Science.gov

Sample records for affecting groundwater flow

  1. Two-dimensional DNAPL migration affected by groundwater flow in unconfined aquifer.

    PubMed

    Kamon, Masashi; Endo, Kazuto; Kawabata, Junichi; Inui, Toru; Katsumi, Takeshi

    2004-07-05

    The dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) migration process was experimentally investigated in a laboratory-scale tank (150 cm width, 82.5 cm height, and 15 cm depth) to assess a site characterization on DNAPL contamination below a groundwater table. The heterogeneous ground of the tank model consisted of Toyoura sand (hydraulic conductivity, k = 1.5 x 10(-2) cm/s for void ratio, e = 0.62) and silica #7 sand (k = 2.3 x 10(-3) cm/s for e = 0.72). A series of experiments was carried out with or without lateral groundwater flow. Hydrofluoroether was used as a representative DNAPL. The main results obtained in this study are as follows: (1) the DNAPL plume does not invade into the less permeable soil layer with higher displacement pressure head; (2) the DNAPL plume migrates faster with lateral groundwater flow than without it; (3) lateral groundwater flow does not affect lateral DNAPL migration; rather, it promotes downward migration; and (4) pore DNAPL pressure without groundwater flow is higher than that with it. The above experimental results were compared with numerical analysis. The fundamental behaviors of DNAPL source migration observed experimentally are expected to be useful for assessing the characteristics of two-dimensional DNAPL migration in an aquifer.

  2. Analysing Thermal Response Test Data Affected by Groundwater Flow and Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Imitazione, Gianmario; Chiozzi, Paolo; Orsi, Marco; Armadillo, Egidio

    2014-05-01

    Tests that record the underground temperature variation due to a constant heat injected into a borehole (or extracted from it) by means of a carrier fluid are routinely performed to infer subsurface thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance, which are needed to size geothermal heat pump systems. The most popular model to analyse temperature-time curves obtained from these tests is the infinite line source (ILS). This model gives appropriate estimations of thermal parameters only if particular hydro-geological conditions are fulfilled. Several flaws can however affect data interpretation with ILS, which is based on strong assumptions like those of a purely conductive heat transfer regime in a homogeneous medium, no vertical heat flow and infinite length of the borehole. Other drawbacks can arise from the difficulty in the proper thermal insulation of the test equipment, and consequently with oscillations of the carrier fluid temperature due to surface temperature changes. In this paper, we focused on the treatment of thermal response test data when both advection and periodic changes of surface temperature occur. We used a moving line source model to simulate temperature-time signals under different hypothesis of Darcy velocity and thermal properties. A random noise was added to the signal in order to mimic high frequency disturbances, possibly caused by equipment operating conditions and/or geological variability. The subsurface thermal conductivity, the Darcy velocity and the borehole thermal resistance were inferred by minimising the root mean square error between the synthetic dataset and the theoretical model. The optimisation was carried out with the Nelder-Mead algorithm, and thermal and hydraulic properties were determined by iterative reprocessing according to a trial-and-error procedure. The inferred thermal and hydraulic parameters are well consistent with the 'a priory' values, and the presence of noise in the synthetic data does not produce

  3. Hydraulic and mechanical properties affecting ground-water flow and aquifer-system compaction, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes hydraulic and mechanical properties affecting ground-water flow and aquifer-system compaction in the San Joaquin Valley, a broad alluviated intermontane structural trough that constitutes the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California. These values will be used to constrain a coupled ground-water flow and aquifer-system compaction model of the western San Joaquin Valley called WESTSIM. A main objective of the WESTSIM model is to evaluate potential future land subsidence that might occur under conditions in which deliveries of imported surface water for agricultural use are reduced and ground-water pumping is increased. Storage values generally are components of the total aquifer-system storage and include inelastic and elastic skeletal storage values of the aquifers and the aquitards that primarily govern the potential amount of land subsidence. Vertical hydraulic conductivity values generally are for discrete thicknesses of sediments, usually aquitards, that primarily govern the rate of land subsidence. The data were compiled from published sources and include results of aquifer tests, stress-strain analyses of borehole extensometer observations, laboratory consolidation tests, and calibrated models of aquifer-system compaction.

  4. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  5. Evolution of Unsteady Groundwater Flow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xing; Jin, Menggui; Niu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Natural groundwater flow is usually transient, especially in long time scale. A theoretical approach on unsteady groundwater flow systems was adopted to highlight some of the knowledge gaps in the evolution of groundwater flow systems. The specific consideration was focused on evolution of groundwater flow systems from unsteady to steady under natural and mining conditions. Two analytical solutions were developed, using segregation variable method to calculate the hydraulic head under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The impact of anisotropy ratio, hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific yield (μs) on the flow patterns were analyzed. The results showed that the area of the equal velocity region increased and the penetrating depth of the flow system decreased while the anisotropy ratio (ɛ = °Kx-/Kz--) increased. Stagnant zones were found in the flow field where the directions of streamlines were opposite. These stagnant zones moved up when the horizontal hydraulic conductivity increased. The results of the study on transient flow indicated a positive impact on hydraulic head with an increase of hydraulic conductivity, while a negative effect on hydraulic head was observed when the specific yield was enhanced. An unsteady numerical model of groundwater flow systems with annual periodic recharge was developed using MODFLOW. It was observed that the transient groundwater flow patterns were different from that developed in the steady flow under the same recharge intensity. The water table fluctuated when the recharge intensity altered. The monitoring of hydraulic head and concentration migration revealed that the unsteady recharge affected the shallow local flow system more than the deep regional flow system. The groundwater flow systems fluctuated with the action of one or more pumping wells. The comparison of steady and unsteady groundwater flow observation indicated that the unsteady flow patterns cannot be simulated by the steady model when the condition

  6. Modeling groundwater flow and quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Selinus, Olle

    2013-01-01

    In most areas, rocks in the subsurface are saturated with water at relatively shallow depths. The top of the saturated zone—the water table—typically occurs anywhere from just below land surface to hundreds of feet below the land surface. Groundwater generally fills all pore spaces below the water table and is part of a continuous dynamic flow system, in which the fluid is moving at velocities ranging from feet per millennia to feet per day (Fig. 33.1). While the water is in close contact with the surfaces of various minerals in the rock material, geochemical interactions between the water and the rock can affect the chemical quality of the water, including pH, dissolved solids composition, and trace-elements content. Thus, flowing groundwater is a major mechanism for the transport of chemicals from buried rocks to the accessible environment, as well as a major pathway from rocks to human exposure and consumption. Because the mineral composition of rocks is highly variable, as is the solubility of various minerals, the human-health effects of groundwater consumption will be highly variable.

  7. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

  8. Influence of perched groundwater on base flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niswonger, R.G.; Fogg, G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis with a three-dimensional variably saturated groundwater flow model provides a basic understanding of the interplay between streams and perched groundwater. A simplified, layered model of heterogeneity was used to explore these relationships. Base flow contribution from perched groundwater was evaluated with regard to varying hydrogeologic conditions, including the size and location of the fine-sediment unit and the hydraulic conductivity of the fine-sediment unit and surrounding coarser sediment. Simulated base flow was sustained by perched groundwater with a maximum monthly discharge in excess of 15 L/s (0.6 feet3/s) over the length of the 2000-m stream reach. Generally, the rate of perched-groundwater discharge to the stream was proportional to the hydraulic conductivity of sediment surrounding the stream, whereas the duration of discharge was proportional to the hydraulic conductivity of the fine-sediment unit. Other aspects of the perched aquifer affected base flow, such as the depth of stream penetration and the size of the fine-sediment unit. Greater stream penetration decreased the maximum base flow contribution but increased the duration of contribution. Perched groundwater provided water for riparian vegetation at the demand rate but reduced the duration of perched-groundwater discharge nearly 75%. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Ballard, Sanford

    1994-01-01

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow.

  10. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOEpatents

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  11. Modeling groundwater flow on MPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1993-10-01

    The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media is examined. To enable detailed modeling of large contaminated sites, preconditioned iterative methods and massively parallel computing power are combined in a simulator called PARFLOW. After describing this portable and modular code, some numerical results are given, including one that demonstrates the code`s scalability.

  12. Groundwater flow and transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; Mercer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Deterministic, distributed-parameter, numerical simulation models for analyzing groundwater flow and transport problems have come to be used almost routinely during the past decade. A review of the theoretical basis and practical use of groundwater flow and solute transport models is used to illustrate the state-of-the-art. Because of errors and uncertainty in defining model parameters, models must be calibrated to obtain a best estimate of the parameters. For flow modeling, data generally are sufficient to allow calibration. For solute-transport modeling, lack of data not only limits calibration, but also causes uncertainty in process description. Where data are available, model reliability should be assessed on the basis of sensitivity tests and measures of goodness-of-fit. Some of these concepts are demonstrated by using two case histories. ?? 1988.

  13. Multiphase groundwater flow near cooling plutons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayba, D.O.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate groundwater flow near cooling plutons with a computer program that can model multiphase flow, temperatures up to 1200??C, thermal pressurization, and temperature-dependent rock properties. A series of experiments examines the effects of host-rock permeability, size and depth of pluton emplacement, single versus multiple intrusions, the influence of a caprock, and the impact of topographically driven groundwater flow. We also reproduce and evaluate some of the pioneering numerical experiments on flow around plutons. Host-rock permeability is the principal factor influencing fluid circulation and heat transfer in hydrothermal systems. The hottest and most steam-rich systems develop where permeability is of the order of 10-15 m2. Temperatures and life spans of systems decrease with increasing permeability. Conduction-dominated systems, in which permeabilities are ???10-16m2, persist longer but exhibit relatively modest increases in near-surface temperatures relative to ambient conditions. Pluton size, emplacement depth, and initial thermal conditions have less influence on hydrothermal circulation patterns but affect the extent of boiling and duration of hydrothermal systems. Topographically driven groundwater flow can significantly alter hydrothermal circulation; however, a low-permeability caprock effectively decouples the topographically and density-driven systems and stabilizes the mixing interface between them thereby defining a likely ore-forming environment.

  14. East Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for East Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  15. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  16. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  17. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the groundwater flow system and previous less extensive groundwater flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect groundwater flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the groundwater flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural groundwater discharge occurring through evapotranspiration (ET) and spring flow; the history of groundwater pumping from 1913 through 1998; groundwater recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were provided

  18. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  19. Permafrost thaw in a nested groundwater-flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Jeffery M.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater flow in cold regions containing permafrost accelerates climate-warming-driven thaw and changes thaw patterns. Simulation analyses of groundwater flow and heat transport with freeze/thaw in typical cold-regions terrain with nested flow indicate that early thaw rate is particularly enhanced by flow, the time when adverse environmental impacts of climate-warming-induced permafrost loss may be severest. For the slowest climate-warming rate predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), once significant groundwater flow begins, thick permafrost layers can vanish in several hundred years, but survive over 1,000 years where flow is minimal. Large-scale thaw depends mostly on the balance of heat advection and conduction in the supra-permafrost zone. Surface-water bodies underlain by open taliks allow slow sub-permafrost flow, with lesser influence on regional thaw. Advection dominance over conduction depends on permeability and topography. Groundwater flow around permafrost and flow through permafrost impact thaw differently; the latter enhances early thaw rate. Air-temperature seasonality also increases early thaw. Hydrogeologic heterogeneity and topography strongly affect thaw rates/patterns. Permafrost controls the groundwater/surface-water-geomorphology system; hence, prediction and mitigation of impacts of thaw on ecology, chemical exports and infrastructure require improved hydrogeology/permafrost characterization and understanding

  20. Groundwater Flow in Low-Permeability Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuzil, C. E.

    1986-08-01

    Certain geologic media are known to have small permeability; subsurface environments composed of these media and lacking well developed secondary permeability have groundwater flow sytems with many distinctive characteristics. Moreover, groundwater flow in these environments appears to influence the evolution of certain hydrologic, geologic, and geochemical systems, may affect the accumulation of pertroleum and ores, and probably has a role in the structural evolution of parts of the crust. Such environments are also important in the context of waste disposal. This review attempts to synthesize the diverse contributions of various disciplines to the problem of flow in low-permeability environments. Problems hindering analysis are enumerated together with suggested approaches to overcoming them. A common thread running through the discussion is the significance of size- and time-scale limitations of the ability to directly observe flow behavior and make measurements of parameters. These limitations have resulted in rather distinct small- and large-scale approaches to the problem. The first part of the review considers experimental investigations of low-permeability flow, including in situ testing; these are generally conducted on temporal and spatial scales which are relatively small compared with those of interest. Results from this work have provided increasingly detailed information about many aspects of the flow but leave certain questions unanswered. Recent advances in laboratory and in situ testing techniques have permitted measurements of permeability and storage properties in progressively "tighter" media and investigation of transient flow under these conditions. However, very large hydraulic gradients are still required for the tests; an observational gap exists for typical in situ gradients. The applicability of Darcy's law in this range is therefore untested, although claims of observed non-Darcian behavior appear flawed. Two important nonhydraulic flow

  1. Storm-driven groundwater flow in a salt marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alicia M.; Moore, Willard S.; Joye, Samantha B.; Anderson, Joseph L.; Schutte, Charles A.

    2011-02-01

    Storms can cause significant groundwater flow in coastal settings, but prior studies of the effects of storms on groundwater flow and transport have largely focused on very large storms and used salinity as a tracer. We have little information about the effects of smaller storms on coastal flow and how storm-induced variability affects key tidal wetlands like salt marshes, which may remain saline throughout a storm. Here we show that even the distant passage of a moderate storm can strongly increase groundwater flow and transport in salt marsh ecosystems and adjacent barrier islands. Groundwater monitoring and radium isotope tracer analyses revealed significant influx of saline creek water into the confined aquifer below the marsh platform, driven by storm surge. This pulse of fluids reached depths exceeding 5 m, and surge-enhanced tides propagated through the aquifer to affect flow in the upland >100 m from the creek bank. Groundwater discharge from the marsh varied significantly prior to the storm, doubling during inundating tides compared to a period of noninundating neap tides. Storm surge then caused groundwater discharge to decline ˜50% compared to similar inundating tides. Ra- and nutrient-poor creek water that entered the confined aquifer below the marsh was quickly enriched in nutrients and carbon, even on 12 h tidal cycles, so that nutrient discharge was likely proportional to groundwater discharge. Storm-related flow could also drive significant contaminant discharge from developed coastlines. The enhanced transport and variability observed here likely affected hundreds of kilometers of the coastline impacted by the storm.

  2. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  3. Processes Controlling Temporal Changes in Agriculturally-Affected Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burow, K. R.; Belitz, K.; Jurgens, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    The National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey includes assessment of groundwater-quality changes with time. To better understand changes at a national scale, NAWQA has implemented smaller scale flow-path studies to evaluate the processes affecting these changes. Flow path studies are designed to sample groundwater of different ages. Wells are sampled for a suite of constituents, including tracers of groundwater age. In the 1990s, a 4.6 km transect of monitoring wells was installed near Fresno in the southern Central Valley of California. The region is dominated by intensive agriculture. The wells were sampled in 1994-95, 2003, and 2013 to provide data on changes in water quality and groundwater age. In 2013, the flow path was extended to a regional scale (30 km) by using existing production wells. Preliminary interpretation of the local-scale flow path indicates that nitrate concentrations in the upper 25 m of the aquifer are higher than the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water and variably increase or decrease with time. At intermediate depths (25-40 m), nitrate concentrations are lower and show small to moderate increases. The legacy pesticide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) is degrading at a half-life of about 4-6 years. DBCP is present above the MCL at intermediate depths even though it is has been banned from use for more than 30 years. Both nitrate and DBCP appear to be moving vertically downward through the aquifer. Whereas uranium concentrations are generally below the MCL in the local-scale flow path, concentrations increase along the regional transect, with concentrations nearly an order of magnitude above the MCL in some wells. Further evaluation of processes affecting these constituents (such as source, redox, and mobilization factors) will provide important insight that can be applied to other regions and will assist local water managers.

  4. Glaciation and regional groundwater flow in the Fennoscandian shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, A.M.; Voss, C.I.; Neuzil, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Regional-scale groundwater flow modeling of the Fennoscandian shield suggests that groundwater flow can be strongly affected by future climate change and glaciation. We considered variable-density groundwater flow in a 1500-km-long and approximately 10-km-deep cross-section through southern Sweden. Groundwater flow and shield brine transport in the cross-sectional model were analyzed under projected surface conditions for the next 140 ka. Simulations suggest that blockage of recharge and discharge by low-permeability permafrost or cold-based ice causes sinking of brine and consequent freshening of near-surface water in areas of natural discharge. Although recharge of basal meltwater is limited by the requirement that water pressure at the base of the ice sheet not exceed the pressure exerted by the weight of the ice, warm-based ice with basal melting creates a potential for groundwater recharge rates much larger than those of present, ice-free conditions. In the simulations, regional-scale redistribution of recharged water by subsurface flow is minor over the duration of a glacial advance (approximately 10 ka). During glacial retreat, significant upward flow of groundwater may occur below the ice sheet owing to pressure release. If the mechanical loading efficiency of the rocks is high, both subsurface penetration of meltwater during glacial advance and up-flow during glacial retreat are reduced because of loading-induced pressure changes. The maximum rate of groundwater discharge in the simulations occurs at the receding ice margin, and some discharge occurs below incursive postglacial seas. Recharge of basal meltwater could decrease the concentration of dissolved solids significantly below present-day levels at depths of up to several kilometers and may bring oxygenated conditions to an otherwise reducing chemical environment for periods exceeding 10 ka.

  5. New Insights into the Influence of Structural Controls Affecting Groundwater Flow and Storage Within an Ocean Island Volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Haskins, E.; Wallin, E.; Pierce, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project was undertaken on the Island of Hawaii in an effort to characterize the hydrologic structures controlling groundwater movement and storage within Saddle region between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes. In 2013, the project drilled a 1764 m, continuously-cored, borehole from an elevation of 1946 m amsl near the center of the Saddle, and has now completed a second borehole at an elevation of 1645 m on the western edge of the Saddle. Although the stratigraphy of the rocks is similar, dominantly pahoehoe lava flows with somewhat fewer a'a lavas and occasional dike rock intervals, the hydrologic character of the formation in the latter is distinctly different from the former. Whereas the former test hole encountered a few high elevation perched aquifers that were underlain by an inferred regional, dike-impounded, water table at an elevation of 1390 m amsl, the latter bore encountered a sequence of confined aquifers with heads substantially higher than depth of entry. The shallowest of the confined aquifers was encountered at an elevation of 1340 m and showed a hydrostatic head of >160 m when the capping formation was breached. Deeper confined aquifers showed initial heads of > 400 m although none had heads sufficient to discharge at the surface. Most of the confined aquifers were associated with clay-rich ash beds that mantled the more permeable lavas however one of the deeper confined zones, that showed the highest head, was associated with a highly compacted breccia zone that has tentatively been ascribed to an explosive deposit. Chemical analysis of the clasts within this layer is underway to determine whether this deposit is associated with explosive activity of Mauna Kea or with another volcano on the island. Previous geophysical surveys have suggested that these confined aquifers may extend well down the leeward slopes of Mauna Kea. Evidence of multiple confining layers within the flanks of Mauna Kea suggest that its

  6. Considering Barometric Pressure in Groundwater Flow Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A. )

    2002-06-18

    Well water-level elevation measurements are commonly used as the basis to delineate groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernable impact on well water-levels. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. For low-gradient, unconfined aquifer sites exhibiting variable vadose zone characteristics (e.g., thickness, pneumatic diffusivity), barometric pressure fluctuations can also cause actual, temporal changes in lateral flow direction and flow velocity. Discrete water-level measurements used to determine the average or long-term groundwater-flow conditions, therefore, may provide non-representative results. Calculation of the barometric response characteristics for individual wells provides the basis to account for the temporal effects of barometric pressure fluctuations from monitor well measurements, so that average, long-term groundwater-flow pattern behavior can be determined.

  7. Regression modeling of ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)

  8. 3PE: A Tool for Estimating Groundwater Flow Vectors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of hydraulic gradients and the associated groundwater flow rates and directions is a fundamental aspect of hydrogeologic characterization. Many methods, ranging in complexity from simple three-point solution techniques to complex numerical models of groundwater flow, ...

  9. Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFleur, Robert G.

    The many roles that groundwater plays in landscape evolution are becoming more widely appreciated. In this overview, three major categories of groundwater processes and resulting landforms are considered: (1) Dissolution creates various karst geometries, mainly in carbonate rocks, in response to conditions of recharge, geologic setting, lithology, and groundwater circulation. Denudation and cave formation rates can be estimated from kinetic and hydraulic parameters. (2) Groundwater weathering generates regoliths of residual alteration products at weathering fronts, and subsequent exhumation exposes corestones, flared slopes, balanced rocks, domed inselbergs, and etchplains of regional importance. Groundwater relocation of dissolved salts creates duricrusts of various compositions, which become landforms. (3) Soil and rock erosion by groundwater processes include piping, seepage erosion, and sapping, important agents in slope retreat and headward gully migration. Thresholds and limits are important in many chemical and mechanical groundwater actions. A quantitative, morphometric approach to groundwater landforms and processes is exemplified by selected studies in carbonate and clastic terrains of ancient and recent origins. Résumé Les rôles variés joués par les eaux souterraines dans l'évolution des paysages deviennent nettement mieux connus. La revue faite ici prend en considération trois grandes catégories de processus liés aux eaux souterraines et les formes associées: (1) La dissolution crée des formes karstiques variées, surtout dans les roches carbonatées, en fonction des conditions d'alimentation, du cadre géologique, de la lithologie et de la circulation des eaux souterraines. Les taux d'érosion et de formation des grottes peuvent être estimés à partir de paramètres cinétiques et hydrauliques. (2) L'érosion par les eaux souterraines donne naissance à des régolites, résidus d'altération sur des fronts d'altération, et l'exhumation r

  10. Modeling groundwater flow on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Fogwell, T.W.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1994-12-31

    The authors will explore the numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media. An interdisciplinary team of mathematicians, computer scientists, hydrologists, and environmental engineers is developing a sophisticated simulation code for use on workstation clusters and MPPs. To date, they have concentrated on modeling flow in the saturated zone (single phase), which requires the solution of a large linear system. they will discuss their implementation of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers. The preconditioners under consideration include simple diagonal scaling, s-step Jacobi, adaptive Chebyshev polynomial preconditioning, and multigrid. They will present some preliminary numerical results, including simulations of groundwater flow at the LLNL site. They also will demonstrate the code`s scalability.

  11. Connections between groundwater flow and transpiration partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Condon, Laura E.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding freshwater fluxes at continental scales will help us better predict hydrologic response and manage our terrestrial water resources. The partitioning of evapotranspiration into bare soil evaporation and plant transpiration remains a key uncertainty in the terrestrial water balance. We used integrated hydrologic simulations that couple vegetation and land-energy processes with surface and subsurface hydrology to study transpiration partitioning at the continental scale. Both latent heat flux and partitioning are connected to water table depth, and including lateral groundwater flow in the model increases transpiration partitioning from 47 ± 13 to 62 ± 12%. This suggests that lateral groundwater flow, which is generally simplified or excluded in Earth system models, may provide a missing link for reconciling observations and global models of terrestrial water fluxes.

  12. Connections between groundwater flow and transpiration partitioning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed M; Condon, Laura E

    2016-07-22

    Understanding freshwater fluxes at continental scales will help us better predict hydrologic response and manage our terrestrial water resources. The partitioning of evapotranspiration into bare soil evaporation and plant transpiration remains a key uncertainty in the terrestrial water balance. We used integrated hydrologic simulations that couple vegetation and land-energy processes with surface and subsurface hydrology to study transpiration partitioning at the continental scale. Both latent heat flux and partitioning are connected to water table depth, and including lateral groundwater flow in the model increases transpiration partitioning from 47 ± 13 to 62 ± 12%. This suggests that lateral groundwater flow, which is generally simplified or excluded in Earth system models, may provide a missing link for reconciling observations and global models of terrestrial water fluxes.

  13. Effects of anthropogenic water regulation and groundwater lateral flow on land processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yujin; Xie, Zhenghui; Yu, Yan; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Linying; Zou, Jing; Qin, Peihua; Jia, Binghao

    2016-09-01

    Both anthropogenic water regulation and groundwater lateral flow essentially affect groundwater table patterns. Their relationship is close because lateral flow recharges the groundwater depletion cone, which is induced by over-exploitation. In this study, schemes describing groundwater lateral flow and human water regulation were developed and incorporated into the Community Land Model 4.5. To investigate the effects of human water regulation and groundwater lateral flow on land processes as well as the relationship between the two processes, three simulations using the model were conducted for the years 2003-2013 over the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China. Simulations showed that groundwater lateral flow driven by changes in water heads can essentially change the groundwater table pattern with the deeper water table appearing in the hillslope regions and shallower water table appearing in valley bottom regions and plains. Over the last decade, anthropogenic groundwater exploitation deepened the water table by approximately 2 m in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin and rapidly reduced the terrestrial water storage, while irrigation increased soil moisture by approximately 0.1 m3 m-3. The water stored in the mainstream of the Heihe River was also reduced by human surface water withdrawal. The latent heat flux was increased by 30 W m-2 over the irrigated region, with an identical decrease in sensible heat flux. The simulated groundwater lateral flow was shown to effectively recharge the groundwater depletion cone caused by over-exploitation. The offset rate is higher in plains than mountainous regions.

  14. Groundwater flow as a cooling agent of the continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Henk

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater that flows through the outer shell of the Earth as part of the hydrologic cycle influences the distribution of heat and, thereby, the temperature field in the Earth’s crust. Downward groundwater flow in recharge areas lowers crustal temperatures, whereas upward flow in discharge areas tends to raise temperatures relative to a purely conductive geothermal regime. Here I present numerical simulations of generalized topography-driven groundwater flow. The simulations suggest that groundwater-driven convective cooling exceeds groundwater-driven warming of the Earth’s crust, and hence that groundwater flow systems cause net temperature reductions of groundwater basins. Moreover, the simulations demonstrate that this cooling extends into the underlying crust and lithosphere. I find that horizontal components of groundwater flow play a central role in this net subsurface cooling by conveying relatively cold water to zones of upward groundwater flow. The model calculations suggest that the crust and lithosphere beneath groundwater basins can cool by several tens of degrees Celsius where groundwater flows over large distances in basins that consist of crustal rock. In contrast, groundwater-induced cooling is small in unconsolidated sedimentary settings, such as deltas.

  15. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    PubMed

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  16. Sublacustrine groundwater discharge in esker aquifers; fully integrated groundwater flow modeling compared with novel field techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala-aho, Pertti; Rossi, Pekka M.; Isokangas, Elina; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater (GW) discharge to surface water bodies such as streams, lakes and wetlands can greatly affect their water quantity, quality and related aquatic ecology. Therefore better understanding of GW - surface water interaction is needed in integrated management of water resources. Sublacustrine groundwater discharge (SGD) to lakes was studied in a complex unconfined Rokua esker aquifer system. SGD was studied for 12 lakes in the area to better understand water and solute inputs through lake beds and thereby the role of GW on lake water budget and solute concentrations. The locations and fluxes of SGD were simulated using a fully integrated groundwater flow model HydroGeoSphere. The used hydrological simulator allows water to flow and partition into overland and stream flow, evaporation, infiltration, and subsurface discharge into surface water features in a physically-based way, which was needed in simulating SGD of the complex aquifer system. The model was first calibrated for subsurface hydraulic conductivity in steady state using data of measured long-term average groundwater and lake levels and stream baseflow. The model performance in transient simulations was then examined against recorded hydrographs for lake and groundwater levels and stream flow. After model performance was verified, the simulated locations and fluxes of SGD were extracted from the model and compared with results from three independent field methods: airborne thermal imaging, stable isotope water balance and seepage meter measurements. Airborne thermal imaging was used to infer locations of SGD into lakes based on temperature anomalies at lakes shorelines due to discharging cold groundwater. Isotopic composition (H2 and O18) was analysed for lake water, groundwater and the data was used to estimate SGD flux into lakes. Finally, seepage meter measurements were conducted for one of the lakes to establish both locations and fluxes of SGD in detail. The simulated and field-based estimated

  17. Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    Groundwater flow influences hydrochemical patterns because flow reduces mixing by diffusion, carries the chemical imprints of biological and anthropogenic changes in the recharge area, and leaches the aquifer system. Global patterns are mainly dictated by differences in the flux of meteoric water passing through the subsoil. Within individual hydrosomes (water bodies with a specific origin), the following prograde evolution lines (facies sequence) normally develop in the direction of groundwater flow: from strong to no fluctuations in water quality, from polluted to unpolluted, from acidic to basic, from oxic to anoxic-methanogenic, from no to significant base exchange, and from fresh to brackish. This is demonstrated for fresh coastal-dune groundwater in the Netherlands. In this hydrosome, the leaching of calcium carbonate as much as 15m and of adsorbed marine cations (Na+, K+, and Mg2+) as much as 2500m in the flow direction is shown to correspond with about 5000yr of flushing since the beach barrier with dunes developed. Recharge focus areas in the dunes are evidenced by groundwater displaying a lower prograde quality evolution than the surrounding dune groundwater. Artificially recharged Rhine River water in the dunes provides distinct hydrochemical patterns, which display groundwater flow, mixing, and groundwater ages. Résumé Les écoulements souterrains influencent les différents types hydrochimiques, parce que l'écoulement réduit le mélange par diffusion, porte les marques chimiques de changements biologiques et anthropiques dans la zone d'alimentation et lessive le système aquifère. Ces types dans leur ensemble sont surtout déterminés par des différences dans le flux d'eau météorique traversant le sous-sol. Dans les "hydrosomes" (masses d'eau d'origine déterminée), les lignes marquant une évolution prograde (séquence de faciès) se développent normalement dans la direction de l'écoulement souterrain : depuis des fluctuations fortes de la

  18. Regional groundwater flow in hard rocks.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Fernando A L

    2015-02-15

    The territory of continental Portugal has a geologic history marked by the Hercynian orogeny, and to the north of this country the Hercynian large-scale tectonic structures are typically represented by long and deep NW-SE trending ductile shear zones and NNE-SSW trending fragile faults. These structures are elements of mineral and thermal water circuits that discharge as springs in more than one hundred locations. The purpose of this study is to investigate if these structures are also used by shallower non-mineral groundwater, integrated in a large-scale regional flow system. Using an original combination of water balance and recession flow models, it was possible to calculate catchment turnover times based solely on groundwater discharge rates and recession flow parameters. These times were then used to classify a group of 46 watersheds as closed or open basins, and among the later class to identify source and sink basins, based on innovative interpretations of relationships between turnover time and catchment area. By definition, source basins transfer groundwater to sink basins and altogether form a regional flow system. Using a Geographic Information System, it could be demonstrated the spatial association of open basins to the Hercynian ductile and fragile tectonic structures and hence to classify the basins as discharge cells of a regional flow system. Most of the studied watersheds are sub-basins of the Douro River basin, one of the largest regional catchments in the Iberian Peninsula, being located in its mouth area. Because the largest part of open basins is sink, which by definition tends to dominate in the mouth area of regional catchments, it is proposed as an extension of the studied area conceptual boundaries towards the Douro River basin headwaters, where the corresponding sources could be searched for.

  19. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  20. Detecting influential observations in nonlinear regression modeling of groundwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear regression is used to estimate optimal parameter values in models of groundwater flow to ensure that differences between predicted and observed heads and flows do not result from nonoptimal parameter values. Parameter estimates can be affected, however, by observations that disproportionately influence the regression, such as outliers that exert undue leverage on the objective function. Certain statistics developed for linear regression can be used to detect influential observations in nonlinear regression if the models are approximately linear. This paper discusses the application of Cook's D, which measures the effect of omitting a single observation on a set of estimated parameter values, and the statistical parameter DFBETAS, which quantifies the influence of an observation on each parameter. The influence statistics were used to (1) identify the influential observations in the calibration of a three-dimensional, groundwater flow model of a fractured-rock aquifer through nonlinear regression, and (2) quantify the effect of omitting influential observations on the set of estimated parameter values. Comparison of the spatial distribution of Cook's D with plots of model sensitivity shows that influential observations correspond to areas where the model heads are most sensitive to certain parameters, and where predicted groundwater flow rates are largest. Five of the six discharge observations were identified as influential, indicating that reliable measurements of groundwater flow rates are valuable data in model calibration. DFBETAS are computed and examined for an alternative model of the aquifer system to identify a parameterization error in the model design that resulted in overestimation of the effect of anisotropy on horizontal hydraulic conductivity.

  1. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surfacewater bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains.

  2. Estimating Groundwater Flow Parameters Using Response Surface Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Best Available Copy AD-A280 630 DTI ELECT’ JUN2 4 ESTIMATING GROUNDWATER FLOW PARAMETERS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY THESIS Leo C. Adams...GROUNDWATER FLOW PARAMETERS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute...Estimating Groundwater Flow Parameters Using Response Surface Methodology Committee Name/Department Signature dvisor. I Col Paul F. Auclair, Ph.D. j . j

  3. Evaluation of processes affecting 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) concentrations in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California : analysis of chemical data and ground-water flow and transport simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Panshin, Sandra Y.; Dubrovsky, Neil H.; Vanbrocklin, David; Fogg, Graham E.

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual two-dimensional numerical flow and transport modeling approach was used to test hypotheses addressing dispersion, transformation rate, and in a relative sense, the effects of ground- water pumping and reapplication of irrigation water on DBCP concentrations in the aquifer. The flow and transport simulations, which represent hypothetical steady-state flow conditions in the aquifer, were used to refine the conceptual understanding of the aquifer system rather than to predict future concentrations of DBCP. Results indicate that dispersion reduces peak concentrations, but this process alone does not account for the apparent decrease in DBCP concentrations in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley. Ground-water pumping and reapplication of irrigation water may affect DBCP concentrations to the extent that this process can be simulated indirectly using first-order decay. Transport simulation results indicate that the in situ 'effective' half-life of DBCP caused by processes other than dispersion and transformation to BAA could be on the order of 6 years.

  4. Using Groundwater Age and Other Isotopic Signatures to Delineate Groundwater Flow and Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B

    2005-08-31

    Isotopic tracers, such as stable isotopes of the water molecule and tritium, have been used in investigations of groundwater flow and transport and recharge water source for several decades. While these data can place hard constraints on groundwater flow rates, the degree of vertical flow between aquifers and across aquitards, and recharge source area(s), they are rarely used, even for validation, in conceptual or numerical models of groundwater flow. The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program, sponsored by the California State Water Resources Control Board, and carried out in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, has provided the means to gather an unprecedented number of tritium-helium groundwater ages in the basins of California. As the examples below illustrate, a collection of groundwater ages in a basin allows delineation of recharge areas (youngest ages), bulk flow rates and flowpaths, as well as a means of assessing susceptibility to anthropogenic contaminants.

  5. Megacity pumping and preferential flow threaten groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahfuzur R; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Knappett, Peter S K; Ahmed, Kazi M; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Mozumder, Rajib H; Zahid, Anwar; Harvey, Charles F; van Geen, Alexander; Michael, Holly A

    2016-09-27

    Many of the world's megacities depend on groundwater from geologically complex aquifers that are over-exploited and threatened by contamination. Here, using the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we illustrate how interactions between aquifer heterogeneity and groundwater exploitation jeopardize groundwater resources regionally. Groundwater pumping in Dhaka has caused large-scale drawdown that extends into outlying areas where arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater is pervasive and has potential to migrate downward. We evaluate the vulnerability of deep, low-arsenic groundwater with groundwater models that incorporate geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Simulations show that preferential flow through stratigraphy typical of fluvio-deltaic aquifers could contaminate deep (>150 m) groundwater within a decade, nearly a century faster than predicted through homogeneous models calibrated to the same data. The most critical fast flowpaths cannot be predicted by simplified models or identified by standard measurements. Such complex vulnerability beyond city limits could become a limiting factor for megacity groundwater supplies in aquifers worldwide.

  6. Megacity pumping and preferential flow threaten groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Mozumder, Rajib H.; Zahid, Anwar; Harvey, Charles F.; van Geen, Alexander; Michael, Holly A.

    2016-09-01

    Many of the world's megacities depend on groundwater from geologically complex aquifers that are over-exploited and threatened by contamination. Here, using the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we illustrate how interactions between aquifer heterogeneity and groundwater exploitation jeopardize groundwater resources regionally. Groundwater pumping in Dhaka has caused large-scale drawdown that extends into outlying areas where arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater is pervasive and has potential to migrate downward. We evaluate the vulnerability of deep, low-arsenic groundwater with groundwater models that incorporate geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Simulations show that preferential flow through stratigraphy typical of fluvio-deltaic aquifers could contaminate deep (>150 m) groundwater within a decade, nearly a century faster than predicted through homogeneous models calibrated to the same data. The most critical fast flowpaths cannot be predicted by simplified models or identified by standard measurements. Such complex vulnerability beyond city limits could become a limiting factor for megacity groundwater supplies in aquifers worldwide.

  7. Simulation of groundwater flow and effects of groundwater irrigation on stream base flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska, 1895-2055-Phase Two

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Peterson, Steven M.; Fienen, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    base flow from the 1970s to the end of the calibration period for the Elkhorn River at Norfolk, Beaver Creek at Genoa, and Cedar River near Fullerton. Effects of groundwater irrigation on stream base flow were predicted using several methods: (1) simulated base-flow depletion was mapped to represent the percentage of water pumped from a hypothetical well during 2006 through 2055 that corresponds to base-flow depletions at the end of that 50-year period; (2) the groundwater-flow simulation predicted changes in stream base flow that result from modifying the number of irrigated acres in a 25-year period (2009 through 2033); and (3) a simulation-optimization model determined the minimum reduction of groundwater pumpage that would be necessary in the Elkhorn River Basin in a 25-year period (2009 through 2033) to comply with various hypothetical base-flow requirements for the Elkhorn River. The results are not intended to determine specific management plans that must be adopted, but rather to improve the understanding of how base flow is affected by irrigation. A 50-year simulation (2006-55) indicated that depletions of less than 10 percent of pumpage mainly occur in areas that are about 10 miles or farther from the Elkhorn and Loup Rivers and their tributaries. The calibrated simulation was used to predict the 25-year effect on base flow of a 10 percent decrease in irrigated acres and the effect of increasing acres at the presently (2010) allowed rate. Hypothesized changes to irrigated acres were applied only to areas where mapped base-flow depletions were at least 10 percent of pumpage. The effect of changes in irrigated acres includes the combined effects of changes to pumpage and additional recharge from irrigated acres. When irrigated acres were decreased by 10 percent within selected areas of four Natural Resources Districts (a total reduction of about 120,000 acres and a 5 percent reduction in irrigation pumpage), simulated base flow was predicted to inc

  8. Is there a geomorphic expression of interbasin groundwater flow in watersheds? Interactions between interbasin groundwater flow, springs, streams, and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Tysor, Elizabeth H.; Stewart-Maddox, Noah S.; Tsinnajinnie, Lani M.; Wilson, John L.; Granger, Darryl E.; Newman, Brent D.

    2016-02-01

    Interbasin groundwater flow (IGF) can play a significant role in the generation and geochemical evolution of streamflow. However, it is exceedingly difficult to identify IGF and to determine the location and quantity of water that is exchanged between watersheds. How does IGF affect landscape/watershed geomorphic evolution? Can geomorphic metrics be used to identify the presence of IGF? We examine these questions in two adjacent sedimentary watersheds in northern New Mexico using a combination of geomorphic/landscape metrics, springflow residence times, and spatial geochemical patterns. IGF is expressed geomorphically in the landscape placement of springs and flow direction and shape of stream channels. Springs emerge preferentially on one side of stream valleys where landscape incision has intercepted IGF flow paths. Stream channels grow toward the IGF source and show little bifurcation. In addition, radiocarbon residence times of springs decrease and the geochemical composition of springs changes as the connection to IGF is lost.

  9. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  10. An Integrated Approach on Groundwater Flow and Heat/Solute Transport for Sustainable Groundwater Source Heat Pump (GWHP) System Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Joun, W.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Park, I.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The GWHP system uses a stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as one of the most energy-saving and cost-efficient renewable energy techniques. A GWHP facility was installed at an island located at the confluence of North Han and South Han rivers, Korea. Because of well-developed alluvium, the aquifer is suitable for application of this system, extracting and injecting a large amount of groundwater. However, the numerical experiments under various operational conditions showed that it could be vulnerable to thermal interference due to the highly permeable gravel layer, as a preferential path of thermal plume migration, and limited space for well installation. Thus, regional groundwater flow must be an important factor of consideration for the efficient operation under these conditions but was found to be not simple in this site. While the groundwater level in this site totally depends on the river stage control of Paldang dam, the direction and velocity of the regional groundwater flow, observed using the colloidal borescope, have been changed hour by hour with the combined flows of both the rivers. During the pumping and injection tests, the water discharges in Cheongpyeong dam affected their respective results. Moreover, the measured NO3-N concentrations might imply the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality along the regional flow. It is obvious that the extraction and injection of groundwater during the facility operation will affect the fate of the agricultural contaminants. Particularly, the gravel layer must also be a main path for contaminant migration. The simulations for contaminant transport during the facility operation showed that the operation strategy for only thermal efficiency could be unsafe and unstable in respect of groundwater quality. All these results concluded that the integrated approach on groundwater flow and heat/solute transport is necessary

  11. Groundwater dating for understanding nitrogen in groundwater systems - Time lag, fate, and detailed flow path ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Hadfield, John; Stenger, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a problem world-wide. Nitrate from land use activities can leach out of the root zone of the crop into the deeper part of the unsaturated zone and ultimately contaminate the underlying groundwater resources. Nitrate travels with the groundwater and then discharges into surface water causing eutrophication of surface water bodies. To understand the source, fate, and future nitrogen loads to ground and surface water bodies, detailed knowledge of the groundwater flow dynamics is essential. Groundwater sampled at monitoring wells or discharges may not yet be in equilibrium with current land use intensity due to the time lag between leaching out of the root zone and arrival at the sampling location. Anoxic groundwater zones can act as nitrate sinks through microbial denitrification. However, the effect of denitrification on overall nitrate fluxes depends on the fraction of the groundwater flowing through such zones. We will show results from volcanic aquifers in the central North Island of New Zealand where age tracers clearly indicate that the groundwater discharges into large sensitive lakes like Lake Taupo and Lake Rotorua are not yet fully realising current land use intensity. The majority of the water discharging into these lakes is decades and up to over hundred years old. Therefore, increases in dairy farming over the last decades are not yet reflected in these old water discharges, but over time these increased nitrate inputs will eventually work their way through the large groundwater systems and increasing N loads to the lakes are to be expected. Anoxic zones are present in some of these aquifers, indicating some denitrification potential, however, age tracer results from nested piezo wells show young groundwater in oxic zones indicating active flow in these zones, while anoxic zones tend to have older water indicating poorer hydraulic conductivity in these zones. Consequently, to evaluate the effect of denitrification

  12. Regional Groundwater Flow in the Louisville Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Tiaif, Syafrin; Serrano, Sergio E

    2015-01-01

    The unconfined alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky, is an important source of water for domestic and industrial uses. It has been the object of several modeling studies in the past, particularly via the application of classical analytical solutions, and numerical solutions (finite differences and finite elements). A new modeling procedure of the Louisville aquifer is presented based on a modification of Adomian's Decomposition Method (ADM) to handle irregularly shaped boundaries. The new approach offers the simplicity, stability, and spatial continuity of analytical solutions, in addition to the ability to handle irregular boundaries typical of numerical solutions. It reduces to the application of a simple set of algebraic equations to various segments of the aquifer. The calculated head contours appear in reasonably agreement with those of previous studies, as well as with those from measured head values from the U.S. Geological Survey field measurement program. A statistical comparison of the error standard deviation is within the same range as that reported in previous studies that used complex numerical solutions. The present methodology could be easily implemented in other aquifers when preliminary results are needed, or when scarce hydrogeologic information is available. Advantages include a simple approach for preliminary groundwater modeling; an analytic description of hydraulic heads, gradients, fluxes, and flow rates; state variables are described continuously over the spatial domain; complications from stability and numerical roundoff are minimized; there is no need for a numerical grid or the handling of large sparse matrices; there is no need to use specialized groundwater software, because all calculations may be done with standard mathematics or spreadsheet programs. Nonlinearity, the effect of higher order terms, and transient simulations could be included if desired.

  13. Effects of turbulence on hydraulic heads and parameter sensitivities in preferential groundwater flow layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, W.B.; Cunningham, K.J.; Kuniansky, E.L.; Dixon, J.

    2008-01-01

    A conduit flow process (CFP) for the Modular Finite Difference Ground-Water Flow model, MODFLOW-2005, has been created by the U.S. Geological Survey. An application of the CFP on a carbonate aquifer in southern Florida is described; this application examines (1) the potential for turbulent groundwater flow and (2) the effects of turbulent flow on hydraulic heads and parameter sensitivities. Turbulent flow components were spatially extensive in preferential groundwater flow layers, with horizontal hydraulic conductivities of about 5,000,000 m d-1, mean void diameters equal to about 3.5 cm, groundwater temperature equal to about 25??C, and critical Reynolds numbers less than or equal to 400. Turbulence either increased or decreased simulated heads from their laminar elevations. Specifically, head differences from laminar elevations ranged from about -18 to +27 cm and were explained by the magnitude of net flow to the finite difference model cell. Turbulence also affected the sensitivities of model parameters. Specifically, the composite-scaled sensitivities of horizontal hydraulic conductivities decreased by as much as 70% when turbulence was essentially removed. These hydraulic head and sensitivity differences due to turbulent groundwater flow highlight potential errors in models based on the equivalent porous media assumption, which assumes laminar flow in uniformly distributed void spaces. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Regional Groundwater Processes and Flow Dynamics from Age Tracer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike K.; Matthews, Abby

    2016-04-01

    Age tracers are now used in New Zealand on regional scales for quantifying the impact and lag time of land use and climate change on the quantity and quality of available groundwater resources within the framework of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management 2014. Age tracers provide measurable information on the dynamics of groundwater systems and reaction rates (e.g. denitrification), essential for conceptualising the regional groundwater - surface water system and informing the development of land use and groundwater flow and transport models. In the Horizons Region of New Zealand, around 200 wells have tracer data available, including tritium, SF6, CFCs, 2H, 18O, Ar, N2, CH4 and radon. Well depths range from shallower wells in gravel aquifers in the Horowhenua and Tararua districts, and deeper wells in the aquifers between Palmerston North and Wanganui. Most of the groundwater samples around and north of the Manawatu River west of the Tararua ranges are extremely old (>100 years), even from relatively shallow wells, indicating that these groundwaters are relatively disconnected from fresh surface recharge. The groundwater wells in the Horowhenua tap into a considerably younger groundwater reservoir with groundwater mean residence time (MRT) of 10 - 40 years. Groundwater along the eastern side of the Tararua and Ruahine ranges is significantly younger, typically <5 years MRT. Vertical groundwater recharge rates, as deduced from groundwater depth and MRT, are extremely low in the central coastal area, consistent with confined groundwater systems, or with upwelling of old groundwater close to the coast. Very low vertical recharge rates along the Manawatu River west of the Manawatu Gorge indicate upwelling groundwater conditions in this area, implying groundwater discharge into the river is more likely here than loss of river water into the groundwater system. High recharge rates observed at several wells in the Horowhenua area and in the area east of

  15. Is there a geomorphic expression of interbasin groundwater flow in watersheds? Interactions between interbasin groundwater flow, springs, streams, and geomorphology.

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Tysor, Elizabeth H.; Stewart-Maddox, Noah; Tsinnajinnie, Lani M.; Wilson, John L.; Granger, Darryl E.; Newman, Brent D.

    2016-02-13

    Interbasin groundwater flow (IGF) can play a significant role in the generation and geochemical evolution of streamflow. However, it is exceedingly difficult to identify IGF, and to determine the location and quantity of water that is exchanged between watersheds. How does IGF affect landscape/watershed geomorphic evolution? Can geomorphic metrics be used to identify the presence of IGF? We examine these questions in two adjacent sedimentary watersheds in northern New Mexico using a combination of geomorphic/landscape metrics, springflow residence times, and spatial geochemical patterns. IGF is expressed geomorphically in the landscape placement of springs, and flow direction and shape of stream channels. Springs emerge preferentially on one side of stream valleys where landscape incision has intercepted IGF flowpaths. Stream channels grow toward the IGF source and show little bifurcation. In addition, radiocarbon residence times of springs decrease and the geochemical composition of springs changes as the connection to IGF is lost.

  16. Is there a geomorphic expression of interbasin groundwater flow in watersheds? Interactions between interbasin groundwater flow, springs, streams, and geomorphology.

    DOE PAGES

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Tysor, Elizabeth H.; Stewart-Maddox, Noah; ...

    2016-02-13

    Interbasin groundwater flow (IGF) can play a significant role in the generation and geochemical evolution of streamflow. However, it is exceedingly difficult to identify IGF, and to determine the location and quantity of water that is exchanged between watersheds. How does IGF affect landscape/watershed geomorphic evolution? Can geomorphic metrics be used to identify the presence of IGF? We examine these questions in two adjacent sedimentary watersheds in northern New Mexico using a combination of geomorphic/landscape metrics, springflow residence times, and spatial geochemical patterns. IGF is expressed geomorphically in the landscape placement of springs, and flow direction and shape of streammore » channels. Springs emerge preferentially on one side of stream valleys where landscape incision has intercepted IGF flowpaths. Stream channels grow toward the IGF source and show little bifurcation. In addition, radiocarbon residence times of springs decrease and the geochemical composition of springs changes as the connection to IGF is lost.« less

  17. Locating groundwater flow in karst by acoustic emission surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Stokowski, S.J. Jr.; Clark, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    An acoustic emission survey of Newala Fm. (primarily dolomite) karst has helped to locate subsurface water flow. This survey was performed on the Rock Quarry Dome, Sevier County, Tennessee. A Dresser RS-4 recording seismograph, adjusted to provide a gain of 1000, collected acoustic emission data using Mark Products CN368 vertical geophones with 3-inch spikes. Data was collected for 5-15 second intervals. The geophones were laid out along traverses with 10, 20, or 30-ft spacing and covered with sand bags in locations of high ambient noise. Traverses were laid out: along and across lineaments known to correspond with groundwater flow in natural subsurface channels; across and along a joint-controlled sink suspected of directing groundwater flow; and across a shallow sinkhole located tangentially to the Little Pigeon River and suspected of capturing river water for the groundwater system. Acoustic emissions of channelized flowing groundwater have a characteristic erratic spiked spectral signature. These acoustic emission signatures increase in amplitude and number in the immediate vicinity of the vertical projection of channelized groundwater flow if it occurs within approximately 30 feet of the surface. If the groundwater flow occurs at greater depths the emissions may be offset from the projection of the actual flow, due to propagation of the signal along rock pinnacles or attenuation by residual soils.

  18. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  19. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Optimization of Groundwater Withdrawal in the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, R.; Kretzschmar, T.

    2006-12-01

    A regional groundwater flow model was developed, in order to evaluate the water table behavior in the region of the Guadalupe Valley, in Baja California, Mexico. The State of Baja California has been subject to an increment of the agricultural, urban and industrials activities, implicating a growing water-demand. However, the State is characterized by its semi-arid climate with low surface water availability; therefore, has resulted in an extensive use of groundwater in local aquifer. Water level measurements indicate there has been a decline in water levels in the Guadalupe Valley for the past 20 years. This study describes the use of groundwater optimization modeling to efficiently allocate the groundwater resources in the Guadalupe Valley. A 2- Dimensional groundwater flow was used along with optimization techniques to evaluate the effects of the current groundwater management alternative and to determine the optimal withdrawal rates for a variety of management alternatives in the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer. For all simulations, the objective of the optimization was to maximize total groundwater withdrawals. Both steady-state and transient calibration were carried out in order to obtain the best possible match to measured levels in the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer. The results of this simulation-optimization are as follows: (1) probably this should be an integrated hydrogeological evaluation that determines the conditions of the groundwater resource and permits planning a management of the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer; (2) a satisfactory match between calculated and measured water levels in the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer.

  20. Megacity pumping and preferential flow threaten groundwater quality

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Mozumder, Rajib H.; Zahid, Anwar; Harvey, Charles F.; van Geen, Alexander; Michael, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the world's megacities depend on groundwater from geologically complex aquifers that are over-exploited and threatened by contamination. Here, using the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we illustrate how interactions between aquifer heterogeneity and groundwater exploitation jeopardize groundwater resources regionally. Groundwater pumping in Dhaka has caused large-scale drawdown that extends into outlying areas where arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater is pervasive and has potential to migrate downward. We evaluate the vulnerability of deep, low-arsenic groundwater with groundwater models that incorporate geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Simulations show that preferential flow through stratigraphy typical of fluvio-deltaic aquifers could contaminate deep (>150 m) groundwater within a decade, nearly a century faster than predicted through homogeneous models calibrated to the same data. The most critical fast flowpaths cannot be predicted by simplified models or identified by standard measurements. Such complex vulnerability beyond city limits could become a limiting factor for megacity groundwater supplies in aquifers worldwide. PMID:27673729

  1. Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 {+-} 0.5{per_thousand}), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high {sup 18}O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low {sup 18}O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in {delta}{sup 18}O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are {approximately}10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for {approximately}40 years, creating cones of depression {approximately}25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low {sup 18}O water (-11.0{per_thousand}) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp {sup 18}O gradients in our groundwater isotope map.

  2. Groundwater flow and its effect on salt dissolution in Gypsum Canyon watershed, Paradox Basin, southeast Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitman, Nadine G.; Ge, Shemin; Mueller, Karl

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater flow is an important control on subsurface evaporite (salt) dissolution. Salt dissolution can drive faulting and associated subsidence on the land surface and increase salinity in groundwater. This study aims to understand the groundwater flow system of Gypsum Canyon watershed in the Paradox Basin, Utah, USA, and whether or not groundwater-driven dissolution affects surface deformation. The work characterizes the groundwater flow and solute transport systems of the watershed using a three-dimensional (3D) finite element flow and transport model, SUTRA. Spring samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of water and total dissolved solids. Spring water and hydraulic conductivity data provide constraints for model parameters. Model results indicate that regional groundwater flow is to the northwest towards the Colorado River, and shallow flow systems are influenced by topography. The low permeability obtained from laboratory tests is inconsistent with field observed discharges, supporting the notion that fracture permeability plays a significant role in controlling groundwater flow. Model output implies that groundwater-driven dissolution is small on average, and cannot account for volume changes in the evaporite deposits that could cause surface deformation, but it is speculated that dissolution may be highly localized and/or weaken evaporite deposits, and could lead to surface deformation over time.

  3. Regional groundwater flow modeling of the Geba basin, northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; De Smedt, Florimond; Walraevens, Kristine; Gebresilassie, Solomon; Hussien, Abdelwassie; Hagos, Miruts; Amare, Kassa; Deckers, Jozef; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya

    2017-01-01

    The Geba basin is one of the most food-insecure areas of the Tigray regional state in northern Ethiopia due to recurrent drought resulting from erratic distribution of rainfall. Since the beginning of the 1990s, rain-fed agriculture has been supported through small-scale irrigation schemes mainly by surface-water harvesting, but success has been limited. Hence, use of groundwater for irrigation purposes has gained considerable attention. The main purpose of this study is to assess groundwater resources in the Geba basin by means of a MODFLOW modeling approach. The model is calibrated using observed groundwater levels, yielding a clear insight into the groundwater flow systems and reserves. Results show that none of the hydrogeological formations can be considered as aquifers that can be exploited for large-scale groundwater exploitation. However, aquitards can be identified that can support small-scale groundwater abstraction for irrigation needs in regions that are either designated as groundwater discharge areas or where groundwater levels are shallow and can be tapped by hand-dug wells or shallow boreholes.

  4. Uncertainty in simulated groundwater-quality trends in transient flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starn, J. Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; Robbins, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    In numerical modeling of groundwater flow, the result of a given solution method is affected by the way in which transient flow conditions and geologic heterogeneity are simulated. An algorithm is demonstrated that simulates breakthrough curves at a pumping well by convolution-based particle tracking in a transient flow field for several synthetic basin-scale aquifers. In comparison to grid-based (Eulerian) methods, the particle (Lagrangian) method is better able to capture multimodal breakthrough caused by changes in pumping at the well, although the particle method may be apparently nonlinear because of the discrete nature of particle arrival times. Trial-and-error choice of number of particles and release times can perhaps overcome the apparent nonlinearity. Heterogeneous aquifer properties tend to smooth the effects of transient pumping, making it difficult to separate their effects in parameter estimation. Porosity, a new parameter added for advective transport, can be accurately estimated using both grid-based and particle-based methods, but predictions can be highly uncertain, even in the simple, nonreactive case.

  5. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  6. Numerical simulations of groundwater flow at New Jersey Shallow Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, Annick; Patterson, Fabian; Lofi, Johanna; Reiche, Sönke

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, three boreholes were drilled in the so-called New Jersey transect. Hydrochemical studies revealed the groundwater situation as more complex than expected, characterized by several sharp boundaries between fresh and saline groundwater. Two conflicting hypotheses regarding the nature of these freshwater reservoirs are currently debated. One hypothesis is that these reservoirs are connected with onshore aquifers and continuously recharged by seaward-flowing groundwater. The second hypothesis is that fresh groundwater was emplaced during the last glacial period. In addition to the petrophysical properties measured during IODP 313 expedition, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements were performed on samples from boreholes M0027, M0028 and M0029 in order to deduce porosities and permeabilities. These results are compared with data from alternative laboratory measurements and with petrophysical properties inferred from downhole logging data. We incorporate these results into a 2D numerical model that reflects the shelf architecture as known from drillings and seismic data to perform submarine groundwater flow simulations. In order to account for uncertainties related to the spatial distribution of physical properties, such as porosity and permeability, systematic variation of input parameters was performed during simulation runs. The target is to test the two conflicting hypotheses of fresh groundwater emplacements offshore New Jersey and to improve the understanding of fluid flow processes at marine passive margins.

  7. A guide for using the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blainey, Joan B.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  8. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  9. Climate change and groundwater ecohydrology: Simulating subsurface flow and discharge zones in Covey Hill, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, J.; Larocque, M.; Ouellet, M.; van Waterschoot, L.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 2 billion people use groundwater and in Canada it is the potable water supply for about 30% of the population. Groundwater is also used in industrial and agricultural applications, and contributes to important hydrological habitats for various species. Limited research has been conducted to determine the potential impacts of climate change on groundwater. Local studies are crucial to better understand how, for example, increased duration and frequency of storms or drought periods may affect groundwater dependent ecosystems in order to anticipate and mitigate the impacts. Thus, the aim of this research is to explore the effects of climate change on a groundwater-surface water interacting system that supports a fragile ecosystem. This research is used to inform ecological conservation measures. The research site is the 17500 ha Covey Hill Natural Laboratory, which is located on the Quebec, Canada and New York State, USA border in the Chateauguay River watershed. At various locations within the Natural Laboratory there is continuous monitoring of groundwater levels and river flows. Covey Hill is an important recharge zone for the regional aquifer and provides habitat for endangered salamanders in discharge zones. Two hydrogeological models were constructed to represent flow at the site. First, a three-dimensional, finite difference model was developed using MODFLOW software to simulate overall groundwater flow at the research site. Second, a smaller-scale, discrete fracture, transient, three-dimensional, finite difference, integrated model was developed using HydroGeoSphere software to represent in better detail flow from bedrock springs that occur at mid-slope and provide the habitat for endangered salamanders. The models were used to: 1) observe groundwater flow under current climate conditions; 2) quantify water dynamics in response to climate change using 10 scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (for 1971-2000 and 2041-2070 time periods); and 3

  10. Effects of ground-water chemistry and flow on quality of drainflow in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fio, John L.; Leighton, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical and geohydrologic data were used to assess the effects of regional ground-water flow on the quality of on-farm drainflows in a part of the western San Joaquin Valley, California. Shallow ground water beneath farm fields has been enriched in stable isotopes and salts by partial evaporation from the shallow water table and is being displaced by irrigation, drainage, and regional ground-water flow. Ground-water flow is primarily downward in the study area but can flow upward in some down- slope areas. Transitional areas exist between the downward and upward flow zones, where ground water can move substantial horizontal distances (0.3 to 3.6 kilometers) and can require 10 to 90 years to reach the downslope drainage systems. Simulation of ground-water flow to drainage systems indicates that regional ground water contributes to about 11 percent of annual drainflow. Selenium concentrations in ground water and drainwater are affected by geologic source materials, partial evaporation from a shallow water table, drainage-system, and regional ground-water flow. Temporal variability in drainflow quality is affected in part by the distribution of chemical constituents in ground water and the flow paths to the drainage systems. The mass flux of selenium in drainflows, or load, generally is proportional to flow, and reductions in drainflow quantity should reduce selenium loads over the short-term. Uncertain changes in the distribution of ground-water quality make future changes in drainflow quality difficult to quantify.

  11. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    avenues of ground-water flow. Prior to this investigation, the conceptual model of ground-water flow for the region focused primarily on bedding planes and strike-parallel faults and joints as controls on ground-water flow but did not recognize the importance of cross-strike faults and fracture zones that allow ground water to flow downgradient across or through less permeable geologic formations. Results of the ground-water flow simulation indicate that current operations at the Center do not substantially affect either streamflow (less than a 5-percent reduction in annual streamflow) or ground-water levels in the Leetown area under normal climatic conditions but potentially could have greater effects on streamflow during long-term drought (reduction in streamflow of approximately 14 percent). On the basis of simulation results, ground-water withdrawals based on the anticipated need for an additional 150 to 200 gal/min (gallons per minute) of water at the Center also would not seriously affect streamflow (less than 8 to 9 percent reduction in streamflow) or ground-water levels in the area during normal climatic conditions. During drought conditions, however, the effects of current ground-water withdrawals and anticipated additional withdrawals of 150 to 200 gal/min to augment existing supplies result in moderate to substantial declines in water levels of 0.5-1.2 feet (ft) in the vicinity of the Center's springs and production wells. Streamflow was predicted to be reduced locally by approximately 21 percent. Such withdrawals during a drought or prolonged period of below normal ground-water levels would result in substantial declines in the flow of the Center's springs and likely would not be sustainable for more than a few months. The drought simulated in this model was roughly equivalent to the more than 1-year drought that affected the region from November 1998 through February 2000. The potential reduction in streamflow is a result of capture of ground water tha

  12. Quantifying Groundwater Flow to a Subtropical Spring-fed River Using Automated 222Rn Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, M. B.; Martin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of groundwater discharge to streams can alter stream water chemistry, thereby affecting riverine ecosystems and surface water quality. Point groundwater discharge to streams can be measured using a variety of techniques; however, integrating point and diffuse discharge is difficult over large stream reaches. We applied an automated radon-in-water technique for continuous measurements of 222Rn activities along a 5 km length of the spring-fed Ichetucknee River in north-central Florida. Integration of longitudinal 222Rn distribution, measured on three separate occasions, with groundwater and spring water end members in a mass balance equation allowed temporal and spatial assessment of groundwater flow to the stream. The 222Rn activities indicate groundwater fluxes are higher in the upper reach of the river, which has a narrow flood plain, than in the lower reach, with a wide flood plain. A wide flood plain enhances evapotranspiration, which may cause the observed difference in groundwater seepage. Groundwater flow to the upper reach increases following rain events as diffuse recharge within the catchment increases hydraulic gradients toward the river. Groundwater recharge to the lower reach is smaller and less variable than the upper reach regardless of the river flow. The lower reach can back flood when the Santa Fe River, the receiving stream, floods because of the low gradient of the Ichetucknee River (<2 m/km). Back flooding reduces flow, increases water level and inundates the floodplain, reducing the hydraulic head gradient and groundwater inflow. Based on the 222Rn mass balance, cumulative groundwater inflow is estimated to be 2.5 ± 1 m3/s (±SD) during low flow and 3.2 ± 1.5 m3/s during high flow. The estimated ground water inflows to the Ichetucknee River from the 222Rn mass balance are about twice the estimates of 1.2 m3/s and 1.5 m3/s obtained from dye tracer and ionic chemical tracer methods, respectively. The estimated higher fluxes from

  13. Field Observations and Numerical Modeling of the Thermal Effects of Groundwater Flow Through a Subarctic Fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, Y.; Coon, E.; Sannel, B.; Pannetier, R.; Harp, D. R.; Frampton, A.; Painter, S. L.; Lyon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Field observations and numerical modeling of ground temperatures are the main tools for understanding current and projecting future permafrost changes in the rapidly warming Arctic. Traditionally, most studies have focused on vertical fluxes of heat through the ground. Groundwater can transport heat in both lateral and vertical directions but its influence on ground temperatures at local scales in permafrost environments is not well understood. In this study field observations from a subarctic fen located within the sporadic permafrost zone are combined with numerical simulations for investigating coupled water and thermal fluxes. Ground temperature profiles and groundwater levels were observed in boreholes at the Tavvavuoma study site in northern Sweden. Based on these observations, one- and two-dimensional simulations down to 2 m depth across a gradient of permafrost conditions both within and surrounding the fen, were set up. To quantify the influence of groundwater flows on the ground temperature, two-dimensional scenarios representing the fen under various groundwater fluxes were developed. The observations suggest that lateral groundwater flows significantly affect ground temperatures. This is corroborated by modeling results that show seasonal ground ice melts 1 month earlier when a lateral groundwater flux is present. Further, although the thermal regime may be dominated by vertically conducted heat fluxes during most of the year, isolated high groundwater flow events can be potentially important for ground temperatures. Sporadic permafrost environments contain substantial portions of unfrozen ground, often with active groundwater flow paths such as fens. Knowledge of this heat transport mechanism is therefore important for understanding permafrost dynamics in these environments.

  14. Review: Impact of underground structures on the flow of urban groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Winiarski, Thierry; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Property economics favours the vertical development of cities but flow of groundwater can be affected by the use of underground space in them. This review article presents the state of the art regarding the impact of disturbances caused by underground structures (tunnels, basements of buildings, deep foundations, etc.) on the groundwater flow in urban aquifers. The structures built in the underground levels of urban areas are presented and organised in terms of their impact on flow: obstacle to the flow or disturbance of the groundwater budget of the flow system. These two types of disturbance are described in relation to the structure area and the urban area. The work reviewed shows, on one hand, the individual impacts of different urban underground structures, and on the other, their cumulative impacts on flow, using real case studies. Lastly, the works are placed in perspective regarding the integration of underground structures with the aim of operational management of an urban aquifer. The literature presents deterministic numerical modelling as a tool capable of contributing to this aim, in that it helps to quantify the effect of an underground infrastructure project on groundwater flow, which is crucial for decision-making processes. It can also be an operational decision-aid tool for choosing construction techniques or for formulating strategies to manage the water resource.

  15. Integrated surface groundwater flow modeling: A free-surface overland flow boundary condition in a parallel groundwater flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, Stefan J.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2006-07-01

    Interactions between surface and groundwater are a key component of the hydrologic budget on the watershed scale. Models that honor these interactions are commonly based on the conductance concept that presumes a distinct interface at the land surface, separating the surface from the subsurface domain. These types of models link the subsurface and surface domains via an exchange flux that depends upon the magnitude and direction of the hydraulic gradient across the interface and a proportionality constant (a measure of the hydraulic connectivity). Because experimental evidence of such a distinct interface is often lacking in field systems, there is a need for a more general coupled modeling approach. A more general coupled model is presented that incorporates a new two-dimensional overland flow simulator into the parallel three-dimensional variably saturated subsurface flow code ParFlow [Ashby SF, Falgout RD. A parallel multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm for groundwater flow simulations. Nucl Sci Eng 1996;124(1):145-59; Jones JE, Woodward CS. Newton-Krylov-multigrid solvers for large-scale, highly heterogeneous, variably saturated flow problems. Adv Water Resour 2001;24:763-774]. This new overland flow simulator takes the form of an upper boundary condition and is, thus, fully integrated without relying on the conductance concept. Another important advantage of this approach is the efficient parallelism incorporated into ParFlow, which is exploited by the overland flow simulator. Several verification and simulation examples are presented that focus on the two main processes of runoff production: excess infiltration and saturation. The model is shown to reproduce an analytical solution for overland flow, replicates a laboratory experiment for surface-subsurface flow and compares favorably to other commonly used hydrologic models. The influence of heterogeneity of the shallow subsurface on overland flow is also examined. The results show the

  16. A Method to Evaluate Groundwater flow system under the Seabed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohara, N.; Marui, A.

    2011-12-01

    / fresh water interface (position of the submarine groundwater discharge) may appear on the seafloor. Moreover, neither the salinity concentration nor the groundwater age depends on depth. It is thought that it is because that the groundwater forms the complex flow situation through the change in a long-term groundwater flow system. The technology to understand the coastal groundwater flow consists of remote sensing, geographical features analysis, surface of the earth investigation, geophysical exploration, drilling survey, and indoor examination and the measurement. Integration of each technology is needed to interpret groundwater flow system because the one is to catch the local groundwater flow in the time series and another one is to catch the long-term and regional groundwater flow in the general situation. The purpose of this study is to review the previous research of coastal groundwater flow, and to integrate an applicable evaluation approach to understand this mechanism. In this presentation, the review of the research and case study using numerical simulation are introduced.

  17. Complex groundwater flow systems as traveling agent models.

    PubMed

    López Corona, Oliver; Padilla, Pablo; Escolero, Oscar; González, Tomas; Morales-Casique, Eric; Osorio-Olvera, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing field data from pumping tests, we show that as with many other natural phenomena, groundwater flow exhibits complex dynamics described by 1/f power spectrum. This result is theoretically studied within an agent perspective. Using a traveling agent model, we prove that this statistical behavior emerges when the medium is complex. Some heuristic reasoning is provided to justify both spatial and dynamic complexity, as the result of the superposition of an infinite number of stochastic processes. Even more, we show that this implies that non-Kolmogorovian probability is needed for its study, and provide a set of new partial differential equations for groundwater flow.

  18. Complex groundwater flow systems as traveling agent models

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Pablo; Escolero, Oscar; González, Tomas; Morales-Casique, Eric; Osorio-Olvera, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing field data from pumping tests, we show that as with many other natural phenomena, groundwater flow exhibits complex dynamics described by 1/f power spectrum. This result is theoretically studied within an agent perspective. Using a traveling agent model, we prove that this statistical behavior emerges when the medium is complex. Some heuristic reasoning is provided to justify both spatial and dynamic complexity, as the result of the superposition of an infinite number of stochastic processes. Even more, we show that this implies that non-Kolmogorovian probability is needed for its study, and provide a set of new partial differential equations for groundwater flow. PMID:25337455

  19. Consistency of groundwater flow patterns in mountainous topography: Implications for valley bottom water replenishment and for defining groundwater flow boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, L. A.; Allen, D. M.

    2012-05-01

    Topographic influences on groundwater flow processes that contribute to baseflow and mountain block recharge (MBR) are conceptually investigated using three-dimensional numerical models of saturated groundwater flow. Model domains for conceptual and real topographies are developed as "mountain groundwatershed units" (MGUs) to represent regional-scale watershed systems. Results indicate regularity in groundwater flow patterns that reflect consistency of prominent topographic features, providing a basis for conceptualizing three-dimensional groundwater flow. Baseflow is generated mainly from recharge within the watershed area. MBR is produced primarily from recharge that is focused across triangular facets near the mountain front (˜73%-97% of total MBR), with additional contributions originating within the watershed (up to ˜27% of MBR). MBR contributions originating from recharge near the highest-elevation watershed boundaries are minimal but are greater for topography with less stream incision. With orographic influences, more MBR originates within the watershed. MBR rates are relatively consistent between models because of similarities in mountain front topography, while baseflow is variable. Gains and losses to systems via cross-watershed groundwater flux, generated because of topographic differences between adjacent watersheds, cause baseflow to vary by up to ˜10% but do not significantly influence MBR. In data-sparse regions such as mountains, a basic numerical modeling approach, using the MGU concept with topography data and mapped watershed boundaries, can be used to develop site-specific conceptual models to constrain water budgets, to delineate recharge areas, and to guide further investigation and data collection.

  20. Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Coastal Plain Aquifer System of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.; Pope, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    The groundwater model documented in this report simulates the transient evolution of water levels in the aquifers and confining units of the Virginia Coastal Plain and adjacent portions of Maryland and North Carolina since 1890. Groundwater withdrawals have lowered water levels in Virginia Coastal Plain aquifers and have resulted in drawdown in the Potomac aquifer exceeding 200 feet in some areas. The discovery of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and a revised conceptualization of the Potomac aquifer are two major changes to the hydrogeologic framework that have been incorporated into the groundwater model. The spatial scale of the model was selected on the basis of the primary function of the model of assessing the regional water-level responses of the confined aquifers beneath the Coastal Plain. The local horizontal groundwater flow through the surficial aquifer is not intended to be accurately simulated. Representation of recharge, evapotranspiration, and interaction with surface-water features, such as major rivers, lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean, enable simulation of shallow flow-system details that influence locations of recharge to and discharge from the deeper confined flow system. The increased density of groundwater associated with the transition from fresh to salty groundwater near the Atlantic Ocean affects regional groundwater flow and was simulated with the Variable Density Flow Process of SEAWAT (a U.S. Geological Survey program for simulation of three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and transport). The groundwater density distribution was generated by a separate 108,000-year simulation of Pleistocene freshwater flushing around the Chesapeake Bay impact crater during transient sea-level changes. Specified-flux boundaries simulate increasing groundwater underflow out of the model domain into Maryland and minor underflow from the Piedmont Province into the model domain. Reported withdrawals accounted for approximately

  1. Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater represents the terrestrial subsurface component of the hydrologic cycle. As such, groundwater is generally in motion, moving from elevated areas of recharge to lower areas of discharge. Groundwater usually moves in accordance with Darcy’s law (Dalmont, Paris: Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon, 1856). Groundwater residence times can be under a day in small upland catchments to over a million years in subcontinental-sized desert basins. The broadest definition of groundwater includes water in the unsaturated zone, considered briefly here. Water chemically bound to minerals, as in gypsum (CaSO4 • 2H2O) or hydrated clays, cannot flow in response to gradients in total hydraulic head (pressure head plus elevation head); such water is thus usually excluded from consideration as groundwater. In 1940, M. King Hubbert showed Darcy’s law to be a special case of thermodynamically based potential field equations governing fluid motion, thereby establishing groundwater hydraulics as a rigorous engineering science (Journal of Geology 48, pp. 785–944). The development of computer-enabled numerical methods for solving the field equations with real-world approximating geometries and boundary conditions in the mid-1960s ushered in the era of digital groundwater modeling. An estimated 30 percent of global fresh water is groundwater, compared to 0.3 percent that is surface water, 0.04 percent atmospheric water, and 70 percent that exists as ice, including permafrost (Shiklomanov and Rodda 2004, cited under Groundwater Occurrence). Groundwater thus constitutes the vast majority—over 98 percent—of the unfrozen fresh-water resources of the planet, excluding surface-water reservoirs. Environmental dimensions of groundwater are equally large, receiving attention on multiple disciplinary fronts. Riparian, streambed, and spring-pool habitats can be sensitively dependent on the amount and quality of groundwater inputs that modulate temperature and solutes

  2. Investigation of Groundwater Flow at Highway Construction Areas in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, Y.; Ji, S.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.

    2006-05-01

    Contamination by acid rock drainage was found at highway construction areas in Korea, where pyrites were included in materials to raise the ground level. To remediate the acid rock drainage, groundwater flow direction and total flow rate were investigated in addition to the relationship between groundwater and surface water. Multiple boreholes were installed for geological structure surveys, pumping tests, slug test and tracer tests. Geological survey showed that a water-table aquifer system included a relatively homogeneous earthen layer and an underlying undisturbed alluvial layer. Transmissivity and storativity of the upper layer were investigated 0.1-2.6m2/day and 0.3 relatively by pumping tests. Hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer was investigated 0.1m/day by slug tests. Chloride ion was used in tracer tests, which included a natural gradient method and a push-pull method. In the natural gradient method, it was failed to detect chloride ion in groundwater. In the push-pull test, dispersivity ranges from 0.001m to 0.3m for several drift time. With the characteristic parameters from aquifer tests and tracer tests, numerical modeling techniques were used to evaluate groundwater flow directions and rates. Boundary conditions were decided to reflect geological and geographical boundaries, like concrete barriers, water divides and rivers. Numerical simulations showed the differences between groundwater flow before constructions and that after constructions. After the highway constructions are finished, groundwater direction changes seriously and total amount of the acid rock drainage is estimated 166.5m3/day. To find out the effect of precipitation changes, several numerical simulations were performed. It was shown that total amount of the acid rock drainage ranges from 73.8m3/day in the dry season to 323.6m3/day in the rainy season.

  3. Modeling the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.; Hill, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a regional ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in the southwestern United States is discussed in the context of the fourteen guidelines of Hill (1998). This application of the guidelines demonstrates how they may be used for model calibration and evaluation, and to direct further model development and data collection. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  4. Estimation of the pore pressure distribution from three dimensional groundwater flow model at mine sites in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sangsoo; Jang, Myounghwan; Kim, Gyoungman; Kim, Donghui; Kim, Daehoon; Baek, Hwanjo

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities continually change the groundwater flow and associated pore pressure distributions within the rockmass around the mine openings or the open-pit bench during the operational periods. As the pore pressure distributions may substantially affect the mechanical behaviour or stability of the rockmass, it is important to monitor the variation of pore pressure incurred by mining operation. The pore pressure distributions within the rockmass can be derived using a two- or three-dimensional finite element groundwater flow model, adopted to simulate the groundwater flow. While the groundwater inflow at mines has generally been dealt with respect to the working environment, detailed case studies on the distribution of pore water pressure related to the stability analysis of mine openings have been relatively rare in Korea. Recently, however, as the health and safety problems are emerged for sustainable mining practice, these issues are of the major concerns for the mining industries. This study aims to establish a three dimensional groundwater flow model to estimate the pore pressure distributions in order to employ as an input parameter for numerical codes such as the FLAC 3D. Also, the groundwater flow simulated can be used for de-watering design at a mine site. The MINEDW code, a groundwater flow model code specifically developed to simulate the complicated hydro-geologic conditions related to mining, has mainly been used in this study. Based on the data collected from field surveys and literature reviews, a conceptual model was established and sensitivity analysis was performed.

  5. The impact of storativity on mixing in fluctuating groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, M.; Post, V.; Simmons, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Mixing and dispersion in groundwater systems are dominated by spatial heterogeneity and temporal flow fluctuations. It has been found that fluctuations parallel to the main flow directions only mildly impact on solute dispersion and have little influence on mixing if the medium is homogeneous (de Dreuzy et al., 2007; Kinzelbach and Ackerer, 1986; Goode and Konikow, 1990). However, most these findings were obtained under the pseudo steady state assumption, that is zero storativity, which implies an instantaneous flow response to hydraulic perturbation. With non-zero storativity, fluctuations in the flow boundary conditions propagate through the aquifer with a finite speed, which leads to a more complex time-dependent flow field. This is particularly important for tidally dominated coastal aquifers where accurate quantification of mixing is essential for achieving ground-water sustainability. The strategic objective of this study is to identify the interplay between temporal fluctuations, storativity and mixing. We perform two and three-dimensional simulations of transient flow and solute transport under velocity-dependent local scale dispersion. Mixing is characterized by the spatial moments of concentration. The enhanced solute mixing is quantified by an apparent dispersion coefficient. We systematically analyze the dependence of this dispersion coefficient on fluctuation amplitude, period, as well as storativity. Most importantly, we find that solute dispersion increases consistently with storativity. This may have important implications for the understanding of mixing and reaction processes in unconfined groundwater systems. References: -de Dreuzy, J-R. ; Carrera, J. ; Dentz, M. ; Le Borgne, T. (2012) Asymptotic dispersion for two-dimensional highly heterogeneous permeability fields under temporally fluctuating flow, Water Resour. Res., 48, W01532 -Kinzelbach, W., and P. Ackerer (1986), Mode'isation de la propagation d'un contaminant dans un champ d

  6. Simulating Regional Groundwater Flow Patterns in South Florida Using Density-Dependent Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, S. M.; Stevens, G. T.

    2008-05-01

    Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is the storage of fresh water in an aquifer via injection during times when water is available, and recovery of the water from the same aquifer via pumping during times when it is needed. ASR is one of the proposed alternatives recommended by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) to help with water supply, storage, and distribution of water in South Florida. To evaluate the numerous design considerations and the variation in aquifer response resulting from CERP ASR, regional density- dependent numerical modeling of the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) in the southern half of Florida is in progress. This modeling incorporates use of two density-dependent numerical codes, SEAWAT and WASH123D, and the synthesis of regional knowledge of the FAS in terms of geologic parameters, groundwater flow patterns, and salinity influences. Several challenges have been discovered in replicating the existing regional groundwater flow patterns, most notably, that in south-central Florida the simulated heads are considerably lower than observed values. Recent model studies of several factors that could affect south Florida regional flow patterns indicate that the inclusion of preferential flow as well as the effects of temperature on groundwater density yield results that are more consistent with observed values. Future work will focus on the investigation of field data to support the application of preferential flow and the addition of groundwater injection and withdrawal including existing and proposed ASR projects.

  7. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  8. Characterization of fracture aperture for groundwater flow and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, A.; Sato, H.; Tetsu, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents experiments and numerical analyses of flow and transport carried out on natural fractures and transparent replica of fractures. The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the role of heterogeneous aperture patterns on channelization of groundwater flow and dispersion in solute transport. The research proceeded as follows: First, a precision plane grinder was applied perpendicular to the fracture plane to characterize the aperture distribution on a natural fracture with 1 mm of increment size. Although both time and labor were intensive, this approach provided a detailed, three dimensional picture of the pattern of fracture aperture. This information was analyzed to provide quantitative measures for the fracture aperture distribution, including JRC (Joint Roughness Coefficient) and fracture contact area ratio. These parameters were used to develop numerical models with corresponding synthetic aperture patterns. The transparent fracture replica and numerical models were then used to study how transport is affected by the aperture spatial pattern. In the transparent replica, transmitted light intensity measured by a CCD camera was used to image channeling and dispersion due to the fracture aperture spatial pattern. The CCD image data was analyzed to obtain the quantitative fracture aperture and tracer concentration data according to Lambert-Beer's law. The experimental results were analyzed using the numerical models. Comparison of the numerical models to the transparent replica provided information about the nature of channeling and dispersion due to aperture spatial patterns. These results support to develop a methodology for defining representative fracture aperture of a simplified parallel fracture model for flow and transport in heterogeneous fractures for contaminant transport analysis.

  9. Simulation of groundwater flow around a pilot waste tire site

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Chyi, L.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    The groundwater system in the area contains several aquifers divided by underclays as confining layers. The three aquifers addressed under this research include the upper aquifer above the No. 6 underclay, the middle aquifer above the No. 5 underclay and the lower aquifer above the No. 4 underclay. A quasi-3D conceptual model is used in simulating groundwater flow and MODFLOW is used for the actual modeling. The boundary of the model area is defined by a local divide on the north, the Hugle Run on the west and the Temple Ditch on the east and the Sandy Creek on the south. The model consists of three aquifer layers and two confining layers. The upper one is unconfined, the middle one is a hybrid, and the lower one is confined. In the simulation of the upper aquifer, drain boundary condition is defined to include seepage. In the simulation of the middle aquifer, the Hugle Run and the Temple ditch associated with the alluvium represent a drain boundary and the Sand Creek to the south represents a constant head. The lower aquifer does not have a natural hydrogeologic boundary. The equipotential contours are assigned as constant head boundary. Simulation has indicated that minimal groundwater flow existed in the upper aquifer and it is flowing toward the southwest. Groundwater flow in the middle aquifer near the pilot waste site is somewhat divergent to the south. The velocity is slow near the site but increases quickly toward the southwest. Leakage from the upper aquifer appears to be predominant over the regional flow in the recharge of the middle aquifer. The lower aquifer is recharged mainly by the regional flow and is flowing almost due south.

  10. Bias in groundwater samples caused by wellbore flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn; Bennett, Gordon D.

    1989-01-01

    Proper design of physical installations and sampling procedures for groundwater monitoring networks is critical for the detection and analysis of possible contaminants. Monitoring networks associated with known contaminant sources sometimes include an array of monitoring wells with long well screens. The purpose of this paper is: (a) to report the results of a numerical experiment indicating that significant borehole flow can occur within long well screens installed in homogeneous aquifers with very small head differences in the aquifer (less than 0.01 feet between the top and bottom of the screen); (b) to demonstrate that contaminant monitoring wells with long screens may completely fail to fulfill their purpose in many groundwater environments.

  11. Modelling the effect of buried valleys on groundwater flow: case study in Ventspils vicinity, Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads; Bikse, Janis; Retike, Inga; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta

    2015-04-01

    encourage groundwater recharge from shallower aquifers. Modelling results with and without valleys shows that buried valleys affect piezometric head in narrow zone around valley. Sand and gravel filled buried valleys recharges confined aquifer with relatively "new" water, thus creating high vulnerability zones in the study area. This research is supported by European Regional Development Fund project Nr.2013/0054/2DP/2.1.1.1.0/13/APIA/VIAA/007 and NRP project EVIDENnT project "Groundwater and climate scenarios" subproject "Groundwater Research". References: Virbulis, J., Timuhins, A., Klints, I., Seņņikovs, J., Bethers, U., Popovs, K. 2012. Script based MOSYS system for the generation of a three dimensional geological structure and the calculation of groundwater flow: case study of the Baltic Artesian Basin. In: Highlights of groundwater research in the Baltic Artesian Basin. University of Latvia, Riga, pp. 53-74.

  12. Interbasin groundwater flow and groundwater interaction with surface water in a lowland rainforest, Costa Rica: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genereux, David P.; Jordan, Michael

    2006-04-01

    This paper reviews work related to interbasin groundwater flow (naturally occurring groundwater flow beneath watershed topographic divides) into lowland rainforest watersheds at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Chemical mixing calculations (based on dissolved chloride) have shown that up to half the water in some streams and up to 84% of the water in some riparian seeps and wells is due to high-solute interbasin groundwater flow (IGF). The contribution is even greater for major ions; IGF accounts for well over 90% of the major ions at these sites. Proportions are highly variable both among watersheds and with elevation within the same watershed (there is greater influence of IGF at lower elevations). The large proportion of IGF found in water in some riparian wetlands suggests that IGF is largely responsible for maintaining these wetlands. δ 18O data support the conclusions from the major ion data. Annual water and major ion budgets for two adjacent watersheds, one affected by IGF and the other not, showed that IGF accounted for two-thirds of the water input and 92-99% of the major ion input (depending on the major ion in question) to the former watershed. The large (in some cases, dominating) influence of IGF on watershed surface water quantity and quality has important implications for stream ecology and watershed management in this lowland rainforest. Because of its high phosphorus content, IGF increases a variety of ecological variables (algal growth rates, leaf decay rate, fungal biomass, invertebrate biomass, microbial respiration rates on leaves) in streams at La Selva. The significant rates of IGF at La Selva also suggest the importance of regional (as opposed to small-scale local) water resource planning that links lowland watersheds with regional groundwater. IGF is a relatively unexplored and potentially critical factor in the conservation of lowland rainforest.

  13. Groundwater availability as constrained by hydrogeology and environmental flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Katelyn A.; Mayer, Alex S.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers in hydraulic connection with nearby streams has the potential to cause adverse impacts by decreasing flows to levels below those necessary to maintain aquatic ecosystems. The recent passage of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact has brought attention to this issue in the Great Lakes region. In particular, the legislation requires the Great Lakes states to enact measures for limiting water withdrawals that can cause adverse ecosystem impacts. This study explores how both hydrogeologic and environmental flow limitations may constrain groundwater availability in the Great Lakes Basin. A methodology for calculating maximum allowable pumping rates is presented. Groundwater availability across the basin may be constrained by a combination of hydrogeologic yield and environmental flow limitations varying over both local and regional scales. The results are sensitive to factors such as pumping time, regional and local hydrogeology, streambed conductance, and streamflow depletion limits. Understanding how these restrictions constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions has important water resources policy and management implications.

  14. Groundwater availability as constrained by hydrogeology and environmental flows.

    PubMed

    Watson, Katelyn A; Mayer, Alex S; Reeves, Howard W

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers in hydraulic connection with nearby streams has the potential to cause adverse impacts by decreasing flows to levels below those necessary to maintain aquatic ecosystems. The recent passage of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact has brought attention to this issue in the Great Lakes region. In particular, the legislation requires the Great Lakes states to enact measures for limiting water withdrawals that can cause adverse ecosystem impacts. This study explores how both hydrogeologic and environmental flow limitations may constrain groundwater availability in the Great Lakes Basin. A methodology for calculating maximum allowable pumping rates is presented. Groundwater availability across the basin may be constrained by a combination of hydrogeologic yield and environmental flow limitations varying over both local and regional scales. The results are sensitive to factors such as pumping time, regional and local hydrogeology, streambed conductance, and streamflow depletion limits. Understanding how these restrictions constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions has important water resources policy and management implications.

  15. Use of RORA for Complex Ground-Water Flow Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    The RORA computer program for estimating recharge is based on a condition in which ground water flows perpendicular to the nearest stream that receives ground-water discharge. The method, therefore, does not explicitly account for the ground-water-flow component that is parallel to the stream. Hypothetical finite-difference simulations are used to demonstrate effects of complex flow conditions that consist of two components: one that is perpendicular to the stream and one that is parallel to the stream. Results of the simulations indicate that the RORA program can be used if certain constraints are applied in the estimation of the recession index, an input variable to the program. These constraints apply to a mathematical formulation based on aquifer properties, recession of ground-water levels, and recession of streamflow.

  16. The fractional Boussinesq equation of groundwater flow and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ninghu

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a set of fractional Boussinesq equations (fBEs) for groundwater flow in confined and unconfined aquifers and demonstrates the application of one of the fBEs for groundwater discharges known as recession curves. The fBEs are formulated with two-term distributed fractional orders in time and symmetrical fractional derivatives (SFD) in space applicable to both confined and unconfined aquifers. The SFD in theory consists of the forward fractional derivative (FFD) and the backward fractional derivative (BFD). The FFD represents the forward movement of water along the direction of mainstream flow while the BFD accounts for the backward motion of water in the direction opposite to the mainstream flow. The backward flow at the pore level can be referred to as the micro-scale backwater effect. The analogue of the backwater effect on a micro-scale using the BFD coincides with the wandering processes based on the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) theory which results in the fractional governing equation. With the analytical solutions of the fBE for given initial and boundary conditions of the first type for a finite depth, a set of formulae for groundwater recession has been derived using approximate solutions of the fBE. The examples of the applications of the recession curves are graphically illustrated and the effects of the orders of fractional derivatives on the geometry of the flow curves examined.

  17. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  18. Effects of warming on groundwater flow in mountainous snowmelt-dominated catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. G.; Ge, S.; Molotch, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous regions, warmer air temperatures have led to an earlier onset of spring snowmelt and lower snowmelt rates; i.e. because snowmelt has shifted earlier when energy availability is lower. These changes to snowmelt will likely affect the partitioning of snowmelt water between surface runoff and groundwater flow, and therefore, the lag time between snowmelt and streamflow. While the connection between snowmelt and surface runoff has been well-studied, the impact of snowmelt variability on groundwater flow processes has received limited attention, especially in mountainous catchments. We construct a two-dimensional, finite element, coupled flow and heat transport hydrogeologic model to evaluate how changes in snowmelt onset and rate may alter groundwater discharge to streams in mountainous catchments. The coupled hydrogeologic model simulates seasonally frozen ground by incorporating permeability variation as a function of temperature and allows for modeling of pore water freeze and thaw. We apply the model to the Green Lakes Valley (GLV) watershed in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, a representative snowmelt-dominated catchment. Snowmelt for the GLV catchment is reconstructed from a 12 year (1996-2007) dataset of hydrometeorological records and satellite-derived snow covered area. Modeling results suggest that on a yearly cycle, groundwater infiltration and discharge is limited by the seasonally frozen subsurface. Under average conditions from 1996 to 2007, maximum groundwater discharge to the surface lags maximum snowmelt by approximately two months. Ongoing modeling is exploring how increasing air temperatures affect lag times between snowmelt and groundwater discharge to streams. This study has implications for water resource availability and its temporal variability in a warming global climate.

  19. Concepts of Groundwater Occurrence and Flow Near Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of the area near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) assumed that nearly all groundwater from precipitation and infiltration moves vertically down to the water table and then follows a combination of intergranular and fracture flow paths to the streams. These studies also generally assumed nearly linear flow paths, amounts of groundwater flow that are determined by differences in water-level elevation, large permeability differences between regolith and bedrock, and important hydrologic differences between named geologic units. It has been commonly stated for 37 years, for example, that the Conasauga Group has fewer cavities and is less permeable than the Chickamauga Group. All of these assumptions and conclusions are faulty. The new concepts in this report may be controversial, but they explain the available data. Only the stormflow zone from land surface to a depth of 1-2 m has a permeability large enough to transport most groundwater to the streams. Calculations show that 90-95% of all groundwater flow is in the stormflow zone, 4-9% is in a few water-producing intervals below the water table, and about 1% occurs in other intervals. The available data also show that nearly all groundwater flows through enlarged openings such as macropores, fractures, and cavities, and that there are no significant differences between regolith and bedrock or between the Conasauga Group and the Chickamauga group. Flow paths apparently are much more complex than was previously assumed. Multiple paths connect any two points below the water table, and each flow path is more likely to be tortuous than linear. Hydraulic gradients are affected by this complexity and by changes in hydraulic potential on steep hillsides. Below the water table, a large difference in the head of two points generally does not indicate a large flow rate between these points. Groundwater storage in amounts above field capacity is apparently intergranular in only the stormflow and vadose zones

  20. Hydrogeology and Simulated Ground-Water Flow in the Salt Pond Region of Southern Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Stone, Janet R.; Moran, S. Bradley; Hougham, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The Salt Pond region of southern Rhode Island extends from Westerly to Narragansett Bay and forms the natural boundary between the Atlantic Ocean and the shallow, highly permeable freshwater aquifer of the South Coastal Basin. Large inputs of fresh ground water coupled with the low flushing rates to the open ocean make the salt ponds particularly susceptible to eutrophication and bacterial contamination. Ground-water discharge to the salt ponds is an important though poorly quantified source of contaminants, such as dissolved nutrients. A ground-water-flow model was developed and used to delineate the watersheds to the salt ponds, including the areas that contribute ground water directly to the ponds and the areas that contribute ground water to streams that flow into ponds. The model also was used to calculate ground-water fluxes to these coastal areas for long-term average conditions. As part of the modeling analysis, adjustments were made to model input parameters to assess potential uncertainties in model-calculated watershed delineations and in ground-water discharge to the salt ponds. The results of the simulations indicate that flow to the salt ponds is affected primarily by the ease with which water is transmitted through a glacial moraine deposit near the regional ground-water divide, and by the specified recharge rate used in the model simulations. The distribution of the total freshwater flow between direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds is affected primarily by simulated stream characteristics, including the streambed-aquifer connection and the stream stage. The simulated position of the ground-water divide and, therefore, the model-calculated watershed delineations for the salt ponds, were affected only by changes in the transmissivity of the glacial moraine. Selected changes in other simulated hydraulic parameters had substantial effects on total freshwater discharge and the

  1. Using multivariate statistical analysis of groundwater major cation and trace element concentrations to evaluate groundwater flow in a regional aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetzenbach, Klaus J.; Farnham, Irene M.; Hodge, Vernon F.; Johannesson, Kevin H.

    1999-12-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 11 springs in Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in southern Nevada and seven springs from Death Valley National Park in eastern California. Concentrations of the major cations (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and 45 trace elements were determined in these groundwater samples. The resultant data were subjected to evaluation via the multivariate statistical technique principal components analysis (PCA), to investigate the chemical relationships between the Ash Meadows and Death Valley spring waters, to evaluate whether the results of the PCA support those of previous hydrogeological and isotopic studies and to determine if PCA can be used to help delineate potential groundwater flow patterns based on the chemical compositions of groundwaters. The results of the PCA indicated that groundwaters from the regional Paleozoic carbonate aquifers (all of the Ash Meadows springs and four springs from the Furnace Creek region of Death Valley) exhibited strong statistical associations, whereas other Death Valley groundwaters were chemically different. The results of the PCA support earlier studies, where potentiometric head levels, 18O and D, geological relationships and rare earth element data were used to evaluate groundwater flow, which suggest groundwater flows from Ash Meadows to the Furnace Creek springs in Death Valley. The PCA suggests that Furnace Creek groundwaters are moderately concentrated Ash Meadows groundwater, reflecting longer aquifer residence times for the Furnace Creek groundwaters. Moreover, PCA indicates that groundwater may flow from springs in the region surrounding Scotty's Castle in Death Valley National Park, to a spring discharging on the valley floor. The study indicates that PCA may provide rapid and relatively cost-effective methods to assess possible groundwater flow regimes in systems that have not been previously investigated.

  2. Groundwater Flow Through a Constructed Treatment Wetland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    references present techniques for flow net construction (Freeze and Cherry, 1979; Cedergren , 1989; Fetter, 1994; Kresic, 1997). All of these authors...Brix, H. “Functions of Macrophytes in Constructed Wetlands,” Water Science & Technology, 29(4): 71-78 (1994). Cedergren , H.R. Seepage

  3. Groundwater flow in heterogeneous composite aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, C. L.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2002-08-01

    We introduce a stochastic model of flow through highly heterogeneous, composite porous media that greatly improves estimates of pressure head statistics. Composite porous media consist of disjoint blocks of permeable materials, each block comprising a single material type. Within a composite medium, hydraulic conductivity can be represented through a pair of random processes: (1) a boundary process that determines block arrangement and extent and (2) a stationary process that defines conductivity within a given block. We obtain second-order statistics for hydraulic conductivity in the composite model and then contrast them with statistics obtained from a standard univariate model that ignores the boundary process and treats a composite medium as if it were statistically homogeneous. Next, we develop perturbation expansions for the first two moments of head and contrast them with expansions based on the homogeneous approximation. In most cases the bivariate model leads to much sharper perturbation approximations than does the usual model of flow through an undifferentiated material when both are applied to highly heterogeneous media. We make this statement precise. We illustrate the composite model with examples of one-dimensional flows which are interesting in their own right and which allow us to compare the accuracy of perturbation approximations of head statistics to exact analytical solutions. We also show the boundary process of our bivariate model is equivalent to the indicator functions often used to represent composite media in Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Thermal effects of groundwater flow through subarctic fens: A case study based on field observations and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, Ylva; Coon, Ethan; Sannel, A. Britta K.; Pannetier, Romain; Harp, Dylan; Frampton, Andrew; Painter, Scott L.; Lyon, Steve W.

    2016-03-01

    Modeling and observation of ground temperature dynamics are the main tools for understanding current permafrost thermal regimes and projecting future thaw. Until recently, most studies on permafrost have focused on vertical ground heat fluxes. Groundwater can transport heat in both lateral and vertical directions but its influence on ground temperatures at local scales in permafrost environments is not well understood. In this study we combine field observations from a subarctic fen in the sporadic permafrost zone with numerical simulations of coupled water and thermal fluxes. At the Tavvavuoma study site in northern Sweden, ground temperature profiles and groundwater levels were observed in boreholes. These observations were used to set up one- and two-dimensional simulations down to 2 m depth across a gradient of permafrost conditions within and surrounding the fen. Two-dimensional scenarios representing the fen under various hydraulic gradients were developed to quantify the influence of groundwater flow on ground temperature. Our observations suggest that lateral groundwater flow significantly affects ground temperatures. This is corroborated by modeling results that show seasonal ground ice melts 1 month earlier when a lateral groundwater flux is present. Further, although the thermal regime may be dominated by vertically conducted heat fluxes during most of the year, isolated high groundwater flow rate events such as the spring freshet are potentially important for ground temperatures. As sporadic permafrost environments often contain substantial portions of unfrozen ground with active groundwater flow paths, knowledge of this heat transport mechanism is important for understanding permafrost dynamics in these environments.

  5. Thermal effects of groundwater flow through subarctic fens: A case study based on field observations and numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sjöberg, Ylva; Coon, Ethan; K. Sannel, A. Britta; Pannetier, Romain; Harp, Dylan; Frampton, Andrew; Painter, Scott L.; Lyon, Steve W.

    2016-02-05

    Modeling and observation of ground temperature dynamics are the main tools for understanding current permafrost thermal regimes and projecting future thaw. Until recently, most studies on permafrost have focused on vertical ground heat fluxes. Groundwater can transport heat in both lateral and vertical directions but its influence on ground temperatures at local scales in permafrost environments is not well understood. In this paper, we combine field observations from a subarctic fen in the sporadic permafrost zone with numerical simulations of coupled water and thermal fluxes. At the Tavvavuoma study site in northern Sweden, ground temperature profiles and groundwater levels were observed in boreholes. These observations were used to set up one- and two-dimensional simulations down to 2 m depth across a gradient of permafrost conditions within and surrounding the fen. Two-dimensional scenarios representing the fen under various hydraulic gradients were developed to quantify the influence of groundwater flow on ground temperature. Our observations suggest that lateral groundwater flow significantly affects ground temperatures. This is corroborated by modeling results that show seasonal ground ice melts 1 month earlier when a lateral groundwater flux is present. Further, although the thermal regime may be dominated by vertically conducted heat fluxes during most of the year, isolated high groundwater flow rate events such as the spring freshet are potentially important for ground temperatures. Finally, as sporadic permafrost environments often contain substantial portions of unfrozen ground with active groundwater flow paths, knowledge of this heat transport mechanism is important for understanding permafrost dynamics in these environments.

  6. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  7. Dolomitization by ground-water flow systems in carbonate platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, M.

    1984-09-01

    Dolomite occurs throughout the subsurface of modern carbonate platforms such as the Bahamas. Groundwater flow systems must be responsible for delivery of reactants needed for dolomitization. Reflux, freshwater lens flows, and thermal convection are large-scale flow systems that may be widespread in active platforms. The author has evaluated some aspects of the dynamics and characteristics of these processes with ground-water flow theory and by scaled sandbox experiments. Reflux is not restricted to hypersaline brines, but can occur with bankwaters of only slightly elevated salinity such as those found on the Bahama Banks today (42%). The lack of evaporites in a stratigraphic section, therefore, does not rule out the possibility that reflux may have operated. Flows associated with freshwater lenses include flow in the lens, in the mixing zone, and in the seawater beneath and offshore of the lens. Upward transfer of seawater through the platform margins occurs when surrounding cold ocean water migrates into the platform and is heated. This type of thermal convection (Kohout convection) has been studied by Francis Kohout in south Florida. The ranges of mass flux of magnesium in these processes are all comparable and are all sufficient to account for young dolomites beneath modern platforms. Each process yields dolomitized zones of characteristic shape and location and perhaps may be distinguishable in ancient rocks. The concepts presented here may have application to exploration for dolomite reservoirs in the Gulf Coast and elsewhere.

  8. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Thomas; F.C. Benedict, Jr.; T.P. Rose; R.L. Hershey; J.B. Paces; Z.E. Peterman; I.M. Farnham; K.H. Johannesson; A.K. Singh; K.J. Stetzenbach; G.B. Hudson; J.M. Kenneally; G.F. Eaton; D.K. Smith

    2003-01-08

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  10. Modelling Water Flow In An Alluvial Groundwater-fed Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joris, I.; Feyen, J.

    Complex hydrological interactions occur within alluvial wetlands as a result of fluxes of water to and from the river, atmospheric fluxes and groundwater interactions. The relative importance of these fluxes and their interaction are responsible for the root zone conditions, which in turn determine the potential for different types of natu- ral vegetation. In this research, field data and numerical modeling are combined to examine the water flow processes occurring in an alluvial wetland and to develop a tool to asses the sensitivity of root zone conditions to changes in hydrological bound- ary conditions. The investigated field site is a wetland along the river Dijle with a typical micro-topography with natural levees along the river and depressions further from the river. It is a highly dynamical system with ground water amplitudes ranging from 1,5 meters close to the river to 0,5 meters in the floodplain depression. Along a transect perpendicular to the river, groundwater level and soil moisture content have been monitored for a period of two years. Groundwater inflow at the site is estimated from measurements of nested piezometers, from a regional groundwater model and from recorded soil temperature profiles. Soil hydraulic parameters are measured in the laboratory on undisturbed field cores. Saturated soil moisture contents show a sys- tematic variation with distance from the river, consistent with the observed textural variation typical for alluvial plains. The SWMS-2D code for simulating water flow in two-dimensional variably saturated media is used to reconstruct pressure head and moisture content distributions along the transect. The boundary conditions of the sim- ulation domain are determined by piezometric level in the depression, river stage on the other side, the groundwater inflow from the shallow aquifer at the bottom and rainfall/evapotranspiration at the top of the domain. Scaling factors are included in the model to allow linear variations of the

  11. On the mechanism of earthquake induced groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley Ward, Nicholas F.

    2015-11-01

    The Canterbury/Christchurch earthquakes and aftershocks of 2010-2011 generated groundwater level responses throughout New Zealand. However, the greater part of damage was sustained by the city of Christchurch which is built on a layered sequence of artesian aquifers. In a previous paper we analysed the earthquake induced groundwater responses. We quantified groundwater responses by fitting a simple statistical model which differentiated between immediate earthquake induced response (spike) and post-seismic change (offset). The most notable feature of this analysis was the consistency of responses between the earthquakes: deeper wells correlate with negative offset and shallower wells correlate with positive offset. In that paper we argued that this is consistent with the upwards vertical movement of water. In this paper we focus on the physical mechanisms, and consider a model that further explains and supports this hypothesis. We postulate a groundwater flow model in which storativity and aquitard permeability are modelled as time-varying shocks. We analyse the solutions for a range of non-dimensional parameters and obtain type curves that exhibit the same behaviour as the observed responses. Finally we consider data from the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury) earthquake.

  12. 13. Groundwater in urban seashore sediments affected by tunnel constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a planned tunnel construction on the local groundwater level in the archeological deposits at the Old Wharf (Bryggen) of Bergen. The groundwater level is a function of infiltration rates, transmissivity, and boundary conditions. These variables were deduced from available data and supplemented by leakage measurements into the existing Railway tunnel located upstream of the Bryggen area. Previous studies have documented that the pore water in the deposits at Bryggen has different origin (viz fresh precipitation; leakage from drainage systems; infiltration of seawater; infiltration via the bedrock). The catchment of Bryggen is characterized by variable topography (from sea level to about 500 m a.m.s.l.) and steep gradients. Major parts of the catchment have very sparse sediment cover and can be considered as exposed bedrock. The major sediment volumes are deposited close to the sea front. In the upper part of the catchment, the groundwater level in the bedrock is close to the surface. Some observations indicate that boreholes located in lower part of the catchment have artesian pressure, which implies that there is a groundwater flux from the bedrock and into the sediments. Based on this conceptual model, a numerical model was constructed where the seawater was the boundary condition at one side and the groundwater divide on the other side. Transmissivities in the bedrock were deduced from pumping analysis, and steady state infiltration rates was calibrated to give simulated groundwater levels that were consistent to observations. Given these model simplifications, it was possible to calculate a groundwater level in the sediments at Bryggen were all water into the sediments came from the bedrock only. The simulated groundwater level captured roughly the observed groundwater levels. After simulation of the natural groundwater level (i.e. without any artificial extraction of water in the catchment), the impact of

  13. Deterministic modelling of the cumulative impacts of underground structures on urban groundwater flow and the definition of a potential state of urban groundwater flow: example of Lyon, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Winiarski, Thierry; Cuvillier, Loann; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Underground structures have been shown to have a great influence on subsoil resources in urban aquifers. A methodology to assess the actual and the potential state of the groundwater flow in an urban area is proposed. The study develops a three-dimensional modeling approach to understand the cumulative impacts of underground infrastructures on urban groundwater flow, using a case in the city of Lyon (France). All known underground structures were integrated in the numerical model. Several simulations were run: the actual state of groundwater flow, the potential state of groundwater flow (without underground structures), an intermediate state (without impervious structures), and a transient simulation of the actual state of groundwater flow. The results show that underground structures fragment groundwater flow systems leading to a modification of the aquifer regime. For the case studied, the flow systems are shown to be stable over time with a transient simulation. Structures with drainage systems are shown to have a major impact on flow systems. The barrier effect of impervious structures was negligible because of the small hydraulic gradient of the area. The study demonstrates that the definition of a potential urban groundwater flow and the depiction of urban flow systems, which involves understanding the impact of underground structures, are important issues with respect to urban underground planning.

  14. Groundwater flow model for the Little Plover River basin in Wisconsin’s Central Sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ken Bradbury,; Fienen, Michael; Maribeth Kniffin,; Jacob Krause,; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Leaf, Andrew T.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    The Little Plover River is a groundwater-fed stream in the sand plains region of central Wisconsin. In this region, sandy sediment deposited during or soon after the last glaciation forms an important unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. This aquifer supplies water for numerous high-capacity irrigation, municipal, and industrial wells that support a thriving agricultural industry. In recent years the addition of many new wells, combined with observed diminished flows in the Little Plover and other nearby rivers, has raised concerns about the impacts of the wells on groundwater levels and on water levels and flows in nearby lakes, streams, and wetlands. Diverse stakeholder groups, including well operators, Growers, environmentalists, local land owners, and regulatory and government officials have sought a better understanding of the local groundwater-surface water system and have a shared desire to balance the water needs of the he liagricultural, industrial, and urban users with the maintenance and protection of groundwater-dependent natural resources. To help address these issues, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources requested that the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey and U.S. Geological Survey cooperatively develop a groundwater flow model that could be used to demonstrate the relationships among groundwater, surface water, and well withdrawals and also be a tool for testing and evaluating alternative water management strategies for the central sands region. Because of an abundance of previous studies, data availability, local interest, and existing regulatory constraints the model focuses on the Little Plover River watershed, but the modeling methodology developed during this study can apply to much of the larger central sands of Wisconsin. The Little Plover River groundwater flow model simulates three-dimensional groundwater movement in and around the Little Plover River basin under steady-state and transient conditions. This model

  15. Ground-water levels, predevelopment ground-water flow, and stream-aquifer relations in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site, Georgia and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; West, Christopher T.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water levels, predevelopment ground-water flow, and stream-aquifer relations in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Georgia and South Carolina, were evaluated as part of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Energy, and Georgia Department of Natural Resources. As part of this evaluation: (1) ground-water-level fluctuations and trends in three aquifer systems in sediment of Cretaceous and Tertiary age were described and related to patterns of ground-water use and precipitations; (2) a conceptual model ofthe stream-aquifer flow system was developed; (3) the predevelopment ground-water flow system, configuration of potentiometric surfaces, trans-river flow, and recharge-discharge relations were described; and (4) stream-aquifer relations and the influence of river incision on ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations were described. The 5,147-square mile study area is located in the northern part of the Coastal Plain physiographic province of Georgia and South Carolina. Coastal Plain sediments comprise three aquifer systems consisting of seven aquifers that are separated hydraulically by confining units. The aquifer systems are, in descending order: (1) the Floridan aquifer system?consisting of the Upper Three Runs and Gordon aquifers in sediments of Eocene age; (2) the Dublin aquifer system?consisting of the Millers Pond, upper Dublin, and lower Dublin aquifers in sediments of Paleocene-Late Cretaceous age; and (3) the Midville aquifer system?consisting of the upper Midville and lower Midville aquifers in sediments of Late Cretaceous age. The Upper Three Runs aquifer is the shallowest aquifer and is unconfined to semi-confined throughout most of the study area. Ground-water levels in the Upper Three Runs aquifer respond to a local flow system and are affected mostly by topography and climate. Ground-water flow in the deeper, Gordon aquifer and Dublin and Midville aquifer systems is

  16. Tide-induced fingering flow during submarine groundwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greskowiak, Janek

    2013-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a relevant component of the hydrological cycle (Moore, 2010). The discharge of fresh groundwater that originated from precipitation on the land typically occurs at the near shore scale (~ 10m-100m) and the embayment scale (~ 100m - 10km) (Bratton, 2010). In the recent years a number of studies revealed that tidal forcing has an important effect on the fresh SGD pattern in the beach zone, i.e., it leads to the formation of an upper saline recirculation cell and a lower "freshwater discharge tube" (Boufadel, 2000, Robinson et al., 2007; Kuan et al., 2012). Thereby the discharge of the fresh groundwater occurs near the low-tide mark. The shape and extent of the upper saline recirculation cell is mainly defined by the tidal amplitude, beach slope, fresh groundwater discharge rate and hydraulic conductivity (Robinson et al., 2007). In spite of fact that in this case sea water overlies less denser freshwater, all previous modeling studies suggested that the saline recirculation cell and the freshwater tube are rather stable. However, new numerical investigations indicate that there maybe realistic cases where the upper saline recirculation cell becomes unstable as a result of the density contrast to the underlying freshwater tube. In these cases salt water fingers develop and move downward, thereby penetrating the freshwater tube. To the author's knowledge, the present study is the first that illustrate the possibility of density induced fingering flow during near shore SGD. A total of 240 high resolution simulations with the density dependent groundwater modelling software SEAWAT-2000 (Langevin et al., 2007) has been carried out to identify the conditions under which salt water fingering starts to occur. The simulations are based on the field-scale model setup employed in Robinson et al. (2007). The simulation results indicate that a very flat beach slope of less than 1:35, a hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d and already a tidal

  17. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    allow for the groundwater flow and transport modeling at the large scale and could be successively linked to some more site-specific transport multi-reactive models focused on the modeling of some specific contaminants.

  18. Noble gas loss may indicate groundwater flow across flow barriers in southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.M.; Bryant, Hudson G.; Stute, M.; Clark, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Average calculated noble gas temperatures increase from 10 to 22oC in groundwater from recharge to discharge areas in carbonate-rock aquifers of southern Nevada. Loss of noble gases from groundwater in these regional flow systems at flow barriers is the likely process that produces an increase in recharge noble gas temperatures. Emplacement of low permeability rock into high permeability aquifer rock and the presence of low permeability shear zones reduce aquifer thickness from thousands to tens of meters. At these flow barriers, which are more than 1,000 m lower than the average recharge altitude, noble gases exsolve from the groundwater by inclusion in gas bubbles formed near the barriers because of greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure. However, re-equilibration of noble gases in the groundwater with atmospheric air at the low altitude spring discharge area, at the terminus of the regional flow system, cannot be ruled out. Molecular diffusion is not an important process for removing noble gases from groundwater in the carbonate-rock aquifers because concentration gradients are small.

  19. Upper washita river experimental watersheds: reservoir, groundwater, and stream flow data.

    PubMed

    Moriasi, Daniel N; Starks, Patrick J; Guzman, Jorge A; Garbrecht, Jurgen D; Steiner, Jean L; Stoner, J Chris; Allen, Paul B; Naney, James W

    2014-07-01

    Surface and groundwater quantity and quality data are essential in many hydrologic applications and to the development of hydrologic and water quality simulation models. We describe the hydrologic data available in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) of the Southern Great Plains Research Watershed (SGPRW) and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watershed (FCREW), both located in southwest Oklahoma. Specifically, we describe the flood retarding structures and corresponding stage, discharge, seepage, and consumptive use data (), stream gauges, and groundwater wells and their corresponding stream flow (; LWREW ARS 522-526 stream gauges) and groundwater level data (SGPRW groundwater levels data; LWREW groundwater data; ; ), respectively. Data collection is a collaborative effort between federal and state agencies. Stage, discharge, seepage, and consumptive use data for the Fort Cobb Reservoir are available from the Bureau of Reclamation and cover a period of 1959 to present. There are 15 stream gauges in the LWREW and six in the FCREW with varying data records. There were 479 observation wells with data in the SGPRW and 80 in the LWREW, with the latest records collected in 1992. In addition, groundwater level data are available from five real-time monitoring wells and 34 historical wells within the FCREW. These data sets have been used for several research applications. Plans for detailed groundwater data collection are underway to calibrate and validate the linked Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)-MODFLOW model. Also, plans are underway to conduct reservoir bathymetric surveys to determine the current reservoir capacity as affected by land use/land cover and overland and stream channel soil erosion.

  20. The 2016 groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsen, Michael J.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Hunt, Randall J.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    A new groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin, replaces an earlier model developed in the 1990s by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This modeling study was conducted cooperatively by the WGNHS and the USGS with funding from the Capital Area Regional Planning Commission (CARPC). Although the overall conceptual model of the groundwater system remains largely unchanged, the incorporation of newly acquired high-quality datasets, recent research findings, and improved modeling and calibration techniques have led to the development of a more detailed and sophisticated model representation of the groundwater system. The new model is three-dimensional and transient, and conceptualizes the county’s hydrogeology as a 12-layer system including all major unlithified and bedrock hydrostratigraphic units and two high-conductivity horizontal fracture zones. Beginning from the surface down, the model represents the unlithified deposits as two distinct model layers (1 and 2). A single layer (3) simulates the Ordovician sandstone and dolomite of the Sinnipee, Ancell, and Prairie du Chien Groups. Sandstone of the Jordan Formation (layer 4) and silty dolostone of the St. Lawrence Formation (layer 5) each comprise separate model layers. The underlying glauconitic sandstone of the Tunnel City Group makes up three distinct layers: an upper aquifer (layer 6), a fracture feature (layer 7), and a lower aquifer (layer 8). The fracture layer represents a network of horizontal bedding-plane fractures that serve as a preferential pathway for groundwater flow. The model simulates the sandstone of the Wonewoc Formation as an upper aquifer (layer 9) with a bedding-plane fracture feature (layer 10) at its base. The Eau Claire aquitard (layer 11) includes shale beds within the upper portion of the Eau Claire Formation. This layer, along with overlying bedrock units, is mostly absent in the preglacially eroded valleys along

  1. Deep Tunnel in Transversely Anisotropic Rock with Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobet, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Closed-form solutions for the stresses and deformations induced in the ground and tunnel liner are provided for a deep tunnel in a transversely anisotropic elastic rock, with anisotropic permeability, when subjected to groundwater seepage. Complex variable theory and conformal mapping are used to obtain the solutions; additional complex functions, necessary to prevent multiple solutions of the displacements, are included. The analytical solutions are verified by comparing their results from those of a finite element method. Simplified formulations are presented for tunnels with a perfectly flexible and completely incompressible liner. A spreadsheet is included that can be used to obtain stresses and displacements of the liner due to groundwater flow and far-field geostatic stresses.

  2. Glaciation and regional ground-water flow in the Fennoscandian Shield: Site 94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, Alden M.; Voss, Clifford I.; Neuzil, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Results from a regional-scale ground-water flow model of the Fennoscandian shield suggest that ground-water flow is strongly affected by surface conditions associated with climatic change and glaciation. The model was used to run a series of numerical simulations of variable-density ground-water flow in a 1500-km-long and approximately 10-km-deep cross-section that passes through southern Sweden. Ground-water flow and shield brine transport in the cross-sectional model are controlled by an assumed time evolution of surface conditions over the next 140 ka. Simulations show that, under periglacial conditions, permafrost may locally or extensively impede the free recharge or discharge of ground water. Below cold-based glacial ice, no recharge or discharge of ground water occurs. Both of these conditions result in the settling of shield brine and consequent freshening of near-surface water in areas of natural discharge blocked by permafrost. The presence of warm-based ice with basal melting creates a potential for ground-water recharge rates much larger than under present, ice-free conditions. Recharging basal meltwater can reach depths of a few kilometers in a few thousand years. The vast majority of recharged water is accommodated through storage in the volume of bedrock below the local area of recharge; regional (lateral) redistribution of recharged water by subsurface flow is minor over the duration of a glacial advance (~10 ka). During glacial retreat, the weight of the ice overlying a given surface location decreases, and significant upward flow of ground water may occur below the ice sheet due to pressure release, despite the continued potential for recharge of basal meltwater. Excess meltwater must exit from below the glacier through subglacial cavities and channels. Subsurface penetration of meltwater during glacial advance and up-flow during glacial retreat are greatest if the loading efficiency of the shield rock is low. The maximum rate of ground-water

  3. A correction on coastal heads for groundwater flow models.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunhui; Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a simple correction to coastal heads for constant-density groundwater flow models that contain a coastal boundary, based on previous analytical solutions for interface flow. The results demonstrate that accurate discharge to the sea in confined aquifers can be obtained by direct application of Darcy's law (for constant-density flow) if the coastal heads are corrected to ((α + 1)/α)hs  - B/2α, in which hs is the mean sea level above the aquifer base, B is the aquifer thickness, and α is the density factor. For unconfined aquifers, the coastal head should be assigned the value hs1+α/α. The accuracy of using these corrections is demonstrated by consistency between constant-density Darcy's solution and variable-density flow numerical simulations. The errors introduced by adopting two previous approaches (i.e., no correction and using the equivalent fresh water head at the middle position of the aquifer to represent the hydraulic head at the coastal boundary) are evaluated. Sensitivity analysis shows that errors in discharge to the sea could be larger than 100% for typical coastal aquifer parameter ranges. The location of observation wells relative to the toe is a key factor controlling the estimation error, as it determines the relative aquifer length of constant-density flow relative to variable-density flow. The coastal head correction method introduced in this study facilitates the rapid and accurate estimation of the fresh water flux from a given hydraulic head measurement and allows for an improved representation of the coastal boundary condition in regional constant-density groundwater flow models.

  4. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  5. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  6. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in agroecosystems affects groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Torbert, H.A.; Prior, S.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Schlesinger, W.H.; Mullins, G.L.; Runion, G.B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration has led to concerns about global changes to the environment. One area of global change that has not been addressed is the effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on groundwater quality below agroecosystems. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentration alterations of plant growth and C/N ratios may modify C and N cycling in soil and affect nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) leaching to groundwater. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a legume (soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]) and a nonlegume (grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]) CO{sub 2}-enriched agroecosystems on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} movement below the root zone in a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous, thermic, Grossarenic Paleudults). The study was a split-plot design replicated three times with plant species (soybean and grain sorghum) as the main plots and CO{sub 2} concentration ({approximately}360 and {approximately}720 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}) as subplots using open-top field chambers. Fertilizer application was made with {sup 15}N-depleted NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to act as a fertilizer tracer. Soil solution samples were collected weekly at 90-cm depth for a 2-yr period and monitored for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations. Isotope analysis of soil solution indicated that the decomposition of organic matter was the primary source of No{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N in soil solution below the root zone through most of the monitoring period. Significant differences were observed for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations between soybean and grain sorghum, with soybean having the higher NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentration. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased total dry weight, total N content, and C/N ratio of residue returned to soil in both years. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly decreased NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations below the root zone in both soybean and grain sorghum. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Composite use of numerical groundwater flow modeling and geoinformatics techniques for monitoring Indus Basin aquifer, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz

    2011-02-01

    The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area.

  8. Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan; J. Chapman

    2008-11-01

    Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of

  9. Simulation of regional ground-water flow in the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a numerical model that simulates regional ground-water flow in the upper Deschutes Basin of central Oregon. Ground water and surface water are intimately connected in the upper Deschutes Basin and most of the flow of the Deschutes River is supplied by ground water. Because of this connection, ground-water pumping and reduction of artificial recharge by lining leaking irrigation canals can reduce the amount of ground water discharging to streams and, consequently, streamflow. The model described in this report is intended to help water-management agencies and the public evaluate how the regional ground-water system and streamflow will respond to ground-water pumping, canal lining, drought, and other stresses. Ground-water flow is simulated in the model by the finite-difference method using MODFLOW and MODFLOWP. The finite-difference grid consists of 8 layers, 127 rows, and 87 columns. All major streams and most principal tributaries in the upper Deschutes Basin are included. Ground-water recharge from precipitation was estimated using a daily water-balance approach. Artificial recharge from leaking irrigation canals and on-farm losses was estimated from diversion and delivery records, seepage studies, and crop data. Ground-water pumpage for irrigation and public water supplies, and evapotranspiration are also included in the model. The model was calibrated to mean annual (1993-95) steady-state conditions using parameter-estimation techniques employing nonlinear regression. Fourteen hydraulic-conductivity parameters and two vertical conductance parameters were determined using nonlinear regression. Final parameter values are all within expected ranges. The general shape and slope of the simulated water-table surface and overall hydraulic-head distribution match the geometry determined from field measurements. The fitted standard deviation for hydraulic head is about 76 feet. The general magnitude and distribution of ground-water discharge to

  10. Groundwater Parameters and Flow Systems Near Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) averages 132 cm/yr. About 76 cm/yr of water is consumed by evapotranspiration. The natural streamflow, which averages 56 cm/yr of water, consists of overland flow (about 21 cm/yr) from water bodies, wetlands, and impervious areas of groundwater discharge (about 35 cm/yr of water). Groundwater occurs in a stormflow zone that extends from the land surface to a depth of 0.3-2 m and in shallow and deeper aquifers that extend from the water table to the base of fresh water. in the stormflow zone, most water flows through macropores and mesopores, which have a volumetric porosity of about 0.002. In the vadose zone and below the water table, water flows through fractures that have a volumetric porosity in the range 1 x 10{sup -5} to 0.02. Water inflow occurs by precipitation and infiltration. infiltration that exceeds the soil water deficit forms a perched water table in the stormflow zone at the level where infiltration rate exceeds vertical hydraulic conductivity. Some water percolates down to the water table but the majority flows downslope to the streams. Recharge of the shallow aquifer is only about 3.2 cm/yr of water or 5.7% of streamflow. Most of the water that recharges the shallow aquifer is discharged by evapotranspiration above the water table. The remainder is discharged at springs and streams where the water table is within the stormflow zone. Digital models that permit unsaturated conditions and transient flows may be more appropriate than steady-state models of saturated flow for the ORNL area.

  11. System and boundary conceptualization in ground-water flow simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water models attempt to represent an actual ground-water system with a mathematical counterpart. The conceptualization of how and where water originates in the ground-water-flow system and how and where it leaves the system is critical to the development of an accurate model. The mathematical representation of these boundaries in the model is important because many hydrologic boundary conditions can be mathematically represented in more than one way. The determination of which mathematical representation of a boundary condition is best usually is dependent upon the objectives of the study. This report focuses on the specific aspect of describing different ways to simulate, in a numerical model, the physical features that act as hydrologic boundaries in an actual ground-water system. The ramifications, benefits, and limitations of each approach are enumerated, and descriptions of the representation of boundaries in models for Long Island, New York, and the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, illustrate the application of some of the methods.

  12. Groundwater Budget Analysis of Cross Formational Flow: Hueco Bolson (Texas and Chihuahua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, W. R.

    2005-12-01

    Groundwater from the Hueco Bolson supplies the majority of municipal water in El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, the largest international border community in the world. For over 100 years, water managers and researchers have been developing an understanding of Hueco Bolson groundwater occurrence and movement, and the interaction between surface water and groundwater. Since 2001, isotopic studies of groundwater chemistry on both sides of the border have provided valuable insights into the occurrence of groundwater and its historic movement. Numerical groundwater flow models of the area have been developed and used since the 1970s. The results of the most recent model were used to develop a detailed analysis of the groundwater inflows, outflows and storage change of the entire area and subregions of the model domain from 1903 to 2002. These detailed groundwater budgets were used to quantify temporal and spatial flow changes that resulted from groundwater pumping: induced inflow of surface water, decreased natural outflows, and storage declines. In addition, the detailed groundwater budgets were used to quantify the changes in cross formational flow between the Rio Grande Alluvium and the Hueco Bolson, as well as the changes in vertical flow within the Hueco Bolson. The groundwater budget results are consistent with the results of the isotopic analyses, providing a much needed confirmation of the overall conceptual model of the numerical model. In addition, the groundwater budgets have provided information that has been useful in further interpreting the results of the isotopic analyses.

  13. Modelling of the groundwater flow in Baltic Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virbulis, J.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a multi-layered complex hydrogeological system underlying about 480'000 km2 in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method was employed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. The horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of geological materials were assumed constant in each of the layers. The Precambrian basement forms the impermeable bottom of the model. The zero water exchange is assumed through the side boundaries of BAB. Simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head in corresponding mesh points. The infiltration is set as a flux boundary condition elsewhere. Instead of extensive coupling with hydrology model, a constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux for the whole BAB area and this value was adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells with large debits. In total 49 wells in Lithuania (total abstraction 45000 m3/day), 161 in Latvia (184000 m3/day) and 172 in Estonia (24000 m3/day) are considered. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted (using both spatial and temporal weighting function) borehole water level measurements applying automatic parameter optimization method L-BFGS-B for hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The steady-stade calculations were performed for the situations corresponding to undisturbed situation (1950-ies), intensive groundwater use (1980-ies) and present state situation (after 2000). The distribution of piezometric heads and principal flows inside BAB was analyzed based on the model results. The results demonstrate that generally the

  14. An artificial neural network based groundwater flow and transport simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Krom, T.D.; Rosbjerg, D.

    1998-07-01

    Artificial neural networks are investigated as a tool for the simulation of contaminant loss and recovery in three-dimensional heterogeneous groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling. These methods have useful applications in expert system development, knowledge base development and optimization of groundwater pollution remediation. The numerical model runs used to develop the artificial neural networks can be re-used to develop artificial neural networks to address alternative optimization problems or changed formulations of the constraints and or objective function under optimization. Artificial neural networks have been analyzed with the goal of estimating objectives which normally require the use of traditional flow and transport codes: such as contaminant recovery, contaminant loss (unrecovered) and remediation failure. The inputs to the artificial neutral networks are variable pumping withdrawal rates at fairly unconstrained 3-D locations. A forward-feed backwards error propagation artificial neural network architecture is used. The significance of the size of the training set, network architecture, and network weight optimization algorithm with respect to the estimation accuracy and objective are shown to be important. Finally, the quality of the weight optimization is studied via cross-validation techniques. This is demonstrated to be a useful method for judging training performance for strongly under-described systems.

  15. Estimates of consumptive use and ground-water return flow using water budgets in Palo Verde Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Kimsey, Steven L.

    1987-01-01

    Palo Verde Valley, California, is an agricultural area in the flood plain of the Colorado River where irrigation water is diverted from the river and groundwater is discharged to a network of drainage ditches and (or) the river. Consumptive use by vegetation and groundwater return flow were calculated using water budgets. Consumptive use by vegetation was 484,000 acre-ft in 1981, 453,600 acre-ft in 1982, 364,400 acre-ft in 1983, and 374,300 acre-ft in 1984. The consumptive-use estimates are most sensitive to two measured components of the water budget, the diversion at Palo Verde Dam and the discharge from drainage ditches to the river. Groundwater return flow was 31,700 acre-ft in 1981, 24,000 acre-ft in 1982, 2,500 acre-ft in 1983, and 7 ,900 acre-ft in 1984. The return-flow estimates are most sensitive to discharge from drainage ditches; various irrigation requirements and crop areas, particularly alfalfa; the diversion at Palo Verde Dam; and the estimate of consumptive use. During increasing flows in the river, the estimate of groundwater return flow is sensitive also to change in groundwater storage. Change in groundwater storage was estimated to be -5,700 acre-ft in 1981, -12,600 acre-ft in 1982, 5,200 acre-ft in 1983, and 11 ,600 acre-ft in 1984. Changes in storage can be a significant component in the water budget used to estimate groundwater return flow but is negligible in the water budget used to estimate consumptive use. Change in storage was 1 to 3% of annual consumptive use. Change in storage for the area drained by the river ranged from 7 to 96% of annual groundwater return flow during the 4 years studied. Consumptive use calculated as diversions minus return flows was consistently lower than consumptive use calculated in a water budget. Water-budget estimates of consumptive use account for variations in precipitation, tributary inflow, river stage, and groundwater storage. The calculations for diversions minus return flows do not account for these

  16. Influence of vertical flows in wells on groundwater sampling.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Tellam, John H; Dumble, Peter; Sharp, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Pumped groundwater sampling evaluations often assume that horizontal head gradients predominate and the sample comprises an average of water quality variation over the well screen interval weighted towards contributing zones of higher hydraulic conductivity (a permeability-weighted sample). However, the pumping rate used during sampling may not always be sufficient to overcome vertical flows in wells driven by ambient vertical head gradients. Such flows are reported in wells with screens between 3 and 10m in length where lower pumping rates are more likely to be used during sampling. Here, numerical flow and particle transport modeling is used to provide insight into the origin of samples under ambient vertical head gradients and under a range of pumping rates. When vertical gradients are present, sample provenance is sensitive to pump intake position, pumping rate and pumping duration. The sample may not be drawn from the whole screen interval even with extended pumping times. Sample bias is present even when the ambient vertical flow in the wellbore is less than the pumping rate. Knowledge of the maximum ambient vertical flow in the well does, however, allow estimation of the pumping rate that will yield a permeability-weighted sample. This rate may be much greater than that recommended for low-flow sampling. In practice at monitored sites, the sampling bias introduced by ambient vertical flows in wells may often be unrecognized or underestimated when drawing conclusions from sampling results. It follows that care should be taken in the interpretation of sampling data if supporting flow investigations have not been undertaken.

  17. Flow of affective information between communicating brains.

    PubMed

    Anders, Silke; Heinzle, Jakob; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Ethofer, Thomas; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2011-01-01

    When people interact, affective information is transmitted between their brains. Modern imaging techniques permit to investigate the dynamics of this brain-to-brain transfer of information. Here, we used information-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the flow of affective information between the brains of senders and perceivers engaged in ongoing facial communication of affect. We found that the level of neural activity within a distributed network of the perceiver's brain can be successfully predicted from the neural activity in the same network in the sender's brain, depending on the affect that is currently being communicated. Furthermore, there was a temporal succession in the flow of affective information from the sender's brain to the perceiver's brain, with information in the perceiver's brain being significantly delayed relative to information in the sender's brain. This delay decreased over time, possibly reflecting some 'tuning in' of the perceiver with the sender. Our data support current theories of intersubjectivity by providing direct evidence that during ongoing facial communication a 'shared space' of affect is successively built up between senders and perceivers of affective facial signals.

  18. Topographically driven groundwater flow and the San Andreas heat flow paradox revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saffer, D.M.; Bekins, B.A.; Hickman, S.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for a weak San Andreas Fault includes (1) borehole heat flow measurements that show no evidence for a frictionally generated heat flow anomaly and (2) the inferred orientation of ??1 nearly perpendicular to the fault trace. Interpretations of the stress orientation data remain controversial, at least in close proximity to the fault, leading some researchers to hypothesize that the San Andreas Fault is, in fact, strong and that its thermal signature may be removed or redistributed by topographically driven groundwater flow in areas of rugged topography, such as typify the San Andreas Fault system. To evaluate this scenario, we use a steady state, two-dimensional model of coupled heat and fluid flow within cross sections oriented perpendicular to the fault and to the primary regional topography. Our results show that existing heat flow data near Parkfield, California, do not readily discriminate between the expected thermal signature of a strong fault and that of a weak fault. In contrast, for a wide range of groundwater flow scenarios in the Mojave Desert, models that include frictional heat generation along a strong fault are inconsistent with existing heat flow data, suggesting that the San Andreas Fault at this location is indeed weak. In both areas, comparison of modeling results and heat flow data suggest that advective redistribution of heat is minimal. The robust results for the Mojave region demonstrate that topographically driven groundwater flow, at least in two dimensions, is inadequate to obscure the frictionally generated heat flow anomaly from a strong fault. However, our results do not preclude the possibility of transient advective heat transport associated with earthquakes.

  19. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba

    2017-03-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  20. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba

    2016-09-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  1. STRING 3: An Advanced Groundwater Flow Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Simon; Michel, Isabel; Biedert, Tim; Gräfe, Marius; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The visualization of 3D groundwater flow is a challenging task. Previous versions of our software STRING [1] solely focused on intuitive visualization of complex flow scenarios for non-professional audiences. STRING, developed by Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) and delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany), provides the necessary means for visualization of both 2D and 3D data on planar and curved surfaces. In this contribution we discuss how to extend this approach to a full 3D tool and its challenges in continuation of Michel et al. [2]. This elevates STRING from a post-production to an exploration tool for experts. In STRING moving pathlets provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flows. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow. To capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding is used building on the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Lifting our visualization approach from 2D into 3D provides many new challenges. With the implementation of a seeding strategy for 3D one of the major problems has already been solved (see Schröder et al. [3]). As pathlets only provide an overview of the velocity field other means are required for the visualization of additional flow properties. We suggest the use of Direct Volume Rendering and isosurfaces for scalar features. In this regard we were able to develop an efficient approach for combining the rendering through raytracing of the volume and regular OpenGL geometries. This is achieved through the use of Depth Peeling or A-Buffers for the rendering of transparent geometries. Animation of pathlets requires a strict boundary of the simulation domain. Hence, STRING needs to extract the boundary, even from unstructured data, if it is not provided. In 3D we additionally need a good visualization of the boundary itself. For this the silhouette based on the angle of

  2. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Groundwater ages from the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer, Uvalde County, Texas—Insights into groundwater flow and recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Landis, Gary P.; Faith, Jason R.

    2016-02-23

    Tritium–helium-3 groundwater ages of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas were determined as part of a long-term study of groundwater flow and recharge in the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. These ages help to define groundwater residence times and to provide constraints for calibration of groundwater flow models. A suite of 17 samples from public and private supply wells within Uvalde County were collected for active and noble gases, and for tritium–helium-3 analyses from the confined and unconfined parts of the Edwards aquifer. Samples were collected from monitoring wells at discrete depths in open boreholes as well as from integrated pumped well-head samples. The data indicate a fairly uniform groundwater flow system within an otherwise structurally complex geologic environment comprised of regionally and locally faulted rock units, igneous intrusions, and karst features within carbonate rocks. Apparent ages show moderate, downward average, linear velocities in the Uvalde area with increasing age to the east along a regional groundwater flow path. Though the apparent age data show a fairly consistent distribution across the study area, many apparent ages indicate mixing of both modern (less than 60 years) and premodern (greater than 60 years) waters. This mixing is most evident along the “bad water” line, an arbitrary delineation of 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids that separates the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer from the downdip saline water zone. Mixing of modern and premodern waters also is indicated within the unconfined zone of the aquifer by high excess helium concentrations in young waters. Excess helium anomalies in the unconfined aquifer are consistent with possible subsurface discharge of premodern groundwater from the underlying Trinity aquifer into the younger groundwater of the Edwards aquifer.

  4. Geohydrology and simulated ground-water flow in an irrigated area of northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, L.D.; Basch, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Water for irrigation in parts of Newton and Jasper Counties and adjacent areas of northwestern Indiana is pumped mostly from the carbonate- bedrock aquifer that underlies glacial drift. To help in managing the ground-water resources of the area, a three-dimensional ground-water model was developed and tested with hydrologic data collected during 1986 and 1988. Two major aquifers and a confining unit were identified. The surficial unconfined outwash aquifer consists of sand and some gravel. Saturated thickness averages about 30 feet. Estimated values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient are 350 feet per day and 0.07, respectively. The generally continuous confining unit beneath the outwash aquifer is composed predominantly of till and lacustrine silt and clay and is 0 to 125 feet thick. The carbonate-bedrock aquifer is composed of Silurian and Devonian dolomitic limestone; dolomite and has a median transmissivity of 2,000 feet squared per day. A nine-layer digital model was developed to simulate flow in the ground-water system. The mean absolute errors for simulated water levels in the bedrock aquifer ranged from 5 to 7 feet for two recent periods of irrigation. The component of the flow system that most affects water-level drawdowns in the bedrock aquifer is the confining unit which controls the rate of leakage to the bedrock aquifer. The model is most accurate in areas for which data for confining-unit thickness and bedrock water levels are available.

  5. Uncertainty Analysis Framework - Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Rogers, Phillip M.

    2001-11-09

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) embarked on a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of the predictions being made with a site-wide groundwater flow and transport model at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. In FY 2000, the focus of the initiative was on the characterization of major uncertainties in the current conceptual model that would affect model predictions. The long-term goals of the initiative are the development and implementation of an uncertainty estimation methodology in future assessments and analyses using the site-wide model. This report focuses on the development and implementation of an uncertainty analysis framework.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  7. Groundwater Flow Model for the R-Reactor Area Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    A detailed numerical groundwater flow model has been developed for the R-Area of the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The three-dimensional, finite-element groundwater modeling code Flow and Contaminant Transport (FACT) has been used for this study.

  8. Adaptive multiresolution modeling of groundwater flow in heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenica, Luka; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Srzic, Veljko; Andric, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    different temporal lines and local time stepping control. Critical aspect of time integration accuracy is construction of spatial stencil due to accurate calculation of spatial derivatives. Since common approach applied for wavelets and splines uses a finite difference operator, we developed here collocation one including solution values and differential operator. In this way, new improved algorithm is adaptive in space and time enabling accurate solution for groundwater flow problems, especially in highly heterogeneous porous media with large lnK variances and different correlation length scales. In addition, differences between collocation and finite volume approaches are discussed. Finally, results show application of methodology to the groundwater flow problems in highly heterogeneous confined and unconfined aquifers.

  9. Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on

  10. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Surface water and groundwater are integral components of the hydrologic continuum and the interaction between them affects both their quantity and quality. However, surface water and groundwater are often considered as two separate systems and are analysed independently. This separation is partly due to the different time scales, which apply in surface water and groundwater flows and partly due to the difficulties in measuring and modelling their interactions (Winter et al., 1998). Coastal areas in particular are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes. Accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands, for example, requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades a large number of mathematical models and field methods have been developed in order to quantify the interaction between groundwater and hydraulically connected surface water bodies. Field studies may provide the best data (Hughes, 1995) but are usually expensive and involve too many parameters. In addition, the interpretation of field measurements and linking with modelling tools often proves to be difficult. In contrast, experimental studies are less expensive and provide controlled data. However, experimental studies of surface water-groundwater interaction are less frequently encountered in the literature than filed studies (e.g. Ebrahimi et al., 2007; Kuan et al., 2012; Sparks et al., 2013). To this end, an experimental model has been constructed at the Hyder Hydraulics Laboratory at Cardiff University to enable measurements to be made of groundwater transport through a sand embankment between a tidal water body such as an estuary and a non-tidal water body such as a wetland. The transport behaviour of a conservative tracer was studied for a constant water level on the wetland side of the embankment, while running a

  11. Factors Affecting Groundwater Chemistry in Abandoned Terraced Paddy Fields on Sado Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, Nobuhiro; Nakata, Makoto; Matsuyama, Keiko; Tsujii, Norie; Tsuchida, Takeyoshi

    The factors affecting the groundwater level and chemistry in abandoned terraced paddy fields on Sado Island, Japan, were investigated. Seasonal changes of the groundwater level in site A, which is on the bottom of the slope, was slight throughout the year compared with that in site B, which is on the middle part of the gentle slope. EC, pH, and some components involved in mineral weathering (Na+, Ca2+ and alkalinity) in the groundwater from site A were higher than those from site B. These results showed that the infiltrating water from the upper part of the slope was the main source of the groundwater in site A. On the other hand, the impact of sea salt components (Na+ and Cl-) was evident in site B, because the concentration of these components increased during winter. Groundwater chemistry was also affected by other factors such as the dilution of groundwater caused by rainfall, sulfur redox, and nutrient uptake by vegetation. The effects of each factor on groundwater chemistry differed between sites because the topography of the two adjacent sites was different. The characteristics of water environment, such as the groundwater level and chemistry, should be considered in the management of abandoned terraced paddy fields on Sado Island.

  12. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) were used to trace hydrological processes and tritium (3H) to evaluate the relative contribution of modern water in samples. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal groundwater, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3-type. It originates as recharge at "La Primavera" caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal groundwater is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na and HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed-HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural return flow. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Twenty-seven groundwater samples contain at least a small fraction of modern water. The application of a multivariate mixing model allowed the mixing proportions of hydrothermal fluids, polluted waters and cold groundwater in sampled water to be evaluated. This study will help local water authorities to identify and dimension groundwater contamination, and act accordingly. It may be broadly applicable to

  13. Groundwater flow near the Shoal Site, Sand Springs Range, Nevada: Impact of density-driven flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.; Mihevc, T.; McKay, A.

    1994-09-01

    The nature of flow from a highland recharge area in a mountain range in north-central Nevada to discharge areas on either side of the range is evaluated to refine a conceptual model of contaminant transport from an underground nuclear test conducted beneath the range. The test, known as the Shoal event, was conducted in 1963 in granitic rocks of the Sand Springs Range. Sparse hydraulic head measurements from the early 1960s suggest flow from the shot location to the east to Fairview Valley, while hydrochemistry supports flow to salt pans in Fourmile Flat to the west. Chemical and isotopic data collected from water samples and during well-logging arc best explained by a reflux brine system on the west side of the Sand Springs Range, rather than a typical local flow system where all flow occurs from recharge areas in the highlands to a central discharge area in a playa. Instead, dense saline water from the playa is apparently being driven toward the range by density contrasts. The data collected between the range and Fourmile Flat suggest the groundwater is a mixture of younger, fresher recharge water with older brine. Chemical contrasts between groundwater in the east and west valleys reflect the absence of re-flux water in Fairview Valley because the regional discharge area is distant and thus there is no accumulation of salts. The refluxing hydraulic system probably developed after the end of the last pluvial period and differences between the location of the groundwater divide based on hydraulic and chemical indicators could reflect movement of the divide as the groundwater system adjusts to the new reflux condition.

  14. Thermal effects of groundwater flow through subarctic fens: A case study based on field observations and numerical modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Sjöberg, Ylva; Coon, Ethan; K. Sannel, A. Britta; ...

    2016-02-05

    Modeling and observation of ground temperature dynamics are the main tools for understanding current permafrost thermal regimes and projecting future thaw. Until recently, most studies on permafrost have focused on vertical ground heat fluxes. Groundwater can transport heat in both lateral and vertical directions but its influence on ground temperatures at local scales in permafrost environments is not well understood. In this paper, we combine field observations from a subarctic fen in the sporadic permafrost zone with numerical simulations of coupled water and thermal fluxes. At the Tavvavuoma study site in northern Sweden, ground temperature profiles and groundwater levels weremore » observed in boreholes. These observations were used to set up one- and two-dimensional simulations down to 2 m depth across a gradient of permafrost conditions within and surrounding the fen. Two-dimensional scenarios representing the fen under various hydraulic gradients were developed to quantify the influence of groundwater flow on ground temperature. Our observations suggest that lateral groundwater flow significantly affects ground temperatures. This is corroborated by modeling results that show seasonal ground ice melts 1 month earlier when a lateral groundwater flux is present. Further, although the thermal regime may be dominated by vertically conducted heat fluxes during most of the year, isolated high groundwater flow rate events such as the spring freshet are potentially important for ground temperatures. Finally, as sporadic permafrost environments often contain substantial portions of unfrozen ground with active groundwater flow paths, knowledge of this heat transport mechanism is important for understanding permafrost dynamics in these environments.« less

  15. Stochastic Collocation Method for Three-dimensional Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.; Zhang, D.

    2008-12-01

    The stochastic collocation method (SCM) has recently gained extensive attention in several disciplines. The numerical implementation of SCM only requires repetitive runs of an existing deterministic solver or code as in the Monte Carlo simulation. But it is generally much more efficient than the Monte Carlo method. In this paper, the stochastic collocation method is used to efficiently qualify uncertainty of three-dimensional groundwater flow. We introduce the basic principles of common collocation methods, i.e., the tensor product collocation method (TPCM), Smolyak collocation method (SmCM), Stround-2 collocation method (StCM), and probability collocation method (PCM). Their accuracy, computational cost, and limitation are discussed. Illustrative examples reveal that the seamless combination of collocation techniques and existing simulators makes the new framework possible to efficiently handle complex stochastic problems.

  16. Quantitative dye-tracing of karst ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James; Mull, Donald; Liebermann, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the results of repeat quantitative dye traces between a sinkhole and a spring used for public water supply were used to describe predictive relations between discharge, mean travel time, apparent ground-water flow velocity and solute transport characteristics. Normalized peak concentration, mean travel time, and standard deviation of travel times were used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to simulate solute transport characteristics for selected discharges. Using this curve and previously developed statistical relations, a water manager can estimate the arrival time, peak concentration, and persistence of a soluble contaminant at a supply spring or well based on discharge and the quantity of spilled contaminant.

  17. Model Refinement and Simulation of Groundwater Flow in Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luukkonen, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    A groundwater-flow model that was constructed in 1996 of the Saginaw aquifer was refined to better represent the regional hydrologic system in the Tri-County region, which consists of Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties, Michigan. With increasing demand for groundwater, the need to manage withdrawals from the Saginaw aquifer has become more important, and the 1996 model could not adequately address issues of water quality and quantity. An updated model was needed to better address potential effects of drought, locally high water demands, reduction of recharge by impervious surfaces, and issues affecting water quality, such as contaminant sources, on water resources and the selection of pumping rates and locations. The refinement of the groundwater-flow model allows simulations to address these issues of water quantity and quality and provides communities with a tool that will enable them to better plan for expansion and protection of their groundwater-supply systems. Model refinement included representation of the system under steady-state and transient conditions, adjustments to the estimated regional groundwater-recharge rates to account for both temporal and spatial differences, adjustments to the representation and hydraulic characteristics of the glacial deposits and Saginaw Formation, and updates to groundwater-withdrawal rates to reflect changes from the early 1900s to 2005. Simulations included steady-state conditions (in which stresses remained constant and changes in storage were not included) and transient conditions (in which stresses changed in annual and monthly time scales and changes in storage within the system were included). These simulations included investigation of the potential effects of reduced recharge due to impervious areas or to low-rainfall/drought conditions, delineation of contributing areas with recent pumping rates, and optimization of pumping subject to various quantity and quality constraints. Simulation results indicate

  18. Ground-water flow and quality near Canon City, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearne, G.A.; Litke, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water in aquifers that underlie the Lincoln Park area near Canon City, Colorado, contains measurable concentrations of chemical constituents that are similar to those in raffinate (liquid waste) produced by a nearby uranium ore processing mill. The objective of this study was to expand the existing geohydrologic data base by collecting additional geohydrologic and water quality, in order to refine the description of the geohydrologic and geochemical systems in the study area. Geohydrologic data were collected from nine tests wells drilled in the area between the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam and Lincoln Park. Lithologic and geophysical logs of these wells indicated that the section of Vermejo Formation penetrated consisted of interbedded sandstone and shale. The sandstone beds had a small porosity and small hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater flow from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam to Lincoln Park seemed to be along an alluvium-filled channel in the irregular and relatively undescribed topography of the Vermejo Formation subcrop. North of the De Weese Dye Ditch, the alluvium becomes saturated and groundwater generally flows to the northeast. Water samples from 28 sites were collected and analyzed for major ions and trace elements; selected water samples also were analyzed for stable isotopes; samples were collected from wells near the uranium ore processing mill, from privately owned wells in Lincoln Park, and from the test wells drilled in the intervening area. Results from the quality assurance samples indicate that cross-contamination between samples from different wells was avoided and that the data are reliable. Water in the alluvial aquifer underlying Lincoln Park is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type. Small variations in the composition of water in the alluvial aquifer appears to result from a reaction of water leaking from the De Weese Dye Ditch with alluvial material. Upward leakage from underlying aquifers does not seem to be significant in

  19. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water Flow in the Tooele Valley ground-water basin, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolp, Bernard J.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water is the sole source of drinking water within Tooele Valley. Transition from agriculture to residential land and water use necessitates additional understanding of water resources. The ground-water basin is conceptualized as a single interconnected hydrologic system consisting of the consolidated-rock mountains and adjoining unconsolidated basin-fill valleys. Within the basin fill, unconfined conditions exist along the valley margins and confined conditions exist in the central areas of the valleys. Transmissivity of the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer ranges from 1,000 to 270,000 square feet per day. Within the consolidated rock of the mountains, ground-water flow largely is unconfined, though variability in geologic structure, stratigraphy, and lithology has created some areas where ground-water flow is confined. Hydraulic conductivity of the consolidated rock ranges from 0.003 to 100 feet per day. Ground water within the basin generally moves from the mountains toward the central and northern areas of Tooele Valley. Steep hydraulic gradients exist at Tooele Army Depot and near Erda. The estimated average annual ground-water recharge within the basin is 82,000 acre-feet per year. The primary source of recharge is precipitation in the mountains; other sources of recharge are irrigation water and streams. Recharge from precipitation was determined using the Basin Characterization Model. Estimated average annual ground-water discharge within the basin is 84,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge is to wells, springs, and drains, and by evapotranspiration. Water levels at wells within the basin indicate periods of increased recharge during 1983-84 and 1996-2000. During these periods annual precipitation at Tooele City exceeded the 1971-2000 annual average for consecutive years. The water with the lowest dissolved-solids concentrations exists in the mountain areas where most of the ground-water recharge occurs. The principal dissolved constituents are calcium

  20. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  1. Modeling Steady-State Groundwater Flow Using Microcomputer Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousey, John Russell, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how microcomputer spreadsheets are easily adapted for use in groundwater modeling. Presents spreadsheet set-ups and the results of five groundwater models. Suggests that this approach can provide a basis for demonstrations, laboratory exercises, and student projects. (ML)

  2. Strain Observation Affected by Groundwater-Level Change in Seismic Precursor Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Daiyong; Zhang, Jingfa

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater extraction is one of the most typical disturbance factors for strain observation in seismic precursor monitoring. The statistic regression method is used to study based on the relation between the variation of strain and the groundwater level. The least square regression linear model is built between the annual variation of Sangzi groundwater level and the Xiaoxinzhuang strain data. Such model meets t test with significance level α = 0. 0 5, which confirms that groundwater-level change in each year affects strain measurement significantly and strain's trend variation is related to groundwater-level change. Consequently, a new correction method about strain data is put forward based on the groundwater-level annual variation to eliminate the trend change. Results indicate that the accumulated residual deformation causes the horizontal displacement and strain change, which is on account of that the amount of groundwater recharge is less than that of extraction around Xiaoxinzhuang cave, the phreatic surface continues to descend, and residual deformation accumulates and leads to local subsidence area. Therefore, the decline trend change of strain is related to groundwater-level change and is not seismic precursor.

  3. Strain Observation Affected by Groundwater-Level Change in Seismic Precursor Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Daiyong; Zhang, Jingfa

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater extraction is one of the most typical disturbance factors for strain observation in seismic precursor monitoring. The statistic regression method is used to study based on the relation between the variation of strain and the groundwater level. The least square regression linear model is built between the annual variation of Sangzi groundwater level and the Xiaoxinzhuang strain data. Such model meets t test with significance level α = 0. 0 5 , which confirms that groundwater-level change in each year affects strain measurement significantly and strain's trend variation is related to groundwater-level change. Consequently, a new correction method about strain data is put forward based on the groundwater-level annual variation to eliminate the trend change. Results indicate that the accumulated residual deformation causes the horizontal displacement and strain change, which is on account of that the amount of groundwater recharge is less than that of extraction around Xiaoxinzhuang cave, the phreatic surface continues to descend, and residual deformation accumulates and leads to local subsidence area. Therefore, the decline trend change of strain is related to groundwater-level change and is not seismic precursor.

  4. Geostatistical inversion of transient moment equations of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Neuman, S. P.; Bianchi Janetti, E.; Malama, B.

    2009-04-01

    We present a methodology for conditioning estimates of hydraulic heads and fluxes and their associated uncertainty on information about transmissivity, T , and hydraulic heads, h, collected within a randomly heterogeneous aquifer under transient conditions. Our approach is based on recursive finite-element approximations of exact nonlocal first and second conditional moment equations. We present a nonlinear geostatistical inverse algorithm for transient groundwater flow that allows estimating jointly the spatial variability of log-transmissivity, Y = ln T, the underlying variogram and its parameters, and the variance-covariance of the estimates. Log-transmissivity is parameterized geostatistically based on measured values at discrete locations and unknown values at discrete "pilot points." While prior pilot point values are obtained by generalized kriging, posterior estimates at pilot points are obtained by history matching of transient mean flow against values of hydraulic head collected during a pumping test. Parameters are then projected onto a computational grid by kriging. Prior information on hydraulic properties is included in the optimization process via a suitable regularization term which is included in the objective function to be minimized. The weight of the regularization term, hydraulic and unknown variogram parameters are then estimated by maximum likelihood calibration. The main features of the methodology are explored by means of a synthetic example. As alternative flow models we consider (a) a second-order and (b) a lower-order closure of the mean transient flow equation and assess the ability of these models at capturing the parameters of the estimated log-transmissivity variogram. With the aid of formal model selection criteria we associate each mean flow model and different sets of tested variogram parameters with a weight, or posterior probability, representing their relative degrees of likelihood. Our findings suggest that the weight of the

  5. Hydrogeologic setting and simulation of groundwater flow near the Canterbury and Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnels, Leadville, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Minsley, Burke; Dupree, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    -current resistivity field survey was performed to evaluate the geologic structure of the study area. The results show that the Canterbury Tunnel is located in a downthrown structural block that is not in direct physical connection with the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel. The presence of this structural discontinuity implies there is no direct groundwater pathway between the tunnels along a laterally continuous bedrock unit. Water-quality results for pH and major-ion concentrations near the Canterbury Tunnel showed that acid mine drainage has not affected groundwater quality. Stable-isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in water indicate that snowmelt is the primary source of groundwater recharge. On the basis of chlorofluorocarbon and tritium concentrations and mixing ratios for groundwater samples, young groundwater (groundwater recharged after 1953) was indicated at well locations upgradient from and in a fault block separate from the Canterbury Tunnel. Samples from sites downgradient from the Canterbury Tunnel were mixtures of young and old (pre-1953) groundwater and likely represent snowmelt recharge mixed with older regional groundwater that discharges from the bedrock units to the Arkansas River valley. Discharge from the Canterbury Tunnel contained the greatest percentage of old (pre-1953) groundwater with a mixture of about 25 percent young water and about 75 percent old water. A calibrated three-dimensional groundwater model representing high-flow conditions was used to evaluate large-scale flow characteristics of the groundwater and to assess whether a substantial hydraulic connection was present between the Canterbury Tunnel and Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel. As simulated, the faults restrict local flow in many areas, but the fracture-damage zones adjacent to the faults allow groundwater to move along faults. Water-budget results indicate that groundwater flow across the lateral edges of the model controlled the majority of flow in and out of the aquifer (79 percent and

  6. Biogeochemical factors affecting the presence of 210Po in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Stillings, L.L.; Cutler, N.; Salonen, L.; Outola, I.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of natural 210Po enrichment at levels exceeding 500 mBq/L in numerous domestic wells in northern Nevada, USA, led to a geochemical investigation of the processes responsible for its mobilization. 210Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells ranged from below 1 mBq/L to 6590 ± 590 mBq/L, among the highest reported levels in the USA. There is little spatial or depth variability in 210Pb activity in study-area sediments and mobilization of a few percent of the 210Po in the sediments would account for all of the 210Po in water. Stable-isotope measurements indicate SO4 reduction has occurred in all 210Po contaminated wells. Sulfide species are not accumulating in the groundwater in much of Lahontan Valley, probably because of S cycling involving microbial SO4 reduction, abiotic oxidation of H2S to S0 by Mn(IV), followed by microbial disproportionation of S0 to H2S and SO4. The high pH, Ca depletion, MnCO3 saturation, and presence of S0 in Lahontan Valley groundwater may be consequences of the anaerobic S cycling. Consistent with data from naturally-enriched wells in Florida, 210Po activities begin to decrease when aqueous sulfide species begin to accumulate. This may be due to formation and precipitation of PoS, however, Eh–pH diagrams suggest PoS would not be stable in study-area groundwater. An alternative explanation for the study area is that H2S accumulation begins when anaerobic S cycling stops because Mn oxides are depleted and their reduction is no longer releasing 210Po. Common features of 210Po-enriched groundwater were identified by comparing the radiological and geochemical data from Nevada with data from naturally-enriched wells in Finland, and Florida and Maryland in the USA. Values of pH ranged from 9 in Nevada wells, indicating that pH is not critical in determining whether 210Po is present. Where U is present in the sediments, the data suggest 210Po levels may be elevated in aquifers with (1) SO4-reducing waters with low H2S

  7. Dispersive transport dynamics in a strongly coupled groundwater-brine flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K.

    1995-02-01

    Many problems in subsurface hydrology involve the flow and transport of solutes that affect liquid density. When density variations are large (>5%), the flow and transport are strongly coupled. Density variations in excess of 20% occur in salt dome and bedded-salt formations which are currently being considered for radioactive waste repositories. The widely varying results of prior numerical simulation efforts of salt dome groundwater-brine flow problems have underscored the difficulty of solving strongly coupled flow and transport equations. We have implemented a standard model for hydrodynamic dispersion in our general purpose integral finite difference simulator, TOUGH2. The residual formulation used in TOUGH2 is efficient for the strongly coupled flow problem and allows the simulation to reach a verifiable steady state. We use the model to solve two classic coupled flow problems as verification. We then apply the model to a salt dome flow problem patterned after the conditions present at the Gorleben salt dome, Germany, a potential site for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Our transient simulations reveal the presence of two flow regimes: (1) recirculating and (2) swept forward. The flow dynamics are highly sensitive to the strength of molecular diffusion, with recirculating flows arising for large values of molecular diffusivity. For pure hydrodynamic dispersion with parameters approximating those at Gorleben, we find a swept-forward flow field at steady state rather than the recirculating flows found in previous investigations. The time to steady state is very sensitive to the initial conditions, with long time periods required to sweep out an initial brine pool in the lower region of the domain. Dimensional analysis is used to demonstrate the tendency toward brine recirculation. An analysis based on a dispersion timescale explains the observed long time to steady state when the initial condition has a brine pool in the lower part of the system.

  8. Hydrologic data and groundwater-flow simulations in the Brown Ditch Watershed, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, near Beverly Shores and Town of Pines, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lampe, David C.

    2016-03-15

    The results of this study can be used by water-resource managers to understand how surrounding ditches affect water levels in Great Marsh and other inland wetlands and residential areas. The groundwater model developed can be applied to answer questions about how alterations to the drainage system in the area affects water levels in the public and residential areas surrounding Great Marsh. The modeling methods developed in this study provide a template for other studies of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interactions within the shallow surficial aquifer in northern Indiana, and in similar hydrologic settings that include surficial sand aquifers in coastal areas.

  9. Wellbore and groundwater temperature distribution eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: Implications for groundwater flow and geothermal potential

    DOE PAGES

    McLing, Travis L.; Smith, Richard P.; Smith, Robert W.; ...

    2016-04-10

    A map of groundwater temperatures from the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) regional aquifer can be used to identify and interpret important features of the aquifer, including aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. The ESRP is an area of high heat flow, yet most of this thermal energy fails to reach the surface, due to the heat being swept downgradient by the aquifer to the major spring complexes near Thousand Springs, ID, a distance of 300 km. Nine deep boreholes that fully penetrate the regional aquifer display three common features: (1) high thermal gradients beneath the aquifer,more » corresponding to high conductive heat flow in low-permeability hydrothermally-altered rocks; (2) isothermal temperature profiles within the aquifer, characteristic of an actively flowing groundwater; and (3) moderate thermal gradients in the vadose zone with values that indicate that over half of the geothermal heat flow is removed by advective transport in the regional aquifer system. This study utilized temperature data from 250 ESRP aquifer wells to evaluate regional aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. Because the thermal gradients are typically low in the aquifer, any measurement of groundwater temperature is a reasonable estimate of temperature throughout the aquifer thickness, allowing the construction of a regional aquifer temperature map for the ESRP. Mapped temperatures are used to identify cold thermal plumes associated with recharge from tributary valleys and adjacent uplands, and warm zones associated with geothermal input to the aquifer. Warm zones in the aquifer can have various causes, including local circulation of groundwater through the deep conductively dominated region, slow groundwater movement in low-permeability regions, or localized heat flow from deeper thermal features.« less

  10. Wellbore and groundwater temperature distribution eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: Implications for groundwater flow and geothermal potential

    SciTech Connect

    McLing, Travis L.; Smith, Richard P.; Smith, Robert W.; Blackwell, David D.; Roback, Robert C.; Sondrup, Andrus J.

    2016-04-10

    A map of groundwater temperatures from the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) regional aquifer can be used to identify and interpret important features of the aquifer, including aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. The ESRP is an area of high heat flow, yet most of this thermal energy fails to reach the surface, due to the heat being swept downgradient by the aquifer to the major spring complexes near Thousand Springs, ID, a distance of 300 km. Nine deep boreholes that fully penetrate the regional aquifer display three common features: (1) high thermal gradients beneath the aquifer, corresponding to high conductive heat flow in low-permeability hydrothermally-altered rocks; (2) isothermal temperature profiles within the aquifer, characteristic of an actively flowing groundwater; and (3) moderate thermal gradients in the vadose zone with values that indicate that over half of the geothermal heat flow is removed by advective transport in the regional aquifer system. This study utilized temperature data from 250 ESRP aquifer wells to evaluate regional aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. Because the thermal gradients are typically low in the aquifer, any measurement of groundwater temperature is a reasonable estimate of temperature throughout the aquifer thickness, allowing the construction of a regional aquifer temperature map for the ESRP. Mapped temperatures are used to identify cold thermal plumes associated with recharge from tributary valleys and adjacent uplands, and warm zones associated with geothermal input to the aquifer. Warm zones in the aquifer can have various causes, including local circulation of groundwater through the deep conductively dominated region, slow groundwater movement in low-permeability regions, or localized heat flow from deeper thermal features.

  11. Wellbore and groundwater temperature distribution eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: Implications for groundwater flow and geothermal potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLing, Travis L.; Smith, Richard P.; Smith, Robert W.; Blackwell, David D.; Roback, Robert C.; Sondrup, Andrus J.

    2016-06-01

    A map of groundwater temperatures from the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) regional aquifer can be used to identify and interpret important features of the aquifer, including aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. The ESRP is an area of high heat flow, yet most of this thermal energy fails to reach the surface, due to the heat being swept downgradient by the aquifer to the major spring complexes near Thousand Springs, ID, a distance of 300 km. Nine deep boreholes that fully penetrate the regional aquifer display three common features: (1) high thermal gradients beneath the aquifer, corresponding to high conductive heat flow in low-permeability hydrothermally-altered rocks; (2) isothermal temperature profiles within the aquifer, characteristic of an actively flowing groundwater; and (3) moderate thermal gradients in the vadose zone with values that indicate that over half of the geothermal heat flow is removed by advective transport in the regional aquifer system. This study utilized temperature data from 250 ESRP aquifer wells to evaluate regional aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. Because the thermal gradients are typically low in the aquifer, any measurement of groundwater temperature is a reasonable estimate of temperature throughout the aquifer thickness, allowing the construction of a regional aquifer temperature map for the ESRP. Mapped temperatures are used to identify cold thermal plumes associated with recharge from tributary valleys and adjacent uplands, and warm zones associated with geothermal input to the aquifer. Warm zones in the aquifer can have various causes, including local circulation of groundwater through the deep conductively dominated region, slow groundwater movement in low-permeability regions, or localized heat flow from deeper thermal features.

  12. Effect of irrigation return flow on groundwater recharge in an overexploited aquifer in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture has an important role in the food production to ensure food security of Bangladesh that is home to over 150 million people. However, overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation, particularly during the dry season, causes groundwater-level decline in areas where abstraction is high and surface geology inhibits direct recharge to underlying shallow aquifer. This is causing a number of potential adverse socio-economic, hydrogeological, and environmental problems in Bangladesh. Alluvial aquifers are primarily recharged during monsoon season from rainfall and surface sources. However, return flow from groundwater-fed irrigation can recharge during the dry months. Quantification of the effect of return flow from irrigation in the groundwater system is currently unclear but thought to be important to ensure sustainable management of the overexploited aquifer. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of irrigation return flow on groundwater recharge in the north-western part of Bangladesh, also known as Barind Tract. A semi-physically based distributed water balance model (WetSpass-M) is used to simulate spatially distributed monthly groundwater recharge. Results show that, groundwater abstraction for irrigation in the study area has increased steadily over the last 29 years. During the monsoon season, local precipitation is the controlling factor of groundwater recharge; however, there is no trend in groundwater recharge during that period. During the dry season, however, irrigation return-flow plays a major role in recharging the aquifer in the irrigated area compared to local precipitation. Therefore, during the dry season, mean seasonal groundwater recharge has increased and almost doubled over the last 29 years as a result of increased abstraction for irrigation. The increase in groundwater recharge during dry season has however no significant effect in the improvement of groundwater levels. The relation between groundwater

  13. Integrating hydrogeochemical, hydrogeological, and environmental tracer data to understand groundwater flow for a karstified aquifer system.

    PubMed

    Pavlovskiy, Igor; Selle, Benny

    2015-04-01

    For karstified aquifer systems, numerical models of groundwater flow are difficult to setup and parameterize. However, a system understanding useful for groundwater management may be obtained without applying overly complicated models. In this study, we demonstrate for a karstified carbonate aquifer in south-western Germany that a combination of methods with moderate data requirements can be used to infer flowpaths and transit times of groundwater to production wells.

  14. Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, S Emad; Schincariol, Robert A; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10(-7) m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings.

  15. A conceptual framework of groundwater flow in some crystalline aquifers in Southeastern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidana, Sandow Mark; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Akabzaa, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    A conceptual groundwater flow model was developed for the crystalline aquifers in southeastern part of the Eastern region, Ghana. The objective was to determine approximate levels of groundwater recharge, estimate aquifer hydraulic parameters, and then test various scenarios of groundwater extraction under the current conditions of recharge. A steady state groundwater flow model has been calibrated against measured water levels of 19 wells in the area. The resulting recharge is estimated to range from 8.97 × 10 -5 m/d to 7.14 × 10 -4 m/d resulting in a basin wide average recharge of about 9.6% of total annual precipitation, which results in a basin wide quantitative recharge of about 2.4 million m 3/d in the area. This compares to recharge estimated from the chloride mass balance of 7.6% of precipitation determined in this study. The general groundwater flow in the area has also been determined to conform to the general northeast-southwest structural grain of the country. The implication is that the general hydrogeology is controlled by post genetic structural entities imposed on the rocks to create ingresses for sufficient groundwater storage and transport. Calibrated aquifer hydraulic conductivities range between 0.99 m/d and over 19.4 m/d. There is a significant contribution of groundwater discharge to stream flow in the study area. Increasing groundwater extraction will have an effect on stream flow. This study finds that the current groundwater extraction levels represent only 0.17% of the annual recharge from precipitation, and that groundwater can sustain future increased groundwater demands from population growth and industrialization.

  16. Groundwater flow system in the valley of Toluca, Mexico: an assay of natural radionuclide specific activities.

    PubMed

    Segovia, N; Tamez, E; Peña, P; Carrillo, J; Acosta, E; Armienta, M A; Iturbe, J L

    1999-03-01

    Natural radionuclides and physicochemical parameters have been evaluated in groundwater samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system of the Toluca City, Mexico. The results obtained for radon and radium, together with the physicochemical parameters of the studied samples, indicate a fast and efficient recharge pattern. The presence of a local and a regional groundwater flows was also observed. The local flow belongs to shallower water, recognized by its low radon content and dissolved ions, as compared with the regional, deeper groundwater flow with a longer residence time.

  17. Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as determined by hydrogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagabu, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Delinom, Robert; Tsujimura, Maki; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In the Jakarta area (Indonesia), excessive groundwater pumping due to the rapidly increasing population has caused groundwater-related problems such as brackish water contamination in coastal areas and land subsidence. In this study, we adopted multiple hydrogeochemical techniques to demonstrate the groundwater flow system in the Jakarta area. Although almost all groundwater existing in the Jakarta basin is recharged at similar elevations, the water quality and residence time demonstrates a clear difference between the shallow and deep aquifers. Due to the rapid decrease in the groundwater potential in urban areas, we found that the seawater intrusion and the shallow and deep groundwaters are mixing, a conclusion confirmed by major ions, Br -:Cl - ratios, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12 analysis. Spring water and groundwater samples collected from the southern mountainside area show younger age characteristics with high concentrations of 14C and Ca-HCO 3 type water chemistry. We estimated the residence times of these groundwaters within 45 years under piston flow conditions by tritium analysis. Also, these groundwater ages can be limited to 20-30 years with piston flow evaluated by CFCs. Moreover, due to the magnitude of the CFC-12 concentration, we can use a pseudo age indicator in this field study, because we found a positive correlation between the major type of water chemistry and the CFC-12 concentration.

  18. Groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, 2012–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L. Rick; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    2016-11-28

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas River Basin Regional Resource Planning Group, initiated a study of groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and loading of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium to Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, to improve understanding of sources and processes affecting loading of these constituents to streams in the Arkansas River Basin. Fourteen monitoring wells were installed in a series of three transects across Fountain Creek near Pueblo, and temporary streamgages were established at each transect to facilitate data collection for the study. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was characterized by using hydrogeologic mapping, groundwater and stream-surface levels, groundwater and stream temperatures, vertical hydraulic-head gradients and ratios of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hyporheic zone, and streamflow mass-balance measurements. Water quality was characterized by collecting periodic samples from groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone for analysis of dissolved solids, selenium, uranium, and other selected constituents and by evaluating the oxidation-reduction condition for each groundwater sample under different hydrologic conditions throughout the study period. Groundwater loads to Fountain Creek and in-stream loads were computed for the study area, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium were evaluated on the basis of geology, geochemical conditions, land and water use, and evapoconcentration.During the study period, the groundwater-flow system generally contributed flow to Fountain Creek and its hyporheic zone (as a single system) except for the reach between the north and middle transects. However, the direction of flow between the stream, the hyporheic zone, and the near-stream aquifer was variable in response to streamflow and stage. During periods of low streamflow, Fountain Creek generally gained flow from

  19. Hydrogeology and Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Plymouth-Carver-Kingston-Duxbury Aquifer System, Southeastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Carlson, Carl S.; Walter, Donald A.; Other contributing authors: Bent, Gardner C.; Massey, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The glacial sediments that underlie the Plymouth-Carver-Kingston-Duxbury area of southeastern Massachusetts compose an important aquifer system that is the primary source of water for a region undergoing rapid development. Population increases and land-use changes in this area has led to two primary environmental effects that relate directly to groundwater resources: (1) increases in pumping that can adversely affect environmentally sensitive groundwater-fed surface waters, such as ponds, streams, and wetlands; and (2) adverse effects of land use on the quality of water in the aquifer. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, began an investigation in 2005 to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology in the area and to assess the effects of changing pumping and recharge conditions on groundwater flow in the Plymouth-Carver-Kingston-Duxbury aquifer system. A numerical flow model was developed based on the USGS computer program MODFLOW-2000 to assist in the analysis of groundwater flow. Model simulations were used to determine water budgets, flow directions, and the sources of water to pumping wells, ponds, streams, and coastal areas. Model-calculated water budgets indicate that approximately 298 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water recharges the Plymouth-Carver-Kingston-Duxbury aquifer system. Most of this water (about 70 percent) moves through the aquifer, discharges to streams, and then reaches the coast as surface-water discharge. Of the remaining 30 percent of flow, about 25 percent of the water that enters the aquifer as recharge discharges directly to coastal areas and 5 percent discharges to pumping wells. Groundwater withdrawals are anticipated to increase from the current (2005) rate of about 14 Mgal/d to about 21 Mgal/d by 2030. Pumping from large-capacity production wells decreases water levels and increases the potential for effects on surface

  20. Simulating the effect of climate extremes on groundwater flow through a lakebed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virdi, Makhan L.; Lee, Terrie M.; Swancar, Amy; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater exchanges with lakes resulting from cyclical wet and dry climate extremes maintain lake levels in the environment in ways that are not well understood, in part because they remain difficult to simulate. To better understand the atypical groundwater interactions with lakes caused by climatic extremes, an original conceptual approach is introduced using MODFLOW-2005 and a kinematic-wave approximation to variably saturated flow that allows lake size and position in the basin to change while accurately representing the daily lake volume and three-dimensional variably saturated groundwater flow responses in the basin. Daily groundwater interactions are simulated for a calibrated lake basin in Florida over a decade that included historic wet and dry departures from the average rainfall. The divergent climate extremes subjected nearly 70% of the maximum lakebed area and 75% of the maximum shoreline perimeter to both groundwater inflow and lake leakage. About half of the lakebed area subject to flow reversals also went dry. A flow-through pattern present for 73% of the decade caused net leakage from the lake 80% of the time. Runoff from the saturated lake margin offset the groundwater deficit only about half of that time. A centripetal flow pattern present for 6% of the decade was important for maintaining the lake stage and generated 30% of all net groundwater inflow. Pumping effects superimposed on dry climate extremes induced the least frequent but most cautionary flow pattern with leakage from over 90% of the actual lakebed area.

  1. Groundwater Flow in the Arthur Marble Aquifer, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. K.

    2008-05-01

    Arthur Marble underlies the Takaka Valley and outcrops in Karst Uplands to east and west of the valley in the South Island of New Zealand. It is the principal groundwater aquifer in the region and host to the remarkable Waikoropupu Springs near the coast. With average flow of 13,300 L/s, the karstic springs have many interesting features including unusual size and clarity. This work uses rainfall and river level, natural tracer and chemical measurements to determine the recharge sources and nature of the flow system in the Arthur Marble Aquifer (AMA). Total recharge to the AMA of 19,750 L/s comes from three sources (Karst Uplands stream seepage, Takaka River seepage and Takaka Valley rainfall infiltration). Since 13,300 L/s is discharged at the springs, the remainder must escape via offshore springs (6,450 L/s). The oxygen-18 mass balance allows the contribution of each source to each spring to be determined; most of the flow to the Main Spring of the Waikoropupu Springs comes from the Karst Uplands. The offshore springs are mostly fed from the Takaka River. The chemical concentrations of the Main Spring show input of 0.5% of sea water on average, but varying with flow. This variation with flow shows that two water components (sea-water-bearing and non-sea-water-bearing) contribute to the spring's discharge. Tritium measurements spanning 40 years, and CFC-11 measurements, give a mean residence time of 8 years for the Main Spring water using the preferred two-component model. Our conceptual flow model, based on the flow, oxygen-18, chloride and tritium measurements, reveals that two different flow systems with different recharge sources are needed to explain the flow within the AMA. One system contains deeply penetrating old water with mean age 10.2 years and water volume 3 cubic kilometers, recharged from the Karst Uplands. The other, at shallow levels below the valley floor, has much younger water, with mean age 1.2 years and water volume 0.4 cubic kilometers

  2. Regional groundwater flow and geochemical evolution in the Amacuzac River Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Casique, Eric; Guinzberg-Belmont, Jacobo; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    2016-11-01

    An approach is presented to investigate the regional evolution of groundwater in the basin of the Amacuzac River in Central Mexico. The approach is based on groundwater flow cross-sectional modeling in combination with major ion chemistry and geochemical modeling, complemented with principal component and cluster analyses. The hydrogeologic units composing the basin, which combine aquifers and aquitards both in granular, fractured and karstic rocks, were represented in sections parallel to the regional groundwater flow. Steady-state cross-section numerical simulations aided in the conceptualization of the groundwater flow system through the basin and permitted estimation of bulk hydraulic conductivity values, recharge rates and residence times. Forty-five water locations (springs, groundwater wells and rivers) were sampled throughout the basin for chemical analysis of major ions. The modeled gravity-driven groundwater flow system satisfactorily reproduced field observations, whereas the main geochemical processes of groundwater in the basin are associated to the order and reactions in which the igneous and sedimentary rocks are encountered along the groundwater flow. Recharge water in the volcanic and volcano-sedimentary aquifers increases the concentration of HCO3 -, Mg2+ and Ca2+ from dissolution of plagioclase and olivine. Deeper groundwater flow encounters carbonate rocks, under closed CO2 conditions, and dissolves calcite and dolomite. When groundwater encounters gypsum lenses in the shallow Balsas Group or the deeper Huitzuco anhydrite, gypsum dissolution produces proportional increased concentration of Ca2+ and SO4 2-; two samples reflected the influence of hydrothermal fluids and probably halite dissolution. These geochemical trends are consistent with the principal component and cluster analyses.

  3. Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Flow in the Opequon Creek Watershed area, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.

    2009-01-01

    model to develop a realistic simulation of ground-water flow in the larger Opequon Creek watershed area. In the model, recharge for average hydrologic conditions was 689 m3/d/km2 (cubic meters per day per square kilometer) over the entire Opequon Creek watershed area. Mean and median measured base flows at the streamflow-gaging station on the Opequon Creek near Martinsburg, West Virginia, were 604,384 and 349,907 m3/d (cubic meters per day), respectively. The simulated base flow of 432,834 m3/d fell between the mean and median measured stream base flows for the station. Simulated base-flow yields for subwatersheds during average conditions ranged from 0 to 2,643 m3/d/km2, and the median for the entire Opequon Creek watershed area was 557 m3/d/km2. A drought was simulated by reducing model recharge by 40 percent, a rate that approximates the recharge during the prolonged 16-month drought that affected the region from November 1998 to February 2000. Mean and median measured streamflows for the Opequon Creek watershed area at the Martinsburg, West Virginia, streamflow-gaging station during the 1999 drought were 341,098 and 216,551 m3/d, respectively. The simulated drought base flow at the station of 252,356 m3/d is within the range of flows measured during the 1999 drought. Recharge was 413 m3/d/km2 over the entire watershed during the simulated drought, and was 388 m3/d/km2 at the gaging station. Simulated base-flow yields for drought conditions ranged from 0 to 1,865 m3/d/km2 and averaged 327 m3/d/km2 over the entire Opequon Creek watershed. Water budgets developed from the simulation results indicate a substantial component of direct ground-water discharge to the Potomac River. This phenomenon had long been suspected but had not been quantified. During average conditions, approximately 564,176 m3/d of base flow discharges to the Potomac River. An additional 124,379 m3/d of ground water is also estimated to discharge directly to the Potomac River and rep

  4. Integrated Surface-groundwater Flow Modeling: a Free-surface Overland Flow Boundary Condition in a Parallel Groundwater Flow Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kollet, S J; Maxwell, R M

    2005-04-08

    Interactions between surface and ground water are a key component of the hydrologic budget on the watershed scale. Models that honor these interactions are commonly based on the conductance concept that presumes a distinct interface at the land surface, separating the surface from the subsurface domain. These types of models link the subsurface and surface domains via an exchange flux that depends upon the magnitude and direction of the hydraulic gradient across the interface and a proportionality constant (a measure of the hydraulic connectivity). Because experimental evidence of such a distinct interface is often lacking in field systems, there is a need for a more general coupled modeling approach. A more general coupled model is presented that incorporates a new two-dimensional overland flow simulator into the parallel three-dimensional variable saturated subsurface flow code ParFlow. In ParFlow, the overland flow simulator takes the form of an upper boundary condition and is, thus, fully integrated without relying on the conductance concept. Another important advantage of this approach is the efficient parallelism incorporated into ParFlow, which is efficiently exploited by the overland flow simulator. Several verification and simulation examples are presented that focus on the two main processes of runoff production: excess infiltration and saturation. The model is shown to reproduce an analytical solution for overland flow and compares favorably to other commonly used hydrologic models. The influence of heterogeneity of the shallow subsurface on overland flow is also examined. The results show the uncertainty in overland flow predictions due to subsurface heterogeneity and demonstrate the usefulness of our approach. Both the overland flow component and the coupled model are evaluated in a parallel scaling study and show to be efficient.

  5. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla Valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal water, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3 type. It originates as recharge at Primavera caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal water is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na, HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural practices. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Tritium method elucidated that practically all of the sampled groundwater contains at least a small fraction of modern water. The multivariate mixing model M3 indicates that the proportion of hydrothermal fluids in sampled well water is between 13 (local groundwater) and 87% (hydrothermal water), and the proportion of polluted water in wells ranges from 0 to 63%. This study may help local water authorities to identify and quantify groundwater contamination and act accordingly.

  6. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, D. Matthew; Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Vaccaro, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping has increased substantially over the past 40–50 years; this increase resulted in declining water levels at depth and decreased base flows over much of the study area. The effects of pumping are mitigated somewhat by the increase of surface-water irrigation, especially in the shallow Overburden unit, and commingling wells in some areas. During dry to average years, groundwater pumping causes a net loss of groundwater in storage and current condition (2000–2007) groundwater pumping exceeds recharge in all but the wettest of years.

  7. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  8. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: Regional modeling analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  9. Groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, Idaho--A groundwater-flow model for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James; Vincent, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR), will use the current understanding of the Wood River Valley aquifer system to construct a MODFLOW numerical groundwater-flow model to simulate potential anthropogenic and climatic effects on groundwater and surface-water resources. This model will serve as a tool for water rights administration and water-resource management and planning. The study will be conducted over a 3-year period from late 2012 until model and report completion in 2015.

  10. Geohydrology, simulation of ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duwelius, R.F.; Greeman, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved inorganic substances in ground-water samples indicate that leachate from both landfills is reaching the shallow aquifers. The effect on deeper aquifers is small because of the predominance of horizontal ground-water flow and discharge to the streams. Increases in almost all dissolved constituents were observed in shallow wells that are screened beneath and downgradient from the landfills. Several analyses, especially those for bromide, dissolved solids, and ammonia, were useful in delineating the plume of leachate at both landfills.

  11. Effects of linking a soil-water-balance model with a groundwater-flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Peterson, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    A previously published regional groundwater-flow model in north-central Nebraska was sequentially linked with the recently developed soil-water-balance (SWB) model to analyze effects to groundwater-flow model parameters and calibration results. The linked models provided a more detailed spatial and temporal distribution of simulated recharge based on hydrologic processes, improvement of simulated groundwater-level changes and base flows at specific sites in agricultural areas, and a physically based assessment of the relative magnitude of recharge for grassland, nonirrigated cropland, and irrigated cropland areas. Root-mean-squared (RMS) differences between the simulated and estimated or measured target values for the previously published model and linked models were relatively similar and did not improve for all types of calibration targets. However, without any adjustment to the SWB-generated recharge, the RMS difference between simulated and estimated base-flow target values for the groundwater-flow model was slightly smaller than for the previously published model, possibly indicating that the volume of recharge simulated by the SWB code was closer to actual hydrogeologic conditions than the previously published model provided. Groundwater-level and base-flow hydrographs showed that temporal patterns of simulated groundwater levels and base flows were more accurate for the linked models than for the previously published model at several sites, particularly in agricultural areas.

  12. Groundwater response to the 2014 pulse flow in the Colorado River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey; Rodriguez-Burgueno, Eliana; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    During the March-May 2014 Colorado River Delta pulse flow, approximately 102 × 106 m3 (82,000 acre-feet) of water was released into the channel at Morelos Dam, with additional releases further downstream. The majority of pulse flow water infiltrated and recharged the regional aquifer. Using groundwater-level and microgravity data we mapped the spatial and temporal distribution of changes in aquifer storage associated with pulse flow. Surface-water losses to infiltration were greatest around the Southerly International Boundary, where a lowered groundwater level owing to nearby pumping created increased storage potential as compared to other areas with shallower groundwater. Groundwater levels were elevated for several months after the pulse flow but had largely returned to pre-pulse levels by fall 2014. Elevated groundwater levels in the limitrophe (border) reach extended about 2 km to the east around the midway point between the Northerly and Southerly International Boundaries, and about 4 km to the east at the southern end. In the southern part of the delta, although total streamflow in the channel was less due to upstream infiltration, augmented deliveries through irrigation canals and possible irrigation return flows created sustained increases in groundwater levels during summer 2014. Results show that elevated groundwater levels and increases in groundwater storage were relatively short lived (confined to calendar year 2014), and that depressed water levels associated with groundwater pumping around San Luis, Arizona and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora cause large, unavoidable infiltration losses of in-channel water to groundwater in the vicinity.

  13. Combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation for spatially establishing utilization strategies for groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater is a common problem in the Pingtung Plain area of Taiwan, resulting in substantial drawdown of groundwater levels as well as the occurrence of severe seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Measures need to be taken to preserve these valuable groundwater resources. This study seeks to spatially determine the most suitable locations for the use of surface water on this plain instead of extracting groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture purposes based on information obtained by combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation assuming the planning of manmade lakes and reservoirs to the increase of water supply. The multivariate indicator kriging method is first used to estimate occurrence probabilities, and to rank townships as suitable or unsuitable for groundwater utilization according to water quality standards for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture. A numerical model of groundwater flow (MODFLOW) is adopted to quantify the recovery of groundwater levels in townships after model calibration when groundwater for drinking and agricultural demands has been replaced by surface water. Finally, townships with poor groundwater quality and significant increases in groundwater levels in the Pingtung Plain are prioritized for the groundwater conservation planning based on the combined assessment of groundwater quality and quantity. The results of this study indicate that the integration of groundwater quality analysis and the numerical flow simulation is capable of establishing sound strategies for joint groundwater and surface water use. Six southeastern townships are found to be suitable locations for replacing groundwater with surface water from manmade lakes or reservoirs to meet drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture demands.

  14. The influence of interfacial properties on two-phase liquid flow of organic contaminants in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, K.F.; Demond, A.H.

    1991-08-01

    An improved understanding of the factors influencing the movement of a separate organic liquid phase in groundwater aquifers is important to the US Department of Energy's efforts to alleviate groundwater contamination by many common solvents. The overall objective of this project is to investigate how changes in interfacial chemical properties affect two-phase flow relationships. Specifically, the objective is to develop a quantitative theory that will enable the prediction of changes in the capillary pressure-saturation relationship, a fundamental constitutive relationship in multiphase flow modeling, from changes in interfacial properties through a knowledge of their effect on wettability. The work over the past eight months of the project summarized here shows the interrelationship between the surface chemical properties of sorption, electrophoretic mobility, contact angle, surface tension and capillary pressure, and how the effects on capillary pressure might be predicted on the basis of surface tension and contact angle. The model system we have been examining consists of o-xylene, water, silica sand, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in which all three interfacial tensions of the system change.

  15. Use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of vertical ground-water flow and vertical hydraulic conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, Wayne W.

    1989-01-01

    The use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of vertical ground-water flow and effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of sediments was evaluated at three field sites by use of a model that numerically solves the partial differential equation governing simultaneous vertical flow of fluid and heat in the Earth. The field sites are located in Hardwick and New Braintree, Mass., and in Dover, N.J. In New England, stream temperature varies from about 0 to 25 ?C (degrees Celsius) during the year. This stream-temperature fluctuation causes ground-water temperatures beneath streams to fluctuate by more than 0.1 ?C during a year to a depth of about 35 ft (feet) in fine-grained sediments and to a depth of about 50 ft in coarse-grained sediments, if ground-water velocity is 0 ft/d (foot per day). Upward flow decreases the depth affected by stream-temperature fluctuation, and downward flow increases the depth. At the site in Hardwick, Mass., ground-water flow was upward at a rate of less than 0.01 ft/d. The maximum effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site is 0.1 ft/d. Ground-water velocities determined at three locations at the site in New Braintree, Mass., where ground water discharges naturally from the underlying aquifer to the Ware River, ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 ft/d upward. The effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site ranged from 2.4 to 17.1 ft/d. Ground-water velocities determined at three locations at the Dover, N.J., site, where infiltration from the Rockaway River into the underlying sediments occurs because of pumping, were 1.5 ft/d downward. The effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site ranged from 2.2 to 2.5 ft/d. Independent estimates of velocity at two of the three sites are in general agreement with the velocities determined using temperature profiles. The estimates of velocities and conductivities derived from the

  16. Simulation of groundwater flow and interaction of groundwater and surface water on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Indian Health Service are interested in improving the understanding of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interaction on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation (Reservation) in southwest Vilas County and southeast Iron County, Wisconsin, with particular interest in an understanding of the potential for contamination of groundwater supply wells and the fate of wastewater that is infiltrated from treatment lagoons on the Reservation. This report describes the construction, calibration, and application of a regional groundwater flow model used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system of the Reservation and water-quality results for groundwater and surface-water samples collected near a system of waste-water-treatment lagoons. Groundwater flows through a permeable glacial aquifer that ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 200 feet (ft). Seepage and drainage lakes are common in the area and influence groundwater flow patterns on the Reservation. A two-dimensional, steady-state analytic element groundwater flow model was constructed using the program GFLOW. The model was calibrated by matching target water levels and stream base flows through the use of the parameter-estimation program, PEST. Simulated results illustrate that groundwater flow within most of the Reservation is toward the Bear River and the chain of lakes that feed the Bear River. Results of analyses of groundwater and surface-water samples collected downgradient from the wastewater infiltration lagoons show elevated levels of ammonia and dissolved phosphorus. In addition, wastewater indicator chemicals detected in three downgradient wells and a small downgradient stream indicate that infiltrated wastewater is moving southwest of the lagoons toward Moss Lake. Potential effects of extended wet and dry periods (within historical ranges) were evaluated by adjusting precipitation and groundwater recharge in the model and comparing the

  17. Simulation of the effects of rainfall and groundwater use on historical lake water levels, groundwater levels, and spring flows in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul A.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    in water levels and flows were identified that are consistent with historical groundwater-use patterns. The sensitivity of the hydrologic system to rainfall is expected, owing to the well-drained karst terrain and relatively thin confinement of the Floridan aquifer system in much of central Florida. These characteristics facilitate the relatively rapid transmission of infiltrating water from rainfall to the water table and contribute to downward leakage of water to the Floridan aquifer system. The areally distributed nature of rainfall, as opposed to the site-specific nature of groundwater use, and the generally high transmissivity and low storativity properties of the semiconfined Floridan aquifer system contribute to the prevalence of water-level and flow patterns that mimic rainfall patterns. In general, the data-mining analyses demonstrate that the hydrologic system in central Florida is affected by groundwater use differently during wet periods, when little or no system storage is available (high water levels), compared to dry periods, when there is excess system storage (low water levels). Thus, by driving the overall behavior of the system, rainfall indirectly influences the degree to which groundwater use will effect persistent trends in water levels and flows, with groundwater-use impacts more prevalent during periods of low water levels and spring flows caused by low rainfall and less prevalent during periods of high water levels and spring flows caused by high rainfall. Differences in the magnitudes of rainfall and groundwater use during wet and dry periods also are important determinants of hydrologic response. An important implication of the data-mining analyses is that rainfall variability at subannual to multidecadal timescales must be considered in combination with groundwater use to provide robust system-response predictions that enhance sustainable resource management in an open karst aquifer system. The data-driven approach was limited, however, by

  18. Evolution of 3-D geologic framework modeling and its application to groundwater flow studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, Charles D.; Smith, David V.

    2012-01-01

    In this Fact Sheet, the authors discuss the evolution of project 3-D subsurface framework modeling, research in hydrostratigraphy and airborne geophysics, and methodologies used to link geologic and groundwater flow models.

  19. AN INTEGRATED VIEW OF GROUNDWATER FLOW CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING IN FRACTURED GEOLOGIC MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The particular attributes of fractured geologic media pertaining to groundwater flow characterization and modeling are presented. These cover the issues of fracture network and hydraulic control of fracture geometry parameters, major and minor fractures, heterogeneity, anisotrop...

  20. Occurrence and transport of pharmaceuticals in a karst groundwater system affected by domestic wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael; Maloszewski, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of two pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen and diclofenac, in a vulnerable karst groundwater system was investigated. The hydrogeology of the karst system was identified by collecting 3H samples in groundwater over 27 years and by performing tracer tests. The isotopes and tracer data were interpreted by mathematical modeling to estimate the mean transit time of water and to characterize the hydrogeological flow paths in the groundwater system. By this approach, a mean 3H transit time of 4.6 years for the fissured-porous karst aquifer was determined, whereas the fast flowing water in the conduit system showed a mean transit time of days. Both pharmaceuticals which infiltrated along sinkholes and small streams into the karst system were detected in concentrations of up to approximately 1 μg/L in effluent water of the wastewater treatment plants. Diclofenac was present in most samples collected from four springs discharging the karst groundwater to the rivers Altmühl and Anlauter in concentrations between 3.6 and 15.4 ng/L. In contrast, ibuprofen was rarely detected in groundwater. The results of this study suggest that both pharmaceuticals move into the fractured system of the karst system and go into storage. Thus dilution processes are the dominant control on the concentrations of both pharmaceuticals in the fractured system, whereas biodegradation is likely less important.

  1. Occurrence and transport of pharmaceuticals in a karst groundwater system affected by domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael; Maloszewski, Piotr

    2010-09-20

    The occurrence of two pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen and diclofenac, in a vulnerable karst groundwater system was investigated. The hydrogeology of the karst system was identified by collecting (3)H samples in groundwater over 27years and by performing tracer tests. The isotopes and tracer data were interpreted by mathematical modeling to estimate the mean transit time of water and to characterize the hydrogeological flow paths in the groundwater system. By this approach, a mean (3)H transit time of 4.6 years for the fissured-porous karst aquifer was determined, whereas the fast flowing water in the conduit system showed a mean transit time of days. Both pharmaceuticals which infiltrated along sinkholes and small streams into the karst system were detected in concentrations of up to approximately 1 microg/L in effluent water of the wastewater treatment plants. Diclofenac was present in most samples collected from four springs discharging the karst groundwater to the rivers Altmühl and Anlauter in concentrations between 3.6 and 15.4 ng/L. In contrast, ibuprofen was rarely detected in groundwater. The results of this study suggest that both pharmaceuticals move into the fractured system of the karst system and go into storage. Thus dilution processes are the dominant control on the concentrations of both pharmaceuticals in the fractured system, whereas biodegradation is likely less important.

  2. Human impact on regional groundwater composition through intervention in natural flow patterns and changes in land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schot, P. P.; van der Wal, J.

    1992-06-01

    The relations between groundwater composition, land use, soil conditions and flow patterns on a regional scale are studied for the Gooi and Vechtstreek area in the Netherlands. This densely populated area consists of a glacier-created ridge with dry sand soils bordered by the Vecht and Eem River plains with wet peat and clay soils. R-mode factor analysis and Q-mode cluster analysis were applied to a set of 1349 groundwater analyses to determine the factors controlling groundwater composition and the main resulting water types. The results indicate that groundwater composition in the study area is affected on a regional scale by human activities through changes in land use and intervention in natural flow patterns. On the ridge, ground water is recharged by precipitation, which dissolves carbonates from the matrix of the sandy aquifer. Increased solute concentrations in shallow ground water, especially of nitrate, sulphate and potassium, indicate increased pollution resulting from urbanization and increasingly intensive agricultural activity over the past decades. In the Vecht River plain infiltration occurs as a result of drainage of polders and groundwater extraction on the ridge. Recharge occurs by precipitation and from polluted surface water to which ammonium, organic complexes and carbonic acid are added through decomposition of organic matter in the peat and clay soils. The carbonic acid results in enhanced dissolution of carbonates present in the soil and the underlying sandy aquifer. Oxygen depletion and subsequent low redox potentials result in denitrification, dissolution of manganese and iron oxides, and sulphate reduction. The flow of ground water from high-level to low-level polders causes displacement of a former stagnant brakish groundwater body under the Vecht River plain accompanied by increased mixing of fresh and brackish ground water.

  3. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Frans, Lonna M.

    2016-08-18

    Information about groundwater-flow paths and locations where groundwater discharges at and near Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is necessary for understanding the potential migration of subsurface contaminants by groundwater at the shipyard. The design of some remediation alternatives would be aided by knowledge of whether groundwater flowing at specific locations beneath the shipyard will eventually discharge directly to Sinclair Inlet of Puget Sound, or if it will discharge to the drainage system of one of the six dry docks located in the shipyard. A 1997 numerical (finite difference) groundwater-flow model of the shipyard and surrounding area was constructed to help evaluate the potential for groundwater discharge to Puget Sound. That steady-state, multilayer numerical model with homogeneous hydraulic characteristics indicated that groundwater flowing beneath nearly all of the shipyard discharges to the dry-dock drainage systems, and only shallow groundwater flowing beneath the western end of the shipyard discharges directly to Sinclair Inlet.Updated information from a 2016 regional groundwater-flow model constructed for the greater Kitsap Peninsula was used to update the 1997 groundwater model of the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. That information included a new interpretation of the hydrogeologic units underlying the area, as well as improved recharge estimates. Other updates to the 1997 model included finer discretization of the finite-difference model grid into more layers, rows, and columns, all with reduced dimensions. This updated Puget Sound Naval Shipyard model was calibrated to 2001–2005 measured water levels, and hydraulic characteristics of the model layers representing different hydrogeologic units were estimated with the aid of state-of-the-art parameter optimization techniques.The flow directions and discharge locations predicted by this updated model generally match the 1997 model despite refinements and other changes. In the updated model, most

  4. Documentation of finite-difference model for simulation of three-dimensional ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trescott, Peter C.; Larson, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    User experience has indicated that the documentation of the model of three-dimensional ground-water flow (Trescott and Larson, 1975) should be expanded. This supplement is intended to fulfill that need. The original report emphasized the theory of the strongly implicit procedure, instructions for using the groundwater-flow model, and practical considerations for application. (See also W76-02962 and W76-13085) (Woodard-USGS)

  5. An Analysis of Groundwater Flow Patterns in a Constructed Treatment Wetland Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Difference Ground-Water Flow Model, more commonly referred to as MODFLOW . It was developed in the early 1980’s by the U.S. Geological Survey to... MODFLOW has been upgraded many times since then and in 1990s MODFLOW became the most widely used groundwater flow modeling suite. In MODFLOW 2000...hydraulic system to be simulated (Harbaugh, 2006). MODFLOW is a deterministic and numeric type of modeling suite using the finite differences method to

  6. Rapid intrusion of magma into wet rock: groundwater flow due to pore pressure increases.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical and numerical solutions are developed to simulate the pressurization, expansion, and flow of groundwater contained within saturated, intact host rocks subject to sudden heating from the planar surface of an igneous intrusion. For most rocks, water diffuses more rapidly than heat, assuring that groundwater is not heated along a constant-volume pressure path and that thermal expansion and pressurization adjacent to the intrusion drives a flow that extends well beyond the heated region. -from Author

  7. Simulation of the regional groundwater-flow system of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Dunning, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    The likely extent of the Neopit wastewater plume was simulated by using the groundwater-flow model and Monte Carlo techniques to evaluate the sensitivity of predictive simulations to a range of model parameter values. Wastewater infiltrated from the currently operating lagoons flows predominantly south toward Tourtillotte Creek. Some of the infiltrated wastewater is simulated as having a low probability of flowing beneath Tourtillotte Creek to the nearby West Branch Wolf River. Results for the probable extent of the wastewater plume are considered to be qualitative because the method only considers advective flow and does not account for processes affecting contaminant transport in porous media. Therefore, results for the probable extent of the wastewater plume are sensitive to the number of particles used to represent flow from the lagoon and the resolution of a synthetic grid used for the analysis. Nonetheless, it is expected that the qualitative results may be of use for identifying potential downgradient areas of concern that can then be evaluated using the quantitative “area contributing recharge to wells” method or traditional contaminant-transport simulations.

  8. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    A study was done to describe the hydrogeology of unconsolidated deposits, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont. The study area is characterized by a glacial delta greater than 200 feet thick on the west flank of the Green Mountains. An upper unconfined, coarse-grained glacial aquifer and a lower fine-grained glacial aquifer are separated throughout most of the study area by a sand, silt, and clay confining unit. A two-layer ground-water flow model was designed and calibrated to estimate ground-water-flow paths form the aquifers beneath the landfills. Large upward head gradients of 0.03 to 0.30 foot per foot are the result of ground water leaking from the underlying bedrock aquifer, which caused ground-water flow to concentrate in the upper aquifer. Most simulated ground-water-flow paths in the lower glacial aquifer beneath the landfills crossed into the upper aquifer. Simulated ground- water-flow paths in the upper aquifer, beneath the landfills, remained in the upper aquifer. Ground water characterized as landfill leachate, or influenced by landfill leachate, has a median specific conductance of 700 microseimens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Landfill leachate contained mean concentrations 1.5 to 10 times the background concentrations of common constituents and metals, including calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, magnesium, and manganese. Trace metals detected in the leachate included copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, lead, and arsenic. Ten volatile organic compounds were found at four observation wells associated with one landfill and three volatile organic compounds were found at two observation wells associated with the record landfill. No one volatile organic compound was consistently found and detections were generally at or near detection limits.

  9. Exploring Online Game Players' Flow Experiences and Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…

  10. The in situ permeable flow sensor: A device for measuring groundwater flow velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, S.; Barker, G.T.; Nichols, R.L.

    1994-03-01

    A new technology called the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. These sensors use a thermal perturbation technique to directly measure the direction and magnitude of the full three dimensional groundwater flow velocity vector in unconsolidated, saturated, porous media. The velocity measured is an average value characteristic of an approximately 1 cubic meter volume of the subsurface. During a test at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, two flow sensors were deployed in a confined aquifer in close proximity to a well which was screened over the entire vertical extent of the aquifer and the well was pumped at four different pumping rates. In this situation horizontal flow which is radially directed toward the pumping well is expected. The flow sensors measured horizontal flow which was directed toward the pumping well, within the uncertainty in the measurements. The observed magnitude of the horizontal component of the flow velocity increased linearly with pumping rate, as predicted by theoretical considerations. The measured horizontal component of the flow velocity differed from the predicted flow velocity, which was calculated with the assumptions that the hydraulic properties of the aquifer were radially homogeneous and isotropic, by less than a factor of two. Drawdown data obtained from other wells near the pumping well during the pump test indicate that the hydraulic properties of the aquifer are probably not radially homogeneous but the effect of the inhomogeneity on the flow velocity field around the pumping well was not modeled because the degree and distribution of the inhomogeneity are unknown. Grain size analysis of core samples from wells in the area were used to estimate the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity.

  11. Simulation of three-dimensional groundwater flow: Chapter A–Supplement 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suárez-Soto, René J.; Jones, Elliott; Maslia, Morris L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this supplement of Chapter A (Supplement 4) is to construct, simulate, and calibrate a groundwater-flow model that represents the hydro-geologic framework and related groundwater-flow conditions described by Faye (2012) and Faye et al. (2013) within the vicinity of the Hadnot Point–Holcomb Boulevard (HPHB) study area, U.S. Marine Corp Base (USMCB) Camp Lejeune (Figure S4.1). Multiple variants of the groundwater-flow model were constructed and are described herein. The models simulate groundwater-flow conditions in the Brewster Boulevard, Tarawa Terrace, and Upper and Middle Castle Hayne aquifer systems from January 1942 to June 2008. Much of the discussion and analyses described herein parallel and partially duplicate methods and approaches described in similar reports of groundwater-flow investigations at Tarawa Terrace (TT) and vicinity by Faye and Valenzuela (2007). Model results were eventually used within several contaminant fate and transport models described by Jones et al. (2013) and Jang et al. (2013) for the historical reconstruction of finished-water3 concentrations within the service areas of the Hadnot Point and Holcomb Boulevard water treatment plants (HPWTP and HBWTP, respectively). This supplement focuses on the description of groundwater-flow model geometry, boundaries, hydraulic properties, calibration, and sensitivity analyses. 

  12. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott; Osborn, Noel I.; Neel, Christopher R.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Puckette, James; Pantea, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater in the aquifer moves from areas of high head (altitude) to areas of low head along streams and springs. The potentiometric surface in the eastern Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer generally slopes from a topographic high from northwest to the southeast, indicating that regional groundwater flow is predominantly toward the southeast. Freshwater is known to extend beyond the aquifer outcrop near the City of Sulphur, Oklahoma, and Chickasaw National Recreation Area, where groundwater flows west from the outcrop of the eastern Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer and becomes confin

  13. Well data and groundwater flow direction problem: Steuben County, Indiana case study

    SciTech Connect

    Goings, M.H. ); Isiorho, S.A. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1994-04-01

    The rapid industrial growth in Northeastern Indiana has lead to the demand for more complete geologic information for Steuben County, Indiana by the citizenry. The information would allow environmental scientists, geologists and engineers to more accurately predict the potential migration and impact of pollutants on the soil and groundwater. As part of ongoing environmental site investigations in Steuben County, well data were collected from Indiana Department of Environmental management (IDEM) and the State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources to determine local and regional groundwater flow directions. Of the 162 registered wells in the study area, only 67 of them, that is, 41% of the data could be used. The remaining well data could not be used because of poor, inaccurate or incomplete information on the forms (i.e., location description, well log, elevation, etc.). The regional groundwater flow direction was northwest as would be expected from the topography. A groundwater divide or ridge that was implied from the local groundwater flow directions could not be confirmed due to poor well data. The determination of groundwater flow direction was made more complicated due to incomplete well logs from drillers. Increased industrial activities in the region could lead to greater potential for surface and groundwater pollution problems. It is recommended that well data be collected by qualified personnel (field geologists) during well drilling.

  14. Groundwater-flow modeling in the Yucatan karstic aquifer, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Herrera, Roger; Sánchez-y-Pinto, Ismael; Gamboa-Vargas, José

    2002-09-01

    The current conceptual model of the unconfined karstic aquifer in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, is that a fresh-water lens floats above denser saline water that penetrates more than 40 km inland. The transmissivity of the aquifer is very high so the hydraulic gradient is very low, ranging from 7-10 mm/km through most of the northern part of the peninsula. The computer modeling program AQUIFER was used to investigate the regional groundwater flow in the aquifer. The karstified zone was modeled using the assumption that it acts hydraulically similar to a granular, porous medium. As part of the calibration, the following hypotheses were tested: (1) karstic features play an important role in the groundwater-flow system; (2) a ring or belt of sinkholes in the area is a manifestation of a zone of high transmissivity that facilitates the channeling of groundwater toward the Gulf of Mexico; and (3) the geologic features in the southern part of Yucatan influence the groundwater-flow system. The model shows that the Sierrita de Ticul fault, in the southwestern part of the study area, acts as a flow barrier and head values decline toward the northeast. The modeling also shows that the regional flow-system dynamics have not been altered despite the large number of pumping wells because the volume of water pumped is small compared with the volume of recharge, and the well-developed karst system of the region has a very high hydraulic conductivity. Résumé. Le modèle conceptuel classique de l'aquifère karstique libre de la péninsule du Yucatan (Mexique) consiste en une lentille d'eau douce flottant sur une eau salée plus dense qui pénètre à plus de 40 km à l'intérieur des terres. La transmissivité de l'aquifère est très élevée, en sorte que le gradient hydraulique est très faible, compris entre 7 et 10 mm/km dans la plus grande partie du nord de la péninsule. Le modèle AQUIFER a été utilisé pour explorer les écoulements souterrains régionaux dans cet

  15. Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of residential water supply in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin. A regional three-dimensional groundwater-flow model and three associated demonstration inset models were developed to simulate the groundwater-flow systems in the three-county area. The models were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the three county governments. The objectives of the regional model of Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties were to improve understanding of the groundwaterflow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential water-management programs. The regional groundwater-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, groundwater/surface-water interactions, and groundwater withdrawals from high-capacity wells. Results from the regional model indicate that about 82 percent of groundwater in the three counties is from recharge within the counties; 15 percent is from surface-water sources, consisting primarily of recirculated groundwater seepage in areas with abrupt surface-water-level changes, such as near waterfalls, dams, and the downgradient side of reservoirs and lakes; and 4 percent is from inflow across the county boundaries. Groundwater flow out of the counties is to streams (85 percent), outflow across county boundaries (14 percent), and pumping wells (1 percent). These results demonstrate that the primary source of groundwater withdrawn by pumping wells is water that recharges within the counties and would otherwise discharge to local streams and lakes. Under current conditions, the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers are groundwater discharge locations (gaining reaches) and appear to function as 'fully penetrating' hydraulic boundaries such that groundwater does not cross between Wisconsin and Minnesota beneath them. Being hydraulic boundaries, however, they can change in response to

  16. Heat and Groundwater Flow through Continental Flood Basalt Provinces: Insights Gained from Alternative Models of Permeability/Depth Relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, E. R.; Williams, C. F.; Ingebritsen, S.; Voss, C. I.; Spane, F.; DeAngelo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (~3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600-900 m depth and ~40oC. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at ~600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Abrupt k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Because pore filling hydrothermal minerals are largely controlled by the major mineral assemblages of the volcanic rocks, other continental flood basalt provinces may also have large permeability changes at depths corresponding to ~40oC.

  17. A regional groundwater-flow model for sustainable groundwater-resource management in the south Asian megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md Bayzidul; Firoz, A. B. M.; Foglia, Laura; Marandi, Andres; Khan, Abidur Rahman; Schüth, Christoph; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The water resources that supply most of the megacities in the world are under increased pressure because of land transformation, population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate-change impacts. Dhaka, in Bangladesh, is one of the largest of 22 growing megacities in the world, and it depends on mainly groundwater for all kinds of water needs. The regional groundwater-flow model MODFLOW-2005 was used to simulate the interaction between aquifers and rivers in steady-state and transient conditions during the period 1981-2013, to assess the impact of development and climate change on the regional groundwater resources. Detailed hydro-stratigraphic units are described according to 150 lithology logs, and a three-dimensional model of the upper 400 m of the Greater Dhaka area was constructed. The results explain how the total abstraction (2.9 million m3/d) in the Dhaka megacity, which has caused regional cones of depression, is balanced by recharge and induced river leakage. The simulated outcome shows the general trend of groundwater flow in the sedimentary Holocene aquifers under a variety of hydrogeological conditions, which will assist in the future development of a rational and sustainable management approach.

  18. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Sandstone Aquifer, northeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    The model was calibrated to predevelopment, 1957, and 1990 water levels, and used to simulate steady-state predevelopment conditions and transient conditions from 1880 to 1990. The trend in simulated water levels over time was similar to trends in measured water levels. Simulated base flow to streams was within the calculated range of base flow at gaged streams. A groundwater divide that separates westerly ground-water flow to the Wolf River from easterly flow to the lower Fox River Valley and Lake Michigan was simulated.

  19. Regional modeling of groundwater flow and arsenic transport in the Bengal Basin: challenges of scale and complexity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, H. A.; Voss, C. I.

    2009-12-01

    Widespread arsenic poisoning is occurring in large areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India due to high arsenic levels in shallow groundwater, which is the primary source of irrigation and drinking water in the region. The high-arsenic groundwater exists in aquifers of the Bengal Basin, a huge sedimentary system approximately 500km x 500km wide and greater than 15km deep in places. Deeper groundwater (>150m) is nearly universally low in arsenic and a potential source of safe drinking water, but evaluation of its sustainability requires understanding of the entire, interconnected regional aquifer system. Numerical modeling of flow and arsenic transport in the basin introduces problems of scale: challenges in representing the system in enough detail to produce meaningful simulations and answer relevant questions while maintaining enough simplicity to understand controls on processes and operating within computational constraints. A regional groundwater flow and transport model of the Bengal Basin was constructed to assess the large-scale functioning of the deep groundwater flow system, the vulnerability of deep groundwater to pumping-induced migration from above, and the effect of chemical properties of sediments (sorption) on sustainability. The primary challenges include the very large spatial scale of the system, dynamic monsoonal hydrology (small temporal scale fluctuations), complex sedimentary architecture (small spatial scale heterogeneity), and a lack of reliable hydrologic and geologic data. The approach was simple. Detailed inputs were reduced to only those that affect the functioning of the deep flow system. Available data were used to estimate upscaled parameter values. Nested small-scale simulations were performed to determine the effects of the simplifications, which include treatment of the top boundary condition and transience, effects of small-scale heterogeneity, and effects of individual pumping wells. Simulation of arsenic transport at the large

  20. Ramification of Channel Networks Incised by Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, R. S.; Seybold, H. F.; Petroff, A. P.; Devauchelle, O.; Rothman, D.

    2011-12-01

    The geometry of channel networks has been a source of fascination since at least Leonardo da Vinci's time. Yet a comprehensive understanding of ramification---the mechanism of branching by which a stream network acquires its geometric complexity---remains elusive. To investigate the mechanisms of ramification and network growth, we consider channel growth driven by groundwater flow as a model system, analogous to a medical scientist's laboratory rat. We test our theoretical predictions through analysis of a particularly compelling example found on the Florida Panhandle north of Bristol. As our ultimate goal is to understand ramification and growth dynamics of the entire network, we build a computational model based on the following growth hypothesis: Channels grow in the direction that captures the maximum water flux. When there are two such directions, tips bifurcate. The direction of growth can be determined from the expansion of the ground water field around each tip, where each coefficient in this expansion has a physical interpretation. The first coefficient in the expansion determines the ground water discharge, leading to a straight growth of the channel. The second term describes the asymmetry in the water field leading to a bending of the stream in the direction of maximal water flux. The ratio between the first and the third coefficient determines a critical distance rc over which the tip feels inhomogeneities in the ground water table. This initiates then the splitting of the tip. In order to test our growth hypothesis and to determine rc, we grow the Florida network backward. At each time step we calculate the solution of the ground water field and determine the appropriate expansion coefficients around each tip. Comparing this simulation result to the predicted values provides us with a stringent measure for rc and the significance of our growth hypothesis.

  1. Approaches to the simulation of unconfined flow and perched groundwater flow in MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Bedekar, Vivek; Niswonger, Richard G; Kipp, Kenneth; Panday, Sorab; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Various approaches have been proposed to manage the nonlinearities associated with the unconfined flow equation and to simulate perched groundwater conditions using the MODFLOW family of codes. The approaches comprise a variety of numerical techniques to prevent dry cells from becoming inactive and to achieve a stable solution focused on formulations of the unconfined, partially-saturated, groundwater flow equation. Keeping dry cells active avoids a discontinuous head solution which in turn improves the effectiveness of parameter estimation software that relies on continuous derivatives. Most approaches implement an upstream weighting of intercell conductance and Newton-Raphson linearization to obtain robust convergence. In this study, several published approaches were implemented in a stepwise manner into MODFLOW for comparative analysis. First, a comparative analysis of the methods is presented using synthetic examples that create convergence issues or difficulty in handling perched conditions with the more common dry-cell simulation capabilities of MODFLOW. Next, a field-scale three-dimensional simulation is presented to examine the stability and performance of the discussed approaches in larger, practical, simulation settings.

  2. Approaches to the simulation of unconfined flow and perched groundwater flow in MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedekar, Vivek; Niswonger, Richard G.; Kipp, Kenneth; Panday, Sorab; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Various approaches have been proposed to manage the nonlinearities associated with the unconfined flow equation and to simulate perched groundwater conditions using the MODFLOW family of codes. The approaches comprise a variety of numerical techniques to prevent dry cells from becoming inactive and to achieve a stable solution focused on formulations of the unconfined, partially-saturated, groundwater flow equation. Keeping dry cells active avoids a discontinuous head solution which in turn improves the effectiveness of parameter estimation software that relies on continuous derivatives. Most approaches implement an upstream weighting of intercell conductance and Newton-Raphson linearization to obtain robust convergence. In this study, several published approaches were implemented in a stepwise manner into MODFLOW for comparative analysis. First, a comparative analysis of the methods is presented using synthetic examples that create convergence issues or difficulty in handling perched conditions with the more common dry-cell simulation capabilities of MODFLOW. Next, a field-scale three-dimensional simulation is presented to examine the stability and performance of the discussed approaches in larger, practical, simulation settings.

  3. Ground-based thermal imaging of groundwater flow processes at the seepage face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deitchman, Richard S.; Loheide, Steven P.

    2009-07-01

    There is no existing method to quantitatively image groundwater processes along a seepage face. Thus, it is often difficult to quantify the magnitude and spatial variability of groundwater flux. The objective of this work is to assess the use of ground-based thermal remote sensing for fine-scale mapping of groundwater discharge and for locating the water table position along a stream bank seepage face. Seepage faces are poorly understood and often neglected in regional hydrologic studies though they likely exert significant influence on hydrologic and ecologic processes in riparian zones. Although the importance of riparian areas is broadly recognized, our ability to quantify hydrologic, ecologic and biogeochemical processes and ecosystem services is hampered by our inability to characterize spatially variable processes such as groundwater discharge. This work employs a new, transferable, non-invasive method that uses heat as a natural tracer to image spatially-variable groundwater flow processes and distinguish between focused and diffuse groundwater discharge to the surface. We report, for the first time, that thermal remote sensing of groundwater at the seepage face provides indirect imaging of both the saturated zone-unsaturated zone transition and groundwater flux at the centimeter scale, offering insight into flow heterogeneity.

  4. Use of tritium and helium to define groundwater flow conditions in Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, René M.; Top, Zafer; Happell, James D.; Swart, Peter K.

    2003-09-01

    The concentrations of tritium (3H) and helium isotopes (3He and 4He) were used as tracers of groundwater flow in the surficial aquifer system (SAS) beneath Everglades National Park (ENP), south Florida. From ages determined by 3H/3He dating techniques, groundwater within the upper 28 m originated within the last 30 years. Below 28 m, waters originated prior to 30 years before present with evidence of mixing at the interface. Interannual variation of the 3H/3He ages within the upper 28 m was significant throughout the 3 year investigation, corresponding with varying hydrologic conditions. In the region of Taylor Slough Bridge, younger groundwater was consistently detected below older groundwater in the Biscayne Aquifer, suggesting preferential flow to the lower part of the aquifer. An increase in 4He with depth in the SAS indicated that radiogenic 4He produced in the underlying Hawthorn Group migrates into the SAS by diffusion. Higher Δ4He values in brackish groundwaters compared to fresh waters from similar depths suggested a possible enhanced vertical transport of 4He in the seawater mixing zone. Groundwater salinity measurements indicated the presence of a wide (6-28 km) seawater mixing zone. Comparison of groundwater levels with surface water levels in this zone indicated the potential for brackish groundwater discharge to the overlying Everglades surface water.

  5. Groundwater Flow Field Distortion by Monitoring Wells and Passive Flux Meters.

    PubMed

    Verreydt, G; Bronders, J; Van Keer, I; Diels, L; Vanderauwera, P

    2015-01-01

    Due to differences in hydraulic conductivity and effects of well construction geometry, groundwater lateral flow through a monitoring well typically differs from groundwater flow in the surrounding aquifer. These differences must be well understood in order to apply passive measuring techniques, such as passive flux meters (PFMs) used for the measurement of groundwater and contaminant mass fluxes. To understand these differences, lab flow tank experiments were performed to evaluate the influences of the well screen, the surrounding filter pack and the presence of a PFM on the natural groundwater flux through a monitoring well. The results were compared with analytical calculations of flow field distortion based on the potential theory of Drost et al. (1968). Measured well flow field distortion factors were found to be lower than calculated flow field distortion factors, while measured PFM flow field distortion factors were comparable to the calculated ones. However, this latter is not the case for all conditions. The slotted geometry of the well screen seems to make a correct analytical calculation challenging for conditions where flow field deviation occurs, because the potential theory assumes a uniform flow field. Finally, plots of the functional relationships of the distortion of the flow field with the hydraulic conductivities of the filter screen, surrounding filter pack and corresponding radii make it possible to design well construction to optimally function during PFM applications.

  6. A fully coupled depth-integrated model for surface water and groundwater flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanyi; Yuan, Dekui; Lin, Binliang; Teo, Fang-Yenn

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the development of a fully coupled surface water and groundwater flow model. The governing equations of the model are derived based on a control volume approach, with the velocity profiles of the two types of flows being both taken into consideration. The surface water and groundwater flows are both modelled based on the unified equations and the water exchange and interaction between the two types of flows can be taken into account. The model can be used to simulate the surface water and groundwater flows simultaneously with the same numerical scheme without other effort being needed to link them. The model is not only suitable for the porous medium consisting of fine sediments, but also for coarse sediments and crushed rocks by adding a quadratic friction term. Benchmark tests are conducted to validate the model. The model predictions agree well with the data.

  7. Comparison of groundwater flow in Southern California coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Edwards, Brian D.; Land, Michael; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining the sustainability of Southern California coastal aquifers requires joint management of surface water and groundwater (conjunctive use). This requires new data collection and analyses (including research drilling, modern geohydrologic investigations, and development of detailed computer groundwater models that simulate the supply and demand components separately), implementation of new facilities (including spreading and injection facilities for artificial recharge), and establishment of new institutions and policies that help to sustain the water resources and better manage regional development.

  8. Radiocarbon Determinations for Estimating Groundwater Flow Velocities in Central Florida.

    PubMed

    Hanshaw, B B; Back, W; Rubin, M

    1965-04-23

    Carbon-14 activity was determined from HCO(3)(-) in samples of groundwater obtained from the principal artesian aquifer in Florida. From these data the "age" of water obtained from a series of wells, each progressively farther down gradient on the piezometric surface, was established. Relative carbon-14 ages indicated a velocity of groundwater movement of 23 feet (7 meters) per year for about 85 miles (137 kilometers) of travel. A velocity of 23 feet per year was calculated independently from Darcy's law.

  9. Modeling transport in transient ground-water flow: An unacknowledged approximation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    During unsteady or transient ground-water flow, the fluid mass per unit volume of aquifer changes as the potentiometric head changes, and solute transport is affected by this change in fluid storage. Three widely applied numerical models of two-dimensional transport partially account for the effects of transient flow by removing terms corresponding to the fluid continuity equation from the transport equation, resulting in a simpler governing equation. However, fluid-storage terms remaining in the transport equation that change during transient flow are, in certain cases, held constant in time in these models. For the case of increasing heads, this approximation, which is unacknowledged in these models' documentation, leads to transport velocities that are too high, and increased concentration at fluid and solute sources. If heads are dropping in time, computed transport velocities are too low. Using parameters that somewhat exaggerate the effects of this approximation, an example numerical simulation indicates solute travel time error of about 14 percent but only minor errors due to incorrect dilution volume. For horizontal flow and transport models that assume fluid density is constant, the product of porosity and aquifer thickness changes in time: initial porosity times initial thickness plus the change in head times the storage coefficient. This formula reduces to the saturated thickness in unconfined aquifers if porosity is assumed to be constant and equal to specific yield. The computational cost of this more accurate representation is insignificant and is easily incorporated in numerical models of solute transport.

  10. Groundwater flow delineation study at the Massachusetts Military Reservation using the colloidal borescope

    SciTech Connect

    Kearl, P.M.; Gardner, F.G.; Gunderson, M.J.

    1993-02-01

    Observations of colloidal movement under natural conditions using the colloidal borescope were conducted at several sites in the vicinity of the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MM) located on Cape Cod. The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability of the colloidal borescope and provide additional hydrogeologic data for site-characterization work. Because of the variability observed in groundwater flow at other sites, a well-characterized site was needed to test the borescope. Results of this work indicate that existing hydrologic information specific to the various sites tested at the MM compares favorably with the borehole velocity data collected with the colloidal borescope. Direction measurements at the MM, however, appear to be less reliable than at other sites tested. Most significant among factors potentially affecting direction measurements is the relatively flat hydraulic gradient at the MM, which is an order of magnitude less than at other sites. This is due to the gentle topography and the relatively high permeability of the aquifer. Under these conditions, the geometric alignment of preferential flow paths could dominate flow direction. If the gradient is increased, flow will tend to parallel the hydraulic gradient. This report describes the field site and the colloidal borescope and discusses the results and conclusions of the field investigations.

  11. Groundwater-flow model for the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Jason C.; Bartolino, James R.; Wylie, Allan H.; Sukow, Jennifer; McVay, Michael

    2016-06-27

    Subsurface outflow beneath the Big Wood River near Stanton Crossing. Temporal changes in aquifer storage are most affected by areal recharge and groundwater pumping, and also contribute to changes in streamflow gains.

  12. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    2. Map showing simulated discharge areas, major recharge areas, constant-head boundary flows, and steady-state stress period hydraulic head in the...Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and...1998 (Faunt and others, 2004b). Recharge is constant at average annual values for the entire period of simulation; however, the simulated recharge

  13. Conceptual model and numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system of Bainbridge Island, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.; Bachmann, Matthew P.; Sumioka, Steve S.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of drinking water for the population of Bainbridge Island. Increased use of groundwater supplies on Bainbridge Island as the population has grown over time has created concern about the quantity of water available and whether saltwater intrusion will occur as groundwater usage increases. A groundwater-flow model was developed to aid in the understanding of the groundwater system and the effects of groundwater development alternatives on the water resources of Bainbridge Island. Bainbridge Island is underlain by unconsolidated deposits of glacial and nonglacial origin. The surficial geologic units and the deposits at depth were differentiated into aquifers and confining units on the basis of areal extent and general water-bearing characteristics. Eleven principal hydrogeologic units are recognized in the study area and form the basis of the groundwater-flow model. A transient variable-density groundwater-flow model of Bainbridge Island and the surrounding area was developed to simulate current (2008) groundwater conditions. The model was calibrated to water levels measured during 2007 and 2008 using parameter estimation (PEST) to minimize the weighted differences or residuals between simulated and measured hydraulic head. The calibrated model was used to make some general observations of the groundwater system in 2008. Total flow through the groundwater system was about 31,000 acre-ft/ yr. The recharge to the groundwater system was from precipitation and septic-system returns. Groundwater flow to Bainbridge Island accounted for about 1,000 acre-ft/ yr or slightly more than 5 percent of the recharge amounts. Groundwater discharge was predominately to streams, lakes, springs, and seepage faces (16,000 acre-ft/yr) and directly to marine waters (10,000 acre-ft/yr). Total groundwater withdrawals in 2008 were slightly more than 6 percent (2,000 acre-ft/yr) of the total flow. The calibrated model was used to simulate predevelopment conditions

  14. Modeling regional groundwater flow in a peat bog complex in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, KLaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian; Frei, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are important ecohydrological systems and contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle. They function as carbon sinks through CO2-sequestration but also emit methane depending i.a. on the prevailing hydrological structures. Knowledge of their hydrology including exchange between the groundwater and surface water domain is thus necessary to understand wetland environments and to determine their vulnerability to climate changes. The impact of proposed wetter conditions on wetland hydrological homeostastis in northern bogs is uncertain to this date. Elevated water tables due to changing hydrological flow patterns may affect the characteristics of wetlands as a carbon reservoir. Modeling approaches allow quantifying and qualifying of these flow patterns on a longer time scale. Luther Bog is located in Southern Ontario. The ombotrophic bog to poor fen is partially bordered by Luther Lake which inundates the area since its creation in 1952. In this study the interaction between the wetland and the adjacent lake is modeled using the fully-integrated HydroGeoSphere model. A transient three-dimensional groundwater mode is set up for a small catchment with the lake level implemented as a constant-head boundary condition. Hydraulic properties of the peat were estimated executing bail tests on multilevel piezometers at different sites within the wetland. The first hypothesis is that the wet conditions in the runoff network keep the water table in the wetland high over a specific transition zone. The Second is that there may be a reversal of flow directions over the hydrological year, due to varying boundary conditions, e.g. evapotranspiration and precipitation. First results indicate that exchange rates may be very slow. This is supported by manual measurements of little hydraulic gradients and little topographic gradients. The results also show a seasonal effect in flow directions in both, the groundwater and the surface water domain. The model will be tested

  15. Phosphorus Geochemistry and Transport along Groundwater Flow paths at Five Agricultural Watersheds, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, J. L.; Johnson, H. M.

    2009-12-01

    Phosphorus chemistry and transport were studied at five agricultural watersheds representing a range of climatic conditions and cropping patterns at five locations within the United States (California, Washington, Nebraska, Indiana, Maryland). Orchards and row crops were the dominant land use at the California and Washington locations, while corn and soybeans were the main crops at the remaining three. Irrigation was required at the California and Washington sites, while rain supplied most or all of the water needs at the remainder. Phosphorus concentrations were assessed within the unsaturated zone, along groundwater flow paths of approximately one kilometer in length and at various depths, and across the sediment water interface of receiving streams in small agricultural basins. Baseflow loadings of phosphorus to some of the streams accounted for up to 20% of the annual load in some locations. Unsaturated zone concentrations tended to be higher than groundwater concentrations because of recently applied fertilizer or manure and the rapid downward movement of irrigation or rainwater. Long residence times in groundwater appeared to result in conditions close to chemical equilibrium. In most cases, sorption onto hydrous iron oxides and differences in major element chemistry explained the variation in observed phosphorus concentrations within and between study units. Concentrations of hydrous iron oxides in the aquifer material also affected the saturation levels of sorbed phosphorus relative to the amount dissolved. Solution pH had a major impact at the location in Maryland. Changes in pH from approximately 7 in the unsaturated zone to less than 5 in groundwater resulted in complete sequestration of phosphorus and under-saturation of the iron oxides along the flow path. Low iron oxide concentrations in the unsaturated zone and the aquifer resulted in uniformly higher concentrations at the Nebraska location. High loadings of phosphorus at an orchard in California

  16. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Cedar River alluvial aquifer flow system, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turco, Michael J.; Buchmiller, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Model results indicate that the primary sources of inflow to the modeled area are infiltration from the Cedar River (53.0 percent) and regional flow in the glacial and bedrock materials (34.1 percent). The primary sources of outflow from the modeled area are discharge to the Cedar River (45.4 percent) and pumpage (44.8 percent). Current steady-state pumping rates have increased the flow of water from the Cedar River to the alluvial aquifer by 43.8 cubic feet per second. Steady-state and transient hypothetical pumpage scenarios were used to show the relation between changes in pumpage and changes in infiltration of water from the Cedar River. Results indicate that more than 99 percent of the water discharging from municipal wells infiltrates from the Cedar River, that the time required for induced river recharge to equilibrate with municipal pumpage may be 150 days or more, and that ground-water availability in the Cedar Rapids area will not be significantly affected by doubling current pumpage as long as there is sufficient flow in the Cedar River to provide recharge.

  17. A coupled groundwater-flow-modelling and vulnerability-mapping methodology for karstic terrain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavouri, Konstantina P.; Karatzas, George P.; Plagnes, Valérie

    2017-02-01

    A coupled groundwater-flow-modelling and vulnerability-mapping methodology for the management of karst aquifers with spatial variability is developed. The methodology takes into consideration the duality of flow and recharge in karst and introduces a simple method to integrate the effect of temporal storage in the unsaturated zone. In order to investigate the applicability of the developed methodology, simulation results are validated against available field measurement data. The criteria maps from the PaPRIKa vulnerability-mapping method are used to document the groundwater flow model. The FEFLOW model is employed for the simulation of the saturated zone of Palaikastro-Chochlakies karst aquifer, in the island of Crete, Greece, for the hydrological years 2010-2012. The simulated water table reproduces typical karst characteristics, such as steep slopes and preferred drain axes, and is in good agreement with field observations. Selected calculated error indicators—Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean squared error (RMSE) and model efficiency (E')—are within acceptable value ranges. Results indicate that different storage processes take place in different parts of the aquifer. The north-central part seems to be more sensitive to diffuse recharge, while the southern part is affected primarily by precipitation events. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the parameters of hydraulic conductivity and specific yield. The methodology is used to estimate the feasibility of artificial aquifer recharge (AAR) at the study area. Based on the developed methodology, guidelines were provided for the selection of the appropriate AAR scenario that has positive impact on the water table.

  18. Heavy metals in potable groundwater of mining-affected river catchments, northwestern Romania.

    PubMed

    Bird, Graham; Macklin, Mark G; Brewer, Paul A; Zaharia, Sorin; Balteanu, Dan; Driga, Basarab; Serban, Mihaela

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater, accessed using wells and municipal springs, represents the major source of potable water for the human population outside of major urban areas in northwestern Romania, a region with a long history of metal mining and metallurgy. The magnitude and spatial distribution of metal contamination in private-supply groundwater was investigated in four mining-affected river catchments in Maramureş and Satu Mare Counties through the collection of 144 groundwater samples. Bedrock geology, pH and Eh were found to be important controls on the solubility of metals in groundwater. Peak metal concentrations were found to occur in the Lapuş catchment, where metal levels exceed Dutch target and intervention values in up to 49% and 14% of samples, respectively. A 700 m wide corridor in the Lapuş catchment on either side of the main river channel was identified in which peak Cd (31 μg l(-1)), Cu (50 μg l(-1)), Pb (50 μg l(-1)) and Zn (3,000 μg l(-1)) concentrations were found to occur. Given the generally similar bedrock geologies, lower metal levels in other catchments are believed to reflect differences in the magnitude of metal loading to the local environment from both metal mining and other industrial and municipal sources. Sampling of groundwater in northwestern Romania has indicated areas of potential concern for human health, where heavy metal concentrations exceed accepted environmental quality guidelines. The presence of elevated metal levels in groundwater also has implications for the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and achieving 'good' status for groundwater in this part of the Danube River Basin District (RBD).

  19. Implications of using on-farm flood flow capture to recharge groundwater and mitigate flood risks along the Kings River, CA.

    PubMed

    Bachand, Philip A M; Roy, Sujoy B; Choperena, Joe; Cameron, Don; Horwath, William R

    2014-12-02

    The agriculturally productive San Joaquin Valley faces two severe hydrologic issues: persistent groundwater overdraft and flooding risks. Capturing flood flows for groundwater recharge could help address both of these issues, yet flood flow frequency, duration, and magnitude vary greatly as upstream reservoir releases are affected by snowpack, precipitation type, reservoir volume, and flood risks. This variability makes dedicated, engineered recharge approaches expensive. Our work evaluates leveraging private farmlands in the Kings River Basin to capture flood flows for direct and in lieu recharge, calculates on-farm infiltration rates, assesses logistics, and considers potential water quality issues. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soil series suggested that a cementing layer would hinder recharge. The standard practice of deep ripping fractured the layer, resulting in infiltration rates averaging 2.5 in d(-1) (6 cm d(-1)) throughout the farm. Based on these rates 10 acres are needed to infiltrate 1 cfs (100 m(3) h(-1)) of flood flows. Our conceptual model predicts that salinity and nitrate pulses flush initially to the groundwater but that groundwater quality improves in the long term due to pristine flood flows low in salts or nitrate. Flood flow capture, when integrated with irrigation, is more cost-effective than groundwater pumping.

  20. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  1. Investigating groundwater flow between Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Wong, C I; Kromann, J S; Hunt, B B; Smith, B A; Banner, J L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of communication between aquifers can be challenging when using traditional physical and geochemical groundwater sampling approaches. This study uses two multiport wells completed within Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas to determine the degree of groundwater inter-flow between adjacent aquifers. Potentiometric surfaces, hydraulic conductivities, and groundwater major ion concentrations and Sr isotope values were measured from multiple zones within three hydrostratigraphic units (Edwards and Upper and Middle Trinity aquifers). Physical and geochemical data from the multiport wells were combined with historical measurements of groundwater levels and geochemical compositions from the region to characterize groundwater flow and identify controls on the geochemical compositions of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Our results suggest that vertical groundwater flow between Edwards and Middle Trinity aquifers is likely limited by low permeability, evaporite-rich units within the Upper and Middle Trinity. Potentiometric surface levels in both aquifers vary with changes in wet vs. dry conditions, indicating that recharge to both aquifers occurs through distinct recharge areas. Geochemical compositions in the Edwards, Upper, and Middle Trinity aquifers are distinct and likely reflect groundwater interaction with different lithologies (e.g., carbonates, evaporites, and siliceous sediments) as opposed to mixing of groundwater between the aquifers. These results have implications for the management of these aquifers as they indicate that, under current conditions, pumping of either aquifer will likely not induce vertical cross-formational flow between the aquifers. Inter-flow between the Trinity and the Edwards aquifers, however, should be reevaluated as pumping patterns and hydrogeologic conditions change.

  2. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems in Peninsular Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model of the intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems in peninsular Florida was used to (1) test and refine the conceptual understanding of the regional ground-water flow system; (2) develop a data base to support subregional ground-water flow modeling; and (3) evaluate effects of projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on ground-water levels. The four-layer model was based on the computer code MODFLOW-96, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The top layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system as a source-sink layer. The second layer simulates the intermediate aquifer system in southwest Florida and the intermediate confining unit where it is present. The third and fourth layers simulate the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, respectively. Steady-state ground-water flow conditions were approximated for time-averaged hydrologic conditions from August 1993 through July 1994 (1993-94). This period was selected based on data from Upper Floridan a quifer wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 5,000-foot cells, with 210 columns and 300 rows.

  3. Ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer system at the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Barry S.

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Directorate of the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Virginia, is concerned about possible contamination of ground water at the Station. Ground water at the Station flows through a shallow system of layered aquifers and leaky confining units. The units of the shallow aquifer system are the Columbia aquifer, the Cornwallis Cave confining unit, the Cornwallis Cave aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer. The Eastover-Calvert confining unit separates the shallow aquifer system from deeper confined aquifers beneath the Station. A three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was used to simulate steady-state ground-water flow of the shallow aquifer system in and around the Station. The model simulated ground-water flow from the peninsular drainage divide that runs across the Lackey Plain near the southern end of the Station north to King Creek and the York River and south to Skiffes Creek and the James River. The model was calibrated by minimizing the root mean square error between 4 7 measured and corresponding simulated water levels. The calibrated model was used to determine the ground-water budget and general directions of ground-water flow. A particle-tracking routine was used with the calibrated model to estimate groundwater flow paths, flow rates, and traveltimes from selected sites at the Station. Simulated ground-water flow velocities of the Station-area model were small beneath the interstream areas of the Lackey Plain and Croaker Flat, but increased outward toward the streams and rivers where the hydraulic gradients are larger. If contaminants from the land surface entered the water table at or near the interstream areas of the Station, where hydraulic gradients are smaller, they would migrate more slowly than if they entered closer to the streams or the shores of the rivers where gradients commonly are larger. The ground-water flow simulations indicate that some ground water leaks downward from

  4. Patterns and age distribution of ground-water flow to streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modica, E.; Reilly, T.E.; Pollock, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Simulations of ground-water flow in a generic aquifer system were made to characterize the topology of ground-water flow in the stream subsystem and to evaluate its relation to deeper ground-water flow. The flow models are patterned after hydraulic characteristics of aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain and are based on numerical solutions to three-dimensional, steady-state, unconfined flow. The models were used to evaluate the effects of aquifer horizontal-to-vertical hydraulic conductivity ratios, aquifer thickness, and areal recharge rates on flow in the stream subsystem. A particle tracker was used to determine flow paths in a stream subsystem, to establish the relation between ground-water seepage to points along a simulated stream and its source area of flow, and to determine ground-water residence time in stream subsystems. In a geometrically simple aquifer system with accretion, the source area of flow to streams resembles an elongated ellipse that tapers in the downgradient direction. Increased recharge causes an expansion of the stream subsystem. The source area of flow to the stream expands predominantly toward the stream headwaters. Baseflow gain is also increased along the reach of the stream. A thin aquifer restricts ground-water flow and causes the source area of flow to expand near stream headwaters and also shifts the start-of-flow to the drainage basin divide. Increased aquifer anisotropy causes a lateral expansion of the source area of flow to streams. Ground-water seepage to the stream channel originates both from near- and far-recharge locations. The range in the lengths of flow paths that terminate at a point on a stream increase in the downstream direction. Consequently, the age distribution of ground water that seeps into the stream is skewed progressively older with distance downstream. Base flow ia an integration of ground water with varying age and potentially different water quality, depending on the source within the drainage basin

  5. Application of boundary-fitted coordinate (BFC) transformations to groundwater flow and transport modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.K.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to simulate groundwater flow and transport using the Boundary-Fitted Coordinate (BFC) systems approach initially developed for aerodynamics. An irregularly-shaped physical domain is transformed to a simple computational domain with uniform grids. Governing equations defined in the physical domain are transformed into the computational domain, wherein all transformed equations are solved by the Finite Difference Method (FDM). This study developed three FORTRAN 77 computer programs: (1) BFCGW, which simulates groundwater flow and transport, (2) SEEPAGE, which simulates free-surface and seepage face, and (3) Q3D, which simulates multi-layered flow. A series of plotting programs using [open quotes]DISSPLA,[close quotes] an IBM FORTRAN graphics package, was also developed to plot grid lines, contour lines, and flow vectors in an irregularly-shaped physical domain with non-uniform grids. Each of the three programs was verified by solving an idealized problem for which the analytical solution was known and/or a realistic problem for which field measurements could be obtained. The computer program BFCGW was employed to simulate an idealized well flow in a triangular physical domain and actual groundwater flows in the area of West Lafayette, Indiana. The numerical solutions in both cases closely matched the analytical solutions and/or numerical simulations by other computer codes such as AQUA and MODFLOW. The program BFCGW performs rotation and stretching of local coordinates prior to BFC transformations to simulate heterogeneous and anisotropic groundwater flow. The rotation and stretching technique simplifies transformed governing equations of anisotropic groundwater flow. With the program BFCGW, the groundwater flow and the transport equations are solved sequentially to simulate solute concentration distributions.

  6. Regional ground-water flow in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Grannemann, N.G.; Huffman, G.C. )

    1994-04-01

    A steady-state, numerical model is being developed to simulate groundwater flow in four regional aquifers in Michigan's Lower Peninsula. The uppermost layer in the model simulates flow in the glaciofluvial aquifer and the second layer simulates flow in the Saginaw aquifer, both of which contain freshwater. The lower two modeled units simulate flow in the Parma-Bayport and Marshall aquifers, both of which contain saline water or brine, except at or near their subcrop, where they contain freshwater. The US Geological Survey's Modular Model (MODFLOW) was modified to simulate variable-density groundwater flow in the lower two aquifers by assuming that groundwater density and viscosity differ from place to place but do not change over time. The model simulates groundwater conditions prior to large-scale withdrawals from the aquifer. Boundaries for the model include constant-head boundaries at the shorelines of Lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Erie, as well as the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers. The southern boundary is simulated as a no-flow condition along several major stream divides in Michigan and Indiana. Recharge to the glaciofluvial aquifer is estimated to range from 0.2 to 22 inches per year and averages 8.4 inches per year. Regional groundwater flow occurs in areas where the bedrock aquifers are confined and in parts of the glaciofluvial aquifer, such as in the north-central part of the Lower Peninsula. Regional discharge primarily occurs to Saginaw Bay and to streams in the Saginaw and Michigan Lowlands. Parts of the Grand and Maple rivers may also receive discharge on a regional scale. Local flow systems control the direction and rate of groundwater flow in areas where aquifers are unconfined or hydraulically connected to overlying glacial deposits.

  7. Dispersive Transport Dynamics in a Strongly Coupled Groundwater-Brine Flow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Pruess, Karsten

    1995-02-01

    Many problems in subsurface hydrology involve the flow and transport of solutes that affect liquid density. When density variations are large (>5%), the flow and transport are strongly coupled. Density variations in excess of 20% occur in salt dome and bedded-salt formations which are currently being considered for radioactive waste repositories. The widely varying results of prior numerical simulation efforts of salt dome groundwater-brine flow problems have underscored the difficulty of solving strongly coupled flow and transport equations. We have implemented a standard model for hydrodynamic dispersion in our general purpose integral finite difference simulator, TOUGH2. The residual formulation used in TOUGH2 is efficient for the strongly coupled flow problem and allows the simulation to reach a verifiable steady state. We use the model to solve two classic coupled flow problems as verification. We then apply the model to a salt dome flow problem patterned after the conditions present at the Gorleben salt dome, Germany, a potential site for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Our transient simulations reveal the presence of two flow regimes: (1) recirculating and (2) swept forward. The flow dynamics are highly sensitive to the strength of molecular diffusion, with recirculating flows arising for large values of molecular diffusivity. For pure hydrodynamic dispersion with parameters approximating those at Gorleben, we find a swept-forward flow field at steady state rather than the recirculating flows found in previous investigations. The time to steady state is very sensitive to the initial conditions, with long time periods required to sweep out an initial brine pool in the lower region of the domain. Dimensional analysis is used to demonstrate the tendency toward brine recirculation. An analysis based on a dispersion timescale explains the observed long time to steady state when the initial condition has a brine pool in the lower part of the system. The

  8. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Effects of Ground-Water Irrigation on Base Flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Amanda T.; Bradley, Jesse R.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is vital to the livelihood of communities in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins in Nebraska, and ground water is used to irrigate most of the cropland. Concerns about the sustainability of ground-water and surface-water resources have prompted State and regional agencies to evaluate the cumulative effects of ground-water irrigation in this area. To facilitate understanding of the effects of ground-water irrigation, a numerical computer model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and assess the effects of ground-water irrigation (including ground-water withdrawals, hereinafter referred to as pumpage, and enhanced recharge) on stream base flow. The study area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and includes the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk, Nebraska, and the Loup River Basin upstream from Columbus, Nebraska. The water-table aquifer consists of Quaternary-age sands and gravels and Tertiary-age silts, sands, and gravels. The simulation was constructed using one layer with 2-mile by 2-mile cell size. Simulations were constructed to represent the ground-water system before 1940 and from 1940 through 2005, and to simulate hypothetical conditions from 2006 through 2045 or 2055. The first simulation represents steady-state conditions of the system before anthropogenic effects, and then simulates the effects of early surface-water development activities and recharge of water leaking from canals during 1895 to 1940. The first simulation ends at 1940 because before that time, very little pumpage for irrigation occurred, but after that time it became increasingly commonplace. The pre-1940 simulation was calibrated against measured water levels and estimated long-term base flow, and the 1940 through 2005 simulation was calibrated against measured water-level changes and estimated long-term base flow. The calibrated 1940 through 2005 simulation was used as the basis for analyzing hypothetical scenarios to evaluate the effects of

  9. Flow Model Development for the Idaho National Laboratory OU 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Huang; Swen Magnuson; Thomas Wood

    2005-09-01

    A two-dimensional (2D), steady-state groundwater flow model was developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) sitewide groundwater model. A total of 224 wells inside the model domain were used to calibrate the 2D flow model. Three different calibration techniques, zonation approach, pilot point approach and coupled zonation/pilot point approach, were explored and applied during the model development. The pilot point approach allows modelers to model aquifer heterogeneities at various scales, and extract the maximum amount of data from available monitoring data, permitting the best possible representation of flow and transport at the INL.

  10. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Cedar River alluvium, northwest Black Hawk County and southwest Bremer County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Turco, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    In general, once high ground-water levels occur, either because of high Cedar River water Abstract levels or above normal local precipitation or both, ground-water in the central part of the study area along Highway 218 flows toward the south rather than following shorter flow paths to the Cedar River. Intermittent streams in the study area discharge substantial amounts of water from the ground-water flow system.

  11. Hydrogeological and Groundwater Flow Model for C, K, L, and P Reactor Areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1999-02-24

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi{sup 2} surrounding the C, K. L. and P reactor areas has been developed. The Reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department.

  12. Relationships between basic soils-engineering equations and basic ground-water flow equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.

    1980-01-01

    The many varied though related terms developed by ground-water hydrologists and by soils engineers are useful to each discipline, but their differences in terminology hinder the use of related information in interdisciplinary studies. Equations for the Terzaghi theory of consolidation and equations for ground-water flow are identical under specific conditions. A combination of the two sets of equations relates porosity to void ratio and relates the modulus of elasticity to the coefficient of compressibility, coefficient of volume compressibility, compression index, coefficient of consolidation, specific storage, and ultimate compaction. Also, transient ground-water flow is related to coefficient of consolidation, rate of soil compaction, and hydraulic conductivity. Examples show that soils-engineering data and concepts are useful to solution of problems in ground-water hydrology.

  13. Shallow groundwater in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska—Conceptualization and simulation of flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kikuchi, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    The Matanuska-Susitna Valley is in the Upper Cook Inlet Basin and is currently undergoing rapid population growth outside of municipal water and sewer service areas. In response to concerns about the effects of increasing water use on future groundwater availability, a study was initiated between the Alaska Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. The goals of the study were (1) to compile existing data and collect new data to support hydrogeologic conceptualization of the study area, and (2) to develop a groundwater flow model to simulate flow dynamics important at the regional scale. The purpose of the groundwater flow model is to provide a scientific framework for analysis of regional-scale groundwater availability. To address the first study goal, subsurface lithologic data were compiled into a database and were used to construct a regional hydrogeologic framework model describing the extent and thickness of hydrogeologic units in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley. The hydrogeologic framework model synthesizes existing maps of surficial geology and conceptual geochronologies developed in the study area with the distribution of lithologies encountered in hundreds of boreholes. The geologic modeling package Geological Surveying and Investigation in Three Dimensions (GSI3D) was used to construct the hydrogeologic framework model. In addition to characterizing the hydrogeologic framework, major groundwater-budget components were quantified using several different techniques. A land-surface model known as the Deep Percolation Model was used to estimate in-place groundwater recharge across the study area. This model incorporates data on topography, soils, vegetation, and climate. Model-simulated surface runoff was consistent with observed streamflow at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages. Groundwater withdrawals were estimated on the basis of records from major water suppliers during 2004-2010. Fluxes between groundwater and surface water were

  14. Monitoring the Remediation of Salt-Affected Soils and Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, L. R.; Callaghan, M. V.; Cey, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    Salt-affected soil is one of the most common environmental issues facing the petroleum hydrocarbon industry. Large quantities of brines are often co-produced with gas and oil and have been introduced into the environment through, for example, flare pits, drilling operations and pipe line breaks. Salt must be flushed from the soil and tile drain systems can be used to collect salt water which is then be routed for disposal. A flushing experiment over a 2 m deep tile drain system is being monitored by arrays of tensiometers, repeated soil coring, direct push electrical conductivity profiles (PTC), electromagnetic surveys and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. Water table elevation is monitored with pressure transducers. Thermocouple arrays provide temperature profiles that are used to adjust electrical conductivity data to standard temperature equivalents. A 20 m by 20 m plot was deep tilled and treated with soil amendments. Numerous infiltration tests were conducted inside and outside the plot area using both a tension infiltrometer and Guelph permeameter to establish changes in soil hydraulic properties and macroporosity as a result of deep tillage. The results show that till greatly diminished the shallow macroporosity and increased the matrix saturated hydraulic conductivity. A header system is used to evenly flood the plot with 10 m3 of water on each of three consecutive days for an approximate total of 7.5 cm of water. The flood event is being repeated four times over a period of 6 weeks. Baseline PTC and ERT surveys show that the salt is concentrated in the upper 2 to 3 m of soil. Tensiometer data show that the soil at 30 cm depth responds within 2 to 3 hours to flooding events once the soil is wetted and begins to dry again after one week. Soil suction at 1.5 m does not show immediate response to the daily flooding events, but is steadily decreasing in response to the flooding and rainfall events. An ERT survey in October will provide the first

  15. GROUNDWATER FLOW MODEL CALIBRATION USING WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS AT SHORT INTERVALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater flow models are usually calibrated with respect to water level measurements collected at intervals of several months or even years. Measurements of these kinds are not sensitive to sudden or short stress conditions, such as impact from stormwater drainage flow or flas...

  16. Dynamic Attribution of Global Water Demand to Surface Water and Groundwater Resources: Effects of Abstractions and Return Flows on River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshi; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    As human water demand is increasing worldwide, groundwater is abstracted at rates that exceed groundwater recharge in many areas, resulting in depletion of existing groundwater stocks. Most studies, that focus on human water consumption and water stress indicate a gap between water demand and availability. However, between studies very different assumptions are made on how water abstraction is divided between surface water, groundwater, and other resources. Moreover, simplified assumptions are used of the interactions between groundwater and surface water. Here, we simulate at the global scale, the dynamic attribution of total water demand to surface water and groundwater resources, based on actual water availability and accounting for return flows and surface water- groundwater interactions. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB is used to simulate water storages, abstractions, and return flows for the model period 1960-2010, with a daily time step at 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution. Total water demand is defined as requirements for irrigation, industry, and domestic use. Water abstractions are variably taken from surface water and groundwater resources depending on availability of both resources. Return flows of non-consumed abstracted water contribute to a single source; those of irrigation recharging groundwater, those of industry and domestic use discharging to surface waters. Groundwater abstractions are taken from renewable groundwater, or when exceeding recharge from an alternative unlimited resource. This resource consists of non-renewable groundwater, or non-local water, the former being an estimate of groundwater depletion. Results show that worldwide the effect of water abstractions is evident, especially on the magnitude and frequency of low flows when the contribution of groundwater through baseflow is substantial. River regimes are minimally affected by abstractions in industrial regions because of the high return flows. In irrigated regions the

  17. Patterns and rates of ground-water flow on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Modica, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Increased ground-water contamination from human activities on Long Island has prompted studies to define the pattern and rate of ground-water movement. A two-dimensional, fine-mesh, finite-element model consisting of 11,969 nodes and 22,880 elements was constructed to represent ground-water flow along a north-south section through central Long Island. The model represents average hydrologic conditions within a corridor approximately 15 miles wide. The model solves discrete approximations of both the potential and stream functions. The resulting flownet depicts flow paths and defines the vertical distribution of flow within the section. Ground-water flow rates decrease with depth. Sixty-two percent of the water flows no deeper than the upper glacial (water-table) aquifer, 38 percent enters the underlying Magothy aquifer, and only 3.1 percent enters the Lloyd aquifer. The limiting streamlines for flow to the Magothy and Lloyd aquifers indicate that aquifer recharge areas are narrow east-west bands through the center of the island. The recharge area of the Magothy aquifer is only 5.4 miles wide; that of the Lloyd aquifer is less than 0.5 miles. The distribution of ground-water traveltime and a flownet are calculated from model results; both are useful in the investigation of contaminant transport or the chemical evolution of ground water within the flow system. A major discontinuity in traveltime occurs across the streamline which separates the flow subsystems of the two confined aquifers. Water that reaches the Lloyd aquifer attains traveltimes as high as 10,000 years, whereas water that has not penetrated deeper than the Magothy aquifer attains traveltimes of only 2,000 years. The finite-element approach used in this study is particularly suited to ground-water systems that have complex hydrostratigraphy and cross-sectional symmetry.

  18. Identifying Components of Groundwater Flow, Flux, and Storage in Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vialpando, M., III; Lowry, C.; Visser, A.; Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    High elevation meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA represent mixing zones between surface water and groundwater. Quantifying the exchange between stream water and groundwater, and the residence time of water stored in meadow sediments will allow examination of the possible buffer effect that groundwater has on meadows and streams. This in turn has implications for the resilience of the ecosystem as well as the downstream communities that are dependent upon runoff for water supply. Stream flow was measured and water samples were collected along a 5 km reach of the Tuolumne River and adjacent wells during both spring runoff and baseflow. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved noble gases and anions, sulfur-35, tritium and radon to study surface water-groundwater interactions and residence times. Although lower than average because of the ongoing drought in California, discharge in early July 2015 was about 35 times that measured during the previous fall. During baseflow, a small component of fracture flow (2%) is identified using dissolved helium. Radon, anions and stream discharge identify reaches of groundwater discharge. Anions show a steady increase in the groundwater component over the western portion of the meadow during baseflow, and over 50% of stream water is exchanged with meadow groundwater, without a net gain or loss of stream flow. Sulfur-35 and tritium results indicated that groundwater contributing to stream flow has recharged within the previous two years. With the current drought, estimated as the most severe in 1200 years, accurate estimations of water availability are becoming increasingly important to water resource managers.

  19. MODFLOW-2005 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--the ground-water flow process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents MODFLOW-2005, which is a new version of the finite-difference ground-water model commonly called MODFLOW. Ground-water flow is simulated using a block-centered finite-difference approach. Layers can be simulated as confined or unconfined. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, drains, and rivers, also can be simulated. The report includes detailed explanations of physical and mathematical concepts on which the model is based, an explanation of how those concepts are incorporated in the modular structure of the computer program, instructions for using the model, and details of the computer code. The modular structure consists of a MAIN Program and a series of highly independent subroutines. The subroutines are grouped into 'packages.' Each package deals with a specific feature of the hydrologic system that is to be simulated, such as flow from rivers or flow into drains, or with a specific method of solving the set of simultaneous equations resulting from the finite-difference method. Several solution methods are incorporated, including the Preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient method. The division of the program into packages permits the user to examine specific hydrologic features of the model independently. This also facilitates development of additional capabilities because new packages can be added to the program without modifying the existing packages. The input and output systems of the computer program also are designed to permit maximum flexibility. The program is designed to allow other capabilities, such as transport and optimization, to be incorporated, but this report is limited to describing the ground-water flow capability. The program is written in Fortran 90 and will run without modification on most computers that have a Fortran 90 compiler.

  20. Simulation of ground-water flow, contributing recharge areas, and ground-water travel time in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2004-01-01

    field is affected by changes in river stage and pumping rates and by the location of the well or well field with respect to the major rivers, alluvial valley walls, and other pumping wells. The shapes of the simulated contributing recharge areas for the well fields in the study area are elongated in the upstream direction for all well-pumping/river-stage scenarios. The capture of ground water by the pumping wells as it moved downgradient toward the Missouri River caused the long up-valley extent of the contributing recharge areas. Recharge to the Iatan and Weston well fields primarily is from precipitation and surface runoff from the surrounding uplands because the contributing recharge area does not intersect the Missouri River for any well-pumping/river-stage scenarios. Recharge to the Leavenworth and Ft. Leavenworth well fields is from precipitation, surface runoff from the surrounding uplands, and the Missouri River because the contributing recharge area intersects these boundaries for all well-pumping/river-stage scenarios. Particle tracking analysis indicated ground water from the three contaminated sites was captured by the Ft. Leavenworth well field for all well-pumping/river-stage scenarios. Ground-water travel times to the Ft. Leavenworth well field for average well-pumping/river-stage scenario ranged from about 33 years for the closest contamination site to about 71 years for the farthest contamination site. Ground-water flow was induced below the Missouri River by the Ft. Leavenworth and Leavenworth well fields for all well-pumping/river-stage scenarios.

  1. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Banta, Edward R.; Hill, Mary C.; McDonald, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    MODFLOW is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. Although MODFLOW was designed to be easily enhanced, the design was oriented toward additions to the ground-water flow equation. Frequently there is a need to solve additional equations; for example, transport equations and equations for estimating parameter values that produce the closest match between model-calculated heads and flows and measured values. This report documents a new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW-2000, which is designed to accommodate the solution of equations in addition to the ground-water flow equation. This report is a user's manual. It contains an overview of the old and added design concepts, documents one new package, and contains input instructions for using the model to solve the ground-water flow equation.

  2. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER FLOW PATTERNS AROUND A DUAL-SCREENED GROUNDWATER CIRCULATION WELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dual-screened groundwater circulation wells (GCWs) can be used to remove contaminant mass and to mix reagents in situ. GCWs are so named because they force water in a circular pattern between injection and extraction screens. The radial extent, flux and direction of the effective...

  3. Flow path oscillations in transient ground-water simulations of large peatland systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeve, A.S.; Evensen, R.; Glaser, P.H.; Siegel, D.I.; Rosenberry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Transient numerical simulations of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland near the Red Lakes in Northern Minnesota were constructed to evaluate observed reversals in vertical ground-water flow. Seasonal weather changes were introduced to a ground-water flow model by varying evapotranspiration and recharge over time. Vertical hydraulic reversals, driven by changes in recharge and evapotranspiration were produced in the simulated peat layer. These simulations indicate that the high specific storage associated with the peat is an important control on hydraulic reversals. Seasonally driven vertical flow is on the order of centimeters in the deep peat, suggesting that seasonal vertical advective fluxes are not significant and that ground-water flow into the deep peat likely occurs on decadal or longer time scales. Particles tracked within the ground-water flow model oscillate over time, suggesting that seasonal flow reversals will enhance vertical mixing in the peat column. The amplitude of flow path oscillations increased with increasing peat storativity, with amplitudes of about 5 cm occurring when peat specific storativity was set to about 0.05 m-1. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional ground-water flow modeling of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, A. S.; Warzocha, J.; Glaser, P. H.; Siegel, D. I.

    2001-03-01

    Three-dimensional ground-water modeling experiments were done to test the hypothesis that regional ground-water flow is an important component of the water budget in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands of northern Minnesota. Previous data collected from the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands suggest that regional ground-water flow discharges to these peatlands, maintaining saturation, controlling the peat pore-water chemistry, and driving ecological change. To test this hypothesis, steady-state MODFLOW models were constructed that encompassed an area of 10,160 km 2. Data used in this modeling project included surface-water and water-table elevations measured across the study area, digital elevation data, and well logs from scientific test wells and domestic water wells drilled in the study area. Numerical simulations indicate that the Itasca Moraine, located to the south of the peatland, acts as a recharge area for regional ground-water flow. Ground water recharged at the Itasca Moraine did not discharge to the Red Lake Peatlands, but rather was intercepted by the Red Lakes or adjacent rivers. Simulations suggest that ground-water flow within the peatlands consists of local-flow systems with streamlines that are less than 10 km long and that ground water from distant recharge areas does not play a prominent role in the hydrology of these peatlands. Ground-water flow reversals previously observed in the Red Lake Peatlands are either the result of interactions between local and intermediate-scale flow systems or the transient release of water stored in glacial sediments when the water-table is lowered.

  5. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the U.S. Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts supported through the U.S. Department of Energy program will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Test-generated contaminants have been introduced over large areas and at variable depths above and below the water table throughout NTS. Evaluating the risks associated with these byproducts of underground testing presupposes a knowledge of the source, transport, and potential receptors of these contaminants. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. Any assessment of the risk must rely in part on the current understanding of ground-water flow, and the assessment will be only as good as the understanding

  6. Ground-water flow and water quality in the sand aquifer of Long Beach Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a study that was undertaken to improve the understanding of ground-water flow and water quality in the coastal sand aquifer of the Long Beach Peninsula of southwestern Washington. Data collected for the study include monthly water levels at 103 wells and 28 surface-water sites during 1992, and water-quality samples from about 40 wells and 13 surface-water sites in February and July 1992. Ground water generally flows at right angles to a ground-water divide along the spine of the low-lying peninsula. Historical water-level data indicate that there was no long-term decline in the water table from 1974 to 1992. The water quality of shallow ground water was generally good with a few local problems. Natural concentrations of dissolved iron were higher than 0.3 milligrams per liter in about one-third of the samples. The dissolved-solids concentrations were generally low, with a range of 56 to 218 milligrams per liter. No appreciable amount of seawater has intruded into the sand aquifer, chloride concentrations were low, with a maximum of 52 milligrams per liter. Agricultural activities do not appear to have significantly affected the quality of ground water. Concentrations of nutrients were low in the cranberry-growing areas, and selected pesticides were not found above the analytical detection limits. Septic systems probably caused an increase in the concentration of nitrate from medians of less than 0.05 milligrams per liter in areas of low population density to 0.74 milligrams per liter in areas of high density.

  7. Numerical study of groundwater flow cycling controlled by seawater/freshwater interaction in a coastal karst aquifer through conduit network using CFPv2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zexuan; Hu, Bill X.; Davis, Hal; Kish, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a groundwater flow cycling in a karst springshed and an interaction between two springs, Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs, through a subground conduit network are numerically simulated using CFPv2, the latest research version of MODFLOW-CFP (Conduit Flow Process). The Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs, located in a marine estuary and 11 miles inland, respectively, are two major groundwater discharge spots in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), North Florida, USA. A three-phase conceptual model of groundwater flow cycling between the two springs and surface water recharge from a major surface creek (Lost Creek) was proposed in various rainfall conditions. A high permeable subground karst conduit network connecting the two springs was found by tracer tests and cave diving. Flow rate of discharge, salinity, sea level and tide height at Spring Creek Springs could significantly affect groundwater discharge and water stage at Wakulla Springs simultaneously. Based on the conceptual model, a numerical hybrid discrete-continuum groundwater flow model is developed using CFPv2 and calibrated by field measurements. Non-laminar flows in conduits and flow exchange between conduits and porous medium are implemented in the hybrid coupling numerical model. Time-variable salinity and equivalent freshwater head boundary conditions at the submarine spring as well as changing recharges have significant impacts on seawater/freshwater interaction and springs' discharges. The developed numerical model is used to simulate the dynamic hydrological process and quantitatively represent the three-phase conceptual model from June 2007 to June 2010. Simulated results of two springs' discharges match reasonably well to measurements with correlation coefficients 0.891 and 0.866 at Spring Creeks Springs and Wakulla Springs, respectively. The impacts of sea level rise on regional groundwater flow field and relationship between the inland springs and submarine springs are

  8. Numerical study of groundwater flow cycling controlled by seawater/freshwater interaction in a coastal karst aquifer through conduit network using CFPv2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zexuan; Hu, Bill X; Davis, Hal; Kish, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a groundwater flow cycling in a karst springshed and an interaction between two springs, Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs, through a subground conduit network are numerically simulated using CFPv2, the latest research version of MODFLOW-CFP (Conduit Flow Process). The Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs, located in a marine estuary and 11 miles inland, respectively, are two major groundwater discharge spots in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), North Florida, USA. A three-phase conceptual model of groundwater flow cycling between the two springs and surface water recharge from a major surface creek (Lost Creek) was proposed in various rainfall conditions. A high permeable subground karst conduit network connecting the two springs was found by tracer tests and cave diving. Flow rate of discharge, salinity, sea level and tide height at Spring Creek Springs could significantly affect groundwater discharge and water stage at Wakulla Springs simultaneously. Based on the conceptual model, a numerical hybrid discrete-continuum groundwater flow model is developed using CFPv2 and calibrated by field measurements. Non-laminar flows in conduits and flow exchange between conduits and porous medium are implemented in the hybrid coupling numerical model. Time-variable salinity and equivalent freshwater head boundary conditions at the submarine spring as well as changing recharges have significant impacts on seawater/freshwater interaction and springs' discharges. The developed numerical model is used to simulate the dynamic hydrological process and quantitatively represent the three-phase conceptual model from June 2007 to June 2010. Simulated results of two springs' discharges match reasonably well to measurements with correlation coefficients 0.891 and 0.866 at Spring Creeks Springs and Wakulla Springs, respectively. The impacts of sea level rise on regional groundwater flow field and relationship between the inland springs and submarine springs are

  9. Application of MODFLOW and geographic information system to groundwater flow simulation in North China Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiqin; Shao, Jingli; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yongbo; Huo, Zhibin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-01

    MODFLOW is a groundwater modeling program. It can be compiled and remedied according to the practical applications. Because of its structure and fixed data format, MODFLOW can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology for water resource management. The North China Plain (NCP), which is the politic, economic and cultural center of China, is facing with water resources shortage and water pollution. Groundwater is the main water resource for industrial, agricultural and domestic usage. It is necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the NCP as an entire aquifer system. With the development of computer and internet information technology it is also necessary to integrate the groundwater model with the GIS technology. Because the geological and hydrogeological data in the NCP was mainly in MAPGIS format, the powerful function of GIS of disposing of and analyzing spatial data and computer languages such as Visual C and Visual Basic were used to define the relationship between the original data and model data. After analyzing the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the NCP, the groundwater flow numerical simulation modeling was constructed with MODFLOW. On the basis of GIS, a dynamic evaluation system for groundwater resources under the internet circumstance was completed. During the process of constructing the groundwater model, a water budget was analyzed, which showed a negative budget in the NCP. The simulation period was from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. During this period, the total recharge of the groundwater system was 49,374 × 106 m3 and the total discharge was 56,530 × 106 m3 the budget deficit was -7,156 × 106 m3. In this integrated system, the original data including graphs and attribution data could be stored in the database. When the process of evaluating and predicting groundwater flow was started, these data were transformed into files that the core program of MODFLOW could read. The calculated water

  10. Neural Network approach to assess the thermal affected zone around the injection well in a groundwater heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Verda, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    The common use of well doublets for groundwater-sourced heating or cooling results in a thermal plume of colder or warmer re-injected groundwater known as the Thermal Affected Zone(TAZ). The plumes may be regarded either as a potential anthropogenic geothermal resource or as pollution, depending on downstream aquifer usage. A fundamental aspect in groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant design is the correct evaluation of the thermally affected zone that develops around the injection well. Temperature anomalies are detected through numerical methods. Crucial elements in the process of thermal impact assessment are the sizes of installations, their position, the heating/cooling load of the building, and the temperature drop/increase imposed on the re-injected water flow. For multiple-well schemes, heterogeneous aquifers, or variable heating and cooling loads, numerical models that simulate groundwater and heat transport are needed. These tools should consider numerous scenarios obtained considering different heating/cooling loads, positions, and operating modes. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are widely used in this field because they offer the opportunity to calculate the time evolution of the thermal plume produced by a heat pump, depending on the characteristics of the subsurface and the heat pump. Nevertheless, these models require large computational efforts, and therefore their use may be limited to a reasonable number of scenarios. Neural networks could represent an alternative to CFD for assessing the TAZ under different scenarios referring to a specific site. The use of neural networks is proposed to determine the time evolution of the groundwater temperature downstream of an installation as a function of the possible utilization profiles of the heat pump. The main advantage of neural network modeling is the possibility of evaluating a large number of scenarios in a very short time, which is very useful for the preliminary analysis of future multiple

  11. Groundwater flow velocity measurements in a sinkhole at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve Facility, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, S.; Gibson, J.

    1995-02-01

    In 1992, a sinkhole was discovered above a Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana. The oil is stored in an old salt mine located within a salt dome. In order to assess the hydrologic significance of the sink hole, an In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor was deployed within a sand-filled conduit in the salt dome directly beneath the sinkhole. The flow sensor is a recently developed instrument which uses a thermal perturbation technique to measure the magnitude and direction of the full 3-dimensional groundwater flow velocity vector in saturated, permeable materials. The flow sensor measured substantial groundwater flow directed vertically downward into the salt dome. The data obtained with the flow sensor provided critical evidence which was instrumental in assessing the significance of the sinkhole in terms of the integrity of the oil storage facility.

  12. Paleohydrological Information from Profiles in Pore Water of Holocene Low-Permeability Cores and Groundwater Flow Simulation, Lake Kasumigaura, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamoto, N.; Shimada, J.

    2014-12-01

    The paleohydrological information can become important to predict hydrological conditions in the future. In Japan, which hydrologically is characterized by relatively small catchment scales with steep relief of topography under humid temperate climatic conditions, the residence time of the groundwater should be relatively short. Thus the paleohydrological information preserved in the groundwater aquifer should also be limited compared with the continental aquifer. However, regarding groundwater in clay and silt sediments have low-permeability characteristic, archiving the paleohydrologic information at the time of deposition is expected.  Therefore, in this study, cores were drilled into Holocene clay and silt deposits (Site K-1 and Site K-2) in the Lake Kasumigaurain Japan, where the depositional rate 10,000 years ago was rapid and it has been affected strongly by sea level changes including transgression and regression. By using the obtained core samples and extracted pore water from the cores, paleohydrologic information was investigated, and it was tried to understand hydrologic environments at the study area during a Holocene. In addition, groundwater flow and solute transport simulation were conducted to reproduce profiles of pore water.  Results of investigation show that the profiles of pore water contents reflect sea level change and the difference in hydrological environment at that time at each site. The content of the paleo-brackish water in the culmination of transgression was about 14,000 mg/l in Cl-, -13.0‰ in δD and -2.6‰ in δ18O. It is allowed better understanding paleohydrological information by studying not only inorganic chemistry contents and stable isotopes of pore water and also the diatom fossils and groundwater flow and solute transport simulation. We will characterize the paleohydrological information of the study area acquired by those investigations and analysis.

  13. Simulation of vertical compaction in models of regional ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, S.A.; ,

    1991-01-01

    A new computer program was developed to simulate vertical compaction in models of regional ground-water flow. The program accounts for ground-water storage changes and compaction in discontinuous interbeds or in extensive confining beds. The new program is a package for the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model. Several features of the program make it useful for application in shallow unconfined flow systems. Geostatic load can be treated as a function of water-table elevation, and compaction is a function of computed changes in effective stress at the center of a model layer. Thickness of compressible sediments in an unconfined model layer can vary in proportion to saturated thickness. The new package was tested by comparison with an existing model of one-dimensional compaction.

  14. A quantitative model of ground-water flow during formation of tabular sandstone uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a quantitative simulation of regional groundwater flow during uranium deposition in the Westwater Canyon Member and Jackpile Sandstone Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the San Juan basin. Topographic slope, shoreline position, and density contrasts in the lake and pore fluids controlled the directions of flow and recharge-discharge areas. The most important results for uranium ore deposit formation are that regional groundwater discharged throughout the basin, regional discharge was concentrated along the shore line or playa margin, flow was dominantly gravity driven, and compaction dewatering was negligible. A strong association is found between the tabular sandstone uranium deposits and major inferred zones of mixed local and regional groundwater discharge. -from Author

  15. Analysis and simulation of ground-water flow in Lake Wales Ridge and adjacent areas of central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    1996-01-01

    final test of model calibration was conducted by successfully simulating transient conditions for the period October 1988 through September 1989. Altitudes of the water table, base of the surficial aquifer, riverbed conductances, confining-unit leakances, aquifer transmissivities, and net recharge and discharge rates were determine during calibration. Steady- state and transient simulations reasonably approximated measured aquifer heads and lake levels. Residuals were within the established calibration criteria that required 68 percent of all simulated heads to be within + - 2 feet of observed surficial aquifer heads and lake levels and + - 5 feet of observed intermediate and Upper Floridan aquifer heads. Simulation of streamflow was poor, probably due to the scale of the model and regulated streamflow conditions. Simulation indicates a marked difference between the ground-water flow rates of September 1989 (steady-state conditions, end of wet season) and May 1990 (large pumpage, end of dry season) in million gallons per day: September May 1989 1990 Pumping rate 126 486 Donward leakage (into 367 564 Upper Floridan aquifer) Streamflow 67 13 Net lateral boundary flow 218 115 Total discharge (excluding 479 626 evapotranspiration The calibrated flow model was used to simulate the short-term (one year) effects of 1990 water year pumpage (349 Mgal/d) on the September 1989 ground- water flow system in response to five different pumping schemes: (2) no pumpage, (2) no public supply pumpage, (3) no industrial pumpage, (4) no agricultural pumpage, and (5) no regional pumping outside the Water Use Caution Area. Simulation of no pumpage indicated maximum aquifer head rises of about 2 feet in the surficial aquifer and lakes, about 12 feet in the intermediate aquifer and about 16 feet in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The high rate recharge areas along the Lake Wales Ridge are most affect

  16. Groundwater flow in the Venice lagoon and remediation of the Porto Marghera industrial area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giovanni Pietro; Terrenghi, Jacopo

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to determine the groundwater flow in a large area of the Venice (northeast Italy) lagoon that is under great anthropogenic pressure, which is influencing the regional flow in the surficial aquifer (about 30 m depth). The area presents several elements that condition the groundwater flow: extraction by means of drainage pumps and wells; tidal fluctuation; impermeable barriers that define part of the coastline, rivers and artificial channels; precipitation; recharge, etc. All the elements were studied separately, and then they were brought together in a numerical groundwater flow model to estimate the impact of each one. Identification of the impact of each element will help to optimise the characteristics of the Porto Marghera remediation systems. Longstanding industrial activity has had a strong impact on the soil and groundwater quality, and expensive and complex emergency remediation measures in problematic locations have been undertaken to ensure the continuity of industrial and maritime activities. The land reclamation and remediation works withdraw 56-74% of the water budget, while recharge from the river accounts for about 21-48% of the input. Only 21-42% of groundwater in the modelled area is derived from natural recharge sources, untouched by human activity. The drop of the piezometric level due to the realization of the upgradient impermeable barrier can be counteracted with the reduction of the pumping rate of the remediation systems.

  17. Geohydrology, simulation of regional groundwater flow, and assessment of watermanagement strategies, Twentynine Palms area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Zhen; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    aquifers (referred to as the upper and the middle aquifers) and the Tertiary sedimentary deposits into a single aquifer (referred to as the lower aquifer). In general, wells perforated in the upper aquifer yield more water than wells perforated in the middle and lower aquifers. The study area is dominated by extensive faulting and moderate to intense folding that has displaced or deformed the pre-Tertiary basement complex as well as the overlying Tertiary and Quaternary deposits. Many of these faults act as barriers to the lateral movement of groundwater flow and form many of the boundaries of the groundwater subbasins. The principal recharge to the study area is groundwater underflow across the western and southern boundaries that originates as runoff in the surrounding mountains. Groundwater discharges naturally from the study area as spring flow, as groundwater underflow to downstream basins, and as water vapor to the atmosphere by transpiration of phreatophytes and direct evaporation from moist soil. The annual volume of water that naturally recharged to or discharged from the groundwater flow system in the study area during predevelopment conditions was estimated to be 1,010 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr). About 90 percent of this recharge originated as runoff from the Little San Bernardino and the Pinto Mountains to the south, and the remainder originated as runoff from the San Bernardino Mountains to the west. Evapotranspiration by phreatophytes near Mesquite Lake (dry) was the primary form of predevelopment groundwater discharge. From 1953 through 2007, approximately 139,400 acre-feet (acre-ft) of groundwater was pumped by the MCAGCC from the Surprise Spring subbasin. A regional-scale numerical groundwater flow model was developed using MODFLOW-2000 for the Surprise Spring, Deadman, Mesquite, and Mainside subbasins. The aquifer system was simulated by using three model layers representing the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. Measured groundwater levels

  18. Ground-water levels, flow, and quality in northwestern Elkhart County, Indiana, 1980-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duwelius, R.F.; Silcox, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The time of peak dissolved-bromide concentrations in water from shallow wells downgradient from the landfill was used to estimate a rate of horizontal flow of water in the unconfined aquifer. The average rate of flow between shallow wells downgradient from the landfill was estimated to be 1.2 feet per day. This rate is within the range of values for ground-water flow calculated according to Darcy's law.

  19. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the US Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. This report summarizes what is known and inferred about ground-water flow throughout the NTS region. The report identifies and updates what is known about some of the major controls on ground-water flow, highlights some of the uncertainties in the current understanding, and prioritizes some of the technical needs as related to the Environmental Restoration Program. 113 refs.

  20. Simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of the effects of water-management options in the North Platte Natural Resources District, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Steven M.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Vrabel, Joseph; Ryter, Derek W.

    2015-08-12

    The calibrated groundwater-flow model was used with the Groundwater-Management Process for the 2005 version of the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional groundwater model, MODFLOW–2005, to provide a tool for the NPNRD to better understand how water-management decisions could affect stream base flows of the North Platte River at Bridgeport, Nebr., streamgage in a future period from 2008 to 2019 under varying climatic conditions. The simulation-optimization model was constructed to analyze the maximum increase in simulated stream base flow that could be obtained with the minimum amount of reductions in groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. A second analysis extended the first to analyze the simulated base-flow benefit of groundwater withdrawals along with application of intentional recharge, that is, water from canals being released into rangeland areas with sandy soils. With optimized groundwater withdrawals and intentional recharge, the maximum simulated stream base flow was 15–23 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) greater than with no management at all, or 10–15 ft3/s larger than with managed groundwater withdrawals only. These results indicate not only the amount that simulated stream base flow can be increased by these management options, but also the locations where the management options provide the most or least benefit to the simulated stream base flow. For the analyses in this report, simulated base flow was best optimized by reductions in groundwater withdrawals north of the North Platte River and in the western half of the area. Intentional recharge sites selected by the optimization had a complex distribution but were more likely to be closer to the North Platte River or its tributaries. Future users of the simulation-optimization model will be able to modify the input files as to type, location, and timing of constraints, decision variables of groundwater withdrawals by zone, and other variables to explore other feasible management

  1. An Analytical Study on Periodically Changing Flow Cells in Groundwater Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhao, K. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wan, L.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Current understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow is mainly based on Tóth's (1962, 1963) pioneering study, which assumed that water table is a subdued replica of topography and the annual mean water table controls the pattern of groundwater flow. In fact, water table is driven by dynamic forcing and changes with time. This study modifies the conceptual model of basin-scale groundwater flow by taking the fluctuating water-table into account. For both unit basin and complex basin, water table fluctuates throughout the basin cross-section except for at basin valleys. By the method of separation of variables, we derive the analytical solution of hydraulics head and stream function in the unit basin and the complex basin, and discuss the characteristics of the time-dependent flow cells. For the unit basin, the change in amplitude of hydraulic head fluctuation with depth is studied. For the complex basin, the time-dependent distribution of internal stagnation points is discussed. In addition, the relationship between flowing artesian zone and the fluctuating water-table is discussed. The results of the current study enhance our understanding on the transient nature of basin-scale groundwater flow.

  2. Control on groundwater flow in a semiarid folded and faulted intermountain basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Ge, Shemin

    2013-01-01

    The major processes controlling groundwater flow in intermountain basins are poorly understood, particularly in basins underlain by folded and faulted bedrock and under regionally realistic hydrogeologic heterogeneity. To explore the role of hydrogeologic heterogeneity and poorly constrained mountain hydrologic conditions on regional groundwater flow in contracted intermountain basins, a series of 3-D numerical groundwater flow models were developed using the South Park basin, Colorado, USA as a proxy. The models were used to identify the relative importance of different recharge processes to major aquifers, to estimate typical groundwater circulation depths, and to explore hydrogeologic communication between mountain and valley hydrogeologic landscapes. Modeling results show that mountain landscapes develop topographically controlled and predominantly local-scale to intermediate-scale flow systems. Permeability heterogeneity of the fold and fault belt and decreased topographic roughness led to permeability controlled flow systems in the valley. The structural position of major aquifers in the valley fold and fault belt was found to control the relative importance of different recharge mechanisms. Alternative mountain recharge model scenarios showed that higher mountain recharge rates led to higher mountain water table elevations and increasingly prominent local flow systems, primarily resulting in increased seepage within the mountain landscape and nonlinear increases in mountain block recharge to the valley. Valley aquifers were found to be relatively insensitive to changing mountain water tables, particularly in structurally isolated aquifers inside the fold and fault belt.

  3. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater

  4. How does Low Impact Development affect Urban Base Flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, A.; Hogan, D. M.; Archfield, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    A novel form of urban development, Low Impact Development (LID), aims to engineer systems that replicate natural hydrologic functioning. LID includes the preservation of near-natural groundwater recharge via infiltration close to impervious surfaces where stormwater is generated. Our study watershed in Clarksburg, Maryland is an instrumented 1.11 km2 watershed developed between 2004 and 2010 with 73 infiltration-focused stormwater facilities, including bioretention facilities, dry wells, and dry swales. We examined changes to annual and monthly streamflow during and after urban development (2004—2014) and compared alterations to nearby forested and urban control watersheds. We show that total flow and base flow increased in the study watershed during development as compared to control watersheds. We also found that the study watershed had slower storm recessions after development and less seasonality in base flow. These changes may be due to a combination of urban processes occurring during development, including reduction in evapotranspiration and the increase in point sources of recharge. Precipitation that may have infiltrated a forested landscape pre-development, been stored in soil moisture, and eventually been transpired by plants may now be recharged to groundwater and become base flow. A transfer of evapotranspiration to base flow is an unintended alteration to the urban water budget, here observed in a watershed using LID.

  5. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwaters and streams affected by agriculture, Locust Grove, MD

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Horan, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of agriculture on the isotope geochemistry of Sr were investigated in two small watersheds in the Atlantic coastal plain of Maryland. Stratified shallow oxic groundwaters in both watersheds contained a retrievable record of increasing recharge rates of chemicals including NO3/-, Cl, Mg, Ca and Sr that were correlated with increasing fertilizer use between about 1940 and 1990. The component of Sr associated with recent agricultural recharge was relatively radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.715) and it was overwhelming with respect to Sr acquired naturally by water-rock interactions in the oxidized, non-calcareous portion of the saturated zone. Agricultural groundwaters that penetrated relatively unoxidized calcareous glauconitic sediments at depth acquired an additional component of Sr from dissolution of early tertiary marine CaCO3 (87Sr/86Sr=0.708) while undergoing O2 reduction and denitrification. Ground-water discharge contained mixtures of waters of various ages and redox states. Two streams draining the area are considered to have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios and NO3/- concentrations than they would in the absence of agriculture; however, the streams have consistently different 87Sr/86Sr ratios and NO3/- concentrations because the average depth to calcareous reducing (denitrifying) sediments in the local groundwater flow system was different in the two watersheds. The results of this study indicate that agriculture can alter significantly the isotope geochemistry of Sr in aquifers and streams and that the effects could vary depending on the types, sources and amounts of fertilizers added, the history of fertilizer use and groundwater residence times. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Possible changes in ground-water flow to the Pecos River caused by Santa Rosa Lake, Guadalupe County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1980 Santa Rosa Dam began impounding water on the Pecos River about 7 miles north of Santa Rosa, New Mexico, to provide flood control, sediment control, and storage for irrigation. Santa Rosa Lake has caused changes in the groundwater flow system, which may cause changes in the streamflow of the Pecos River that cannot be detected at the present streamflow gaging stations. Data collected at these stations are used to measure the amount of water available for downstream users. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model for a 950 sq mi area between Anton Chico and Puerto de Luna was used to simulate the effects of Santa Rosa Lake on groundwater flow to a gaining reach of the Pecos River for lake levels of 4,675, 4,715, 4,725, 4,750, 4,776, and 4,797 feet above sea level and durations of impoundment of 30, 90, 182, and 365 days for all levels except 4 ,797 feet. These simulations indicated that streamflow in the Pecos River could increase by as much as 2 cu ft/sec between the dam and Puerto de Luna if the lake level were maintained at 4 ,797 feet for 90 days or 4,776 feet for 1 year. About 90% of this increased streamflow would occur < 0.5 mi downstream from the dam, some of which would be measured at the streamflow gaging station located 0.2 mile downstream from the dam. Simulations also indicated that the lake will affect groundwater flow such that inflow to the study area may be decreased by as much as 1.9 cu ft/sec. This water may leave the Pecos River drainage basin or be diverted back to the Pecos River downstream from the gaging station near Puerto de Luna. In either case, this quantity represents a net loss of water upstream from Puerto de Luna. Most simulations indicated that the decrease in groundwater flow into the study area would be of about the same quantity as the simulated increase in streamflow downstream from the dam. Therefore, the net effect of the lake on the flow of the Pecos River in the study area appears to be negligible. Model simulations

  7. Groundwater flow in an intermountain basin: Hydrological, geophysical, and geological exploration of South Park, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Lyndsay Brooke

    Groundwater in the intermountain basins of the American West is increasingly of interest with respect to water supply, ecosystem integrity, and contaminant and heat transport processes. These basins are defined by their heterogeneity through large topographic relief, substantial climatic variability, and permeability distributions made complex through variations in lithology and deformation over the orogenic history of these regions, leading to folded and faulted aquifers. This dissertation focuses on the influence of these heterogeneities on the groundwater flow system of the South Park basin in central Colorado, USA. The influence of faults on shallow groundwater flow was examined at two locations along the mapped trace of the Elkhorn fault, a Laramide reverse fault that juxtaposes crystalline and sedimentary rocks in eastern South Park. At the first location, electromagnetic, resistivity, self-potential, and hydraulic data were collected at an existing well field straddling the fault trace. Integrated analysis suggested the fault behaves as combined conduit barrier to groundwater in flow the upper 60 m. A second location along the mapped trace was selected through additional geophysical exploration. New boreholes were drilled to make direct geologic, hydrologic, and geophysical observations of the fault zone. However, these boreholes did not intersect the Elkhorn fault despite passing through rocks with similar electrical resistivity signatures to the first study location. Analyses of drill core and geophysical data indicate that the mineralogical composition of the crystalline rocks strongly influences their resistivity values, and the resistivity contrasts associated with the rock juxtaposition created by the Elkhorn fault is not unique. A steady-state, three-dimensional groundwater flow model of the South Park basin was developed to explore the influence of complex topography, recharge, and permeability structure on regional groundwater flow. Geologic

  8. Groundwater-flow assessment of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer is a water-bearing assemblage of gravels and sands that underlies about 32,000 square miles of Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. Pumping of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer for agriculture started in the early 1900s in the Grand Prairie area for the irrigation of rice and soybeans. From 1965 to 2005, water use in the alluvial aquifer increased 655 percent. In 2005, 6,242 million gallons per day of water were pumped from the aquifer, primarily for irrigation and fish farming. Water-level declines in the alluvial aquifer were documented as early as 1927. Long-term water-level measurements in the alluvial aquifer show an average annual decline of 1 foot per year in some areas. In this report, the utility of the updated 2009 MODFLOW groundwater-flow model of the alluvial aquifer in northeastern Arkansas was extended by performing groundwater-flow assessments of the alluvial aquifer at specific areas of interest using a variety of methods. One such area is along the western side of Crowleys Ridge, which includes western parts of Clay, Greene, Craighead, Poinsett, Cross, St. Francis, and Lee Counties. This area was designated as the Cache Critical Groundwater Area by the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission in 2009 for the alluvial and Sparta/Memphis aquifers, because of the rate of change in groundwater levels and groundwater levels have dropped below half the original saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer.

  9. Geohydrology and simulated ground-water flow in northwestern Elkhart County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, L.D.; Cohen, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    of an area near the center of the modeled area where the horizontal hydraulic conductivity is 170 feet per day. Transmissivity of the lower aquifer increases generally from southwest to northeast; transmissivity values range from near 0 where the lower aquifer is absent to 57,000 square feet per day and average about 8,100 square feet per day. The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining unit is 0.07 feet per day; the vertical conductivity of the streambeds commonly is 1.0 foot per day and ranges from 0.05 foot per day to 50 feet per day. The areal recharge rate to the outwash deposits was determined by a base-flow separation technique to be 16 inches per year, and the areal recharge rate to the till was assumed to be 4 inches per year. A two-layer digital model was used to simulate flow in the ground-water system. The model was calibrated on the basis of historical water-use data, water-level records, and gain/loss data for streams during May and June 1979. The model was recalibrated with water-use data and water-level records from 1988. For 1979 data, 49 percent of the inflow to the model area is from precipitation and 46 percent is ground-water inflow across the model boundaries. Most of the ground-water inflow across the model boundary is from the north and east, which corresponds to high values of transmissivity?as high as 57,000 feet squared per day?in the model layers in the northern and eastern areas. Eighty-two percent of the ground-water discharge is to the streams; 5 percent of the ground-water discharge is to wells. Source areas and flow paths to the City of Elkhart public well fields are affected by the location of streams and the geology in the area. Flow to the North Well Field originates north-west of the well field, forms relatively straight flow paths, and moves southeast toward the well field and the St. Joseph River. Flow to the South Well Field begins mostly in the out-wash along Yellow Creek south of the well field, moves northward, and

  10. Study of electrokinetic effects to quantify groundwater flow

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.R.; Haupt, R.W.

    1997-04-01

    An experimental study of electrokinetic effects (streaming potential) in earth materials was undertaken. The objective was to evaluate the measurement of electrokinetic effects as a method of monitoring and predicting the movement of groundwater, contaminant plumes, and other fluids in the subsurface. The laboratory experiments verified that the electrokinetic effects in earth materials are prominent, repeatable, and can be described well to first order by a pair of coupled differential equations.

  11. A Numerical Study for Groundwater Flow, Heat and Solute Transport Associated with Operation of Open-loop Geothermal System in Alluvial Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Lee, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    The open-loop geothermal system directly uses a relatively stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as an eco-friendly, energy-saving, and cost-efficient technique. The facility for this system was installed at a site located near Paldang-dam in Han-river, Korea. Because of the well-developed alluvium, the site might be appropriate to application of this system requiring extraction and injection of a large amount of groundwater. A simple numerical experiment assuming various hydrogeologic conditions demonstrated that regional groundwater flow direction was the most important factor for efficient operation of facility in this site having a highly permeable layer. However, a comparison of river stage data and groundwater level measurements showed that the daily and seasonal controls of water level at Paldang-dam have had a critical influence on the regional groundwater flow in the site. Moreover, nitrate concentrations measured in the monitoring wells gave indication of the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality. The facility operation, such as extraction and injection of groundwater, will obviously affect transport of the agricultural contaminant and, maybe, it will even cause serious problems in the normal operation. Particularly, the high-permeable layer in this aquifer must be a preferential path for quick spreadings of thermal and contaminant plumes. The objective of this study was to find an efficient, safe and stable operation plan of the open-loop geothermal system installed in this site having the complicated conditions of highly permeable layer, variable regional groundwater flow, and agricultural contamination. Numerical simulations for groundwater flow, heat and solute transport were carried out to analyze all the changes in groundwater level and flow, temperature, and quality according to the operation, respectively. Results showed that an operation plan for

  12. An update of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system transient model, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Pavelko, Michael T.; Hill, Mary C.

    2017-01-19

    Since the original publication of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) numerical model in 2004, more information on the regional groundwater flow system in the form of new data and interpretations has been compiled. Cooperators such as the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Department of Energy, and Nye County, Nevada, recognized a need to update the existing regional numerical model to maintain its viability as a groundwater management tool for regional stakeholders. The existing DVRFS numerical flow model was converted to MODFLOW-2005, updated with the latest available data, and recalibrated. Five main data sets were revised: (1) recharge from precipitation varying in time and space, (2) pumping data, (3) water-level observations, (4) an updated regional potentiometric map, and (5) a revision to the digital hydrogeologic framework model.The resulting DVRFS version 2.0 (v. 2.0) numerical flow model simulates groundwater flow conditions for the Death Valley region from 1913 to 2003 to correspond to the time frame for the most recently published (2008) water-use data. The DVRFS v 2.0 model was calibrated by using the Tikhonov regularization functionality in the parameter estimation and predictive uncertainty software PEST. In order to assess the accuracy of the numerical flow model in simulating regional flow, the fit of simulated to target values (consisting of hydraulic heads and flows, including evapotranspiration and spring discharge, flow across the model boundary, and interbasin flow; the regional water budget; values of parameter estimates; and sensitivities) was evaluated. This evaluation showed that DVRFS v. 2.0 simulates conditions similar to DVRFS v. 1.0. Comparisons of the target values with simulated values also indicate that they match reasonably well and in some cases (boundary flows and discharge) significantly better than in DVRFS v. 1.0.

  13. Occurrence of Volcanic CO2 by Groundwater Flow Systems in the Eifel Mountains, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, K.; May, F.; Ellis, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Weyer (2010) showed why and how discharge areas of regional groundwater flow systems are also discharge points of natural and stored CO2. As groundwater flow systems reach to great depth by penetrating aquitards and caprocks any successful design of on-shore geological carbon storage must regard the migration effects groundwater flow systems exert on stored CO2. Eventually all of the CO2 will be dissolved by groundwater and migrate to the discharge areas of these flow systems. By implication there will rarely be the anticipated permanent storage of CO2 in the subsurface. Instead the deep ground water flow will transport the dissolved CO2 into surface waters. A telling example of such a system is the Green River in Utah with its natural discharge points of volcanic CO2 and the artificial discharge point Crystal Geyser, a flowing abandoned well located at the bank of the Green River. The advantage of this situation is that there have been hydrogeological tools developed which allow the determination of the flow path of the groundwater flow systems and their approximate time scale to reach their groundwater discharge areas. These time spans may be as large as 50,000 to 100,000 years. In any case residence times of a thousand years and more would suffice in mitigating the atmospheric effect of CO2 discharge. The above concepts have so far not created much resonance in the scientific and practical world of geologic CO2 storage. Therefore the investigation of groundwater dynamics at areas with natural discharge of volcanic CO2 provides a test for the effect groundwater flow systems will exert on the geologic storage of CO2. The Eifel Mountains in Germany present such a natural laboratory as it contains over a hundred known Tertiary and Quaternary volcanoes. Its discharge points of water carrying CO2 are well-known as they have been used for generations for the production of carbonated mineral waters. For the western part of the Eifel-Mountains, May (2002) listed all

  14. Analysis of multicomopnent groundwater flow in karst aquifer by CFC, tritium, tracer test and modelling, case study at Skaistkalnes vicinity, Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikshe, Janis; Babre, Alise; Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater in karst environments tends to have difficulties to distinguish multiple flows if several sources of water are present. Skaistkalne vicinity faces with such situation where old groundwater, fresh groundwater and inflow from river Iecava occurs. Attempts were made to distinguish groundwater residence time of multiple components of water applying CFC and tritium dating techniques supplied by tracer test and numerical model of study area. Study area covers territory between two rivers Iecava and Memele with water level difference of 7 meters and horizontal distance of 2.2 kilometres between both. Study area consists of karst affected Devonian gypsum and carbonaceous rocks covered by Quaternary low to high permeable deposits. Confined groundwater at depth of 10-25 meters where analysed by CFC's and tritium. At this depth groundwater exhibits anoxic reducing environment that has caused degradation of CFC's at similar degree in all samples. Taking it into account, mean residence time based on CFC piston flow model is 22 - 42 years and 28 - 34 years based on binary mixing model. Tritium results show signs of incensement of groundwater residence time towards discharge area. CFC combined with tritium proved increased vertical velocity in middle part between the rivers likely caused by hydrogeological window in Quaternary deposits created by karst processes. Numerical model (Delina et al. 2012) was applied and calculations yielded groundwater flow velocity rate at 0.3 - 1 m/day in area between the rivers. Investigation of CFC data resulted in possible groundwater flow rate of at a minimum of 0.2 m/day although it's not applicable to all sampled wells due to specific hydrogeological conditions. Tracer test was made between the rivers in order to distinguish main water flow paths and flow velocity. Results showed that very high permeable conduits connect rivers and karst lakes with velocity rates of 800 - 1300 m/day. Complex investigation leads to conclude that

  15. Slope instability in complex 3D topography promoted by convergent 3D groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. E.; Brien, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Slope instability in complex topography is generally controlled by the interaction between gravitationally induced stresses, 3D strengths, and 3D pore-fluid pressure fields produced by flowing groundwater. As an example of this complexity, coastal bluffs sculpted by landsliding commonly exhibit a progression of undulating headlands and re-entrants. In this landscape, stresses differ between headlands and re-entrants and 3D groundwater flow varies from vertical rainfall infiltration to lateral groundwater flow on lower permeability layers with subsequent discharge at the curved bluff faces. In plan view, groundwater flow converges in the re-entrant regions. To investigate relative slope instability induced by undulating topography, we couple the USGS 3D limit-equilibrium slope-stability model, SCOOPS, with the USGS 3D groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. By rapidly analyzing the stability of millions of potential failures, the SCOOPS model can determine relative slope stability throughout the 3D domain underlying a digital elevation model (DEM), and it can utilize both fully 3D distributions of pore-water pressure and material strength. The two models are linked by first computing a groundwater-flow field in MODFLOW, and then computing stability in SCOOPS using the pore-pressure field derived from groundwater flow. Using these two models, our analyses of 60m high coastal bluffs in Seattle, Washington showed augmented instability in topographic re-entrants given recharge from a rainy season. Here, increased recharge led to elevated perched water tables with enhanced effects in the re-entrants owing to convergence of groundwater flow. Stability in these areas was reduced about 80% compared to equivalent dry conditions. To further isolate these effects, we examined groundwater flow and stability in hypothetical landscapes composed of uniform and equally spaced, oscillating headlands and re-entrants with differing amplitudes. The landscapes had a constant slope for both

  16. Groundwater Seepage Vectors and the Potential for Hillslope Failure and Debris Flow Mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Major, Jon J.

    1986-10-01

    Insight for understanding the effect of groundwater flow on the potential for hillslope failure and liquefaction is provided by a novel limit-equilibrium analysis of infinite slopes with steady, uniform Darcian seepage of arbitrary magnitude and direction. Normalization of the limit-equilibrium solution shows that three dimensionless parameters govern completely the Coulomb failure potential of saturated, cohesionless, infinite homogeneous hillslopes: (1) the ratio of seepage force magnitude to gravitational body force magnitude; (2) the angle θ - Φ, where θ is the surface slope angle and Φ is the angle of internal friction of the soil; and (3) the angle λ + Φ, where λ is the angle of the seepage vector measured with respect to an outward-directed surface-normal vector. An additional dimensionless parameter affects the solution if soil cohesion is included in the analysis. Representation of the normalized solution as a single family of curves shows that minimum slope stability universally occurs when the seepage direction is given by λ = 90° - Φ. It also shows that for some upward seepage conditions, slope stability is limited by static liquefaction rather than by Coulomb failure. Close association between these liquefaction conditions and certain Coulomb failure conditions indicates that slope failure in such instances could be responsible for nearly spontaneous mobilization of destructive flowing soil masses on hillslopes.

  17. Calculating discharge of phosphorus and nitrogen with groundwater base flow to a small urban stream reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Alex; Roy, James W.; Smith, James E.

    2015-09-01

    Elevated levels of nutrients, especially phosphorus, in urban streams can lead to eutrophication and general degradation of stream water quality. Contributions of phosphorus from groundwater have typically been assumed minor, though elevated concentrations have been associated with riparian areas and urban settings. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of groundwater as a pathway for phosphorus and nitrogen input to a gaining urban stream. The stream at the 28-m study reach was 3-5 m wide and straight, flowing generally eastward, with a relatively smooth bottom of predominantly sand, with some areas of finer sediments and a few boulders. Temperature-based methods were used to estimate the groundwater flux distribution. Detailed concentration distributions in discharging groundwater were mapped using in-stream piezometers and diffusion-based peepers, and showed elevated levels of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and ammonium compared to the stream (while nitrate levels were lower), especially along the south bank, where groundwater fluxes were lower and geochemically reducing conditions dominated. Field evidence suggests the ammonium may originate from nearby landfills, but that local sediments likely contribute the SRP. Ammonium and SRP mass discharges with groundwater were then estimated as the product of the respective concentration distributions and the groundwater flux distribution. These were determined as approximately 9 and 200 g d-1 for SRP and ammonium, respectively, which compares to stream mass discharges over the observed range of base flows of 20-1100 and 270-7600 g d-1, respectively. This suggests that groundwater from this small reach, and any similar areas along Dyment's Creek, has the potential to contribute substantially to the stream nutrient concentrations.

  18. Hydrologic and geochemical approaches for determining ground-water flow components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hjalmarson, H.W.; Robertson, F.N.

    1991-01-01

    Lyman Lake is an irrigation-storage reservoir on the Little Colorado River near St. Johns, Arizona. The main sources of water for the lake are streamflow in the Little Colorado River and ground-water inflow from the underlying Coconino aquifer. Two approaches, a hydrologic analysis and a geochemical analysis, were used to compute the quantity of ground-water flow to and from Lyman Lake. Hydrologic data used to calculate a water budget were precipitation on the lake, evaporation from the lake, transpiration from dense vegetation, seepage through the dam, streamflow in and out of the lake, and changes in lake storage. Geochemical data used to calculate the ground-water flow components were major ions, trace elements, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. During the study, the potentiometric level of the Coconino aquifer was above the lake level at the upstream end of the lake and below the lake level at the downstream end. Hydrologic and geochemical data indicate that about 10 percent and 8 percent, respectively, of the water in the lake is ground-water inflow and that about 35 percent of the water in the Little Colorado River 6 miles downgradient from the lake near Salado Springs is ground water. These independent estimates of ground-water flow derived from each approach are in agreement and support a conceptual model of the water budget.

  19. Groundwater flow estimation using temperature-depth profiles in a complex environment and a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Dylan J; Kurylyk, Barret L; Cartwright, Ian; Bonham, Mariah; Post, Vincent E A; Banks, Eddie W; Simmons, Craig T

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining reliable estimates of vertical groundwater flows remains a challenge but is of critical importance to the management of groundwater resources. When large scale land clearing or groundwater extraction occurs, methods based on water table fluctuations or water chemistry are unreliable. As an alternative, a number of methods based on temperature-depth (T-z) profiles are available to provide vertical groundwater flow estimates from which recharge rates may be calculated. However, methods that invoke steady state assumptions have been shown to be inappropriate for sites that have experienced land surface warming. Analytical solutions that account for surface warming are available, but they typically include unrealistic or restrictive assumptions (e.g. no flow initial conditions or linear surface warming). Here, we use a new analytical solution and associated computer program (FAST) that provides flexible initial and boundary conditions to estimate fluxes using T-z profiles from the Willunga Super Science Site, a complex, but densely instrumented groundwater catchment in South Australia. T-z profiles from seven wells (ranging from high elevation to near sea level) were utilised, in addition to mean annual air temperatures at nearby weather stations to estimate boundary conditions, and thermal properties were estimated from down borehole geophysics. Temperature based flux estimates were 5 to 23mmy(-1), which are similar to those estimated using chloride mass balance. This study illustrates that T-z profiles can be studied to estimate recharge in environments where more commonly applied methods fail.

  20. Multivariate analyses with end-member mixing to characterize groundwater flow: Wind Cave and associated aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Valder, Joshua F.

    2011-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to hydrochemical data has been used with end-member mixing to characterize groundwater flow to a limited extent, but aspects of this approach are unresolved. Previous similar approaches typically have assumed that the extreme-value samples identified by PCA represent end members. The method presented herein is different from previous work in that (1) end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior knowledge; (2) end-member mixing was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on major hydrologic processes; (3) a method to select an appropriate number of end members using a series of cluster analyses is presented; and (4) conservative tracers were weighted preferentially in model calibration, which distributed model errors of optimized values, or residuals, more appropriately than would otherwise be the case. The latter item also provides an estimate of the relative influence of geochemical evolution along flow paths in comparison to mixing. This method was applied to groundwater in Wind Cave and the associated karst aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. The end-member mixing model was used to test a hypothesis that five different end-member waters are mixed in the groundwater system comprising five hydrogeologic domains. The model estimated that Wind Cave received most of its groundwater inflow from local surface recharge with an additional 33% from an upgradient aquifer. Artesian springs in the vicinity of Wind Cave primarily received water from regional groundwater flow.

  1. Isotopic Evidence for the Impact of Playa Water on Shallow Groundwater Flow in the Snake River Aquifer Beneath the INEEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, M. E.; Depaolo, D. J.; Neher, E. R.

    2002-12-01

    ages, however, they suggest that the playas will affect groundwater flow directions well into the future.

  2. Subsurface thermal regime to delineate the paleo-groundwater flow system in an arid area, Al Kufra, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Zenhom El-Said

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the groundwater flow system in Al Kufra basin, Libya, as a case study of arid areas using subsurface temperature. The temperature-depth profiles and water levels were measured in eight boreholes in the area. Well 6 is considered a recharge type profile with low geothermal gradient (0.0068 °C/m) and an estimated paleo-temperature around 19.5 °C. The other profiles are of discharge type with higher geothermal gradient (0.0133 to 0.0166 °C/m). The constructed horizontal 2D distribution maps of the hydraulic heads and the subsurface temperature measurements reveal that the main recharge area is located to the south with low temperature while the main discharge area is located to the north with higher temperature. Vertical 2D distribution maps show that location of well 4 has low hydraulic heads and higher temperature indicating that the fault defined in the area may have affected the groundwater flow system. The estimated groundwater flux ranges from 0.001 to 0.1 mm/day for the recharge area and from -0.3 to -0.7 mm/day in average in the discharge area.

  3. Intercomparison of Groundwater Flow Monitoring Technologies at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, P F; Jantos, J; Pedler, W H; Mandell, W A

    2005-09-20

    This report presents an intercomparison of three groundwater flow monitoring technologies at a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County, California. Soil and groundwater at this site became contaminated by fuels and solvents that were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) as part of firefighter training from 1962 and 1985. Cont Contamination is believed to be restricted to the unconfined A-aquifer, where water is reached at a depth of approximately 60 to 80 feet below the ground surface; the aquifer is from 15 to 20 feet in thickness, and is bounded below by a dense clay layer, the Salinas Valley Aquitard. Soil excavation and bioremediation were initiated at the site of fire training activities in the late 1980s. Since that time a pump-and-treat operation has been operated close to the original area of contamination, and this system has been largely successful at reducing groundwater contamination in this source area. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In this report, we have augmented flow monitoring equipment permanently installed in an earlier project (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with two additional flow monitoring devices that could be deployed in existing monitoring wells, in an effort to better understand their performance in a nearly ideal, homogeneous sand aquifer, that we expected would exhibit laminar groundwater flow owing to the site's relatively simple hydrogeology. The three flow monitoring tools were the Hydrotechnics{reg_sign} In In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS), the RAS Integrated Subsurface Evaluation Hydrophysical Logging tool (HPL), and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Scanning Colloidal Borescope Flow Meter (SCBFM). All three devices produce groundwater flow

  4. Direction of ground-water flow and ground-water quality near a landfill in Falmouth, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persky, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A landfill in Falmouth, Massachusetts, is upgradient of a pond used for municipal water supply, but analysis of groundwater flow directions and groundwater quality indicates that leachate from the landfill does not threaten the municipal water supply. A network of water table observation wells was established, and water table altitudes were measured in these wells on several dates in 1981. Water quality analyses and specific conductance measurements were made on water samples from several wells in the vicinity of the landfill between October 1980 and April 1983. A water table altitude contour map of the area between the landfill and Long Pond for April 16-17, 1981, indicates that the direction of groundwater flow is primarily southwest from the landfill to Buzzards Bay. A similar map for September 2, 1981--a time at which the water table was unusually low--indicates the possibility of groundwater discharge to Long Pond from the landfill site. Groundwater quality beneath the landfill exceeded U.S. EPA water quality criteria for domestic water supply for manganese and total dissolved solids. Concentrations as high as 52 mg/L of nitrogen as ammonia and 4,500 micrograms/L (ug/L) of manganese were found. Concentrations of ammonia, manganese, calcium, potassium, and alkalinity exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 100; specific-conductance levels and concentrations of hardness, barium, chloride, sodium, magnesium, iron, and strontium exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 10; and cadmium concentrations exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 5. Water quality analyses and field specific conductance measurements indicate the presence of a volume of leachate extending south-southwest from the landfill. Average chloride concentrations of landfill leachate, precipitation on the surface of Long Pond, and recharge from the remainder of the recharge area were 180, 3, and 9 mg/L, respectively. No significant degradation of

  5. Correlation between nitrate concentration in groundwater and parameters affecting aquifer intrinsic vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debernardi, Laura; de Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2008-08-01

    the complex phenomena affecting nitrate concentrations in soil, subsoil and groundwater. In particular, the traditional methods for vulnerability analysis do not analyze physical processes in aquifers, such as denitrification and nitrate dilution. According to a recent study in the shallow unconfined aquifer of the Piemonte plain, dilution can be considered as the main cause for nitrate attenuation in groundwater.

  6. Regional groundwater flow in mountainous terrain: Three-dimensional simulations of topographic and hydrogeologic controls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, T.; Manning, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses numerical simulations to define the salient controls on regional groundwater flow in 3-D mountainous terrain by systematically varying topographic and hydrogeologic variables. Topography for idealized multiple-basin mountainous terrain is derived from geomatic data and literature values. Water table elevation, controlled by the ratio of recharge to hydraulic conductivity, largely controls the distribution of recharged water into local, regional, and perpendicular flow systems, perpendicular flow being perpendicular to the regional topographic gradient. Both the relative (%) and absolute (m 3/d) values of regional flow and perpendicular flow are examined. The relationship between regional flow and water table elevation is highly nonlinear. With lower water table elevations, relative and absolute regional flow dramatically increase and decrease, respectively, as the water table is lowered further. However, for higher water table elevations above the top of the headwater stream, changes in water table elevation have little effect on regional flow. Local flow predominates in high water table configurations, with regional and perpendicular flow <15% and <10%, respectively, of total recharge in the models tested. Both the relative and the maximum absolute regional flow are directly controlled by the degree of incision of the mountain drainage network; the elevation of mountain ridges is considerably less important. The percentage of the headwater stream with perennial streamflow is a potentially powerful indicator of regional flow in all water table configurations and may be a good indicator of the susceptibility of mountain groundwater systems to increased aridity. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. The effects of regional groundwater flow in the thermal regime of a basin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leslie; Chapman, David S.

    1982-09-01

    Numerical solutions of the equations of fluid flow and heat transport are used to quantify the effects of groundwater flow on the subsurface thermal regime. Simulations are carried out for a vertical section through a basin with a distance of 40 km separating the regional topographic high and low. Emphasis is placed on understanding the conditions under which advective effects significantly perturb the thermal field. The transition from conduction-dominated to advection-dominated thermal regimes is sharp and depends primarily on the topographic configuration of the water table, the magnitude and spatial distribution of permeability, hydraulic anisotropy and depth of active flow. Deviations of surface heat flow from the background heat flux are a measurable effect of groundwater flow and depend on the same factors. Our results show that from zero to almost one hundred per cent of the section may have surface heat flow significantly different from background heat flow, depending upon the nature of the hydrogeologic environment. A limited spatial variability in a distributed set of heat flow measurements and/or linear temperature-depth profiles does not ensure that surface heat flow measurements are not disturbed. The results of our simulations suggest that knowledge of the complete environment of a site, including the water table configuration and subsurface flow system, combined with more closely spaced heat flow measurements may be necessary to unravel the true background heat flux in active flow regions.

  8. Simulation of ground-water flow and evaluation of water-management alternatives in the Assabet River Basin, Eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    Water-supply withdrawals and wastewater disposal in the Assabet River Basin in eastern Massachusetts alter the flow and water quality in the basin. Wastewater discharges and stream-flow depletion from ground-water withdrawals adversely affect water quality in the Assabet River, especially during low-flow months (late summer) and in headwater areas. Streamflow depletion also contributes to loss of aquatic habitat in tributaries to the river. In 19972001, water-supply withdrawals averaged 9.9 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Wastewater discharges to the Assabet River averaged 11 Mgal/d and included about 5.4 Mgal/d that originated from sources outside of the basin. The effects of current (2004) and future withdrawals and discharges on water resources in the basin were investigated in this study. Steady-state and transient ground-water-flow models were developed, by using MODFLOW-2000, to simulate flow in the surficial glacial deposits and underlying crystalline bedrock in the basin. The transient model simulated the average annual cycle at dynamic equilibrium in monthly intervals. The models were calibrated to 19972001 conditions of water withdrawals, wastewater discharges, water levels, and nonstorm streamflow (base flow plus wastewater discharges). Total flow through the simulated hydrologic system averaged 195 Mgal/d annually. Recharge from precipitation and ground-water discharge to streams were the dominant inflow and outflow, respectively. Evapotranspiration of ground water from wetlands and non-wetland areas also were important losses from the hydrologic system. Water-supply withdrawals and infiltration to sewers averaged 5 and 1.3 percent, respectively, of total annual out-flows and were larger components (12 percent in September) of the hydrologic system during low-flow months. Water budgets for individual tributary and main stem subbasins identified areas, such as the Fort Meadow Brook and the Assabet Main Stem Upper subbasins, where flows resulting from

  9. Simulation of groundwater flow and hydrologic effects of groundwater withdrawals from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the Pinelands of southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charles, Emmanuel G.; Nicholson, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    flow. Pumping stresses at aquifer-test sites resulted in measurable drawdown in each observation well installed for the tests. The magnitude of drawdown in shallow wetland observation wells at the end of pumping ranged from 5.5 to 16.7 centimeters (cm). The stresses induced by the respective tests reduced the flow of the smallest stream (McDonalds Branch) by 75 percent and slightly reduced flow in a side channel of Morses Mill Stream, but did not measurably affect the flow of Morses Mill Stream or Albertson Brook. Results of aquifer-test simulations were used to refine the estimates of hydraulic properties used in the models and to confirm the ability of the model to replicate observed hydrologic responses to pumping. Steady-state sensitivity simulation results for a variety of single well locations and depths were used to define overall “best-case” (smallest effect on wetland water levels and base flow) and “worst-case” (greatest effect on wetland water levels and base flow) groundwater withdrawal configurations. “Best-case” configurations are those for which the extent of the wetland areas within a 1-kilometer (km) radius of the withdrawal well is minimized, the well is located at least 100 m and as far from wetland boundaries as possible, and the withdrawal is from a deep well (50–90 m deep). “Worst-case” configurations are those for which the extent of wetlands within a 1-km radius of the withdrawal well is maximized, the well is located 100 m or less from a wetland boundary, and the withdrawal is from a relatively shallow well (30–67 m deep). “Best-” and “worst-case” simulations were applied by locating hypothetical wells across the study areas and assigning groundwater withdrawals so that the sum of the withdrawals for the basin is equal to 5, 10, 15, and 30 percent of overall recharge. The results were compared to the results of simulations of no groundwater withdrawals. Results for withdrawals of 5 percent of recharge show that the

  10. Groundwater flow systems in the great Aletsch glacier region (Valais, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpiger, Andrea; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater flow systems in Alpine areas are often complex and challenging to investigate due to special topographic and climatic conditions governing groundwater recharge and bedrock flow. Studies seeking to characterize high-alpine groundwater systems remain rare, but are of high interest, e.g. for water supply, hydropower systems, traffic tunnels or rock slope deformation and landslide hazards. The goal of this study is to better understand the current and past groundwater flow systems of the UNESCO World Heritage mountain ridge separating the great Aletsch glacier and the Rhone valley, considering climatic and glacier fluctuations during the Lateglacial and Holocene periods. This ridge is crossed by a hydropower bypass drift (Riederhornstollen) and is composed of fractured crystalline rocks overlain by various types of landslides and glacial deposits. Surface hydrology observations (fracture properties, groundwater seepage, spring lines and physico-chemical parameters) and hydropower drift inflow measurements contributed to the characterization of bedrock hydraulic conductivities and preferential groundwater pathways. Basic conceptual hydrogeological models were tested with observed drift inflows and the occurrence of springs using free-surface, variably saturated, vertical 2D groundwater flow models (using the code SEEP/W from GeoStudio 2007). Already simple two-layer models, representing profile sections orthogonal to the mountain ridge, provided useful results. Simulations show that differences in the occurrence of springs on each side of the mountain ridge are likely caused by the occurrence of glacial till (generating perched groundwater), the deep-seated sagging landslide mass, faults and asymmetric ridge topography, which together force the main groundwater flow direction to be oriented towards the Rhone valley, even from beyond the mountain ridge. Surprisingly, the most important springs (those with high discharge rates) are located at high elevations

  11. Influence of permafrost distribution on groundwater flow in the context of climate-driven permafrost thaw: example from Yukon Flats Basin, Alaska, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, Michelle A.; Voss, Clifford I.; Wellman, Tristan P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the role of permafrost in controlling groundwater flow paths and fluxes is central in studies aimed at assessing potential climate change impacts on vegetation, species habitat, biogeochemical cycling, and biodiversity. Recent field studies in interior Alaska show evidence of hydrologic changes hypothesized to result from permafrost degradation. This study assesses the hydrologic control exerted by permafrost, elucidates modes of regional groundwater flow for various spatial permafrost patterns, and evaluates potential hydrologic consequences of permafrost degradation. The Yukon Flats Basin (YFB), a large (118,340 km2) subbasin within the Yukon River Basin, provides the basis for this investigation. Model simulations that represent an assumed permafrost thaw sequence reveal the following trends with decreasing permafrost coverage: (1) increased groundwater discharge to rivers, consistent with historical trends in base flow observations in the Yukon River Basin, (2) potential for increased overall groundwater flux, (3) increased spatial extent of groundwater discharge in lowlands, and (4) decreased proportion of suprapermafrost (shallow) groundwater contribution to total base flow. These trends directly affect the chemical composition and residence time of riverine exports, the state of groundwater-influenced lakes and wetlands, seasonal river-ice thickness, and stream temperatures. Presently, the YFB is coarsely mapped as spanning the continuous-discontinuous permafrost transition that model analysis shows to be a critical threshold; thus, the YFB may be on the verge of major hydrologic change should the current permafrost extent decrease. This possibility underscores the need for improved characterization of permafrost and other hydrogeologic information in the region via geophysical techniques, remote sensing, and ground-based observations.

  12. Modelling of seasonal dynamics of Wetland-Groundwater flow interaction in the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Melkamu; Nussbaumer, Raphaël; Ireson, Andrew; Keim, Dawn

    2015-04-01

    Wetland-shallow groundwater interaction is studied at the St. Denis National Wildlife Area in Saskatchewan, Canada, located within the northern glaciated prairies of North America. Ponds in the Canadian Prairies are intermittently connected by fill-spill processes in the spring and growing season of some wetter years. The contribution of the ponds and wetlands to groundwater is still a significant research challenge. The objective of this study is to evaluate model's ability to reproduce observed effects of groundwater-wetland interactions including seasonal pattern of shallow groundwater table, intended flow direction and to quantify the depression induced infiltration from the wetland to the surrounding uplands. The integrated surface-wetland-shallow groundwater processes and the changes in land-energy and water balances caused by the flow interaction are simulated using ParFlow-CLM at a small watershed of 1km2 containing both permanent and seasonal wetland complexes. We compare simulated water table depth with piezometers reading monitored by level loggers at the watershed. We also present the strengths and limitations of the model in reproducing observed behaviour of the groundwater table response to the spring snowmelt and summer rainfall. Simulations indicate that the shallow water table at the uphill recovers quickly after major rainfall events in early summer that generates lateral flow to the pond. In late summer, the wetland supplies water to the surrounding upland when the evapotranspiration is higher than the precipitation in which more water from the root zone is up taken by plants. Results also show that Parflow-CLM is able to reasonably simulate the water table patterns response to summer rainfall, while it is insufficient to reproduce the spring snowmelt infiltration which is the most dominant hydrological process in the Prairies.

  13. Guidelines for model calibration and application to flow simulation in the Death Valley regional groundwater system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.; D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen guidelines are described which are intended to produce calibrated groundwater models likely to represent the associated real systems more accurately than typically used methods. The 14 guidelines are discussed in the context of the calibration of a regional groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region in the southwestern United States. This groundwater flow system contains two sites of national significance from which the subsurface transport of contaminants could be or is of concern: Yucca Mountain, which is the potential site of the United States high-level nuclear-waste disposal; and the Nevada Test Site, which contains a number of underground nuclear-testing locations. This application of the guidelines demonstrates how they may be used for model calibration and evaluation, and also to direct further model development and data collection.Fourteen guidelines are described which are intended to produce calibrated groundwater models likely to represent the associated real systems more accurately than typically used methods. The 14 guidelines are discussed in the context of the calibration of a regional groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region in the southwestern United States. This groundwater flow system contains two sites of national significance from which the subsurface transport of contaminants could be or is of concern: Yucca Mountain, which is the potential site of the United States high-level nuclear-waste disposal; and the Nevada Test Site, which contains a number of underground nuclear-testing locations. This application of the guidelines demonstrates how they may be used for model calibration and evaluation, and also to direct further model development and data collection.

  14. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin in support of Great Lakes Basin water availability and use studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, D.T.; Hunt, R.J.; Reeves, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    . Lastly, it describes several categories of limitations and discusses ways of extending the regional model to address issues at the local scale. Results of the simulations portray a regional groundwater-flow system that, over time, has largely maintained its natural predevelopment configuration but that locally has been strongly affected by well withdrawals. The quantity of rainfall in the Lake Michigan Basin and adjacent areas supports a dense surface-water network and recharge rates consistent with generally shallow water tables and predominantly shallow groundwater flow. At the regional scale, pumping has not caused major modifications of the shallow flow system, but it has resulted in decreases in base flow to streams and in direct discharge to Lake Michigan (about 2 percent of the groundwater discharged and about 0.5 cubic foot per second per mile of shoreline). On the other hand, well withdrawals have caused major reversals in regional flow patterns around pumping centers in deep, confined aquifers - most noticeably in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system on the west side of Lake Michigan near the cities of Green Bay and Milwaukee in eastern Wisconsin, and around Chicago in northeastern Illinois, as well as in some shallow bedrock aquifers (for example, in the Marshall aquifer near Lansing, Mich.). The reversals in flow have been accompanied by large drawdowns with consequent local decrease in storage. On the west side of Lake Michigan, groundwater withdrawals have caused appreciable migration of the deep groundwater divides. Before the advent of pumping, the deep Lake Michigan groundwater-basin boundaries extended west of the Lake Michigan surface-water basin boundary, in some places by tens of miles. Over time, the pumping centers have replaced Lake Michigan as the regional sink for the deep flow system. The regional model is intended to support the framework pilot study of water availability and use for the Great Lakes Basin (Reeves, in press).

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Horizontal Spatial Discretization on Interflow in the Soil Zone Using the Richards and Groundwater Flow Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, W.; Niswonger, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    In many mountainous regions, a large proportion of streamflow originates as shallow subsurface storm flow (interflow) within the shallow soils of hillslopes. Infiltration can accumulate to form perched groundwater within the upper few meters of the soil horizon that drains to streams through both macropores and soil-matrix. Richards Equation has become a commonly used governing equation for simulating interflow in regional-scale models. Recent research has shown that optimal vertical discretization for Richards Equation near land surface and the water table is much smaller than the discretization typically used in basin-scale hydrologic models, yet little is known about optimal horizontal discretization or potential effects of horizontal discretization on interflow solutions. Most of the work related to the effects of discretization on the solution of Richards Equation has focused on the vertical infiltration problem. This study evaluates horizontal spatial discretization effects on interflow predictions using 1) a modified version of GSFLOW and 2) VS2DT. The modified GSFLOW couples Smith-Parlange 1-D infiltration equations with 3-D unconfined groundwater flow equation, whereas VS2DT uses Richards Equation to represent infiltration and variably saturated flow. Interflow solutions and breakthrough at the stream were compared using a model domain similar to Vauclin and others (1979) with horizontal grid resolutions ranging from 0.05-5m and vertical resolutions ranging between 0.05-1m, with horizontal flow path lengths of 25m to the stream. Variable horizontal spatial resolutions affected VS2DT interflow solutions (RMSE up to 0.12) and interflow breakthrough at the stream, whereas GSFLOW solutions were well correlated (RMSE <0.052). Interflow breakthrough was delayed by up to 10 days with increasing resolution in VS2DT, whereas GSFLOW breakthrough was consistently the same day. Results indicate that the solution of Richards Equation for soil-zone interflow is much

  16. Closing the irrigation deficit in Cambodia: Implications for transboundary impacts on groundwater and Mekong River flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erban, Laura E.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    Rice production in Cambodia, essential to food security and exports, is largely limited to the wet season. The vast majority (96%) of land planted with rice during the wet season remains fallow during the dry season. This is in large part due to lack of irrigation capacity, increases in which would entail significant consequences for Cambodia and Vietnam, located downstream on the Mekong River. Here we quantify the extent of the dry season "deficit" area in the Cambodian Mekong River catchment, using a recent agricultural survey and our analysis of MODIS satellite data. Irrigation of this land for rice production would require a volume of water up to 31% of dry season Mekong River flow to Vietnam. However, the two countries share an aquifer system in the Mekong Delta, where irrigation demand is increasingly met by groundwater. We estimate expansion rates of groundwater-irrigated land to be >10% per year in the Cambodian Delta using LANDSAT satellite data and simulate the effects of future expansion on groundwater levels over a 25-year period. If groundwater irrigation continues to expand at current rates, the water table will drop below the lift limit of suction pump wells, used for domestic supply by >1.5 million people, throughout much of the area within 15 years. Extensive groundwater irrigation jeopardizes access for shallow domestic water supply wells, raises the costs of pumping for all groundwater users, and may exacerbate arsenic contamination and land subsidence that are already widespread hazards in the region.

  17. Hydrologic data and groundwater flow simulations in the vicinity of Long Lake, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, near Gary, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lampe, David C.; Bayless, E. Randall

    2013-01-01

    decrease discharge as much as 6 percent while increasing the simulated inundated area during wet weather. (5) Deepening of County Line Road ditch can decrease the discharge from US-12 ditch by 26 percent during dry weather and 24 percent during wet weather, as well as decrease the extent of flooded areas south and east of the filtration pond near Ogden Dunes. (7) The increase of the Lake Michigan water level to match the historical maximum can increase the discharge from US-12 ditch by 14 percent during dry weather and by 9.6 percent during wet weather. (8) The decrease of the Lake Michigan water level to match the historical minimum can decrease the discharge from US-12 ditch by 7.4 percent during dry weather and by 3.1 percent during wet weather. The results of this study can be used by water-resource managers to understand how surrounding ditches affect water levels in East and West Long Lake and in the surrounding wetlands and residential areas. The groundwater model developed in this study can be applied in the future to answer questions about how alterations to the drainage system in the area will affect water levels in East and West Long Lake and surrounding areas. The modeling methods developed in this study provide a template for other studies of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interactions within the shallow surficial aquifer in northern Indiana, and in similar hydrologic settings that include surficial sand aquifers in coastal settings.

  18. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow near the Lantana Landfill, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer

  19. Recent Developments in Karst Groundwater Flow Measurement in Southeastern Florida,USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupa, S.; Brock, J.; Gefvert, C.; Shaffer, J.; Cunningham, K.; Wacker, M.

    2008-05-01

    Groundwater seepage was first characterized in the early 1800's, when Henry Darcy determined that the flow of groundwater could be estimated from the head difference and the distance between two points. Since then, hydrogeologists have been struggling with ways to continuously measure groundwater flow in situ, and more recently have sought data in near-real time. Groundwater flow within aquifers that have relatively large head differences (several meters) are porous in nature and have low hydraulic conductivities, is linear in nature, and can be generally characterized by Darcy's solution. Prior to the research presented herein, it was assumed that aquifers within Miami-Dade County could also be characterized by Darcy's solution (with Reynolds numbers less than 10 or 20). The L-31N Canal lies on the eastern flank of Everglades National Park (ENP). In addition to conveying water to Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay, the canal's levees are intended to reduce surface-water sheet flow from ENP to eastern urban areas. In an effort to reduce groundwater seepage coming from ENP, the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) and the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) have been tasked with evaluating the hydrogeology and the groundwater/surface-water interaction on the L-31N canal. This involved process of installation includes monitoring wells, recording automated water-level measurements, characterizing water-chemistry types and ages, and installation of instruments capable of measuring horizontal groundwater velocities and directions coming from ENP. The SFWMD initiated a cooperative agreement with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) for the geological and hydrogeological investigation and concurrently contracted the installation of borehole flowmeters in eight wells (two clusters). The USGS provided detailed core and sediment analysis, geophysical logging, in situ borehole flowmeter logging, and digital optical borehole imaging. In addition, the USGS

  20. Estimating evapotranspiration and groundwater flow from water-table fluctuations for a general wetland scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Michael J. Wiley,; Douglas A. Wilcox,

    2015-01-01

    The use of diurnal water-table fluctuation methods to calculate evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater flow is of increasing interest in ecohydrological studies. Most studies of this type, however, have been located in riparian wetlands of semi-arid regions where groundwater levels are consistently below topographic surface elevations and precipitation events are infrequent. Current methodologies preclude application to a wider variety of wetland systems. In this study, we extended a method for estimating sub-daily ET and groundwater flow rates from water-level fluctuations to fit highly dynamic, non-riparian wetland scenarios. Modifications included (1) varying the specific yield to account for periodic flooded conditions and (2) relating empirically derived ET to estimated potential ET for days when precipitation events masked the diurnal signal. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we estimated ET and groundwater fluxes over two growing seasons (2006–2007) in 15 wetlands within a ridge-and-swale wetland complex of the Laurentian Great Lakes under flooded and non-flooded conditions. Mean daily ET rates for the sites ranged from 4.0 mm d−1 to 6.6 mm d−1. Shallow groundwater discharge rates resulting from evaporative demand ranged from 2.5 mm d−1 to 4.3 mm d−1. This study helps to expand our understanding of the evapotranspirative demand of plants under various hydrologic and climate conditions.

  1. Comparison of groundwater flow model particle tracking results and isotopic data in the Leon valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G.; Cortes, A. S.; Martínez-Reyes, J.; Perez-Quezadas, J.; Grupo de Hidrologia Isotopica

    2013-05-01

    The study area is located in the Guanajuato state, north-west of Mexico City. The Leon Valley covers with groundwater its water demand estimated in about 20.6 m3/s. The constant population increase and related economic activities in the region have a steady growth in water needs. Related abstraction rate has produced an average drawdown of about 1.0 m/year in the last two decades. It suggests that present groundwater management needs to be reviewed. The groundwater management in the study area implies a possibility that abstraction will produce environmental impacts. This vital resource under stress becomes necessary to study its hydro-geologic functioning to achieve a scientific groundwater management in the valley. This investigation was based on the analysis and integration of existing information and the one generated in the field by the authors. Highlighted concepts were: i) the geologic structure of the area, ii) the hydraulic parameters and iii) the delta-deuterium and delta-oxigen-18 composition. This information was analysed integrally by means of applying a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) and a particle-tracking model (FLOWPATH): the results were similar to flow paths and time-of travel interpretations derived from isotopic data.

  2. Statistical Performance Evaluation of Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Mass Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Papadopoulou, Maria P.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.

    2016-04-01

    As groundwater remains one of the most critical natural resources worldwide, numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport provide a reliable tool for the efficient protection, planning and sustainable management of groundwater resources. This work focuses on the evaluation of the performance of different numerical models which have been developed to simulate spatiotemporal groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport in a coastal aquifer system. The evaluation of the models' performance has been based on 9 different statistical measures and indices of goodness of fit. Overall, the simulation of groundwater level and contaminant mass concentration delivered very good calibration and validation results in all cases, quite close to the desired values. Maps of aquifer water level and contaminant mass concentrations are provided for all cases in order the differences to be discussed and assessed. The selection of the appropriate model(s) is case oriented and it should be based on the problem's characteristics in order the spatiotemporal variability of the components under study to be optimally estimated.

  3. Groundwater flow and mixing in a wetland-stream system: Field study and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karan, Sachin; Engesgaard, Peter; Looms, Majken C.; Laier, Troels; Kazmierczak, Jolanta

    2013-04-01

    SummaryWe combined electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) on land and in a stream with zone-based hydraulic conductivities (from multi-level slug testing) to investigate the local geological heterogeneity of the deposits in a wetland-stream system. The detailed geology was incorporated into a numerical steady-state groundwater model that was calibrated against average head observations. The model results were tested against groundwater fluxes determined from streambed temperature measurements. Discharge varied up to one order of magnitude across the stream and the model was successful in capturing this variability. Water quality analyses from multi-level sampling underneath the streambed and in the wetland showed a stratification in groundwater composition with an aerobic shallow zone with oxygen and nitrate (top ˜3 m) overlying a reduced, anoxic zone. While NO3- concentrations up to 58 mg L-1 were found in the top of the aquifer and immediately underneath the streambed no NO3- was detected deeper within the aquifer. An inverse relationship between NO3- and SO42- suggests that pyrite oxidation takes place in the deeper parts of the aquifer. Simulated flow path lines showed very different origins for deeper groundwater samples. No nitrate reduction is believed to occur in the shallow zone, where oxygen is present, and the residence time is on the order of 1 year. Nitrate reduction can, however, occur in the deeper parts, which are oxygen-free, and where the residence time is on the order of 7 years. A simulation with a homogeneous model did not match the observations nearly as well as a heterogeneous model based on ERT and a spatially distributed hydraulic conductivity. Furthermore, the origin of the sampled groundwater could not have been predicted from groundwater hydraulic head and the groundwater chemistry alone. The presented approach of integrating such methods in groundwater-surface water exchange studies, proved efficient to obtain information of the

  4. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  5. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow in La Crosse County, Wisconsin, and into nearby pools of the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Saad, David A.; Chapel, Dawn M.

    2003-01-01

    The models provide estimates of the locations and amount of ground-water flow into Pool 8 and the southern portion of Pool 7 of the Mississippi River. Ground-water discharges into all areas of the pools, except along the eastern shore in the vicinity of the city of La Crosse and immediately downgradient from lock and dam 7 and 8. Ground-water flow into the pools is generally greatest around the perimeter with decreasing amounts away from the perimeter. An area of relatively high ground-water discharge extends out towards the center of Pool 7 from the upper reaches of the pool and may

  6. Preliminary evaluation of ground-water flow in Bear Creek Valley, the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Z.C.

    1988-01-01

    Bear Creek Valley, Tennessee contains hazardous waste disposal sites where contaminants leach into ground and surface water. Groundwater flow and the potential migration of contaminants is poorly understood. The Valley is underlain by calcareous shale that contains limestone units. Ridges to the north and south are underlain by interbedded sandstones, siltstone and shale, and by massive, siliceous dolomite, respectively. The bedrock, which dips about 45 degrees southeast, is overlain by regolith to a maximum thickness of 80 ft. Observed hydraulic conductivities for the regolith range from 0.01 to 13 ft/day, and for the bedrock, from 0.001 to 11 ft/day. Groundwater flow is probably toward streams and is preferential along strike because of an areal anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity. A cross sectional groundwater flow model was used to test the conceptualized flow system and to help identify areas where additional data are needed. The preliminary model shows a pattern of recharge at both ridges, flow toward the valley, and upward flow that discharges into Bear Creek. Final model values of hydraulic conductivity in the bedrock range from 0.01 to 0.1 ft/day and reflect an areal anisotropy ratio of 1:5. Simulated recharge was 10 inches/year. (USGS)

  7. Stratabound pathways of preferred groundwater flow: An example from the Copper Ridge Dolomite in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.; Ketelle, D.

    1987-07-14

    The Copper Ridge Dolomite of the Upper Cambrian Knox Group underlies a site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee under consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) for a below ground waste disposal facility. The Copper Ridge was studied for DOE to understand the influence of lithology on deep groundwater flow. Three facies types are distinguished which comprise laterally continuous, 1 to 4 m thick rock units interpreted to represent upward-shallowing depositional cycles having an apparently significant effect on groundwater flow at depth. Rock core observations indicate one of the recurring facies types is characterized by thin to medium-bedded, fine-grained dolostone with planar cryptalgal laminae and thin shaley partings. Distinctive fracturing in this facies type, that may have resulted from regional structural deformation, it considered to be responsible for weathering at depth and the development of stratabound pathways of preferred groundwater flow. In addition, geophysical data suggest that one occurrence of this weathered facies type coincides with an apparent geochemical interface at depth. Geophysical data also indicate the presence of several fluid invasion horizons, traceable outside the study area, which coincide with the unweathered occurrence of this fine-grained facies type. The subcropping of recurrent zones of preferred groundwater flow at the weathered/unweathered interface may define linear traces of enhanced aquifer recharge paralleling geologic strike. Vertical projection of these zones from the weathered/unweathered rock interface to the ground surface may describe areas of enhanced infiltration. Tests to determine the role of stratigraphic controls on groundwater flow are key components of future investigations on West Chestnut Ridge. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Recharge and Lateral Groundwater Flow Boundary Conditions for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    S. James

    2004-10-06

    This analysis is designed to use existing modeling and analysis results as the basis for estimated groundwater flow rates into the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale model domains, both as recharge (infiltration) at the upper boundary (water table), and as underflow at the lateral boundaries. Specifically, this work compiles information on the recharge boundary conditions supplied to the base-case and alternate SZ site-scale flow models taken from (1) distributed recharge from the 1997 (D'Agnese et al. 1997 [DIRS 100131]) or 2001 (D'Agnese et al. 2002 [DIRS 158876]) SZ regional-scale (Death Valley Regional Flow System [DVRFS]) model; (2) recharge below the area of the 1997 (Wu et al. 1997 [DIRS 156453]) or 2003 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale flow model; and (3) focused recharge along Fortymile Wash. In addition, this analysis includes extraction of the groundwater flow rates simulated by the 1997 and 2001 DVRFS models coincident with the lateral boundaries of the SZ site-scale flow models. The fluxes from the 1997 DVRFS were used to calibrate the base-case SZ site-scale flow model. The 2001 DVRFS fluxes are used in the alternate SZ site-scale flow model.

  9. Groundwater flow beneath a hypersaline pond, Cluett Key, Florida Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juster, Thomas; Kramer, P. A.; Vacher, H. L.; Swart, P. K.; Stewart, M.

    1997-10-01

    Florida Bay carbonate mud islands are known to be sites of Holocene diagenesis, including dolomitization, and the hydrology is an essential component of this process. On Cluett Key, a typical mud island in western Florida Bay, groundwater salinities range to 145‰ beneath a shallow ephemeral pond which occupies 70% of the island. A sharp hydrostratigraphic boundary separates low-permeability unconsolidated carbonate mud from underlying highly permeable Pleistocene limestone. We report the results of a 2 year project aimed at determining the rates, patterns, and driving force of groundwater flow beneath the island. Water level measurements are used to demonstrate the presence of a large hydraulic head drive caused by the difference in elevations of the pond and Florida Bay, and enhanced by the higher density of groundwaters in the carbonate mud compared with groundwater in the limestone. The hydraulic head drive is essentially vertical because Florida Bay water levels are transmitted with little attenuation to the limestone underlying the island. Distributions of groundwater density and pore pressures are consistent with vertical groundwater flow. Based on an estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity of approximately 5×10 -3 m day -1, vertical interstitial velocities are on the order of 25 cm year -1 with a residence time in the carbonate mud of approximately 15 years. This velocity is very similar to that calculated independently from tritium concentrations in pore waters. Both horizontal and vertical density gradients exist in the carbonate mud. These density variations induce circulations owing to vorticity and may lead to the formation of instability plumes (reflux), but dynamical scaling suggests that these motions are much slower than those induced by the dominant hydraulic drive. Buoyancy effects may, however, be dominant on other lower islands in Florida Bay where the hydraulic head drive is much smaller than on Cluett Key. Diffusion may blur sharp

  10. Simulation of groundwater flow and saltwater movement in the Onslow County area, North Carolina: predevelopment-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, Jason M.; Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2014-01-01

    Onslow County, North Carolina, is located within the designated Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA). The CCPCUA was designated by law as a result of groundwater level declines of as much as 200 feet during the past four decades within aquifers in rocks of Cretaceous age in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina and a depletion of water in storage from increased groundwater withdrawals in the area. The declines and depletion of water in storage within the Cretaceous aquifers increase the potential for saltwater migration—both lateral encroachment and upward leakage of brackish water. Within the CCPCUA, a reduction in groundwater withdrawals over a period of 16 years from 2003 to 2018 is mandated. Under the CCPCUA rules, withdrawals in excess of 100,000 gallons per day from any of the Cretaceous aquifer well systems are subject to water-use reductions of as much as 75 percent. To assess the effects of the CCPCUA rules and to assist with groundwater-management decisions, a numerical model was developed to simulate the groundwater flow and chloride concentrations in the surficial Castle Hayne, Beaufort, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in the Onslow County area. The model was used to (1) simulate groundwater flow from 1900 to 2010; (2) assess chloride movement throughout the aquifer system; and (3) create hypothetical scenarios of future groundwater development. After calibration of a groundwater flow model and conversion to a variable-density model, five scenarios were created to simulate future groundwater conditions in the Onslow County area: (1) full implementation of the CCPCUA rules with three phases of withdrawal reductions simulated through 2028; (2) implementation of only phase 1 withdrawal reductions of the CCPCUA rules and simulated through 2028; (3) implementation of only phases 1 and 2 withdrawal reductions of the CCPCUA rules and simulated through 2028; (4) full implementation of the CCPCUA rules with the addition of withdrawals from

  11. Storm-Driven Groundwater Flow and Nutrient Transport in a Barrier Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A. M.; Anderson, J.; Moore, W. S.; Schutte, C.; Joye, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Porewaters in coastal sediments are significantly enriched in nutrients compared to adjacent surface waters, but groundwater fluxes, and hence nutrient fluxes, are poorly known. Here observations from a barrier island in the U.S. Southeast suggest significant groundwater flow and nutrient transport during a storm. In August 2008 Tropical Storm Fay passed 200 km to the south of Cabretta Island, GA. Groundwater monitoring data from the salt marsh on the landward side of the island show that storm surge altered the balance between the marsh flow system and the freshwater upland, causing flow from the marsh toward the upland and salinization of wells more than 100 m from the creek. This suggests large-scale influx of nutrient-poor creek water. Nutrient sampling further suggests that these fluids were rapidly enriched in nutrients, which were subsequently exported as the storm surge retreated. Components of the groundwater system returned to pre-storm levels over 3 days (marsh) and 2-3 weeks (unconfined upland aquifer). Marsh systems that are hydraulically isolated from uplands, either naturally (islands) or by trenching, are bypassed by this type of surge-driven influx and instead experience decreased groundwater flux during periods of high mean water levels. On the seaward side of the island, beach erosion led to gradual saltwater intrusion over a period of 1-2 months following the storm, followed by gradual seaward migration of the freshwater-saltwater interface during the winter. Together these results suggest that barrier island groundwater systems are quite dynamic, with extensive hydraulic connections to the ocean.

  12. Nitrate retention as it affects groundwater pollution in Mid-Atlantic soils. Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, D.L.

    1987-09-14

    Nitrate retention (NO/sub 3/) as it affects groundwater pollution was investigated on nine major Mid-Atlantic soil types. Objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude and rate of NO/sub 3/ retention and the effect of anion competition on NO/sub 3/ retention. The soils had a wide range in organic matter, clay and oxide content. Charge properties including anion exchange capacity (AEC) and point of zero salt effect (PZSE) were determined. The PZSE values were low indicating little anion-adsorption capacity, while AEC values often significant and increased with profile depth as oxide and clay contents increased.

  13. A Dual Model-Reduction Approach to Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Z.; Boyce, S. E.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical-model reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD) has been shown to be an effective method for reducing the computer runtime of linear and nonlinear groundwater-flow models without sacrificing accuracy. The discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) is an alternate method of model reduction better suited for nonlinear systems. In this research, both methods are applied simultaneously to reduce the dimensionality of a 3-D unconfined groundwater-flow model: SVD to reduce the column space and DEIM to reduce the row space. The results of the dimensional reduction can approach several orders of magnitude, resulting in significantly faster simulation runtimes. The implementation and benefit of SVD/DEIM model reduction is demonstrated through its application to a synthetic, groundwater-flow and solute-transport model with groundwater extraction wells that influence of seawater intrusion. The developed methodology identifies the dominant locations (i.e. the discrete points) of the model that have the most influence on the water levels and saltwater concentrations. The result is a reduced model constructed from fewer equations (row dimension) and is projected into a reduced subspace (column dimension). The methodology first independently constructs the reduced flow and transport models such that their errors are minimized for a flow-only model and transport-only model, respectively. Once the two reduced models have been established, a density-dependent flow simulation is preformed by iterating between the flow and transport models for each time step. Further analysis of the SVD/DEIM method illustrates the tradeoff between magnitude of the reduced dimension and corresponding errors in model output, with respect to the unreduced and independently reduced models. The application of this method shows that runtime can be significantly decreased for models of this type while still maintaining control of desired model accuracy.

  14. Testing and benchmarking of a three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, P.N.; Andersen, P.F.; Faust, C.R.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1988-12-31

    A three-dimensional finite-difference model was developed to simulate groundwater flow and solute transport. The model is intended for application to a variety of groundwater resource and solute migration evaluations, including several complex sites at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Because the model, FTWORK, is relatively new, there is a need to provide confidence in the model results. Methodologies that test models include comparisons with analytical solutions, comparisons with empirical data, and checking that conservation properties hold. Another level of testing is the comparison of one code against another. This paper describes the testing and benchmarking procedure used to verify the validate FTWORK.

  15. Linking stream flow and groundwater to avian habitat in a desert riparian system.

    PubMed

    Merritt, David M; Bateman, Heather L

    2012-10-01

    Increasing human populations have resulted in aggressive water development in arid regions. This development typically results in altered stream flow regimes, reduced annual flow volumes, changes in fluvial disturbance regimes, changes in groundwater levels, and subsequent shifts in ecological patterns and processes. Balancing human demands for water with environmental requirements to maintain functioning ecosystems requires quantitative linkages between water in streams and ecosystem attributes. Streams in the Sonoran Desert provide important habitat for vertebrate species, including resident and migratory birds. Habitat structure, food, and nest-building materials, which are concentrated in riparian areas, are provided directly or indirectly by vegetation. We measured riparian vegetation, groundwater and surface water, habitat structure, and bird occurrence along Cherry Creek, a perennial tributary of the Salt River in central Arizona, USA. The purpose of this work was to develop an integrated model of groundwater-vegetation-habitat structure and bird occurrence by: (1) characterizing structural and provisioning attributes of riparian vegetation through developing a bird habitat index (BHI), (2) validating the utility of our BHI through relating it to measured bird community composition, (3) determining the riparian plant species that best explain the variability in BHI, (4) developing predictive models that link important riparian species to fluvial disturbance and groundwater availability along an arid-land stream, and (5) simulating the effects of changes in flow regime and groundwater levels and determining their consequences for riparian bird communities. Riparian forest and shrubland vegetation cover types were correctly classified in 83% of observations as a function of fluvial disturbance and depth to water table. Groundwater decline and decreased magnitude of fluvial disturbance caused significant shifts in riparian cover types from riparian forest to

  16. Application of the Colloidal Borescope to Determine a Complex Groundwater Flow Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Narbutovskih, Susan M.; McDonald, John P.; Schalla, Ronald; Sweeney, Mark D.; M.N. Sara and L.G. Everett

    2002-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory made in situ flow measurements in groundwater monitoring wells at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to determine the flow direction in an aquifer with a flat water table. Given the total errors in water level elevations, flow directions based on the potentiometric surface are ambiguous at best. The colloidal borescope was used because it allows direct, real time observation of mobile colloidal particles in the open interval of a water well and thus, avoids the use of water level data. The results characterize a complex groundwater flow pattern under several buried waste storage tank farms. The aquifer, artificially high due to large volume liquid discharges to the soil column from Hanford's nuclear production era, is currently receding to original conditions. The aquifer lies in unconsolidated gravel beds overlying an impermeable basalt surface that has a plucked, flood-scoured, scabland structure. The current aquifer thickness is similar to the relief on the basalt basement. Thus the groundwater must flow around the impermeable basalt structures producing a complicated flow pattern under the waste storage unit. The original monitoring network was designed for northwest flow when the water table was held artificially high. Proper locations for new wells are dependent on our knowledge of the flow direction. The results of the colloidal borescope investigation agree with the southerly direction indicated from hydrographs, contaminant trends, other direct flow data and the general concept of a receding aquifer draining off the southern limb of a basalt anticline. Flow in the aquifer is diverted by irregular local structural highs of very low permeability basalt.

  17. A Finite Layer Formulation for Groundwater Flow to Horizontal Wells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xudong

    2016-09-01

    A finite layer approach for the general problem of three-dimensional (3D) flow to horizontal wells in multilayered aquifer systems is presented, in which the unconfined flow can be taken into account. The flow is approximated by an integration of the standard finite element method in vertical direction and the analytical techniques in the other spatial directions. Because only the vertical discretization is involved, the horizontal wells can be completely contained in one specific nodal plane without discretization. Moreover, due to the analytical eigenfunctions introduced in the formulation, the weighted residual equations can be decoupled, and the formulas for the global matrices and flow vector corresponding to horizontal wells can be obtained explicitly. Consequently, the bandwidth of the global matrices and computational cost rising from 3D analysis can be significantly reduced. Two comparisons to the existing solutions are made to verify the validity of the formulation, including transient flow to horizontal wells in confined and unconfined aquifers. Furthermore, an additional numerical application to horizontal wells in three-layered systems is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the present method in modeling flow in more complex aquifer systems.

  18. Groundwater flow and potential effects on evaporite dissolution in the Paradox Basin, SE Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitman, N.; Ge, S.; Mueller, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    A hydrogeologic study was conducted in the portion of the Paradox Basin south of the Needles District of Canyonlands National Park, Utah. Geology of the study area comprises fractured and faulted Paleozoic sandstone, limestone, and shale, which are underlain by evaporite cycles of the Paradox Formation. The evaporite deposits deform and dissolve when they come in contact with groundwater, generating land subsidence, saline groundwater, and salt input to the Colorado River. Active faults in the region slip at a rate of approximately 2 mm/year, likely due to evaporite dissolution. The objective of this study is to better understand groundwater flow and solute transport dynamics and to help determine the rate and timing of subsurface salt dissolution, which is an important control on the salt tectonics in the region. Study methods include hydrologic fieldwork, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. No groundwater wells exist in the study area. Water samples from springs and seeps were collected throughout the study area. Analysis of total dissolved solids (TDS), stable oxygen (δ18O) and deuterium (δD) isotopes, spring and seep locations, and prior data are used to gain a preliminary understanding of the shallow groundwater flow in the region. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (18O/16O) and deuterium (D/H) are used to constrain the source of spring water. Measured δ values are compared to predicted δ values for precipitation from WaterIsotopes.org for each sample site. Measured isotopic values range from -14.9 ‰ to -10.7 ‰ for δ18O and -108 ‰ to -78 ‰ for δD. The majority of samples from above 2000 m match predicted isotopic values for precipitation. Most samples taken below 2000 m are lighter than predicted isotopic values for precipitation. The TDS of spring samples measured in the lab show they range from 184 mg/L to 1552 mg/L with the majority of samples between 220 - 430 mg/L. TDS shows a weak correlation (R2 = 0.54) with altitude, where lower TDS

  19. Ground-water age, flow, and quality near a landfill, and changes in ground-water conditions from 1976 to 1996 in the Swinomish Indian Reservation, northwestern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.; Cox, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of two related studies: a study of ground-water age, flow, and quality near a landfill in the south-central part of the Swinomish Indian Reservation; and a study of changes in ground-water conditions for the entire reservation from 1976 to 1996. The Swinomish Indian Reservation is a 17-square-mile part of Fidalgo Island in northwestern Washington. The groundwater flow system in the reservation is probably independent of other flow systems in the area because it is almost completely surrounded by salt water. There has been increasing stress on the ground-water resources of the reservation because the population has almost tripled during the past 20 years, and 65 percent of the population obtain their domestic water supply from the local ground-water system. The Swinomish Tribe is concerned that increased pumping of ground water might have caused decreased ground-water discharge into streams, declines in ground-water levels, and seawater intrusion into the ground-water system. There is also concern that leachate from an inactive landfill containing mostly household and wood-processing wastes may be contaminating the ground water. The study area is underlain by unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits of Quaternary age that range from about 300 to 900 feet thick. Five hydrogeologic units have been defined in the unconsolidated deposits. From top to bottom, the hydrogeologic units are a till confining bed, an outwash aquifer, a clay confining bed, a sea-level aquifer, and an undifferentiated unit. The ground-water flow system of the reservation is similar to other island-type flow systems. Water enters the system through the water table as infiltration and percolation of precipitation (recharge), then the water flows downward and radially outward from the center of the island. At the outside edges of the system, ground water flows upward to discharge into the surrounding saltwater bodies. Average annual recharge is estimated to

  20. Rare Earth Element Speciation Along Groundwater Flow Paths in Two Different Aquifer Types (i.e., Sand vs. Carbonate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater samples were collected in two different types of aquifer (i.e., Carrizo sand aquifer, Texas and Upper Floridan carbonate aquifer, west-central Florida) to study the concentrations, fractionation, and speciation of rare earth elements (REE) along groundwater flow paths in each aquifer. The solution complexation of REEs in these two aquifers was modeled using Humic Ion-Binding Model V. The results of the REE speciation modeling indicate that the solution complexation of REEs is controlled by pH, alkalinity, and DOC concentration. Because DOC is low (less than 0.65 mg/L) in Carrizo aquifer, organic complexation of REEs is not significant in these groundwaters. For LREEs, LnCO3+ and/or Ln(CO3)2- are the dominant species when pH is above 7.0, but when pH is below 7.0, besides LnCO3+, Ln3+ and LnSO4+ are also significant and their importance increases with decreasing pH. For HREEs, LnCO3+ and/or Ln(CO3)2- are always the dominant species, however, LnPO4o is important in some groundwaters. The similar general patterns of inorganic solution complexation of the REEs are also observed in groundwaters from the Upper Floridan aquifer. However, because of the relatively high DOC concentrations measured in the Floridan groundwaters, organic complexation of REEs, especially LREEs, is also predicted to be significant in some groundwaters. Linear correlation coefficients for total REE, Nd, Gd, and Yb concentrations, and (Yb/Nd)SN vs. pH, CO3, DOC, SO4, Fe, and Mn indicate that for the Carrizo groundwaters, REE concentrations are not correlatd to any of these factors. However, (Yb/Nd)SN is inversely related to pH and the [CO32-] concentration of these groundwaters. Because REE speciation is strongly related to pH and the [CO32-] concentration, it is reasonable to expect that REE solution complexation plays a greater role in fractionating REE than controlling absolute concentrations in the Carrizo Sand aquifer. In Upper Floridan aquifer, LREE concentrations are positively

  1. Estimating shallow groundwater availability in small catchments using streamflow recession and instream flow requirements of rivers in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, Girma Y.; Villholth, Karen G.

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for multiple uses in South Africa. Hence, setting limits to its sustainable abstraction while assuring basic human needs is required. Due to prevalent data scarcity related to groundwater replenishment, which is the traditional basis for estimating groundwater availability, the present article presents a novel method for determining allocatable groundwater in quaternary (fourth-order) catchments through information on streamflow. Using established methodologies for assessing baseflow, recession flow, and instream ecological flow requirement, the methodology develops a combined stepwise methodology to determine annual available groundwater storage volume using linear reservoir theory, essentially linking low flows proportionally to upstream groundwater storages. The approach was trialled for twenty-one perennial and relatively undisturbed catchments with long-term and reliable streamflow records. Using the Desktop Reserve Model, instream flow requirements necessary to meet the present ecological state of the streams were determined, and baseflows in excess of these flows were converted into a conservative estimates of allocatable groundwater storages on an annual basis. Results show that groundwater development potential exists in fourteen of the catchments, with upper limits to allocatable groundwater volumes (including present uses) ranging from 0.02 to 3.54 × 106 m3 a-1 (0.10-11.83 mm a-1) per catchment. With a secured availability of these volume 75% of the years, variability between years is assumed to be manageable. A significant (R2 = 0.88) correlation between baseflow index and the drainage time scale for the catchments underscores the physical basis of the methodology and also enables the reduction of the procedure by one step, omitting recession flow analysis. The method serves as an important complementary tool for the assessment of the groundwater part of the Reserve and the Groundwater Resource Directed Measures in

  2. Analysis of the shallow groundwater flow system near Connetqout Brook, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prince, K.R.; Reilly, T.E.; Franke, O.L.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow on Long Island is derived principally from shallow groundwater that flows above the deeper regional flow system. The movement of shallow groundwater was studied during 1975-1982 at Connetquot Brook - an undisturbed stream in Connetquot River State Park - in south-central Long Island. The investigation encompassed: (1) field studies of streamflow, groundwater levels, and age of water as indicated by tritium concentrations, and (2) numerical simulation of the shallow flow system to evaluate the hydraulic factors that influence groundwater flow near and beneath the stream. Analysis of water-level data indicates that groundwater flow is essentially horizontal throughout the drainage basin except near and beneath the stream, where it moves upward diagonally and discharges into the streambank at three sites were 1-2 ft higher than stream stage in the and in wells driven into the streambank at three sites were 1-2 ft higher than stream stage in the first 5 ft of penetration. Increases in head, which were detected to depths of 30 ft beneath the streambed, indicate upward movement of water above that depth. Water samples from selected wells were analyzed for tritium concentration to determine the relative age of water to locate the bottom boundary of the shallow flow system. Tritium concentrations indicate that the lower boundary is from 45 to 100 ft below the water table. A two-dimensional cross-sectional flow model of the shallow flow system indicated that: (1) stream width and streambed hydraulic conductivity influence heads mostly within about 50 ft of the stream; (2) the thickness of the shallow flow system influences heads more distant from the stream but has a negligible effect near the stream; and (3) the quantity of water entering the system as recharge from precipitation influences the heads throughout the area. Field measurements of hydraulic head indicate the shallow flow system to extend to about 30 ft below the stream channel. Results of the

  3. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  4. Data Intensive Simulation and Analysis of Groundwater Flow and Transport in the Los Alamos aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, P. K.; Harp, D.; Miller, T. A.; Vesselinov, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    Characterization of the groundwater flow and transport in regional aquifer systems is a challenging task. In most practical cases, there is not sufficient hydrogeologic information that can be applied to evaluate aquifer properties. In addition, the development, execution and analyses of large-scale numerical models are computational demanding requiring advanced high-performance codes and state-of-the-art computational resources. We have developed a complex 3D regional groundwater flow model of the regional aquifer beneath the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) site to provide a better understanding of hydrogeologic properties, recharge sources, groundwater travel times, migration pathways for potential contaminants, and potential contaminant concentrations at water supply wells. The 3D computational grid is generated using sophisticated grid generating software, LaGriT (http://lagrit.lanl.gov). LaGriT allows the use of unstructured meshing strategies, which capture the details of complex groundwater flow of the LANL site, including wellbore geometries and hydrostratigraphy. The numerical simulation is performed using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer) (http://fehm.lanl.gov) codes. Long-term groundwater level monitoring at LANL started in the mid-1940s; the monitoring data is currently collected at more than 70 regional monitoring wells providing an extensive water-level observation data set. The water-level data represent over 62 years of recorded drawdowns and recovery caused by the spatially and temporally variable pumping at six municipal water-supply wells. The water-level data is applied in the 3D flow model to inversely estimate the aquifer parameters. The model calibration, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analyses are performed using the code MADS (Model Analyses and Decision Support; http://ees.lanl.gov/staff/monty/codes/mads). The research utilizes high performance computational resources (multiprocessor clusters) at LANL. In

  5. Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport in a Tidally influenced gravel beach in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobo, A. M.; Boufadel, M. C.; Abdollahi Nasab, A.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated beach hydraulics in a gravel beach on Eleanor Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska that was previously polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The beach contains trace amounts of oil such that they don’t affect beach hydraulics. Measurements of water pressure and salinity were analyzed and simulated using the model SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport). The results indicated that the beach consists of two layers with contrasting hydraulic properties: an upper layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 10-2 m/s, and a lower layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 10-5 m/s. The presence of the layer of low hydraulic conductivity constrained the fall of the water table resulting in a water table fluctuation that is almost independent of distance from the shoreline. This is unlike previous studies, which occurred in sandy beaches, and where the fluctuation decreased going landward. The water table remained above the layers’ interface, which suggests that the oil did not penetrate the lower layer. This could explain the presence of only tracer amount of oil in the beach. A sudden seaward increase of the slope of the two layers’ interface resulted in water leaving the lower layer near the mid-intertidal zone, and draining to the sea through the upper layer. This created the effect of a hydraulic rupture separating the hydraulics in the seaward portion of the beach from the rest of beach, especially at low tide.

  6. Local Modelling of Groundwater Flow Using Analytic Element Method Three-dimensional Transient Unconfined Groundwater Flow With Partially Penetrating Wells and Ellipsoidal Inhomogeneites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, I.; Barnes, R. J.; Soule, R.

    2001-12-01

    The analytic element method is used to model local three-dimensional flow in the vicinity of partially penetrating wells. The flow domain is bounded by an impermeable horizontal base, a phreatic surface with recharge and a cylindrical lateral boundary. The analytic element solution for this problem contains (1) a fictitious source technique to satisfy the head and the discharge conditions along the phreatic surface, (2) a fictitious source technique to satisfy specified head conditions along the cylindrical boundary, (3) a method of imaging to satisfy the no-flow condition across the impermeable base, (4) the classical analytic solution for a well and (5) spheroidal harmonics to account for the influence of the inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Temporal variations of the flow system due to time-dependent recharge and pumping are represented by combining the analytic element method with a finite difference method: analytic element method is used to represent spatial changes in head and discharge, while the finite difference method represents temporal variations. The solution provides a very detailed description of local groundwater flow with an arbitrary number of wells of any orientation and an arbitrary number of ellipsoidal inhomogeneities of any size and conductivity. These inhomogeneities may be used to model local hydrogeologic features (such as gravel packs and clay lenses) that significantly influence the flow in the vicinity of partially penetrating wells. Several options for specifying head values along the lateral domain boundary are available. These options allow for inclusion of the model into steady and transient regional groundwater models. The head values along the lateral domain boundary may be specified directly (as time series). The head values along the lateral boundary may also be assigned by specifying the water-table gradient and a head value at a single point (as time series). A case study is included to demonstrate the application

  7. Hydraulic-property estimates for use with a transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Elliott, Peggy E.; Geldon, Arthur L.

    2001-01-01

    The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system encompasses an area of about 43,500 square kilometers in southeastern California and southern Nevada, between latitudes 35? and 38?15' north and longitudes 115? and 117?45' west. The study area is underlain by Quaternary to Tertiary basin-fill sediments and mafic-lava flows; Tertiary volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks; Tertiary to Jurassic granitic rocks; Triassic to Middle Proterozoic carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks; and Early Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. The rock assemblage in the Death Valley region is extensively faulted as a result of several episodes of tectonic activity. This study is comprised of published and unpublished estimates of transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient, and anisotropy ratios for hydrogeologic units within the Death Valley region study area. Hydrogeologic units previously proposed for the Death Valley regional transient ground-water flow model were recognized for the purpose of studying the distribution of hydraulic properties. Analyses of regression and covariance were used to assess if a relation existed between hydraulic conductivity and depth for most hydrogeologic units. Those analyses showed a weak, quantitatively indeterminate, relation between hydraulic conductivity and depth.

  8. Hydraulic-property estimates for use with a transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    W.R. Belcher; P.E. Elliott; A.L. Geldon

    2001-12-31

    The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system encompasses an area of about 43,500 square kilometers in southeastern California and southern Nevada. The study area is underlain by Quaternary to Tertiary basin-fill sediments and mafic-lava flows; Tertiary volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks; Tertiary to Jurassic granitic rocks; Triassic to Middle Proterozoic carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks; and Early Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. The rock assemblage in the Death Valley region is extensively faulted as a result of several episodes of tectonic activity. This study is comprised of published and unpublished estimates of transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient, and anisotropy ratios for hydrogeologic units within the Death Valley region study area. Hydrogeologic units previously proposed for the Death Valley regional transient ground-water flow model, were recognized for the purpose of studying the distribution of hydraulic properties. Analyses of regression and covariance were used to assess if a relation existed between hydraulic conductivity and depth for most hydrogeologic units. Those analyses showed a weak, quantitatively indeterminate, relation between hydraulic conductivity and depth.

  9. A comparison of seven inverse methods for modeling groundwater flow in mildly to strongly heterogeneous aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Alcolea, A.; Riva, M.; Bakr, M.; van de Wiel, N.; Stauffer, F.; Guadagnini, A.,

    2009-04-01

    While several inverse modeling methods for groundwater flow have been developed during the last decades, hardly any comparisons among them have been published. We present a comparison of the performance of seven inverse methods, the Regularized Pilot Points Method (both in its classical estimation (RPPM-CE) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation (RPPM-CS) variants), the Monte-Carlo variant of the Representer Method (RM), the Sequential-Self Calibration method (SSC), the Zonation Method (ZM), the Moment Equations Method (MEM) and a recently developed Semi-Analytical Method (SAM). The aforementioned methods are applied to a two-dimensional synthetic set-up, depicting the steady-state groundwater flow around an extraction well in the presence of distributed recharge. Their relative performances were assessed in terms of characterization of (a) the log-transmissivity field, (b) the hydraulic head distribution and (c) the well catchment delineation with respect to the reference scenario. Simulations were performed for a mildly and strongly heterogeneous transmissivity field. Adopted comparison measures include the absolute mean error, the root mean square error and the average ensemble standard deviation (whenever a method allows evaluating it) of the log-transmissivity and hydraulic head distributions. In addition, the estimated median and reference well catchments were compared and the uncertainty associated with the estimated catchment was evaluated. We found that the MC-based methods (RPPM-CS, RM and SSC) yield very similar results in all tested scenarios, despite they use different parameterization schemes and different objective functions. The linear correlation coefficient between the estimates obtained by the different MC methods increases with the number of stochastic realizations adopted and attains values up to 0.99 for 500 stochastic realisations. For the mildly heterogeneous case, the other inverse methods (i.e., non MC) yielded results which were consistent with

  10. MODFLOW-NWT 2016 groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsen, Michael J.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Hunt, Randall J.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    A new groundwater flow model was created for Dane County, Wisconsin, to replace an earlier model developed in the 1990s by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This modeling study was conducted cooperatively by the WGNHS, the Capital Area Regional Planning Commission, and the USGS. Although the overall conceptual model of the groundwater system remains largely unchanged, the incorporation of newly acquired, high-quality datasets, recent research findings, and improved modeling and calibration techniques have led to the development of a much more detailed and sophisticated model representation of the groundwater system. The new model is three-dimensional and transient, and conceptualizes the county’s hydrogeology as a 12-layer system including all major unlithified and bedrock hydrostratigraphic units and two high-conductivity horizontal fracture zones.

  11. Comparison of ground-water flow model particle-tracking results and isotopic data in the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.; Stamos, C.L.; Nishikawa, T.; Martin, P.

    2004-01-01

    Flow-path and time-of-travel results for the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, calculated using the ground-water flow model MODFLOW and particle-tracking model MODPATH were similar to flow path and time-of-travel interpretations derived from delta-deuterium and carbon-14 data. Model and isotopic data both show short flow paths and young ground-water ages throughout the floodplain aquifer along most the Mojave River. Longer flow paths and older ground-water ages as great as 10,000 years before present were measured and simulated in the floodplain aquifer near the Mojave Valley. Model and isotopic data also show movement of water between the floodplain and regional aquifer and subsequent discharge of water from the river to dry lakes in some areas. It was not possible to simulate the isotopic composition of ground-water in the regional aquifer away from the front of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains - because recharge in these areas does not occur under the present-day climatic conditions used for calibration of the model.

  12. MODOPTIM: A general optimization program for ground-water flow model calibration and ground-water management with MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    MODOPTIM is a non-linear ground-water model calibration and management tool that simulates flow with MODFLOW-96 as a subroutine. A weighted sum-of-squares objective function defines optimal solutions for calibration and management problems. Water levels, discharges, water quality, subsidence, and pumping-lift costs are the five direct observation types that can be compared in MODOPTIM. Differences between direct observations of the same type can be compared to fit temporal changes and spatial gradients. Water levels in pumping wells, wellbore storage in the observation wells, and rotational translation of observation wells also can be compared. Negative and positive residuals can be weighted unequally so inequality constraints such as maximum chloride concentrations or minimum water levels can be incorporated in the objective function. Optimization parameters are defined with zones and parameter-weight matrices. Parameter change is estimated iteratively with a quasi-Newton algorithm and is constrained to a user-defined maximum parameter change per iteration. Parameters that are less sensitive than a user-defined threshold are not estimated. MODOPTIM facilitates testing more conceptual models by expediting calibration of each conceptual model. Examples of applying MODOPTIM to aquifer-test analysis, ground-water management, and parameter estimation problems are presented.

  13. Definition of boundary and initial conditions in the analysis of saturated ground-water flow systems; an introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O.L.; Reilly, T.E.; Bennett, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate definition of boundary and initial conditions is an essential part of conceptualizing and modeling ground-water flow systems. This report explains the properties of the seven most common boundary conditions encountered in ground-water systems and discusses major aspects of their application. It also discusses the significance and specification of initial conditions and evaluates some common errors in applying this concept to ground-water system models. (USGS)

  14. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

    2008-07-02

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913–1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  15. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Justet, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913-1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  16. A General Solution for Groundwater Flow in Estuarine Leaky Aquifer System with Considering Aquifer Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Chia; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the urban and industrial developments near the coastal area are rapid and therefore the associated population grows dramatically. More and more water demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on heavy pumping in coastal area. The decline of groundwater table may result in the problems of seawater intrusion and/or land subsidence. Since the 1950s, numerous studies focused on the effect of tidal fluctuation on the groundwater flow in the coastal area. Many studies concentrated on the developments of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) analytical solutions describing the tide-induced head fluctuations. For example, Jacob (1950) derived an analytical solution of 1D groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with a boundary condition subject to sinusoidal oscillation. Jiao and Tang (1999) derived a 1D analytical solution of a leaky confined aquifer by considered a constant groundwater head in the overlying unconfined aquifer. Jeng et al. (2002) studied the tidal propagation in a coupled unconfined and confined costal aquifer system. Sun (1997) presented a 2D solution for groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary. Tang and Jiao (2001) derived a 2D analytical solution in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water. This study aims at developing a general analytical solution describing the head fluctuations in a 2D estuarine aquifer system consisted of an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer, and an aquitard between them. Both the confined and unconfined aquifers are considered to be anisotropic. The predicted head fluctuations from this solution will compare with the simulation results from the MODFLOW program. In addition, the solutions mentioned above will be shown to be special cases of the present solution. Some hypothetical cases regarding the head fluctuation in costal aquifers will be made to investigate the dynamic effects of water table fluctuation, hydrogeological conditions, and

  17. TYBO/BENHAM: Model Analysis of Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration from Underground Nuclear Tests in Southwestern Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Wolfsberg; Lee Glascoe; Guoping Lu; Alyssa Olson; Peter Lichtner; Maureen McGraw; Terry Cherry; Guy Roemer

    2002-09-01

    Recent field studies have led to the discovery of trace quantities of plutonium originating from the BENHAM underground nuclear test in two groundwater observation wells on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. These observation wells are located 1.3 km from the BENHAM underground nuclear test and approximately 300 m from the TYBO underground nuclear test. In addition to plutonium, several other conservative (e.g. tritium) and reactive (e.g. cesium) radionuclides were found in both observation wells. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a well sampling a welded tuff aquifer more than 500m above the BENHAM emplacement depth. These measurements have prompted additional investigations to ascertain the mechanisms, processes, and conditions affecting subsurface radionuclide transport in Pahute Mesa groundwater. This report describes an integrated modeling approach used to simulate groundwater flow, radionuclide source release, and radionuclide transport near the BENHAM and TYBO underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. The components of the model include a flow model at a scale large enough to encompass many wells for calibration, a source-term model capable of predicting radionuclide releases to aquifers following complex processes associated with nonisothermal flow and glass dissolution, and site-scale transport models that consider migration of solutes and colloids in fractured volcanic rock. Although multiple modeling components contribute to the methodology presented in this report, they are coupled and yield results consistent with laboratory and field observations. Additionally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to provide insight into the relative importance of uncertainty ranges in the transport parameters.

  18. Comparison of groundwater flow model results and isotopic data in the Leon valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G.

    2013-12-01

    The study area is located in the State of Guanajuato, Northwest of the city of Mexico. Leon Valley has covered with groundwater its demand of water, estimated in 20.6 cubic meters per second. The constant increase of population and economic activities in the region have a constant growth in water needs. Related extraction rate has produced an average decrease of approximately 1.0 m per year over the past two decades. This suggests that the present management of the groundwater should be checked. Management of groundwater in the study area involves the possibility of producing environmental impacts by extraction. This vital resource under stress becomes necessary studying its hydrogeological functioning to achieve scientific management of groundwater in the Valley. This research was based on the analysis and integration of existing information and the field generated by the authors. Outstanding concepts were: i) the geological structure of the area, ii) hydraulic parameters and iii) composition of deuterium-delta and delta-oxygen - 18. This information has been fully analyzed by applying a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) and a particle tracking model (FLOWPATH): the results were similar to interpretations in terms of travel time and paths derived from isotopic data.

  19. Updated comparison of groundwater flow model results and isotopic data in the Leon Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Northwest of Mexico City, the study area is located in the State of Guanajuato. Leon Valley has covered with groundwater its demand of water, estimated in 20.6 cubic meters per second. The constant increase of population and economic activities in the region, mainly in cities and automobile factories, has also a constant growth in water needs. Related extraction rate has produced an average decrease of approximately 1.0 m per year over the past two decades. This suggests that the present management of the groundwater should be checked. Management of groundwater in the study area involves the possibility of producing environmental impacts by extraction. This vital resource under stress becomes necessary studying its hydrogeological functioning to achieve scientific management of groundwater in the Valley. This research was based on the analysis and integration of existing information and the field generated by the authors. On the base of updated concepts like the geological structure of the area, the hydraulic parameters and the composition of deuterium-delta and delta-oxygen -18, this research has new results. This information has been fully analyzed by applying a groundwater flow model with particle tracking: the result has also a similar result in terms of travel time and paths derived from isotopic data.

  20. Using groundwater temperature data to constrain parameter estimation in a groundwater flow model of a wetland system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, H.R.; Jiang, F.; Hunt, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimation is a powerful way to calibrate models. While head data alone are often insufficient to estimate unique parameters due to model nonuniqueness, flow-and-heat-transport modeling can constrain estimation and allow simultaneous estimation of boundary fluxes and hydraulic conductivity. In this work, synthetic and field models that did not converge when head data were used did converge when head and temperature were used. Furthermore, frequency domain analyses of head and temperature data allowed selection of appropriate modeling timescales. Inflows in the Wilton, Wisconsin, wetlands could be estimated over periods such as a growing season and over periods of a few days when heads were nearly steady and groundwater temperature varied during the day. While this methodology is computationally more demanding than traditional head calibration, the results gained are unobtainable using the traditional approach. These results suggest that temperature can efficiently supplement head data in systems where accurate flux calibration targets are unavailable.

  1. Investigation of groundwater flow paths through combined inversion of strontium isotope ratios and hydraulic head data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas M. Johnson

    1999-12-04

    Strontium (Sr) isotope and other geochemical data were collected for groundwater samples from the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These geochemical data provide strong evidence for slow and fast groundwater flow zones that had not been previously characterized. The geochemical data were combined with existing hydraulic head data in groundwater flow and transport models. These models enable quantitative extraction of flow information from the data (i.e., inversion of the data). This new approach and the implications for INEEL environmental activities will be reported in two journal articles. One submitted recently and a second in preparation.

  2. Modeling Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport in Fractured Aquifers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    1987. Wu, Yu-Shu, H.H. Liu, and G.S. Bodvarsson . "Effect of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada...34 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Paper LBNL-51848 (December 5, 2002). Wu, Y.S., H.H. Liu, and G.S. Bodvarsson . “A triple-continuum approach for

  3. Groundwater contributions of flow, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon to the lower San Joaquin River, California, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zamora, Celia; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Downing, Bryan D.; Russell, Ann D.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    groundwater samples collected from the in-stream wells as part of the synoptic surveys. Only 7 of the 113 cross-sectional transects had nitrate concentrations greater than 1 mg/L as N. In contrast, surface waters in the San Joaquin River tended to have nitrate concentrations in the 1–3 mg/L as N range. A zone of lower oxygen (less than 2 mg/L) in the streambed could limit nitrate contributions from regional groundwater flow because nitrate can be converted to nitrogen gas within this zone. Appreciable concentrations of ammonium (average concentration was 1.92 mg/L as N, and 95th percentile was 10.34 mg/L as N) in the shallow groundwater, believed to originate from anoxic mineralization of streambed sediments, could contribute nitrogen to the overlying stream as nitrate following in-stream nitrification, however. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were highly variable in the shallow groundwater below the river (1 to 6 ft below streambed) and generally ranged between 1 and 5 mg/L, but had maximum concentrations in the 15–25 mg/L range. The longitudinal profile surveys were not particularly useful in identifying groundwater discharge areas. However, the longitudinal approach described in this report was useful as a baseline survey of measured water-quality parameters and for identifying tributary inflows that affect surface-water concentrations of nitrate. Results of the calibrated MODFLOW model indicated that the simulated groundwater discharge rate was approximately 1.0 cubic foot per second per mile (cfs/mi), and the predominant horizontal groundwater flow direction between the deep bank wells was westward beneath the river. The modeled (VS2DH) flux values (river gain versus river loss) were calculated for the irrigation and non-irrigation season, and these fluxes were an order of magnitude less than those from MODFLOW. During the irrigation season, the average river gain was 0.11 cfs/mi, and the average river loss was −0.05 cfs/mi. During the non-irrigation season

  4. Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A. C.; Mendoza, C. A.

    2004-05-01

    Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that salts from the tailings water may discharge to newly placed reclamation material that covers the sand tailings. This saline discharge water could destroy the reclamation soil structure and negatively impact vegetation. The steady-state groundwater flow and transient movement of salts at the local (bench and slope) and intermediate (pile) scales in the SWSS are investigated. Water levels, seepage and groundwater quality (including TDS) have been measured for over a year along two transects of piezometers installed in the SWSS. The field data have been used to complete traditional hydrogeological interpretations of the site, and to develop a conceptual model of flow and transport. The local and intermediate flow systems and salt transport in the dam are being evaluated with numerical models. The models will allow possible future hydrogeological behaviour of the structure to be tested. Preliminary results show differences in flow systems and salinity distribution that depend on the deposition of the SWSS. This research will facilitate better long-term environmental management of this and similar sites.

  5. MODFLOW-Based Coupled Surface Water Routing and Groundwater-Flow Simulation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J D; Langevin, C D; White, J T

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible approach for simulating one- and two-dimensional routing of surface water using a numerical surface water routing (SWR) code implicitly coupled to the groundwater-flow process in MODFLOW. Surface water routing in SWR can be simulated using a diffusive-wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equations and/or a simplified level-pool approach. SWR can account for surface water flow controlled by backwater conditions caused by small water-surface gradients or surface water control structures. A number of typical surface water control structures, such as culverts, weirs, and gates, can be represented, and it is possible to implement operational rules to manage surface water stages and streamflow. The nonlinear system of surface water flow equations formulated in SWR is solved by using Newton methods and direct or iterative solvers. SWR was tested by simulating the (1) Lal axisymmetric overland flow, (2) V-catchment, and (3) modified Pinder-Sauer problems. Simulated results for these problems compare well with other published results and indicate that SWR provides accurate results for surface water-only and coupled surface water/groundwater problems. Results for an application of SWR and MODFLOW to the Snapper Creek area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA are also presented and demonstrate the value of coupled surface water and groundwater simulation in managed, low-relief coastal settings.

  6. Development and applications of two finite element groundwater flow and contaminant transport models: FEWA and FEMA

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.T.; Wong, K.V.; Craig, P.M.; Davis, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the construction, verification, and application of two groundwater flow and contaminant transport models: A Finite Element Model of Water Flow through Aquifers (FEWA) and A Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers (FEMA). The construction is based on the finite element approximation of partial differential equations of groundwater flow (FEWA) and of solute movement (FEMA). The particular features of FEWA and FEMA are their versatility and flexibility for dealing with nearly all vertically integrated two-dimensional problems. The models were verified against both analytical solutions and widely used US Geological Survey finite difference approximations. They were then applied for calibration and validation, using data obtained in experiments at the Engineering Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Results indicated that the models are valid for this specific site. To demonstrate the versatility anf flexibility of the models, they were applied to two hypothetical, but realistic, complex problems and three field sites across the United States. In these applications the models yielded good agreement with the field data for all three sites. Finally, the predictive capabilities of the models were demonstrated using data obtained at the Hialeah Preston site in Florida. This case illustrates the capability of FEWA and FEMA as predictive tools and their usefulness in the management of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. 25 refs.

  7. The age of groundwater in the Lincolnshire Limestone, England and its relevance to the flow mechanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downing, R.A.; Smith, D.B.; Pearson, F.J.; Monkhouse, R.A.; Otlet, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Groundwater samples from the Lincolnshire Limestone have been analysed for tritium, radiocarbon, and the stable-isotope ratios 13C 12C, 18O 16O and D/H. The age of the water increases in a downgradient direction below overlying confining deposits and reaches a maximum age greater than 25,000 years within 15 km of the outcrop. The ?? 13C ratio ultimately attains the unusually low negative values of -2??? in a downgradient direction; this is approaching that of the aquifer matrix which is +2.35???. The reason is believed to be exchange of carbon between the groundwater and the matrix by a continuous process of precipitation and further solution of calcium carbonate. The ?? 18O and ?? D ratios imply that recharge of the aquifer during the late Pleistocene took place in the spring and autumn rather than the winter as at present. The data are interpreted by assuming that movement of water through the saturated zone is a combination of flow in fissures and "piston flow" through the micro-fissures and pores of the rock. The mechanism of water movement in the saturated zone is dominated by relatively rapid flow in fissures, but the fissure flow includes a contribution of much older water from "intergranular" storage which enters the fissures from the rock matrix by pressure differentials in the fissure distribution system and by diffusion. The distribution of water of different ages in the aquifer is closely related to recent groundwater abstraction patterns. ?? 1977.

  8. MODFLOW-based coupled surface water routing and groundwater-flow simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; White, Jeremy T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible approach for simulating one- and two-dimensional routing of surface water using a numerical surface water routing (SWR) code implicitly coupled to the groundwater-flow process in MODFLOW. Surface water routing in SWR can be simulated using a diffusive-wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equations and/or a simplified level-pool approach. SWR can account for surface water flow controlled by backwater conditions caused by small water-surface gradients or surface water control structures. A number of typical surface water control structures, such as culverts, weirs, and gates, can be represented, and it is possible to implement operational rules to manage surface water stages and streamflow. The nonlinear system of surface water flow equations formulated in SWR is solved by using Newton methods and direct or iterative solvers. SWR was tested by simulating the (1) Lal axisymmetric overland flow, (2) V-catchment, and (3) modified Pinder-Sauer problems. Simulated results for these problems compare well with other published results and indicate that SWR provides accurate results for surface water-only and coupled surface water/groundwater problems. Results for an application of SWR and MODFLOW to the Snapper Creek area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA are also presented and demonstrate the value of coupled surface water and groundwater simulation in managed, low-relief coastal settings.

  9. Heterogeneous Heat Flow and Groundwater Effects on East Antarctic Ice Sheet Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, B. T.; Soderlund, K. M.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results numerical models describing the potential contributions groundwater and heterogeneous heat sources might have on ice dynamics. A two-phase, 1D hydrothermal model demonstrates the importance of groundwater flow in heat flux advection near the ice-bed interface. Typical, conservative vertical groundwater volume fluxes on the order of +/- 1-10 mm/yr can alter vertical heat flux by +/- 50-500 mW/m2 that could produce considerable volumes of meltwater depending on basin geometry and geothermal heat production. A 1D hydromechanical model demonstrates that during ice advance groundwater is mainly recharged into saturated sedimentary aquifers and during retreat groundwater discharges into the ice-bed interface, potentially contributing to subglacial water budgets on the order of 0.1-1 mm/yr during ice retreat. A map of most-likely elevated heat production provinces, estimated sedimentary basin depths, and radar-derived bed roughness are compared together to delineate areas of greatest potential to ice sheet instability in East Antarctica. Finally, a 2D numerical model of crustal fluid and heat flow typical to recently estimated sedimentary basins under the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is coupled to a 2.5D Full Stokes ice sheet model (with simple basal hydrology) to test for the sensitivity of hydrodynamic processes on ice sheet dynamics. Preliminary results show that the enhanced fluid flow can dramatically alter the basal heating of the ice and its temperature profile, as well as, the sliding rate, which heavily alter ice dynamics.

  10. Multivariate analyses with end-member mixing to characterize groundwater flow: Wind Cave and associated aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, A.J.; Valder, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to hydrochemical data has been used with end-member mixing to characterize groundwater flow to a limited extent, but aspects of this approach are unresolved. Previous similar approaches typically have assumed that the extreme-value samples identified by PCA represent end members. The method presented herein is different from previous work in that (1) end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior knowledge; (2) end-member mixing was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on major hydrologic processes; (3) a method to select an appropriate number of end members using a series of cluster analyses is presented; and (4) conservative tracers were weighted preferentially in model calibration, which distributed model errors of optimized values, or residuals, more appropriately than would otherwise be the case. The latter item also provides an estimate of the relative influence of geochemical evolution along flow paths in comparison to mixing. This method was applied to groundwater in Wind Cave and the associated karst aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. The end-member mixing model was used to test a hypothesis that five different end-member waters are mixed in the groundwater system comprising five hydrogeologic domains. The model estimated that Wind Cave received most of its groundwater inflow from local surface recharge with an additional 33% from an upgradient aquifer. Artesian springs in the vicinity of Wind Cave primarily received water from regional groundwater flow. ?? 2011.

  11. Simulation of groundwater flow in the shallow aquifer system of the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pope, Jason P.; Selnick, David L.; Stumvoll, Ryan F.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating future loadings of nitrogen to the Chesapeake Bay requires knowledge about the groundwater flow system and the traveltime of water and chemicals between recharge at the water table and the discharge to streams and directly to the bay. The Delmarva Peninsula has a relatively large proportion of its land devoted to agriculture and a large associated nitrogen load in groundwater that has the potential to enter the bay in discharging groundwater. To better understand the shallow aquifer system with respect to this loading and the traveltime to the bay, the U.S. Geological Survey constructed a steady-state groundwater flow model for the region. The model is based on estimates of recharge calculated using recently developed regression equations for evapotranspiration and surface runoff. The hydrogeologic framework incorporated into the model includes unconfined surficial aquifer sediments, as well as subcropping confined aquifers and confining beds down to 300 feet below land surface. The model was calibrated using 48 water-level measurements and 24 tracer-based ages from wells located across the peninsula. The resulting steady-state flow solution was used to estimate ages of water in the shallow aquifer system through the peninsula and the distribution and magnitude of groundwater traveltime from recharge at the water table to discharge in surface-water bodies (referred to as return time). Return times vary but are typically less than 10 years near local streams and greater than 100 years near the stream divides. The model can be used to calculate nitrate transport parameters in various local watersheds and predict future trends in nitrate loadings to Chesapeake Bay for different future nitrogen application scenarios.

  12. Numerical Analysis of Ground-Water Flow and Salinity in the Ewa Area, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward I.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    1996-01-01

    The coastal plain in the Ewa area of southwestern Oahu, Hawaii, is part of a larger, nearly continuous sedimentary coastal plain along Oahu's southern coast. The coastal sediments are collectively known as caprock because they impede the free discharge of ground water from the underlying volcanic aquifers. The caprock is a layered sedimentary system consisting of interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. Before sugarcane cultivation ended in late 1994, shallow ground water from the upper limestone unit, which is about 60 to 200 feet thick, was used primarily for irrigation of sugarcane. A cross-sectional ground-water flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in the Ewa area. Controls considered were: (1) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity, (2) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock, and (3) recharge. In addition, the effects of a marina excavation were evaluated. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by caprock stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of ground-water flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Model results also show that a reduction of recharge will result in increased salinity throughout the caprock with the greatest change in the upper limestone layer. In addition, the model indicates that excavation of an ocean marina will lower water levels in the upper limestone layer. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general ground-water flow pattern that would be expected in the layered sedimentary system in the Ewa caprock. Ground-water flow is: (1) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units, and (2) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units.

  13. Uncertainty analysis of a groundwater flow model in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Doherty, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A groundwater flow model for east-central Florida has been developed to help water-resource managers assess the impact of increased groundwater withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system on heads and spring flows originating from the Upper Floridan aquifer. The model provides a probabilistic description of predictions of interest to water-resource managers, given the uncertainty associated with system heterogeneity, the large number of input parameters, and a nonunique groundwater flow solution. The uncertainty associated with these predictions can then be considered in decisions with which the model has been designed to assist. The “Null Space Monte Carlo” method is a stochastic probabilistic approach used to generate a suite of several hundred parameter field realizations, each maintaining the model in a calibrated state, and each considered to be hydrogeologically plausible. The results presented herein indicate that the model’s capacity to predict changes in heads or spring flows that originate from increased groundwater withdrawals is considerably greater than its capacity to predict the absolute magnitudes of heads or spring flows. Furthermore, the capacity of the model to make predictions that are similar in location and in type to those in the calibration dataset exceeds its capacity to make predictions of different types at different locations. The quantification of these outcomes allows defensible use of the modeling process in support of future water-resources decisions. The model allows the decision-making process to recognize the uncertainties, and the spatial/temporal variability of uncertainties that are associated with predictions of future system behavior in a complex hydrogeological context.

  14. Ground-water flow in Melton Valley, Oak Ridge reservation, Roane County, Tennessee; preliminary model analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucci, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste has been practiced since 1951 in Melton Valley. Groundwater flow modeling was used to better understand the geohydrology of the valley, and to provide a foundation for future contaminant transport modeling. The three-dimensional, finite difference model simulates the aquifer as a two layer system that represents the regolith and bedrock. Transmissivities, which were adjusted during model calibration, range from 8 to 16 sq ft/day for the regolith, and from 0.2 to 1.5 sq ft/day for bedrock. An anisotropy ratio of 1:3 for strike-normal to strike-parallel transmissivity values, in conjunction with recharge rate = 6% of precipitation that is uniformly distributed over the model area, produces the best match between simulated and observed water levels. Simulated water levels generally compare well to observed or estimated 1978 groundwater conditions. Simulated water levels for the regolith for 39 of 69 comparison points are within +/- 10 ft of average 1978 levels. Simulated vertical flow components are in the observed direction for 9 of 11 comparison points. Preliminary simulations indicate that nearly all groundwater flow is within the regolith and discharges to either the Clinch River or the White Oak Creek-Melton Branch drainage systems. Less than 3% of the flow is between the regolith and bedrock, and < 1% of total groundwater flow discharges to the Clinch River through bedrock. Additional data needed to refine and further calibrate the model, include: (1) quantity and areal distribution of recharge; (2) water levels in the regolith near the model boundaries and beyond the Clinch River; (3) water levels and aquifer characteristics for bedrock; and (4) additional surface water data. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Dynamic groundwater flows and geochemistry in a sandy nearshore aquifer over a wave event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malott, Spencer; O'Carroll, Denis M.; Robinson, Clare E.

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic coastal forcing influences the transport of pollutants in nearshore aquifers and their ultimate flux to coastal waters. In this study, field data are presented that show, for the first time, the influence of a period of intensified wave conditions (wave event) on nearshore groundwater flows and geochemistry in a sandy beach. Field measurements at a freshwater beach allow wave effects to be quantified without other complex forcing that are present along marine shorelines (e.g., tides). Pressure transducer data obtained over an isolated wave event reveal the development of transient groundwater flow recirculations. The groundwater flows were simulated in FEFLOW using a phase-averaged wave setup approach to represent waves acting on the sediment-water interface. Comparison of measured and simulated data indicates that consideration of wave setup alone is able to adequately capture wave-induced perturbations in groundwater flows. While prior studies have shown sharp pH and redox spatial zonations in nearshore aquifers, this study reveals rapid temporal variations in conductivity, pH, and redox (ORP) in shallow sediments (up to 0.5 m depth) in response to varying wave conditions. Comparison of head gradients with calculated conductivity and pH mixing ratios indicates the controlling effect of the wave-induced water exchange and flows in driving the observed geochemical dynamics. While we are not able to conclusively determine the extent to which temporal variations are caused by conservative mixing versus reactive processes, the pH and ORP variations observed will have significant implications for the fate of reactive pollutants discharging through sandy nearshore aquifers.

  16. Geo-Hydro Statistical Characterization of Preferential Flow and Transport Processes in Karst Groundwater Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaya, A. A.; Padilla, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems are highly productive and provide an important fresh water resource for human development and ecological integrity. Their high productivity is often associated with conduit flow and high matrix permeability. The same characteristics that make these aquifers productive also make them highly vulnerable to contamination and a likely for contaminant exposure. Of particular interest are chlorinated organic contaminants and phthalates derived from industrial solvents and plastic by-products. These chemicals have been identified as potential precursors of pre-term birth, a leading cause of neonatal complications with a significant health and societal cost. The general objectives of this work are to: (1) develop fundamental knowledge and determine the processes controlling the release, mobility, persistence, and possible pathways of contaminants in karst groundwater systems, and (2) characterize transport processes in conduit and diffusion-dominated flow under base flow and storm flow conditions. The work presented herein focuses on the development of geo-hydro statistical tools to characterize flow and transport processes under different flow regimes. Multidimensional, laboratory-scale Geo-Hydrobed models were developed and tested for this purpose. The models consist of stainless-steel tanks containing karstified limestone blocks collected from the karst aquifer formation of northern Puerto Rico. The models a network of sampling wells to monitor flow, pressure, and solute concentrations temporally and spatially. Experimental work entailed making a series of point injections in wells while monitoring the hydraulic response in other wells. Statistical mixed models were applied to spatial probabilities of hydraulic response and weighted injected volume data, and were used to determinate the best spatial correlation structure to represent paths of preferential flow in the limestone units under different groundwater flow regimes. Preliminary testing

  17. Construction of a groundwater-flow model for the Big Sioux Aquifer using airborne electromagnetic methods, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Carter, Janet M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.

    2016-09-28

    The city of Sioux Falls is the fastest growing community in South Dakota. In response to this continued growth and planning for future development, Sioux Falls requires a sustainable supply of municipal water. Planning and managing sustainable groundwater supplies requires a thorough understanding of local groundwater resources. The Big Sioux aquifer consists of glacial outwash sands and gravels and is hydraulically connected to the Big Sioux River, which provided about 90 percent of the city’s source-water production in 2015. Managing sustainable groundwater supplies also requires an understanding of groundwater availability. An effective mechanism to inform water management decisions is the development and utilization of a groundwater-flow model. A groundwater-flow model provides a quantitative framework for synthesizing field information and conceptualizing hydrogeologic processes. These groundwater-flow models can support decision making processes by mapping and characterizing the aquifer. Accordingly, the city of Sioux Falls partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey to construct a groundwater-flow model. Model inputs will include data from advanced geophysical techniques, specifically airborne electromagnetic methods.

  18. Analytical solutions for solute transport in groundwater and riverine flow using Green's Function Method and pertinent coordinate transformation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanskrityayn, Abhishek; Suk, Heejun; Kumar, Naveen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, analytical solutions of one-dimensional pollutant transport originating from instantaneous and continuous point sources were developed in groundwater and riverine flow using both Green's Function Method (GFM) and pertinent coordinate transformation method. Dispersion coefficient and flow velocity are considered spatially and temporally dependent. The spatial dependence of the velocity is linear, non-homogeneous and that of dispersion coefficient is square of that of velocity, while the temporal dependence is considered linear, exponentially and asymptotically decelerating and accelerating. Our proposed analytical solutions are derived for three different situations depending on variations of dispersion coefficient and velocity, respectively which can represent real physical processes occurring in groundwater and riverine systems. First case refers to steady solute transport situation in steady flow in which dispersion coefficient and velocity are only spatially dependent. The second case represents transient solute transport in steady flow in which dispersion coefficient is spatially and temporally dependent while the velocity is spatially dependent. Finally, the third case indicates transient solute transport in unsteady flow in which both dispersion coefficient and velocity are spatially and temporally dependent. The present paper demonstrates the concentration distribution behavior from a point source in realistically occurring flow domains of hydrological systems including groundwater and riverine water in which the dispersivity of pollutant's mass is affected by heterogeneity of the medium as well as by other factors like velocity fluctuations, while velocity is influenced by water table slope and recharge rate. Such capabilities give the proposed method's superiority about application of various hydrological problems to be solved over other previously existing analytical solutions. Especially, to author's knowledge, any other solution doesn

  19. Water and rock geochemistry, geologic cross sections, geochemical modeling, and groundwater flow modeling for identifying the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed; Wirt, Laurie; Arnold, L. Rick; Horton, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) seeks additional information to better understand the source(s) of groundwater and associated groundwater flow paths to Montezuma Well in Montezuma Castle National Monument, central Arizona. The source of water to Montezuma Well, a flowing sinkhole in a desert setting, is poorly understood. Water emerges from the middle limestone facies of the lacustrine Verde Formation, but the precise origin of the water and its travel path are largely unknown. Some have proposed artesian flow to Montezuma Well through the Supai Formation, which is exposed along the eastern margin of the Verde Valley and underlies the Verde Formation. The groundwater recharge zone likely lies above the floor of the Verde Valley somewhere to the north or east of Montezuma Well, where precipitation is more abundant. Additional data from groundwater, surface water, and bedrock geology are required for Montezuma Well and the surrounding region to test the current conceptual ideas, to provide new details on the groundwater flow in the area, and to assist in future management decisions. The results of this research will provide information for long-term water resource management and the protection of water rights.

  20. [Groundwater].

    PubMed

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  1. Groundwater and surface water interaction in flow-through gravel pit lakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nella Mollema, Pauline; Antonellini, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Gravel pits are excavated in aquifers to fulfill the need for construction materials. Flow-through lakes form when the gravel pits are below the water table and fill with groundwater. In certain areas there are more than 60 of these lakes close together and their presence changes the drainage patterns and water- and hydrochemical budgets of a watershed. In flow-through gravel pit lakes, groundwater mixes with surface water and interacts with the atmosphere; outflow occurs only via groundwater. The lifespan of gravel pit lakes may be up to thousands of years as their depth to surface ratio is typically large and sedimentation rates are low. We have studied two gravel pit lake systems, a fluvial freshwater system in the Netherlands and a coastal brackish lake system in Italy. One Dutch gravel pit lake studied in detail is in part artificially replenished with Meuse River water for drinking water production that occurs downstream of the lake by water pumps. The Italian gravel pit lakes are fed by brackish groundwater that is a mix of freshwater from precipitation, Apennine Rivers and brackish (Holocene) Adriatic Sea water. Here, the drainage system of the low lying land enhances groundwater flow into the lake. Surface water evaporation is larger in temperate and Mediterranean climates than the actual evapotranspiration of pre-existing grassland and forests. The lakes, therefore, cause a loss of freshwater. The creation of water surfaces allows algae and other flora and fauna to develop. In general, water becomes gradually enriched in certain chemical constituents on its way through the hydrological cycle, especially as groundwater due to water-rock interactions. When groundwater ex-filtrates into gravel pit lakes, the natural flow of solutes towards the sea is interrupted. Hydrochemical analysis of ground- and surface waters, as well as chemical analysis of lake bottom sediments and stable H and O isotope data, show that gravel pit lake water is characterized (among

  2. Linking ground-water age and chemistry data along flow paths: Implications for trends and transformations of nitrate and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Saad, D.A.; Burow, K.R.; Frick, E.A.; Puckett, L.J.; Barbash, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Tracer-based ground-water ages, along with the concentrations of pesticides, nitrogen species, and other redox-active constituents, were used to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals along flow paths in diverse hydrogeologic settings. A range of conditions affecting the transformation of nitrate and pesticides (e.g., thickness of unsaturated zone, redox conditions) was examined at study sites in Georgia, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and California. Deethylatrazine (DEA), a transformation product of atrazine, was typically present at concentrations higher than those of atrazine at study sites with thick unsaturated zones but not at sites with thin unsaturated zones. Furthermore, the fraction of atrazine plus DEA that was present as DEA did not increase as a function of ground-water age. These findings suggest that atrazine degradation occurs primarily in the unsaturated zone with little or no degradation in the saturated zone. Similar observations were also made for metolachlor and alachlor. The fraction of the initial nitrate concentration found as excess N2 (N2 derived from denitrification) increased with ground-water age only at the North Carolina site, where oxic conditions were generally limited to the top 5??m of saturated thickness. Historical trends in fluxes to ground water were evaluated by relating the times of recharge of ground-water samples, estimated using chlorofluorocarbon concentrations, with concentrations of the parent compound at the time of recharge, estimated by summing the molar concentrations of the parent compound and its transformation products in the age-dated sample. Using this approach, nitrate concentrations were estimated to have increased markedly from 1960 to the present at all study sites. Trends in concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and their degradates were related to the timing of introduction and use of these compounds. Degradates, and to a lesser extent parent compounds, were detected

  3. Groundwater, springs, and stream flow generation in an alpine meadow of a tropical glacierized catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R.; Lautz, L. K.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Chavez, D.

    2013-12-01

    Melting tropical glaciers supply approximately half of dry season stream discharge in glacierized valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. The remainder of streamflow originates as groundwater stored in alpine meadows, moraines and talus slopes. A better understanding of the dynamics of alpine groundwater, including sources and contributions to streamflow, is important for making accurate estimates of glacial inputs to the hydrologic budget, and for our ability to make predictions about future water resources as glaciers retreat. Our field study, conducted during the dry season in the Llanganuco valley, focused on a 0.5-km2 alpine meadow complex at 4400 m elevation, which includes talus slopes, terminal moraines, and a debris fan. Two glacial lakes and springs throughout the complex feed a network of stream channels that flow across the meadow (~2 km total length). We combined tracer measurements of stream and spring discharge and groundwater-surface water exchange with synoptic sampling of water isotopic and geochemical composition, in order to characterize and quantify contributions to streamflow from different geomorphic features. Surface water inputs to the stream channels totaled 58 l/s, while the stream gained an additional 57 l/s from groundwater inputs. Water chemistry is primarily controlled by flowpath type (surface/subsurface) and length, as well as bedrock lithology, while stable water isotopic composition appears to be controlled by water source (glacial lake, meadow or deep groundwater). Stream water chemistry is most similar to meadow groundwater springs, but isotopic composition suggests that the majority of stream water, which issues from springs at the meadow/fan interface, is from the same glacial source as the up-gradient lake. Groundwater sampled from piezometers in confined meadow aquifers is unique in both chemistry and isotopic composition, but does not contribute a large percentage of stream water exiting this small meadow, as quantified by

  4. Three-dimensional inversion of self-potential data used to constrain the pattern of groundwater flow in geothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; BolèVe, A.; Dupont, J. P.

    2008-09-01

    We propose an algorithm to invert self-potential signals measured at the ground surface of the Earth to localize hydromechanical disturbances or to the pattern of groundwater flow in geothermal systems. The self-potential signals result from the divergence of the streaming current density. Groundwater flow can be either driven by topography of the water table, free convection, or deformation of the medium. The algorithm includes the electrical resistivity distribution of the medium obtained independently by DC resistance tomography or electromagnetic methods or by coding the assumed geology in terms of distribution of the electrical resistivity accounting for the effect of the temperature and salinity distributions and possibly constraints from borehole measurements. Inversion of the distribution of the source current density from ground surface and borehole self-potential measurements is achieved by solving the inverse problem using Tikhonov regularization solutions that are compatible with the physics of the primary flow problem. By introducing assumptions regarding the smoothness or the compactness of the source and the three-dimensional distribution of the electrical resistivity of the system, the inverse problem can be solved in obtaining the three-dimensional distribution of the current source density in the ground. However, an annihilator can be added to the inverted source geometry without affecting the measured self-potential field. Annihilators can be obtained from boundary conditions. Synthetic models and a sandbox experiment are discussed to demonstrate the validity of the algorithm. An application is presented to the geothermal field of Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, using literature data. Inversion of the self-potential and resistivity data allows observing a plume of hot groundwater rising to the ground surface in the central part of the investigated area and discharging to the ground surface in the southwest part. The temperature anomaly

  5. Chemical evolution of groundwater near a sinkhole lake, northern Florida--1. Flow patterns, age of groundwater, and influence of lakewater leakage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Lee, Terrie M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    1995-01-01

    Leakage from sinkhole lakes significantly influences recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in poorly confined sediments in northern Florida. Environmental isotopes (oxygen 18, deuterium, and tritium), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CCl3F; CFC-12, CCl2F2; and CFC-113, C2Cl3F3), and solute tracers were used to investigate groundwater flow patterns near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in a mantled karst setting in northern Florida. Stable isotope data indicated that the groundwater downgradient from the lake contained 11–67% lake water leakage, with a limit of detection of lake water in groundwater of 4.3%. The mixing fractions of lake water leakage, which passed through organic-rich sediments in the lake bottom, were directly proportional to the observed methane concentrations and increased with depth in the groundwater flow system. In aerobic groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco, CFC-modeled recharge dates ranged from 1987 near the water table to the mid 1970s for water collected at a depth of 30 m below the water table. CFC-modeled recharge dates (based on CFC-12) for anaerobic groundwater downgradient from the lake ranged from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s and were consistent with tritium data. CFC-modeled recharge dates based on CFC-11 indicated preferential microbial degradation in anoxic waters. Vertical hydraulic conductivities, calculated using CFC-12 modeled recharge dates and Darcy's law, were 0.17, 0.033, and 0.019 m/d for the surficial aquifer, intermediate confining unit, and lake sediments, respectively. These conductivities agreed closely with those used in the calibration of a three-dimensional groundwater flow model for transient and steady state flow conditions.

  6. Efficient conceptual framework to quantify flow uncertainty in large-scale, highly nonstationary groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Chuen-Fa; Li, Shu-Guang; Liu, Chien-Jung; Hsu, Shaohua Marko

    2010-02-01

    SummaryThis study presents a hybrid spectral method (HSM) to estimate flow uncertainty in large-scale highly nonstationary groundwater systems. Taking advantages of spectral theories in solving unmodeled small-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity, the proposed HSM integrates analytical and numerical spectral solutions in the calculation procedures to estimate flow uncertainty. More specifically, the HSM involves two major computational steps after the mean flow equation is solved. The first step is to apply an analytical-based approximate spectral method (ASM) to predict nonstationary flow variances for entire modeling area. The perturbation-based numerical method, nonstationary spectral method (NSM), is then employed in the second step to correct the regional solution in local areas, where the variance dynamics is considered to be highly nonstationary (e.g., around inner boundaries or strong sources/sinks). The boundary conditions for the localized numerical solutions are based on the ASM closed form solutions at boundary nodes. Since the regional closed form solution is instantaneous and the more expensive perturbation-based numerical analysis is only applied locally around the strong stresses, the proposed HSM can be very efficient, making it possible to model strongly nonstationary variance dynamics with complex flow situations in large-scale groundwater systems. In this study the analytical-based ASM solutions was first assessed to quantify the solution accuracy under transient and inner boundary flow conditions. This study then illustrated the HSM accuracy and effectiveness with two synthetic examples. The HSM solutions were systematically compared with the corresponding numerical solutions of NSM and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), and the analytical-based solutions of ASM. The simulation results have revealed that the HSM is computationally efficient and can provide accurate variance estimations for highly nonstationary large-scale groundwater flow

  7. Heat flow and subsurface temperature as evidence for basin-scale ground-water flow, North Slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deming, D.; Sass, J.H.; Lachenbruch, A.H.; De Rito, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Several high-resolution temperature logs were made in each of 21 drillholes and a total of 601 thermal conductivity measurements were made on drill cuttings and cores. Near-surface heat flow (??20%) is inversely correlated with elevation and ranges from a low of 27 mW/m2 in the foothills of the Brooks Range in the south, to a high of 90 mW/m2 near the north coast. Subsurface temperatures and thermal gradients estimated from corrected BHTs are similarly much higher on the coastal plain than in the foothills province to the south. Significant east-west variation in heat flow and subsurface temperature is also observed; higher heat flow and temperature coincide with higher basement topography. The observed thermal pattern is consistent with forced convection by a topographically driven ground-water flow system. Average ground-water (Darcy) velocity in the postulated flow system is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 m/yr; the effective basin-scale permeability is estimated to be of the order of 10-14 m2. -from Authors

  8. Groundwater flow evaluation through backfilling materials of a surface coal mining site of Northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Ojeda, C.; Martínez-Morales, M.; Ortíz-Flores, G.

    2013-05-01

    Surface coal mining at the Allende-Piedras Negras aquifer system requires the complete dewatering and removal of the aquifer. The aquifer contains several geologic layers of variable hydraulic conductivity. Backfilling material is composed of a mixture of permeable and impermeable layers and it was initially considered as impermeable. Exploratory drillings, pumping tests and a geophysical survey were performed in the backfilling materials and the surrounding unaltered materials in order to evaluate the natural groundwater flow modification due to the mining activities. Results of geophysical survey evidenced a saturated water table within the back filling material which was verified by exploratory drilling. Pumping tests showed that unaltered materials have a mean hydraulic conductivity of 34.5 m/day while the backfilling of 5.3 m/day. Although the mining activities reduce the hydraulic conductivity by almost an order of magnitude, it was corroborated the existence of a groundwater flow through the backfilling materials.

  9. Automatic Time Stepping with Global Error Control for Groundwater Flow Models

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Guoping

    2008-09-01

    An automatic time stepping with global error control is proposed for the time integration of the diffusion equation to simulate groundwater flow in confined aquifers. The scheme is based on an a posteriori error estimate for the discontinuous Galerkin (dG) finite element methods. A stability factor is involved in the error estimate and it is used to adapt the time step and control the global temporal error for the backward difference method. The stability factor can be estimated by solving a dual problem. The stability factor is not sensitive to the accuracy of the dual solution and the overhead computational cost can be minimized by solving the dual problem using large time steps. Numerical experiments are conducted to show the application and the performance of the automatic time stepping scheme. Implementation of the scheme can lead to improvement in accuracy and efficiency for groundwater flow models.

  10. A scalable approach to modeling groundwater flow on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1995-12-01

    We describe a fully scalable approach to the simulation of groundwater flow on a hierarchy of computing platforms, ranging from workstations to massively parallel computers. Specifically, we advocate the use of scalable conceptual models in which the subsurface model is defined independently of the computational grid on which the simulation takes place. We also describe a scalable multigrid algorithm for computing the groundwater flow velocities. We axe thus able to leverage both the engineer`s time spent developing the conceptual model and the computing resources used in the numerical simulation. We have successfully employed this approach at the LLNL site, where we have run simulations ranging in size from just a few thousand spatial zones (on workstations) to more than eight million spatial zones (on the CRAY T3D)-all using the same conceptual model.

  11. Vertical groundwater flow estimated from the bomb pulse of 36Cl and tritiogenic 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahara, Y.; Ohta, T.

    2011-12-01

    The boring well was approximately excavated to 400 m depth from the ground surface on the tableland in the Central Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Collecting pore-water, some fresh boring cores were sampled on the site during the excavation of borehole. Samples of groundwater were collected by using the sampling device with the water inflating packer system to protect various contaminations, after excavating the borehole. The atmospheric maximum concentration in bomb pulse in the northern hemisphere was reported to observe in 1955 for 36Cl and in 1963 for 3H, respectively. Since the half-life of 36Cl is much longer than 3H, the decay loss of 36Cl was negligible small for a short time until sampling groundwater in 2001 and 2003. On the other hand, the half-life of 3H is very short compared with that of 36Cl. Most of 3H was converted into the tritiogenic 3He in groundwater for the past 38 years after rainwater infiltrating toward the groundwater table. Profiles of dissolved 4He concentration, tritiogenic 3He and 36Cl/Cl ratio were observed in groundwater of the borehole. The total dissolved 4He concentration ranged from 5.8×10-8 at the ground surface to 7.5×10-8 ccSTP/g at the depth of 200 m below the ground surface and it was almost equilibrated with the atmospheric 4He in pore-water (Fig. 1). The bomb pulses of tritiogenic 3He and 36Cl were left from the depth of 101 m below the ground surface to the depth of 132 m, respectively (Figs. 2 and 3). There was a slight difference in the location between the bomb pulse of 36Cl and that of tritiogenic 3He. The downward flow velocity of groundwater were simply estimated to be 2.8 m/y from the marked position of bomb pulse in the profile of 36Cl/Cl ratio and to be 2.7 m/y from the position of the bomb pulse peak of tritiogenic 3He, separately. These two rough estimations were good agreed with each other. The estimation suggests that the vertical flow of groundwater on the tableland is approximated with the downward piston

  12. Coupled modeling of groundwater flow solute transport, chemical reactions and microbial processes in the 'SP' island

    SciTech Connect

    Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorg; Changbing, Yang; Zhang, Guoxiang

    2003-12-01

    The Redox Zone Experiment was carried out at the Aespoe HRL in order to study the redox behavior and the hydrochemistry of an isolated vertical fracture zone disturbed by the excavation of an access tunnel. Overall results and interpretation of the Redox Zone Project were reported by /Banwart et al, 1995/. Later, /Banwart et al, 1999/ presented a summary of the hydrochemistry of the Redox Zone Experiment. Coupled groundwater flow and reactive transport models of this experiment were carried out by /Molinero, 2000/ who proposed a revised conceptual model for the hydrogeology of the Redox Zone Experiment which could explain simultaneously measured drawdown and salinity data. The numerical model was found useful to understand the natural system. Several conclusions were drawn about the redox conditions of recharge waters, cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and the role of mineral phases such as pyrite, calcite, hematite and goethite. This model could reproduce the measured trends of dissolved species, except for bicarbonate and sulfate which are affected by microbially-mediated processes. In order to explore the role of microbial processes, a coupled numerical model has been constructed which accounts for water flow, reactive transport and microbial processes. The results of this model is presented in this report. This model accounts for groundwater flow and reactive transport in a manner similar to that of /Molinero, 2000/ and extends the preliminary microbial model of /Zhang, 2001/ by accounting for microbially-driven organic matter fermentation and organic matter oxidation. This updated microbial model considers simultaneously the fermentation of particulate organic matter by yeast and the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, a product of fermentation. Dissolved organic matter is produced by yeast and serves also as a substrate for iron-reducing bacteria. Model results reproduce the observed increase in bicarbonate and sulfate concentration, thus

  13. Description and Evaluation of Numerical Groundwater Flow Models for the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Richard J.; Taylor, Charles J.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2009-01-01

    A substantial number of public water system wells in south-central Texas withdraw groundwater from the karstic, highly productive Edwards aquifer. However, the use of numerical groundwater flow models to aid in the delineation of contributing areas for public water system wells in the Edwards aquifer is problematic because of the complex hydrogeologic framework and the presence of conduit-dominated flow paths in the aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, evaluated six published numerical groundwater flow models (all deterministic) that have been developed for the Edwards aquifer San Antonio segment or Barton Springs segment, or both. This report describes the models developed and evaluates each with respect to accessibility and ease of use, range of conditions simulated, accuracy of simulations, agreement with dye-tracer tests, and limitations of the models. These models are (1) GWSIM model of the San Antonio segment, a FORTRAN computer-model code that pre-dates the development of MODFLOW; (2) MODFLOW conduit-flow model of San Antonio and Barton Springs segments; (3) MODFLOW diffuse-flow model of San Antonio and Barton Springs segments; (4) MODFLOW Groundwater Availability Modeling [GAM] model of the Barton Springs segment; (5) MODFLOW recalibrated GAM model of the Barton Springs segment; and (6) MODFLOW-DCM (dual conductivity model) conduit model of the Barton Springs segment. The GWSIM model code is not commercially available, is limited in its application to the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and lacks the ability of MODFLOW to easily incorporate newly developed processes and packages to better simulate hydrologic processes. MODFLOW is a widely used and tested code for numerical modeling of groundwater flow, is well documented, and is in the public domain. These attributes make MODFLOW a preferred code with regard to accessibility and ease of use. The MODFLOW conduit-flow model

  14. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, Pennsauken Township and vicinity, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.; Watt, Martha K.

    2004-01-01

    The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is one of the primary sources of potable water in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, particularly in heavily developed areas along the Delaware River. In Pennsauken Township, Camden County, local drinking-water supplies from this aquifer system have been contaminated by hexavalent chromium at concentrations that exceed the New Jersey maximum contaminant level. In particular, ground water at the Puchack well field has been adversely affected to the point where, since 1984, water is no longer withdrawn from this well field for public supply. The area that contains the Puchack well field was added to the National Priorities List in 1998 as a Superfund site. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a reconnaissance study from 1996 to 1998 during which hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected and a ground-water-flow model was developed to describe the conditions in the aquifer system in the Pennsauken Township area. The current investigation by the USGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), is an extension of the previous study. Results of the current study can be applied to a Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study conducted at the Puchack well field Superfund site. The USGS study collected additional data on the hydrogeology and water-quality in the area. These data were incorporated into a refined model of the ground-water-flow system in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. A finite-difference model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and the advective transport of chromium-contaminated ground water in the aquifers of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the Pennsauken Township area. An 11-layer model was used to represent the complex hydrogeologic framework. The model was calibrated using steady-state water-level data from March 1998, April 1998, and April 2001. Water-level recovery during the shutdown of Puchack 1 during March to April 1998 was

  15. A comparison of several methods of solving nonlinear regression groundwater flow problems.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Computational efficiency and computer memory requirements for four methods of minimizing functions were compared for four test nonlinear-regression steady state groundwater flow problems. The fastest methods were the Marquardt and quasi-linearization methods, which required almost identical computer times and numbers of iterations; the next fastest was the quasi-Newton method, and last was the Fletcher-Reeves method, which did not converge in 100 iterations for two of the problems.-from Author

  16. POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF FAULTS ON GROUNDWATER FLOW FOR THE YUCCA FLAT BASIN, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. P.; Fryer, W.

    2009-12-01

    The permeability changes resulting from finely comminuted material in fault cores and the fractured and brecciated rock in fault damage zones allows faults to channelize groundwater flow along the plane of the fault. The efficiency of faults as permeability structures depends on fault zone width, fault offset, depth at which the fault developed, type of faulted rock, extent of secondary mineralization, and fault orientation within current stress field. Studies of faulted volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicate that fault zone width and brecciation increase with fault offset, that faulted welded tuff is more permeable than nonwelded or bedded tuff, and that non-hydrothermal secondary mineralization commonly diminishes fracture permeability. These results are applied to the groundwater conceptual flow model for Yucca Flat (YF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Yucca Flat contains Tertiary volcanic rocks similar to thoise at Yucca Mountain deposited on Paleozoic carbonate rocks whose thickness is increased by local thrust-faults. The YF basin contains north-striking normal faults and is bordered by southwest-striking strike-slip faults to the south and east. Fault permeability values derived from faulted volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain suggests that major normal faults in Yucca Flat potentially manifest permeability values along the fault plane equal to the highest values determined for volcanic aquifers. Numerous minor faults not assigned specific permeability values are assumed to imbue the basin with a hydraulic anisotropy favoring fault-parallel flow. In this scenario groundwater flows generally from north to south in the Yucca Flat basin, even as the head gradient is primarily towards the centrally located Yucca Fault, which acts as the main subsurface drainage feature within the basin. Studies show that the regional stress field has rotated clockwise such that southwest-striking strike-slip faults are currently under tension. In this scenario these

  17. Phytoremediation of explosives contaminated groundwater in constructed wetlands: 2. Flow through study. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    DBehrends, L.L.; Sikora, F.J.; Phillips, W.D.; Baily, E.; McDonald, C.

    1996-02-01

    This study evaluates the utility of constructed wetlands for remediating explosives contaminated groundwaters using bench scale flow-through type reactors. Specifially the study examines: the degradation of TNT, TNB, RDX, and HMX in contaminated waters in plant lagoons and gravel-based wetlands. The study also provides design recommendations for the wetland demonstration project to be located at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP), in Tennessee.

  18. Tracer Tests in the Fractured Rock to Investigate Preferential Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, W.; Chung, L.; Lee, T.; Liu, C.; Chia, Y.; Teng, M.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic tests are often used to obtain hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer. Test results usually reflect the average hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding strat. However, in fractured rock, groundwater flows primarily through a few fractures. Saltwater tracer test can be used to detect the direction of groundwater flow, but it was difficult to know the hydraulic connectivity between fractures. In this study, we use a variety of field tests, including tracer test, hydraulic test, and heat-pulse flowmeter test, to locate the permeable fractures and detect the hydraulic connections between boreholes. There are eight test wells and two observation wells on field experimental site in central Taiwan. Geological survey results show that there are at least three sets of joint planes. In order to realize the location of the preferential pathway of groundwater flow, heat-pulse flowmeter measurement was adopted to identify the depth of permeable fractures. Multi-well pumping test was also performed to investigate the hydraulic connectivity between these wells. Tracer tests were then used to detect the hydraulic connectivity of permeable fractures between two wells. Injection of nano zero valent iron in one well and and collection of iron tracer with a magnet array in the other well can specifically locate the permeable fracture and determine the connectivity. Saltwater tracer test result can be used to support that of nano-iron tracer test, and verify the relationship between well water conductivity increases and rock fracture location. The results show that tracer test is a useful tool to investigate the preferential groundwater flow in the fractured rock, but it is essential to flush the mud in fractures prior to the test.

  19. Groundwater flow speed measurement using an electrolyte antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, J. B.; Schumer, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most hydrogeophysical methods focus on subsurface structure, water content, and other properties that can be used to infer flow properties, but only the combination of self-potential and resistivity has thus far been used to estimate water flux. Exploiting the inverse relationship between the length of a wire antenna and its electrical resonant frequency, an aqueous electrolyte solution can be injected into a borehole, and the rate at which the leading edge of the plume advances can be determined by measuring the time-rate-of-change of the plume's electrical resonant frequency using a commercial antenna analyzer. Experiments were conducted to calibrate the relationship between the electrical resonant frequency of the electrolyte plume and its physical length in water-saturated porous media. Length-versus-resonant-frequency calibration obtained from measurements on wires housed in buried conduits representing preferential flow paths through a model aquifer exhibit close agreement with theoretical predictions based on theory describing the behavior of wire antennas in air. The advantages of this method for subsurface characterization include that it is 1) deployable by one person, 2) not dependent on inversion methods, 3) effective in a single borehole, and 4) not scale dependent.

  20. Ground-water flow in the New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Flow was simulated in 10 aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain using a multilayer finite-difference model for prepumping steady-state conditions and transient conditions from 1896-1981. The highest transmissivity, greater than 10,000 sq ft/day, is in Camden and Gloucester Counties in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers; Monmouth and Ocean Counties in the middle aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan Magothy aquifer system; and Ocean, Burlington, Atlantic, and Cape May Counties in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Confining unit leakance is highest, > than 0.001 ft/day/ft in updip areas and lowest, < 0.00001 ft/day/ft, in downdip areas. Areas near the center of the major cones of depression approximate steady-state conditions. However, downdip and offshore areas are under transient conditions. Simulated head changes along the saltwater- freshwater interface boundary indicate that the lower aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system and the confined Kirkwood aquifer have the greatest potential for updip movement of chlorides. The simulated sources of water to wells in 1978 include: (1) 3% from aquifer storage; (2) 3% from boundary flows; (3) 4% from the ocean and bays; and (4) 90% from streamflow. (USGS)

  1. Can chlorofluorocarbon sorption to black carbon (char) affect groundwater age determinations?

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Allen-King, Richelle M

    2010-06-15

    Although adsorption is not generally considered important in low f(oc) (fraction organic carbon) aquifers, we show that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) adsorption to black carbon (BC) is sufficiently large to retard transport and affect groundwater ages obtained with CFCs. Sorption isotherms of CFC-11, -12, and -113 to synthetic wood char were nonlinear (Freundlich n = 0.71-0.94) while humic acid isotherms were linear. Moreover, sorption to char was 10-1000 times greater than to humic acid for all three CFCs at the lowest observed concentrations, C(w)/S approximately 10(-8)-10(-7). We used the observed isotherms for char and humic acid to represent sorption to BC and amorphous organic matter, respectively, in a dual mode model to estimate retardation factors for a low f(oc) aquifer (= 0.06% gC g(-1)). The estimated retardation factors for the char-containing aquifer (presumed BC fraction = 9% of f(oc)) were approximately 6.8-10.6 at C(w)/S = 10(-8) and >5 times those estimated assuming amorphous organic matter partitioning only. The results indicate that unless CFC adsorption to BC is evaluated in transport, the groundwater age determined may be biased toward older than true ages. The CFC data archived in BC-containing aquifers may contain information about its adsorbent properties that could be useful to predict retardation of other chlorinated organic contaminants.

  2. Investigation of uranium geochemistry along groundwater flow path in the Continental Intercalaire aquifer (Southern Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Dhaoui, Z; Chkir, N; Zouari, K; Ammar, F Hadj; Agoune, A

    2016-06-01

    Environmental tracers ((2)H, (18)O, isotopes of Uranium) and geochemical processes occurring within groundwaters from the Continental Intercalaire (CI) in Southern Tunisia were used to understand the hydrodynamics and the recharge conditions of this aquifer. This study investigates the chemical and isotopic compositions of the CI groundwater. The water types are dominated by Na(+), SO4(2-), Cl(-) throughout most of the basin with a general increase in total dissolved solids from the Saharan Platform margins towards the Chotts region. Large scale groundwater flow paths are toward the Chotts region. The stable isotopes composition of the analyzed groundwater ranges from -8.8 to -6‰ vs V-SMOW for δ(18)O and from -67 to -40‰ vs V-SMOW for δ(2)H. The relatively enriched stable isotopes contents suggest the contribution of the Dahar sandstones outcrops in the current recharge of the CI aquifer in an arid context. However, the most depleted values in heavy isotopes indicate a paleorecharge of the aquifer under wetter conditions revealing a long residence time of groundwaters. The results from water samples using alpha spectrometry method indicate a range in (238)U concentrations and (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR) of 0.044-1.285 μg kg(-1) and 1.2 to 8.84 respectively. The geochemistry of uranium isotopes in groundwater is controlled by many factors, essentially, the influence of water rock interactions, the preferential dissolution of (234)U relative to (238)U due to alpha recoil and the mixing processes between different waters with distinct AR as well as (238)U concentrations.

  3. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciani, Giulia; Sappa, Giuseppe; Cella, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    They are presented the results of a groundwater modeling study on the Coastal Aquifer of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Dar es Salaam is one of the fastest-growing coastal cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, with with more than 4 million of inhabitants and a population growth rate of about 8 per cent per year. The city faces periodic water shortages, due to the lack of an adequate water supply network. These two factors have determined, in the last ten years, an increasing demand of groundwater exploitation, carried on by quite a number of private wells, which have been drilled to satisfy human demand. A steady-state three dimensional groundwater model has been set up by the MODFLOW code, and calibrated with the UCODE code for inverse modeling. The aim of the model was to carry out a characterization of groundwater flow system in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain. The inputs applied to the model included net recharge rate, calculated from time series of precipitation data (1961-2012), estimations of average groundwater extraction, and estimations of groundwater recharge, coming from zones, outside the area under study. Parametrization of the hydraulic conductivities was realized referring to the main geological features of the study area, based on available literature data and information. Boundary conditions were assigned based on hydrogeological boundaries. The conceptual model was defined in subsequent steps, which added some hydrogeological features and excluded other ones. Calibration was performed with UCODE 2014, using 76 measures of hydraulic head, taken in 2012 referred to the same season. Data were weighted on the basis of the expected errors. Sensitivity analysis of data was performed during calibration, and permitted to identify which parameters were possible to be estimated, and which data could support parameters estimation. Calibration was evaluated based on statistical index, maps of error distribution and test of independence of residuals. Further model

  4. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  5. Simulation of groundwater flow in a volatile organic compound-contaminated area near Bethpage, Nassau County, New York-A discussion of modeling considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misut, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Bethpage groundwater-flow model (ARCADIS, 2010) was based on a steady state assumption. Although it is widely acknowledged that significant water-level changes have occurred in the past, the reviewed model does not represent changing water levels. The steady state approach limits the effectiveness of the following: 1. identification of sources of contamination, 2. analysis of model accuracy, 3. model calibration, and 4. simulations of future scenarios. Future plume movement was simulated in an incomplete manner through an unchanging groundwater-flow field. Available time-series information on temporal variation of factors affecting groundwater-flow dynamics includes: 1. public-supply pumping, 2. groundwater discharges from systems remediating volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes, 3. recharge and precipitation rates, and 4. water levels and streamflows. Transient phenomena that might be useful in future hypothetical simulations include pumping variations, redirection of containment-system waters for industrial use, and climate-change scenarios. Public-domain computer programs, U.S. Geological Survey guidance reports on transient-state calibration and uncertainty methods (Doherty and Hunt, 2010), and additional local and regional datasets are available to provide additional confidence in model evaluations and allow better evaluation of their limitations.

  6. Evaluation of ground-water flow by particle tracking, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Sheets, R.A.; Schalk, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) began a Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) in 1992. The purpose of the BMP was to establish a long-term ground-water and surface- water sampling network in order to (1) characterize current ground-water and surface-water quality; (2) describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits Base boundaries; (3) conduct statistical analyses of water quality; and (4) estimate the effect of WPAFB on regional water quality. As part of the BMP, the USGS conducted ground-water particle-tracking analyses based on a ground-water-flow model produced during a previous USGS study. This report briefly describes the previous USGS study, the inherent assumptions of particle-tracking analyses, and information on the regional ground-water-flow field as inferred from particle pathlines. Pathlines for particles placed at the Base boundary and particles placed within identified Installation Restoration Program sites are described.

  7. Grid refinement in Cartesian coordinates for groundwater flow models using the divergence theorem and Taylor's series.

    PubMed

    Mansour, M M; Spink, A E F

    2013-01-01

    Grid refinement is introduced in a numerical groundwater model to increase the accuracy of the solution over local areas without compromising the run time of the model. Numerical methods developed for grid refinement suffered certain drawbacks, for example, deficiencies in the implemented interpolation technique; the non-reciprocity in head calculations or flow calculations; lack of accuracy resulting from high truncation errors, and numerical problems resulting from the construction of elongated meshes. A refinement scheme based on the divergence theorem and Taylor's expansions is presented in this article. This scheme is based on the work of De Marsily (1986) but includes more terms of the Taylor's series to improve the numerical solution. In this scheme, flow reciprocity is maintained and high order of refinement was achievable. The new numerical method is applied to simulate groundwater flows in homogeneous and heterogeneous confined aquifers. It produced results with acceptable degrees of accuracy. This method shows the potential for its application to solving groundwater heads over nested meshes with irregular shapes.

  8. Simulation of ground-water flow in aquifers along the Susquehanna River in Columbia County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.H.; Senko, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical model of groundwater flow was developed for a 10.3 sq mi area along the Susquehanna River in Columbia County, east central Pennsylvania. Groundwater in the model area primarily is in secondary openings in the carbonate--and clastic-rock aquifers and primary openings in the glacial-outwash aquifer that discontinuously overlies bedrock. The groundwater flow model was calibrated under average steady-state conditions for 1981. The simulated 1981 water budget indicates an average inflow rate of 7.24 cu ft/sec. Of this, 93% is recharge from precipitation and 6.6% is boundary flow. 62% of the outflow is leakage to streams, 21% to pumpage, and 17% to evapotranspiration. The model was calibrated under transient conditions for December 22, 1980 through April 21, 1982. Water level fluctuations caused by natural stresses were more successfully simulated than those caused by pumping stresses. Three 10-year, hypothetical stress periods were simulated with the calibrated, transient model. The general impact of three pumping schemes under hypothetical drought and drought-recovery conditions were simulated. (USGS)

  9. Inferring shallow groundwater flow in saprolite and fractured rock using environmental tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, P.G.; Solomon, D.K.; Sanford, W.E.; Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Poreda, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Ridge and Valley Province of eastern Tennessee is characterized by (1) substantial topographic relief, (2) folded and highly fractured rocks of various lithologies that have low primary permeability and porosity, and (3) a shallow residuum of medium permeability and high total porosity. Conceptual models of shallow groundwater flow and solute transport in this system have been developed but are difficult to evaluate using physical characterization or short-term tracer methods due to extreme spatial variability in hydraulic properties. In this paper we describe how chlorofluorocarbon 12, 3H, and 3He were used to infer groundwater flow and solute transport in saprolite and fractured rock near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the shallow residuum, fracture spacings are <0.05 m, suggesting that concentrations of these tracers in fractures and in the matrix have time to diffusionally equilibrate. The relatively smooth nature of tracer concentrations with depth in the residuum is consistent with this model and quantitatively suggests recharge fluxes of 0.2 to 0.4 m yr-. In contrast, groundwater flow within the unweathered rock appears to be controlled by fractures with spacings of the order of 2 to 5 m, and diffusional equilibration of fractures and matrix has not occurred. For this reason, vertical fluid fluxes in the unweathered rock cannot be estimated from the tracer data.

  10. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  11. Partitioning groundwater recharge between rainfall infiltration and irrigation return flows using stable isotopes: the Crau aquifer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraphin, Pierre; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Gonçalvès, Julio

    2016-04-01

    Traditional flood irrigation is used since the 16th century in the Crau plain (Southern France) for hay production. To supply this high consuming irrigation practice, water is diverted from the Durance River, originating from the Alps, and the large amount of irrigation return flows constitutes the main recharge of the Crau aquifer, which is in turn largely exploited for domestic, industrial and agricultural water use. A possible reduction of irrigation fluxes due to a need of water saving or to a future land-use change could endanger the groundwater resource. A robust quantification of the groundwater mass balance is thus required to assess a sustainable water management in the region. The high isotopic contrast between these exogenous irrigation waters and local precipitations allows the use of stable isotopes of water as conservative tracers to deduce their contributions to the surface recharge. An extensive groundwater sampling was performed to obtain δ18O and δ2H over the whole aquifer. Based on a new piezometric contour map, combined with a reestimate of the aquifer geometry, the isotopic data are implemented in a geostatistical approach to produce a conceptual equivalent-homogeneous reservoir, in order to apply a simple water and isotope mass balance mixing model. The isotopic composition of the two end-members is assessed, and the quantification of groundwater flows is then used to calculate the two recharge fluxes. Near to steady-state condition, the set of isotopic data treated by geostatistics leads to a recharge by irrigation of 5.20 ± 0.93 m3 s-1 i.e. 1173 ± 210 mm yr-1, and a natural recharge of 2.26 ± 0.91 m3 s-1 i.e. 132 ± 53 mm yr-1. Thus, 70 ± 9% of the effective surface recharge comes from the irrigation return flow, consistent with the literature (between 67% and 78%). This study constitutes a straightforward and independent approach to assess groundwater surface recharges with uncertainties and will help to constrain a future transient

  12. Estimating evapotranspiration and groundwater flow from water-table fluctuations for a general wetland scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migration_USER, IPDS; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of diurnal water-table fluctuation methods to calculate evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater flow is of increasing interest in ecohydrological studies. Most studies of this type, however, have been located in riparian wetlands of semi-arid regions where groundwater levels are consistently below topographic surface elevations and precipitation events are infrequent. Current methodologies preclude application to a wider variety of wetland systems. In this study, we extended a method for estimating sub-daily ET and groundwater flow rates from water-level fluctuations to fit highly dynamic, non-riparian wetland scenarios. Modifications included (1) varying the specific yield to account for periodic flooded conditions and (2) relating empirically derived ET to estimated potential ET for days when precipitation events masked the diurnal signal. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we estimated ET and groundwater fluxes over two growing seasons (2006–2007) in 15 wetlands within a ridge-and-swale wetland complex of the Laurentian Great Lakes under flooded and non-flooded conditions. Mean daily ET rates for the sites ranged from 4.0 mm d−1 to 6.6 mm d−1. Shallow groundwater discharge rates resulting from evaporative demand ranged from 2.5 mm d−1 to 4.3 mm d−1. This study helps to expand our understanding of the evapotranspirative demand of plants under various hydrologic and climate conditions. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. wrv: An R Package for Groundwater Flow Model Construction, Wood River Valley Aquifer System, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater models are one of the main tools used in the hydrogeological sciences to assess resources and to simulate possible effects from future water demands and changes in climate. The hydrological inputs to groundwater models can be numerous and can vary in both time and space. Difficulties associated with model construction are often related to extensive datasets and cumbersome data processing tasks. To mitigate these difficulties, a graphical user interface (GUI) is often employed to aid the input of data for creating models. Unfortunately, GUI software presents an obstacle to reproducibility, a cornerstone of research. The considerable effort required to document processing steps in a GUI program, and the rapid obsoleteness of these steps with subsequent versions of the software, has prompted modelers to explicitly write down processing steps as source code to make them 'easily' reproducible. This research describes the R package wrv, a collection of datasets and functions for pre- and post-processing the numerical groundwater flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho. R largely facilitates reproducible modeling with the package vignette; a document that is a combination of content and source code. The code is run when the vignette is built, and all data analysis output (such as figures and tables) is created on the fly and inserted into the final document. The wrv package includes two vignettes that explain and run steps that (1) create package datasets from raw data files located on a publicly accessible repository, and (2) create and run the groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-USG, the numerical groundwater model used in this study, is executed from the vignette, and model output is returned for exploratory analyses. The ability of R to perform all processing steps in a single workflow is attributed to its comprehensive list of features; that include geographic information system and time series functionality.

  14. Partitioning groundwater recharge between rainfall infiltration and irrigation return flow using stable isotopes: The Crau aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séraphin, Pierre; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Gonçalvès, Julio

    2016-11-01

    This study reports an assessment of the water budget of the Crau aquifer (Southern France), which is poorly referenced in the literature. Anthropogenically controlled by a traditional irrigation practice, this alluvial type aquifer requires a robust quantification of the groundwater mass balance in order to establish sustainable water management in the region. In view of the high isotopic contrast between exogenous irrigation waters and local precipitations, stable isotopes of water can be used as conservative tracers to deduce their contributions to the surface recharge. Extensive groundwater sampling was performed to obtain δ18O and δ2H over the whole aquifer. Based on a new piezometric contour map, combined with an updated aquifer geometry, the isotopic data were implemented in a geostatistical approach to produce a conceptual equivalent homogeneous reservoir. This makes it possible to implement a parsimonious water and isotope mass-balance mixing model. The isotopic compositions of the two end-members were assessed, and the quantification of groundwater flows was then used to calculate the two recharge fluxes (natural and irrigation). Nearly at steady-state, the set of isotopic data treated by geostatistics gave a recharge by irrigation of 4.92 ± 0.89 m3 s-1, i.e. 1109 ± 202 mm yr-1, and a natural recharge of 2.19 ± 0.85 m3 s-1, i.e. 128 ± 50 mm yr-1. Thus, 69 ± 9% of the surface recharge is caused by irrigation return flow. This study constitutes a straightforward and independent approach to assess groundwater surface recharges including uncertainties and will help to constrain future transient groundwater models of the Crau aquifer.

  15. Water-balance and groundwater-flow estimation for an arid environment: San Diego region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Stolp, B. J.; Danskin, W. R.

    2012-03-01

    The coastal-plain aquifer that underlies the San Diego City metropolitan area in southern California is a groundwater resource. The understanding of the region-wide water balance and the recharge of water from the high elevation mountains to the east needs to be improved to quantify the subsurface inflows to the coastal plain in order to develop the groundwater as a long term resource. This study is intended to enhance the conceptual understanding of the water balance and related recharge processes in this arid environment by developing a regional model of the San Diego region and all watersheds adjacent or draining to the coastal plain, including th