to the modification of this environment by expiring CO2. Yet, knowledge on the gas exchange network in endophagous insects remains sparse. Our study identified mechanisms that modulate gas composition in the habitat of endophagous insects. Our aim was to show that the mere position of the insect larva within plant tissues could be used as a proxy for estimating risk of occurrence of hypoxia and hypercarbia, despite the widely diverse life history traits of these organisms. We developed a conceptual framework for a gas diffusion network determining gas composition in endophagous insect habitats. We applied this framework to mines, galls and insect tunnels (borers) by integrating the numerous obstacles along O2 and CO2 pathways. The nature and the direction of gas transfers depended on the physical structure of the insect habitat, the photosynthesis activity as well as stomatal behavior in plant tissues. We identified the insect larva position within the gas diffusion network as a predictor of risk exposure to hypoxia and hypercarbia. We ranked endophagous insect habitats in terms of risk of exposure to hypoxia and/or hypercarbia, from the more to the less risky as cambium mines>borer tunnels≫galls>bark mines>mines in aquatic plants>upper and lower surface mines. Furthermore, we showed that the photosynthetically active tissues likely assimilate larval CO2 produced. In addition, temperature of the microhabitat and atmospheric CO2 alter gas composition in the insect habitat. We predict that (i) hypoxia indirectly favors

  9. Unconventional Shale-Gas Resource Systems and Processes Affecting Gas Generation, Retention, Storage, and Flow Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvie, D. M.; Philp, R. P.; Jarvie, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical and petrophysical characterization of various shale-gas systems in the U.S. indicates a variety of unconventional shale-gas system types. The most basic distinction is gas type: biogenic and thermogenic, although there can also be mixtures of the two gas types. Thermogenic shale-gas systems are further segregated into various sub-types depending on geochemistry and geology. The shale-gas system categories are: (1) high thermal maturity shale; (2) low thermal maturity shales; (3) mixed lithology intra-formational systems containing shale, sands, and silts; (4) inter-formational systems where gas is generated in a mature shale and stored in a less mature shale, and (5) mixed systems. A key difference among these shale-gas systems are initial gas flow rates. High thermal maturity systems tend to have much higher gas flow rates than low maturity systems because of gas charge and storage mechanisms. Certainly other non-geochemical factors, such as shale mineralogy, are extremely important in being able to stimulate these shales to flow gas. Geochemical comparison of the Antrim Shale (Michigan Basin), New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin), and Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin) are used to illustrate these different systems as well as other systems. These systems show significant differences in gas type, organic richness, thermal maturity, and gas flow rates. Gas flow rates are then dependent upon the amount of gas stored (or generated) and the ability to release gas from adsorption sites as well as connecting to micro-reservoir compartments.

  10. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, K.E.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of these materials to a simulated coal combustion environment for relatively short periods of time (10-50 hours). Heat exchanger tubes from DuPont Lanxide Composite Inc. were cut and infiltrated with Cr by heating in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed. This resulted in continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. The Cr-free and the Cr-infiltrated specimens were reacted with the molten Illinois No. 6 slag for 2 and 20 h at 1260{degrees}C, and the reaction layers examined with SEM and EDX. In the Cr-free specimens, the segregation of Fe and the precipitation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were detected near the liquid/gas interface, but no evidence of corrosion was present. In the Cr-infiltrate specimens, corrosion was evident, since a rearrangement and segregation of the Cr-rich grains occurred toward the surface of the molten slag. In addition, evidence of the diffusion of major quantities of Fe was observed from the liquid slag into the Cr-rich layer formed by infiltration.

  11. Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in Allende and solar nebula gas.

    PubMed

    Yurimoto, H; Ito, M; Nagasawa, H

    1998-12-01

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope composition (approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other CAIs. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the CAI started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the CAI. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.

  12. Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in allende and solar nebula Gas

    PubMed

    Yurimoto; Ito; Nagasawa

    1998-12-01

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope compositions ( approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other CAIs. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the CAI started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the CAI. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.

  13. Optical Pumping Spin Exchange 3He Gas Cells for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Kim, A.; Jung, Y.; Woo, S.; Yurov, M.; Jang, J.

    2009-08-01

    We present a device for spin-exchange optical pumping system to produce large quantities of polarized noble gases for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A method and design of apparatus for pumping the polarization of noble gases is described. The method and apparatus enable production, storage and usage of hyperpolarized noble gases for different purposes, including Magnetic Resonance Imaging of human and animal subjects. Magnetic imaging agents breathed into lungs can be observed by the radio waves of the MRI scanner and report back physical and functional information about lung's health and desease. The technique known as spin exchange optical pumping is used. Nuclear magnetic resonance is implemented to measure the polarization of hyperpolarized gas. The cells prepared and sealed under high vacuum after handling Alkali metals into the cell and filling with the 3He-N2 mixture. The cells could be refilled. The 3He reaches around 50% polarization in 5-15 hours.

  14. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3.5 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.; Glover, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  15. Estimating gas exchange of CO2 and CH4 between headwater systems and the atmosphere in Southwest Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somlai, Celia; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Bastviken, David; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying the role of inland water systems in terms of carbon sinks and sources and their connection to the terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes is fundamental for improving the balance approach of regional and global carbon budgets. Recent research showed that freshwater bodies emit significant amounts of CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere. The extent of the emissions from small streams and headwaters, however, remains uncertain due to a limited availability of data. Studies have shown that headwater systems receive most of the terrestrial organic carbon, have the highest dissolved CO2 concentration and the highest gas exchange velocities and cover the largest fractional surface area within fluvial networks. The gas exchange between inland waters and the atmosphere is controlled by two factors: the difference between the dissolved gas concentration and its atmospheric equilibrium concentration, and the gas exchange velocity. The direct measurement of the dissolved gas concentration of greenhouse gases can be measured straightforwardly, for example, by gas chromatography from headspace extraction of water sample. In contrast, direct measurement of gas exchange velocity is more complex and time consuming, as simultaneous measurements with a volatile and nonvolatile inert tracer gas are needed. Here we analyze measurements of gas exchange velocities, concentrations and fluxes of dissolved CO2 and CH4, as well as loads of total organic and inorganic carbon in 10 reaches in headwater streams in Southwest Sweden. We compare the gas exchange velocities measured directly through tracer injections with those estimated through various empirical approaches, which are based on modelled and measured current velocity, stream depth and slope. Furthermore, we estimate the resulting uncertainties of the flux estimates. We also present different time series of dissolved CO2, CH4 and O2 concentration, water temperature, barometric pressure, electro conductivity, and pH values

  16. A modified photo- and magnetoacoustic multigas analyzer applied in gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Clemensen, P; Christensen, P; Norsk, P; Grønlund, J

    1994-06-01

    The feasibility of replacing a conventional mass spectrometer (MS) with a specially modified multicomponent (O2, CO2, Freon 22, and SF6) acoustic infrared and paramagnetic (IR/PM) gas analyzer in inert gas-rebreathing and metabolic gas exchange measurements has been investigated. Rebreathing variables were determined simultaneously with the MS and IR/PM analyzers in duplicate measurements at rest and during submaximal exercise in 10 subjects. The differences (means +/- SD, IR/PM - MS) were 0.028 +/- 0.048 liters [functional residual capacity (FRC)], 0.18 +/- 0.38 l/min [cardiac output (Qc)], -0.006 +/- 0.030 l/min [O2 consumption (VO2)], and -33 +/- 108 ml [combined lung tissue and capillary blood volume (Vti,c)]. The coefficients of variation on repeated estimates were 5.8% (FRC), 5.4% (Qc), 6.2% (VO2), and 17% (Vti,c) with the IR/PM analyzer and 5.9% (FRC), 4.2% (Qc), 5.0% (VO2), and 9.8% (Vti,c) with the MS. The differences (IR/PM - MS) obtained in mixed-expirate measurements were -0.006 +/- 0.020 l/min (VO2) and 0.020 +/- 0.021 l/min (CO2 production). Breath-by-breath estimates of VO2 and CO2 production with the IR/PM analyzer were, on average, 2.4 and 4.4% higher than the MS estimates, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the IR/PM gas analyzer, when appropriately modified, can substitute for a complex MS in a variety of noninvasive pulmonary gas exchange measurements.

  17. Justice at the millennium, a decade later: a meta-analytic test of social exchange and affect-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Scott, Brent A; Rodell, Jessica B; Long, David M; Zapata, Cindy P; Conlon, Donald E; Wesson, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Although a flurry of meta-analyses summarized the justice literature at the turn of the millennium, interest in the topic has surged in the decade since. In particular, the past decade has witnessed the rise of social exchange theory as the dominant lens for examining reactions to justice, and the emergence of affect as a complementary lens for understanding such reactions. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to test direct, mediating, and moderating hypotheses that were inspired by those 2 perspectives, to gauge their adequacy as theoretical guides for justice research. Drawing on a review of 493 independent samples, our findings revealed a number of insights that were not included in prior meta-analyses. With respect to social exchange theory, our results revealed that the significant relationships between justice and both task performance and citizenship behavior were mediated by indicators of social exchange quality (trust, organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, and leader-member exchange), though such mediation was not apparent for counterproductive behavior. The strength of those relationships did not vary according to whether the focus of the justice matched the target of the performance behavior, contrary to popular assumptions in the literature, or according to whether justice was referenced to a specific event or a more general entity. With respect to affect, our results showed that justice-performance relationships were mediated by positive and negative affect, with the relevant affect dimension varying across justice and performance variables. Our discussion of these findings focuses on the merit in integrating the social exchange and affect lenses in future research.

  18. Liquid ventilation improves pulmonary function, gas exchange, and lung injury in a model of respiratory failure.

    PubMed Central

    Hirschl, R B; Parent, A; Tooley, R; McCracken, M; Johnson, K; Shaffer, T H; Wolfson, M R; Bartlett, R H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated gas exchange, pulmonary function, and lung histology during perfluorocarbon liquid ventilation (LV) when compared with gas ventilation (GV) in the setting of severe respiratory failure. BACKGROUND: The efficacy of LV in the setting of respiratory failure has been evaluated in premature animals with surfactant deficiency. However, very little work has been performed in evaluating the efficacy of LV in older animal models of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A stable model of lung injury was induced in 12 young sheep weighing 16.4 +/- 3.0 kg using right atrial injection of 0.07 mL/kg of oleic acid followed by saline pulmonary lavage and bijugular venovenous extracorporeal life support (ECLS). For the first 30 minutes on ECLS, all animals were ventilated with gas. Animals were then ventilated with either 15 mL/kg gas (GV, n = 6) or perflubron ([PFC], LV, n = 6) over the ensuing 2.5 hours. Subsequently, ECLS was discontinued in five of the GV animals and five of the LV animals, and GV or LV continued for 1 hour or until death. MAIN FINDINGS: Physiologic shunt (Qps/Qt) was significantly reduced in the LV animals when compared with the GV animals (LV = 31 +/- 10%; GV = 93 +/- 4%; p < 0.001) after 3 hours of ECLS. At the same time point, pulmonary compliance (CT) was significantly increased in the LV group when compared with the GV group (LV = 1.04 +/- 0.19 mL/cm H2O/kg; GV = 0.41 +/- 0.02 mL/cm H2O/kg; p < 0.001). In addition, the ECLS flow rate required to maintain the PaO2 in the 50- to 80-mm Hg range was substantially and significantly lower in the LV group when compared with that of the GV group (LV = 14 +/- 5 mL/kg/min; GV = 87 +/- 15 mL/kg/min; p < 0.001). All of the GV animals died after discontinuation of ECLS, whereas all the LV animals demonstrated effective gas exchange without extracorporeal support for 1 hour (p < 0.01). Lung biopsy light microscopy demonstrated a marked reduction in alveolar hemorrhage

  19. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Howard S; Peoples, Seth J; Davison, Alan W; Chappelka, Arthur H; Somers, Greg L; Thomley, Jill E; Booker, Fitzgerald L

    2012-01-01

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates at Purchase Knob, a high elevation site in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased with increased foliar stipple. Sensitive plants had lower photosynthetic rates for all leaves, except the very youngest and oldest when compared to tolerant plants. Stomatal conductance decreased with increasing leaf age, but no ozone-sensitivity differences were found. Lower leaves had less starch than upper ones, while leaves on sensitive plants had less than those on tolerant plants. These results show that ambient levels of ozone in Great Smoky Mountains National Park can adversely affect gas exchange, water use efficiency and leaf starch content in sensitive coneflower plants. Persistence of sensitive genotypes in the Park may be due to physiological recovery in low ozone years. PMID:22035928

  20. Simultaneous Measurement of Acetylene Reduction and Respiratory Gas Exchange of Attached Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Lawrence J.; Tjepkema, John D.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of acetylene reduction, carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen uptake by individual root nodules of intact nitrogen-fixing plants (Alnus rubra Bong.). The nodules were enclosed in a temperature-controlled leak-tight cuvette. Assay gas mixtures were passed through the cuvette at a constant, known flow rate and gas exchange was measured by the difference between inlet and outlet gas compositions. Gas concentrations were assayed by a combination of an automated gas chromatograph and a programmable electronic integrator. Carbon dioxide and ethylene evolution were determined with a coefficient of variation which was less than 2%, whereas the coefficient of variation for oxygen uptake measurements was less than 5%. Nodules subjected to repeated removal from and reinsertion into the cuvette and to long exposures of 10% v/v acetylene showed no irreversible decline in respiration or acetylene reduction. This system offers long-term stability and freedom from disturbance artifacts plus the ability to monitor continuously, rapidly and specifically the changes in root nodule activity caused by environmental perturbation. PMID:16662496

  1. The sexual erotic market as an analytical framework for understanding erotic-affective exchanges in interracial sexually intimate and affective relationships.

    PubMed

    Vigoya, Mara Viveros

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which erotic-affective exchanges in interracial relationships have been analysed in Latin America. It considers how race, gender and class operate within a market of values such that erotic, affective and economic status are shaped by racial, gender and class hierarchies. In this paper I analyse historical and social arrangements that embody the region's political economy of race and sex. Such a perspective allows me to address the simultaneous co-existence of socio-racial exclusion and inclusion and the repressive and productive effects of power, attraction and anxiety as aspects of lived experiences in relation to sexuality. From there, I outline an analytical framework that references an erotic or pleasure-based market in which capital and other resources are exchanged from a structural perspective stressing relationship alliances. I conclude by identifying the scope and limits of such an approach. PMID:25431884

  2. Using Riverboat-Mounted Eddy Covariance for Direct Measurements of Air-water Gas Exchange in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Freitas, H.; Read, E.; Goulden, M. L.; Rocha, H.

    2007-12-01

    Gas evasion from Amazonian rivers and lakes to the atmosphere has been estimated to play an important role in the regional budget of carbon dioxide (Richey et al., 2002) and the global budget of methane (Melack et al., 2004). These flux estimates were calculated by combining remote sensing estimates of inundation area with water-side concentration gradients and gas transfer rates (piston velocities) estimated primarily from floating chamber measurements (footprint ~1 m2). The uncertainty in these fluxes was large, attributed primarily to uncertainty in the gas exchange parameterization. Direct measurements of the gas exchange coefficient are needed to improve the parameterizations in these environments, and therefore reduce the uncertainty in fluxes. The micrometeorological technique of eddy covariance is attractive since it is a direct measurement of gas exchange that samples over a much larger area than floating chambers, and is amenable to use from a moving platform. We present eddy covariance carbon dioxide exchange measurements made using a small riverboat in rivers and lakes in the central Amazon near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Water-side carbon dioxide concentration was measured in situ, and the gas exchange coefficient was calculated. We found the piston velocity at a site on the Amazon River to be similar to existing ocean-based parameterizations, whereas the piston velocity at a site on the Tapajos River was roughly a factor 5 higher. We hypothesize that the enhanced gas exchange at the Tapajos site was due to a shallow upwind fetch. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of boat-based eddy covariance on these rivers, and also the utility of a mobile platform to investigate spatial variability of gas exchange.

  3. Operation of an ADR Using Helium Exchange Gas as a Substitute for a Failed Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, P.; DiPirro, M.; Kimball, M.; Sneiderman, G.; Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C.; Kelley, R.; Fujimoto, R.; Yoshida, S.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments on the Japanese Astro-H mission, which is currently planned for launch in late 2015. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV) using a 6 6 pixel array of microcalorimeters cooled to 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that rejects heat to either a superfluid helium tank (at 1.2 K) or to a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Four gas-gap heat switches are used in the assembly to manage heat flow between the ADR stages and the heat sinks. The engineering model (EM) ADR was assembled and performance tested at NASA/GSFC in November 2011, and subsequently installed in the EM dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Japan. During the first cooldown in July 2012, a failure of the heat switch that linked the two colder stages of the ADR to the helium tank was observed. Operation of the ADR requires some mechanism for thermally linking the salt pills to the heat sink, and then thermally isolating them. With the failed heat switch unable to perform this function, an alternate plan was devised which used carefully controlled amounts of exchange gas in the dewar's guard vacuum to facilitate heat exchange. The process was successfully demonstrated in November 2012, allowing the ADR to cool the detectors to 50 mK for hold times in excess of 10 h. This paper describes the exchange-gas-assisted recycling process, and the strategies used to avoid helium contamination of the detectors at low temperature.

  4. Operation of an ADR using helium exchange gas as a substitute for a failed heat switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, P.; DiPirro, M.; Kimball, M.; Sneiderman, G.; Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C.; Kelley, R.; Fujimoto, R.; Yoshida, S.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.

    2014-11-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments on the Japanese Astro-H mission, which is currently planned for launch in late 2015. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV) using a 6 × 6 pixel array of microcalorimeters cooled to 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that rejects heat to either a superfluid helium tank (at 1.2 K) or to a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Four gas-gap heat switches are used in the assembly to manage heat flow between the ADR stages and the heat sinks. The engineering model (EM) ADR was assembled and performance tested at NASA/GSFC in November 2011, and subsequently installed in the EM dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Japan. During the first cooldown in July 2012, a failure of the heat switch that linked the two colder stages of the ADR to the helium tank was observed. Operation of the ADR requires some mechanism for thermally linking the salt pills to the heat sink, and then thermally isolating them. With the failed heat switch unable to perform this function, an alternate plan was devised which used carefully controlled amounts of exchange gas in the dewar's guard vacuum to facilitate heat exchange. The process was successfully demonstrated in November 2012, allowing the ADR to cool the detectors to 50 mK for hold times in excess of 10 h. This paper describes the exchange-gas-assisted recycling process, and the strategies used to avoid helium contamination of the detectors at low temperature.

  5. Tritium labelled nucleotides: Heterogeneous metal catalyzed exchange labelling of ATP with tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, D.K. ); Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.; Wemmer, D.E. )

    1991-09-01

    Adenosine 5{prime} triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous solution has been labeled by exchange with tritium gas in the presence of palladium oxide catalyst. Comparison with our experiments using Pd/BaSO{sub 4} as the catalyst shows that we have obtained product with higher specific activity and improved chemical purity. {sup 3}H NMR spectroscopy of the tritiated ATP shows labelling in both the C-8 and C-2 positions, and the integral ratio of these positions was found to vary from 3:1 to 1:1 under different reaction conditions. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Nesting behaviour influences species-specific gas exchange across avian eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, Steven J.; Maurer, Golo; Thomas, Gavin H.; Hauber, Mark E.; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (GH2O) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell GH2O and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in GH2O has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments. We measured gas exchange through eggshell fragments in 151 British breeding bird species and fitted phylogenetically controlled, general linear models to test the relationship between GH2O and potential predictor parameters of each species. Of our 17 life-history traits, only two were retained in the final model: wet-incubating parent and nest type. Eggs of species where the parent habitually returned to the nest with wet plumage had significantly higher GH2O than those of parents that returned to the nest with dry plumage. Eggs of species nesting in ground burrows, cliffs and arboreal cups had significantly higher GH2O than those of species nesting on the ground in open nests or cups, in tree cavities and in shallow arboreal nests. Phylogenetic signal (measured as Pagel's λ) was intermediate in magnitude, suggesting that differences observed in the GH2O are dependent upon a combination of shared ancestry and species-specific life history and ecological traits. Although these data are correlational by nature, they are consistent with the hypothesis that parents constrained to return to the nest with wet plumage will increase the humidity of the nest environment, and the eggs of these species have evolved a higher GH2O to overcome this constraint and still achieve optimal water

  7. Hierarchy carbon paper for the gas diffusion layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chunyu; Wang, Baorong; Cheng, Xinqun

    This communication described the fabrication of a hierarchy carbon paper, and its application to the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The carbon paper was fabricated by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on carbon fibers via covalently assembling metal nanocatalysts. Surface morphology observation revealed a highly uniform distribution of hydrophobic materials within the carbon paper. The contact angle to water of this carbon paper was not only very large but also particularly even. Polarization measurements verified that the hierarchy carbon paper facilitated the self-humidifying of PEM fuel cells, which could be mainly attributed to its higher hydrophobic property as diagnosed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  8. Numerical simulation of gas dynamics and heat exchange tasks in fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuchenko, S. V.

    2014-11-12

    This report presents a PC-based program for solution gas dynamics and heat exchange mathematical tasks in fuel assemblies of the fast-neutron nuclear reactors. A fuel assembly consisting of bulk heat-generating elements, which are integrated together by the system of supply and pressure manifolds, is examined. Spherical heat-generating microelements, which contain nuclear fuel, are pulled into the heat-generating elements. Gaseous coolant proceed from supply manifolds to heat-generating elements, where it withdraws the nuclear reaction heat and assembles in pressure manifolds.

  9. Gas exchange dependency on diffusion coefficient: direct /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He comparisons in a small lake

    SciTech Connect

    Torgersen, T.; Mathieu, G.; Hesslein, R.H.; Broecker, W.S.

    1982-01-20

    A direct field comparison was conducted to determine the dependency of gas exchange coefficient (k/sub x/) on the diffusion coefficient (D/sub x/). The study also sought to confirm the enhanced vertical exchange properties of limnocorrals and similar enclosures. Gas exchange coefficients for /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He were determined in a small northern Ontario lake, using a /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H spike to gain the necessary precision. The results indicate that the gas exchange coefficient is functionally dependent on the diffusion coefficient raised to the 1.22/sub -35//sup + > 12/ power (k/sub x/ = f(D/sub x//sup 1.22)), clearly supporting the stagnant film model of gas exchange. Limnocorrals were found to have gas exchange rates up to 1.7 times higher than the whole lake in spite of the observation of more calm surface conditions in the corral than in the open lake. 33 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique for direct analysis of metal carbonyl gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Gunther, Detlef; Ohata, Masaki

    2014-10-21

    A novel gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique for the direct analysis of metal carbonyl gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was proposed and demonstrated in the present study. The technique is based on a transfer of gas into particle, which can be directly analyzed by ICPMS. Particles from metal carbonyl gases such as Cr(CO)6, Mo(CO)6, and W(CO)6 are formed by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonium (NH3) gases within a newly developed gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The reaction mechanism of the gas to particle conversion is based on either oxidation of metal carbonyl gas by O3 or agglomeration of metal oxide with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which is generated by the reaction of O3 and NH3. To separate the reaction gases (remaining O3 and NH3) from the formed particles, a previously reported gas exchange device (GED) was used and the in argon stabilized analyte particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS. This new technique provided limits of detection (LOD) of 0.15 pL L(-1) (0.32 ng m(-3)), 0.02 pL L(-1) (0.07 ng m(-3)), and 0.01 pL L(-1) (0.07 ng m(-3)) for Cr(CO)6, Mo(CO)6, and W(CO)6, respectively, which were 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than those conventional applied for detecting these gases, e.g., gas chromatography with electron captured detector (GC-ECD) as well as Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The achieved LODs were also similar or slightly better than those for ICPMS coupled to GC. Since the gas to particle conversion technique can achieve the direct measurement of metal carbonyl gases as well as the removal of reaction and ambient gases from metal carbonyl gases, the technique is considered to be well suited to monitor gas quality in semiconductor industry, engine exhaust gases, and or waste incineration products.

  11. Gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique for direct analysis of metal carbonyl gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Gunther, Detlef; Ohata, Masaki

    2014-10-21

    A novel gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique for the direct analysis of metal carbonyl gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was proposed and demonstrated in the present study. The technique is based on a transfer of gas into particle, which can be directly analyzed by ICPMS. Particles from metal carbonyl gases such as Cr(CO)6, Mo(CO)6, and W(CO)6 are formed by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonium (NH3) gases within a newly developed gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The reaction mechanism of the gas to particle conversion is based on either oxidation of metal carbonyl gas by O3 or agglomeration of metal oxide with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which is generated by the reaction of O3 and NH3. To separate the reaction gases (remaining O3 and NH3) from the formed particles, a previously reported gas exchange device (GED) was used and the in argon stabilized analyte particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS. This new technique provided limits of detection (LOD) of 0.15 pL L(-1) (0.32 ng m(-3)), 0.02 pL L(-1) (0.07 ng m(-3)), and 0.01 pL L(-1) (0.07 ng m(-3)) for Cr(CO)6, Mo(CO)6, and W(CO)6, respectively, which were 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than those conventional applied for detecting these gases, e.g., gas chromatography with electron captured detector (GC-ECD) as well as Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The achieved LODs were also similar or slightly better than those for ICPMS coupled to GC. Since the gas to particle conversion technique can achieve the direct measurement of metal carbonyl gases as well as the removal of reaction and ambient gases from metal carbonyl gases, the technique is considered to be well suited to monitor gas quality in semiconductor industry, engine exhaust gases, and or waste incineration products. PMID:25247610

  12. Oxygen exchange at gas/oxide interfaces: how the apparent activation energy of the surface exchange coefficient depends on the kinetic regime.

    PubMed

    Fielitz, Peter; Borchardt, Günter

    2016-08-10

    In the dedicated literature the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the equilibrium oxygen exchange rate [Fraktur R] are considered to be directly proportional to each other regardless of the experimental circumstances. Recent experimental observations, however, contradict the consequences of this assumption. Most surprising is the finding that the apparent activation energy of KO depends dramatically on the kinetic regime in which it has been determined, i.e. surface exchange controlled vs. mixed or diffusion controlled. This work demonstrates how the diffusion boundary condition at the gas/solid interface inevitably entails a correlation between the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient DO in the bulk ("on top" of the correlation between KO and [Fraktur R] for the pure surface exchange regime). The model can thus quantitatively explain the range of apparent activation energies measured in the different regimes: in the surface exchange regime the apparent activation energy only contains the contribution of the equilibrium exchange rate, whereas in the mixed or in the diffusion controlled regime the contribution of the oxygen self-diffusivity has also to be taken into account, which may yield significantly higher apparent activation energies and simultaneously quantifies the correlation KO ∝ DO(1/2) observed for a large number of oxides in the mixed or diffusion controlled regime, respectively.

  13. Oxygen exchange at gas/oxide interfaces: how the apparent activation energy of the surface exchange coefficient depends on the kinetic regime.

    PubMed

    Fielitz, Peter; Borchardt, Günter

    2016-08-10

    In the dedicated literature the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the equilibrium oxygen exchange rate [Fraktur R] are considered to be directly proportional to each other regardless of the experimental circumstances. Recent experimental observations, however, contradict the consequences of this assumption. Most surprising is the finding that the apparent activation energy of KO depends dramatically on the kinetic regime in which it has been determined, i.e. surface exchange controlled vs. mixed or diffusion controlled. This work demonstrates how the diffusion boundary condition at the gas/solid interface inevitably entails a correlation between the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient DO in the bulk ("on top" of the correlation between KO and [Fraktur R] for the pure surface exchange regime). The model can thus quantitatively explain the range of apparent activation energies measured in the different regimes: in the surface exchange regime the apparent activation energy only contains the contribution of the equilibrium exchange rate, whereas in the mixed or in the diffusion controlled regime the contribution of the oxygen self-diffusivity has also to be taken into account, which may yield significantly higher apparent activation energies and simultaneously quantifies the correlation KO ∝ DO(1/2) observed for a large number of oxides in the mixed or diffusion controlled regime, respectively. PMID:27460608

  14. Stability of Intercellular Exchange of Biochemical Substances Affected by Variability of Environmental Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Budinčević, Mirko; Balaž, Igor; Mihailović, Anja

    Communication between cells is realized by exchange of biochemical substances. Due to internal organization of living systems and variability of external parameters, the exchange is heavily influenced by perturbations of various parameters at almost all stages of the process. Since communication is one of essential processes for functioning of living systems it is of interest to investigate conditions for its stability. Using previously developed simplified model of bacterial communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigate stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters.

  15. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO(4), which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1)) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3) ha(-1)). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1) and water was supplied at 1200 m(3)·ha(-1). Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage. PMID:23285042

  16. Sodic Soil Properties and Sunflower Growth as Affected by Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha−1) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m3 ha−1). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha−1 and water was supplied at 1200 m3·ha−1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage. PMID:23285042

  17. Experimental parameters affecting hypercoulometric response in gas-phase coulometry.

    PubMed

    Ciccioli, P; Hayes, J M

    1985-01-01

    The response of an electron-capture detector designed for coulometric response was examined as a function of solute, pulse interval, carrier-gas type, solute amount, carrier-gas flow rate, and chromatographic-peak profile. For CCl3F, it was shown that the average numbers of electrons absorbed per molecule ranged from 1.0 to 4.1, varying primarily with pulse interval but also displaying a complex dependence on sample amount. Comparison of these results with theoretical expectations leads to the conclusion that a 1:1 "coulometric response" may not be observed under certain operating conditions. Because the specific conditions required depend on many variables, including, to some extent, sample amount, true coulometric operation of an electron-capture detector is difficult to establish and maintain. Effects which may contribute to the production of hypercoulometric response are critically discussed.

  18. Water removal characteristics of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using a dry gas purging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yeop; Kim, Sang-Uk; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Jang, Jong Hyun; Oh, In-Hwan; Cho, Eun Ae; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Ko, Jaejun; Lim, Tae-Won; Lee, Kwan-Young; Lim, Tae-Hoon

    Water removal from proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is of great importance to improve start-up ability and mitigate cell degradation when the fuel cell operates at subfreezing temperatures. In this study, we report water removal characteristics under various shut down conditions including a dry gas-purging step. In order to estimate the dehydration level of the electrolyte membrane, the high frequency resistance of the fuel cell stack was observed. Also, a novel method for measuring the amount of residual water in the fuel cell was developed to determine the amount of water removal. The method used the phase change of liquid water and was successfully applied to examine the water removal characteristics. Based on these works, the effects of several parameters such as purging time, flow rate of purging gas, operation current, and stack temperature on the amount of residual water were investigated.

  19. Operation of an experimental algal gas exchanger for use in a CELSS.

    PubMed

    Smernoff, D T; Wharton, R A; Averner, M M

    1987-01-01

    Concepts of a CELSS anticipate the use of photosynthetic organisms (higher plants and algae) for air revitalization. The rates of production and uptake of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the crew and the photosynthetic organisms are mismatched. An algal [correction of aglal] system used for gas exchange only will have the difficulty of an accumulation or depletion of these gases beyond physiologically tolerable limits (in a materially closed system the mismatch between assimilatory quotient (AQ) and respiratory quotient (RQ) will be balanced by the operation of the waste processor). We report the results of a study designed to test the feasibility of using environmental manipulations to maintain physiologically appropriate atmospheres for algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and mice (Mus musculus strain DW/J) in a gas-closed system. Specifically, we consider the atmosphere behavior of this system with Chlorella grown on nitrate or urea and at different light intensities and optical densities. Manipulation of both the photosynthetic rate and AQ of the alga has been found to reduce the mismatch of gas requirements and allow operation of the system in a gas-stable manner. Operation of such a system in a CELSS may be useful for reduction of buffer sizes, as a backup system for higher plant air revitalization and to supply extra oxygen to the waste processor or during crew changes. In addition, mass balance for components of the system (mouse, algae and a waste processor) are presented.

  20. Excretion-retention diagram to evaluate gas exchange properties of vertebrate respiratory systems.

    PubMed

    Zwart, A; Luijendijk, S C

    1982-09-01

    Excretion [E = (PE - PI)/(PV - PI)] and retention [R = (Pa - PI)/(PV -PI)]are completely model-free defined variables which describe the dual input-output black-box representation of vertebrate respiratory systems under steady-state conditions. In the excretion-retention diagram (E-R diagram), E is plotted as a function of R. The application of the principle of mass conservation confines the possible combinations of E and R for a gas with a blood-gas partition coefficient, lambda, in a respiratory system with an overall ventilation, VT, and an overall perfusion, QT, to E = (lambda QT/VT) (1 - R). In general, E can be described as a continuous function of R. The mathematical formulation of this function depends on the configuration of the respiratory system. Easily recognizable curvatures are obtained for counter-cross, and cocurrent systems with and without parallel inhomogeneities. Visual inspection of actual E and R data displayed in an E-R diagram therefore allows the correct choice of the configuration of the respiratory system to be eventually used for further parameter estimation schemes. The E-R diagram is also a powerful tutorial tool for visualizing the complex relationships between the gas exchange of agents with different physical properties and the consequences of changes in ventilation and perfusion distribution within the respiratory system on gas transport.

  1. Wind driven vertical transport in a vegetated, wetland water column with air-water gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Flow around arrays of cylinders at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers has been studied numerically, analytically and experimentally. Early results demonstrated that at flow around randomly oriented cylinders exhibits reduced turbulent length scales and reduced diffusivity when compared to similarly forced, unimpeded flows (Nepf 1999). While horizontal dispersion in flows through cylinder arrays has received considerable research attention, the case of vertical dispersion of reactive constituents has not. This case is relevant to the vertical transfer of dissolved gases in wetlands with emergent vegetation. We present results showing that the presence of vegetation can significantly enhance vertical transport, including gas transfer across the air-water interface. Specifically, we study a wind-sheared air-water interface in which randomly arrayed cylinders represent emergent vegetation. Wind is one of several processes that may govern physical dispersion of dissolved gases in wetlands. Wind represents the dominant force for gas transfer across the air-water interface in the ocean. Empirical relationships between wind and the gas transfer coefficient, k, have been used to estimate spatial variability of CO2 exchange across the worlds’ oceans. Because wetlands with emergent vegetation are different from oceans, different model of wind effects is needed. We investigated the vertical transport of dissolved oxygen in a scaled wetland model built inside a laboratory tank equipped with an open-ended wind tunnel. Plastic tubing immersed in water to a depth of approximately 40 cm represented emergent vegetation of cylindrical form such as hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). After partially removing the oxygen from the tank water via reaction with sodium sulfite, we used an optical probe to measure dissolved oxygen at mid-depth as the tank water re-equilibrated with the air above. We used dissolved oxygen time-series for a range of mean wind speeds to estimate the

  2. Pulmonary gas exchange during dialysis in patients with obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, W D; Diamond, S M; Henrich, W L

    1989-11-01

    Hypoxemia occurs during routine hemodialysis and may contribute to morbidity, but its cause is not well understood. We reasoned that patients with COPD would be more vulnerable to abnormalities in gas exchange with dialysis. Thus, to investigate the cause of dialysis-related hypoxemia, we measured gas exchange in a group of stable dialysis patients with normal pulmonary function (n = 6) and a group of dialysis patients with COPD (n = 6). Measurements were made predialysis, at 1 h, and postdialysis with both acetate and bicarbonate dialysates. Acetate dialysis decreased PaO2 in normal and COPD patients at 1 h and postdialysis. Acetate-induced hypoxemia was associated with reduced respiratory CO2 excretion and hypoventilation but PaCO2 did not change. This decrease in CO2 excretion resulted from CO2 fixation during acetate metabolism and modest CO2 loss across the dialyzer. Hypoxemia occurred only postdialysis with bicarbonate dialysate in normal and COPD patients. An increased P(A-a)O2 occurred postdialysis with both dialysates, and was most consistently observed in the COPD patients. In summary, at least two mechanisms contribute to dialysis hypoxemia. With acetate dialysate, alveolar hypoventilation from CO2 unloading occurs at 1 h and postdialysis due to acetate metabolism. However, abnormalities in ventilation/perfusion contribute to postdialysis hypoxemia observed with both dialysates. In addition, the decrement in PaO2 associated with dialysis is similar in normal and COPD patients, although preexisting COPD makes postdialysis changes more apparent. PMID:2805844

  3. Functional differences between the arteries perfusing gas exchange and nutritional membranes in the late chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Riazudin; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Kessels, Carolina G A; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The chicken extraembryonic arterial system comprises the allantoic arteries, which irrigate the gas exchange organ (the chorioallantoic membrane, CAM) and the yolk sac (YS) artery, which irrigates the nutritional organ (the YS membrane). We compared, using wire myography, the reactivity of allantoic and YS arteries from 19-day chicken embryos (total incubation 21 days). The contractions induced by KCl, the adrenergic agonists norepinephrine (NE, nonselective), phenylephrine (α1), and oxymetazoline (α2), electric field stimulation (EFS), serotonin, U46619 (TP receptor agonist), and endothelin (ET)-1 and the relaxations induced by acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor), forskolin (adenylate cyclase activator), and isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist) were investigated. Extraembryonic allantoic arteries did not show α-adrenergic-mediated contraction (either elicited by exogenous agonists or EFS) or ACh-induced (endothelium-dependent) relaxation, whereas these responses were present in YS arteries. Interestingly, the intraembryonic segment of the allantoic artery showed EFS- and α-adrenergic-induced contraction and ACh-mediated relaxation. Moreover, glyoxylic acid staining showed the presence of catecholamine-containing nerves in the YS and the intraembryonic allantoic artery, but not in the extraembryonic allantoic artery. Isoproterenol- and forskolin-induced relaxation and ET-1-induced contraction were higher in YS than in allantoic arteries, whereas serotonin- and U46619-induced contraction and SNP-induced relaxation did not significantly differ between the two arteries. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a different pattern of reactivity in the arteries perfusing the gas exchange and the nutritional membranes of the chicken embryo.

  4. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot-gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, M.F.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of the 3M material to a combustion environment for as little as 25 hours at 800{degrees}C. The study of heat exchanger materials has focused on enhancing the corrosion resistance of DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} composite tubes by adding chromium to its surfaces by (1) heat treatments in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed, or (2) infiltrating surface porosity with molten chromium nitrate. Each process is followed by a surface homogenization at 1500{degrees}C. The powder bed method has been most successful, producing continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. As-received and Cr-modified DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} samples will be reacted with commonly encountered coal-ash slags to determine the Cr effects on corrosion resistance.

  5. Effects of stomatal delays on the economics of leaf gas exchange under intermittent light regimes.

    PubMed

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Palmroth, Sari; Katul, Gabriel

    2011-11-01

    • Understory plants are subjected to highly intermittent light availability and their leaf gas exchanges are mediated by delayed responses of stomata and leaf biochemistry to light fluctuations. In this article, the patterns in stomatal delays across biomes and plant functional types were studied and their effects on leaf carbon gains and water losses were quantified. • A database of more than 60 published datasets on stomatal responses to light fluctuations was assembled. To interpret these experimental observations, a leaf gas exchange model was developed and coupled to a novel formulation of stomatal movement energetics. The model was used to test whether stomatal delays optimize light capture for photosynthesis, whilst limiting transpiration and carbon costs for stomatal movement. • The data analysis showed that stomatal opening and closing delays occurred over a limited range of values and were strongly correlated. Plant functional type and climate were the most important drivers of stomatal delays, with faster responses in graminoids and species from dry climates. • Although perfectly tracking stomata would maximize photosynthesis and minimize transpiration at the expense of large opening costs, the observed combinations of opening and closure times appeared to be consistent with a near-optimal balance of carbon gain, water loss and movement costs. PMID:21851359

  6. Cyclic gas exchange in the giant burrowing cockroach, Macropanesthia rhinoceros: effect of oxygen tension and temperature.

    PubMed

    Woodman, James D; Cooper, Paul D; Haritos, Victoria S

    2007-05-01

    The giant burrowing cockroach, Macropanesthia rhinoceros, is endemic to north-eastern Australia and excavates a permanent burrow up to 1m deep into soil. Using flow-through respirometry, we investigated gas exchange and water loss at three different oxygen tensions (21%, 10% and 2% at 20 degrees C) and temperatures (10, 20 and 30 degrees C at 21% oxygen). M. rhinoceros employ cyclic gas exchange (CGE) making the species by far the largest insect known to engage in discontinuous ventilation. CGE featured rhythmic bursts of CO(2) dispersed among inter-burst periods of reduced output. CGE was most commonly observed at 20 degrees C and degraded at <10% oxygen. Mild hypoxia (10% oxygen) resulted in a lengthening of the burst period by approximately two-fold; this result is complementary to oxygen consumption data that suggests that the burst period is important in oxygen uptake. When exposed to severe hypoxia (2% oxygen), CGE was degraded to a more erratic continuous pattern. Also, during severe hypoxia, total water loss increased significantly, although CO(2) release was maintained at the same level as in 21% oxygen. During CGE, an increase in temperature from 10 to 20 degrees C caused both water loss and CO(2) output to double; from 20 to 30 degrees C, CO(2) output again doubled but water loss increased by only 31%.

  7. Dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area.

    PubMed

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Odabasi, Mustafa; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-12-01

    Ambient air and dry deposition, and soil samples were collected at the Aliaga industrial site in Izmir, Turkey. Atmospheric total (particle+gas) Sigma(41)-PCB concentrations were higher in summer (3370+/-1617 pg m(-3), average+SD) than in winter (1164+/-618 pg m(-3)), probably due to increased volatilization with temperature. Average particulate Sigma(41)-PCBs dry deposition fluxes were 349+/-183 and 469+/-328 ng m(-2) day(-1) in summer and winter, respectively. Overall average particulate deposition velocity was 5.5+/-3.5 cm s(-1). The spatial distribution of Sigma(41)-PCB soil concentrations (n=48) showed that the iron-steel plants, ship dismantling facilities, refinery and petrochemicals complex are the major sources in the area. Calculated air-soil exchange fluxes indicated that the contaminated soil is a secondary source to the atmosphere for lighter PCBs and as a sink for heavier ones. Comparable magnitude of gas exchange and dry particle deposition fluxes indicated that both mechanisms are equally important for PCB movement between air and soil in Aliaga.

  8. Red spruce gas exchange in response to light, temperature, CO sub 2 and water stress

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, L.; Seiler, J. )

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the gas exchange responses of native red spruce seedlings to light, temperature and CO{sub 2} in combination with water stress to determine how red spruce physiologically responds to water stress. Gas exchange responses were examined under well-watered conditions and at an average leaf water potential of {minus}1.6 MPa. Net photosynthesis (Pnet) and leaf conductance (gl) were on average 35% and 53% lower, respectively, during water stress. The nature of the response of Pnet and gl to temperature and CO{sub 2} was similar to the well-watered response. Pnet was lower with water stress at high irradiances only. Water use efficiency was greater during water stress at 15C but not at 25 and 35C. No change in osmotic potential during water stress was observed. The response of red spruce physiology to varying light, temperature and CO{sub 2} does not appear to be greatly modified by water stress.

  9. Canopy gas exchange of white spruce in contrasting habitats near the Arctic treeline in northwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, P.; Mcnown, R. W.; Sveinbjornsson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Recent work near the Arctic treeline has revealed that an increasing number of white spruce are showing negative growth responses to rising air temperatures. Researchers have speculated that these negative responders are experiencing warm temperature-induced drought stress. Measurements of white spruce needle gas exchange near the Arctic treeline are rare and, to our knowledge, measurements of whole canopy gas exchange have not been made. In this study, we measured sap flow to estimate whole canopy transpiration at hourly intervals for the entire growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 in white spruce growing on a riverside terrace, in a hillslope forest and at the treeline. We used weekly measurements of needle-scale photosynthesis, transpiration and needle δ13C to estimate water use efficiency at each site. We then applied these estimates of water use efficiency to our sap flow data in order to estimate hourly whole canopy photosynthesis at each site for the two growing seasons. Our results show evidence of stomatal control when the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit exceeds approximately 1.0 kPa, but no evidence of complete stomatal closure. Trees growing on the riverside terrace, where soils are relatively warm and dry, are more efficient in their water use, have greater leaf area and assimilate more carbon per unit basal diameter than trees in the forest and at the treeline. We found that the month of September, after growth has almost completely ceased, can be an important time for carbon uptake in white spruce near the Arctic treeline.

  10. Novel shell device for gas exchange in an operculate land snail.

    PubMed

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Naggs, Fred; Asami, Takahiro

    2016-07-01

    The operculum of terrestrial snails tightly seals the shell aperture providing protection from predators and body-water loss. To allow respiration with a closed operculum, operculate land snails repeatedly evolved shell devices such as tubes or channels that open to the air. In all Asian members of the Alycaeidae, an externally closed tube lies along the suture behind the aperture that possesses a small internal opening into the last whorl at the tube's anterior end. However, this structure presents a paradox: how is gas exchanged through an externally closed tube? Here we show that many microtunnels open into the tube and run beneath radial ribs along the growth line of the last whorl in Alycaeus conformis These tunnels open to the outside of the shell surface near the umbilicus. Examination under high magnification revealed that the outermost shell layer forms these tunnels only in the whorl range beneath the sutural tube. Each tunnel (ca 16 µm diameter) is far narrower than any known metazoan parasite. These findings support our hypothesis that the externally closed sutural tube functions with microtunnels as a specialized apparatus for predator-free gas exchange with minimal water loss when the operculum seals the aperture. PMID:27405378

  11. Effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on ventilation and gas exchange during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Dodd, S; Powers, S; O'Malley, N; Brooks, E; Sommers, H

    1988-08-01

    Controversy exists concerning the effects of acute beta-adrenergic blockade on ventilation during exercise. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute beta blockade on ventilation and gas exchange during incremental exercise. Nine male subjects underwent incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer (30 W.min-1) to exhaustion, with one trial being performed 60 min after the subject ingested propranolol hydrochloride (Inderal 1 mg.kg-1 BW) while the second test served as control. The treatment order was counterbalanced to preclude any ordering effect on the results, and 1 week separated the tests. Ventilation and gas exchange were monitored by open circuit techniques. No difference (p greater than 0.05) existed in VE, % Hb sat, VCO2, ventilatory threshold, and VE/VCO2 between treatments at the same exercise stage. VO2max was lowered from 3.82 to 3.26 l.min-1 (p less than 0.05) and HRmax was reduced from 190 to 150 bpm (p less than 0.05) as a result of beta blockade. These data suggested that acute beta blockade had no effect on exercise ventilation, but decreased HRmax at comparable work rates. In addition, VO2max and exercise time to exhaustion were hindered, probably due to beta blockade limitation of HRmax, and, thus, oxygen transport. PMID:3178619

  12. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and stem diameter changes during freezing and thawing of Scots pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Lauri; Hölttä, Teemu; Lintunen, Anna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2015-12-01

    Boreal trees experience repeated freeze-thaw cycles annually. While freezing has been extensively studied in trees, the dynamic responses occurring during the freezing and thawing remain poorly understood. At freezing and thawing, rapid changes take place in the water relations of living cells in needles and in stem. While freezing is mostly limited to extracellular spaces, living cells dehydrate, shrink and their osmotic concentration increases. We studied how the freezing-thawing dynamics reflected on leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and xylem and living bark diameter changes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings in controlled experiments. Photosynthetic rate quickly declined following ice nucleation and extracellular freezing in xylem and needles, almost parallel to a rapid shrinking of xylem diameter, while that of living bark followed with a slightly longer delay. While xylem and living bark diameters responded well to decreasing temperature and water potential of ice, the relationship was less consistent in the case of increasing temperature. Xylem showed strong temporal swelling at thawing suggesting water movement from bark. After thawing xylem diameter recovered to a pre-freezing level but living bark remained shrunk. We found that freezing affected photosynthesis at multiple levels. The distinct dynamics of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance reveals that the decreased photosynthetic rate reflects impaired dark reactions rather than stomatal closure. Freezing also inhibited the capacity of the light reactions to dissipate excess energy as heat, via non-photochemical quenching, whereas photochemical quenching of excitation energy decreased gradually with temperature in agreement with the gas exchange data. PMID:26423334

  13. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  14. Factors Affecting Outcome in Acute Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis Treated with Plasma Exchange: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Romozi, Karmen; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The optimal therapy for hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis, especially the role of plasma exchange (PE), is not entirely clear. The aim of our large, single-center, observational, cohort study was to analyze the factors affecting outcome in hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE. Methods We included 111 episodes of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE, which occurred in 103 different patients. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, triglycerides, delay to first PE, and PE treatment details were retrospectively obtained from the patients’ records. The main outcome measures were length of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. Results The patients were 47±9 years old and the median APACHE II score at first PE was 4 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 2–7). There was a seasonal variation in the incidence of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis, and the recurrence rate was 1.6% per year. Triglycerides at presentation did not correlate with APACHE II or influence the outcome. The mean reduction in triglycerides during PE was 59% (from 44±31 to 18±15 mmol/l), which was twice the reduction observed during conservative treatment (27% daily). The median hospital stay was 16 days (IQR 10–24) and in-hospital mortality was 5%. The median delay to first PE was 35 hours (IQR 24–52), and there was no difference in mortality in the early and late PE groups (7% vs. 6%, p = 0.79). The group with citrate anticoagulation during PE had a significantly lower mortality than the group with heparin anticoagulation (1% vs. 11%, p = 0.04), and citrate was an independent predictor also in the multivariate model (p = 0.049). Conclusions PE effectively reduced serum triglycerides faster than could be expected with conservative treatment. The delay in PE therapy did not influence survival. We found that citrate anticoagulation during PE was associated with reduced mortality, which should be confirmed in a

  15. A Rab1 mutant affecting guanine nucleotide exchange promotes disassembly of the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a dynamic organelle whose structure is sensitive to vesicular traffic and to cell cycle control. We have examined the potential role for rab1a, a GTPase previously associated with ER to Golgi and intra-Golgi transport, in the formation and maintenance of Golgi structure. Bacterially expressed, recombinant rab1a protein was microinjected into rat embryonic fibroblasts, followed by analysis of Golgi morphology by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Three recombinant proteins were tested: wild-type rab, mutant rab1a(S25N), a constitutively GDP-bound form (Nuoffer, C., H. W. Davidson, J. Matteson, J. Meinkoth, and W. E. Balch, 1994. J. Cell Biol. 125: 225- 237), and mutant rab1a(N124I) defective in guanine nucleotide binding. Microinjection of wild-type rab1a protein or a variety of negative controls (injection buffer alone or activated ras protein) did not affect the appearance of the Golgi, as visualized by immunofluorescence of alpha-mannosidase II (Man II), used as a Golgi marker. In contrast, microinjection of the mutant forms promoted the disassembly of the Golgi stacks into dispersed vesicular structures visualized by immunofluorescence. When S25N-injected cells were analyzed by EM after immunoperoxidase labeling, Man II was found in isolated ministacks and large vesicular elements that were often surrounded by numerous smaller unlabeled vesicles resembling carrier vesicles. Golgi disassembly caused by rab1a mutants differs from BFA-induced disruption, since beta- COP remains membrane associated, and Man II does not redistribute to the ER. BFA can still cause these residual Golgi elements to fuse and disperse, albeit at a slower rate. Moreover, BFA recovery is incomplete in the presence of rab1 mutants or GTP gamma S. We conclude that GTP exchange and hydrolysis by GTPases, specifically rab1a, are required to form and maintain normal Golgi stacks. The similarity of Golgi disassembly seen with rab1a mutants to that occurring during

  16. Effects of lung volume and O2 and CO2 content on cutaneous gas exchange in frogs.

    PubMed

    Malvin, G M; Hlastala, M P

    1986-11-01

    The effects of lung O2 and CO2 content and volume on cutaneous gas exchange and perfusion were investigated in the frog, Rana pipiens. (Ha)-anesthetized frogs were equilibrated with 9.5% Freon-22 (Fr, chlorodifluoromethane) and 1.1% Ha. Cutaneous elimination of Fr, Ha, and CO2 into a small sample chamber on the abdomen was measured with a mass spectrometer. Introducing an air mixture into the lung decreased cutaneous Fr, Ha, and CO2 elimination. Lung inflation with an O2 mixture decreased cutaneous gas elimination more than with the air mixture. Inflation with a N2 mixture had no effect. The response to lung inflation with the air mixture was not affected by adding 4.8% CO2 to the air mixture or by atropine. Voluntary lung ventilation decreased CO2 and Fr elimination. The results indicate that intrapulmonary O2 is a factor regulating skin breathing. If a change in lung volume is also a factor, it requires a concomitant change in lung O2. Intrapulmonary CO2 and cholinergic nerves are not involved in cutaneous respiration across the abdomen.

  17. The structural design of the bat wing web and its possible role in gas exchange

    PubMed Central

    Makanya, Andrew N; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the skin in the epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) wing and body trunk was studied with a view to understanding possible adaptations for gas metabolism and thermoregulation. In addition, gas exchange measurements were performed using a respirometer designed for the purpose. The body skin had an epidermis, a dermis with hair follicles and sweat glands and a fat-laden hypodermis. In contrast, the wing web skin was made up of a thin bilayered epidermis separated by a connective tissue core with collagen and elastic fibres and was devoid of hair follicles and sweat glands. The wings spanned 18–24 cm each, with about 753 cm2 of surface exposed to air. The body skin epidermis was thick (61 ± 3 µm, SEM), the stratum corneum alone taking a third of it (21 ± 3 µm). In contrast, the wing web skin epidermis was thinner at 9.8 ± 0.7 µm, with a stratum corneum measuring 4.1 ± 0.3 µm (41%). The wing capillaries in the wing web skin ran in the middle of the connective tissue core, with a resultant surface-capillary diffusion distance of 26.8 ± 3.2 µm. The rate of oxygen consumption (V˙O2) of the wings alone and of the whole animal measured under light anaesthesia at ambient temperatures of 24 ºC and 33 ºC, averaged 6% and 10% of the total, respectively. Rate of carbon dioxide production had similar values. The membrane diffusing capacity for the wing web was estimated to be 0.019 ml O2 min−1 mmHg−1. We conclude that in Epomophorus wahlbergi, the wing web has structural modifications that permit a substantial contribution to the total gas exchange. PMID:17971117

  18. Alveolar ventilation to perfusion heterogeneity and diffusion impairment in a mathematical model of gas exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal Melo, M. F.; Loeppky, J. A.; Caprihan, A.; Luft, U. C.

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a two-compartment model of pulmonary gas exchange in which alveolar ventilation to perfusion (VA/Q) heterogeneity and impairment of pulmonary diffusing capacity (D) are simultaneously taken into account. The mathematical model uses as input data measurements usually obtained in the lung function laboratory. It consists of two compartments and an anatomical shunt. Each compartment receives fractions of alveolar ventilation and blood flow. Mass balance equations and integration of Fick's law of diffusion are used to compute alveolar and blood O2 and CO2 values compatible with input O2 uptake and CO2 elimination. Two applications are presented. The first is a method to partition O2 and CO2 alveolar-arterial gradients into VA/Q and D components. The technique is evaluated in data of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The second is a theoretical analysis of the effects of blood flow variation in alveolar and blood O2 partial pressures. The results show the importance of simultaneous consideration of D to estimate VA/Q heterogeneity in patients with diffusion impairment. This factor plays an increasing role in gas alveolar-arterial gradients as severity of COPD increases. Association of VA/Q heterogeneity and D may produce an increase of O2 arterial pressure with decreasing QT which would not be observed if only D were considered. We conclude that the presented computer model is a useful tool for description and interpretation of data from COPD patients and for performing theoretical analysis of variables involved in the gas exchange process.

  19. The structural design of the bat wing web and its possible role in gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Makanya, Andrew N; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2007-12-01

    The structure of the skin in the epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) wing and body trunk was studied with a view to understanding possible adaptations for gas metabolism and thermoregulation. In addition, gas exchange measurements were performed using a respirometer designed for the purpose. The body skin had an epidermis, a dermis with hair follicles and sweat glands and a fat-laden hypodermis. In contrast, the wing web skin was made up of a thin bilayered epidermis separated by a connective tissue core with collagen and elastic fibres and was devoid of hair follicles and sweat glands. The wings spanned 18-24 cm each, with about 753 cm2 of surface exposed to air. The body skin epidermis was thick (61 +/- 3 microm, SEM), the stratum corneum alone taking a third of it (21 +/- 3 microm). In contrast, the wing web skin epidermis was thinner at 9.8 +/- 0.7 microm, with a stratum corneum measuring 4.1 +/- 0.3 microm (41%). The wing capillaries in the wing web skin ran in the middle of the connective tissue core, with a resultant surface-capillary diffusion distance of 26.8 +/- 3.2 microm. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) of the wings alone and of the whole animal measured under light anaesthesia at ambient temperatures of 24 masculineC and 33 masculineC, averaged 6% and 10% of the total, respectively. Rate of carbon dioxide production had similar values. The membrane diffusing capacity for the wing web was estimated to be 0.019 ml O2 min(-1) mmHg(-1). We conclude that in Epomophorus wahlbergi, the wing web has structural modifications that permit a substantial contribution to the total gas exchange.

  20. Quantitative variation in water-use efficiency across water regimes and its relationship with circadian, vegetative, reproductive, and leaf gas-exchange traits.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2012-05-01

    Drought limits light harvesting, resulting in lower plant growth and reproduction. One trait important for plant drought response is water-use efficiency (WUE). We investigated (1) how the joint genetic architecture of WUE, reproductive characters, and vegetative traits changed across drought and well-watered conditions, (2) whether traits with distinct developmental bases (e.g. leaf gas exchange versus reproduction) differed in the environmental sensitivity of their genetic architecture, and (3) whether quantitative variation in circadian period was related to drought response in Brassica rapa. Overall, WUE increased in drought, primarily because stomatal conductance, and thus water loss, declined more than carbon fixation. Genotypes with the highest WUE in drought expressed the lowest WUE in well-watered conditions, and had the largest vegetative and floral organs in both treatments. Thus, large changes in WUE enabled some genotypes to approach vegetative and reproductive trait optima across environments. The genetic architecture differed for gas-exchange and vegetative traits across drought and well-watered conditions, but not for floral traits. Correlations between circadian and leaf gas-exchange traits were significant but did not vary across treatments, indicating that circadian period affects physiological function regardless of water availability. These results suggest that WUE is important for drought tolerance in Brassica rapa and that artificial selection for increased WUE in drought will not result in maladaptive expression of other traits that are correlated with WUE.

  1. Quantitative variation in water-use efficiency across water regimes and its relationship with circadian, vegetative, reproductive, and leaf gas-exchange traits.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2012-05-01

    Drought limits light harvesting, resulting in lower plant growth and reproduction. One trait important for plant drought response is water-use efficiency (WUE). We investigated (1) how the joint genetic architecture of WUE, reproductive characters, and vegetative traits changed across drought and well-watered conditions, (2) whether traits with distinct developmental bases (e.g. leaf gas exchange versus reproduction) differed in the environmental sensitivity of their genetic architecture, and (3) whether quantitative variation in circadian period was related to drought response in Brassica rapa. Overall, WUE increased in drought, primarily because stomatal conductance, and thus water loss, declined more than carbon fixation. Genotypes with the highest WUE in drought expressed the lowest WUE in well-watered conditions, and had the largest vegetative and floral organs in both treatments. Thus, large changes in WUE enabled some genotypes to approach vegetative and reproductive trait optima across environments. The genetic architecture differed for gas-exchange and vegetative traits across drought and well-watered conditions, but not for floral traits. Correlations between circadian and leaf gas-exchange traits were significant but did not vary across treatments, indicating that circadian period affects physiological function regardless of water availability. These results suggest that WUE is important for drought tolerance in Brassica rapa and that artificial selection for increased WUE in drought will not result in maladaptive expression of other traits that are correlated with WUE. PMID:22319207

  2. Ozone gas affects the physical and chemical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone can oxidize hydroxyl groups present at C2, C3, and C6 positions on the starch molecule and affect its physicochemical properties. In this experiment, bread wheat flour and isolated wheat starch were treated with ozone gas (1,500 ppm, gas flow rate 2.5 L/minutes) for 45 minutes and 30 minutes, ...

  3. 30 CFR 250.120 - How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my royalty payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does injecting, storing, or treating gas... SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.120 How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my... CFR 550.119, you must pay royalty before injecting it into the storage reservoir. (c) If you...

  4. Gas exchange in wetlands with emergent vegetation: The effects of wind and thermal convection at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, Cristina M.; Variano, Evan A.

    2013-07-01

    Methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen are exchanged between wetlands and the atmosphere through multiple pathways. One of these pathways, the hydrodynamic transport of dissolved gas through the surface water, is often underestimated in importance. We constructed a model wetland in the laboratory with artificial emergent plants to investigate the mechanisms and magnitude of this transport. We measured gas transfer velocities, which characterize the near-surface stirring driving air-water gas transfer, while varying two stirring processes important to gas exchange in other aquatic environments: wind and thermal convection. To isolate the effects of thermal convection, we identified a semiempirical model for the gas transfer velocity as a function of surface heat loss. The laboratory results indicate that thermal convection will be the dominant mechanism of air-water gas exchange in marshes with emergent vegetation. Thermal convection yielded peak gas transfer velocities of 1 cm h-1. Because of the sheltering of the water surface by emergent vegetation, gas transfer velocities for wind-driven stirring alone are likely to exceed this value only in extreme cases.

  5. The hydrology of northern peatlands as affected by biogenic gas: Current developments and research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Glaser, P.H.; Siegel, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research indicates that accumulation and release of biogenic gas from northern peatlands may substantially affect future climate. Sudden release of free-phase gas bubbles into the atmosphere may preclude the conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the uppermost oxic layer of the peat, resulting in greater contribution of methane to the atmosphere than is currently estimated. The hydrology of these peatlands also affects and is affected by this process, especially when gas is released suddenly and episodically. Indirect hydrological evidence indicates that ebullitive gas releases are relatively frequent in some peatlands and time-averaged rates may be significantly greater than diffusive releases. Estimates of free-phase gas contained in peat have ranged from 0 to nearly 20% of the peat volume. Abrupt changes in the volume of gas may alter hydraulic gradients and movement of water and solutes in peat, which in turn could alter composition and fluxes of the gas. Peat surfaces also move vertically and horizontally in response to accumulation and release of free-phase gas. Future research should address the distribution, temporal variability, and relative significance of ebullition in peatlands and the consequent hydrological responses to these gas-emission events. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Radiation-use efficiency and gas exchange responses to water and nutrient availability in irrigated and fertilized stands of sweetgum and sycamore.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher B; Will, Rodney E; McGarvey, Robert C; Coyle, David R; Coleman, Mark D

    2005-02-01

    We investigated how water and nutrient availability affect radiation-use efficiency (epsilon) and assessed leaf gas exchange as a possible mechanism for shifts in epsilon. We measured aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and annual photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) capture to calculate epsilon as well as leaf-level physiological variables (light-saturated net photosynthesis, Asat; stomatal conductance, gs; leaf internal CO2 concentration, Ci; foliar nitrogen concentration, foliar [N]; and midday leaf water potential, Psileaf) during the second (2001) and third (2002) growing seasons in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) stands receiving a factorial combination of irrigation and fertilization at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Irrigation and fertilization increased PAR capture (maximum increase 60%) in 2001 and 2002 for both species and annual PAR capture was well correlated with ANPP (mean r2 = 0.77). A decreasing trend in epsilon was observed in non-irrigated stands for sweetgum in 2001 and for sycamore in both years, although this was only significant for sycamore in 2002. Irrigated stands maintained higher gas exchange rates than non-irrigated stands for sweetgum in 2001 and for sycamore in both years, although foliar [N] and Psileaf were generally unaffected. Because Ci decreased in proportion to gs in non-irrigated stands, it appeared that greater stomatal limitation of photosynthesis was associated with decreased Asat. On several measurement dates for sweetgum in 2001 and for sycamore in both years, epsilon was positively correlated with gas exchange variables (Asat, gs, Ci) (r ranged from 0.600 to 0.857). These results indicate that PAR capture is well correlated with ANPP and that gas exchange rates modified by irrigation can influence the conversion of captured light energy to biomass.

  7. Effects of Glucose Feeding on Respiration and Photosynthesis in Photoautotrophic Dianthus caryophyllus Cells: Mass Spectrometric Determination of Gas Exchange.

    PubMed

    Avelange, M H; Sarrey, F; Rébillé, F

    1990-11-01

    When glucose (20 millimolar) was added to photoautotrophic cell suspension cultures of Dianthus caryophyllus, there was during the first 10 hours an accumulation of carbohydrates and phosphorylated compounds. These biochemical changes were accompanied by a progressive decrease of net photosynthesis and a twofold increase of the dark respiratory rate. The rise of respiration was associated with a rise of fumarase and cytochrome c oxidase activities, two mitochondrial markers. Gas exchange of illuminated cells were performed with a mass spectrometry technique and clearly established that during the first hours of glucose feeding, the decrease of net photosynthesis was essentially due to an increase of respiration in light, whereas the photosynthetic processes (gross O(2) evolution and gross CO(2) fixation) were almost not affected. However, after 24 hours of experiment, O(2) evolution and CO(2) fixation started to decline in turn. While ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity was little affected during the first 48 hours of the experiment, the maximal light-induced phosphoribulokinase activity dramatically decreased with time and represented after 48 hours only 30% of its initial activity. It is postulated that the decrease in phosphoribulokinase activity was at least partially responsible for the decrease of CO(2) fixation and the metabolic events involved in this regulation are discussed.

  8. Responses of sap flow, leaf gas exchange and growth of hybrid aspen to elevated atmospheric humidity under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Niglas, Aigar; Kupper, Priit; Tullus, Arvo; Sellin, Arne

    2014-01-01

    An increase in average air temperature and frequency of rain events is predicted for higher latitudes by the end of the 21st century, accompanied by a probable rise in air humidity. We currently lack knowledge on how forest trees acclimate to rising air humidity in temperate climates. We analysed the leaf gas exchange, sap flow and growth characteristics of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) trees growing at ambient and artificially elevated air humidity in an experimental forest plantation situated in the hemiboreal vegetation zone. Humidification manipulation did not affect the photosynthetic capacity of plants, but did affect stomatal responses: trees growing at elevated air humidity had higher stomatal conductance at saturating photosynthetically active radiation (gs sat) and lower intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE). Reduced stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in trees grown at elevated air humidity allowed slightly higher net photosynthesis and relative current-year height increments than in trees at ambient air humidity. Tree responses suggest a mitigating effect of higher air humidity on trees under mild water stress. At the same time, trees at higher air humidity demonstrated a reduced sensitivity of IWUE to factors inducing stomatal closure and a steeper decline in canopy conductance in response to water deficit, implying higher dehydration risk. Despite the mitigating impact of increased air humidity under moderate drought, a future rise in atmospheric humidity at high latitudes may be disadvantageous for trees during weather extremes and represents a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. PMID:24887000

  9. Gas Exchange Rates for a First-Order Stream Determined With Deliberate and Natural Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanninkhof, R.; Mulholland, P. J.; Elwood, J. W.

    1990-07-01

    Gas transfer velocities have been determined for a first-order stream by performing a 3-hour release of the volatile tracer sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, and the nonvolatile tracer tritiated water, 3H2O. The average gas transfer velocity for the 292-m reach was 29 cm/h which corresponds to a reaeration coefficient for oxygen at 25°C of 134 day-1. Groundwater inflow along the stream was corrected for by measuring the downstream dilution of the 3H2O spike. Downstream discharge increased from 0.5 L/s, 2 m downstream of the point of tracer release, to 19.3 L/s at a point 292 m downstream. As an alternative to using (radioactive) 3H2O, we investigated the possibility of using natural radon, 222Rn, as a groundwater tag and using the variation of SF6 and 222Rn along the stream to determine gas exchange rates and groundwater inflow. The method yielded an average transfer velocity of 21 cm/h and underestimated the groundwater inflow by a factor of 3. This large discrepancy is attributed to a doubling of stream discharge between the time the stream was sampled for radon and the tracer experiment and the limited number of radon samples.

  10. Gas cells for 3He hyperpolarized via spin-exchange optical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Kim, A.; Tan, J. A.; Woo, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a device for the production of hyperpolarized 3He, which is widely used in spinrelated nuclear physics research. Spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) is employed to polarize 3He enclosed in a circular borosilicate glass cell suitable not only for the production of polarized gas but also for its storage. The portable glass cell can, thus, be transported to any other research facility. The glass cell can be refilled several times. Special attention is given to the preparation and the filling of the cell to minimize the impurities on its walls and in the gas. We employ glass tubes with shorter lengths and larger diameters in the gas-filling system to achieve the improvement in the air flow necessary to obtain purer polarized 3He samples. The cell is prepared, and after it has been filled with rubidium (Rb) and 3He-N2 mixture, it is sealed under high vacuum conditions. The cell containing the mixture is exposed to circularly-polarized laser light with a wavelength of 795 nm at temperatures of 180 - 220 °C for SEOP. The polarization of 3He is measured via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We obtained 40% polarized 3He in less than 15 hours and 50% in about 25 hours. The longitudinal relaxation time T 1 of the polarized 3He we measured was about 58 hours.

  11. Characterization techniques for gas diffusion layers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvay, A.; Yli-Rantala, E.; Liu, C.-H.; Peng, X.-H.; Koski, P.; Cindrella, L.; Kauranen, P.; Wilde, P. M.; Kannan, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    The gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the functional components that provide a support structure for gas and water transport. The GDL plays a crucial role when the oxidant is air, especially when the fuel cell operates in the higher current density region. There has been an exponential growth in research and development because the PEMFC has the potential to become the future energy source for automotive applications. In order to serve in this capacity, the GDL requires due innovative analysis and characterization toward performance and durability. It is possible to achieve the optimum fuel cell performance only by understanding the characteristics of GDLs such as structure, pore size, porosity, gas permeability, wettability, thermal and electrical conductivities, surface morphology and water management. This review attempts to bring together the characterization techniques for the essential properties of the GDLs as handy tools for R&D institutions. Topics are categorized based on the ex-situ and in-situ characterization techniques of GDLs along with related modeling and simulation. Recently reported techniques used for accelerated durability evaluation of the GDLs are also consolidated within the ex-situ and in-situ methods.

  12. Operation of an experimental algal gas exchanger for use in a CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Averner, Maurice M.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) anticipate the use of photosynthetic organisms (higher plants and algae) for air revitalization. The rates of production and uptake of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the crew and the photosynthetic organisms are mismatched. An algal system used for gas exchange only will have the difficulty of an accumulation or depletion of these gases beyond physiologically tolerable limits (in a closed system the mismatch between assimilatory quotient (AQ) and respiratory quotient (RQ) is balanced by the operation of the waste processor). The results are given of a study designed to test the feasibility of using environmental manipulations to maintain physiologically appropriate atmospheres for algae and mice in a gas closed system. Specifically, the atmosphere behavior of this system is considered with algae grown on nitrate or urea and at different light intensities and optical densities. Manipulation of both allow operation of the system in a gas stable manner. Operation of such a system in a CELSS may be useful for reduction of buffer sizes, as a backup system for higher plant air revitalization and to supply extra oxygen to the waste processor or during crew changes.

  13. Incinerator operating conditions affect combustion gas levels of dioxins, furans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    New research shows levels of dioxins and furans can be minimized by good combustion practices at a garbage-burning incinerator, according to results of the Combustion and Emissions Research Project at the VICON Incinerator Facility. The project focused on how a wide range of combustion conditions and different types of refuse quality affected the amount of dioxins and furans formed and destroyed during the combustion process. The results of the research show concentrations of dioxins and furans among the lowest measured at any incinerator. Tests were conducted over a broad range of operating conditions, with furnace temperatures as low as 1300 degrees and as high as 1900 degrees Fahrenheit. The only increase in dioxins and furans during testing occurred when incinerator temperatures were reduced below 1500 degrees Fahrenheit.

  14. Interruption to cutaneous gas exchange is not a likely mechanism of WNS-associated death in bats.

    PubMed

    Carey, Charleve S; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-07-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative fungal agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging fungal-borne epizootic. WNS is responsible for a catastrophic decline of hibernating bats in North America, yet we have limited understanding of the physiological interactions between pathogen and host. Pseudogymnoascus destructans severely damages wings and tail membranes, by causing dryness that leads to whole sections crumbling off. Four possible mechanisms have been proposed by which infection could lead to dehydration; in this study, we tested one: P. destructans infection could cause disruption to passive gas-exchange pathways across the wing membranes, thereby causing a compensatory increase in water-intensive pulmonary respiration. We hypothesized that total evaporative water loss would be greater when passive gas exchange was inhibited. We found that bats did not lose more water when passive pathways were blocked. This study provides evidence against the proposed proximal mechanism that disruption to passive gas exchange causes dehydration and death to WNS-infected bats.

  15. Discontinuous gas exchange and the significance of respiratory water loss in Scarabaeine beetles.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Davis, Adrian L V

    2003-10-01

    Respiratory water loss in insects is a controversial topic. Whilst earlier studies considered respiratory transpiration a significant component of overall water loss, to the extent that it was thought to be responsible not only for the evolution of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) but also for variation in DGC patterns, later work repeatedly questioned its importance. In particular, investigations of the proportional contribution of respiratory transpiration to total water loss in species showing DGCs suggested that respiratory transpiration was unlikely to be important in these species. In turn, these studies have been criticized on analytical grounds. In this study we investigated variation in cuticular and respiratory water loss rates in five Scarabaeus dung beetle species, all of which show discontinuous gas exchange cycles, to ascertain the significance of respiratory water loss using modern analytical techniques. In particular, we determined whether there is variation in water loss rates amongst these beetles, whether both respiratory and cuticular water loss rates contribute significantly to variation in the former, and whether metabolic rate variation and variation in the duration of the DGC periods contribute significantly to variation in respiratory water loss rate. Total water loss rate varied such that species from arid areas had the lowest rates of water loss, and both cuticular and spiracular transpiration contributed significantly to variation in overall water loss rate. Moreover, variation in metabolic rate and in the duration of the DGC periods contributed significantly to variation in respiratory water loss rate. By contrast, examination of proportional water loss revealed little other than that it varies between 6.5% and 21%, depending on the species and the temperature at which it was examined. Cuticular water loss scaled as mass(0.721), but did not differ from that expected from geometric considerations alone. By contrast, respiratory

  16. Do volcanic emissions affect carbon gas fluxes in peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Nicola; Delmelle, Pierre; Toet, Sylvia; Gauci, Vincent; Ineson, Phil

    2010-05-01

    Recently, a link has been suggested between volcanic deposition of SO4 and the suppression of CH4 emissions in northern peatlands (Gauci et al., 2008). This link stems from the widely accepted idea that acid rain SO4 additions to peatlands can cause a shift in microbial communities as SO4 reducing bacteria out-compete methanogens for substrates, which results in a suppression of CH4 emission. However, volcanic emissions contain besides S other chemically reactive species that are potentially harmful to the environment. In particular, gaseous and particulate F emissions from volcanoes constitute a steady or intermittent source of F emission and deposition into the environment both close to the source and within fallout range of large eruptions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of volcanic depositions of SO4, both alone and in combination with F, on CH4 emission in peatlands. Peat mesocosms collected from Pennine uplands in the UK were treated with weekly pulses of Na2SO4 and NaF over 20 weeks in doses of 74 kg SO4/ ha and 13.5 and 135 kg F /ha. CH4 emissions were measured at regular intervals by taking headspace samples, which were analysed by GC-FID. CO2 fluxes were also measured using a portable Infra Red Gas Analyser (IRGA). No significant differences in CH4 and CO2 emissions were observed for any of the treatments when compared to the controls, which had only received deionised water. These findings are in contrast with previous studies where SO4 reduces CH4 emission in peatlands. The reason for this is unclear but may be due to the heterogeneous nature of peat soils. An alternative explanation relates to the previous history of the soils used in the mesocosms which are known to have been previously exposed to large volumes of anthropogenic S pollution. This may have caused microbial communities to evolve and become acclimatised to high levels of S addition. In either case, the assumption that CH4 suppression in peatlands occurs upon

  17. Developmental Changes in Photosynthetic Gas Exchange in the Polyol-Synthesizing Species, Apium graveolens L. (Celery).

    PubMed

    Fox, T C; Kennedy, R A; Loescher, W H

    1986-09-01

    Developmental changes in photosynthetic gas exchange were investigated in the mannitol synthesizing plant celery (Apium graveolens L. ;Giant Pascal'). Greenhouse-grown plants had unusually high photosynthetic rates for a C(3) plant, but consistent with field productivity data reported elsewhere for this plant. In most respects, celery exhibited typical C(3) photosynthetic characteristics; light saturation occurred at 600 micromoles photons per square meter per second, with a broad temperature optimum, peaking at 26 degrees C. At 2% O(2), photosynthesis was enhanced 15 to 25% compared to rates at 21% O(2). However, celery had low CO(2) compensation points, averaging 7 to 20 microliters per liter throughout the canopy. Conventional mechanisms for concentrating CO(2) were not detectable.

  18. Differential leaf gas exchange responses to salinity and drought in the mangrove tree Avicecennia germinans (Avicenniaceae).

    PubMed

    Sobrado, M A

    2006-06-01

    Leaf gas exchange was assessed in Avicennia germinans L. grown under different NaCl concentrations (0-40 per thousand), after salt-relief, and then during drought. Stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased with increasing NaCl concentration, and intrinsic water use efficiency (Pn / gs) increased. Under desalinization Pn / gs declined. Thus, gs did not change in plants grown at low NaCl concentration (10 per thousand), but increased up to 30-32% at higher NaCl concentration (20-40 per thousand). However, Pn was only slightly enhanced (10-15%). Under drought, Pn decreased by as much as 46% in plants grown at low NaCl concentration (10 per thousand) and by 22% at high NaCl concentration (40 per thousand). Thus, Pn / gs decreased and water use efficiency was lower during drought compared to estimates prior to salt-relief.

  19. Effects of elevated CO 2 on gas exchange characteristics of alpine grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemer, M.

    The ecosystem-level gas exchange characteristics of an alpine grassland treated with a combination of elevated CO 2 and moderate additions of NPK fertilizer during the third season of experimental treatments are described. Mid-season maximum daytime net ecosystem CO 2 flux (NEC max) increased significantly under elevated CO 2 (+45%), whereas nighttime NEC was unaffected by the CO 2 treatment. Since daytimke NEC under elevated CO 2 underwent a seasonal decline, only moderate carbon surpluses accumulated under elevated CO 2. The observed seasonal decline in daytime NEC may be due to reduced sink strength once maximum aboveground biomass is attained and appears to be a regulatory mechanism of ecosystem carbon accumulation. Moderate additions of NPK fertilizer stimulated both day-(+39%) and nighttime NEC (+29%) due to increased plant biomass, independent of CO 2 treatment. Yet there is no indication that enhanced mineral nutrient status will increase ecosystem responsiveness to elevated CO 2.

  20. Gas exchange: large surface and thin barrier determine pulmonary diffusing capacity.

    PubMed

    Weibel, E R

    1999-06-01

    The lung is characterized by its diffusing capacity for oxygen, DLO2, which is estimated from morphometric information as a theoretical capacity. It is determined by the large gas exchange surface, the thin tissue barrier, and the amount of capillary blood. The question is asked whether DLO2 could be a limiting factor for O2 uptake in heavy exercise, particularly in athletes with their 50% higher O2 demand. This is answered by studying the relation between DLO2 and maximal O2 consumption in different sedentary and athletic mammals, comparing horse and cow, dog and goat, and, finally, the most athletic mammal, the pronghorn antelope of the Rocky Mountains. It is concluded that in athletic species the lung is just sufficient to satisfy the O2 needs and can therefore be a limiting factor for aerobic work. PMID:10394805

  1. The closed spiracle phase of discontinuous gas exchange predicts diving duration in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor.

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2016-08-15

    The discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern of respiration shown by many arthropods includes periods of spiracle closure (C-phase) and is largely thought to serve as a physiological adaptation to restrict water loss in terrestrial environments. One major challenge to this hypothesis is to explain the presence of DGE in insects in moist environments. Here, we show a novel ecological correlate of the C-phase, namely, diving behaviour in mesic Paracinema tricolor grasshoppers. Notably, maximal dive duration is positively correlated with C-phase length, even after accounting for mass scaling and absolute metabolic rate. Here, we propose that an additional advantage of DGE may be conferred by allowing the tracheal system to act as a sealed underwater oxygen reservoir. Spiracle closure may facilitate underwater submersion, which, in turn, may contribute to predator avoidance, the survival of accidental immersion or periodic flooding and the exploitation of underwater resources. PMID:27296045

  2. The relationship between leaf water status, gas exchange, and spectral reflectance in cotton leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, William D.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of leaf spectral reflectance, the components of water potential, and leaf gas exchanges as a function of leaf water content were made to evaluate the use of NIR reflectance as an indicator of plant water status. Significant correlations were determined between spectral reflectance at 810 nm, 1665 nm, and 2210 nm and leaf relative water content, total water potential, and turgor pressure. However, the slopes of these relationships were relatively shallow and, when evaluated over the range of leaf water contents in which physiological activity occurs (e.g., photosynthesis), had lower r-squared values, and some relationships were not statistically significant. NIR reflectance varied primarily as a function of leaf water content, and not independently as a function of turgor pressure, which is a sensitive indicator of leaf water status. The limitations of this approach to measuring plant water stress are discussed.

  3. Nonlocal energy-optimized kernel: Recovering second-order exchange in the homogeneous electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Jefferson E.; Laricchia, Savio; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

    2016-01-01

    In order to remedy some of the shortcomings of the random phase approximation (RPA) within adiabatic connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) density functional theory, we introduce a short-ranged, exchange-like kernel that is one-electron self-correlation free and exact for two-electron systems in the high-density limit. By tuning a free parameter in our model to recover an exact limit of the homogeneous electron gas correlation energy, we obtain a nonlocal, energy-optimized kernel that reduces the errors of RPA for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous solids. Using wave-vector symmetrization for the kernel, we also implement RPA renormalized perturbation theory for extended systems, and demonstrate its capability to describe the dominant correlation effects with a low-order expansion in both metallic and nonmetallic systems. The comparison of ACFD structural properties with experiment is also shown to be limited by the choice of norm-conserving pseudopotential.

  4. Differential leaf gas exchange responses to salinity and drought in the mangrove tree Avicecennia germinans (Avicenniaceae).

    PubMed

    Sobrado, M A

    2006-06-01

    Leaf gas exchange was assessed in Avicennia germinans L. grown under different NaCl concentrations (0-40 per thousand), after salt-relief, and then during drought. Stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased with increasing NaCl concentration, and intrinsic water use efficiency (Pn / gs) increased. Under desalinization Pn / gs declined. Thus, gs did not change in plants grown at low NaCl concentration (10 per thousand), but increased up to 30-32% at higher NaCl concentration (20-40 per thousand). However, Pn was only slightly enhanced (10-15%). Under drought, Pn decreased by as much as 46% in plants grown at low NaCl concentration (10 per thousand) and by 22% at high NaCl concentration (40 per thousand). Thus, Pn / gs decreased and water use efficiency was lower during drought compared to estimates prior to salt-relief. PMID:18494307

  5. Mechanisms of worsening gas exchange during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barberà, J A; Roca, J; Ferrer, A; Félez, M A; Díaz, O; Roger, N; Rodriguez-Roisin, R

    1997-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms that determine abnormal gas exchange during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirteen COPD patients, hospitalized because of an exacerbation, were studied after admission and 38+/-10 (+/-SD) days after discharge, once they were clinically stable. Measurements included forced spirometry, arterial blood gas values, minute ventilation (V'E), cardiac output (Q'), oxygen consumption (V'O2), and ventilation/perfusion (V'A/Q') relationships, assessed by the inert gas technique. Exacerbations were characterized by very severe airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 0.74+/-0.17 vs 0.91+/-0.19 L, during exacerbation and stable conditions, respectively; p=0.01), severe hypoxaemia (ratio between arterial oxygen tension and inspired oxygen fraction (Pa,O2/FI,O2) 32.7+/-7.7 vs 37.6+/-6.9 kPa (245+/-58 vs 282+/-52 mmHg); p=0.01) and hypercapnia (arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) 6.8+/-1.6 vs 5.9+/-0.8 kPa (51+/-12 vs 44+/-6 mmHg); p=0.04). V'A/Q' inequality increased during exacerbation (log SD Q', 1.10+/-0.29 vs 0.96+/-0.27; normal < or = 0.6; p=0.04) as a result of greater perfusion in poorly-ventilated alveoli. Shunt was almost negligible on both measurements. V'E remained essentially unchanged during exacerbation (10.5+/-2.2 vs 9.2+/-1.8 L x min(-1); p=0.1), whereas both Q' (6.1+/-2.4 vs 5.1+/-1.7 L x min(-1); p=0.05) and V'O2 (300+/-49 vs 248+/-59 mL x min(-1); p=0.03) increased significantly. Worsening of hypoxaemia was explained mainly by the increase both in V'A/Q' inequality and V'O2, whereas the increase in Q' partially counterbalanced the effect of greater V'O2 on mixed venous oxygen tension (PV,O2). We conclude that worsening of gas exchange during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is primarily produced by increased ventilation/perfusion inequality, and that this effect is amplified by the decrease of mixed venous oxygen

  6. Protein structural dynamics at the gas/water interface examined by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yiming; Konermann, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Gas/water interfaces (such as air bubbles or foam) are detrimental to the stability of proteins, often causing aggregation. This represents a potential problem for industrial processes, for example, the production and handling of protein drugs. Proteins possess surfactant-like properties, resulting in a high affinity for gas/water interfaces. The tendency of previously buried nonpolar residues to maximize contact with the gas phase can cause significant structural distortion. Most earlier studies in this area employed spectroscopic tools that could only provide limited information. Here we use hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for probing the conformational dynamics of the model protein myoglobin (Mb) in the presence of N(2) bubbles. HDX/MS relies on the principle that unfolded and/or highly dynamic regions undergo faster deuteration than tightly folded segments. In bubble-free solution Mb displays EX2 behavior, reflecting the occurrence of short-lived excursions to partially unfolded conformers. A dramatically different behavior is seen in the presence of N(2) bubbles; EX2 dynamics still take place, but in addition the protein shows EX1 behavior. The latter results from interconversion of the native state with conformers that are globally unfolded and long-lived. These unfolded species likely correspond to Mb that is adsorbed to the surface of gas bubbles. N(2) sparging also induces aggregation. To explain the observed behavior we propose a simple model, that is, "semi-unfolded" ↔ "native" ↔ "globally unfolded" → "aggregated". This model quantitatively reproduces the experimentally observed kinetics. To the best of our knowledge, the current study marks the first exploration of surface denaturation phenomena by HDX/MS. PMID:25761782

  7. Protein structural dynamics at the gas/water interface examined by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yiming; Konermann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Gas/water interfaces (such as air bubbles or foam) are detrimental to the stability of proteins, often causing aggregation. This represents a potential problem for industrial processes, for example, the production and handling of protein drugs. Proteins possess surfactant-like properties, resulting in a high affinity for gas/water interfaces. The tendency of previously buried nonpolar residues to maximize contact with the gas phase can cause significant structural distortion. Most earlier studies in this area employed spectroscopic tools that could only provide limited information. Here we use hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for probing the conformational dynamics of the model protein myoglobin (Mb) in the presence of N2 bubbles. HDX/MS relies on the principle that unfolded and/or highly dynamic regions undergo faster deuteration than tightly folded segments. In bubble-free solution Mb displays EX2 behavior, reflecting the occurrence of short-lived excursions to partially unfolded conformers. A dramatically different behavior is seen in the presence of N2 bubbles; EX2 dynamics still take place, but in addition the protein shows EX1 behavior. The latter results from interconversion of the native state with conformers that are globally unfolded and long-lived. These unfolded species likely correspond to Mb that is adsorbed to the surface of gas bubbles. N2 sparging also induces aggregation. To explain the observed behavior we propose a simple model, that is, “semi-unfolded” ↔ “native” ↔ “globally unfolded” → “aggregated”. This model quantitatively reproduces the experimentally observed kinetics. To the best of our knowledge, the current study marks the first exploration of surface denaturation phenomena by HDX/MS. PMID:25761782

  8. Gas exchange and intrapulmonary distribution of ventilation during continuous-flow ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Vettermann, J.; Brusasco, V.; Rehder, K.

    1988-05-01

    In 12 anesthetized paralyzed dogs, pulmonary gas exchange and intrapulmonary inspired gas distribution were compared between continuous-flow ventilation (CFV) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). Nine dogs were studied while they were lying supine, and three dogs were studied while they were lying prone. A single-lumen catheter for tracheal insufflation and a double-lumen catheter for bilateral endobronchial insufflation (inspired O2 fraction = 0.4; inspired minute ventilation = 1.7 +/- 0.3 (SD) 1.kg-1.min-1) were evaluated. Intrapulmonary gas distribution was assessed from regional 133Xe clearances. In dogs lying supine, CO2 elimination was more efficient with endobronchial insufflation than with tracheal insufflation, but the alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference was larger during CFV than during CMV, regardless of the type of insufflation. By contrast, endobronchial insufflation maintained both arterial PCO2 and alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference at significantly lower levels in dogs lying prone than in dogs lying supine. In dogs lying supine, the dependent lung was preferentially ventilated during CMV but not during CFV. In dogs lying prone, gas distribution was uniform with both modes of ventilation. The alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference during CFV in dogs lying supine was negatively correlated with the reduced ventilation of the dependent lung, which suggests that increased ventilation-perfusion mismatching was responsible for the increase in alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference. The more efficient oxygenation during CFV in dogs lying prone suggests a more efficient matching of ventilation to perfusion, presumably because the distribution of blood flow is also nearly uniform.

  9. Gas exchange by intratracheal insufflation in a ventilatory failure dog model.

    PubMed Central

    Gavriely, N; Eckmann, D; Grotberg, J B

    1992-01-01

    Respiratory insufficiency patients who need only partial ventilatory support are, nevertheless, intubated and connected to a respirator. In search of a partial respiratory assistance method we evaluated the gas exchange, mechanisms, and hemodynamic effects of intratracheal insufflation (ITI) via a narrow (0.2-cm) catheter. The effects of flow rate (0.05-0.2 liter/min per kg), catheter tip position (carina, bronchus, and trachea), and superimposed chest vibration at 22 Hz were studied in seven anesthetized and partially paralyzed dogs. ITI in the carina induced CO2 removal (VCO2) of 48 +/- 16 ml/min in the periods between breaths, which was 39% of the control VCO2. CO2 removal rates between breaths with ITI in a bronchus and in the trachea were 63 and 28% of control, respectively (P < 0.05). ITI at 0.15-0.2 liter/min per kg augmented total VCO2 by > 50% over control (P < 0.05) and decreased PaCO2 by 10% (P < 0.05) despite a 28% fall in VE and 32% lower work of breathing (P < 0.05). Adding vibration to ITI at 0.15 liter/min per kg induced VCO2 of 162 +/- 34 ml/min, which was significantly greater than control, while PaCO2 fell from 69 +/- 24 to 47 +/- 6 mmHg (P < 0.05), despite complete cessation of spontaneous breathing. ITI with or without vibration did not cause any hemodynamic changes, except for a fall in the shunt fraction from 14.6 +/- 9.9% to 5.8 +/- 2.8% with vibration. Thus, ITI at low flow rates can support respiration with no hemodynamic side effects. Adding chest vibration further enhances gas exchange and can provide total ventilation. Images PMID:1469093

  10. Carbon gas exchange at a southern Rocky Mountain wetland, 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickland, K.P.; Striegl, R.G.; Mast, M.A.; Clow, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchange between the atmosphere and a subalpine wetland located in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, at 3200 m elevation were measured during 1996-1998. Respiration, net CO2 flux, and CH4 flux were measured using the closed chamber method during snow-free periods and using gas diffusion calculations during snow-covered periods. The ranges of measured flux were 1.2-526 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 (respiration), -1056-100 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 (net CO2 exchange), and 0.1-36.8 mmol CH4 m-2 d-1 (a positive value represents efflux to the atmosphere). Respiration and CH4 emission were significantly correlated with 5 cm soil temperature. Annual respiration and CH4 emission were modeled by applying the flux-temperature relationships to a continuous soil temperature record during 1996-1998. Gross photosynthesis was modeled using a hyperbolic equation relating gross photosynthesis, photon flux density, and soil temperature. Modeled annual flux estimates indicate that the wetland was a net source of carbon gas to the atmosphere each of the three years: 8.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 in 1996, 9.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 in 1997, and 9.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 in 1998. This contrasts with the long-term carbon accumulation of ???0.7 mol m-2 yr-1 determined from 14C analyses of a peat core collected from the wetland.

  11. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Spear, K.E.

    1996-08-01

    A vertical flow-through furnace has been built to study the effect of corrosion on the morphology and mechanical properties of ceramic hot gas filters. Sections of 3M Type 203 and DuPont Lanxide SiC-SiC filter tubes were sealed at one end and suspended in the furnace while being subjected to a simulated coal combustion environment at 870{degrees}C. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy is used to identify phase and morphology changes due to corrosion while burst testing determines the loss of mechanical strength after exposure to the combustion gases. Additionally, a thermodynamic database of gaseous silicon compounds is currently being established so that calculations can be made to predict important products of the reaction of the environment with the ceramics. These thermodynamic calculations provide useful information concerning the regimes where the ceramic may be degraded by material vaporization. To verify the durability and predict lifetime performance of ceramic heat exchangers in coal combustion environments, long-term exposure testing of stressed (internally pressurized) tubes must be performed in actual coal combustion environments. The authors have designed a system that will internally pressurize 2 inch OD by 48 inch long ceramic heat exchanger tubes to a maximum pressure of 200 psi while exposing the outer surface of the tubes to coal combustion gas at the Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF) at the Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center. Water-cooled, internal o-ring pressure seals were designed to accommodate the existing 6 inch by 6 inch access panels of the CERF. Tubes will be exposed for up to a maximum of 500 hours at temperatures of 2500 and 2600{degrees}F with an internal pressure of 200 psi. If the tubes survive, their retained strength will be measured using the high temperature tube burst test facility at Penn State University. Fractographic analysis will be performed to identify the failure source(s) for the tubes.

  12. [Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation, gas exchanges and arterial blood gases during ramp exercise].

    PubMed

    Péronnet, F; Aguilaniu, B

    2012-10-01

    In response to ramp exercise, changes in ventilation, gas exchange and arterial blood gases, which are closely interrelated, reflect the two roles of ventilation: 1) providing O(2) and eliminating metabolic CO(2) (from rest to maximal exercise); and 2) contributing to acid-base balance by eliminating non metabolic CO(2) from the alkaline reserve (from the first ventilatory threshold [VT(1)] to maximal exercise). Hyperpnea before VT(1) increases gas exchanges as needed for aerobic metabolism without large changes in ventilatory equivalent of O(2) and CO(2) (VE/V(O2) or VE/V(CO2)), in P(O2) and P(CO2) in alveoli or arterial blood (except for a small widening of alveolo-arterial P(O2) gradient), and in bicarbonate concentration. In contrast, above VT(1), CO(2) is washed-out from the alkaline reserve due to the combined effect of the fall in PA(CO2) (because of hyperventilation) and in pH, and this helps maintaining acid-base balance. Pa(CO2) and bicarbonate concentration decrease while PA(O2) and VE/V(O2) increase, and V(CO2), which follows VE, becomes higher than V(O2). In healthy young subjects, but very seldom in patients, the end of exercise can occur after a second ventilatory threshold (VT(2)), which is the zone where the increase in V(CO2) fails to follow that in VE in spite of hyperventilation and acidosis because of the progressive depletion of the alkaline reserve.

  13. Stem and leaf gas exchange and their responses to fire in a north Australian tropical savanna.

    PubMed

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Hutley, Lindsay B; Beringer, Jason; Tapper, Nigel J

    2006-04-01

    We measured stem CO2 efflux and leaf gas exchange in a tropical savanna ecosystem in northern Australia, and assessed the impact of fire on these processes. Gas exchange of mature leaves that flushed after a fire showed only slight differences from that of mature leaves on unburned trees. Expanding leaves typically showed net losses of CO2 to the atmosphere in both burned and unburned trees, even under saturating irradiance. Fire caused stem CO2 efflux to decline in overstory trees, when measured 8 weeks post-fire. This decline was thought to have resulted from reduced availability of C substrate for respiration, due to reduced canopy photosynthesis caused by leaf scorching, and to priority allocation of fixed C towards reconstruction of a new canopy. At the ecosystem scale, we estimated the annual above-ground woody-tissue CO2 efflux to be 275 g C m(-2) ground area year(-1) in a non-fire year, or approximately 13% of the annual gross primary production. We contrasted the canopy physiology of two co-dominant overstory tree species, one of which has a smooth bark on its branches capable of photosynthetic re-fixation (Eucalyptus miniata), and the other of which has a thick, rough bark incapable of re-fixation (Eucalyptus tetrodonta). Eucalyptus miniata supported a larger branch sapwood cross-sectional area in the crown per unit subtending leaf area, and had higher leaf stomatal conductance and photosynthesis than E. tetrodonta. Re-fixation by photosynthetic bark reduces the C cost of delivering water to evaporative sites in leaves, because it reduces the net C cost of constructing and maintaining sapwood. We suggest that re-fixation allowed leaves of E. miniata to photosynthesize at higher rates than those of E. tetrodonta, while the two invested similar amounts of C in the maintenance of branch sapwood.

  14. Reprint of: A numerical modelling of gas exchange mechanisms between air and turbulent water with an aquarium chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaosa, Ryuichi S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new numerical modelling to examine environmental chemodynamics of a gaseous material exchanged between the air and turbulent water phases across a gas-liquid interface, followed by an aquarium chemical reaction. This study uses an extended concept of a two-compartment model, and assumes two physicochemical substeps to approximate the gas exchange processes. The first substep is the gas-liquid equilibrium between the air and water phases, A(g)⇌A(aq), with Henry's law constant H. The second is a first-order irreversible chemical reaction in turbulent water, A(aq)+H2O→B(aq)+H+ with a chemical reaction rate κA. A direct numerical simulation (DNS) technique has been employed to obtain details of the gas exchange mechanisms and the chemical reaction in the water compartment, while zero velocity and uniform concentration of A is considered in the air compartment. The study uses the different Schmidt numbers between 1 and 8, and six nondimensional chemical reaction rates between 10(≈0) to 101 at a fixed Reynolds number. It focuses on the effects of the Schmidt number and the chemical reaction rate on fundamental mechanisms of the gas exchange processes across the interface.

  15. A numerical modelling of gas exchange mechanisms between air and turbulent water with an aquarium chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaosa, Ryuichi S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new numerical modelling to examine environmental chemodynamics of a gaseous material exchanged between the air and turbulent water phases across a gas-liquid interface, followed by an aquarium chemical reaction. This study uses an extended concept of a two-compartment model, and assumes two physicochemical substeps to approximate the gas exchange processes. The first substep is the gas-liquid equilibrium between the air and water phases, A(g)⇌A(aq), with Henry's law constant H. The second is a first-order irreversible chemical reaction in turbulent water, A(aq)+H2O→B(aq)+H+ with a chemical reaction rate κA. A direct numerical simulation (DNS) technique has been employed to obtain details of the gas exchange mechanisms and the chemical reaction in the water compartment, while zero velocity and uniform concentration of A is considered in the air compartment. The study uses the different Schmidt numbers between 1 and 8, and six nondimensional chemical reaction rates between 10(≈0) to 101 at a fixed Reynolds number. It focuses on the effects of the Schmidt number and the chemical reaction rate on fundamental mechanisms of the gas exchange processes across the interface.

  16. A tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that affects tomato fruit amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Christopher J; Thomas, Benjamin; Baxter, Charles J; Smith, J Andrew C; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2015-03-01

    Vacuolar accumulation of acidic metabolites is an important aspect of tomato fruit flavour and nutritional quality. The amino acids Asp and Glu accumulate to high concentrations during ripening, while γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shows an approximately stoichiometric decline. Given that GABA can be catabolised to form Glu and subsequently Asp, and the requirement for the fruit to maintain osmotic homeostasis during ripening, we hypothesised the existence of a tonoplast transporter that exports GABA from the vacuole in exchange for import of either Asp or Glu. We show here that the tomato vacuolar membrane possesses such a transport property: transport of Glu across isolated tonoplast vesicle membranes was trans-stimulated in counterexchange mode by GABA, Glu and Asp. We identified SlCAT9 as a candidate protein for this exchanger using quantitative proteomics of a tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction. Transient expression of a SlCAT9-YFP fusion in tobacco confirmed a tonoplast localisation. The function of the protein was examined by overexpression of SlCAT9 in transgenic tomato plants. Tonoplast vesicles isolated from transgenic plants showed higher rates of Glu and GABA transport than wild-type (WT) only when assayed in counterexchange mode with Glu, Asp, or GABA. Moreover, there were substantial increases in the content of all three cognate amino acids in ripe fruit from the transgenic plants. We conclude that SlCAT9 is a tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that strongly influences the accumulation of these amino acids during fruit development.

  17. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Blayne; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainty of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of benthic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water interface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2–6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models.

  18. Near-surface physics during convection affecting air-water gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    The gas flux at the water surface is affected by physical processes including turbulence from wind shear, microscale wave breaking, large-scale breaking, and convection due to heat loss at the surface. The main route in the parameterizations of the gas flux has been to use the wind speed as a proxy for the gas flux velocity, indirectly taking into account the dependency of the wind shear and the wave processes. The interest in the contributions from convection processes has increased as the gas flux from inland waters (with typically lower wind and sheltered conditions) now is believed to play a substantial role in the air-water gas flux budget. The gas flux is enhanced by convection through the mixing of the mixed layer as well as by decreasing the diffusive boundary layer thickness. The direct numerical simulations performed in this study are shown to be a valuable tool to enhance the understanding of this flow configuration often present in nature.

  19. Kinetic model for the vibrational energy exchange in flowing molecular gas mixtures. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offenhaeuser, F.

    1987-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the development of a computational model for the description of the vibrational energy exchange in flowing gas mixtures, taking into account a given number of energy levels for each vibrational degree of freedom. It is possible to select an arbitrary number of energy levels. The presented model uses values in the range from 10 to approximately 40. The distribution of energy with respect to these levels can differ from the equilibrium distribution. The kinetic model developed can be employed for arbitrary gaseous mixtures with an arbitrary number of vibrational degrees of freedom for each type of gas. The application of the model to CO2-H2ON2-O2-He mixtures is discussed. The obtained relations can be utilized in a study of the suitability of radiation-related transitional processes, involving the CO2 molecule, for laser applications. It is found that the computational results provided by the model agree very well with experimental data obtained for a CO2 laser. Possibilities for the activation of a 16-micron and 14-micron laser are considered.

  20. Superhydrophobic PAN nanofibers for gas diffusion layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Hwang, Gisuk; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the promising alternatives of natural resources for generating electricity and power. An optimal water management in the gas diffusion layers (GDL) is critical to high fuel cell performance. Its basic functions include transportation of the reactant gas from flow channels to catalyst effectively, draining out the liquid water from catalyst layer to flow channels, and conducting electrons with low humidity. In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was dissolved in a solvent and electrospun at various conditions to produce PAN nanofibers prior to the stabilization at 280 °C for 1 hour in the atmospheric pressure and carbonization at 850 °C for 1 hour. The surface hydrophobicity values of the carbonized PAN nanofibers were adjusted using superhydrophobic and hydrophilic agents. The thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of the new GDLs depicted much better results compared to the conventionally used ones. The water condensation tests on the surfaces (superhydrophobic and hydrophilic) of the GDL showed a crucial step towards improved water managements in the fuel cell. This study may open up new possibilities for developing high- performing GDL materials for future PEM fuel cell applications.

  1. Mechanisms of gas exchange abnormality in patients with chronic obliterative pulmonary vascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dantzker, D R; Bower, J S

    1979-01-01

    We have examined the mechanisms of abnormal gas exchange in seven patients with chronic obliteration of the pulmonary vascular bed secondary to recurrent pulmonary emboli or idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. All of the patients had a widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient and four were significantly hypoxemic with arterial partial presssures of oxygen less than 80 torr. Using the technique of multiple inert gas elimination, we found that ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) relationships were only minimally abnormal with a mean of 10% (range, 2--19%) of cardiac output perfusing abnormal units. These units consisted of shunt and units with VA/Q ratios less than 0.1. In addition, the dead space was found to be normal in each patient. There was no evidence for diffusion impairment, and the widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was completely explained by VA/ inequality. Significant hypoxemia occurred only when VA/Q inequality was combined with a low mixed venous oxygen content. PMID:479367

  2. Effect of stratified inequality of blood flow on gas exchange in liquid-filled lungs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Maloney, J. E.; Castle, B. L.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation set out to answer two questions: (1) are the distal alveoli in the terminal lung units less well perfused than the proximal alveoli, i.e., is there stratification of blood flow; and (2) if so, does this enhance gas exchange in the presence of stratified inequality of ventilation. Excised dog lungs were ventilated with saline and perfused with blood. Following single inspirations of xenon 133 in saline and various periods of breath holding, the expired xenon concentration against volume was measured and it confirmed marked stratified inequality of ventilation under these conditions. By measuring the rate of depletion of xenon from alveoli during a period of blood flow, we showed that the alveoli which emptied at the end of expiration had 16% less blood flow than those exhaling earlier. However, by measuring the xenon concentration in pulmonary venous blood, we found that about 10% less tracer was transferred from the alveoli into the blood when the inspired xenon was stratified within the respiratory zone. Thus while stratification of blood flow was confirmed, it was shown to impair rather than enhance the efficiency of gas transfer.

  3. Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Enhances Lung Volume and Gas Exchange in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Pillow, J. Jane; Hillman, Noah; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Polglase, Graeme; Bold, Geoff; Beaumont, Chris; Ikegami, Machiko; Jobe, Alan H.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The technique used to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the newborn may influence lung function and breathing efficiency. Objectives: To compare differences in gas exchange physiology and lung injury resulting from treatment of respiratory distress with either bubble or constant pressure CPAP and to determine if the applied flow influences short-term outcomes. Methods: Lambs (133 d gestation; term is 150 d) born via cesarean section were weighed, intubated, and treated with CPAP for 3 hours. Two groups were treated with 8 L/minute applied flow using the bubble (n = 12) or the constant pressure (n = 12) technique. A third group (n = 10) received the bubble method with 12 L/minute bias flow. Measurements at study completion included arterial blood gases, oxygraphy, capnography, tidal flow, multiple breath washout, lung mechanics, static pressure–volume curves, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein. Measurements and Main Results: Birth weight and arterial gas variables at 15 minutes were comparable. Flow (8 or 12 L/min) did not influence the 3-hour outcomes in the bubble group. Bubble technique was associated with a higher pH, PaO2, oxygen uptake, and area under the flow–volume curve, and a decreased alveolar protein, respiratory quotient, PaCO2, and ventilation inhomogeneity compared with the constant pressure group. Conclusions: Compared with constant pressure technique, bubble CPAP promotes enhanced airway patency during treatment of acute postnatal respiratory disease in preterm lambs and may offer protection against lung injury. PMID:17431223

  4. DOGEE-SOLAS: The Role of Surfactants in Air-Sea Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, M. E.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.; Nightingale, P.

    2008-12-01

    One of the major aims of DOGEE-SOLAS was to improve our understanding of the role of surfactants in air- sea gas exchange. With this in mind we carried out a number of artificial surfactant releases on a research cruise in the North Atlantic (D320), during June-July of 2007. We used oleyl alcohol, a surrogate for natural surfactants which is relatively cheap and easy to obtain (it is used in the manufacture of cosmetics). The main release overlaid a dual tracer "patch" of SF6 and 3He; our aim was to directly compare values of the gas transfer velocity, kw, estimated within the surfactant covered patch with those estimated quasi- simultaneously in a second, surfactant-free patch about 20km away. A second release in conjunction with colleagues from the University of Hawaii had the aim of measuring DMS fluxes by eddy correlation both inside and outside a surfactant slick, and a third was undertaken in the path of one of two 14m ASIS (Air-Sea Interaction Spar) buoys operated by the University of Miami for direct comparison of surfactant effects on the fluxes of CO2, H2O, heat and momentum (eddy correlation) etc. We present here some preliminary findings from the work.

  5. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Alchanatis, V.

    2007-03-15

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO{sub 2} emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO{sub 2} emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO{sub 2} emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO{sub 2} emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO{sub 2} emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author) [Spanish] En el presente estudio se investigaron los patrones de intercambio gaseoso (emision de CO{sub 2}) en pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) incubadas a diferentes temperaturas. El estudio fue realizado con la finalidad de explorar la utilizacion de sistemas de intercambio gaseoso en la determinacion de la edad fisiologica de pupas durante su produccion masiva en proyectos de mosca esteril. La proporcion de emision de CO{sub 2} fue

  6. Design of Plant Gas Exchange Experiments in a Variable Pressure Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1996-01-01

    Sustainable human presence in extreme environments such as lunar and martian bases will require bioregenerative components to human life support systems where plants are used for generation of oxygen, food, and water. Reduced atmospheric pressures will be used to minimize mass and engineering requirements. Few studies have assessed the metabolic and developmental responses of plants to reduced pressure and varied oxygen atmospheres. The first tests of hypobaric pressures on plant gas exchange and biomass production at the Johnson Space Center will be initiated in January 1996 in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), a large, closed plant growth chamber rated for 10.2 psi. Experiments were designed and protocols detailed for two complete growouts each of lettuce and wheat to generate a general database for human life support requirements and to answer questions about plant growth processes in reduced pressure and varied oxygen environments. The central objective of crop growth studies in the VPGC is to determine the influence of reduced pressure and reduced oxygen on the rates of photosynthesis, dark respiration, evapotranspiration and biomass production of lettuce and wheat. Due to the constraint of one experimental unit, internal controls, called pressure transients, will be used to evaluate rates of CO2 uptake, O2 evolution, and H2O generation. Pressure transients will give interpretive power to the results of repeated growouts at both reduced and ambient pressures. Other experiments involve the generation of response functions to partial pressures of O2 and CO2 and to light intensity. Protocol for determining and calculating rates of gas exchange have been detailed. In order to build these databases and implement the necessary treatment combinations in short time periods, specific requirements for gas injections and removals have been defined. A set of system capability checks will include determination of leakage rates conducted prior to the actual crop

  7. How technology and price affect US tight gas potential. Part 1. Technology of tight gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, R.W. Jr.; Baker, O.

    1983-01-01

    The tight gas resource in the US currently is estimated at 900 tcf, of which 600 tcf is considered technically recoverable. This gas is found in basins that cover a prospective area of one million square miles (one million sections). Of these, ca 120,000 sections are potentially productive. The tight gas picture is composed of many different and often complex reservoirs, ranging from the shallow horizons of the Northern Great Plains to the deep formations of the Rocky Mountains. These reservoirs range from the blanket-like formations that cover wide geographical areas to the highly lenticular zones such as those common to the Mesa Verde. The one thing they have in common is microdarcy permeabilities. A good perspective of the challenge is obvious when such permeability values are realized to be similar to that of cement normally used for oil and gas well casing strings. The advanced technology presumes improved exploration knowledge, longer fractures, higher fracture conductivity, and a higher density of well development. Advanced technology is particularly necessary for lenticular reservoirs which contain ca 40% of the recoverable gas.

  8. Effect of prolonged, heavy exercise on pulmonary gas exchange in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, S R; Gavin, T P; Siafakas, N M; Haseler, L J; Olfert, I M; Wagner, H; Wagner, P D

    1998-10-01

    During maximal exercise, ventilation-perfusion inequality increases, especially in athletes. The mechanism remains speculative. We hypothesized that, if interstitial pulmonary edema is involved, prolonged exercise would result in increasing ventilation-perfusion inequality over time by exposing the pulmonary vascular bed to high pressures for a long duration. The response to short-term exercise was first characterized in six male athletes [maximal O2 uptake (V(O2)max) = 63 ml x kg-1 x min-1] by using 5 min of cycling exercise at 30, 65, and 90% V(O2) max. Multiple inert-gas, blood-gas, hemodynamic, metabolic rate, and ventilatory data were obtained. Resting log SD of the perfusion distribution (log SDQ) was normal [0.50 +/- 0.03 (SE)] and increased with exercise (log SDQ = 0.65 +/- 0.04, P < 0.005), alveolar-arterial O2 difference increased (to 24 +/- 3 Torr), and end-capillary pulmonary diffusion limitation occurred at 90% V(O2)max. The subjects recovered for 30 min, then, after resting measurements were taken, exercised for 60 min at approximately 65% V(O2)max. O2 uptake, ventilation, cardiac output, and alveolar-arterial O2 difference were unchanged after the first 5 min of this test, but log SDQ increased from 0.59 +/- 0.03 at 5 min to 0. 66 +/- 0.05 at 60 min (P < 0.05), without pulmonary diffusion limitation. Log SDQ was negatively related to total lung capacity normalized for body surface area (r = -0.97, P < 0.005 at 60 min). These data are compatible with interstitial edema as a mechanism and suggest that lung size is an important determinant of the efficiency of gas exchange during exercise.

  9. Pulmonary gas exchange is not impaired 24 h after extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G Kim; Fine, Janelle M; Cooper, Trevor K; West, John B

    2005-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) during spaceflight involves a significant decompression stress. Previous studies have shown an increase in the inhomogeneity of ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) after some underwater dives, presumably through the embolic effects of venous gas microemboli in the lung. Ground-based chamber studies simulating EVA have shown that venous gas microemboli occur in a large percentage of the subjects undergoing decompression, despite the use of prebreathe protocols to reduce dissolved N(2) in the tissues. We studied eight crewmembers (7 male, 1 female) of the International Space Station who performed 15 EVAs (initial cabin pressure 748 mmHg, final suit pressure either approximately 295 or approximately 220 mmHg depending on the suit used) and who followed the denitrogenation procedures approved for EVA from the International Space Station. The intrabreath VA/Q slope was calculated from the alveolar Po(2) and Pco(2) in a prolonged exhalation maneuver on the day after EVA and compared with measurements made in microgravity on days well separated from the EVA. There were no significant changes in intrabreath VA/Q slope as a result of EVA, although there was a slight increase in metabolic rate and ventilation (approximately 9%) on the day after EVA. Vital capacity and other measures of pulmonary function were largely unaltered by EVA. Because measurements could only be performed on the day after EVA because of logistical constraints, we were unable to determine an acute effect of EVA on VA/Q inequality. The results suggest that current denitrogenation protocols do not result in any major lasting alteration to gas exchange in the lung.

  10. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across 41 Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life-forms. However, recent reports suggest that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. Methods To examine this possi...

  11. Asymmetrical effects of mesophyll conductance on fundamental photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from leaf gas exchange measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most previous analyses of leaf gas exchange measurements assumed an infinite value of mesophyll conductance (gm) and thus equaled CO2 partial pressures in the substomatal cavity and chloroplast. Yet an increasing number of studies have recognized that gm is finite and there is a drawdown of CO2 part...

  12. High Frequency Nasal Ventilation for 21 Days Maintains Gas Exchange with Lower Respiratory Pressures and Promotes Alveolarization in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Null, Donald M.; Alvord, Jeremy; Leavitt, Wendy; Wint, Albert; Dahl, Mar Janna; Presson, Angela P.; Lane, Robert H.; DiGeronimo, Robert J.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Albertine, Kurt H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Short-term high-frequency nasal ventilation (HFNV) of preterm neonates provides acceptable gas exchange compared to endotracheal intubation and intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV). Whether long-term HFNV will provide acceptable gas exchange is unknown. We hypothesized that HFNV for up to 21d would lead to acceptable gas exchange at lower inspired oxygen (O2) levels and airway pressures compared to intubation and IMV. Methods Preterm lambs were exposed to antenatal steroids, and treated with perinatal surfactant and postnatal caffeine. Lambs were intubated and resuscitated by IMV. At ~3h of age, half of the lambs were switched to non-invasive HFNV. Support was for 3d or 21d. By design, PaO2 and PaCO2 were not different between groups. Results At 3d (n=5) and 21d (n=4) of HFNV, fractional inspired O2 (FiO2), peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway, intra-tracheal, and positive end-expiratory pressures, oxygenation index, and Alveolar-arterial gradient were significantly lower than matched periods of intubation and IMV. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly higher at 3d and 21d of HFNV compared to matched intubation and IMV. HFNV led to better alveolarization at 3d and 21d. Conclusion Long-term HFNV provides acceptable gas exchange at lower inspired O2 levels and respiratory pressures compared to intubation and IMV. PMID:24378898

  13. Toxicodynamics of rigid polystyrene microparticles on pulmonary gas exchange in mice: Implications for microemboli-based drug delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, H.L.; Gao, D.; Li, S.; Massa, C.B.; Cervelli, J.; Deshmukh, M.; Joseph, L.B.; Laskin, D.L.; Sinko, P.J.

    2013-01-15

    The toxicodynamic relationship between the number and size of pulmonary microemboli resulting from uniformly sized, rigid polystyrene microparticles (MPs) administered intravenously and their potential effects on pulmonary gas exchange were investigated. CD-1 male mice (6–8 weeks) were intravenously administered 10, 25 and 45 μm diameter MPs. Oxygen hemoglobin saturation in the blood (SpO{sub 2}) was measured non-invasively using a pulse oximeter while varying inhaled oxygen concentration (F{sub I}O{sub 2}). The resulting data were fit to a physiologically based non-linear mathematical model that estimates 2 parameters: ventilation–perfusion ratio (V{sub A}/Q) and shunt (percentage of deoxygenated blood returning to systemic circulation). The number of MPs administered prior to a statistically significant reduction in normalized V{sub A}/Q was dependent on particle size. MP doses that resulted in a significant reduction in normalized V{sub A}/Q one day post-treatment were 4000, 40,000 and 550,000 MPs/g for 45, 25 and 10 μm MPs, respectively. The model estimated V{sub A}/Q and shunt returned to baseline levels 7 days post-treatment. Measuring SpO{sub 2} alone was not sufficient to observe changes in gas exchange; however, when combined with model-derived V{sub A}/Q and shunt early reversible toxicity from pulmonary microemboli was detected suggesting that the model and physical measurements are both required for assessing toxicity. Moreover, it appears that the MP load required to alter gas exchange in a mouse prior to lethality is significantly higher than the anticipated required MP dose for effective drug delivery. Overall, the current results indicate that the microemboli-based approach for targeted pulmonary drug delivery is potentially safe and should be further explored. -- Highlights: ► Murine pulmonary gas exchange after microembolization was non-invasively studied. ► A physiologically based model quantified impairment of pulmonary gas exchange.

  14. Fouling reduction characteristics of a no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger for flue gas heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Y.D.; Lee, K.B.; Islam, S.Z.; Ko, S.B.

    2008-07-01

    In conventional flue gas heat recovery systems, the fouling by fly ashes and the related problems such as corrosion and cleaning are known to be major drawbacks. To overcome these problems, a single-riser no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger is devised and studied. Fouling and cleaning tests are performed for a uniquely designed fluidized bed-type heat exchanger to demonstrate the effect of particles on the fouling reduction and heat transfer enhancement. The tested heat exchanger model (1 m high and 54 mm internal diameter) is a gas-to-water type and composed of a main vertical tube and four auxiliary tubes through which particles circulate and transfer heat. Through the present study, the fouling on the heat transfer surface could successfully be simulated by controlling air-to-fuel ratios rather than introducing particles through an external feeder, which produced soft deposit layers with 1 to 1.5 mm thickness on the inside pipe wall. Flue gas temperature at the inlet of heat exchanger was maintained at 450{sup o}C at the gas volume rate of 0.738 to 0.768 CMM (0.0123 to 0.0128 m{sup 3}/sec). From the analyses of the measured data, heat transfer performances of the heat exchanger before and after fouling and with and without particles were evaluated. Results showed that soft deposits were easily removed by introducing glass bead particles, and also heat transfer performance increased two times by the particle circulation. In addition, it was found that this type of heat exchanger had high potential to recover heat of waste gases from furnaces, boilers, and incinerators effectively and to reduce fouling related problems.

  15. Technical/market assessment of heat exchanger technology for users of natural gas. Final report, April 1, 1990-May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, L.S.; Andrews, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the report is to assess those heat exchanger technologies most relevant to gas-fired applications, including a literature review of existing heat transfer enhancement technology, an assessment of heat exchanger use in industry, and an evaluation of the enhancement technologies sponsored by the Gas Research Institute.

  16. Quantifying the measurement errors in a LI-6400 gas exchange system and their effects on the parameterization of Farquhar et al. model for C3 leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The LI-6400 gas exchange system (Li-Cor, Inc, Lincoln, NE, USA) has been widely used for the measurement of net gas exchanges and calibration/parameterization of leaf models. Measurement errors due to diffusive leakages of water vapor and carbon dioxide between inside and outside of the leaf chamber...

  17. Investigating onychophoran gas exchange and water balance as a means to inform current controversies in arthropod physiology.

    PubMed

    Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

    2008-10-01

    Several controversies currently dominate the fields of arthropod metabolic rate, gas exchange and water balance, including the extent to which modulation of gas exchange reduces water loss, the origins of discontinuous gas exchange, the relationship between metabolic rate and life-history strategies, and the causes of Palaeozoic gigantism. In all of these areas, repeated calls have been made for the investigation of groups that might most inform the debates, especially of taxa in key phylogenetic positions. Here we respond to this call by investigating metabolic rate, respiratory water loss and critical oxygen partial pressure (Pc) in the onychophoran Peripatopsis capensis, a member of a group basal to the arthropods, and by synthesizing the available data on the Onychophora. The rate of carbon dioxide release (VCO2) at 20 degrees C in P. capensis is 0.043 ml CO2 h(-1), in keeping with other onychophoran species; suggesting that low metabolic rates in some arthropod groups are derived. Continuous gas exchange suggests that more complex gas exchange patterns are also derived. Total water loss in P. capensis is 57 mg H2O h(-1) at 20 degrees C, similar to modern estimates for another onychophoran species. High relative respiratory water loss rates ( approximately 34%; estimated using a regression technique) suggest that the basal condition in arthropods may be a high respiratory water loss rate. Relatively high Pc values (5-10% O2) suggest that substantial safety margins in insects are also a derived condition. Curling behaviour in P. capensis appears to be a strategy to lower energetic costs when resting, and the concomitant depression of water loss is a proximate consequence of this behaviour.

  18. Investigating onychophoran gas exchange and water balance as a means to inform current controversies in arthropod physiology.

    PubMed

    Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

    2008-10-01

    Several controversies currently dominate the fields of arthropod metabolic rate, gas exchange and water balance, including the extent to which modulation of gas exchange reduces water loss, the origins of discontinuous gas exchange, the relationship between metabolic rate and life-history strategies, and the causes of Palaeozoic gigantism. In all of these areas, repeated calls have been made for the investigation of groups that might most inform the debates, especially of taxa in key phylogenetic positions. Here we respond to this call by investigating metabolic rate, respiratory water loss and critical oxygen partial pressure (Pc) in the onychophoran Peripatopsis capensis, a member of a group basal to the arthropods, and by synthesizing the available data on the Onychophora. The rate of carbon dioxide release (VCO2) at 20 degrees C in P. capensis is 0.043 ml CO2 h(-1), in keeping with other onychophoran species; suggesting that low metabolic rates in some arthropod groups are derived. Continuous gas exchange suggests that more complex gas exchange patterns are also derived. Total water loss in P. capensis is 57 mg H2O h(-1) at 20 degrees C, similar to modern estimates for another onychophoran species. High relative respiratory water loss rates ( approximately 34%; estimated using a regression technique) suggest that the basal condition in arthropods may be a high respiratory water loss rate. Relatively high Pc values (5-10% O2) suggest that substantial safety margins in insects are also a derived condition. Curling behaviour in P. capensis appears to be a strategy to lower energetic costs when resting, and the concomitant depression of water loss is a proximate consequence of this behaviour. PMID:18805813

  19. Nitrogen supply modulates the effect of changes in drying-rewetting frequency on soil C and N cycling and greenhouse gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Lourdes; Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Roales, Javier; Gallardo, Antonio; Lovett, Gary M; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are two of the most important global change drivers. However, the interactions of these drivers have not been well studied. We aimed to assess how the combined effect of soil N additions and more frequent soil drying-rewetting events affects carbon (C) and N cycling, soil:atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange, and functional microbial diversity. We manipulated the frequency of soil drying-rewetting events in soils from ambient and N-treated plots in a temperate forest and calculated the Orwin & Wardle Resistance index to compare the response of the different treatments. Increases in drying-rewetting cycles led to reductions in soil NO3- levels, potential net nitrification rate, and soil : atmosphere GHG exchange, and increases in NH4+ and total soil inorganic N levels. N-treated soils were more resistant to changes in the frequency of drying-rewetting cycles, and this resistance was stronger for C- than for N-related variables. Both the long-term N addition and the drying-rewetting treatment altered the functionality of the soil microbial population and its functional diversity. Our results suggest that increasing the frequency of drying-rewetting cycles can affect the ability of soil to cycle C and N and soil : atmosphere GHG exchange and that the response to this increase is modulated by soil N enrichment.

  20. Nitrogen supply modulates the effect of changes in drying-rewetting frequency on soil C and N cycling and greenhouse gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Lourdes; Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Roales, Javier; Gallardo, Antonio; Lovett, Gary M; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are two of the most important global change drivers. However, the interactions of these drivers have not been well studied. We aimed to assess how the combined effect of soil N additions and more frequent soil drying-rewetting events affects carbon (C) and N cycling, soil:atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange, and functional microbial diversity. We manipulated the frequency of soil drying-rewetting events in soils from ambient and N-treated plots in a temperate forest and calculated the Orwin & Wardle Resistance index to compare the response of the different treatments. Increases in drying-rewetting cycles led to reductions in soil NO3- levels, potential net nitrification rate, and soil : atmosphere GHG exchange, and increases in NH4+ and total soil inorganic N levels. N-treated soils were more resistant to changes in the frequency of drying-rewetting cycles, and this resistance was stronger for C- than for N-related variables. Both the long-term N addition and the drying-rewetting treatment altered the functionality of the soil microbial population and its functional diversity. Our results suggest that increasing the frequency of drying-rewetting cycles can affect the ability of soil to cycle C and N and soil : atmosphere GHG exchange and that the response to this increase is modulated by soil N enrichment. PMID:25916277

  1. Growing season ecosystem and leaf-level gas exchange of an exotic and native semiarid bunchgrass.

    PubMed

    Hamerlynck, Erik P; Scott, Russell L; Moran, M Susan; Keefer, Timothy O; Huxman, Travis E

    2010-07-01

    The South African grass, Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana), may alter ecosystem processes across extensive semiarid grasslands and savannahs of western North America. We compared volumetric soil moisture (theta), total and green tissue leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem (i.e. whole-plant and soil), and leaf-level gas exchange of Lehmann lovegrass and the native bush muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri) over the 2008 monsoon season in a semiarid savanna in southern Arizona, USA, to see if these were consistent with high productivity associated with lovegrass invasive success. theta across 0-5 and 0-25 cm was higher while evapotranspiration (ET) was similar between lovegrass and bush muhly plots, except shortly after rainfall, when ET was 32-81% higher in lovegrass plots. Lehmann lovegrass had lower, quickly developing LAI with greater leaf proportions than bush muhly. When early season theta was high, net ecosystem CO(2) exchange (NEE) was similar, but as storm frequency and theta declined, NEE was more negative in lovegrass (-0.69 to -3.00 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than bush muhly (+1.75 to -1.55 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Ecosystem respiration (R (eco)) responded quickly to monsoon onset and late-season rains, and was lower in lovegrass (2.44-3.74 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than bush muhly (3.60-5.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) across the season. Gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) was greater in Lehmann lovegrass, concurrent with higher leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. We conclude that canopy structure facilitates higher theta under Lehmann lovegrass, reducing phenological constraints and stomatal limitations to whole-plant carbon uptake through the short summer monsoon growing season.

  2. Greenhouse gas exchange in grasslands: impacts of climate, intensity of management and other factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    Grasslands occupy some 40% of the terrestrial land surface. They are generally categorised as natural (occurring mainly in those regions where the rainfall is too low to support forest ecosystems), semi-natural (where management, mainly by grazing, has changed the vegetation composition), and artificial (where forests have been cleared to create new pasture land). The soils of the natural and semi-natural grasslands constitute a large reservoir of carbon, and make a substantial contribution to the soil sink for atmospheric CH_4. The conversion of much of the natural temperate grassland to arable agriculture, e.g. in North America and Europe, resulted in a considerable decrease in soil organic carbon, and its release to the atmosphere as CO_2 has made a substantial contribution to the total atmospheric concentration of this gas. The associated increase in cycling of soil N (released from the organic matter) will have contributed to N_2O emissions, and land disturbance and fertilisation has resulted in a depletion of the soil CH_4 sink. Conversion of tropical forests to pastures has also been a major source of CO_2, and these pastures show elevated emissions of N_2O for some years after conversion. Seasonally flooded tropical grasslands are a significant source of CH_4 emissions. Consideration of grassland ecosystems in their entirety, in relation to GHG exchange, necessitates the inclusion of CH_4 production by fauna - domesticated livestock and wild herbivores, as well as some species of termites - in the overall assessment. Stocking rates on pasture land have increased, and the total CH_4 emissions likewise. The relationship between animal production and CH_4 emissions is dependent on the nutritional quality of the vegetation, as well as on animal numbers. In both temperate and tropical regions, increased N inputs as synthetic fertilisers and manures (and increased N deposition) are producing possibly a more-than-linear response in terms of emissions of N_2O. In

  3. Gas exchange characteristics of wheat stands grown in a closed, controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Corey, K A; Sager, J C; Knott, W M

    1993-01-01

    Information on gas exchange of crop stands grown in controlled environments is limited, but is vital for assessing the use of crops for human life-support in closed habitats envisioned for space. Two studies were conducted to measure gas exchange of wheat stands (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown from planting to maturity in a large (20 m2 canopy area), closed growth chamber. Daily rates of dark-period respiration and net photosynthesis of the stand were calculated from rates of CO2 build-up during dark cycles and subsequent CO2 drawdown in the light (i.e., a closed-system approach). Lighting was provided as a 20-h photoperiod by high-pressure sodium lamps, with canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) ranging from 500 to 800 micromoles m-2 s-1 as canopy height increased. Net photosynthesis rates peaked near 27 micromoles CO2 m-2 s-1 at 25 d after planting, which corresponded closely with stand closure, and then declined slowly with age. Similarly, dark-period respiration rates peaked near 14 micromoles CO2 m-2 s-1 at 25 d and then gradually declined with age. Responses to short-term changes in irradiance after canopy closure indicated the stand light compensation point for photosynthesis to be near 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPFD. Tests in which CO2 concentration was raised to approximately 2000 micromoles mol-1 and then allowed to draw down to a compensation point showed that net photosynthesis was nearly saturated at > 1000 micromoles mol-1; below approximately 500 micromoles mol-1, net photosynthesis rates dropped sharply with decreasing CO2. The CO2 compensation point for photosynthesis occurred near 50 micromoles mol-1. Short-term (24 h) temperature tests showed net photosynthesis at 20 degrees C > or = 16 degrees C > 24 degrees C, while dark-period respiration at 24 degrees C > 20 degrees C > 16 degrees C. Rates of stand evapotranspiration peaked near Day 25 and remained relatively constant until about Day 75, after which rates declined

  4. A Test of the Optimality Approach to Modelling Canopy gas Exchange by Natural Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schymanski, S. J.; Sivapalan, M.; Roderick, M. L.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L. B.

    2005-12-01

    Natural vegetation has co-evolved with its environment over a long period of time and natural selection has led to a species composition that is most suited for the given conditions. Part of this adaptation is the vegetation's water use strategy, which determines the amount and timing of water extraction from the soil. Knowing that water extraction by vegetation often accounts for over 90% of the annual water balance in some places, we need to understand its controls if we want to properly model the hydrologic cycle. Water extraction by roots is driven by transpiration from the canopy, which in turn is an inevitable consequence of CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis provides plants with their main building material, carbohydrates, and with the energy necessary to thrive and prosper in their environment. Therefore we expect that natural vegetation would have evolved an optimal water use strategy to maximise its `net carbon profit' (the difference between carbon acquired by photosynthesis and carbon spent on maintenance of the organs involved in its uptake). Based on this hypothesis and on an ecophysiological gas exchange and photosynthesis model (Cowan and Farquhar 1977; von Caemmerer 2000), we model the optimal vegetation for a site in Howard Springs (N.T., Australia) and compare the modelled fluxes with measurements by Beringer, Hutley et al. (2003). The comparison gives insights into theoretical and real controls on transpiration and photosynthesis and tests the optimality approach to modelling gas exchange of natural vegetation with unknown properties. The main advantage of the optimality approach is that no assumptions about the particular vegetation on a site are needed, which makes it very powerful for predicting vegetation response to long-term climate- or land use change. Literature: Beringer, J., L. B. Hutley, et al. (2003). "Fire impacts on surface heat, moisture and carbon fluxes from a tropical savanna in northern Australia." International

  5. Review of the findings of the Ignik Sikumi CO2-CH4 gas hydrate exchange field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian J.; Boswell, Ray; Collett, Tim S.; Farrell, Helen; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; White, Mark D.

    2014-08-01

    The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Exchange Field Trial was conducted by ConocoPhillips in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas, and Metals National Corporation, and the U.S. Geological Survey within the Prudhoe Bay Unit on the Alaska North Slope (ANS) during 2011 and 2012. The 2011 field program included drilling the vertical test well and performing extensive wireline logging through a thick section of gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs that provided substantial new insight into the nature of ANS gas hydrate occurrences. The 2012 field program involved an extended, scientific field trial conducted within a single vertical well (“huff-and-puff” design) through three primary operational phases: 1) injection of a gaseous phase mixture of CO2, N2, and chemical tracers; 2) flowback conducted at down-hole pressures above the stability threshold for native CH4-hydrate, and 3) extended (30-days) flowback at pressures below the stability threshold of native CH4-hydrate. Ignik Sikumi represents the first field investigation of gas hydrate response to chemical injection, and the longest-duration field reservoir response experiment yet conducted. Full descriptions of the operations and data collected have been fully reported by ConocoPhillips and are available to the science community. The 2011 field program indicated the presence of free water within the gas hydrate reservoir, a finding with significant implications to the design of the exchange trial – most notably the use of a mixed gas injectant. While this decision resulted in a complex chemical environment within the reservoir that greatly tests current experimental and modeling capabilities – without such a mixture, it is apparent that injection could not have been achieved. While interpretation of the field data are continuing, the primary scientific findings and implications of the program are: 1) gas hydrate destabilizing is self-limiting, dispelling any notion of the potential for

  6. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voelker, Steven L.; Brooks, J. Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Bader, Martin K.-F.; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Becklin, Katie M.; Beerling, David; Bert, Didier; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dawson, Todd E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guyette, Richard P.; Körner, Christian; Leavitt, Steven W.; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John D.; Mildner, Manuel; Ogée, Jérôme; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Plumpton, Heather J.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Saurer, Matthias; Smith, Andrew R.; Siegwolf, Rolf T.W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Talhelm, Alan F.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Ward, Joy K.; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2], ci, a constant drawdown in CO2(ca − ci), and a constant ci/ca. These strategies can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange. The accuracy of Earth systems models depends in part on assumptions about generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to varying ca. The concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these strategies, provides a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca. To assess leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies, we analyzed patterns in ci inferred from studies reporting C stable isotope ratios (δ13C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆) in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms that grew across a range of ca spanning at least 100 ppm. Our results suggest that much of the ca-induced changes in ci/ca occurred across ca spanning 200 to 400 ppm. These patterns imply that ca − ci will eventually approach a constant level at high ca because assimilation rates will reach a maximum and stomatal conductance of each species should be constrained to some minimum level. These analyses are not consistent with canalization toward any single strategy, particularly maintaining a constant ci. Rather, the results are consistent with the existence of a broadly conserved pattern of stomatal optimization in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms. This results in trees being profligate water users at low ca, when additional water loss is small for each unit of C gain, and increasingly water-conservative at high ca, when photosystems are saturated and water loss is large for each unit C gain.

  7. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2 : evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Steven L; Brooks, J Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C; Anderson, Rebecca; Bader, Martin K-F; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Becklin, Katie M; Beerling, David; Bert, Didier; Betancourt, Julio L; Dawson, Todd E; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guyette, Richard P; Körner, Christian; Leavitt, Steven W; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John D; Mildner, Manuel; Ogée, Jérôme; Panyushkina, Irina; Plumpton, Heather J; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Saurer, Matthias; Smith, Andrew R; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Stambaugh, Michael C; Talhelm, Alan F; Tardif, Jacques C; Van de Water, Peter K; Ward, Joy K; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2 ], ca , is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2 ], ci , a constant drawdown in CO2 (ca  - ci ), and a constant ci /ca . These strategies can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange. The accuracy of Earth systems models depends in part on assumptions about generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to varying ca . The concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these strategies, provides a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca . To assess leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies, we analyzed patterns in ci inferred from studies reporting C stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆) in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms that grew across a range of ca spanning at least 100 ppm. Our results suggest that much of the ca -induced changes in ci /ca occurred across ca spanning 200 to 400 ppm. These patterns imply that ca  - ci will eventually approach a constant level at high ca because assimilation rates will reach a maximum and stomatal conductance of each species should be constrained to some minimum level. These analyses are not consistent with canalization toward any single strategy, particularly maintaining a constant ci . Rather, the results are consistent with the existence of a broadly conserved pattern of stomatal optimization in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms. This results in trees being profligate water users at low ca , when additional water loss is small for each unit of C gain, and increasingly water-conservative at high ca , when photosystems are saturated and water loss is large for each unit C gain.

  8. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2 : evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Steven L; Brooks, J Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C; Anderson, Rebecca; Bader, Martin K-F; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Becklin, Katie M; Beerling, David; Bert, Didier; Betancourt, Julio L; Dawson, Todd E; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guyette, Richard P; Körner, Christian; Leavitt, Steven W; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John D; Mildner, Manuel; Ogée, Jérôme; Panyushkina, Irina; Plumpton, Heather J; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Saurer, Matthias; Smith, Andrew R; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Stambaugh, Michael C; Talhelm, Alan F; Tardif, Jacques C; Van de Water, Peter K; Ward, Joy K; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2 ], ca , is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2 ], ci , a constant drawdown in CO2 (ca  - ci ), and a constant ci /ca . These strategies can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange. The accuracy of Earth systems models depends in part on assumptions about generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to varying ca . The concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these strategies, provides a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca . To assess leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies, we analyzed patterns in ci inferred from studies reporting C stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆) in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms that grew across a range of ca spanning at least 100 ppm. Our results suggest that much of the ca -induced changes in ci /ca occurred across ca spanning 200 to 400 ppm. These patterns imply that ca  - ci will eventually approach a constant level at high ca because assimilation rates will reach a maximum and stomatal conductance of each species should be constrained to some minimum level. These analyses are not consistent with canalization toward any single strategy, particularly maintaining a constant ci . Rather, the results are consistent with the existence of a broadly conserved pattern of stomatal optimization in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms. This results in trees being profligate water users at low ca , when additional water loss is small for each unit of C gain, and increasingly water-conservative at high ca , when photosystems are saturated and water loss is large for each unit C gain

  9. Pulmonary gas exchange and breathing pattern during and after exercise in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, C; Anselme, F; Mercier, J; Préfaut, C

    1993-01-01

    Highly trained athletes (HT) have been found to show arterial hypoxaemia during strenuous exercise. A lack of compensatory hyperpnoea and/or a limitation of pulmonary diffusion by pulmonary interstitial oedema have been suggested as causes, but the exact role of each is not clear. It is known, however, that interstitial pulmonary oedema may result in rapid shallow breathing (RSB). The purpose of this study was therefore twofold: firstly, to determine the exact role of a lack of compensatory hyperpnoea versus a widened in ideal alveolar minus arterial oxygen partial pressure difference [PA(i)-aO2] in the decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) and, secondly, to detect RSB during recovery in HT. Untrained subjects (UT) and HT performed exhausting incremental exercise. During rest, exercise testing, and recovery, breathing pattern, respiratory gas exchange, and arterial blood gases were measured. The PA(i)-aO2 and the difference in tidal volume (VT) between exercise and recovery for the same level of ventilation, normalized to vital capacity of the subject [delta VT(%VC)], were then calculated. A large positive delta VT(%VC) was considered to be the sign of RSB. HT showed a marked hypoxaemia (F = 11.6, P < 0.0001), higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (F = 3.51, P < 0.05), and lower ideal partial pressure of oxygen in alveolar gas (P < 0.001). The relationship between PA(i)-aO2 and oxygen consumption was the same for the two groups. The widening PA(i)-aO2 persisted throughout recovery for both HT and UT. The RSB was observed in HT during recovery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Lung function, breathing pattern, and gas exchange in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, S; Sicilian, L

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the severity of abnormalities in ventilatory function tests and tidal breathing pattern and gas exchange indices in interstitial lung disease. METHODS: Pulmonary function, ventilation, carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, arterial blood gas tensions, and pH were measured during resting steady state conditions in 60 patients with proved interstitial lung disease. Patients were categorised by forced vital capacity (FVC) (percentage of predicted values) as having a mild, moderate, or severe restrictive defect with means (SD) of 71% (4%), 57% (4%), and 41% (7%) of predicted values, respectively. RESULTS: FVC varied from 29% to 79% of predicted values and from 0.99 l to 4.32 l. The two measurements of FVC correlated strongly with most static lung volumes and with transfer factor for carbon monoxide. Mean respiratory rates (per minute) and tidal volumes (ml) were 17 (4) and 484 (131), 20 (4) and 460 (139), and 23 (5) and 377 (109) in mild, moderate, and severe restrictive defects, respectively. FVC correlated negatively with respiratory rate and positively with tidal volume. Arterial carbon dioxide tension ranged from 30 to 49 mm Hg; only two patients were hypercapnic. Mean arterial oxygen tensions were not significantly different among the three groups, and there were no significant correlations between forced expiratory volume in one second or FVC and arterial carbon dioxide tension or carbon dioxide production. CONCLUSION: Low values of FVC were associated with increased respiratory rate and decreased tidal volume; this pattern of breathing mimics external elastic loading, suggesting that mechanoreceptors may contribute to the rapid and shallow pattern of breathing in interstitial lung disease. Hypercapnia seems to be rare in interstitial lung disease even when functional impairment is severe and tidal volume is small. The increased respiratory rate is important in maintaining adequate

  11. The Exchange Relationship between Work-Family Enrichment and Affective Commitment: the Moderating Role of Gender.

    PubMed

    Marques, António Manuel; Chambel, Maria José; Pinto, Inês

    2015-06-03

    Workers' perception that their job experience enriches their family life has been considered a mechanism that explains their positive attitudes toward the organization where they work. However, because women and men live their work and family differently, gender may condition this relationship between the work-family enrichment and workers' attitudes. With a sample of 1885 workers from one Portuguese bank, with 802 women, the current study investigated the relationship between work-family enrichment and organizational affective commitment as well as the role of sex as a moderator of this relationship. The hypotheses were tested by using regression analysis. The results indicated that the perception held by workers that their work enriches their family is positively correlated with their affective commitment toward the organization. Furthermore, the data revealed that this relationship is stronger for women than for men. Study results have implications for management, particularly for human resource management, enhancing their knowledge about the relationship of work-family enrichment and workers' affective commitment toward organization.

  12. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  13. Scaling of stomatal size and density optimizes allocation of leaf epidermal space for gas exchange in angiosperms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Hugo Jan; Price, Charles A.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C.; Franks, Peter J.; Veneklaas, Erik J.

    2015-04-01

    Stomata on plant leaves are key traits in the regulation of terrestrial fluxes of water and carbon. The basic morphology of stomata consists of a diffusion pore and two guard cells that regulate the exchange of CO2 and water vapour between the leaf interior and the atmosphere. This morphology is common to nearly all land plants, yet stomatal size (defined as the area of the guard cell pair) and stomatal density (the number of stomata per unit area) range over three orders of magnitude across species. Evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is driven by selection pressure on the anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax), which determines the operational range of leaf gas exchange. Despite the importance of stomata traits for regulating leaf gas exchange, a quantitative understanding of the relation between adaptation of gsmax and the underlying co-evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is still lacking. Here we develop a theoretical framework for a scaling relationship between stomatal sizes and densities within the constraints set by the allocation of epidermal space and stomatal gas exchange. Our theory predicts an optimal scaling relationship that maximizes gsmax and minimizes epidermal space allocation to stomata. We test whether stomatal sizes and densities reflect this optimal scaling with a global compilation of stomatal trait data on 923 species reflecting most major clades. Our results show optimal scaling between stomatal sizes and densities across all species in the compiled data set. Our results also show optimal stomatal scaling across angiosperm species, but not across gymnosperm and fern species. We propose that the evolutionary flexibility of angiosperms to adjust stomatal sizes underlies their optimal allocation of leaf epidermal space to gas exchange.

  14. Gas Exchange and Phytoluminography of Single Red Kidney Bean Leaves during Periods of Induced Stomatal Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Ellenson, James L.; Raba, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    This report examines the capabilities of a new approach to the study of gas exchange and electron transport properties of single, intact leaves. The method combines conventional aspects of analysis with an image intensification system that records the spatial distribution of delayed light emission (DLE) over single leaf surfaces. The combined system was used to investigate physiological perturbations induced by exposure of single leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris cv `California Light Red' to a combination of SO2 (0.5 microliters per liter) and ozone (0.1 microliters per liter). Exposure of one-half of a leaf to this combination induced DLE and stomatal oscillations, but only in the half of the leaf exposed to the combined gases. Examination of phytoluminographs taken during these oscillations revealed distinct leaf patches where the greatest changes in DLE intensity occurred. This phenomenon is interpreted to be evidence that control of stomatal activity of intact plant leaves occurs within discrete leaf areas defined within the vascular network. Images Fig. 6 PMID:16662989

  15. Decline of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Arctic atmosphere and reversal of air-sea gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Falconer, R. L.; Barrie, L. A.; Fellin, P.

    1995-02-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are the most abundant organochlorine pesticides in the arctic atmosphere and ocean surface water. A compilation of measurements made between 1979-93 from stations in the Canadian and Norwegian Arctic and from cruises in the Bering and Chukchi seas indicates that atmospheric concentrations of α-HCH have declined significantly (p < 0.01), with a time for 50% decrease of about 4 y in summer-fall and 6 y in winter-spring. The 1992-93 levels of about 100 pg m-3 are 2-4 fold lower than values in the mid-1980s. The trend in γ-HCH is less pronounced, but a decrease is also suggested from measurements in the Canadian Arctic and the Bering-Chukchi seas. HCHs in ocean surface water have remained relatively constant since the early 1980s. The decline in atmospheric α-HCH has reversed the net direction of air-sea gas exchange to the point where some northern waters are now sources of the pesticide to the atmosphere instead of sinks.

  16. High-frequency animal ventilator using a loudspeaker and its gas exchange characteristics.

    PubMed

    Suwa, K; Tagami, M

    1981-01-01

    A high-frequency ventilator was designed using a loudspeaker as a piston, driven by a power-amplifier. A sine-wave signal was introduced into the amplifier from an electronic oscillator. The mechanical and gas exchange characteristics of the ventilator were studied in vitro and in dogs. The volume output per stroke, when open to air, was between 100 and 200 ml up to 7 Hz, then gradually decreased as the frequency increased. A Wright respirometer appeared to measure the volume flow fairly accurately up to 14 Hz. The pressure output against a closed volume of 1.1 liters achieved a maximum of 29 mmHg at 7 Hz. It gradually decreased as the frequency was changed from 7 Hz. The loudspeaker worked in such a way that the volume output decreased considerably when it was forced to move against a closed space to generate pressure. Adequate ventilation was achieved in all dogs from 1.4 to 10 Hz. At 14 Hz, the results were variable, and at 20 Hz and above, gross hypoventilation always resulted. The PaO2 values were always over 440 mmHg when 0.8 liter/(kg . min) of oxygen was supplied into the respiratory circuit. A speaker ventilator has the advantage of easy assembly and the possibility of applying various flows by electrical control. Its disadvantages are a lack of power and the difficulty in establishing ventilatory volumes without actual measurement.

  17. Gas exchange in Paulownia species growing under different soil moisture conditions in the field.

    PubMed

    Llano-Sotelo, J M; Alcaraz-Melendez, L; Castellanos Villegas, A E

    2010-07-01

    In order to evaluate their responses to drought, we determined the photosynthetic activity water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water use efficiency photosynthetic photon flux density and leaf temperature of Paulownia imperialis, P. fortunei and P. elongata in three different soil moisture conditions in the field. Our results showed that P. imperialis had greater photosynthesis (8.86 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and instantaneous water use efficiency (0.79 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)) than either P. elongata (8.20 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and 0.71 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)) or P. fortunei (3.26 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and 0.07 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)). The rapid growth of Paulownia did not appear to be correlated with photosynthetic rates. Paulownia fortunei showed more transpiration (48.78 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1)) and stomatal conductance (840 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) than P. imperialis (20 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1) and 540 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) and P. elongata (20 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1) and 410 mmol m(-2) s(-1)), which allowed these two Paulownia species to increase their tolerance to low soil moisture, and maintain higher water use efficiency under these conditions. According to our physiological gas exchange field tests, Paulownia imperialis does appear to be capable of successful growth in semiarid zones. PMID:21186726

  18. Characterization of photosynthetic gas exchange in leaves under simulated adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Li, Yu-Ting; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Yang, Cheng; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations on photosynthesis have been performed on leaves irradiated from the adaxial surface. However, leaves usually sway because of wind. This action results in the alternating exposure of both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces to bright sunlight. To simulate adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation (ad-ab-alt irradiation), the adaxial or abaxial surface of leaves were exposed to light regimes that fluctuated between 100 and 1,000 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Compared with constant adaxial irradiation, simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration (E) but not water use efficiency. These suppressions were aggravated by an increase in alternant frequency of the light intensity. When leaves were transferred from constant light to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, the maximum Pn and E during the high light period decreased, but the rate of photosynthetic induction during this period remained constant. The sensitivity of photosynthetic gas exchange to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation was lower on abaxial surface than adaxial surface. Under simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, higher Pn and E were measured on abaxial surface compared with adaxial surface. Therefore, bifacial leaves can fix more carbon than leaves with two "sun-leaf-like" surfaces under ad-ab-alt irradiation. Photosynthetic research should be conducted under dynamic conditions that better mimic nature. PMID:27377989

  19. Accurate Exchange-Correlation Energies for the Warm Dense Electron Gas.

    PubMed

    Malone, Fionn D; Blunt, N S; Brown, Ethan W; Lee, D K K; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C; Shepherd, James J

    2016-09-01

    The density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) method is used to sample exact-on-average N-body density matrices for uniform electron gas systems of up to 10^{124} matrix elements via a stochastic solution of the Bloch equation. The results of these calculations resolve a current debate over the accuracy of the data used to parametrize finite-temperature density functionals. Exchange-correlation energies calculated using the real-space restricted path-integral formalism and the k-space configuration path-integral formalism disagree by up to ∼10% at certain reduced temperatures T/T_{F}≤0.5 and densities r_{s}≤1. Our calculations confirm the accuracy of the configuration path-integral Monte Carlo results available at high density and bridge the gap to lower densities, providing trustworthy data in the regime typical of planetary interiors and solids subject to laser irradiation. We demonstrate that the DMQMC method can calculate free energies directly and present exact free energies for T/T_{F}≥1 and r_{s}≤2.

  20. Accurate Exchange-Correlation Energies for the Warm Dense Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Fionn D.; Blunt, N. S.; Brown, Ethan W.; Lee, D. K. K.; Spencer, J. S.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Shepherd, James J.

    2016-09-01

    The density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) method is used to sample exact-on-average N -body density matrices for uniform electron gas systems of up to 10124 matrix elements via a stochastic solution of the Bloch equation. The results of these calculations resolve a current debate over the accuracy of the data used to parametrize finite-temperature density functionals. Exchange-correlation energies calculated using the real-space restricted path-integral formalism and the k -space configuration path-integral formalism disagree by up to ˜10 % at certain reduced temperatures T /TF≤0.5 and densities rs≤1 . Our calculations confirm the accuracy of the configuration path-integral Monte Carlo results available at high density and bridge the gap to lower densities, providing trustworthy data in the regime typical of planetary interiors and solids subject to laser irradiation. We demonstrate that the DMQMC method can calculate free energies directly and present exact free energies for T /TF≥1 and rs≤2 .

  1. The effect of nebulized epinephrine on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Numa, A H; Williams, G D; Dakin, C J

    2001-07-01

    Nebulized epinephrine has been advocated as a treatment for airway obstruction in infants with bronchiolitis; however, its effect on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange has been poorly documented to date. We performed a preinterventional and postinterventional study with primary outcome measures of mechanics (measured by single-breath occlusion passive deflation) and oxygenation and ventilation indices in order to measure the effects of nebulized epinephrine in infants requiring mechanical ventilation for RSV-positive bronchiolitis. A two-compartment model was used to describe respiratory mechanics in patients with nonlinear flow-volume curves. Nebulized epinephrine (0.5 mg/kg) was administered to 15 patients (median age, 0.19 yr; weight, 4.4 kg). Resistance decreased significantly in slow and fast compartments in 87 and 70% of patients, respectively. Median resistance in the slow compartment decreased from 0.427 to 0.198 cm H2O/ml/s (p = 0.0015) and in the fast compartment from 0.167 to 0.116 cm H2O/ ml/s (p = 0.018). Compliance, oxygenation index, and ventilation index were not significantly changed after administration of epinephrine. We conclude that nebulized epinephrine substantially improves respiratory system resistance but not oxygenation or ventilation indices. This may be because of the effects of epinephrine on oxygen consumption or ventilation-perfusion matching.

  2. Characterization of photosynthetic gas exchange in leaves under simulated adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Li, Yu-Ting; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Yang, Cheng; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2016-07-05

    Previous investigations on photosynthesis have been performed on leaves irradiated from the adaxial surface. However, leaves usually sway because of wind. This action results in the alternating exposure of both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces to bright sunlight. To simulate adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation (ad-ab-alt irradiation), the adaxial or abaxial surface of leaves were exposed to light regimes that fluctuated between 100 and 1,000 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Compared with constant adaxial irradiation, simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration (E) but not water use efficiency. These suppressions were aggravated by an increase in alternant frequency of the light intensity. When leaves were transferred from constant light to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, the maximum Pn and E during the high light period decreased, but the rate of photosynthetic induction during this period remained constant. The sensitivity of photosynthetic gas exchange to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation was lower on abaxial surface than adaxial surface. Under simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, higher Pn and E were measured on abaxial surface compared with adaxial surface. Therefore, bifacial leaves can fix more carbon than leaves with two "sun-leaf-like" surfaces under ad-ab-alt irradiation. Photosynthetic research should be conducted under dynamic conditions that better mimic nature.

  3. Characterization of photosynthetic gas exchange in leaves under simulated adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Li, Yu-Ting; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Yang, Cheng; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations on photosynthesis have been performed on leaves irradiated from the adaxial surface. However, leaves usually sway because of wind. This action results in the alternating exposure of both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces to bright sunlight. To simulate adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation (ad-ab-alt irradiation), the adaxial or abaxial surface of leaves were exposed to light regimes that fluctuated between 100 and 1,000 μmol m−2 s−1. Compared with constant adaxial irradiation, simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration (E) but not water use efficiency. These suppressions were aggravated by an increase in alternant frequency of the light intensity. When leaves were transferred from constant light to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, the maximum Pn and E during the high light period decreased, but the rate of photosynthetic induction during this period remained constant. The sensitivity of photosynthetic gas exchange to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation was lower on abaxial surface than adaxial surface. Under simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, higher Pn and E were measured on abaxial surface compared with adaxial surface. Therefore, bifacial leaves can fix more carbon than leaves with two “sun-leaf-like” surfaces under ad-ab-alt irradiation. Photosynthetic research should be conducted under dynamic conditions that better mimic nature. PMID:27377989

  4. Gasotransmitters are emerging as new guard cell signaling molecules and regulators of leaf gas exchange.

    PubMed

    García-Mata, Carlos; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2013-03-01

    Specialized guard cells modulate plant gas exchange through the regulation of stomatal aperture. The size of the stomatal pore is a direct function of the volume of the guard cells. The transport of solutes across channels in plasma membrane is a crucial process in the maintenance of guard cell water status. The fine tuned regulation of that transport requires an integrated convergence of multiple endogenous and exogenous signals perceived at both the cellular and the whole plant level. Gasotransmitters are novel signaling molecules with key functions in guard cell physiology. Three gasotransmitters, nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) are involved in guard cell regulatory processes. These molecules are endogenously produced by plant cells and are part of the guard cells responses to drought stress conditions through ABA-dependent pathways. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of gasotransmitters as versatile molecules interacting with different components of guard cell signaling network and propose them as players in new paradigms to study ABA-independent guard cell responses to water deficit.

  5. A test of the oxidative damage hypothesis for discontinuous gas exchange in the locust Locusta migratoria

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Philip G. D.; Snelling, Edward P.; Seymour, Roger S.; White, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    The discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) is a breathing pattern displayed by many insects, characterized by periodic breath-holding and intermittently low tracheal O2 levels. It has been hypothesized that the adaptive value of DGCs is to reduce oxidative damage, with low tracheal O2 partial pressures (PO2 ∼2–5 kPa) occurring to reduce the production of oxygen free radicals. If this is so, insects displaying DGCs should continue to actively defend a low tracheal PO2 even when breathing higher than atmospheric levels of oxygen (hyperoxia). This behaviour has been observed in moth pupae exposed to ambient PO2 up to 50 kPa. To test this observation in adult insects, we implanted fibre-optic oxygen optodes within the tracheal systems of adult migratory locusts Locusta migratoria exposed to normoxia, hypoxia and hyperoxia. In normoxic and hypoxic atmospheres, the minimum tracheal PO2 that occurred during DGCs varied between 3.4 and 1.2 kPa. In hyperoxia up to 40.5 kPa, the minimum tracheal PO2 achieved during a DGC exceeded 30 kPa, increasing with ambient levels. These results are consistent with a respiratory control mechanism that functions to satisfy O2 requirements by maintaining PO2 above a critical level, not defend against high levels of O2. PMID:22491761

  6. Leaf gas exchange performance and the lethal water potential of five European species during drought.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Feifel, Marion; Karimi, Zohreh; Schuldt, Bernhard; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Establishing physiological thresholds to drought-induced mortality in a range of plant species is crucial in understanding how plants respond to severe drought. Here, five common European tree species were selected (Acer campestre L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L., Corylus avellana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L.) to study their hydraulic thresholds to mortality. Photosynthetic parameters during desiccation and the recovery of leaf gas exchange after rewatering were measured. Stem vulnerability curves and leaf pressure-volume curves were investigated to understand the hydraulic coordination of stem and leaf tissue traits. Stem and root samples from well-watered and severely drought-stressed plants of two species were observed using transmission electron microscopy to visualize mortality of cambial cells. The lethal water potential (ψlethal) correlated with stem P99 (i.e., the xylem water potential at 99% loss of hydraulic conductivity, PLC). However, several plants that were stressed beyond the water potential at 100% PLC showed complete recovery during the next spring, which suggests that the ψlethal values were underestimated. Moreover, we observed a 1 : 1 relationship between the xylem water potential at the onset of embolism and stomatal closure, confirming hydraulic coordination between leaf and stem tissues. Finally, ultrastructural changes in the cytoplasm of cambium tissue and mortality of cambial cells are proposed to provide an alternative approach to investigate the point of no return associated with plant death.

  7. Heat transfer in a compact heat exchanger containing rectangular channels and using helium gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Development of a National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which will fly at hypersonic speeds, require novel cooling techniques to manage the anticipated high heat fluxes on various components. A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of 12 parallel, rectangular channels in a flat piece of commercially pure nickel. The channel specimen was radiatively heated on the top side at heat fluxes of up to 77 W/sq cm, insulated on the back side, and cooled with helium gas flowing in the channels at 3.5 to 7.0 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 1400 to 28,000. The measured friction factor was lower than that of the accepted correlation for fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to uncertainty in the channel height and a high ratio of dynamic pressure to pressure drop. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in channels. Flow nonuniformity from channel-to-channel was as high as 12 pct above and 19 pct below the mean flow.

  8. Leaf gas exchange and solute accumulation in the halophyte Salvadora persica grown at moderate salinity.

    PubMed

    Maggio; Reddy; Joly

    2000-08-01

    The domestication of halophytes has been proposed as a strategy to expand cultivation onto unfavorable land. However, halophytes mainly have been considered for their performance in extremely saline environments, and only a few species have been characterized in terms of their tolerance and physiological responses to moderately high levels of salinity. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte capable of growing under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. It possesses high potential economic value as a source of oil and medicinal compounds. To quantify its response to salinity, S. persica seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 3 weeks, and growth, leaf gas exchange and solute accumulation were measured. The presence of NaCl induced a 100% increase in fresh weight and a 30% increase in dry weight, relative to non-salinized controls. Increases in fresh weight and dry weight were not associated with higher rates of net CO(2) assimilation, however. Analysis of ion accumulation revealed that S. persica leaves accumulated Na(+) as a primary osmoticum. The concentration of Na(+) in leaves of salinized plants was approximately 40-fold greater than that measured in non-salinized controls, and this was associated with significant reductions in leaf K(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations. In addition, a significant accumulation of proline, probably associated with osmotic adjustment and protection of membrane stability, occurred in roots of salinized plants.

  9. Effect of Salinity on Leaf Gas Exchange in Two Populations of a C4 Nonhalophyte 1

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements were made on plants from two natural populations differing in salt tolerance of Andropogon glomeratus, a C4 nonhalophyte, to examine the effect of salinity on components responsible for differences in photosynthetic capacity. Net CO2 uptake and stomatal conductance decreased with increasing salinity in both populations, but to a greater extent in the inland (nontolerant) population. The intercellular CO2 concentrations increased with increasing salinity in the inland population, but decreased in the marsh (tolerant) population. Water use efficiency decreased as salinity increased in the inland population, and remained unchanged in the marsh population. Carboxylation efficiency decreased and CO2 compensation points increased with increasing salinity in both populations, but to a lesser extent in the marsh population. Carboxylation efficiencies were higher with 2% relative to 21% atmospheric O2 in salt stressed plants, suggesting that a decrease in the carboxylation:oxygenation ratio of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was partly responsible for the decrease in photosynthetic capacity. Populational differences in photosynthetic capacity were the result of greater salinity-induced changes in carboxylation efficiency in the inland population, and not due to differences in the stomatal limitation to CO2 diffusion. PMID:16665802

  10. Leaf Gas Exchange and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Imaging of Rice Leaves Infected with Monographella albescens.

    PubMed

    Tatagiba, Sandro Dan; DaMatta, Fábio Murilo; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2015-02-01

    This study was intended to analyze the photosynthetic performance of rice leaf blades infected with Monographella albescens by combining chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence images with gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment pools. The net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, total Chl and carotenoid pools, and Chl a/b ratio all decreased but the internal CO2 concentration increased in the inoculated plants compared with their noninoculated counterparts. The first detectable changes in the images of Chl a fluorescence from the leaves of inoculated plants were already evident at 24 h after inoculation (hai) and increased dramatically as the leaf scald lesions expanded. However, these changes were negligible for the photosystem II photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) at 24 hai, in contrast to other Chl fluorescence traits such as the photochemical quenching coefficient, yield of photochemistry, and yield for dissipation by downregulation; which, therefore, were much more sensitive than the Fv/Fm ratio in assessing the early stages of fungal infection. It was also demonstrated that M. albescens was able to impair the photosynthetic process in both symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf areas. Overall, it was proven that Chl a fluorescence imaging is an excellent tool to describe the loss of functionality of the photosynthetic apparatus occurring in rice leaves upon infection by M. albescens.

  11. Accurate Exchange-Correlation Energies for the Warm Dense Electron Gas.

    PubMed

    Malone, Fionn D; Blunt, N S; Brown, Ethan W; Lee, D K K; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C; Shepherd, James J

    2016-09-01

    The density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) method is used to sample exact-on-average N-body density matrices for uniform electron gas systems of up to 10^{124} matrix elements via a stochastic solution of the Bloch equation. The results of these calculations resolve a current debate over the accuracy of the data used to parametrize finite-temperature density functionals. Exchange-correlation energies calculated using the real-space restricted path-integral formalism and the k-space configuration path-integral formalism disagree by up to ∼10% at certain reduced temperatures T/T_{F}≤0.5 and densities r_{s}≤1. Our calculations confirm the accuracy of the configuration path-integral Monte Carlo results available at high density and bridge the gap to lower densities, providing trustworthy data in the regime typical of planetary interiors and solids subject to laser irradiation. We demonstrate that the DMQMC method can calculate free energies directly and present exact free energies for T/T_{F}≥1 and r_{s}≤2. PMID:27661699

  12. Leaf gas exchange performance and the lethal water potential of five European species during drought.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Feifel, Marion; Karimi, Zohreh; Schuldt, Bernhard; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Establishing physiological thresholds to drought-induced mortality in a range of plant species is crucial in understanding how plants respond to severe drought. Here, five common European tree species were selected (Acer campestre L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L., Corylus avellana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L.) to study their hydraulic thresholds to mortality. Photosynthetic parameters during desiccation and the recovery of leaf gas exchange after rewatering were measured. Stem vulnerability curves and leaf pressure-volume curves were investigated to understand the hydraulic coordination of stem and leaf tissue traits. Stem and root samples from well-watered and severely drought-stressed plants of two species were observed using transmission electron microscopy to visualize mortality of cambial cells. The lethal water potential (ψlethal) correlated with stem P99 (i.e., the xylem water potential at 99% loss of hydraulic conductivity, PLC). However, several plants that were stressed beyond the water potential at 100% PLC showed complete recovery during the next spring, which suggests that the ψlethal values were underestimated. Moreover, we observed a 1 : 1 relationship between the xylem water potential at the onset of embolism and stomatal closure, confirming hydraulic coordination between leaf and stem tissues. Finally, ultrastructural changes in the cytoplasm of cambium tissue and mortality of cambial cells are proposed to provide an alternative approach to investigate the point of no return associated with plant death. PMID:26614785

  13. Proton exchange membrane micro fuel cells on 3D porous silicon gas diffusion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouassi, S.; Gautier, G.; Thery, J.; Desplobain, S.; Borella, M.; Ventura, L.; Laurent, J.-Y.

    2012-10-01

    Since the 90's, porous silicon has been studied and implemented in many devices, especially in MEMS technology. In this article, we present a new approach to build miniaturized proton exchange membrane micro-fuel cells using porous silicon as a hydrogen diffusion layer. In particular, we propose an innovative process to build micro fuel cells from a “corrugated iron like” 3D structured porous silicon substrates. This structure is able to increase up to 40% the cell area keeping a constant footprint on the silicon wafer. We propose here a process route to perform electrochemically 3D porous gas diffusion layers and to deposit fuel cell active layers on such substrates. The prototype peak power performance was measured to be 90 mW cm-2 in a “breathing configuration” at room temperature. These performances are less than expected if we compare with a reference 2D micro fuel cell. Actually, the active layer deposition processes are not fully optimized but this prototype demonstrates the feasibility of these 3D devices.

  14. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3–CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3–CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  15. Dynamics of ventilation, heart rate, and gas exchange: sinusoidal and impulse work loads in man.

    PubMed

    Bakker, H K; Struikenkamp, R S; De Vries, G A

    1980-02-01

    Dynamic characteristics of ventilation, heart rate, and gas exchange in response to sinusoidally varying work loads were analyzed in four male subjects, exercising in the upright position on a bicycle ergometer. Mean work-load and sinusoidal amplitude were about 1.5 and 0.9 W/kg, fat-free mass), respectively. Seven different frequencies were used, the periods ranging from 12 to 0.75 min. To further investigate the linearity of the variables under study, 10-s impulse loads were also applied to three of the four subjects. Harmonic analysis of the sine-wave data and comparison of the sine-wave fundamental responses with the impulse frequency responses showed that only O2 uptake behaves in a linear fashion. Ventilation and CO2 production showed quasi- to nonlinear behaviors, whereas the responses of heart rate and alveolar partial pressures were clearly dependent on the type of forcing used. By means of mathematical parameter identification techniques, it was found that the individual frequency responses of O2 uptake could be almost completely described by a four-parameter transfer function with parameter values showing second-order underdamped to critically damped dynamics.

  16. A test of the oxidative damage hypothesis for discontinuous gas exchange in the locust Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; Snelling, Edward P; Seymour, Roger S; White, Craig R

    2012-08-23

    The discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) is a breathing pattern displayed by many insects, characterized by periodic breath-holding and intermittently low tracheal O(2) levels. It has been hypothesized that the adaptive value of DGCs is to reduce oxidative damage, with low tracheal O(2) partial pressures (PO(2) ≈ 2-5 kPa) occurring to reduce the production of oxygen free radicals. If this is so, insects displaying DGCs should continue to actively defend a low tracheal PO(2) even when breathing higher than atmospheric levels of oxygen (hyperoxia). This behaviour has been observed in moth pupae exposed to ambient PO(2) up to 50 kPa. To test this observation in adult insects, we implanted fibre-optic oxygen optodes within the tracheal systems of adult migratory locusts Locusta migratoria exposed to normoxia, hypoxia and hyperoxia. In normoxic and hypoxic atmospheres, the minimum tracheal PO(2) that occurred during DGCs varied between 3.4 and 1.2 kPa. In hyperoxia up to 40.5 kPa, the minimum tracheal PO(2) achieved during a DGC exceeded 30 kPa, increasing with ambient levels. These results are consistent with a respiratory control mechanism that functions to satisfy O(2) requirements by maintaining PO(2) above a critical level, not defend against high levels of O(2). PMID:22491761

  17. Can Heart Rate Variability be used to Estimate Gas Exchange Threshold in Obese Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, F; Seabra, A; Montenegro, R; Cunha, F; Bouskela, E; Farinatti, P

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the agreement and reliability of oxygen uptake (V̇O2), V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2 R), heart rate (HR) and power output at intensities corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in obese and eutrophic adolescents. A further aim was to establish whether the HRVT was able to detect changes in cardio-respiratory fitness in obese adolescents after 3 months of recreational soccer practice. First, 25 obese and 10 eutrophic adolescents (ages 12-17) visited the laboratory twice to perform cycling CPET to test the reliability of CPET outcomes at GET and HRVT. Furthermore, the level of agreement between GET and HRVT was determined for a subgroup of 10 obese adolescents after performing a 3-month recreational soccer program. No significant difference was found for V̇O2, %V̇O2 R, HR and power output at the GET and HRVT (P>0.05), which were equally able to detect improvements in aerobic fitness after the soccer intervention. Correlations between GET and HRVT for V̇O2 and %V̇O2 R ranged from 0.89 to 0.95 (P<0.001) and test-retest reliability ranged from 0.59 to 0.82 (P<0.006). Overall, HRVT seems to be a reliable alternative for prescribing aerobic exercise intensity in obese adolescents.

  18. Multidimensional separations of ubiquitin conformers in the gas phase: relating ion cross sections to H/D exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Errol W; Williams, Evan R

    2005-09-01

    Investigating gas-phase structures of protein ions can lead to an improved understanding of intramolecular forces that play an important role in protein folding. Both hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange and ion mobility spectrometry provide insight into the structures and stabilities of different gas-phase conformers, but how best to relate the results from these two methods has been hotly debated. Here, high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is combined with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT/ICR MS) and is used to directly relate ubiquitin ion cross sections and H/D exchange extents. Multiple conformers can be identified using both methods. For the 9+ charge state of ubiquitin, two conformers (or unresolved populations of conformers) that have cross sections differing by 10% are resolved by FAIMS, but only one conformer is apparent using H/D exchange at short times. For the 12+ charge state, two conformers (or conformer populations) have cross sections differing by <1%, yet H/D exchange of these conformers differ significantly (6 versus 25 exchanges). These and other results show that ubiquitin ion collisional cross sections and H/D exchange distributions are not strongly correlated and that factors other than surface accessibility appear to play a significant role in determining rates and extents of H/D exchange. Conformers that are not resolved by one method could be resolved by the other, indicating that these two methods are highly complementary and that more conformations can be resolved with this combination of methods than by either method alone.

  19. What can be Learned from X-ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Steve

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from x-ray spectroscopy in observing hot gas in local bubble and charge exchange processes depends on spectral resolution, instrumental grasp, instrumental energy band, signal-to-nose, field of view, angular resolution and observatory location. Early attempts at x-ray spectroscopy include ROSAT; more recently, astronomers have used diffuse x-ray spectrometers, XMM Newton, sounding rocket calorimeters, and Suzaku. Future observations are expected with calorimeters on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission, and the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX). The Geospheric SWCX may provide remote sensing of the solar wind and magnetosheath and remote observations of solar CMEs moving outward from the sun.

  20. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  1. How do increasing background concentrations of tropospheric ozone affect peatland plant growth and carbon gas exchange?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Jennifer L.; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Jones, Timothy; Freeman, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In this study we have demonstrated that plants originating from upland peat bogs are sensitive to increasing background concentrations of ozone. Peatland mesocosms from an upland peat bog in North Wales, UK were exposed to eight levels of elevated background ozone in solardomes for 4 months from May to August, with 24 h mean ozone concentrations ranging from 16 to 94 ppb and cumulative AOT024hr ranging from 45.98 ppm h to 259.63 ppm h. Our results show that plant senescence increased with increasing exposure to ozone, although there was no significant effect of increasing ozone on plant biomass. Assessments of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from the mesocosms suggests that there was no change in carbon dioxide fluxes over the 4 month exposure period but that methane fluxes increased as cumulative ozone exposure increased to a maximum AOT 024hr of approximately 120 ppm h and then decreased as cumulative ozone exposure increased further.

  2. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors.

    PubMed

    Marek, Michal V; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Věroslav; Marková, Irena

    2011-05-01

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands.

  3. Effect of wind and currents on gas exchange in an estuarine system. Final technical report, 1 August 1986-31 July 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Ledwell, J.R.; Bopp, R.

    1987-11-01

    The objectives were to develop a non-volatile tracer to use in gas exchange experiments in laterally unconfined systems and to study applications of deliberate tracers in limnology and oceanography. Progress was made on both fronts but work on the development of the non-volatile tracer proved to be more difficult and labor intensive that anticipated so no field experiments using non-volatile tracers was performed as yet. In the search for a suitable non-volatile tracer for an ocean scale gas exchange experiment a tracer was discovered which does not have the required sensitivity for a large scale experiment, but is very easy to analyze and will be well suited for smaller experiments such as gas exchange determinations on rivers and streams. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF/sub 6/, was used successfully as a volatile tracer along with tritium as a non-volatile tracer to study gas exchange rates from a primary stream. This is the first gas exchange experiment in which gas exchange rates were determined on a head water stream where significant groundwater input occurs along the reach. In conjunction with SF/sub 6/, Radon-222 measurements were performed on the groundwater and in the stream. The feasibility of using a combination of SF/sub 6/ and radon is being studied to determine groundwater inputs and gas exchange of rates in streams with significant groundwater input without using a non-volatile tracer.

  4. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  5. Optimization of heat and mass transfers in counterflow corrugated-plate liquid-gas exchangers used in a greenhouse dehumidifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentounes, N.; Jaffrin, A.

    1998-09-01

    Heat and mass transfers occuring in a counterflow direct contact liquid-gas exchanger determine the performance of a new greenhouse air dehumidifier designed at INRA. This prototype uses triethylene glycol (TEG) as the desiccant fluid which extracts water vapor from the air. The regeneration of the TEG desiccant fluid is then performed by direct contact with combustion gas from a high efficiency boiler equipped with a condensor. The heat and mass transfers between the thin film of diluted TEG and the hot gas were simulated by a model which uses correlation formula from the literature specifically relevant to the present cross-corrugated plates geometry. A simple set of analytical solutions is first derived, which explains why some possible processes can clearly be far from optimal. Then, more exact numerical calculations confirm that some undesirable water recondensations on the upper part of the exchanger were limiting the performance of this prototype. More suitable conditions were defined for the process, which lead to a new design of the apparatus. In this second prototype, a gas-gas exchanger provides dryer and cooler gas to the basis of the regenerators, while a warmer TEG is fed on the top. A whole range of operating conditions was experimented and measured parameters were compared with numerical simulations of this new configuration: recondensation did not occur any more. As a consequence, this second prototype was able to concentrate the desiccant fluid at the desired rate of 20 kg H_{2O}/hour, under temperature and humidity conditions which correspond to the dehumidification of a 1000 m2 greenhouse heated at night during the winter season.

  6. Influence of current velocity and wind speed on air-water gas exchange in a mangrove estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, David T.; Coffineau, Nathalie; Hickman, Benjamin; Chow, Nicholas; Koffman, Tobias; Schlosser, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of air-water gas transfer velocities and water residence times is necessary to study the fate of mangrove derived carbon exported into surrounding estuaries and ultimately to determine carbon balances in mangrove ecosystems. For the first time, the 3He/SF6 dual tracer technique, which has been proven to be a powerful tool to determine gas transfer velocities in the ocean, is applied to Shark River, an estuary situated in the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The mean gas transfer velocity was 3.3 ± 0.2 cm h-1 during the experiment, with a water residence time of 16.5 ± 2.0 days. We propose a gas exchange parameterization that takes into account the major sources of turbulence in the estuary (i.e., bottom generated shear and wind stress).

  7. Experimental analyses of the major parameters affecting the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas.

    PubMed

    Nie, W; Peng, S J; Xu, J; Liu, L R; Wang, G; Geng, J B

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4 MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4 MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.763-7.403% and 1.273-7.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5 Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate.

  8. Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nie, W.; Peng, S. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, L. R.; Wang, G.; Geng, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4 MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4 MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.763–7.403% and 1.273–7.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5 Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate. PMID:25162042

  9. Direct-contact heat exchanger for swirling countercurrent flow of hot gas and finely divided solids: A parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. J.; Arman, B.

    1991-06-01

    A vertically oriented solid-to-gas direct-contact heat exchanger (DCHX) has been proposed for heat recovery in high temperature plants that process finely divided solids. The flows are countercurrent, with the inlet gas flow entering on the centerline and swirling strongly. Swirling enhances heat transfer and centrifuges the solid particles from the center to the wall in order to minimize entrainment and permit gravity separation. A computer program was written to calculate particle trajectories and heat transfer rates (and, therefore, temperature profiles) for gas and solid phases. The flow model considers interactions between the particles and the flow field of the gas. The results of the computer program showed that the introduction of swirl significantly reduced the vertical distance required to achieve a given thermal efficiency. The countercurrent flow arrangement achieves high thermal efficiency in one contacting stage, unlike existing cocurrent suspension preheater systems, which require four or five stages. The practical application of this design to the cement industry appears unlikely, because very low gas velocities and correspondingly large areas of cross-sectional flow are required to prevent elutriation of the 74 micron particles required for the chemical reactions. The computer program can be modified for spray-dryer applications by the addition of mass transfer terms and a spray-formation model. In addition, the concept of a swirling flow heat exchanger may be applicable to other processes in which larger and heavier particles are used.

  10. The Effects of N Nutrition on the Water Relations and Gas Exchange Characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jack A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize leaf photosynthetic and stomatal responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown under two N-nutritional regimes. High- and low-N regimes were imposed on growth-chamber-grown plants by fertilizing with nutrient solutions containing 12 or 1 millimolar nitrogen, respectively. Gas-exchange measurements indicated not only greater photosynthetic capacity of high-N plants under well-watered conditions, but also a greater sensitivity of CO2 exchange rate and leaf conductance to CO2 and leaf water potential compared to low-N plants. Increased sensitivity of high-N plants was associated with greater tissue elasticity, lower values of leaf osmotic pressure and greater aboveground biomass. These N-nutritional-related changes resulted in greater desiccation (lowered relative water content) of high-N plants as leaf water potential fell, and were implicated as being important in causing greater sensitivity of high-N leaf gas exchange to reductions in water potential. Water use efficiency of leaves, calculated as CO2 exchange rate/transpiration, increased from 9.1 to 13 millimoles per mole and 7.9 to 9.1 millimoles per mole for high- and low-N plants as water became limiting. Stomatal oscillations were commonly observed in the low-N treatment at low leaf water potentials and ambient CO2 concentrations, but disappeared as CO2 was lowered and stomata opened. PMID:16664606

  11. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Sean M; Blackman, Chris J; Chang, Yvonne; Cook, Alicia M; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life forms. However, it has also been suggested that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. We examined coordination between hydraulic, leaf vein, and gas-exchange traits across a diverse group of 35 evergreen Australian angiosperms, spanning a large range in leaf structure and habitat. Leaf-specific conductance was calculated from petiole vessel anatomy and was also measured directly using the rehydration technique. Leaf vein density (thought to be a determinant of gas exchange rate), maximal stomatal conductance, and net CO 2 assimilation rate were also measured for most species (n = 19-35). Vein density was not correlated with leaf-specific conductance (either calculated or measured), stomatal conductance, nor maximal net CO 2 assimilation, with r (2) values ranging from 0.00 to 0.11, P values from 0.909 to 0.102, and n values from 19 to 35 in all cases. Leaf-specific conductance calculated from petiole anatomy was weakly correlated with maximal stomatal conductance (r (2) = 0.16; P = 0.022; n = 32), whereas the direct measurement of leaf-specific conductance was weakly correlated with net maximal CO 2 assimilation (r (2) = 0.21; P = 0.005; n = 35). Calculated leaf-specific conductance, xylem ultrastructure, and leaf vein density do not appear to be reliable proxy traits for assessing differences in rates of gas exchange or growth across diverse sets of evergreen angiosperms.

  12. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Sean M; Blackman, Chris J; Chang, Yvonne; Cook, Alicia M; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life forms. However, it has also been suggested that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. We examined coordination between hydraulic, leaf vein, and gas-exchange traits across a diverse group of 35 evergreen Australian angiosperms, spanning a large range in leaf structure and habitat. Leaf-specific conductance was calculated from petiole vessel anatomy and was also measured directly using the rehydration technique. Leaf vein density (thought to be a determinant of gas exchange rate), maximal stomatal conductance, and net CO 2 assimilation rate were also measured for most species (n = 19-35). Vein density was not correlated with leaf-specific conductance (either calculated or measured), stomatal conductance, nor maximal net CO 2 assimilation, with r (2) values ranging from 0.00 to 0.11, P values from 0.909 to 0.102, and n values from 19 to 35 in all cases. Leaf-specific conductance calculated from petiole anatomy was weakly correlated with maximal stomatal conductance (r (2) = 0.16; P = 0.022; n = 32), whereas the direct measurement of leaf-specific conductance was weakly correlated with net maximal CO 2 assimilation (r (2) = 0.21; P = 0.005; n = 35). Calculated leaf-specific conductance, xylem ultrastructure, and leaf vein density do not appear to be reliable proxy traits for assessing differences in rates of gas exchange or growth across diverse sets of evergreen angiosperms. PMID:26811791

  13. The Effect of Experimentally Induced Root Mortality on Trace Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, R. K.; Keller, M.; Robertson, J. R.; Dias, J. D.; Silva, H.; Crill, P. M.; McGroddy, M.; Silver, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    Soil-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) was measured following a root exclusion experiment in the Tapajos National Forest near Santarem, Para, Brazil. The sampling period (June 4 - August 14, 2000) coincided with the beginning of the dry season. The experiment was set up as a randomized complete block design with 5 pairs of 2.5 x 2.5 m plots in both sand and clay soils. Trenches were dug around one plot in each pair for screen installation. Trace gas fluxes were measured weekly for ten weeks following the trenching. Duplicate flux measurements were made for each of the trenched and non-trenched plots. Enclosures made of 0.25 m diameter PVC pipe were placed on a base imbedded in the soil. Dynamic measurements using a portable backpack system equipped with an NO2 chemiluminescent detector for NO and an infrared gas analyzer for CO2 were completed in the field. CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured through a static enclosure method. Syringe samples of the enclosure headspace were analyzed by GC-FID (CH4) and ECD (N2O) the following day. Daily average fluxes ranged between -0.01 and 60.3 ng-N cm-2 hr-1 for N2O. NO fluxes ranged between 0.58 and 8.74 ng-N cm-2 hr-1. CH4 fluxes varied between net consumption and production from -1.73 to 0.912 mg m-2 d-1. Soil respiration ranged from 1.34 to 5.12 umoles CO2 m-2 s-1. Significant differences were seen between trenched and non-trenched plots in both clay and sand soils for N2O emissions only. Hourly field standardization of the NO2 chemiluminescent analyzer resulted in lower variability than the traditional method of standardization which is completed at the beginning and end of the measurement day. Frequent field standardization of the analyzer is necessary to reduce measurement error due to intra-day variability.

  14. Analytic exchange integral for coupled cluster theory in the homogeneous electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutlé, Claudine

    2006-05-01

    A six-dimensional integral occurring in the description of the ground state of the homogeneous electron gas was calculated analytically. This formula, together with the one of a previous work [G.G. Hoffman, Phys. Rev. B 45 (1992) 8730], reduces from seven to one the dimension of the numerical integrations to be performed in the RPA+RPAEX approximation for the correlation energy [R.F. Bishop, K.H. Lührmann, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 5523]. Program summaryTitle of program: qexm2em1 Catalogue identifier:ADXJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXJ_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Distribution format: tar.gz Computers: Created using a PC, but can be run on UNIX machines Operating system under which the program has been tested: Linux Programming language used: Mathematica 4.0 (due to versions incompatibility the program does not work with more recent versions like Mathematica 5.1) Memory required to execute with typical data: 151 Mb Number of processors used: 1 Has this code been vectorized or parallelized? no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 415 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 102 988 Nature of the physical problem: The program gives an analytical derivation of a six-dimensional exchange integral involved in the calculation of the correlation energy of the electron gas. Method of solution: Changes of variables were gradually introduced in order to decrease the dimensionality of the integral, and eventually an analytical expression was obtained. Restrictions on the complexity of the program: The present version of the program has been designed only for calculating only one integral. Though, the method can be used for other cylindrically-symmetric integrals. Typical running times: file formula.nb: less than 1 s; qexm2em1.nb: 02 mn 02 s; qexm2em1qinf2AA.nb: 09 mn 42 s; qexm2em1qinf2BB.nb: 08 mn 05 s; qexm2em1qinf2AB.nb: 00

  15. Combined low temperature-high light effects on gas exchange properties of jojoba leaves.

    PubMed

    Loreto, F; Bongi, G

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider) is an important crop in desert climates. A relatively high frequency of periods of chilling and high photon flux density (PFD) in this environment makes photoinhibition likely, resulting in a reduction of assimilation capacity in overwintering leaves. This could explain the low net photosynthesis found in shoots from the field (4-6 micromoles per square meter per second) when compared to greenhouse grown plants (12-15 micromoles per square meter per second). The responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to changes in absorbed PFD and in substomatal partial pressure of CO(2) were measured on jojoba leaves recovering from chilling temperature (4 degrees C) in high or low PFD. No measurable gas exchange was found immediately after chilling in either high or low PFD. For leaves chilled in low PFD, the original quantum yield was restored after 24 hours. The time course of recovery from chilling in high PFD was much longer. Quantum yield recovered to 60% of its original value in 72 hours but failed to recover fully after 1 week. Measurements of PSII chlorophyll fluorescence at 77 K showed that the reduced quantum yield was caused by photoinhibition. The ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence fell from a control level of 0.82 to 0.41 after the photoinhibitory treatment and recovery was slow. We also found a large increase in net assimilation rate and little closure of stomata as CO(2) was increased from ambient partial pressure of 35 to 85 pascals. For plants grown in full light, the increase in net assimilation rate was 100%. The photosynthetic response at high CO(2) concentration may constitute an ecological advantage of jojoba as a crop in the future.

  16. Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

    In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, α-pinene and β-pinene for rosemary and α-pinene, linalool and β-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 μg Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 μg C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 μmol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 μg C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

  17. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  18. Effects of elevated CO(2) on chloroplast components, gas exchange and growth of oak and cherry.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C J; Taylor, J M; Wilkins, D; Besford, R T

    1997-05-01

    Specific chloroplast proteins, gas exchange and dry matter production in oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings and clonal cherry (Prunus avium L. x pseudocerasus Lind.) plants were measured during 19 months of growth in climate-controlled greenhouses at ambient (350 vpm) or elevated (700 vpm) CO(2). In both species, the elevated CO(2) treatment increased the PPFD saturated-rate of photosynthesis and dry matter production. After two months at elevated CO(2), Prunus plants showed significant increases in leaf (55%) and stem (61%) dry mass but not in root dry mass. However, this initial stimulation was not sustained: treatment differences in net assimilation rate (A) and plant dry mass were less after 10 months of growth than after 2 months of growth, suggesting acclimation of A to elevated CO(2) in Prunus. In contrast, after 10 months of growth at elevated CO(2), leaf dry mass of Quercus increased (130%) along with shoot (356%) and root (219%) dry mass, and A was also twice that of plants grown and measured at ambient CO(2). The amounts of Rubisco and the thylakoid-bound protein cytochrome f were higher in Quercus plants grown for 19 months in elevated CO(2) than in control plants, whereas in Prunus there was less Rubisco in plants grown for 19 months in elevated CO(2) than in control plants. Exposure to elevated CO(2) for 10 months resulted in increased mean leaf area in both species and increased abaxial stomatal density in Quercus. There was no change in leaf epidermal cell size in either species in response to the elevated CO(2) treatment. The lack of acclimation of photosynthesis in oak grown at elevated CO(2) is discussed in relation to the production and allocation of dry matter. We propose that differences in carbohydrate utilization underlie the differing long-term CO(2) responses of the two species.

  19. Physiological impact of patent foramen ovale on pulmonary gas exchange, ventilatory acclimatization, and thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Andrew T; Elliott, Jonathan E; Davis, James T

    2016-08-01

    The foramen ovale, which is part of the normal fetal cardiopulmonary circulation, fails to close after birth in ∼35% of the population and represents a potential source of right-to-left shunt. Despite the prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the general population, cardiopulmonary, exercise, thermoregulatory, and altitude physiologists may have underestimated the potential effect of this shunted blood flow on normal physiological processes in otherwise healthy humans. Because this shunted blood bypasses the respiratory system, it would not participate in either gas exchange or respiratory system cooling and may have impacts on other physiological processes that remain undetermined. The consequences of this shunted blood flow in PFO-positive (PFO+) subjects can potentially have a significant, and negative, impact on the alveolar-to-arterial oxygen difference (AaDO2), ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude and respiratory system cooling with PFO+ subjects having a wider AaDO2 at rest, during exercise after acclimatization, blunted ventilatory acclimatization, and a higher core body temperature (∼0.4(°)C) at rest and during exercise. There is also an association of PFO with high-altitude pulmonary edema and acute mountain sickness. These effects on physiological processes are likely dependent on both the presence and size of the PFO, with small PFOs not likely to have significant/measureable effects. The PFO can be an important determinant of normal physiological processes and should be considered a potential confounder to the interpretation of former and future data, particularly in small data sets where a significant number of PFO+ subjects could be present and significantly impact the measured outcomes. PMID:27418686

  20. CO 2 and H 2O gas exchange of a triticale field: I. Leaf level porometry and upscaling to canopy level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, J.; Lösch, R.; Meixner, F. X.; Ammann, C.

    1996-05-01

    Within the frame of an extended field experiment the CO 2 and H 2O gas exchange between a triticale field and the atmosphere was measured during the period between heading and harvest in the summer of 1995. Diurnal courses of H 2O loss, CO 2 gain and leaf conductance were obtained together with microclimatic parameters for leaves of different insertion levels. Patterns of dependence of leaf gas exchange on microclimatic conditions were determined. Based on the results of porometric measurements and crop structural parameters (LAI) gas exchange was scaled up to canopy level.

  1. Stomatal encryption by epicuticular waxes as a plastic trait modifying gas exchange in a Mediterranean evergreen species (Quercus coccifera L.).

    PubMed

    Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Fernández, Victoria; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-03-01

    The adaptive benefit of stomatal crypts remains a matter of controversy. This work studies the effect on gas exchange of cuticular rims that overarch the stomatal pore in the Mediterranean species Quercus coccifera L. growing under Mediterranean (lower relative humidities and high summer temperatures) or oceanic conditions (higher daily relative humidities and mild temperatures). After microscopic assessment of the leaf surfaces and stomatal architecture, the impact of the cuticular 'cup' on gas exchange was evaluated by employing three-dimensional finite element models. Here, we provide evidence for a high plasticity of the Q. coccifera cuticular cup, with much larger vents under oceanic conditions compared to small vents under Mediterranean conditions. This structure adds a substantial fixed resistance thereby strongly decreasing gas exchange under Mediterranean conditions. The cuticular cup, which also increases leaf internal humidity, might buffer the rapid changes in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) often observed under Mediterranean conditions. Since water loss of guard and adjacent epidermal cells regulates stomatal aperture, we suggest that this structure allows an efficient regulation of stomatal conductance and optimum use of resources under high VPD. This study provides evidence that plasticity of stomatal architecture can be an important structural component of hydraulic adaptation to different climate conditions. PMID:22897384

  2. An Excel tool for deriving key photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Combined photosynthetic gas exchange and modulated fluorometres are widely used to evaluate physiological characteristics associated with phenotypic and genotypic variation, whether in response to genetic manipulation or resource limitation in natural vegetation or crops. After describing relatively simple experimental procedures, we present the theoretical background to the derivation of photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel-based fitting tool (EFT) that will be of use to specialists and non-specialists alike. We use data acquired in concurrent variable fluorescence-gas exchange experiments, where A/Ci and light-response curves have been measured under ambient and low oxygen. From these data, the EFT derives light respiration, initial PSII (photosystem II) photochemical yield, initial quantum yield for CO2 fixation, fraction of incident light harvested by PSII, initial quantum yield for electron transport, electron transport rate, rate of photorespiration, stomatal limitation, Rubisco (ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) rate of carboxylation and oxygenation, Rubisco specificity factor, mesophyll conductance to CO2 diffusion, light and CO2 compensation point, Rubisco apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, and Rubisco CO2 -saturated carboxylation rate. As an example, a complete analysis of gas exchange data on tobacco plants is provided. We also discuss potential measurement problems and pitfalls, and suggest how such empirical data could subsequently be used to parameterize predictive photosynthetic models.

  3. Effect of Adding a Regenerator to Kornhauser's MIT "Two-Space" (Gas-Spring+Heat Exchanger) Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Gidugu, Praveen

    2008-01-01

    This study employed entropy-based second law post-processing analysis to characterize the various thermodynamic losses inside a 3-space solution domain (gas spring+heat exchanger+regenerator) operating under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating flow. The 3- space solution domain is adapted from the 2-space solution domain (gas spring+heat exchanger) in Kornhauser's MIT test rig by modifying the heat exchanger space to include a porous regenerator system. A thermal nonequilibrium model which assumes that the regenerator porous matrix and gas average temperatures can differ by several degrees at a given axial location and time during the cycle is employed. An important and primary objective of this study is the development and application of a thermodynamic loss post-processor to characterize the major thermodynamic losses inside the 3-space model. It is anticipated that the experience gained from thermodynamic loss analysis of the simple 3-space model can be extrapolated to more complex systems like the Stirling engine. It is hoped that successful development of loss post-processors will facilitate the improvement of the optimization capability of Stirling engine analysis codes through better understanding of the heat transfer and power losses. It is also anticipated that the incorporation of a successful thermal nonequilibrium model of the regenerator in Stirling engine CFD analysis codes, will improve our ability to accurately model Stirling regenerators relative to current multidimensional thermal-equilibrium porous media models.

  4. Stomatal encryption by epicuticular waxes as a plastic trait modifying gas exchange in a Mediterranean evergreen species (Quercus coccifera L.).

    PubMed

    Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Fernández, Victoria; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-03-01

    The adaptive benefit of stomatal crypts remains a matter of controversy. This work studies the effect on gas exchange of cuticular rims that overarch the stomatal pore in the Mediterranean species Quercus coccifera L. growing under Mediterranean (lower relative humidities and high summer temperatures) or oceanic conditions (higher daily relative humidities and mild temperatures). After microscopic assessment of the leaf surfaces and stomatal architecture, the impact of the cuticular 'cup' on gas exchange was evaluated by employing three-dimensional finite element models. Here, we provide evidence for a high plasticity of the Q. coccifera cuticular cup, with much larger vents under oceanic conditions compared to small vents under Mediterranean conditions. This structure adds a substantial fixed resistance thereby strongly decreasing gas exchange under Mediterranean conditions. The cuticular cup, which also increases leaf internal humidity, might buffer the rapid changes in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) often observed under Mediterranean conditions. Since water loss of guard and adjacent epidermal cells regulates stomatal aperture, we suggest that this structure allows an efficient regulation of stomatal conductance and optimum use of resources under high VPD. This study provides evidence that plasticity of stomatal architecture can be an important structural component of hydraulic adaptation to different climate conditions.

  5. Comparison of Gas Exchange and Bioassay Determinations of the Ammonia Compensation Point in Luzula sylvatica (Huds.) Gaud.1

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Paul W.; Raven, John A.; Loubet, Benjamin; Fowler, David; Sutton, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Determinations of the NH3 compensation point for the understory plant of semi-natural woodlands Luzula sylvatica (Huds.) Gaud. were carried out by measurements of gas exchange and by calculation from the NH4+ concentration and pH of extracts of the foliar apoplast. Compensation points determined by gas exchange measurements were among the lowest yet reported (0.51–1.10 μg NH3 m−3) and those calculated from apoplast extracts were lower than any yet reported (0.017–0.54 μg NH3 m−3). Those determined by gas exchange were consistently found to be between 2 and 30 times higher than those determined from apoplast extracts. Consideration of possible causes of this discrepancy, which is not confined to this investigation, showed that all likely errors would result in an increase in the discrepancy, or were insufficient to account for observed differences. It is suggested that spatial variability of pH and NH4+ concentration within the foliar apoplast represents the most promising line for further investigation. It is also shown that the foliar apoplast of L. sylvatica is sufficiently buffered to eliminate the need for correction of H+ concentration for dilution during extraction, but that it is necessary to correct the NH4+ concentration of apoplast extracts for dilution. PMID:11154355

  6. Interruption to cutaneous gas exchange is not a likely mechanism of WNS-associated death in bats.

    PubMed

    Carey, Charleve S; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-07-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative fungal agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging fungal-borne epizootic. WNS is responsible for a catastrophic decline of hibernating bats in North America, yet we have limited understanding of the physiological interactions between pathogen and host. Pseudogymnoascus destructans severely damages wings and tail membranes, by causing dryness that leads to whole sections crumbling off. Four possible mechanisms have been proposed by which infection could lead to dehydration; in this study, we tested one: P. destructans infection could cause disruption to passive gas-exchange pathways across the wing membranes, thereby causing a compensatory increase in water-intensive pulmonary respiration. We hypothesized that total evaporative water loss would be greater when passive gas exchange was inhibited. We found that bats did not lose more water when passive pathways were blocked. This study provides evidence against the proposed proximal mechanism that disruption to passive gas exchange causes dehydration and death to WNS-infected bats. PMID:25944919

  7. Deriving C4 photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence using an Excel tool: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The higher photosynthetic potential of C4 plants has led to extensive research over the past 50 years, including C4 -dominated natural biomes, crops such as maize, or for evaluating the transfer of C4 traits into C3 lineages. Photosynthetic gas exchange can be measured in air or in a 2% Oxygen mixture using readily available commercial gas exchange and modulated PSII fluorescence systems. Interpretation of these data, however, requires an understanding (or the development) of various modelling approaches, which limit the use by non-specialists. In this paper we present an accessible summary of the theory behind the analysis and derivation of C4 photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel Fitting Tool (EFT), making rigorous C4 data analysis accessible to a broader audience. Outputs include those defining C4 photochemical and biochemical efficiency, the rate of photorespiration, bundle sheath conductance to CO2 diffusion and the in vivo biochemical constants for PEP carboxylase. The EFT compares several methodological variants proposed by different investigators, allowing users to choose the level of complexity required to interpret data. We provide a complete analysis of gas exchange data on maize (as a model C4 organism and key global crop) to illustrate the approaches, their analysis and interpretation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26286697

  8. Deriving C4 photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence using an Excel tool: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The higher photosynthetic potential of C4 plants has led to extensive research over the past 50 years, including C4 -dominated natural biomes, crops such as maize, or for evaluating the transfer of C4 traits into C3 lineages. Photosynthetic gas exchange can be measured in air or in a 2% Oxygen mixture using readily available commercial gas exchange and modulated PSII fluorescence systems. Interpretation of these data, however, requires an understanding (or the development) of various modelling approaches, which limit the use by non-specialists. In this paper we present an accessible summary of the theory behind the analysis and derivation of C4 photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel Fitting Tool (EFT), making rigorous C4 data analysis accessible to a broader audience. Outputs include those defining C4 photochemical and biochemical efficiency, the rate of photorespiration, bundle sheath conductance to CO2 diffusion and the in vivo biochemical constants for PEP carboxylase. The EFT compares several methodological variants proposed by different investigators, allowing users to choose the level of complexity required to interpret data. We provide a complete analysis of gas exchange data on maize (as a model C4 organism and key global crop) to illustrate the approaches, their analysis and interpretation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions affecting selectivity for neutral and charged solutes on three structurally similar agglomerated ion-exchange and mixed-mode stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Taylor, Mark R; Haddad, Paul R; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2013-11-25

    The nature and extent of mixed-mode retention mechanisms evident for three structurally related, agglomerated, particle-based stationary phases were evaluated. These three agglomerated phases were Thermo Fisher ScientificIon PacAS11-HC - strong anion exchange, Thermo Fisher Scientific IonPac CS10--strong cation-exchange PS-DVB, and the Thermo Fisher Scientific Acclaim Trinity P1silica-based substrate, which is commercially marketed as a mixed-mode stationary phase. All studied phases can exhibit zwitterionic and hydrophobic properties, which contribute to the retention of charged organic analytes. A systematic approach was devised to investigate the relative ion-exchange capacities and hydrophobicities for each of the three phases, together with the effect of eluent pH upon selectivity, using a specifically selected range of anionic, cationic and neutral aromatic compounds. Investigation of the strong anion-exchange column and the Trinity P1 mixed-mode substrate, in relation to ion-exchange capacity and pH effects, demonstrated similar retention behaviour for both the anionic and ampholytic solutes, as expected from the structurally related phases. Further evaluation revealed that the ion-exchange selectivity of the mixed-mode phase exhibited properties similar to that of the strong anion-exchange column, with secondary cation-exchange selectivity, albeit with medium to high anion-exchange and cation-exchange capacities, allowing selective retention for each of the anionic, cationic and ampholytic solutes. Observed mixed-mode retention upon the examined phases was found to be a sum of anion- and cation-exchange interactions, secondary ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions, with possible additional hydrogen bonding. Hydrophobic evaluation of the three phases revealed logP values of 0.38-0.48, suggesting low to medium hydrophobicity. These stationary phases were also benchmarked against traditional reversed-phase substrates namely, octadecylsilica YMC-Pac Pro C18

  10. Modelling non-steady-state isotope enrichment of leaf water in a gas-exchange cuvette environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Simonin, Kevin A; Loucos, Karen E; Barbour, Margaret M

    2015-12-01

    The combined use of a gas-exchange system and laser-based isotope measurement is a tool of growing interest in plant ecophysiological studies, owing to its relevance for assessing isotopic variability in leaf water and/or transpiration under non-steady-state (NSS) conditions. However, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model, originally developed for open-field scenarios, is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment where isotope composition of water vapour (δv ) is intrinsically linked to that of transpiration (δE ). Here, we modified the F&C model to make it directly compatible with the δv -δE dynamic characteristic of a typical cuvette setting. The resultant new model suggests a role of 'net-flux' (rather than 'gross-flux' as suggested by the original F&C model)-based leaf water turnover rate in controlling the time constant (τ) for the approach to steady sate. The validity of the new model was subsequently confirmed in a cuvette experiment involving cotton leaves, for which we demonstrated close agreement between τ values predicted from the model and those measured from NSS variations in isotope enrichment of transpiration. Hence, we recommend that our new model be incorporated into future isotope studies involving a cuvette condition where the transpiration flux directly influences δv . There is an increasing popularity among plant ecophysiologists to use a gas-exchange system coupled to laser-based isotope measurement for investigating non-steady state (NSS) isotopic variability in leaf water (and/or transpiration); however, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment due to its implicit assumption of isotope composition of water vapor (δv ) being constant and independent of that of transpiration (δE ). In the present study, we modified the F&C model to make it compatible with the dynamic relationship between δv and δE as is typically associated

  11. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  12. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  13. Ecosystem CO2/H2O fluxes are explained by hydraulically limited gas exchange during tree mortality from spruce bark beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, John M.; Massman, William J.; Ewers, Brent E.; Huckaby, Laurie S.; Negrón, José F.

    2014-06-01

    Disturbances are increasing globally due to anthropogenic changes in land use and climate. This study determines whether a disturbance that affects the physiology of individual trees can be used to predict the response of the ecosystem by weighing two competing hypothesis at annual time scales: (a) changes in ecosystem fluxes are proportional to observable patterns of mortality or (b) to explain ecosystem fluxes the physiology of dying trees must also be incorporated. We evaluate these hypotheses by analyzing 6 years of eddy covariance flux data collected throughout the progression of a spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemic in a Wyoming Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forest and testing for changes in canopy conductance (gc), evapotranspiration (ET), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. We predict from these hypotheses that (a) gc, ET, and NEE all diminish (decrease in absolute magnitude) as trees die or (b) that (1) gc and ET decline as trees are attacked (hydraulic failure from beetle-associated blue-stain fungi) and (2) NEE diminishes both as trees are attacked (restricted gas exchange) and when they die. Ecosystem fluxes declined as the outbreak progressed and the epidemic was best described as two phases: (I) hydraulic failure caused restricted gc, ET (28 ± 4% decline, Bayesian posterior mean ± standard deviation), and gas exchange (NEE diminished 13 ± 6%) and (II) trees died (NEE diminished 51 ± 3% with minimal further change in ET to 36 ± 4%). These results support hypothesis b and suggest that model predictions of ecosystem fluxes following massive disturbances must be modified to account for changes in tree physiological controls and not simply observed mortality.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Guest Molecule Exchange Kinetics based on the 2012 Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Field Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht Yonkofski, C. M.; Horner, J.; White, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 the U.S. DOE/NETL, ConocoPhillips Company, and Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation jointly sponsored the first field trial of injecting a mixture of N2-CO2 into a CH4-hydrate bearing formation beneath the permafrost on the Alaska North Slope. Known as the Ignik Sikumi #1 Gas Hydrate Field Trial, this experiment involved three stages: 1) the injection of a N2-CO2 mixture into a targeted hydrate-bearing layer, 2) a 4-day pressurized soaking period, and 3) a sustained depressurization and fluid production period. Data collected during the three stages of the field trial were made available after a thorough quality check. The Ignik Sikumi #1 data set is extensive, but contains no direct evidence of the guest-molecule exchange process. This study uses numerical simulation to provide an interpretation of the CH4/CO2/N2 guest molecule exchange process that occurred at Ignik Sikumi #1. Simulations were further informed by experimental observations. The goal of the scoping experiments was to understand kinetic exchange rates and develop parameters for use in Iġnik Sikumi history match simulations. The experimental procedure involves two main stages: 1) the formation of CH4 hydrate in a consolidated sand column at 750 psi and 2°C and 2) flow-through of a 77.5/22.5 N2/CO2 molar ratio gas mixture across the column. Experiments were run both above and below the hydrate stability zone in order to observe exchange behavior across varying conditions. The numerical simulator, STOMP-HYDT-KE, was then used to match experimental results, specifically fitting kinetic behavior. Once this behavior is understood, it can be applied to field scale models based on Ignik Sikumi #1.

  15. Trace gas and energy exchange above a pine afforestation: past, present and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbaniak, Marek; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Danielewska, Alina; Baran, Marcin; Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Merbold, Lutz; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    Forests are among the most important elements of the Earth's biosphere, providing In the context of global climate change forest plays an important role as a sink of CO2, besides providing other ecological advantages such as favourable habitat for plant and animal species. Changes in the global environment are likely to severely affect the functioning of forest ecosystems. The direction and intensity of these changes can be assessed by the analysis of mass and energy fluxes exchanged between the forest canopy and the atmosphere. Water vapour (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance (EC) method in order to obtain long-term data series. Measurements started in January 2008 and continue until today. The EC tower was established within a 56 year and 24 m tall scots pine (pinus sylvestris L.), located nearby the town of Tuczno (North-West Poland). This forest is representative for the large areas that are under the management of one national company (State Forests National Forest Holding). It has been hypothesized that this type of forest (same stand age and structure) are responsible for the major net uptake of atmospheric CO2 in Poland. Annual sequestration during the first two years of measurements was shown to be as high as (702 g C·m-2 in 2008 and 747 g C·m-2 in 2009. However, less carbon was sequestered during the years 2010 and 2011, 546gC·m-2 and 592 gC·m-2, respectively. During the upcoming years we aim at answering the following question: which variables, meteorological or air quality, determine the annual variance of net ecosystem productivity (NEP)? Therefore the existing EC tower was additionally instrumented with devices measuring basic meteorological parameters (solar radiation, air and soil temperature, precipitation). Research will further be extended by studying the hydrology, nutrient cycling and soil properties in order to derive a combined knowledge on forest ecosystem functioning in Poland.

  16. The GEF1 proton-chloride exchanger affects tombusvirus replication via regulation of copper metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Kovalev, Nikolay; Nagy, Peter D

    2013-02-01

    Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses [(+)RNA viruses] is performed by viral replicases, whose function is affected by many cellular factors in infected cells. In this paper, we demonstrate a surprising role for Gef1p proton-chloride exchanger in replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) model (+)RNA virus. A genetic approach revealed that Gef1p, which is the only proton-chloride exchanger in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for TBSV replication in the yeast model host. We also show that the in vitro activity of the purified tombusvirus replicase from gef1Δ yeast was low and that the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase in a cell extract was inhibited by the cytosolic fraction obtained from gef1Δ yeast. Altogether, our data reveal that Gef1p modulates TBSV replication via regulating Cu(2+) metabolism in the cell. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence, including the direct inhibitory effect of Cu(2+) ions on the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase, on the activity of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and an inhibitory effect of deletion of CCC2 copper pump on TBSV replication in yeast, while altered iron metabolism did not reduce TBSV replication. In addition, applying a chloride channel blocker impeded TBSV replication in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts or in whole plants. Overall, blocking Gef1p function seems to inhibit TBSV replication through altering Cu(2+) ion metabolism in the cytosol, which then inhibits the normal functions of the viral replicase.

  17. Leaf gas exchange and carbohydrates in tropical trees differing in successional status in two light environments in central Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Marenco, R A; de C Gonçalves, J F; Vieira, G

    2001-12-01

    Monoculture and mixed stands of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) and tonka bean (Dipteryx odorata Willd.) trees were established on degraded land in central Amazonia to compare leaf gas exchange parameters between plants grown in sunlight in an open field and in shade beneath a balsa wood (Ochroma pyramidale Cav.) canopy. Shading increased specific leaf area by about 50% in both species. Shading reduced height and diameter growth of S. macrophylla, whereas it increased these parameters for D. odorata. Light-saturated photosynthesis (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) were higher in S. macrophylla than in D. odorata. In S. macrophylla, Amax was higher in sun leaves (12.9 +/- 0.9 micromol m-2 s-1) than in shade leaves (10.2 +/- 1.0 micromol m-2 s-1), whereas light environment had no significant effect on Amax of D. odorata. In both species, CO2-saturated photosynthesis (Apot) was higher in sun leaves (22 +/- 1.4 micromol m-2 s-1) than in shade leaves (17-20 +/- 0.8 micromol m-2 s-1). Stomatal conductance and E increased in sun leaves of S. macrophylla by 45 and 38%, respectively, whereas light environment did not affect gs and E of D. odorata. Photorespiration rates (Pr) varied from 28 to 36% of net photosynthesis (A) at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) but declined to around 7% of A at higher Ca. Leaf dark respiration (Rd) and the CO2 compensation point (Gamma) were lower in shade-grown plants than in open-grown plants. Compared with shade-grown plants, total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations increased by 56% in S. macrophylla and by 30% in D. odorata in the open field. Leaf nitrogen (NL) concentrations were higher in open-grown plants than in shade-grown plants of both species, and TNC and NL concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.77). High TNC accumulation in S. macrophylla in the open field suggests that photosynthesis is unlikely to be growth-limiting at this site. We conclude that photosynthetic

  18. Effects of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery on Gas Exchange and Breathing Pattern During Maximum Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.; Belt, Patricia; Sternberg, Alice L.; Mosenifar, Zab; Make, Barry J.; Utz, James P.; Sciurba, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial studied lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for its effects on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and dyspnea during exercise in severe emphysema. Methods: Exercise testing was performed at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Minute ventilation (V̇e), tidal volume (Vt), carbon dioxide output (V̇co2), dyspnea rating, and workload were recorded at rest, 3 min of unloaded pedaling, and maximum exercise. Pao2, Paco2, pH, fraction of expired carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate were also collected in some subjects at these time points and each minute of testing. There were 1,218 patients enrolled in the study (mean [± SD] age, 66.6 ± 6.1 years; mean, 61%; mean FEV1, 0.77 ± 0.24 L), with 238 patients participating in this substudy (mean age, 66.1 ± 6.8 years; mean, 67%; mean FEV1, 0.78 ± 0.25 L). Results: At 6 months, LVRS patients had higher maximum V̇e (32.8 vs 29.6 L/min, respectively; p = 0.001), V̇co2, (0.923 vs 0.820 L/min, respectively; p = 0.0003), Vt (1.18 vs 1.07 L, respectively; p = 0.001), heart rate (124 vs 121 beats/min, respectively; p = 0.02), and workload (49.3 vs 45.1 W, respectively; p = 0.04), but less breathlessness (as measured by Borg dyspnea scale score) [4.4 vs 5.2, respectively; p = 0.0001] and exercise ventilatory limitation (49.5% vs 71.9%, respectively; p = 0.001) than medical patients. LVRS patients with upper-lobe emphysema showed a downward shift in Paco2 vs V̇co2 (p = 0.001). During exercise, LVRS patients breathed slower and deeper at 6 months (p = 0.01) and 12 months (p = 0.006), with reduced dead space at 6 months (p = 0.007) and 24 months (p = 0.006). Twelve months after patients underwent LVRS, dyspnea was less in patients with upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.001) and non–upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.007). Conclusion: During exercise following LVRS, patients with severe emphysema improve carbon dioxide elimination and dead space, breathe slower and deeper, and report less dyspnea

  19. Effects of drought on leaf gas exchange in an eastern broadleaf deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. T.; Brzostek, E. R.; Dragoni, D.; Rahman, A. F.; Novick, K. A.; Phillips, R.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding plant physiological adaptations to drought is critical for predicting changes in ecosystem productivity that result from climate variability and future climate change. From 2011-2013, southern Indiana experienced a late growing season drought in 2011, a severe early season drought in 2012, and a wet growing season in 2013 characterized by an absence of water stress with frequent precipitation and milder temperatures. The 2012 drought was unique due to the severity and early onset drought conditions (compared to the more frequent late season drought) and was characterized by a Palmer Drought severity index below -4 and precipitation totals from May - July that were 70% less than the long-term (2000 - 2010) mean. During the 2012 drought, an 11% decline in net ecosystem productivity relative to the long-term mean was observed at the AmeriFlux tower in Morgan Monroe State Forest despite a growing season that started ~25 days earlier. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate species-specific contributions to the canopy-scale response to inter-annual variability in water stress. We investigated differences between tree species in their response to climate variability using weekly leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential measurements during the growing seasons of 2011-2013. We used this unique dataset, collected at the top of the canopy with a 25 m boom lift, to evaluate changes in leaf water status and maximum assimilation capacity in the drought versus non-drought years. The leaf-level physiology of oak (Quercus) species appears to be less sensitive to drought than other species (tulip poplar [Liriodendron tulipifera], sassafras [Sassafras albidum] and sugar maple [Acer saccharum]). Preliminary data shows mean canopy leaf water potential for oaks was 30.5% more negative in May-July 2012 versus the same time period in 2013. During these same periods the rate of C assimilation in oaks was reduced by only 3%, whereas other species were reduced by

  20. Gas-Surface Chemical Exchange in the Near-surface Atmosphere of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shematovich, V. I.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    The very tenuous O2 atmosphere of Europa is a near-surface (or surface-bounded) atmosphere [1]. It is produced by the radiolysis of Europa's surface due to exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and energetic magnetospheric plasma ions and electrons. Earlier we developed a collisional Monte Carlo model of Europa's atmosphere [2] accounting for adsorption, thermalization and re-emission of condensed O2, a stable decomposition product of H2O radiolysis. Dissociation and ionization by magnetospheric electron and solar UV-photon impact, and collisional ejection from the atmosphere by the low energy plasma were also taken into account. It was found that to account for the production of oxygen emission observed by HST [3] larger surface fluxes of O2 are required than those assumed in earlier work from measured fluxes of magnetospheric particles [4]. This has since been shown to be due to the fact that radiolysis is occurring in a regolith and not on a laboratory surface [5]. In this report we present the results of an expanded Monte Carlo model of Europa's atmosphere. In this model the sublimation and sputtering sources of H2O molecules and their molecular fragments are also included. Therefore, we account for water and oxygen photochemistry in the near surface atmospheric region and for adsorption-desorption of radiolytic water products onto the satellite surface. This expanded model allowed us to emphasize the important role of chemical exchange in the atmosphere-surface interface of Europa. The numerical modeling of chemical composition in both the near-surface gas-phase boundary region and the satellite surface provides a more complete accounting of the chemical pathways occurring in the icy satellite surface material following decomposition by the solar ultraviolet radiation and the energetic magnetospheric plasma. The model will eventually be expanded to include the effect of the release of trace amounts of SO2 and CO2 that are trapped in the surface ice. [1

  1. Effect of external chest wall oscillation on gas exchange in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Dolmage, T E; De Rosie, J A; Avendano, M A; Goldstein, R S

    1995-02-01

    Effective gas exchange can be maintained in animals without the need for endotracheal intubation using external chest wall oscillation (ECWO). The clinical application of this technique has been limited by equipment which was either impractical or uncomfortable. We evaluated a prototype of a new oscillator in which an oscillatory profile of negative and positive pressure was imposed on a negative baseline pressure within a cuirass. In seven healthy subjects, we identified an oscillatory cuirass pressure that could effectively ventilate but would not result in severe hypocapnia over 5 min. We then measured the influence of changing the frequency of oscillation (fo) on PaCO2 and spontaneous ventilation. Lastly, we evaluated the capability of this prototype to achieve targeted changes in chamber pressure. Subjects were ventilated with an inspiratory chamber pressure of -20 +/- 4 cm H2O, an expiratory chamber pressure of 5 cm H2O and an inspiratory-expiratory ratio of 1:1 at 9 oscillatory frequencies (fo: 1 to 5 Hz at 0.5-Hz increments). Each subject was ventilated for 5 min with consecutive periods of ECWO being separated from each other by 10 min of unassisted breathing. Oscillatory tidal volume (Vo) was sampled and PaCO2 was determined from the expired carbon dioxide concentration (FECO2) measured at the mouth. The change in PaCO2 (delta PaCO2) was the difference in PaCO2 immediately before and after ECWO. We found that delta PaCO2 and Vo were inversely related to fo. At 1 Hz the delta PaCO2 was -13 +/- 1 mm Hg and Vo was 344 +/- 34 mL in the absence of spontaneous breathing (fb = 0). At 3 Hz and above, at the chamber pressures used, the delta PaCO2 was small (-1 to -2 mm Hg) and the Vo was less than the predicted dead space. Subjects breathed spontaneously but at a frequency below that of their resting fb. With this prototype, chamber pressure changes up to 30 cm H2O could be accurately achieved at 1, 2.5, and 4 Hz. In conclusion, ECWO can provide effective

  2. Soil-atmosphere trace gas exchange from tropical oil palm plantations on peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arn Teh, Yit; Manning, Frances; Zin Zawawi, Norliyana; Hill, Timothy; Chocholek, Melanie; Khoon Kho, Lip

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm is the largest agricultural crop in the tropics, accounting for 13 % of all tropical land cover. Due to its large areal extent, oil palm cultivation may have important implications not only for terrestrial stores of C and N, but may also impact regional and global exchanges of material and energy, including fluxes of trace gases and water vapor. In particular, recent expansion of oil palm into tropical peatlands has raised concerns over enhanced soil C emissions from degradation of peat, and elevated N-gas fluxes linked to N fertilizer application. Here we report our preliminary findings on soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from a long-term, multi-scale project investigating the C, N and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics of oil palm ecosystems established on peat soils in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Flux chamber measurements indicate that soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes averaged 20.0 ± 16.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 37.4 ± 29.9 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 and 4.7 ± 4.2 g N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Soil CO2 fluxes were on par with other drained tropical peatlands; whereas CH4 fluxes exceeded observations from similar study sites elsewhere. Nitrous oxide fluxes were in a similar range to fluxes from other drained tropical peatlands, but lower than emissions from mineral-soil plantations by up to three orders of magnitude. Fluxes of soil CO2 and N2O were spatially stratified, and contingent upon the distribution of plants, deposited harvest residues, and soil moisture. Soil CO2 fluxes were most heavily influenced by the distribution of palms and their roots. On average, autotrophic (root) respiration accounted for approximately 78 % of total soil CO2 flux, and total soil respiration declined steeply away from palms; e.g. soil CO2 fluxes in the immediate 1 m radius around palms were up to 6 times greater than fluxes in inter-palm spaces due to higher densities of roots. Placement of harvest residues played an important - but secondary

  3. Poly-methyl pentene oxygenators have improved gas exchange capability and reduced transfusion requirements in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Khoshbin, Espeed; Roberts, Neil; Harvey, Chris; Machin, David; Killer, Hilliary; Peek, Giles J; Sosnowski, Andrzej W; Firmin, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    The performance of poly-methyl pentene (PMP) oxygenators (Medos Hilite 7000LT) was compared with that of silicone membrane (SM) oxygenators (Medtronic 1-4500-2A) for adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Forty consecutive patients were selected retrospectively pre- and post-introduction of PMP oxygenators. They were selected according to the dates they received ECMO and were separated into two equal groups with similar backgrounds. The flow path resistance, gas and heat exchange efficiency, consumption of coagulation factors and platelets, blood transfusion requirements, and incidence of clots for each oxygenator type was assessed. Adult PMP oxygenators showed lower blood path resistance than SM oxygenators. However, lower consumption of blood products in these oxygenators was a direct result of their smaller surface area and heparin coated design, reducing contact activation of coagulation factors. These oxygenators are noticeably smaller, require lower priming volumes, and have better gas exchange capability than SM oxygenators. They showed greater stability and preservation of coagulation factors and platelets compared with SM oxygenators. They also had the advantage of a functioning integrated heat exchanger. Using a single PMP oxygenator in the first instance may be adequate for the majority of patients and would significantly reduce red blood cell consumption during ECMO.

  4. Current developments affecting future availability of oil and gas in the free world

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1981-03-17

    This review focuses on developments during the last 18 months likely to affect the availability of oil and gas in coming decades. These developments include new discoveries (Hibernia, Beaufort Sea, Ivory Coast, the Western and Eastern Overthrust Belts, and the Gulf of Suez). They also include new energy policies of both producer and consumer nations that will ultimately affect supply. New policies and a rapidly increasing domestic demand may stabilize Mexico's exports at their present level, even if production reaches 4 to 5 million barrels per day (b/d). Canada's new policy toward foreign oil companies operating within her borders may well stifle exploration and investment in both oil and tar sand deposits. OPEC contract and pricing schemes are profoundly altering distribution systems and markets. OPEC plans to allocate oil arbitrarily in times of shortage could disrupt the industrial world. Inability to reassign oil contracted for from OPEC nations is forcing buyers to increase storage capacity. The oil inventories reported are not equivalent to availability, since 50 to 90% is essentially unavailable. Thus, stock equivalent to 110 days of imports may include only a few weeks of primary usable stocks. Only Sweden and South Africa have federally owned oil reserves that could meet demand for periods of months or years. Natural gas from the USSR will probably comprise 30% of Western Europe's total supply in the 1990s, if plans to import gas from the Yamal Peninsula come to fruition. Soviet gas is seen as an acceptable alternative to undependable OPEC oil supplies and similarly unreliable gas supplies from North Africa. However, the proposed, increased dependency on the USSR may add a new dimension to Soviet and Western European politics.

  5. Dynamic C and N stocks - key factors controlling the C gas exchange of maize in a heterogenous peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Hagemann, U.; Giebels, M.; Albiac Borraz, E.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2014-11-01

    Drainage and cultivation of fen peatlands creates complex small-scale mosaics of soils with extremely variable soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and groundwater-level (GWL). To date, it remains unclear if such sites are sources or sinks for greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4, especially if used for cropland. As individual control factors like GWL fail to account for this complexity, holistic approaches combining gas fluxes with the underlying processes are required to understand the carbon (C) gas exchange of drained fens. It can be assumed that the stocks of SOC and N located above the variable GWL - defined as dynamic C and N stocks - play a key role in the regulation of plant- and microbially mediated C gas fluxes of these soils. To test this assumption, the present study analysed the C gas exchange (gross primary production - GPP, ecosystem respiration - Reco, net ecosystem exchange - NEE, CH4) of maize using manual chambers for four years. The study sites were located near Paulinenaue, Germany. Here we selected three soils, which represent the full gradient in pedogenesis, GWL and SOC stocks (0-1 m) of the fen peatland: (a) Haplic Arenosol (AR; 8 kg C m-2); (b) Mollic Gleysol (GL; 38 kg C m-2); and (c) Hemic Histosol (HS; 87 kg C m-2). Daily GWL data was used to calculate dynamic SOC (SOCdyn) and N (Ndyn) stocks. Average annual NEE differed considerably among sites, ranging from 47 ± 30 g C m-2 a-1 at AR to -305 ± 123 g C m-2 a-1 at GL and -127 ± 212 g C m-2 a-1 at HS. While static SOC and N stocks showed no significant effect on C fluxes, SOCdyn and Ndyn and their interaction with GWL strongly influenced the C gas exchange, particularly NEE and the GPP:Reco ratio. Moreover, based on nonlinear regression analysis, 86% of NEE variability was explained by GWL and SOCdyn. The observed high relevance of dynamic SOC and N stocks in the aerobic zone for plant and soil gas exchange likely originates from the effects of GWL-dependent N availability on C formation and

  6. Sustainable production of acrylic acid: alkali-ion exchanged beta zeolite for gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Tao, Li-Zhi; Liang, Yu; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid (LA) to acrylic acid (AA) was investigated over alkali-exchanged β zeolite (M(x)Na(1-x)β, M=Li(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+)) of different exchange degrees (x). The reaction was conducted under varying conditions to understand the catalyst selectivity for AA production and trends of byproduct formation. The nature and exchange degree of M(+) were found to be critical for the acid-base properties and catalytic performance of the exchanged zeolite. K(x)Na(1-x)β of x=0.94 appeared to be the best performing catalyst whereas Li(x)Na(1-x)β and Naβ were the poorest in terms of AA selectivity and yield. The AA yield as high as 61 mol % (selectivity: 64 mol %) could be obtained under optimized reaction conditions for up to 8 h over the best performing K0.94Na0.06β. The acid and base properties of the catalysts were probed, respectively by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of adsorbed NH3 and CO2, and were related to the electrostatic potentials of the alkali ions in the zeolite, which provided a basis for the discussion of the acid-base catalysis for sustainable AA formation from LA.

  7. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on gas exchange after methacholine challenge and isoprenaline inhalation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Ueno, O; Lee, L N; Wagner, P D

    1989-03-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has antioxidant and possibly mucolytic properties. To determine whether NAC could be of benefit in acute bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine, 12 of 24 anaesthetized dogs (group 1) received NAC i.v. (loading dose 150 mg.kg-1, then 20 mg.kg-1.hr-1). The other 12 (group 2) received diluent. Nebulized methacholine (1%) was then inhaled until arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) fell to a mean of 5.5 kPa, after which isoprenaline 0.5% was inhaled in six dogs of each group to reverse bronchoconstriction. Over the next 3 h we measured total lung resistance, functional residual capacity (FRC), haemodynamic variables, and pulmonary gas exchange for respiratory and inert gases. After methacholine challenge, lung resistance increased and then fell similarly for both groups, but PaO2 was higher in the NAC group (by 0.6-1.9 kPa) throughout the observation period. The ventilation-perfusion distribution measured by inert gas elimination also showed less abnormality in the NAC treated dogs over this time. Mucus was visible during post-mortem in the large airways in about half of the dogs in both groups, with no significant differences between them. These results show that NAC produces a measurable improvement in gas exchange following methacholine challenge (both with and without subsequent isoprenaline therapy) by mechanisms that remain to be determined. PMID:2659384

  8. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on gas exchange after methacholine challenge and isoprenaline inhalation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Ueno, O; Lee, L N; Wagner, P D

    1989-03-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has antioxidant and possibly mucolytic properties. To determine whether NAC could be of benefit in acute bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine, 12 of 24 anaesthetized dogs (group 1) received NAC i.v. (loading dose 150 mg.kg-1, then 20 mg.kg-1.hr-1). The other 12 (group 2) received diluent. Nebulized methacholine (1%) was then inhaled until arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) fell to a mean of 5.5 kPa, after which isoprenaline 0.5% was inhaled in six dogs of each group to reverse bronchoconstriction. Over the next 3 h we measured total lung resistance, functional residual capacity (FRC), haemodynamic variables, and pulmonary gas exchange for respiratory and inert gases. After methacholine challenge, lung resistance increased and then fell similarly for both groups, but PaO2 was higher in the NAC group (by 0.6-1.9 kPa) throughout the observation period. The ventilation-perfusion distribution measured by inert gas elimination also showed less abnormality in the NAC treated dogs over this time. Mucus was visible during post-mortem in the large airways in about half of the dogs in both groups, with no significant differences between them. These results show that NAC produces a measurable improvement in gas exchange following methacholine challenge (both with and without subsequent isoprenaline therapy) by mechanisms that remain to be determined.

  9. The Ecohydrological Consequences of Woody Plant Encroachment: How Accessibility to Deep Soil Water Resources Affects Ecosystem Carbon and Water Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R. L.; Huxman, T. E.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Jenerette, D.; Young, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grassland systems, a process that has increased rapidly over the last century, has potentially broad ecohydrological consequences by affecting the way ecosystems use water and cycle carbon. This study examines the influence of precipitation- and groundwater-derived water availability by comparing eddy covariance measurements of water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes over a riparian grassland, shrubland, and woodland, and an upland grassland site in southeastern Arizona USA. Compared to the upland grassland, the riparian sites exhibited greater net carbon uptake (NEP) and higher evapotranspiration (ET) across a longer portion of the year. Among the riparian sites, however, the grassland was less able to take advantage of the stable groundwater supply. Increasing woody plant density facilitated greater water and carbon exchange that became increasingly decoupled from incident precipitation (P). How groundwater accessibility affected NEP was more complex than ET. Respiration (Reco) costs were higher for the riparian grassland so, while it had a similar ET and gross carbon uptake (GEP) to the shrubland, its NEP was substantially less. Also, riparian grassland fluxes were much more variable due to flooding that occurred at the site, which could stimulate or inhibit NEP. Woodland NEP was largest but surprisingly similar to the less mature and dense shrubland even while having much greater GEP. Woodland NEP responded negatively to P, due to the stimulation of Reco likely due to greater amounts of aboveground and soil carbon. With many areas of the world experiencing woody plants encroachment, encroachment into areas where there are additional deep soil water sources, such as in riparian settings or in areas of deep soil moisture recharge, will likely increase carbon sequestration but at the expense of higher water use.

  10. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

  11. Characterizing the drivers of seedling leaf gas exchange responses to warming and altered precipitation: indirect and direct effects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas G.; Pold, Grace; Goranson, Carol; Dukes, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic forces are projected to lead to warmer temperatures and altered precipitation patterns globally. The impact of these climatic changes on the uptake of carbon by the land surface will, in part, determine the rate and magnitude of these changes. However, there is a great deal of uncertainty in how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to climate in the future. Here, we used a fully factorial warming (four levels) by precipitation (three levels) manipulation experiment in an old-field ecosystem in the northeastern USA to examine the impact of climatic changes on leaf carbon exchange in five species of deciduous tree seedlings. We found that photosynthesis generally increased in response to increasing precipitation and decreased in response to warming. Respiration was less sensitive to the treatments. The net result was greater leaf carbon uptake in wetter and cooler conditions across all species. Structural equation modelling revealed the primary pathway through which climate impacted leaf carbon exchange. Net photosynthesis increased with increasing stomatal conductance and photosynthetic enzyme capacity (Vcmax), and decreased with increasing respiration of leaves. Soil moisture and leaf temperature at the time of measurement most heavily influenced these primary drivers of net photosynthesis. Leaf respiration increased with increasing soil moisture, leaf temperature, and photosynthetic supply of substrates. Counter to the soil moisture response, respiration decreased with increasing precipitation amount, indicating that the response to short- (i.e. soil moisture) versus long-term (i.e. precipitation amount) water stress differed, possibly as a result of changes in the relative amounts of growth and maintenance demand for respiration over time. These data (>500 paired measurements of light and dark leaf gas exchange), now publicly available, detail the pathways by which climate can impact leaf gas exchange and could be useful for testing assumptions in

  12. Dynamic C and N stocks - key factors controlling the C gas exchange of maize in heterogenous peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Hagemann, U.; Giebels, M.; Albiac Borraz, E.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2015-05-01

    The drainage and cultivation of fen peatlands create complex small-scale mosaics of soils with extremely variable soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and groundwater levels (GWLs). To date, the significance of such sites as sources or sinks for greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 is still unclear, especially if the sites are used for cropland. As individual control factors such as GWL fail to account for this complexity, holistic approaches combining gas fluxes with the underlying processes are required to understand the carbon (C) gas exchange of drained fens. It can be assumed that the stocks of SOC and N located above the variable GWL - defined as dynamic C and N stocks - play a key role in the regulation of the plant- and microbially mediated CO2 fluxes in these soils and, inversely, for CH4. To test this assumption, the present study analysed the C gas exchange (gross primary production - GPP; ecosystem respiration - Reco; net ecosystem exchange - NEE; CH4) of maize using manual chambers for 4 years. The study sites were located near Paulinenaue, Germany, where we selected three soil types representing the full gradient of GWL and SOC stocks (0-1 m) of the landscape: (a) Haplic Arenosol (AR; 8 kg C m-2); (b) Mollic Gleysol (GL; 38 kg C m-2); and (c) Hemic Histosol (HS; 87 kg C m-2). Daily GWL data were used to calculate dynamic SOC (SOCdyn) and N (Ndyn) stocks. Average annual NEE differed considerably among sites, ranging from 47 ± 30 g C m-2 yr-1 in AR to -305 ± 123 g C m-2 yr-1 in GL and -127 ± 212 g C m-2 yr-1 in HS. While static SOC and N stocks showed no significant effect on C fluxes, SOCdyn and Ndyn and their interaction with GWL strongly influenced the C gas exchange, particularly NEE and the GPP : Reco ratio. Moreover, based on nonlinear regression analysis, 86% of NEE variability was explained by GWL and SOCdyn. The observed high relevance of dynamic SOC and N stocks in the aerobic zone for plant and soil gas exchange likely originates from the

  13. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the Canadian Archipelago. 2. Air-water gas exchange of alpha- and gamma-HCH.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Helm, Paul A; Kylin, Henrik; Bidleman, Terry F

    2008-01-15

    Air and water were sampled in the Canadian Archipelago during summer on the Tundra Northwest 1999 (TNW-99) expedition and air was sampled at Resolute Bay (RB), Nunavut, to determine the gas exchange of alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and the enantiomers of alpha-HCH. Air concentrations of sigmaHCH during TNW-99 and at RB were similar, averaging 55 and 53 pg m(-3), respectively. The net gas exchange direction was volatilization for alpha-HCH and near equilibrium or deposition for gamma-HCH, whereas actual fluxes depended on the fraction of open water. Enantiomer fractions, EF = (+)/[(+) + (-)] of alpha-HCH in air sampled from shipboard were significantly correlated to those in surface water for events with >90% open water, but were closer to racemic and not correlated to EFs in water for events with 0-50% open water. Levels of alpha-HCH in air at RB averaged 37 +/- 9 pg m(-3) from June to early July, and EFs were close to racemic (0.496 +/- 0.004). In mid-July the ice pack broke up around RB. From this point through August, air concentrations increased significantly to 53 +/- 5 pg m(-3), and the mean EF decreased significantly to 0.483 +/- 0.009. Air concentrations of gamma-HCH at RB did not differ significantly before (8.0 +/- 3.7 pg m(-3)) and after (6.6 +/- 0.76 pg m(-3)) ice breakup. Results show that alpha-HCH enantiomers are sensitive tracers for following the impact of ice cover loss on gas exchange in the Arctic.

  14. Toxicodynamics of Rigid Polystyrene Microparticles on Pulmonary Gas Exchange in Mice: Implications for Microemboli-based Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kutscher, HL.; Gao, D.; Li, S.; Massa, CB.; Cervelli, J.; Deshmukh, M.; Joseph, LB.; Laskin, DL.; Sinko, PJ.

    2013-01-01

    The toxicodynamic relationship between the number and size of pulmonary microemboli resulting from uniformly sized, rigid polystyrene microparticles (MPs) administered intravenously and their potential effects on pulmonary gas exchange was investigated. CD-1 male mice (6–8 wk) were intravenously administered 10, 25 and 45 μm diameter MPs. Oxygen hemoglobin saturation in the blood (SpO2) was measured non-invasively using a pulse oximeter while varying inhaled oxygen concentration (FIO2). Resulting data were fit to a physiologically based non-linear mathematical model that estimates 2 parameters: ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) and shunt (percentage of deoxygenated blood returning to systemic circulation). The number of MPs administered prior to a statistically significant reduction in normalized VA/Q was dependent on particle size. MP doses that resulted in a significant reduction in normalized VA/Q one day post-treatment were 4,000, 40,000 and 550,000 MPs/g for 45, 25 and 10 μm MPs, respectively. The model estimated VA/Q and shunt returned to baseline levels 7 days post-treatment. Measuring SpO2 alone was not sufficient to observe changes in gas exchange; however, when combined with model-derived VA/Q and shunt early reversible toxicity from pulmonary microemboli was detected suggesting that the model and physical measurements are both required for assessing toxicity. Moreover, it appears that the MP load required to alter gas exchange in a mouse prior to lethality is significantly higher than the anticipated required MP dose for effective drug delivery. Overall, the current results indicate that the microemboli-based approach for targeted pulmonary drug delivery is potentially safe and should be further explored. PMID:23142466

  15. Variation of gas exchange within native plant species of Switzerland and relationships with ozone injury: an open-top experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Ferdinand, J A; Vanderheyden, D J; Skelly, J M; Innes, J L

    2001-01-01

    Gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury were intensively measured during a 6-day period in mid-August 1998 on leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Morus nigra, Prunus avium, Prunus serotina, Rhamnus cathartica, and Viburnum lantana at a forest nursery site in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Plants were grown in four open plots (AA), four open-top chambers receiving carbon-filtered (CF) air, and four receiving non-filtered (NF) air. Significant variation in gas exchange (F > 12.7, P < 0.001) was detected among species with average net photosynthesis and average stomatal conductance differing by a factor of two. Species also varied significantly in foliar injury for those leaves for which we measured gas exchange (F = 39.6, P < 0.001). Fraxinus excelsior, M. nigra, P. avium, P. serotina, R. cathartica, and V. lantana showed more injury than A. pseudoplatanus, B. pendula, C. avellana, and Fagus sylvatica. Plants grown in CF chambers had significantly higher net photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapor (gwv), and lower foliar injury than plants grown in NF chambers and AA plots; interactions between species and ozone treatments were significant for all variables (F > or = 2.2, P < 0.05) except gwv (F = 0.7, P > 0.1). Although A and gwv decreased and foliar injury increased with leaf age, the magnitude of these changes was lower for plants grown in CF chambers than for plants grown in NF chambers and AA plots. Neither ozone uptake threshold (r = 0.26, P > 0.20) nor whole-plant injury (r = -0.15, P > 0.41) was significantly correlated with stomatal conductance across these species. It appears that the relationships between stomatal conductance and foliar injury are species-specific and interactions between physiology and environments and leaf biochemical processes must be considered in determining species sensitivity to ambient ozone exposures. PMID:11383335

  16. Multiscale study of bacterial growth: Experiments and model to understand the impact of gas exchange on global growth.

    PubMed

    Lalanne-Aulet, David; Piacentini, Adalberto; Guillot, Pierre; Marchal, Philippe; Moreau, Gilles; Colin, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Using a millifluidics and macroscale setup, we study quantitatively the impact of gas exchange on bacterial growth. In millifluidic environments, the permeability of the incubator materials allows an unlimited oxygen supply by diffusion. Moreover, the efficiency of diffusion at small scales makes the supply instantaneous in comparison with the cell division time. In hermetic closed vials, the amount of available oxygen is low. The growth curve has the same trend but is quantitatively different from the millifluidic situation. The analysis of all the data allows us to write a quantitative modeling enabling us to capture the entire growth process.

  17. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict cloud forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Smith, William K

    2008-01-01

    The southern Appalachian spruce-fir (Picea rubens Sarg. and Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) forest is found only on high altitude mountain tops that receive copious precipitation ( > 2000 mm year(-1)) and experience frequent cloud immersion. These high-elevation, temperate rain forests are immersed in clouds on approximately 65% of the total growth season days and for 30-40% of a typical summer day, and cloud deposition accounts for up to 50% of their annual water budget. We investigated environmental influences on understory leaf gas exchange and water relations at two sites: Mt. Mitchell, NC (MM; 35 degrees 45'53'' N, 82 degrees 15'53'' W, 2028 m elevation) and Whitetop Mtn., VA (WT; 36 degrees 38'19'' N, 81 degrees 36'19'' W, 1685 m elevation). We hypothesized that the cool, moist and cloudy conditions at these sites exert a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Maximum photosynthesis (A(max)) varied between 1.6 and 4.0 micromol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) for both spruce and fir and saturated at irradiances between approximately 200 and 400 micromol m(-2) s(-1) at both sites. Leaf conductance (g) ranged between 0.05 and 0.25 mol m(-2) s(-1) at MM and between 0.15 and 0.40 mol m(-2) s(-1) at WT and was strongly associated with leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (LAVD). At both sites, g decreased exponentially as LAVD increased, with an 80-90% reduction in g between 0 and 0.5 kPa. Predawn leaf water potentials remained between -0.25 and -0.5 MPa for the entire summer, whereas late afternoon values declined to between -1.25 and -1.75 MPa by late summer. Thus, leaf gas exchange appeared tightly coupled to the response of g to LAVD, which maintained high water status, even at the relatively low LAVD of these cloud forests. Moreover, the cloudy, humid environment of these refugial forests appears to exert a strong influence on tree leaf gas exchange and water relations. Because global climate change is predicted to increase regional cloud ceiling levels, more research on

  18. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict cloud forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Smith, William K

    2008-01-01

    The southern Appalachian spruce-fir (Picea rubens Sarg. and Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) forest is found only on high altitude mountain tops that receive copious precipitation ( > 2000 mm year(-1)) and experience frequent cloud immersion. These high-elevation, temperate rain forests are immersed in clouds on approximately 65% of the total growth season days and for 30-40% of a typical summer day, and cloud deposition accounts for up to 50% of their annual water budget. We investigated environmental influences on understory leaf gas exchange and water relations at two sites: Mt. Mitchell, NC (MM; 35 degrees 45'53'' N, 82 degrees 15'53'' W, 2028 m elevation) and Whitetop Mtn., VA (WT; 36 degrees 38'19'' N, 81 degrees 36'19'' W, 1685 m elevation). We hypothesized that the cool, moist and cloudy conditions at these sites exert a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Maximum photosynthesis (A(max)) varied between 1.6 and 4.0 micromol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) for both spruce and fir and saturated at irradiances between approximately 200 and 400 micromol m(-2) s(-1) at both sites. Leaf conductance (g) ranged between 0.05 and 0.25 mol m(-2) s(-1) at MM and between 0.15 and 0.40 mol m(-2) s(-1) at WT and was strongly associated with leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (LAVD). At both sites, g decreased exponentially as LAVD increased, with an 80-90% reduction in g between 0 and 0.5 kPa. Predawn leaf water potentials remained between -0.25 and -0.5 MPa for the entire summer, whereas late afternoon values declined to between -1.25 and -1.75 MPa by late summer. Thus, leaf gas exchange appeared tightly coupled to the response of g to LAVD, which maintained high water status, even at the relatively low LAVD of these cloud forests. Moreover, the cloudy, humid environment of these refugial forests appears to exert a strong influence on tree leaf gas exchange and water relations. Because global climate change is predicted to increase regional cloud ceiling levels, more research on

  19. Effect of anisotropic exchange interactions and short-range phenomena on superfluidity in a homogeneous dipolar Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corro, I.; Martin, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a simple numerical method that allows us to calculate the BCS superfluid transition temperature Tc precisely for any interaction potential. We apply it to a polarized, ultracold Fermi gas with long-range, anisotropic, dipolar interactions and include the effects of anisotropic exchange interactions. We pay particular attention to the short-range behavior of dipolar gases and reexamine current renormalization methods. In particular, we find that dimerization of both atoms and molecules significantly hampers the formation of a superfluid. The end result is that at high density or interaction strengths, we find Tc is orders of magnitude lower than previous calculations.

  20. Oxygen-limited thermal tolerance is seen in a plastron-breathing insect and can be induced in a bimodal gas exchanger

    PubMed Central

    Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thermal tolerance has been hypothesized to result from a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand. However, the generality of this hypothesis has been challenged by studies on various animal groups, including air-breathing adult insects. Recently, comparisons across taxa have suggested that differences in gas exchange mechanisms could reconcile the discrepancies found in previous studies. Here, we test this suggestion by comparing the behaviour of related insect taxa with different gas exchange mechanisms, with and without access to air. We demonstrate oxygen-limited thermal tolerance in air-breathing adults of the plastron-exchanging water bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis. Ilyocoris cimicoides, a related, bimodal gas exchanger, did not exhibit such oxygen-limited thermal tolerance and relied increasingly on aerial gas exchange with warming. Intriguingly, however, when denied access to air, oxygen-limited thermal tolerance could also be induced in this species. Patterns in oxygen-limited thermal tolerance were found to be consistent across life-history stages in these insects, with nymphs employing the same gas exchange mechanisms as adults. These results advance our understanding of oxygen limitation at high temperatures; differences in the degree of respiratory control appear to modulate the importance of oxygen in setting tolerance limits. PMID:25964420

  1. Effect of through-plane polytetrafluoroethylene distribution in gas diffusion layers on performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Iwamura, Takuya; Someya, Satoshi; Munakata, Tetsuo; Nakano, Akihiro; Heo, Yun; Ishida, Masayoshi; Nakajima, Hironori; Kitahara, Tatsumi

    2016-02-01

    This experimental study identifies the effect of through-plane polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) distribution in gas diffusion backing (GDB) on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). PTFE-drying under vacuum pressure created a relatively uniform PTFE distribution in GDB compared to drying under atmospheric pressure. Carbon paper samples with different PTFE distributions due to the difference in drying conditions were prepared and used for the cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL) of PEMFCs. Also investigated is the effect of MPL application on the performance for those samples. The current density (i) - voltage (V) characteristics of these PEMFCs measured under high relative humidity conditions clearly showed that, with or without MPL, the cell using the GDL with PTFE dried under vacuum condition showed better performance than that dried under atmospheric condition. It is suggested that this improved performance is caused by the efficient transport of liquid water through the GDB due to the uniform distribution of PTFE.

  2. Gas exchanges between local spirals ancestor and the intergalactic medium in the past 6 Gyrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Rothberg, B.; Flores, H.

    Using a representative sample of 66 intermediate mass galaxies at z˜0.6, we have investigated the interplay between the main ingredients of the chemical evolution: metal abundance, gas mass, stellar mass and SFR. All quantities have been estimated using deep spectroscopy and photometry from UV to IR and assuming an inversion of the Schmitt-Kennicutt law for the gas fraction. Six billions years ago, galaxies had a mean gas fraction of 32% ± 3, i.e. twice that of their local counterparts. Using higher redshift samples from the literature, we explore the gas-phases and estimate the evolution of the mean gas fraction of distant galaxies over the last 11 Gy. The gas fraction increases linearly at the rate of 4% per Gyr from z˜0 to z˜2.2. We also demonstrate for a statistically representative sample that < 4% of the z˜0.6 galaxies are undergoing outflow events, in sharp contrast with z˜2.2 galaxies. The observed co-evolution of metals and gas over the past 6 Gyr favours a scenario in which the population of intermediate mass galaxies evolved as closed-systems, converting their own gas reservoirs into stars.

  3. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of…

  4. Gas and Water Vapor Exchanges in Rainfed Corn-Soybean Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States represents one of the most intensive and extensive cropping systems in the world. It is critical to understand the dynamics of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2O (water) vapor exchanges above corn and soybean canopies in rainfed environments in o...

  5. Gas magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  6. Gas-Phase Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Labeling of Select Peptide Ion Conformer Types: a Per-Residue Kinetics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Kondalaji, Samaneh Ghassabi; Tafreshian, Amirmahdi; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2015-07-01

    The per-residue, gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) kinetics for individual amino acid residues on selected ion conformer types of the model peptide KKDDDDDIIKIIK have been examined using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and HDX-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques. The [M + 4H]4+ ions exhibit two major conformer types with collision cross sections of 418 Å2 and 446 Å2; the [M + 3H]3+ ions also yield two different conformer types having collision cross sections of 340 Å2 and 367 Å2. Kinetics plots of HDX for individual amino acid residues reveal fast- and slow-exchanging hydrogens. The contributions of each amino acid residue to the overall conformer type rate constant have been estimated. For this peptide, N- and C-terminal K residues exhibit the greatest contributions for all ion conformer types. Interior D and I residues show decreased contributions. Several charge state trends are observed. On average, the D residues of the [M + 3H]3+ ions show faster HDX rate contributions compared with [M + 4H]4+ ions. In contrast the interior I8 and I9 residues show increased accessibility to exchange for the more elongated [M + 4H]4+ ion conformer type. The contribution of each residue to the overall uptake rate showed a good correlation with a residue hydrogen accessibility score model calculated using a distance from charge site and initial incorporation site for nominal structures obtained from molecular dynamic simulations (MDS).

  7. The relationship between respiratory exchange ratio, plasma lactate and muscle lactate concentrations in exercising horses using a valved gas collection system.

    PubMed Central

    Gauvreau, G M; Young, S S; Staempfli, H; McCutcheon, L J; Wilson, B A; McDonell, W N

    1996-01-01

    A valved gas collection system for horses was validated, then used to examine the relationship between the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and plasma and muscle lactate in exercising horses. Four healthy Standardbred horses were trained to breathe through the apparatus while exercising on a treadmill. Comparisons of arterial blood gas tensions were made at 3 work levels for each horse, without (control), and with the gas collection system present. At the highest work level, the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) was significantly lower (P < 0.05), and the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) was significantly higher (P < 0.05), than control levels when the apparatus was present; however arterial oxygen content remained unchanged. The horses completed a standardized incremental treadmill test on 4 occasions to determine the repeatability of measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), inspired minute ventilation (VI), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VI/VO2), tidal volume (VT), and ventilatory frequency (VF). All gas exchange and respiratory measurements showed good reproducibility with the mean coefficient of variation of the 4 horses ranging from 3.8 to 12%. We examined the relationship between 3 indices of energy metabolism in horses performing treadmill exercise: respiratory exchange ratio (RER), central venous plasma and muscle lactate concentrations. A relationship between RER and plasma lactate concentration was established. To compare muscle and plasma lactate concentrations, the horses completed a discontinuous exercise test without the gas collection apparatus present. Significant relationships (P < 0.05), between plasma lactate concentration and RER, and between plasma and muscle lactate concentration, were described for each horse. The valved gas collection system produced a measurable but tolerable degree of interference to respiration, and provided reproducible measurements of gas

  8. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal.

  9. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. PMID:27226475

  10. Gas exchange in Quercus rubra (northern red oak) during a drought: analysis of relations among photosynthesis, transpiration, and leaf conductance.

    PubMed

    Weber, J. A.; Gates, D. M.

    1990-12-01

    Development of water stress in leaves of mature Quercus rubra L. caused a marked midday depression in photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E). At external CO(2) partial pressures of 100-110 Pa, a constant temperature of 30 degrees C and a constant photosynthetic photon flux density of about 1000 micromol m(-2) s(-1), A was 8 micromol m(-2) at low leaf water potentials (-1.5 to -2.0 MPa), whereas it was 20 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in non-stressed leaves (-1.0 MPa). At lower external CO(2) partial pressures, the effect of low leaf water potential on A was less. The midday depression in gas exchange was relieved by an overnight rain of 2.5 cm. No difference in carboxylation efficiency or CO(2) compensation point was found between leaves before and after rain, The relationship between A and E was linear for a given external CO(2) partial pressure, but the slope varied with CO(2) concentration. Modification of the model of stomatal response proposed by Ball et al. (1987) produced a linear relationship between leaf conductance and a factor incorporating A, relative humidity, and CO(2). The data indicate that gas exchange in leaves of mature northern red oak respond rapidly to relief of drought with no indication of long-term photoinhibition. PMID:14972919

  11. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence in wheat plants supplied with silicon and infected with Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Perez, Carlos Eduardo Aucique; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; Moreira, Wiler Ribas; DaMatta, Fábio Murilo

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of silicon (Si) on the photosynthetic gas exchange parameters (net CO2 assimilation rate [A], stomatal conductance to water vapor [gs], internal CO2 concentration [Ci], and transpiration rate [E]) and chlorophyll fluorescence a parameters (maximum quantum quenching [Fv/Fm and Fv'/Fm'], photochemical [qP] and nonphotochemical [NPQ] quenching coefficients, and electron transport rate [ETR]) in wheat plants grown in a nutrient solution containing 0 mM (-Si) or 2 mM (+Si) Si and noninoculated or inoculated with Pyricularia oryzae. Blast severity decreased due to higher foliar Si concentration. For the inoculated +Si plants, A, gs, and E were significantly higher in contrast to the inoculated -Si plants. For the inoculated +Si plants, significant differences of Fv/Fm between the -Si and +Si plants occurred at 48, 96, and 120 h after inoculation (hai) and at 72, 96, and 120 hai for Fv'/Fm'. The Fv/Fm and Fv'/Fm', in addition to total chlorophyll concentration (a + b) and the chlorophyll a/b ratio, significantly decreased in the -Si plants compared with the +Si plants. Significant differences between the -Si and +Si inoculated plants occurred for qP, NPQ, and ETR. The supply of Si contributed to decrease blast severity in addition to improving gas exchange performance and causing less dysfunction at the photochemical level. PMID:24047250

  12. The North American Electric Grid as an Exchange Network: An Approach for Evaluating Energy Resource Composition and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kodra, Evan; Sheldon, Seth; Dolen, Ryan; Zik, Ory

    2015-11-17

    Using a complex network framework, the North American electric grid is modeled as a dynamic, equilibrium-based supply chain of more than 100 interconnected power control areas (PCAs) in the contiguous United States, Canada, and Northern Mexico. Monthly generation and yearly inter-PCA exchange data reported by PCAs are used to estimate a directed network topology. Variables including electricity, as well as primary fuels, technologies, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with power generation can be traced through the network, providing energy source composition statistics for power consumers at a given location. Results show opportunities for more precise measurement by consumers of emissions occurring on their behalf at power plants. Specifically, we show a larger range of possible factors (∼0 to 1.3 kgCO2/kWh) as compared to the range provided by the EPA's eGRID analysis (∼0.4 to 1 kgCO2/kWh). We also show that 66-73% of the variance in PCA-level estimated emissions savings is the result of PCA-to-PCA differences that are not captured by the larger eGRID subregions. The increased precision could bolster development of effective greenhouse gas reporting and mitigation policies. This study also highlights the need for improvements in the consistency and spatiotemporal resolution of PCA-level generation and exchange data reporting.

  13. Analysis of cutaneous and internal gill gas exchange morphology in early larval amphibians, Pseudophryne bibronii and Crinia georgiana.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Casey A; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-08-01

    This study uses stereological techniques to examine body, internal gill and cardiovascular morphology of two larval amphibians, Pseudophryne bibronii and Crinia georgiana, to evaluate the roles of diffusive and convective gas exchange. Gosner stage 27 specimens were prepared for light microscopy and six parallel sections of equal distance taken through the body as well as a further six through the heart and internal gills. Body, internal gill and heart volume as well as body and internal gill surface areas were determined. The harmonic mean distance across the internal gills was also measured and used to estimate oxygen diffusive conductance, DO₂. The species were of similar body size and surface area, but the heart and internal gills were larger in P. bibronii, which may represent precursors for greater growth of the species beyond stage 27. The much larger surface area of the skin compared to the internal gills in both species suggests it is the main site for gas exchange, with the gills supplementing oxygen uptake. The sparse cutaneous capillary network suggests diffusion is the main oxygen transport mechanism across the skin and directly into deeper tissues. A numerical model that simplifies larval shape, and has an internal (axial vessels) and external oxygen source, confirms that diffusion is able to maintain tissue oxygen with limited convective input.

  14. Does nitrogen gas bubbled through a low density polymer gel dosimeter solution affect the polymerization process?

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi; Keshtkar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: On account of the lower electron density in the lung tissue, the dose distribution in the lung cannot be verified with the existing polymer gel dosimeters. Thus, the aims of this study are to make a low density polymer gel dosimeter and investigate the effect of nitrogen gas bubbles on the R2 responses and its homogeneity. Materials and Methods: Two different types of low density polymer gel dosimeters were prepared according to a composition proposed by De Deene, with some modifications. In the first type, no nitrogen gas was perfused through the gel solution and water. In the second type, to expel the dissolved oxygen, nitrogen gas was perfused through the water and gel solution. The post-irradiation times in the gels were 24 and 5 hours, respectively, with and without perfusion of nitrogen gas through the water and gel solution. Results: In the first type of gel, there was a linear correlation between the doses and R2 responses from 0 to 12 Gy. The fabricated gel had a higher dynamic range than the other low density polymer gel dosimeter; but its background R2 response was higher. In the second type, no difference in R2 response was seen in the dose ranges from 0 to 18 Gy. Both gels had a mass density between 0.35 and 0.45 g.cm-3 and CT values of about -650 to -750 Hounsfield units. Conclusion: It appeared that reactions between gelatin-free radicals and monomers, due to an increase in the gel temperature during rotation in the household mixer, led to a higher R2-background response. In the second type of gel, it seemed that the collapse of the nitrogen bubbles was the main factor that affected the R2-responses. PMID:26015914

  15. Stomata size and spatial pattern effects on leaf gas exchange - a quantitative assessment of plant evolutionary choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, Dani; Assouline, Shmuel; Aminzadeh, Milad; Haghighi, Erfan; Schymanski, Stan; Lehmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Land plants developed a dynamically gas-permeable layer at their leaf surfaces to allow CO2 uptake for photosynthesis while controlling water vapor loss through numerous adjustable openings (stomata) in the impervious leaf epidermis. Details of stomata structure, density and function may vary greatly among different plant families and respond to local environmental conditions, yet they share basic traits in dynamically controlling gaseous exchange rates by varying stomata apertures. We implement a pore scale gas diffusion model to quantitatively interpret the functionality of different combinations of stomata size and pattern on leaf gas exchange and thermal management based on data from fossil records and contemporary data sets. Considering all available data we draw several general conclusions concerning stomata design considerations: (1) the sizes and densities of stomata in the available fossil record leaves were designed to evaporate at rates in the range 0.75≤e/e0 ≤0.99 (relative to free water evaporation); (2) examination of evaporation curves show that for a given stomata size, the density (jointly defining the leaf evaporating area when fully open) was chosen to enable a high sensitivity in reducing evaporation rate with incremental stomatal closure, nevertheless, results show the design includes safety margins to account for different wind conditions (boundary layer thickness); (3) scaled for mean vapor flux, the size of stomata plays a minor role in the uniformity of leaf thermal field for a given stomata density. These principles enable rationale assessment of plant response to raising CO2, and provide a physical framework for considering the consequences of different stomata patterns (patchy) on leaf gas exchange (and thermal regime). In contrast with present quantitative description of traits and functionality of these dynamic covers in terms of gaseous diffusion resistance (or conductance), where stomata size, density and spatial pattern are

  16. Soil-Gas Identification of Environmental Factors Affecting CO2 Concentrations Beneath a Playa Wetland: Implications for Soil-Gas Monitoring at Carbon Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanak, K.; Bennett, P.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for identifying and interpreting the effects of environmental factors on near-surface CO2 concentrations are essential to developing accurate monitoring protocols at carbon storage sites. Based on the results of a three-year study of a natural analogue we present, 1) a method for using soil-gas to identify near-surface CO2 cycling, and 2) a framework for developing monitoring protocols and site evaluation for near-surface monitoring. Near-surface CO2 production, consumption, and re-distribution was observed in the vadose-zone of a highly CO2-reactive playa wetland in the Texas High Plains. Atmospheric conditions, organic and inorganic soil carbon, subsurface pressure, water flux, and surface and groundwater chemistry were compared to real-time background measurements of CO2, CH4, O2+Ar, and N2 from depths up to 45 feet. Carbon isotopes and spatially and temporally variable concentrations of CO2 ≤ 17%, CH4 ≤ 2%, and O2 from 21-0% indicate CO2 and CH4 are produced by microbes. Molar gas ratios of O2 and CO2 distinguish between oxidation of organic matter (CH2O + O2 → CO2 + H2O), CH4 oxidation (CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O), and potentially acetate fermentation (CH3COOH → CH4 + CO2). O2 consumption and distribution is regulated by water flux that supplies dissolved organics to microbes at depth and regulates oxygen supply by blocking vertical permeability and atmospheric gas exchange. A surface flux experiment indicates that when playa floors are dry, subsurface wetting fronts from rain events or previous ponding periods block vertical permeability resulting in surface flux measurements that do not represent subsurface conditions. Samples with CO2+O2 < 21% and N2 > 78% identify dissolution of CO2 and carbonate minerals into recharging groundwater resulting in loss of pore pressure and chemically-induced advection of atmosphere into pores. Inverse geochemical reaction modeling (PHREEQC) of playa surface water and perched groundwater in high PCO2 zones

  17. Effects of experimentally-warmed tundra on diurnal gas exchange in Salix-, Carex, and Eriophorum in a high-arctic lowland oasis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.H.; MacDonald, S.E. ); Henry, G.H.R. )

    1994-06-01

    Gas exchange was measured for the willow Salix arctica and two sede species. Carex qauatilus stans and Eriophorum angustifolium triste, at Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island (78[degrees]52'N) in an experiment designed to stimulate climate change. The tundra was warmed using passive, open-topped experimental chambers that raised daily mean temperatures approx. 2[degrees] over two seasons. The chambers are part of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), the objective of which is to assess potential impacts of global warming on tundra plant communities. Salix arctica was measured in dry tundra and on adjacent wet meadow hummocks. The sedges were measured on hummocks and in hollows in the wet meadow only. Gas exchange was measured every four hours for 48 hours for each species. For S arctica, experimental warming had no effect in the dry tundra, but appeared to depress net assimilation (NA) in the wet meadow. Gas exchange parameters were slightly higher overall in the dry tundra for this species. For the sedges, the warming treatment had no major effect, although it caused some reduction of NA for Eriophorum on the hummocks. Gas exchange parameters were generally higher for Carex than for Eriophorum. No regular diurnal patterns of gas exchange were observed for any species.

  18. On the Limiting Markov Process of Energy Exchanges in a Rarely Interacting Ball-Piston Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bálint, Péter; Gilbert, Thomas; Nándori, Péter; Szász, Domokos; Tóth, Imre Péter

    2016-08-01

    We analyse the process of energy exchanges generated by the elastic collisions between a point-particle, confined to a two-dimensional cell with convex boundaries, and a `piston', i.e. a line-segment, which moves back and forth along a one-dimensional interval partially intersecting the cell. This model can be considered as the elementary building block of a spatially extended high-dimensional billiard modeling heat transport in a class of hybrid materials exhibiting the kinetics of gases and spatial structure of solids. Using heuristic arguments and numerical analysis, we argue that, in a regime of rare interactions, the billiard process converges to a Markov jump process for the energy exchanges and obtain the expression of its generator.

  19. Element exchange in a water-and gas-closed biological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of ``Bios-3'' life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human- metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide in a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80°C controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  20. Element exchange in a water-and gas-closed biological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gitelson, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of ``Bios-3'' life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human- metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide in a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80 degC controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  1. Two-phase gas-liquid flow characteristics inside a plate heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Nilpueng, Kitti; Wongwises, Somchai

    2010-11-15

    In the present study, the air-water two-phase flow characteristics including flow pattern and pressure drop inside a plate heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. A plate heat exchanger with single pass under the condition of counter flow is operated for the experiment. Three stainless steel commercial plates with a corrugated sinusoidal shape of unsymmetrical chevron angles of 55 and 10 are utilized for the pressure drop measurement. A transparent plate having the same configuration as the stainless steel plates is cast and used as a cover plate in order to observe the flow pattern inside the plate heat exchanger. The air-water mixture flow which is used as a cold stream is tested in vertical downward and upward flow. The results from the present experiment show that the annular-liquid bridge flow pattern appeared in both upward and downward flows. However, the bubbly flow pattern and the slug flow pattern are only found in upward flow and downward flow, respectively. The variation of the water and air velocity has a significant effect on the two-phase pressure drop. Based on the present data, a two-phase multiplier correlation is proposed for practical application. (author)

  2. Membrane Oxygenator Heat Exchanger Failure Detected by Unique Blood Gas Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Failure of components integrated into the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit, although rare, can bring about catastrophic results. One of these components is the heat exchanger of the membrane oxygenator. In this compartment, unsterile water from the heater cooler device is separated from the sterile blood by stainless steel, aluminum, or by polyurethane. These areas are glued or welded to keep the two compartments separate, maintaining sterility of the blood. Although quality control testing is performed by the manufacturer at the factory level, transport presents the real possibility for damage. Because of this, each manufacturer has included in the instructions for use a testing procedure for testing the integrity of the heat exchanger component. Water is circulated through the heat exchanger before priming and a visible check is made of the oxygenator bundle to check for leaks. If none are apparent, then priming of the oxygenator is performed. In this particular case, this procedure was not useful in detecting communication between the water and blood chambers of the oxygenator. PMID:24779125

  3. A symbiotic gas exchange between bioreactors enhances microalgal biomass and lipid productivities: taking advantage of complementary nutritional modes.

    PubMed

    Santos, C A; Ferreira, M E; da Silva, T Lopes; Gouveia, L; Novais, J M; Reis, A

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the association of two bioreactors: one photoautotrophic and the other heterotrophic, connected by the gas phase and allowing an exchange of O(2) and CO(2) gases between them, benefiting from a symbiotic effect. The association of two bioreactors was proposed with the aim of improving the microalgae oil productivity for biodiesel production. The outlet gas flow from the autotrophic (O(2) enriched) bioreactor was used as the inlet gas flow for the heterotrophic bioreactor. In parallel, the outlet gas flow from another heterotrophic (CO(2) enriched) bioreactor was used as the inlet gas flow for the autotrophic bioreactor. Aside from using the air supplied from the auto- and hetero-trophic bioreactors as controls, one mixotrophic bioreactor was also studied and used as a model, for its claimed advantage of CO(2) and organic carbon being simultaneously assimilated. The microalga Chlorella protothecoides was chosen as a model due to its ability to grow under different nutritional modes (auto, hetero, and mixotrophic), and its ability to attain a high biomass productivity and lipid content, suitable for biodiesel production. The comparison between heterotrophic, autotrophic, and mixotrophic Chlorella protothecoides growth for lipid production revealed that heterotrophic growth achieved the highest biomass productivity and lipid content (>22%), and furthermore showed that these lipids had the most suitable fatty acid profile in order to produce high quality biodiesel. Both associations showed a higher biomass productivity (10-20%), when comparing the two separately operated bioreactors (controls) which occurred on the fourth day. A more remarkable result would have been seen if in actuality the two bioreactors had been inter-connected in a closed loop. The biomass productivity gain would have been 30% and the lipid productivity gain would have been 100%, as seen by comparing the productivities of the symbiotic assemblage with the sum of the two

  4. High Resolution CH4 Emissions and Dissolved CH4 Measurements Elucidate Surface Gas Exchange Processes in Toolik Lake, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sontro, T.; Sollberger, S.; Kling, G. W.; Shaver, G. R.; Eugster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 14% of the Alaskan North Slope is covered in lakes of various sizes and depths. Diffusive carbon emissions (CH4 and CO2) from these lakes offset the tundra sink by ~20 %, but the offset would substantially increase if ebullitive CH4 emissions were also considered. Ultimately, arctic lake CH4 emissions are not insignificant in the global CH4 budget and their contribution is bound to increase due to impacts from climate change. Here we present high resolution CH4 emission data as measured via eddy covariance and a Los Gatos gas analyzer during the ice free period from Toolik Lake, a deep (20 m) Arctic lake located on the Alaskan North Slope, over the last few summers. Emissions are relatively low (< 25 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) with little variation over the summer. Diurnal variations regularly occur, however, with up to 3 times higher fluxes at night. Gas exchange is a relatively difficult process to estimate, but is normally done so as the product of the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface and the gas transfer velocity, k. Typically, k is determined based on the turbulence on the water side of the interface, which is most commonly approximated by wind speed; however, it has become increasingly apparent that this assumption does not remain valid across all water bodies. Dissolved CH4 profiles in Toolik revealed a subsurface peak in CH4 at the thermocline of up to 3 times as much CH4 as in the surface water. We hypothesize that convective mixing at night due to cooling surface waters brings the subsurface CH4 to the surface and causes the higher night fluxes. In addition to high resolution flux emission estimates, we also acquired high resolution data for dissolved CH4 in surface waters of Toolik Lake during the last two summers using a CH4 equilibrator system connected to a Los Gatos gas analyzer. Thus, having both the flux and the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface measured directly, we can calculate k and investigate the processes influencing

  5. Local area water removal analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under gas purge conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold.

  6. Single Channel Testing for Characterization of the Direct Gas Cooled Reactor and the SAFE-100 Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, S.M.; Kapernick, R.; Godfroy, T.J.

    2004-02-04

    Experiments have been designed to characterize the coolant gas flow in two space reactor concepts that are currently under investigation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory: the direct-drive gas-cooled reactor (DDG) and the SAFE-100 heatpipe-cooled reactor (HPR). For the DDG concept, initial tests have been completed to measure pressure drop versus flow rate for a prototypic core flow channel, with gas exiting to atmospheric pressure conditions. The experimental results of the completed DDG tests presented in this paper validate the predicted results to within a reasonable margin of error. These tests have resulted in a re-design of the flow annulus to reduce the pressure drop. Subsequent tests will be conducted with the re-designed flow channel and with the outlet pressure held at 150 psi (1 MPa). Design of a similar test for a nominal flow channel in the HPR heat exchanger (HPR-HX) has been completed and hardware is currently being assembled for testing this channel at 150 psi. When completed, these test programs will provide the data necessary to validate calculated flow performance for these reactor concepts (pressure drop and film temperature rise)

  7. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals. PMID:26196214

  8. Eddy covariance captures four-phase crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) gas exchange signature in Agave.

    PubMed

    Owen, Nick A; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; Del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Mass and energy fluxes were measured over a field of Agave tequilana in Mexico using eddy covariance (EC) methodology. Data were gathered over 252 d, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Net ecosystem exchanges (FN,EC ) displayed a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) rhythm that alternated from CO2 sink at night to CO2 source during the day, and partitioned canopy fluxes (FA,EC ) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Projected carbon balance (g C m(-2)  year(-1) , mean ± 95% confidence interval) indicated the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24, of which contributions from soil respiration were +692 ± 7, and FA,EC was -1025 ± 25. EC estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg (dry) ha(-1)  year(-1) . Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2  m(-2)  d(-1) and persisted almost unchanged after 70 d of drought conditions. Regression analyses were performed on the EC data to identify the best environmental predictors of FA . Results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of Agave offers productivity and drought resilience advantages over conventional semi-arid C3 and C4 bioenergy candidates. PMID:26177873

  9. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  10. Eddy covariance captures four-phase crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) gas exchange signature in Agave.

    PubMed

    Owen, Nick A; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; Del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Mass and energy fluxes were measured over a field of Agave tequilana in Mexico using eddy covariance (EC) methodology. Data were gathered over 252 d, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Net ecosystem exchanges (FN,EC ) displayed a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) rhythm that alternated from CO2 sink at night to CO2 source during the day, and partitioned canopy fluxes (FA,EC ) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Projected carbon balance (g C m(-2)  year(-1) , mean ± 95% confidence interval) indicated the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24, of which contributions from soil respiration were +692 ± 7, and FA,EC was -1025 ± 25. EC estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg (dry) ha(-1)  year(-1) . Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2  m(-2)  d(-1) and persisted almost unchanged after 70 d of drought conditions. Regression analyses were performed on the EC data to identify the best environmental predictors of FA . Results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of Agave offers productivity and drought resilience advantages over conventional semi-arid C3 and C4 bioenergy candidates.

  11. Bronchoscopic administration of bovine natural surfactant in ARDS and septic shock: impact on gas exchange and haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Walmrath, D; Grimminger, F; Pappert, D; Knothe, C; Obertacke, U; Benzing, A; Günther, A; Schmehl, T; Leuchte, H; Seeger, W

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of bronchoscopic surfactant administration in a noncontrolled multicentre study in five university centres. A total number of 27 patients, suffering from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (mean+/-SEM lung injury score: 3.15+/-0.06) and septic shock (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score at study entry 33.2+/-1.3, lactate 4.3+/-0.6 mmol x L(-1)) were studied. The patients were ventilated with a mean tidal volume of 11.0+/-0.5 mL x kg(-1) body weight (bw), either volume or pressure controlled, with 16.3+/-2.8 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure, for an average of 3.5+/-0.3 days at study entry. A natural bovine surfactant extract (300 mg x kg(-1) bw Alveofact; mean total volume 378 mL) was delivered in divided doses to each segment of the lungs via flexible bronchoscope within approximately 45 min. No untoward effects on gas exchange, lung mechanics and haemodynamics were noted during the procedure of surfactant administration. Within 12 h the oxygen tension in arterial blood/inspiratory oxygen fraction increased from a mean of 109+/-8 mmHg to 210+/-20 mmHg (p<0.001). In seven patients, in whom gas exchange again deteriorated with further progression of the disease, a second surfactant dose of 200 mg x kg(-1) was administered 18-24 h after the first application, again improving arterial oxygenation. A total of 15 patients survived the 28-day study period (mortality rate 44.4%, compared to a calculated risk of death for the given APACHE II scores of 74.0+/-3.5%), with all causes of death being nonrespiratory. The bronchoscopic application of a high dose of natural surfactant in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock is both feasible and safe, resulting in a pronounced improvement in gas exchange.

  12. Effects of nitrogen quenching gas on spin-exchange optical pumping of {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Lancor, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2010-10-15

    We consider the degree of conservation of nuclear spin polarization in the process of optical pumping under typical spin-exchange optical pumping conditions. Previous analyses have assumed that negligible nuclear spin precession occurs during the brief periods of time in which the alkali-metal atoms are in the excited state after absorbing photons and before undergoing quenching collisions with nitrogen molecules. We include excited-state hyperfine interactions, electronic spin relaxation in collisions with He and N{sub 2}, spontaneous emission, quenching collisions, and a simplified treatment of radiation trapping.

  13. Emission-dominated gas exchange of elemental mercury vapor over natural surfaces in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Yuan, Wei; Sommar, Jonas; Zhu, Wei; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission from natural surfaces plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global natural emission has large uncertainty and remains unverified against field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed for estimating the emission of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) from natural surfaces in China. The development implements recent advancements in the understanding of air-soil and air-foliage exchange of Hg0 and redox chemistry in soil and on surfaces, incorporates the effects of soil characteristics and land use changes by agricultural activities, and is examined through a systematic set of sensitivity simulations. Using the model, the net exchange of Hg0 between the atmosphere and natural surfaces of mainland China is estimated to be 465.1 Mg yr-1, including 565.5 Mg yr-1 from soil surfaces, 9.0 Mg yr-1 from water bodies, and -100.4 Mg yr-1 from vegetation. The air-surface exchange is strongly dependent on the land use and meteorology, with 9 % of net emission from forest ecosystems; 50 % from shrubland, savanna, and grassland; 33 % from cropland; and 8 % from other land uses. Given the large agricultural land area in China, farming activities play an important role on the air-surface exchange over farmland. Particularly, rice field shift from a net sink (3.3 Mg uptake) during April-October (rice planting) to a net source when the farmland is not flooded (November-March). Summing up the emission from each land use, more than half of the total emission occurs in summer (51 %), followed by spring (28 %), autumn (13 %), and winter (8 %). Model verification is accomplished using observational data of air-soil/air-water fluxes and Hg deposition through litterfall for forest ecosystems in China and Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast to the earlier estimate by Shetty et al. (2008) that reported large emission from vegetative surfaces using an evapotranspiration approach, the estimate in

  14. Measurements of Physical and Gas Exchanges between the Atmosphere and Surface at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttal, T.; Grachev, A. A.; Makshtas, A. P.; Repina, I.; Persson, O. P.; Laurila, T. J.; Crepinsek, S.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years a number of Arctic stations have installed micro-meteorological towers in recognition of the need to explicitly quantify the detailed exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere. One of the newer installations is a 20 meter tower in Tiksi, Russia that is located at 71.58N, 128.92E in the Russian Far East. The Tiksi tower is equipped with temperature, humidity and wind sensors at several levels (allowing the calculation of turbulent heat fluxes and fine scale characterization of the near-surface boundary layer) and H2O/CO2 sensors, It is located in near proximity to measurements of incoming and outgoing solar radiation (allowing energy balance calculations), and CH4 sensors, surface O3 measurements (allowing detection of ozone depletion events), and ancillary measurements of snow depth and permafrost active layer temperature profiles. An integrated analysis will look at the variability of these physical and chemical exchanges and variations over one annual cycle with an emphasis on detecting connections and linkages. This network of measurements supports the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (www.iasoa.org) and Global Cryosphere Watch (http://globalcryospherewatch.org/)

  15. Finite element modeling of 129Xe diffusive gas exchange NMR in the human alveoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Neil J.; Parra-Robles, Juan; Wild, Jim M.

    2016-10-01

    Existing models of 129Xe diffusive exchange for lung microstructural modeling with time-resolved MR spectroscopy data have considered analytical solutions to one-dimensional, homogeneous models of the lungs with specific assumptions about the alveolar geometry. In order to establish a model system for simulating the effects of physiologically-realistic changes in physical and microstructural parameters on 129Xe exchange NMR, we have developed a 3D alveolar capillary model for finite element analysis. To account for the heterogeneity of the alveolar geometry across the lungs, we have derived realistic geometries for finite element analysis based on 2D histological samples and 3D micro-CT image volumes obtained from ex vivo biopsies of lung tissue from normal subjects and patients with interstitial lung disease. The 3D alveolar capillary model permits investigation of the impact of alveolar geometrical parameters and diffusion and perfusion coefficients on the in vivo measured 129Xe CSSR signal response. The heterogeneity of alveolar microstructure that is accounted for in image-based models resulted in considerable alterations to the shape of the 129Xe diffusive uptake curve when compared to 1D models. Our findings have important implications for the future design and optimization of 129Xe MR experiments and in the interpretation of lung microstructural changes from this data.

  16. Finite element modeling of (129)Xe diffusive gas exchange NMR in the human alveoli.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Neil J; Parra-Robles, Juan; Wild, Jim M

    2016-10-01

    Existing models of (129)Xe diffusive exchange for lung microstructural modeling with time-resolved MR spectroscopy data have considered analytical solutions to one-dimensional, homogeneous models of the lungs with specific assumptions about the alveolar geometry. In order to establish a model system for simulating the effects of physiologically-realistic changes in physical and microstructural parameters on (129)Xe exchange NMR, we have developed a 3D alveolar capillary model for finite element analysis. To account for the heterogeneity of the alveolar geometry across the lungs, we have derived realistic geometries for finite element analysis based on 2D histological samples and 3D micro-CT image volumes obtained from ex vivo biopsies of lung tissue from normal subjects and patients with interstitial lung disease. The 3D alveolar capillary model permits investigation of the impact of alveolar geometrical parameters and diffusion and perfusion coefficients on the in vivo measured (129)Xe CSSR signal response. The heterogeneity of alveolar microstructure that is accounted for in image-based models resulted in considerable alterations to the shape of the (129)Xe diffusive uptake curve when compared to 1D models. Our findings have important implications for the future design and optimization of (129)Xe MR experiments and in the interpretation of lung microstructural changes from this data.

  17. Finite element modeling of (129)Xe diffusive gas exchange NMR in the human alveoli.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Neil J; Parra-Robles, Juan; Wild, Jim M

    2016-10-01

    Existing models of (129)Xe diffusive exchange for lung microstructural modeling with time-resolved MR spectroscopy data have considered analytical solutions to one-dimensional, homogeneous models of the lungs with specific assumptions about the alveolar geometry. In order to establish a model system for simulating the effects of physiologically-realistic changes in physical and microstructural parameters on (129)Xe exchange NMR, we have developed a 3D alveolar capillary model for finite element analysis. To account for the heterogeneity of the alveolar geometry across the lungs, we have derived realistic geometries for finite element analysis based on 2D histological samples and 3D micro-CT image volumes obtained from ex vivo biopsies of lung tissue from normal subjects and patients with interstitial lung disease. The 3D alveolar capillary model permits investigation of the impact of alveolar geometrical parameters and diffusion and perfusion coefficients on the in vivo measured (129)Xe CSSR signal response. The heterogeneity of alveolar microstructure that is accounted for in image-based models resulted in considerable alterations to the shape of the (129)Xe diffusive uptake curve when compared to 1D models. Our findings have important implications for the future design and optimization of (129)Xe MR experiments and in the interpretation of lung microstructural changes from this data. PMID:27526397

  18. Effect of drought stress on gas exchange in channel millet (Echinochloa turneriana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum)

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.G.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas