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Sample records for affecting humans worldwide

  1. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-09-25

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

  2. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-31

    analogous liquids, materials or devices, as well as the use of bullets that expand or flatten in the body. The amendment will enter into force for...Council adopted a resolution affirming that rights to safe drinking water and sanitation are basic human rights contained in existing human rights...Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) give rise to obligations for States parties in relation to access to safe drinking water and sanitation. This action

  3. Satellite nighttime lights reveal increasing human exposure to floods worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Laio, Francesco; Montanari, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    River floods claim thousands of lives every year, but effective and high-resolution methods to map human exposure to floods at the global scale are still lacking. We use satellite nightlight data to prove that nocturnal lights close to rivers are consistently related to flood damages. We correlate global data of economic losses caused by flooding events with nighttime lights and find that increasing nightlights are associated to flood damage intensification. Then, we analyze the temporal evolution of nightlights along the river network all over the world from 1992 to 2012 and obtain a global map of nightlight trends, which we associate with increasing human exposure to floods, at 1 km2 resolution. An enhancement of exposure to floods worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia, is revealed, which may exacerbate the projected effects of climate change on flood-related losses and therefore argues for the development of valuable flood preparedness and mitigation strategies.

  4. Satellite nighttime lights reveal increasing human exposure to floods worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Laio, Francesco; Montanari, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    River floods are the first cause of human fatalities and economic losses among natural disasters. Floods claim thousands of lives every year, but effective and high-resolution methods to provide a spatially and temporally detailed analysis of the human exposure to floods at the global scale are still lacking. To this aim, we use satellite nightlight data to prove that nocturnal lights close to rivers are consistently related to flood damages. First, we analyse the temporal evolution of nightlights along the river network all over the world from 1992 to 2012 and obtain a global map of nightlight trends, which we associate with increasing human exposure to floods, at 1 km2 resolution. Then, we correlate global data of economic losses caused by flooding events with nighttime lights and find that increasing nightlights are associated to flood damage intensification. Our results show an enhancement of exposure to floods worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia. Therefore our analysis argues for the development of valuable flood preparedness and mitigation strategies, also associated to the projected effects of climate change on flood-related losses.

  5. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Millennium Project, WFUNA http://www.millennium-project.org WORLDWIDE EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AFFECTING THE U.S. MILITARY Control No. (TCN...Resolution on Arctic Governance……………..…….9 8.8 Rights of Forest Peoples Need to Be Observed in Anti- deforestation Efforts…..….10 8.9 Coral Triangle May...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  6. Human Papillomavirus 18 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alyce A.; Gheit, Tarik; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) is the second most carcinogenic HPV type, after HPV16, and it accounts for approximately 12% of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as well as 37% of adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the cervix worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the worldwide diversity and carcinogenicity of HPV18 genetic variants by sequencing the entire long control region (LCR) and the E6 open reading frame of 711 HPV18-positive cervical samples from 39 countries, taking advantage of the International Agency for Research on Cancer biobank. A total of 209 unique HPV18 sequence variants were identified that formed three phylogenetic lineages (A, B, and C). A and B lineages each divided into four sublineages, including a newly identified candidate B4 sublineage. The distribution of lineages varied by geographical region, with B and C lineages found principally in Africa. HPV18 (sub)lineages were compared between 453 cancer cases and 236 controls, as well as between 81 ADC and 160 matched SCC cases. In region-stratified analyses, there were no significant differences in the distribution of HPV18 variant lineages between cervical cancer cases and controls or between ADC and SCC. In conclusion, our findings do not support the role of HPV18 (sub)lineages for discriminating cancer risk or explaining why HPV18 is more strongly linked with ADC than SCC. IMPORTANCE This is the largest and most geographically/ethnically diverse study of the genetic variation of HPV18 to date, providing a comprehensive reference for phylogenetic classification of HPV18 sublineages for epidemiological and biological studies. PMID:26269181

  7. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  8. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.

    PubMed

    Brites-Neto, José; Duarte, Keila Maria Roncato; Martins, Thiago Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  9. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Brites-Neto, José; Duarte, Keila Maria Roncato; Martins, Thiago Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations. PMID:27047089

  10. ENIGMA and the individual: Predicting factors that affect the brain in 35 countries worldwide.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul M; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Bearden, Carrie E; Boedhoe, Premika S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cannon, Dara M; Cohen, Ronald A; Conrod, Patricia J; Dale, Anders M; Deary, Ian J; Dennis, Emily L; de Reus, Marcel A; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Dima, Danai; Donohoe, Gary; Fisher, Simon E; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Franke, Barbara; Ganjgahi, Habib; Garavan, Hugh; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hibar, Derrek P; Holland, Dominic; Hoogman, Martine; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Hosten, Norbert; Jahanshad, Neda; Kelly, Sinead; Kochunov, Peter; Kremen, William S; Lee, Phil H; Mackey, Scott; Martin, Nicholas G; Mazoyer, Bernard; McDonald, Colm; Medland, Sarah E; Morey, Rajendra A; Nichols, Thomas E; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shen, Li; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smit, Dirk J A; Smoller, Jordan W; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Jason L; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van den Heuvel, Odile L; van Erp, Theo G M; van Rooij, Daan; Veltman, Dick J; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Yalin; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Whelan, Christopher D; Wright, Margaret J; Ye, Jieping

    2017-01-15

    In this review, we discuss recent work by the ENIGMA Consortium (http://enigma.ini.usc.edu) - a global alliance of over 500 scientists spread across 200 institutions in 35 countries collectively analyzing brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data. Initially formed to detect genetic influences on brain measures, ENIGMA has grown to over 30 working groups studying 12 major brain diseases by pooling and comparing brain data. In some of the largest neuroimaging studies to date - of schizophrenia and major depression - ENIGMA has found replicable disease effects on the brain that are consistent worldwide, as well as factors that modulate disease effects. In partnership with other consortia including ADNI, CHARGE, IMAGEN and others(1), ENIGMA's genomic screens - now numbering over 30,000 MRI scans - have revealed at least 8 genetic loci that affect brain volumes. Downstream of gene findings, ENIGMA has revealed how these individual variants - and genetic variants in general - may affect both the brain and risk for a range of diseases. The ENIGMA consortium is discovering factors that consistently affect brain structure and function that will serve as future predictors linking individual brain scans and genomic data. It is generating vast pools of normative data on brain measures - from tens of thousands of people - that may help detect deviations from normal development or aging in specific groups of subjects. We discuss challenges and opportunities in applying these predictors to individual subjects and new cohorts, as well as lessons we have learned in ENIGMA's efforts so far.

  11. Imported Human Rabies Cases Worldwide, 1990–2012

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Philippe; Parola, Phillipe; Brouqui, Phillipe; Gautret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Sixty cases of human rabies in international travelers were reviewed from 1990–2012. A significant proportion of the cases were observed in migrants or their descendants when emigrating from their country of origin or after a trip to visit friends and relatives or for other reasons (43.3%). The cases were not necessarily associated with long-term travel or expatriation to endemic countries; moreover, cases were observed in travelers after short trips of two weeks or less. A predominance of male patients was observed (75.0%). The proportion of children was low (11.7%). Cases from India and Philippines were frequent (16 cases/60). In a significant proportion of cases (51.1%), diagnosis was challenging, with multiple missed diagnoses and transfers from ward to ward before the final diagnosis of rabies. Among the 28 patients whose confirmed diagnosis was obtained ante-mortem, the mean time between hospitalization and diagnosis was 7.7 days (median time: 6.0 days, range 2–30) including four cases with a diagnosis delayed by 15 or more days. In five cases, a patient traveled through one or more countries before ultimately being hospitalized. Three factors played a role in delaying the diagnosis of rabies in a number of cases: (i) a low index of suspicion for rabies in countries where the disease has been eradicated for a long time or is now rare, (ii) a negative history of animal bites or exposure to rabies, and (iii) atypical clinical presentation of the disease. Clinical symptomatology of rabies is complex and commonly confuses physicians. Furthermore, failure in diagnosing imported cases in more developed countries is most likely related to the lack of medical familiarity with even the typical clinical features of the disease. PMID:23658853

  12. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2016-10-13

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  13. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. December 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) will be established January 26th in Bonn, Germany, as an intergovernmental organization to promote... renewable energy worldwide. It will assist member countries in matters of technology transfer, assessment and dissemination of information on new...technologies and best practices, and will help support projects related to renewable energy and tackling global warming. All interested UN member states

  14. HRD Trends Worldwide: Shared Solutions To Compete in a Global Economy. Improving Human Performance Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jack J.

    This book, which is intended for individuals involved in developing, delivering, and supporting human resource development (HRD) programs, discusses worldwide HRD trends that were identified in a study of the HRD practices in 35 countries. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the HRD trends identified and explains how they were identified.…

  15. A comparison of worldwide phonemic and genetic variation in human populations.

    PubMed

    Creanza, Nicole; Ruhlen, Merritt; Pemberton, Trevor J; Rosenberg, Noah A; Feldman, Marcus W; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2015-02-03

    Worldwide patterns of genetic variation are driven by human demographic history. Here, we test whether this demographic history has left similar signatures on phonemes-sound units that distinguish meaning between words in languages-to those it has left on genes. We analyze, jointly and in parallel, phoneme inventories from 2,082 worldwide languages and microsatellite polymorphisms from 246 worldwide populations. On a global scale, both genetic distance and phonemic distance between populations are significantly correlated with geographic distance. Geographically close language pairs share significantly more phonemes than distant language pairs, whether or not the languages are closely related. The regional geographic axes of greatest phonemic differentiation correspond to axes of genetic differentiation, suggesting that there is a relationship between human dispersal and linguistic variation. However, the geographic distribution of phoneme inventory sizes does not follow the predictions of a serial founder effect during human expansion out of Africa. Furthermore, although geographically isolated populations lose genetic diversity via genetic drift, phonemes are not subject to drift in the same way: within a given geographic radius, languages that are relatively isolated exhibit more variance in number of phonemes than languages with many neighbors. This finding suggests that relatively isolated languages are more susceptible to phonemic change than languages with many neighbors. Within a language family, phoneme evolution along genetic, geographic, or cognate-based linguistic trees predicts similar ancestral phoneme states to those predicted from ancient sources. More genetic sampling could further elucidate the relative roles of vertical and horizontal transmission in phoneme evolution.

  16. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. December 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    almost completely decomposed after seven weeks, while the unmodified version was barely affected. However, bioplastics definition and recycling...releases/2007/12/071203120115.htm ’ Bioplastic ’ may become third option to paper or plastic http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/1219/p15s01-sten.html

  17. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. November 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Environment and Security On November 30, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) agreed on a Ministerial Declaration on...www.stopclustermunitions.org/news.asp?id=103 7.3 Middle East Biosecurity Assessed Experts from more than 30 countries from the Middle East, Europe ...prices, expansion of biofuels , instability of financial markets, and other economic factors dramatically affect agricultural commodity prices

  18. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-03-14

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  19. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. April 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Employs a Revolutionary Nanotechnology-Based Biosensor http://www.azonano.com/news.asp?newsID=10982 6.4 Increasing Energy Efficiency Technologies... Animal Health Body Says Swine Flu Wrong Name http://planetark.org/wen/52643 International unity key to tackling swine flu threat, Ban says http...human health and welfare . Similarly, an international team of scientists discovered that sulfuryl fluoride, a fumigant introduced to replace methyl

  20. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins.

    PubMed

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G; Gaieski, Jill B; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G; Owings, Amanda C; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R Spencer

    2014-04-29

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans' place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000-130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS's accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing.

  1. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. February 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    about 2,500 miles of Arctic Seafloor…………………………...….10 7.7 European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission to Help Improve Water...Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission to Help Improve Water Management ESA’s SMOS is consistently mapping soil moisture in land and salinity in...of national security,” says Mohammed al-Raey of the Regional Disaster Response Centre. In Niger , food insecurity affecting more than 7 million

  2. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE) may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis), food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis) and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis). Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs) or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber) causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears PMID:21429191

  3. A comparison of worldwide phonemic and genetic variation in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Creanza, Nicole; Ruhlen, Merritt; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Rosenberg, Noah A.; Feldman, Marcus W.; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide patterns of genetic variation are driven by human demographic history. Here, we test whether this demographic history has left similar signatures on phonemes—sound units that distinguish meaning between words in languages—to those it has left on genes. We analyze, jointly and in parallel, phoneme inventories from 2,082 worldwide languages and microsatellite polymorphisms from 246 worldwide populations. On a global scale, both genetic distance and phonemic distance between populations are significantly correlated with geographic distance. Geographically close language pairs share significantly more phonemes than distant language pairs, whether or not the languages are closely related. The regional geographic axes of greatest phonemic differentiation correspond to axes of genetic differentiation, suggesting that there is a relationship between human dispersal and linguistic variation. However, the geographic distribution of phoneme inventory sizes does not follow the predictions of a serial founder effect during human expansion out of Africa. Furthermore, although geographically isolated populations lose genetic diversity via genetic drift, phonemes are not subject to drift in the same way: within a given geographic radius, languages that are relatively isolated exhibit more variance in number of phonemes than languages with many neighbors. This finding suggests that relatively isolated languages are more susceptible to phonemic change than languages with many neighbors. Within a language family, phoneme evolution along genetic, geographic, or cognate-based linguistic trees predicts similar ancestral phoneme states to those predicted from ancient sources. More genetic sampling could further elucidate the relative roles of vertical and horizontal transmission in phoneme evolution. PMID:25605893

  4. A quantitative comparison of the similarity between genes and geography in worldwide human populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2012-08-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure.

  5. Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Poznik, G. David; Xue, Yali; Mendez, Fernando L.; Willems, Thomas F.; Massaia, Andrea; Wilson Sayres, Melissa A.; Ayub, Qasim; McCarthy, Shane A.; Narechania, Apurva; Kashin, Seva; Chen, Yuan; Banerjee, Ruby; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Cerezo, Maria; Shao, Haojing; Gymrek, Melissa; Malhotra, Ankit; Louzada, Sandra; Desalle, Rob; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Cerveira, Eliza; Fitzgerald, Tomas W.; Garrison, Erik; Marcketta, Anthony; Mittelman, David; Romanovitch, Mallory; Zhang, Chengsheng; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Flicek, Paul; Underhill, Peter A.; Coin, Lachlan; Zerbino, Daniel R.; Yang, Fengtang; Lee, Charles; Clarke, Laura; Auton, Adam; Erlich, Yaniv; Handsaker, Robert E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We report the sequences of 1,244 human Y chromosomes randomly ascertained from 26 worldwide populations by the 1000 Genomes Project. We discovered more than 65,000 variants, including SNVs, MNVs, indels, STRs, and CNVs. Of these, CNVs contribute the greatest predicted functional impact. We constructed a calibrated phylogenetic tree based on binary SNVs and projected the more complex variants onto it, estimating the numbers of mutations for each class. Our phylogeny reveals bursts of extreme expansions in male numbers that have occurred independently among each of the five continental superpopulations examined, at times of known migrations and technological innovations. PMID:27111036

  6. In vitro growth inhibition by Hypericum extracts and isolated pure compounds of Paenibacillus larvae, a lethal disease affecting honeybees worldwide.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Javier; Crockett, Sara; Kunert, Olaf; Hammer, Elfe; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Bauer, Rudolf; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The in vitro inhibitory potential of 50 extracts from various species of the flowering plant genus Hypericum was investigated using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test against Paenibacillus larvae, a spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes American foulbrood (AFB), a lethal disease affecting honeybee brood worldwide. Of the tested extracts, 14 were identified as highly active against P. larvae as compared to the activity of the positive control, indicating the presence of highly potent antibacterial compounds in the extracts. Examination of these extracts using TLC and HPLC/MS analyses revealed the presence of acylphloroglucinol and filicinic-acid derivatives. Six pure compounds isolated from these extracts, viz., hyperforin (1), uliginosin B (2), uliginosin A (3), 7-epiclusianone (4), albaspidin AA (5), and drummondin E (6), displayed strong antibacterial activity against the vegetative form of P. larvae (MIC ranging from 0.168-220 μM). Incubation of P. larvae spores with the lipophilic extract of Hypericum perforatum and its main acylphloroglucinol constituent 1 led to the observation of significantly fewer colony forming units as compared to the negative control, indicating that the acylphloroglucinol scaffold represents an interesting lead structure for the development of new AFB control agents.

  7. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    PubMed

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications.

  8. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

    2008-03-07

    It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species.

  9. Affect in Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    even without deliberately modeling them: for example, if a robot backs away from a staircase it might be interpreted as a fear of falling by a person...chosen to deliberately embed explicit models of affect into robots, with the express purpose of enhancing the relationship between the human and robot...many psychological models of human affect have been explored. Two examples that have had commercial success are described

  10. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  11. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sara B; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host-parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  12. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins

    PubMed Central

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S.; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G.; Owings, Amanda C.; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R.; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R. Spencer; Acosta, Oscar; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Hui; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Merchant, Nirav C.; Mitchell, John R.; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Sandoval, Jose Raul; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans’ place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000–130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS’s accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

  13. Bedbugs (Cimicidae infestation): the worldwide renaissance of an old partner of human kind.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Belda Junior, Walter; Criado, Roberta Fachini Jardim; Vasconcelos e Silva, Roberta; Vasconcellos, Cidia

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs have been known as a human parasite for thousands of years, but scientific studies about this insect are recent and limited. Cimex lectularius, the common bedbug, was a well-known parasite in human dwellings until the end of the Second World War. Nowadays, bedbugs are considered uncommon in the industrialized world. Anecdotal reports suggest that bedbugs are getting more common in the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom. In Brazil, there are few reports about bedbug infestations in the literature. The aim of this article was to alert physicians, especially in Brazil, about this ectoparasitosis, including aspects of the bedbug biology, their parasitism in human host, treatment and prophylaxis.

  14. Worldwide Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Relative Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Xie, Shuanghua; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuheng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Dai, Min; Ke Zhou, Cindy; Hu, Zhibin; Li, Ni; Hang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of studies conducted recently to evaluate the association between HPV infections and the risk of prostate cancer, the results remain inconclusive. Furthermore, the prevalence and distribution of overall and individual HPV types worldwide in prostate cancer has not been reported until now. Therefore, we estimated the prevalence of HPV in prostate cancer by pooling data of 46 studies with 4919 prostate cancer cases, taking into account the heterogeneity of major related parameters, including study region, specimen type, HPV DNA source, detection method, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Moreover, we tested the association of HPV infections with prostate cancer risks by a meta-analysis of 26 tissue-based case-control studies. We found that the prevalence of HPV infection was 18.93% (95% CI = 17.84–20.05%) in prostate cancer cases, and most of which were high-risk HPV types (17.73%, 95% CI = 16.52–18.99%). The prevalence varied by region, PCR primers used, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Our study also showed a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer with the positivity of overall HPV detected in prostate tissues (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.29–2.49) and revealed the geographic variation of association strength (P < 0.001). In conclusion, HPV infections may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:26441160

  15. Worldwide Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Relative Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Xie, Shuanghua; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuheng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Dai, Min; Zhou, Cindy Ke; Hu, Zhibin; Li, Ni; Hang, Dong

    2015-10-06

    Despite the increasing number of studies conducted recently to evaluate the association between HPV infections and the risk of prostate cancer, the results remain inconclusive. Furthermore, the prevalence and distribution of overall and individual HPV types worldwide in prostate cancer has not been reported until now. Therefore, we estimated the prevalence of HPV in prostate cancer by pooling data of 46 studies with 4919 prostate cancer cases, taking into account the heterogeneity of major related parameters, including study region, specimen type, HPV DNA source, detection method, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Moreover, we tested the association of HPV infections with prostate cancer risks by a meta-analysis of 26 tissue-based case-control studies. We found that the prevalence of HPV infection was 18.93% (95% CI = 17.84-20.05%) in prostate cancer cases, and most of which were high-risk HPV types (17.73%, 95% CI = 16.52-18.99%). The prevalence varied by region, PCR primers used, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Our study also showed a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer with the positivity of overall HPV detected in prostate tissues (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.29-2.49) and revealed the geographic variation of association strength (P < 0.001). In conclusion, HPV infections may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer.

  16. Humans process dog and human facial affect in similar ways.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Annett; Seow, Cui Shan; Penney, Trevor B

    2013-01-01

    Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., social isolation) provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs.

  17. Humans Process Dog and Human Facial Affect in Similar Ways

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, Annett; Seow, Cui Shan; Penney, Trevor B.

    2013-01-01

    Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., social isolation) provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs. PMID:24023954

  18. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. Summarizing Environmental Security Monthly Scanning. July 2008 - June 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    print1.asp?id=131610 Are we ready to deal with world food crisis? http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2008/8/31640.html Climate change to hit SA crops ...of the Geneva Conventions, “this protection is often violated during war and armed conflict. Water wells are polluted, crops torched, forests cut...main crops – maize, millet and sorghum – would probably not tolerate the conditions. The six most affected nations will probably be Senegal, Chad, Mali

  19. Worldwide patterns of genetic differentiation imply multiple ‘domestications’ of Aedes aegypti, a major vector of human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julia E.; McBride, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Petrina; Ritchie, Scott; Paupy, Christophe; Bossin, Hervé; Lutomiah, Joel; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Cornel, Anthony J.; Black, William C.; Gorrochotegui-Escalante, Norma; Urdaneta-Marquez, Ludmel; Sylla, Massamba; Slotman, Michel; Murray, Kristy O.; Walker, Christopher; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the processes by which species colonize and adapt to human habitats is particularly important in the case of disease-vectoring arthropods. The mosquito species Aedes aegypti, a major vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, probably originated as a wild, zoophilic species in sub-Saharan Africa, where some populations still breed in tree holes in forested habitats. Many populations of the species, however, have evolved to thrive in human habitats and to bite humans. This includes some populations within Africa as well as almost all those outside Africa. It is not clear whether all domestic populations are genetically related and represent a single ‘domestication’ event, or whether association with human habitats has developed multiple times independently within the species. To test the hypotheses above, we screened 24 worldwide population samples of Ae. aegypti at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We identified two distinct genetic clusters: one included all domestic populations outside of Africa and the other included both domestic and forest populations within Africa. This suggests that human association in Africa occurred independently from that in domestic populations across the rest of the world. Additionally, measures of genetic diversity support Ae. aegypti in Africa as the ancestral form of the species. Individuals from domestic populations outside Africa can reliably be assigned back to their population of origin, which will help determine the origins of new introductions of Ae. aegypti. PMID:21227970

  20. An exploratory analysis on how geographic, socioeconomic, and environmental drivers affect the diversity of livestock breeds worldwide.

    PubMed

    Leroy, G; Boettcher, P; Hoffmann, I; Mottet, A; Teillard, F; Baumung, R

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the relationships between various environmental and geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors with the diversity of livestock breeds reported within countries across the world. Statistical analyses were performed considering the numbers of breeds reported by 158 countries for 4 livestock mammalian species (cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries reported more breeds than non-OECD countries in general. Strong and positive correlations were found between agricultural area, human population size, species population size, and number of breeds per country. When considering regression models, the species population size was found as the most important explanatory factor for the number of breeds reported by countries in the 4 species. Diversity of production systems in the country had a significant association with the number of breeds reported for sheep, goats, and pigs. The number of ruminant breeds was positively associated with the size of agricultural area and the diversity of land cover in the country. While demographic and cultural importance of a given species is a major factor associated with the number of livestock breeds within countries, this diversity is also connected to the variability in environmental and production conditions.

  1. A robust ambient temperature collection and stabilization strategy: Enabling worldwide functional studies of the human microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ericka L.; Li, Weizhong; Klitgord, Niels; Highlander, Sarah K.; Dayrit, Mark; Seguritan, Victor; Yooseph, Shibu; Biggs, William; Venter, J. Craig; Nelson, Karen E.; Jones, Marcus B.

    2016-01-01

    As reports on possible associations between microbes and the host increase in number, more meaningful interpretations of this information require an ability to compare data sets across studies. This is dependent upon standardization of workflows to ensure comparability both within and between studies. Here we propose the standard use of an alternate collection and stabilization method that would facilitate such comparisons. The DNA Genotek OMNIgene∙Gut Stool Microbiome Kit was compared to the currently accepted community standard of freezing to store human stool samples prior to whole genome sequencing (WGS) for microbiome studies. This stabilization and collection device allows for ambient temperature storage, automation, and ease of shipping/transfer of samples. The device permitted the same data reproducibility as with frozen samples, and yielded higher recovery of nucleic acids. Collection and stabilization of stool microbiome samples with the DNA Genotek collection device, combined with our extraction and WGS, provides a robust, reproducible workflow that enables standardized global collection, storage, and analysis of stool for microbiome studies. PMID:27558918

  2. Human freezing in response to affective films.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John F

    2014-01-01

    Human freezing has been objectively assessed using a passive picture viewing paradigm as an analog for threat. These results should be replicated for other stimuli in order to determine their stability and generalizability. Affective films are used frequently to elicit affective responses, but it is unknown whether they also elicit freezing-like defense responses. To test whether this is the case, 50 participants watched neutral, pleasant and unpleasant film fragments while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess heart rate. Freezing-like responses (indicated by overall reduced body sway and heart rate deceleration) were observed for the unpleasant film only. The unpleasant film also elicited early reduced body sway (1-2 s after stimulus onset). Heart rate and body sway were correlated during the unpleasant film only. The results suggest that ecologically valid stimuli like films are adequate stimuli in evoking defense responses. The results also underscore the importance of including time courses in human experimental research on defense reactions in order to delineate different stages in the defense response.

  3. Toward a more Uniform Sampling of Human Genetic Diversity: A Survey of Worldwide Populations by High-density Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W. Scott; Shlien, Adam; Walker, Erin; Huff, Chad D.; Witherspoon, David J.; Zhang, Yuhua; Simonson, Tatum S.; Weiss, Robert B.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Malkin, David; Woodward, Scott R.; Jorde, Lynn B.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput genotyping data are useful for making inferences about human evolutionary history. However, the populations sampled to date are unevenly distributed, and some areas (e.g., South and Central Asia) have rarely been sampled in large-scale studies. To assess human genetic variation more evenly, we sampled 296 individuals from 13 worldwide populations that are not covered by previous studies. By combining these samples with a data set from our laboratory and the HapMap II samples, we assembled a final dataset of ~250,000 SNPs in 850 individuals from 40 populations. With more uniform sampling, the estimate of global genetic differentiation (FST) substantially decreases from ~16% with the HapMap II samples to ~11%. A panel of copy number variations typed in the same populations shows patterns of diversity similar to the SNP data, with highest diversity in African populations. This unique sample collection also permits new inferences about human evolutionary history. The comparison of haplotype variation among populations supports a single out-of-Africa migration event and suggests that the founding population of Eurasia may have been relatively large but isolated from Africans for a period of time. We also found a substantial affinity between populations from central Asia (Kyrgyzstani and Mongolian Buryat) and America, suggesting a central Asian contribution to New World founder populations. PMID:20643205

  4. Factors affecting outcomes in patients reaching end-stage kidney disease worldwide: differences in access to renal replacement therapy, modality use, and haemodialysis practices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bruce M; Akizawa, Tadao; Jager, Kitty J; Kerr, Peter G; Saran, Rajiv; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2016-07-16

    More than 2 million people worldwide are being treated for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This Series paper provides an overview of incidence, modality use (in-centre haemodialysis, home dialysis, or transplantation), and mortality for patients with ESKD based on national registry data. We also present data from an international cohort study to highlight differences in haemodialysis practices that affect survival and the experience of patients who rely on this therapy, which is both life-sustaining and profoundly disruptive to their quality of life. Data illustrate disparities in access to renal replacement therapy of any kind and in the use of transplantation or home dialysis, both of which are widely considered preferable to in-centre haemodialysis for many patients with ESKD in settings where infrastructure permits. For most patients with ESKD worldwide who are treated with in-centre haemodialysis, overall survival is poor, but longer in some Asian countries than elsewhere in the world, and longer in Europe than in the USA, although this gap has reduced. Commendable haemodialysis practice includes exceptionally high use of surgical vascular access in Japan and in some European countries, and the use of longer or more frequent dialysis sessions in some countries, allowing for more effective volume management. Mortality is especially high soon after ESKD onset, and improved preparation for ESKD is needed including alignment of decision making with the wishes of patients and families.

  5. Nuclear genetic diversity in human lice (Pediculus humanus) reveals continental differences and high inbreeding among worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Toups, Melissa A; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  6. Nuclear Genetic Diversity in Human Lice (Pediculus humanus) Reveals Continental Differences and High Inbreeding among Worldwide Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ascunce, Marina S.; Toups, Melissa A.; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  7. Five HLA-DP Molecules Frequently Expressed in the Worldwide Human Population Share a Common HLA Supertypic Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Sidney, John; Steen, Amiyah; Moore, Carrie; Ngo, Sandy; Chung, Jolan; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Compared with DR and DQ, knowledge of the binding repertoires and specificities of HLA-DP alleles is somewhat limited. However, a growing body of literature has indicated the importance of DP-restricted responses in the context of cancer, allergy, and infectious disease. In the current study, we developed high-throughput binding assays for the five most common HLA-DPB1 alleles in the general worldwide population. Using these assays on a comprehensive panel of single-substitution analogs and large peptide libraries, we derived novel detailed binding motifs for DPB1*0101 and DPB1*0501. We also derived more detailed quantitative motifs for DPB1*0201, DPB1*0401, and DPB1*0402, which were previously characterized on the basis of sets of eluted ligands and/or limited sets of substituted peptides. Unexpectedly, all five DP molecules, originally selected only on the basis of their frequency in human populations, were found to share largely overlapping peptide motifs. Testing panels of known DP epitopes and a panel of peptides spanning a set of Phleum pratense Ags revealed that these molecules also share largely overlapping peptide-binding repertoires. This demonstrates that a previously hypothesized DP supertype extends far beyond what was originally envisioned and includes at least three additional very common DP specificities. Taken together, these DP supertype molecules are found in >90% of the human population. Thus, these findings have important implications for epitope-identification studies and monitoring of human class II-restricted immune responses. PMID:20139279

  8. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  9. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  10. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  11. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  12. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  13. [Affective computing--a mysterious tool to explore human emotions].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Honghong; Dou, Yi; Hou, Yongjie; Li, Changwu

    2013-12-01

    Perception, affection and consciousness are basic psychological functions of human being. Affection is the subjective reflection of different kinds of objects. The foundation of human being's thinking is constituted by the three basic functions. Affective computing is an effective tool of revealing the affectiveness of human being in order to understand the world. Our research of affective computing focused on the relation, the generation and the influent factors among different affections. In this paper, the affective mechanism, the basic theory of affective computing, is studied, the method of acquiring and recognition of affective information is discussed, and the application of affective computing is summarized as well, in order to attract more researchers into this working area.

  14. Infrasound from Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Alec N.; Kaltenbach, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbines generate low-frequency sounds that affect the ear. The ear is superficially similar to a microphone, converting mechanical sound waves into electrical signals, but does this by complex physiologic processes. Serious misconceptions about low-frequency sound and the ear have resulted from a failure to consider in detail how the ear…

  15. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  16. Ectoparasites from feral pigeons affecting humans.

    PubMed

    Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel; Bircher, Andreas J

    2010-01-01

    Feral pigeons pose a considerable health risk to the human population. They are vectors of infectious diseases and source of antigens causing allergic diseases. Breeding and roosting sites of pigeons harbor parasites that may infest humans. In the present article, a concomitant parasitization of a young female with 3 different ectoparasites, the bedbug Cimex lectularius, the pigeon tick Argas reflexus and the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae, is reported. The parasites invaded the apartment from a balcony used as roost by feral pigeons and infested the patient continuously over a period of more than 2 months. To our knowledge this case presents the first record of a coincidental infestation of a single patient with several ectoparasite species deriving from feral pigeons. Additionally we report general symptoms in the patient probably caused by the high number of stings. Dermatologists should be aware of the possibility of an infestation with ectoparasites deriving from feral pigeons. In a review we give an overview on the most important ectoparasites transmitted from feral pigeons to humans and their importance for the dermatologist.

  17. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    PubMed

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  18. Functional neuroimaging of human vocalizations and affective speech.

    PubMed

    Frühholz, Sascha; Sander, David; Grandjean, Didier

    2014-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have verified the important integrative role of the basal ganglia during affective vocalizations. They, however, also point to additional regions supporting vocal monitoring, auditory-motor feedback processing, and online adjustments of vocal motor responses. For the case of affective vocalizations, we suggest partly extending the model to fully consider the link between primate-general and human-specific neural components.

  19. Toward an Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE) on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas…

  20. Infectious disease and worldwide declines of amphibian populations, with comments on emerging diseases in coral reef organisms and in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, C

    2000-01-01

    Many populations of amphibians are declining on all six continents on which they occur. Some causes of amphibian declines, such as habitat destruction, direct application of xenobiotics, and introduction of predators or competitors, are clearly attributable to human activities. Infectious disease appears to be the direct cause of mass amphibian die-offs in relatively undisturbed areas of the world where anthropomorphic environmental disruption is minimal. In these cases, it is not yet clear whether these epizootics result from the natural evolution of new pathogens or from environmental changes that promote the emergence of pathogenic forms and/or that weaken the immune defenses of amphibians. Because some aspects of pathogen-related amphibian mass mortalities are similar to outbreaks of new diseases in humans and coral reef organisms, amphibian declines may be part of a much larger pattern than previously appreciated. PMID:10698730

  1. Desert dust impacts on human health: an alarming worldwide reality and a need for studies in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Longueville, Florence; Ozer, Pierre; Doumbia, Seydou; Henry, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between desert dust and human health in the world and to analyse the place of West Africa as a study area of interest. Papers focussing on the potential relationship between dust and health and showing quantitative analyses, published between January 1999 and September 2011, were identified using the ISI Web of Knowledge database ( N = 50). A number of adverse health effects, including respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, are associated with dust. This survey highlights obvious dust impacts on human health independently of the study area, health outcomes and method. Moreover, it reveals an imbalance between the areas most exposed to dust and the areas most studied in terms of health effects. None of these studies has been conducted in West Africa, despite the proximity of the Sahara, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust. In view of the alarming results in many parts of the world (Asia, Europe, America), this paper concludes by stressing the importance of carrying out impact studies of Saharan dust in West Africa, where dust events are more frequent and intense than anywhere else.

  2. Tobacco Causes Human Cancers--A Concept Founded on Epidemiology and an Insightful Experiment Now Requires Translation Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Lawrence A

    2016-02-15

    The recognition that tobacco smoke is carcinogenic led to the most significant and successful effort at reducing cancer incidence in human history. A major milestone of this effort was the publication in Cancer Research by Wynder and colleagues, which demonstrated the ability of tobacco tars to produce tumors in mice. This study provided a powerful link between the epidemiology of cancer and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. This commentary asserts that we have a moral obligation to translate our success in reducing lung cancer in the United States to the 1.25 billion smokers throughout the rest of the world. See related article by Wynder et al., Cancer Res 1953;13:855-64.

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    8217 So, these arebthe three versions. The selection, however, ha& ndt yet been made. The arguments are going on and on in the meantime. Special...ment peace programs affecting the entire earth and all human awareness at a stroke --we propose addressing all this to the idea of peace, the idea of

  4. An historical perspective on "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus".

    PubMed

    Kidd, Kenneth K; Pakstis, Andrew J; Yun, Libing

    2014-04-01

    Human population genetics is a completely different science today compared to two decades ago, at least at the empiric level. Our paper [Chang (Hum Genet 98:91-101, 1996a)] demonstrated that three different alleles were common when one considered many populations although other low frequency alleles occurred. Because previous work had been largely done on European subjects, our findings involved 36 distinct populations and showed that East Asian populations had nearly lost the 7-repeat allele, and that Native American populations had the highest frequencies of that allele globally, was a significant early empiric demonstration of the potential magnitude of population variation at important genes. There are thousands of loci tested on many of the same populations and the gene frequency pattern seen for the DRD4 7-repeat allele is seen at other loci, arguing that this pattern commonly reflects the pattern of divergence of populations and accumulated random genetic drift.

  5. Consensus and stratification in the affective meaning of human sociality

    PubMed Central

    Ambrasat, Jens; von Scheve, Christian; Conrad, Markus; Schauenburg, Gesche; Schröder, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    We investigate intrasocietal consensus and variation in affective meanings of concepts related to authority and community, two elementary forms of human sociality. Survey participants (n = 2,849) from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups in German society provided ratings of 909 social concepts along three basic dimensions of affective meaning. Results show widespread consensus on these meanings within society and demonstrate that a meaningful structure of socially shared knowledge emerges from organizing concepts according to their affective similarity. The consensus finding is further qualified by evidence for subtle systematic variation along SES differences. In relation to affectively neutral words, high-status individuals evaluate intimacy-related and socially desirable concepts as less positive and powerful than middle- or low-status individuals, while perceiving antisocial concepts as relatively more threatening. This systematic variation across SES groups suggests that the affective meaning of sociality is to some degree a function of social stratification. PMID:24843121

  6. Consensus and stratification in the affective meaning of human sociality.

    PubMed

    Ambrasat, Jens; von Scheve, Christian; Conrad, Markus; Schauenburg, Gesche; Schröder, Tobias

    2014-06-03

    We investigate intrasocietal consensus and variation in affective meanings of concepts related to authority and community, two elementary forms of human sociality. Survey participants (n = 2,849) from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups in German society provided ratings of 909 social concepts along three basic dimensions of affective meaning. Results show widespread consensus on these meanings within society and demonstrate that a meaningful structure of socially shared knowledge emerges from organizing concepts according to their affective similarity. The consensus finding is further qualified by evidence for subtle systematic variation along SES differences. In relation to affectively neutral words, high-status individuals evaluate intimacy-related and socially desirable concepts as less positive and powerful than middle- or low-status individuals, while perceiving antisocial concepts as relatively more threatening. This systematic variation across SES groups suggests that the affective meaning of sociality is to some degree a function of social stratification.

  7. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  8. Incorporating affective bias in models of human decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    Research on human decision making has traditionally focused on how people actually make decisions, how good their decisions are, and how their decisions can be improved. Recent research suggests that this model is inadequate. Affective as well as cognitive components drive the way information about relevant outcomes and events is perceived, integrated, and used in the decision making process. The affective components include how the individual frames outcomes as good or bad, whether the individual anticipates regret in a decision situation, the affective mood state of the individual, and the psychological stress level anticipated or experienced in the decision situation. A focus of the current work has been to propose empirical studies that will attempt to examine in more detail the relationships between the latter two critical affective influences (mood state and stress) on decision making behavior.

  9. A worldwide survey of human male demographic history based on Y-SNP and Y-STR data from the HGDP-CEPH populations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wentao; Ayub, Qasim; Vermeulen, Mark; Shao, Rong-guang; Zuniga, Sofia; van der Gaag, Kristiaan; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2010-02-01

    We have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project - Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and analyzed with the program Bayesian Analysis of Trees With Internal Node Generation. The general patterns we observe show a gradient from the oldest population time to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) and expansion times together with the largest effective population sizes in Africa, to the youngest times and smallest effective population sizes in the Americas. These parameters are significantly negatively correlated with distance from East Africa, and the patterns are consistent with most other studies of human variation and history. In contrast, growth rate showed a weaker correlation in the opposite direction. Y-lineage diversity and TMRCA also decrease with distance from East Africa, supporting a model of expansion with serial founder events starting from this source. A number of individual populations diverge from these general patterns, including previously documented examples such as recent expansions of the Yoruba in Africa, Basques in Europe, and Yakut in Northern Asia. However, some unexpected demographic histories were also found, including low growth rates in the Hazara and Kalash from Pakistan and recent expansion of the Mozabites in North Africa.

  10. Human footprint affects US carbon balance more than climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Tim; Baker, Barry; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The MC2 model projects an overall increase in carbon capture in conterminous United States during the 21st century while also simulating a rise in fire causing much carbon loss. Carbon sequestration in soils is critical to prevent carbon losses from future disturbances, and we show that natural ecosystems store more carbon belowground than managed systems do. Natural and human-caused disturbances affect soil processes that shape ecosystem recovery and competitive interactions between native, exotics, and climate refugees. Tomorrow's carbon budgets will depend on how land use, natural disturbances, and climate variability will interact and affect the balance between carbon capture and release.

  11. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land

    PubMed Central

    Artelle, Kyle A.; Anderson, Sean C.; Reynolds, John D.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Paquet, Paul C.; Darimont, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960–2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km2 killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6–32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1st), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries. PMID:27185189

  12. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    PubMed

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  13. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  14. Blastocystis: how do specific diets and human gut microbiota affect its development and pathogenicity?

    PubMed

    Lepczyńska, M; Białkowska, J; Dzika, E; Piskorz-Ogórek, K; Korycińska, J

    2017-03-22

    Blastocystis is an enteric parasite that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many animals. This emerging parasite has a worldwide distribution. It is often identified as the most common eukaryotic organism reported in human fecal samples. This parasite is recognized and diagnosed more often than ever before. Furthermore, some strains develop resistance against currently recommended drugs, such as metronidazole; therefore, the use of natural remedies or special diets has many positive aspects that may address this problem. The goal of this review is to compare natural treatments and various diets against the efficacy of drugs, and describe their influence on the composition of the gut microbiota, which affects Blastocystis growth and the occurrence of symptoms. This article reviews important work in the literature, including the classification, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, genetics, biology, and treatment of Blastocystis. It also includes a review of the current knowledge about human gut microbiota and various diets proposed for Blastocystis eradication. The literature has revealed that garlic, ginger, some medical plants, and many spices contain the most effective organic compounds for parasite eradication. They work by inhibiting parasitic enzymes and nucleic acids, as well as by inhibiting protein synthesis. The efficacy of any specific organic compound depends on the Blastocystis subtype, and, consequently, on its immunity to treatment. In conclusion, the article discusses the findings that human gut microbiota composition triggers important mechanisms at the molecular level, and, thus, has a crucial influence on the parasitic pathogenicity.

  15. More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J J; Lenes, J M; Weisberg, R H; Zheng, L; Hu, C; Fanning, K A; Snyder, R; Smith, J

    2017-03-15

    Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine.

  16. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  17. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.

  18. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  19. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change.

    PubMed

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-03-04

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future.

  20. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    PubMed Central

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

  1. Recombination affects accumulation of damaging and disease-associated mutations in human populations.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Julie G; Hodgkinson, Alan; Idaghdour, Youssef; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Gbeha, Elias; Hip-Ki, Elodie; Awadalla, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Many decades of theory have demonstrated that, in non-recombining systems, slightly deleterious mutations accumulate non-reversibly, potentially driving the extinction of many asexual species. Non-recombining chromosomes in sexual organisms are thought to have degenerated in a similar fashion; however, it is not clear the extent to which damaging mutations accumulate along chromosomes with highly variable rates of crossing over. Using high-coverage sequencing data from over 1,400 individuals in the 1000 Genomes and CARTaGENE projects, we show that recombination rate modulates the distribution of putatively deleterious variants across the entire human genome. Exons in regions of low recombination are significantly enriched for deleterious and disease-associated variants, a signature varying in strength across worldwide human populations with different demographic histories. Regions with low recombination rates are enriched for highly conserved genes with essential cellular functions and show an excess of mutations with demonstrated effects on health, a phenomenon likely affecting disease susceptibility in humans.

  2. Perinatal Oxidative Stress May Affect Fetal Ghrelin Levels in Humans.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Fraser, William D; Julien, Pierre; Audibert, Francois; Xiao, Lin; Garofalo, Carole; Levy, Emile

    2015-12-08

    In vitro cell model studies have shown that oxidative stress may affect beta-cell function. It is unknown whether oxidative stress may affect metabolic health in human fetuses/newborns. In a singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we studied maternal (24-28 weeks gestation) and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes] in relation to fetal metabolic health biomarkers including cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity), proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of beta-cell function), insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations. Strong positive correlations were observed between maternal and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress (r = 0.33 for MDA, r = 0.74 for total F2-isoprostanes, all p < 0.0001). Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, cord plasma ghrelin concentrations were consistently negatively correlated to oxidative stress biomarkers in maternal (r = -0.32, p < 0.0001 for MDA; r = -0.31, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes) or cord plasma (r = -0.13, p = 0.04 for MDA; r = -0.32, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes). Other fetal metabolic health biomarkers were not correlated to oxidative stress. Adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, similar associations were observed. Our study provides the first preliminary evidence suggesting that oxidative stress may affect fetal ghrelin levels in humans. The implications in developmental "programming" the vulnerability to metabolic syndrome related disorders remain to be elucidated.

  3. Humanized Foxp2 specifically affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

    PubMed

    Reimers-Kipping, S; Hevers, W; Pääbo, S; Enard, W

    2011-02-23

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution and influence aspects of speech and language. Recently it was shown that when these substitutions are introduced into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice, they increase dendrite length and long-term depression (LTD) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we investigated if these effects are found in other brain regions. We found that neurons in the cerebral cortex, the thalamus and the striatum have increased dendrite lengths in the humanized mice whereas neurons in the amygdala and the cerebellum do not. In agreement with previous work we found increased LTD in medium spiny neurons, but did not detect alterations of synaptic plasticity in Purkinje cells. We conclude that although Foxp2 is expressed in many brain regions and has multiple roles during mammalian development, the evolutionary changes that occurred in the protein in human ancestors specifically affect brain regions that are connected via cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

  4. Nanotechnology in elevation of the worldwide impact of obesity and obesity-related diseases: potential roles in human health and disease.

    PubMed

    Eldaw, Abdellatif

    2011-07-01

    Current worldwide data show epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes with no real solutions apart from continuous calls to changing lifestyle and food habits. Despite health messages that are communicated by health authorities, the epidemic is growing. More people are affected with health consequences that are usually frightening as more resources are wasted, especially in areas where health care and resources are lacking. Nanotechnology applications in food industry present practical approaches that help produce more tasty food with little calories, functional foods, and nutritional supplements and alter the fats and sugar contents of our foods with potential for many more applications. Consequently, this opens more windows to better control of many nutritional deficiencies as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes, especially among children and young adults who are addicted to fast food. With such potential, food producers, policy makers, health authorities, food scientists, and governments need to collaborate and make all possible efforts to fund and support research in different areas of food produced using nanotechnology. So far, consumers are not prepared to accept food produced using nanotechnology, mainly because information on the safety of such products are not enough. This issue needs to be addressed and researched well using suitable risk assessment methodologies. Consumers need to be assured, and involved as well, to avoid the "refusal state" that still exists against many safe products such as genetically modified organisms and irradiated food. There is the possibility that consumers could perceive that they will bear the potential risks posed by nanotechnology applications while the benefits will accrue mainly to others, such as food processors or farmers.

  5. Nanotechnology in Elevation of the Worldwide Impact of Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases: Potential Roles in Human Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    EldawAbdellatif

    2011-01-01

    Current worldwide data show epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes with no real solutions apart from continuous calls to changing lifestyle and food habits. Despite health messages that are communicated by health authorities, the epidemic is growing. More people are affected with health consequences that are usually frightening as more resources are wasted, especially in areas where health care and resources are lacking. Nanotechnology applications in food industry present practical approaches that help produce more tasty food with little calories, functional foods, and nutritional supplements and alter the fats and sugar contents of our foods with potential for many more applications. Consequently, this opens more windows to better control of many nutritional deficiencies as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes, especially among children and young adults who are addicted to fast food. With such potential, food producers, policy makers, health authorities, food scientists, and governments need to collaborate and make all possible efforts to fund and support research in different areas of food produced using nanotechnology. So far, consumers are not prepared to accept food produced using nanotechnology, mainly because information on the safety of such products are not enough. This issue needs to be addressed and researched well using suitable risk assessment methodologies. Consumers need to be assured, and involved as well, to avoid the “refusal state” that still exists against many safe products such as genetically modified organisms and irradiated food. There is the possibility that consumers could perceive that they will bear the potential risks posed by nanotechnology applications while the benefits will accrue mainly to others, such as food processors or farmers. PMID:21880244

  6. Children Worldwide, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines…

  7. Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, Laurel E.; Sohn, Michael D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2008-03-01

    We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of PCB 153 in women, and predict its transfer via lactation to infants. The model is the first human, population-scale lactational model for PCB 153. Data in the literature provided estimates for model development and for performance assessment. Physiological parameters were taken from a cohort in Taiwan and from reference values in the literature. We estimated partition coefficients based on chemical structure and the lipid content in various body tissues. Using exposure data in Japan, we predicted acquired body burden of PCB 153 at an average childbearing age of 25 years and compare predictions to measurements from studies in multiple countries. Forward-model predictions agree well with human biomonitoring measurements, as represented by summary statistics and uncertainty estimates. The model successfully describes the range of possible PCB 153 dispositions in maternal milk, suggesting a promising option for back estimating doses for various populations. One example of reverse dosimetry modeling was attempted using our PBPK model for possible exposure scenarios in Canadian Inuits who had the highest level of PCB 153 in their milk in the world.

  8. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  9. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335

  10. Do ELF magnetic fields affect human reaction time?

    SciTech Connect

    Podd, J.V.; Whittington, C.J.; Barnes, G.R.G.; Page, W.H.; Rapley, B.I.

    1995-12-01

    Two double-blind studies were run in an attempt to confirm the finding that a 0.2 Hz magnetic field affects simple reaction time (RT) in humans, whereas a 0.1 Hz field does not. In the first experiment, 12 volunteer subjects were exposed to a continuous 0.2 Hz, 0.1 Hz, or sham field in a fully counter-balanced, within-subjects design. Subjects were run singly for one condition each day over 3 consecutive days with a field strength of 1.1 mT and a daily expose duration of 5 min. Neither magnetic field had any effect on RT at any time during the exposure. One condition of a second study, using a new group of 24 volunteer subjects, also failed to find any field effects at 0.2 Hz. Additionally, the second study failed to show any effects when the frequency, flux density, and field orientation were set according to parameter resonance theory. It is suggested that, although ELF magnetic field effects on human behavior may be elusive, future research can improve detection rates by paying greater attention to reducing error variance and increasing statistical power.

  11. Has solar variability caused climate change that affected human culture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feynman, Joan

    If solar variability affects human culture it most likely does so by changing the climate in which the culture operates. Variations in the solar radiative input to the Earth's atmosphere have often been suggested as a cause of such climate change on time scales from decades to tens of millennia. In the last 20 years there has been enormous progress in our knowledge of the many fields of research that impinge on this problem; the history of the solar output, the effect of solar variability on the Earth's mean climate and its regional patterns, the history of the Earth's climate and the history of mankind and human culture. This new knowledge encourages revisiting the question asked in the title of this talk. Several important historical events have been reliably related to climate change including the Little Ice Age in northern Europe and the collapse of the Classical Mayan civilization in the 9th century AD. In the first section of this paper we discus these historical events and review the evidence that they were caused by changes in the solar output. Perhaps the most important event in the history of mankind was the development of agricultural societies. This began to occur almost 12,000 years ago when the climate changed from the Pleistocene to the modern climate of the Holocene. In the second section of the paper we will discuss the suggestion ( Feynman and Ruzmaikin, 2007) that climate variability was the reason agriculture developed when it did and not before.

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-023 11 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS Soviet Journal Reviews SIPRI Books on Arms Race in Outer Space (I. Kuznetsova, Yu. Orlov; Moscow INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, No 12, Dec 85) 1...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 8 Feb 86) 59 TASS: INF Accord Possible Without Space Arms Connection (Moscow TASS, 7 Feb 86) 62 TASS: U.S. Officials

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-85-065 16 December 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS French...34U.S.-USSR Geneva Talks" for "European Conferences". JPRS-TAO85-065 16 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS FRENCH PRIME MINISTER DISCUSSES SDI...imbalances in conventional weapons can really be discussed. As far as space is concerned, we want to avoid the emergence of weapons which are highly

  14. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on nuclear and space arms cannot be described as "equitable" even with most unrestrained imagination. ’Gray Hawk’ PM131006 Moscow IZVESTIYA in...WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Effectiveness of U.S. SDI Effort Downplayed ’ (Peter Bretschneider; Karl-Marx-Stadt...MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 7, Jul 85) 53 - b - JPRS-TAO85-064 13 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS EFFECTIVENESS OF U.S. SDI EFFORT

  15. [Worldwide eradication of poliomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Rasch, G; Schreier, E; Kiehl, W; Kurth, R

    2001-10-30

    Poliomyelitis, an infectious disease with acute and persistent flaccid paralysis is caused by poliovirus (types 1, 2 or 3), an enterovirus. The infection is asymptomatic in 95% of infected subjects. Most of the paralytic cases occur in adolescents or adults in the course of polio type 1 infection. In the prevaccination era, in countries with poor hygienic conditions, infection in early childhood was common, mostly asymptomatic, and immunity in the population prevailed. In developed countries polio often struck adolescents and adults taking its toll in paralytic disease. The introduction of vaccination with the Salk vaccine (IPV Inactivated Polio Vaccine) in the USA and in Europe in 1956 and with the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) developed by Sabin worldwide in the early sixties made it possible to control the epidemic in large geographic areas, but it could not eliminate the disease worldwide. Poliomyelitis is still endemic in Central Africa and in the Indian sub-continent. Acts of war led to the reduction in the vaccination rate in different geographic areas, and smaller epidemics with wild virus but also with reverted vaccine strains occurred. In some parts of the world the rate of vaccination also declined due to elimination of poliomyelitis, and it came to small epidemics of paralytic polio mainly caused by reverted vaccine strains circulating in the population. Reverted vaccine strains also remain a central problem in the eradication of poliomyelitis projected for 2005 by the World Health Organisation. A high vaccination rate, preferably with 3 doses of OPV in infancy or early childhood, and exact worldwide monitoring of cases is indispensable for the eradication. For the complete eradication of poliovirus the live vaccine OPV would have to be changed to an inactivated vaccine IPV worldwide. However, this is presently unachieveable, because of logistic problems and high costs.

  16. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

  17. Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. Principal Findings The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as ‘rewards’ and ‘punishments’ in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher

  18. AAVSO Solar Observers Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.

    2013-06-01

    (Abstract only) For visual solar observers there has been no biological change in the "detector" (human eye) - at century scales (eye + visual cortex) does not change much over time. Our capacity to "integrate" seeing distortions is not just simple averaging! The visual cortex plays an essential role, and until recently only the SDO-HMI (Solar Dynamics Observatory, Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager) has had the capacity to detect the smallest sunspots, called pores. Prior to this the eye was superior to photography and CCD. Imaged data are not directly comparable or substitutable to counts by eye, as the effects of sensor/optical resolution and seeing will have a different influence on the resulting sunspot counts for images when compared to the human eye. Also contributing to the complex task of counting sunspots is differentiating between a sunspot (which is usually defined as having a darker center (umbra) and lighter outer ring (penumbra)) and a pore, made even more complex by the conflicting definitions of the word "pore" in the solar context: "pore" can mean a small spot without penumbra or "pore" can mean a random intergranular blemish that is not a true sunspot. The overall agreement is that the smallest spot size is near 2,000 km or ~3 arc sec, (Loughhead, R. E. and Bray, R. J. 1961, Australian J. Phys., 14, 347). Sunspot size is dictated by granulation dynamics rather than spot size (cancellation of convective motion), and by the lifetime of the pore, which averages from 10 to 30 minutes. There is no specific aperture required for AAVSO observers contributing sunspot observations. However, the detection of the smallest spots is influenced by the resolution of the telescope. Two factors to consider are the theoretical optical resolution (unobstructed aperture), Rayleigh criterion: theta = 138 / D(mm), and Dawes criterion: theta = 116 / D(mm) (http://www.telescope-optics.net/telescope_resolution.htm). However, seeing is variable with time; daytime range will

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    n r JPRS-TAC-85-057 25 November 1985 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL f-—*lf^ S ;.řS », ;r%^V; ,*’ \\i.*? 19980728 ■£*V’:: FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST...why he had decided to extend a programme launched last year of aid to penetration techniques. He had asked the Atomic Energy Commisariat (CEA) for...ICBM s , i.e. for those systems which constitute the basis of the strategic potential of the USSR. No though restrictions are set for the systems in

  20. Obesity Epidemiology Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Mincey, Krista D

    2016-12-01

    Obesity continues to be a public health concern across the globe. Obesity has a demonstrated association with health behaviors and health outcomes, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Over the past 2 decades, obesity has increased worldwide and remains highest in the United States. It is critical to understand the definition of obesity, using body mass index appropriately, recent estimates, and risk factors as a framework within which clinicians should work to help reduce the burden of obesity. This framework, including the Healthy People 2020 place-based approach to social determinants of health, is described in this article.

  1. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-013 1 February 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS LE SOIR on Possible European Space Defense (Pierre Lefevre; Brussels LE SOIR, 12 Dec 85) 1 SALT/START ISSUES USSR Hits U.S. Accusations of...PRS«TAO86*013 1 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS LE SOIR ON POSSIBLE EUROPEAN SPACE DEFENSE Brussels LE SOIR in French 12 Dec 85 p 8 [Article by

  2. Worldwide lubricant trends

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on lubricating oils for internal combustion engines. Topics considered at the conference included worldwide environmental regulations and their impact on lubricant additives, passenger car gasoline engine oils in Japan, valve train wear, the field performance of super premium engine oils, wear resistance, deposits, scale control, oil thickening, low-phosphorus engine oils, bore polishing, the Tornado test, the coordination of international needs for lubricant quality,and the corrosive wear of cast iron under reciprocating lubrication.

  3. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-04

    GMT 4 Jan 87 LD] /9738 CSO: 5200/1128 11 U.S.«-USSR NUCLEAR AND SPACE ARMS TALKS GORBACHEV, REAGAN NEW YEAR MESSAGES ON DISARMAMENT Reagan to...Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 28 Dec 86 First Edition p 4 [Vitaliy Korionov "International Review"] [Excerpts] Only a few days remain until the New Year...105063 JPRS-TAC-87-OlO 4 FEBRUARY 1987 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL ’DUO QUALITY BFSPSSTEP * 19980515 022 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST■1NFORMAtlÖN

  4. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5-41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5-12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2-T1R3 transduction cascade.

  5. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5–41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5–12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2–T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  6. Affective Man-Machine Interface: Unveiling Human Emotions through Biosignals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Egon L.; Lisý, Viliam; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees

    As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological proce-sses, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and, as such, can serve as an advanced man-machine interface (MMI) for empathic consumer products. However, such a MMI requires the correct classification of biosignals to emotion classes. This chapter starts with an introduction on biosignals for emotion detection. Next, a state-of-the-art review is presented on automatic emotion classification. Moreover, guidelines are presented for affective MMI. Subsequently, a research is presented that explores the use of EDA and three facial EMG signals to determine neutral, positive, negative, and mixed emotions, using recordings of 21 people. A range of techniques is tested, which resulted in a generic framework for automated emotion classification with up to 61.31% correct classification of the four emotion classes, without the need of personal profiles. Among various other directives for future research, the results emphasize the need for parallel processing of multiple biosignals.

  7. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Hans P

    2002-01-01

    Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as the availability of toxicological data, survey data, knowledge about the distribution of mycotoxins in commodities, and analytical methodology. Economical and political factors such as commercial interests and sufficiency of food supply have their impact as well. International enquiry's on existing mycotoxin legislation in foodstuffs and animal feedstuffs have been carried out several times in the 1980s and 1990s and details about tolerances, legal basis, responsible authorities, official protocols of analysis and sampling have been published. Recently a comprehensive update on worldwide regulations was published as FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64. It appeared that at least 77 countries now have specific regulations for mycotoxins, 13 countries are known to have no specific regulations, whereas no data are available for about 50 countries, many of them in Africa. Over the years, a large diversity in tolerance levels for mycotoxins has remained. Some free trade zones (EU, MERCOSUR) are in the process of harmonizing the limits and regulations for mycotoxins in their respective member states, but it is not likely that worldwide harmonized limits for mycotoxins will soon be within reach.

  8. Improving STD services worldwide.

    PubMed

    Frahn, A L

    1998-01-01

    The number of new sexually transmitted disease (STD) cases worldwide continues to rise annually. Many people, however, do not know that they are infected with a STD because STD infection may often remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage. Up to half of STD-infected women either have no symptoms of infection or do not realize that the symptoms they have indicate a need to seek medical care. Many people are uncomfortable discussing STDs. AVSC is helping providers of family planning and other health care services to become more comfortable discussing STDs with their clients and more skilled in diagnosing and treating them. AVSC has been organizing training activities, developing training materials, and conducting research around the world to help improve the quality and availability of STD services. Examples of AVSC work in Bangladesh and the development of training materials to improve STD service providers' counseling and clinical skills are cited. AVSC's STD-related research is designed to help improve the quality and safety of family planning and STD services worldwide. Activities are noted in Russia, South Africa, and some other developing countries.

  9. High pressure treatment of human norovirus-like particles: factors affecting destruction efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. High pressure processing (HPP) is considered a promising non-thermal technology to inactivate viral pathogens in foods. However, the effectiveness of HPP on inactivating HuNoV remains poorly understood because it cannot be...

  10. Do toxic heavy metals affect antioxidant defense mechanisms in humans?

    PubMed

    Wieloch, Monika; Kamiński, Piotr; Ossowska, Anna; Koim-Puchowska, Beata; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Dymek, Grażyna; Mańkowska, Aneta; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to prove whether anthropogenic pollution affects antioxidant defense mechanisms such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, ferritin (FRT) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) in human serum. The study area involves polluted and salted environment (Kujawy region; northern-middle Poland) and Tuchola Forestry (unpolluted control area). We investigated 79 blood samples of volunteers from polluted area and 82 from the control in 2008 and 2009. Lead, cadmium and iron concentrations were measured in whole blood by the ICP-MS method. SOD and CAT activities were measured in serum using SOD and CAT Assay Kits by the standardized colorimetric method. Serum TAS was measured spectrophotometrically by the modified Benzie and Strain (1996) method and FRT concentration-by the immunonefelometric method. Pb and Cd levels and SOD activity were higher in volunteers from polluted area as compared with those from the control (0.0236 mg l(-1) vs. 0.014 mg l(-1); 0.0008 mg l(-1) vs. 0.0005 mg l(-1); 0.137 Um l(-1) vs. 0.055 Um l(-1), respectively). Fe level, CAT activity and TAS were lower in serum of volunteers from polluted area (0.442 g l(-1) vs. 0.476 gl(-1); 3.336 nmol min(-1)ml(-1) vs. 6.017 nmol min(-1)ml(-1); 0.731 Trolox-equivalents vs. 0.936 Trolox-equivalents, respectively), whilst differences in FRT concentration were not significant (66.109 μg l(-1) vs. 37.667 μg l(-1), p=0.3972). Positive correlations between Pb (r=0.206), Cd (r=0.602) and SOD in the inhabitants of polluted area, and between Cd and SOD in the control (r=0.639) were shown. In volunteers from both studied environments TAS-FRT (polluted: r=0.625 vs. control: r=0.837) and Fe-FRT (polluted area: r=0.831 vs. control: r=0.407) correlations, and Pb-FRT (r=0.360) and Pb-TAS (r=0.283) in the control were stated. The higher lead and cadmium concentrations in blood cause an increase of SOD activity. It suggests that this is one of the defense mechanisms of an

  11. Microparasites of worldwide mullets.

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, Mykola

    2015-01-01

    The present review is focus on parasitic organisms, previously considered as protozoans. Viral, prokaryotic and fungal parasites caused diseases and disorders of worldwide mullets were also observed. Most of the known viruses associated with a high mortality of mullets were detected in Mugil cephalus. Prokaryotic microparasites were registered in M. cephalus, Moolgarda cunnesiu, Liza ramada and Mugil liza. Fungal pathogens were associated with representatives of the genera Aphanomyces, Achlya, Phialemonium, Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus sp. can be considered as a potential threat for marine fish aquaculture, especially in culture conditions. A new hyperparasitic microsporidium like organism was recorded in myxozoan Myxobolus parvus infecting grey mullet Liza haematocheilus in the Russian coastal zone of the Sea of Japan. The protozoan representatives of the phyla Dinoflagellata, Euglenozoa, Ciliophora and Apicomplexa were reviewed and analyzed. The review of myxosporean parasites from grey mullets includes 64 species belonging to 13 genera and 9 families infecting 16 fish species

  12. IEEE standards worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1995-01-01

    This article presents North American views on the development and use of internationally acceptable standards through strengthened ties with global standards organizations. The key ingredient to enhance the international reputation of IEEE standards is, without doubt, greater participation of members around the world. Standards that will really have force are those that are recognized as preeminent and that are sought after by organizations worldwide. it will be necessary to develop enhanced liaisons with standards organizations around the world, such as the IEC. These are some of the issues that will be addressed by panelists representing standards organizations and users from North America, United States, Canada, and Mexico. Also discussed is the importance of standards in the NAFTA and GATT agreements on trade.

  13. Obesity: the worldwide epidemic.

    PubMed

    James, Philip T

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, the prevalence of obesity in Western and Westernizing countries has more than doubled. A standardized classification of overweight and obesity, based on the body mass index now allows a comparison of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In children, the International Obesity Taskforce age, sex, and BMI specific cut-off points are increasingly being used. BMI data are being evaluated as part of a new analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. Prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are very different in each region with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe and North American having higher prevalence rates. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting.

  14. Worldwide epidemiology of obesity.

    PubMed

    VanItallie, T B

    1994-01-01

    Average body mass index values and prevalence data for overweight show complex patterns varying with sex, age, socioeconomic circumstances, race, geography, and over time. Differences in the predominant lifestyles and developmental status of nations and regions also influence weight patterns. Estimates of the prevalence of obesity in developed countries vary depending on the definitions used. For example, one recent survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity in the US is 15%, while another survey has found it to be 26%. It appears that overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent worldwide, not only in developed nations, but also in the populations of developing countries, possibly as a result of urbanisation, migration, new eating habits and recent affluence. Since modernisation appears to be an inevitable process throughout the world, there is every reason to expect that the epidemic of overweight and obesity will extend globally in the future.

  15. The worldwide obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M

    2001-11-01

    The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  16. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  17. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant.

  18. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  19. ANALYSIS OF DISCRIMINATING FACTORS IN HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurately modeling exposure to particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants ultimately involves the utilization of human location-activity databases to assist in understanding the potential variability of microenvironmental exposures. This paper critically considers and stati...

  20. Worldwide Report: Epidemiology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-17

    the growth of rice plants but harmful diseases and insects, especially army weevils and stem borers, have also developed strongly. According to the...against complicated weather changes at the end of the season, retaining sufficient water to nourish the rice , continually inspecting the fields to...in some places in the north have a shortage of rice seeds and many water buffaloes and oxen have collapsed, which has affected the 10th month

  1. Aversive Pavlovian Responses Affect Human Instrumental Motor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioral control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology. PMID:23060738

  2. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Discussion Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Conclusion Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. PMID:18311558

  3. Potential electrostatic interactions in multiple regions affect human metapneumovirus F-mediated membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Andres; Hackett, Brent A; Winter, Christine C; Buchholz, Ursula J; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-09-01

    The recently identified human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a worldwide respiratory virus affecting all age groups and causing pneumonia and bronchiolitis in severe cases. Despite its clinical significance, no specific antiviral agents have been approved for treatment of HMPV infection. Unlike the case for most paramyxoviruses, the fusion proteins (F) of a number of strains, including the clinical isolate CAN97-83, can be triggered by low pH. We recently reported that residue H435 in the HRB linker domain acts as a pH sensor for HMPV CAN97-83 F, likely through electrostatic repulsion forces between a protonated H435 and its surrounding basic residues, K295, R396, and K438, at low pH. Through site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that a positive charge at position 435 is required but not sufficient for F-mediated membrane fusion. Arginine or lysine substitution at position 435 resulted in a hyperfusogenic F protein, while replacement with aspartate or glutamate abolished fusion activity. Studies with recombinant viruses carrying mutations in this region confirmed its importance. Furthermore, a second region within the F(2) domain identified as being rich in charged residues was found to modulate fusion activity of HMPV F. Loss of charge at residues E51, D54, and E56 altered local folding and overall stability of the F protein, with dramatic consequences for fusion activity. As a whole, these studies implicate charged residues and potential electrostatic interactions in function, pH sensing, and overall stability of HMPV F.

  4. Timing of influenza A(H5N1) in poultry and humans and seasonal influenza activity worldwide, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Durand, Lizette O; Glew, Patrick; Gross, Diane; Kasper, Matthew; Trock, Susan; Kim, Inkyu K; Bresee, Joseph S; Donis, Ruben; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Co-circulation of influenza A(H5N1) and seasonal influenza viruses among humans and animals could lead to co-infections, reassortment, and emergence of novel viruses with pandemic potential. We assessed the timing of subtype H5N1 outbreaks among poultry, human H5N1 cases, and human seasonal influenza in 8 countries that reported 97% of all human H5N1 cases and 90% of all poultry H5N1 outbreaks. In these countries, most outbreaks among poultry (7,001/11,331, 62%) and half of human cases (313/625, 50%) occurred during January-March. Human H5N1 cases occurred in 167 (45%) of 372 months during which outbreaks among poultry occurred, compared with 59 (10%) of 574 months that had no outbreaks among poultry. Human H5N1 cases also occurred in 59 (22%) of 267 months during seasonal influenza periods. To reduce risk for co-infection, surveillance and control of H5N1 should be enhanced during January-March, when H5N1 outbreaks typically occur and overlap with seasonal influenza virus circulation.

  5. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide affects human gingival fibroblast cytoskeletal organization.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Contreras-Marmolejo, Luis Arturo; Román-Alvárez, Patricia; Barajas-Torres, Carolina

    2008-04-01

    The cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that plays a key role in maintaining cell morphology and function. This study investigates the effect of bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a strong inflammatory agent, on the dynamics and organization of actin, tubulin, vimentin, and vinculin proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). A time-dependent study showed a noticeable change in actin architecture after 1.5 h of incubation with LPS (1 microg/ml) with the formation of orthogonal fibers and further accumulation of actin filament at the cell periphery by 24 h. When 0.01-10 microg/ml of LPS was added to human gingival fibroblast cultures, cells acquired a round, flat shape and gradually developed cytoplasmic ruffling. Lipopolysaccharides extracted from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans periodontopathogenic bacteria promoted alterations in F-actin stress fibres of human gingival cells. Normally, human gingival cells have F-actin fibres that are organized in linear distribution throughout the cells, extending along the cell's length. LPS-treated cells exhibited changes in cytoskeletal protein organization, and F-actin was reorganized by the formation of bundles underneath and parallel to the cell membrane. We also found the reorganization of the vimentin network into vimentin bundling after 1.5 h of treatment. HGF cells exhibited diffuse and granular gamma-tubulin stain. There was no change in LPS-treated HGF. However, vinculin plaques distributed in the cell body diminished after LPS treatment. We conclude that the dynamic and structured organization of cytoskeletal filaments and actin assembly in human gingival fibroblasts is altered by LPS treatment and is accompanied by a decrease in F-actin pools.

  6. Bulletin Board Ideas: Worldwide Scientific Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Maurice K.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a bulletin board activity that identifies scientific phenomena occurring worldwide during the school year. A map of the world is marked with colored pins as students find news information of places and kind of event (e.g.; volcanoes, floods, crop failures, human epidemics). (CS)

  7. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  8. Current Trends of HIV Recombination Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Katherine A.; Wong, Justin J.L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major characteristics of HIV-1 is its high genetic variability and extensive heterogeneity. This characteristic is due to its molecular traits, which in turn allows it to vary, recombine, and diversify at a high frequency. As such, it generates complex molecular forms, termed recombinants, which evade the human immune system and so survive. There is no sequence constraint to the recombination pattern as it appears to occur at inter-group (between groups M and O), as well as interand intra-subtype within group M. Rapid emergence and active global transmission of HIV-1 recombinants, known as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs), requires urgent attention. To date, 55 CRFs have been reported around the world. The first CRF01_AE originated from Central Africa but spread widely in Asia. The most recent CRF; CRF55_01B is a recombinant form of CRF01_AE and subtype B, although its origin is yet to be publicly disclosed. HIV-1 recombination is an ongoing event and plays an indispensable role in HIV epidemics in different regions. Africa, Asia and South America are identified as recombination hot-spots. They are affected by continual emergence and cocirculation of newly emerging CRFs and URFs, which are now responsible for almost 20% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. Better understanding of recombinants is necessary to determine their biological and molecular attributes. PMID:24470968

  9. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  10. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M.; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants and

  11. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Schöberl, Iris; Wedl, Manuela; Beetz, Andrea; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001), whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI) scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028). Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI) and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT), had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016), as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ) or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ) (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003). We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context) in science and in counselling. PMID:28178272

  12. Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation colour affect perceived human health.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ian D; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice.

  13. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  14. Melatonin differentially affects vascular blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jonathan S; Sauder, Charity L; Ray, Chester A

    2011-02-01

    Melatonin is synthesized and released into the circulation by the pineal gland in a circadian rhythm. Melatonin has been demonstrated to differentially alter blood flow to assorted vascular beds by the activation of different melatonin receptors in animal models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of melatonin on blood flow to various vascular beds in humans. Renal (Doppler ultrasound), forearm (venous occlusion plethysmography), and cerebral blood flow (transcranial Doppler), arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured in 10 healthy subjects (29±1 yr; 5 men and 5 women) in the supine position for 3 min. The protocol began 45 min after the ingestion of either melatonin (3 mg) or placebo (sucrose). Subjects returned at least 2 days later at the same time of day to repeat the trial after ingesting the other substance. Melatonin did not alter heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Renal blood flow velocity (RBFV) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) were lower during the melatonin trial compared with placebo (RBFV, 40.5±2.9 vs. 45.4±1.5 cm/s; and RVC, 0.47±0.02 vs. 0.54±0.01 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively). In contrast, forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were greater with melatonin compared with placebo (FBF, 2.4±0.2 vs. 1.9±0.1 ml·100 ml(-1)·min(-1); and FVC, 0.029±0.003 vs. 0.023±0.002 arbitrary units, respectively). Melatonin did not alter cerebral blood flow measurements compared with placebo. Additionally, phentolamine (5-mg bolus) after melatonin reversed the decrease in RVC, suggesting that melatonin increases sympathetic outflow to the kidney to mediate renal vasoconstriction. In summary, exogenous melatonin differentially alters vascular blood flow in humans. These data suggest the complex nature of melatonin on the vasculature in humans.

  15. Human monocyte differentiation stage affects response to arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Alvarez, Elizabeth; Pelaez, Carlos A; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    AA-induced cell death mechanisms acting on human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), U937 promonocytes and PMA-differentiated U937 cells were studied. Arachidonic acid induced apoptosis and necrosis in monocytes and U937 cells but only apoptosis in MDM and U937D cells. AA increased both types of death in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells and increased the percentage of TNFalpha+ cells and reduced IL-10+ cells. Experiments blocking these cytokines indicated that AA-mediated death was TNFalpha- and IL-10-independent. The differences in AA-mediated cell death could be explained by high ROS, calpain and sPLA-2 production and activity in monocytes. Blocking sPLA-2 in monocytes and treatment with antioxidants favored M. tuberculosis control whereas AA enhanced M. tuberculosis growth in MDM. Such evidence suggested that AA-modulated effector mechanisms depend on mononuclear phagocytes' differentiation stage.

  16. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Ha, Mina; Hauptmann, Michael; Bhatti, Parveen; Sram, Radim J.; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E. Janet; Whitehouse, Caroline A.; Lindholm, Carita; Nakano, Mimako; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Nori; Vorobtsova, Irena; Oestreicher, Ursula; Stephan, Günther; Yong, Lee C.; Bauchinger, Manfred; Schmid, Ernst; Chung, Hai Won; Darroudi, Firouz; Roy, Laurence; Voisin, Phillipe; Barquinero, Joan F.; Livingston, Gordon; Blakey, David; Hayata, Isamu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chunyan; Bennett, L. Michelle; Littlefield, L. Gayle; Edwards, Alan A.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Tucker, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from sixteen laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages vs. a linear relationship (p <0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes. PMID:18337160

  17. Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide - 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1999-01-01

    The 1990 U.S. Bureau of Mines publication, Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide, has been updated and is now available. The 1998 USGS edition of Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide is published in two parts. Part I—Detail contains information on individual primary smelter capacity, location, ownership, sources of energy, and other miscellaneous information. Part II—Summary summarizes the capacity data by country

  18. Noisy human neighbours affect where urban monkeys live

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Marina H. L.; Vecci, Marco A.; Hirsch, André; Young, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Urban areas and many natural habitats are being dominated by a new selection pressure: anthropogenic noise. The ongoing expansion of urban areas, roads and airports throughout the world makes the noise almost omnipresent. Urbanization and the increase of noise levels form a major threat to living conditions in and around cities. Insight into the behavioural strategies of urban survivors may explain the sensitivity of other species to urban selection pressures. Here, we show that urban black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) living in noisy urban areas may select their home-range based primarily on ambient noise level. We have tested the hypothesis that the noise from vehicular traffic and visitors in an urban park in Brazil influences the use of home-range (space) by urban marmosets. Marmosets even avoided noisy areas with high food availability. In addition, they systematically preferred the quieter areas even with dynamic changes in the acoustic landscape of the park between weekdays and Sundays (no observations were made on Saturdays). These data provide evidence that the use of home-range by wild animals can be affected by a potential aversive stimulus such as noise pollution. PMID:21715396

  19. MISR Satellite Observations of Aerosol Types Affecting Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Franklin, M.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based observations of pollutants and concentrations of particulate matter (PM), that includes small particles designated PM2.5 and dust-dominated PM10, are the gold standard in studies of environmental impacts on human health. However, because monitoring stations are costly, they typically provide only limited spatial coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. We will demonstrate how data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument that has been flying on NASA's Terra Earth Observing System satellite since early 2000 can be used to provide estimates of surface PM types. The current MISR operational aerosol retrieval uses a combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property information (including dust AOD) globally at 17.6 km spatial resolution. Using the same algorithm with data collected in all 36-channels at 275 m resolution (Local Mode), which is available over greater Los Angeles area, and also was activated during 2013 DISCOVER-AQ California field campaign, high-resolution 4.4 km aerosol retrievals were performed in addition to the standard 17.6 km retrievals. The 4.4 km spatial resolution of the PM information data is fine enough to be able to resolve local differences in PM loading that may be important for understanding regional health effects of pollution in the region. In particular, we demonstrate that MISR high-resolution AOD retrievals are in better agreement with ground-based aerosol observations and reveal more details about the aerosol spatial variability compared to the MISR standard 17.6 km product. Then we will discuss techniques and show examples of the application of high-resolution MISR data to provide estimates of surface PM for the greater Los Angeles area in 2008 and for California San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. Finally, we will discuss future NASA instruments that will provide new information allowing for better

  20. Factors affecting distribution of airflow in a human tracheobronchial cast.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B S; Sussman, R G; Lippmann, M

    1993-09-01

    Air velocity was measured at end airways of hollow replicate casts of the human tracheobronchial tree in order to determine the flow distribution within casts extending to 3 mm diameter airways. Measurements were made by hot-wire anemometry for constant inspiratory flow rates of 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 L.min-1. Average flow distribution among the lung lobes was as follows: right upper, 18.5%; right middle, 9.2%; right lower, 32.3%; left upper, 15.7%; and left lower, 24.3%. An empirical model derived from the experimental flow distribution data demonstrated the effect of various morphometric parameters of the hollow cast on the distribution of airflow. Airway cross-sectional area, branching angle and total path-length were found to have the greatest influence. As the tracheal flow rate decreased from 60 to 7.5 L.min-1, the influence of branching angle was reduced, while total path-length became more influential. These results provide evidence for the transition of flow regimes within the TB tree within normal physiological flow ranges.

  1. Mimicry profiles are affected by human-induced habitat changes.

    PubMed

    Azmeh, S; Owen, J; Sørensen, K; Grewcock, D; Gilbert, F

    1998-12-07

    Mimicry theory predicts that mimics in a Batesian mimicry complex evolve to resemble models closely, and that there is a limit on the numbers of mimics relative to models. For hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae), supposed mimics of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, neither of these is true; many mimics are imperfect and in the UK and Europe they outnumber their models manifold. We hypothesized that the high abundance of mimics relative to models in the UK may be the result not just of mimic model dynamics, but of habitat changes caused by humans. Most of the larvae of poor mimics are aphidophagous, and changes from ancient forest to agricultural and/or urban habitats may have vastly augmented aphid numbers. Using new and literature data, we compared mimicry profiles of habitats differing in their degree of habitat disturbance. In both cases more highly disturbed habitats had proportionally more poor mimics and fewer high-fidelity mimics than less disturbed habitats. This supports the hypothesis that habitat change has an effect on model to mimic ratios.

  2. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  3. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  4. What experimental experience affects dogs' comprehension of human communicative actions?

    PubMed

    Hauser, Marc D; Comins, Jordan A; Pytka, Lisa M; Cahill, Donal P; Velez-Calderon, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Studies of dogs report that individuals reliably respond to the goal-directed communicative actions (e.g., pointing) of human experimenters. All of these studies use some version of a multi-trial approach, thereby allowing for the possibility of rapid learning within an experimental session. The experiments reported here ask whether dogs can respond correctly to a communicative action based on only a single presentation, thereby eliminating the possibility of learning within the experimental context. We tested 173 dogs. For each dog reaching our test criteria, we used a single presentation of six different goal-directed actions within a session, asking whether they correctly follow to a target goal (container with concealed food) a (1) distal hand point, (2) step toward one container, (3) hand point to one container followed by step toward the other, (4) step toward one container and point to the other, (5) distal foot point with the experimenter's hands free, and (6) distal foot point with the experimenter's hands occupied. Given only a single presentation, dogs selected the correct container when the experimenter hand pointed, foot pointed with hands occupied, or stepped closer to the target container, but failed on the other actions, despite using the same method. The fact that dogs correctly followed foot pointing with hands occupied, but not hands free, suggests that they are sensitive to environmental constraints, and use this information to infer rational, goal-directed action. We discuss these results in light of the role of experience in recognizing communicative gestures, as well as the significance of coding criteria for studies of canine competence.

  5. Visual stimulus eccentricity affects human gamma peak frequency.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, Stan; Fries, Pascal

    2013-09-01

    The peak frequency of neuronal gamma-band synchronization has received much attention in recent years. Gamma peak frequency shifts to higher frequency values for higher contrast, faster moving, and attended stimuli. In monkey V1, gamma peak frequency for a drifting grating is higher for a parafoveal as compared to an eccentric stimulus (Lima et al., 2010). This effect might be due to the cortical magnification factor: the higher cortical magnification for parafoveal stimuli increases the velocity with which the cortical representations of the moving grating stripes move across the cortical surface. Since faster moving stimuli lead to higher gamma frequency, a faster moving cortical representation might do the same. This explanation predicts that the eccentricity effect on gamma peak frequency is absent for stationary stimuli. To test this, we investigated the effect of eccentricity on gamma peak frequency by recording magnetoencephalography in human subjects while they viewed moving or stationary gratings. We found that both the moving and the stationary stimuli induced lower peak frequencies for larger eccentricities, arguing against an explanation based on the cortical magnification factor. We further investigated whether this eccentricity effect was explained by differences in the size or the spatial frequency of the expected cortical activation. Neither of those explained the eccentricity effect. We propose that the different stimulus and top-down factors leading to higher gamma peak frequency all result in higher stimulus salience, that salience is translated into gamma peak frequency, and that gamma peak frequency might subserve the preferential processing of neuronal activity induced by salient stimuli.

  6. A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review on the Association between Human Papillomavirus (Types 16 and 18) Infection and Esophageal Cancer Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Lei; Yan, Han; Che, Juanjuan; Huihui, Li; Jun, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer is a common and aggressive malignant tumor. This study aimed to investigate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) Types 16 and 18 and esophageal carcinoma (EC) in the world population by conducting a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods Computerized bibliographic and manual searches were performed to identify all eligible literatures between 1982 and 2014. PUBMED (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) and CNKI (http://www.cnki.net/) were the primary sources of case-control studies, and key words used include human papillomavirus, HPV, esophageal, esophagus, cancer, carcinoma, and tumor. All searches were performed by reviewing articles and abstracts cited in the published systematic reviews and case-control studies. Prospective studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% CIs for the association between HPV and EC were included. Results Thirty-three randomized studies were identified, and the main features of these trials were included in this systematic review. HPV infection rate in the EC group was 46.5%, while HPV infection rate in the control group was 26.2% (OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.33–1.98). In China, the merger OR value was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.26–2.07); while in the Asian region, the merger OR value was 1.63 (95% CI: 1.29–2.04). There were statistical differences in HPV testing due to different detection methods such as PCR, IHC and ISH. In the PCR detection group, the merger OR value was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.33–1.95). Conclusions These results indicate that HPV infection and the incidence of EC are closely associated. PMID:27409078

  7. Campaigning for women's health rights worldwide.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    In this paper, the author takes a look at the women's health movement worldwide and lists some of its many achievements. The information provided is set in the context of reproductive rights, the most common issue that affects women in both the developed and the developing world. The author discusses access to birth control and the role of the consumer movement in achieving rights for women in childbirth.

  8. A single high dose of dexamethasone affects the phosphorylation state of glutamate AMPA receptors in the human limbic system

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, M W; Leal, R B; Guarnieri, R; Schwarzbold, M L; Hoeller, A; Diaz, A P; Boos, G L; Lin, K; Linhares, M N; Nunes, J C; Quevedo, J; Bortolotto, Z A; Markowitsch, H J; Lightman, S L; Walz, R

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) released during stress response exert feedforward effects in the whole brain, but particularly in the limbic circuits that modulates cognition, emotion and behavior. GC are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant medication worldwide and pharmacological GC treatment has been paralleled by the high incidence of acute and chronic neuropsychiatric side effects, which reinforces the brain sensitivity for GC. Synapses can be bi-directionally modifiable via potentiation (long-term potentiation, LTP) or depotentiation (long-term depression, LTD) of synaptic transmission efficacy, and the phosphorylation state of Ser831 and Ser845 sites, in the GluA1 subunit of the glutamate AMPA receptors, are a critical event for these synaptic neuroplasticity events. Through a quasi-randomized controlled study, we show that a single high dexamethasone dose significantly reduces in a dose-dependent manner the levels of GluA1-Ser831 phosphorylation in the amygdala resected during surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy. This is the first report demonstrating GC effects on key markers of synaptic neuroplasticity in the human limbic system. The results contribute to understanding how GC affects the human brain under physiologic and pharmacologic conditions. PMID:27959333

  9. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-21

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects' affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain's motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  10. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  11. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-01-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254

  12. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption... information on how to evaluate the safety of flood-affected food crops for human consumption. DATES:...

  13. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    PubMed Central

    de Borst, Aline W.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations. PMID:26029133

  14. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  15. The Identification of Factors Affecting the Development and Practice of School-Based Counseling in Different National Contexts: A Grounded Theory Study Using a Worldwide Sample of Descriptive Journal Articles and Book Chapters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian; Lauterbach, Alexandra; Carey, John

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to analyze articles and book chapters describing the development and practice of school-based counseling in 25 different countries in order to identify the factors that affect development and practice. An 11-factor analytic framework was developed. Factors include: Cultural Factors, National Needs, Larger…

  16. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... other ways to control blood pressure, including healthy lifestyle choices and maintaining a normal weight, Roth said. Murray said some of the factors responsible for the worldwide increase in high blood pressure are unhealthy diets and obesity. In addition, in developing countries, more people are ...

  17. Human and nature-caused hazards: the affect heuristic causes biased decisions.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2014-08-01

    People are more concerned about the negative consequences of human hazards compared with natural hazards. Results of four experiments show that the same negative outcome (e.g., number of birds killed by an oil spill) was more negatively evaluated when caused by humans than when caused by nature. Results further show that when identical risk information was provided, participants evaluated nuclear power more negatively compared with solar power. The affect associated with the hazard per se influenced the interpretation of the new information. Furthermore, the affect experienced in the situation fully mediated the evaluation of the negative outcomes of a hazard. People's reliance on the affect heuristic is a challenge for acceptance of cost-benefit analyses because equally negative outcomes are differently evaluated depending on the cause. Symbolically significant information and the affect evoked by this information may result in biased and riskier decisions.

  18. The brain's emotional foundations of human personality and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth L; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Six of the primary-process subcortical brain emotion systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, CARE, GRIEF and PLAY - are presented as foundational for human personality development, and hence as a potentially novel template for personality assessment as in the Affective Neurosciences Personality Scales (ANPS), described here. The ANPS was conceptualized as a potential clinical research tool, which would help experimentalists and clinicians situate subjects and clients in primary-process affective space. These emotion systems are reviewed in the context of a multi-tiered framing of consciousness spanning from primary affect, which encodes biological valences, to higher level tertiary (thought mediated) processing. Supporting neuroscience research is presented along with comparisons to Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the Five Factor Model (FFM). Suggestions are made for grounding the internal structure of the FFM on the primal emotional systems recognized in affective neuroscience, which may promote substantive dialog between human and animal research traditions. Personality is viewed in the context of Darwinian "continuity" with the inherited subcortical brain emotion systems being foundational, providing major forces for personality development in both humans and animals, and providing an affective infrastructure for an expanded five factor descriptive model applying to normal and clinical human populations as well as mammals generally. Links with ontogenetic and epigenetic models of personality development are also presented. Potential novel clinical applications of the CARE maternal-nurturance system and the PLAY system are also discussed.

  19. A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice.

    PubMed

    Enard, Wolfgang; Gehre, Sabine; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Hölter, Sabine M; Blass, Torsten; Somel, Mehmet; Brückner, Martina K; Schreiweis, Christiane; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Becker, Lore; Wiebe, Victor; Nickel, Birgit; Giger, Thomas; Müller, Uwe; Groszer, Matthias; Adler, Thure; Aguilar, Antonio; Bolle, Ines; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Dalke, Claudia; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Favor, Jack; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Javaheri, Anahita; Kalaydjiev, Svetoslav; Kallnik, Magdalena; Kling, Eva; Kunder, Sandra; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Naton, Beatrix; Racz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Busch, Dirk H; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fisher, Simon E; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Arendt, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fischer, Julia; Schwarz, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante

    2009-05-29

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic vocalizations, decreased exploratory behavior and decreased dopamine concentrations in the brain suggesting that the humanized Foxp2 allele affects basal ganglia. In the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia affected in humans with a speech deficit due to a nonfunctional FOXP2 allele, we find that medium spiny neurons have increased dendrite lengths and increased synaptic plasticity. Since mice carrying one nonfunctional Foxp2 allele show opposite effects, this suggests that alterations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits might have been important for the evolution of speech and language in humans.

  20. Human genetics. The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Zakharia, Fouad; Sikora, Martin; Contreras, Alejandra V; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Sandoval, Karla; Eng, Celeste; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Robles, Victoria; Kenny, Eimear E; Nuño-Arana, Ismael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín-Pérez, Gastón; Granados-Arriola, Julio; Huntsman, Scott; Galanter, Joshua M; Via, Marc; Ford, Jean G; Chapela, Rocío; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; del Rio Navarro, Blanca; London, Stephanie J; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Garcia-Herrera, Rodrigo; Estrada, Karol; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Soberón, Xavier; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2014-06-13

    Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between subcontinental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide.

  1. [Disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis in children and adolescents affected by it and their caregivers].

    PubMed

    Malanca, Adriana; Foradori, Irene; Stankievich, Erica; Pandullo, Hugo; Losso, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Children and adolescents need to know about their health or that of their parents. However, families affected by human immunodeficiency virus often delay disclosure of diagnosis for fear of stigma or discrimination or simply because they wonder when and how to communicate it. We present the experience of implementing a program to "reveal" the human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis to children, adolescents and caregivers. The aim was to describe and understand the impact of disclosure and to collaborate on actions to improve comprehensive care for families living with human immunodeficiency virus.

  2. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  3. Definition and Measurement in the Affective Domain: Appreciation of Human Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul B.; Beers, Joan S.

    The first three levels of the taxonomy in the affective domain guided the development of two inventories--the Pennsylvania Inventory of Cultural Appreciations (PICA) for 11th graders and Things People Do (TPD) for 5th graders--to measure appreciation of human accomplishments in seven areas: politics, sciences, sports, literature, visual arts,…

  4. Affective Education: A Teacher's Manual to Promote Student Self-Actualization and Human Relations Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas R.

    This teacher's manual presents affective education as a program to promote student self-actualization and human relations skills. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's life stages of psychosocial development form the conceptual base for this program. The goals and objectives of this manual are concerned with problem-solving…

  5. Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of the Research on Its Affective and Social Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaudelin, Colette; Dussault, Marc; Brodeur, Monique

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a review of 34 qualitative and non-qualitative studies related to affective and social aspects of student-computer interactions. Highlights include the nature of the human-computer interaction (HCI); the interface, comparing graphic and text types; and the relation between variables linked to HCI, mainly trust, locus of control,…

  6. Sex differences in the brain response to affective scenes with or without humans.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto; Trestianu, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that women might be more reactive than men to viewing painful stimuli (vicarious response to pain), and therefore more empathic [Han, S., Fan, Y., & Mao, L. (2008). Gender difference in empathy for pain: An electrophysiological investigation. Brain Research, 1196, 85-93]. We investigated whether the two sexes differed in their cerebral responses to affective pictures portraying humans in different positive or negative contexts compared to natural or urban scenarios. 440 IAPS slides were presented to 24 Italian students (12 women and 12 men). Half the pictures displayed humans while the remaining scenes lacked visible persons. ERPs were recorded from 128 electrodes and swLORETA (standardized weighted Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source reconstruction was performed. Occipital P115 was greater in response to persons than to scenes and was affected by the emotional valence of the human pictures. This suggests that processing of biologically relevant stimuli is prioritized. Orbitofrontal N2 was greater in response to positive than negative human pictures in women but not in men, and not to scenes. A late positivity (LP) to suffering humans far exceeded the response to negative scenes in women but not in men. In both sexes, the contrast suffering-minus-happy humans revealed a difference in the activation of the occipito/temporal, right occipital (BA19), bilateral parahippocampal, left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and left amygdala. However, increased right amygdala and right frontal area activities were observed only in women. The humans-minus-scenes contrast revealed a difference in the activation of the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) in men, and of the left inferior parietal (BA40), left superior temporal gyrus (STG, BA38) and right cingulate (BA31) in women (270-290 ms). These data indicate a sex-related difference in the brain response to humans, possibly supporting human empathy.

  7. Human Infant Faces Provoke Implicit Positive Affective Responses in Parents and Non-Parents Alike

    PubMed Central

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H.; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

  8. A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Schreiweis, C; Minge, C; Pääbo, S; Fischer, J; Enard, W

    2015-11-01

    The transcription factor FOXP2 has been linked to severe speech and language impairments in humans. An analysis of the evolution of the FOXP2 gene has identified two amino acid substitutions that became fixed after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages. Studying the functional consequences of these two substitutions in the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice showed alterations in dopamine levels, striatal synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphology and cortico-striatal-dependent learning. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of pups had a significantly lower average pitch than control littermates. To which degree adult USVs would be affected in mice carrying the 'humanized' Foxp2 variant remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed USVs of 68 adult male mice uttered during repeated courtship encounters with different females. Mice carrying the Foxp2(hum/hum) allele did not differ significantly in the number of call elements, their element structure or in their element composition from control littermates. We conclude that neither the structure nor the usage of USVs in adult mice is affected by the two amino acid substitutions that occurred in FOXP2 during human evolution. The reported effect for pup vocalization thus appears to be transient. These results are in line with accumulating evidence that mouse USVs are hardly influenced by vocal learning. Hence, the function and evolution of genes that are necessary, but not sufficient for vocal learning in humans, must be either studied at a different phenotypic level in mice or in other organisms.

  9. Space Research Fortifies Nutrition Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems program attempted to address basic needs of crews, meet stringent payload and power usage restrictions, and minimize space occupancy, by developing living, regenerative ecosystems that would take care of themselves and their inhabitants. An experiment from this program evolved into one of the most widespread NASA spinoffs of all time-a method for manufacturing an algae-based food supplement that provides the nutrients previously only available in breast milk. Martek Biosciences Corporation, in Columbia, Maryland, now manufactures this supplement, and it can be found in over 90 percent of the infant formulas sold in the United States, as well as those sold in over 65 other countries. With such widespread use, the company estimates that over 24 million babies worldwide have consumed its nutritional additives.

  10. Low-frequency sound affects active micromechanics in the human inner ear.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Kathrin; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Kössl, Manfred; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common auditory pathologies, resulting from overstimulation of the human cochlea, an exquisitely sensitive micromechanical device. At very low frequencies (less than 250 Hz), however, the sensitivity of human hearing, and therefore the perceived loudness is poor. The perceived loudness is mediated by the inner hair cells of the cochlea which are driven very inadequately at low frequencies. To assess the impact of low-frequency (LF) sound, we exploited a by-product of the active amplification of sound outer hair cells (OHCs) perform, so-called spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. These are faint sounds produced by the inner ear that can be used to detect changes of cochlear physiology. We show that a short exposure to perceptually unobtrusive, LF sounds significantly affects OHCs: a 90 s, 80 dB(A) LF sound induced slow, concordant and positively correlated frequency and level oscillations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions that lasted for about 2 min after LF sound offset. LF sounds, contrary to their unobtrusive perception, strongly stimulate the human cochlea and affect amplification processes in the most sensitive and important frequency range of human hearing.

  11. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  12. Human affection exchange: VI. Further tests of reproductive probability as a predictor of men's affection with their adult sons.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Sargent, Jack E; Di Corcia, Mark

    2004-04-01

    The authors examined the communication of affection in men's relationships with their fathers. Drawing from Affection Exchange Theory, the authors advanced four predictions: (a) heterosexual men receive more affection from their own fathers than do homosexual or bisexual men, (b) fathers communicate affection to their sons more through supportive activities than through direct verbal statements or nonverbal gestures, (c) affectionate communication between fathers and sons is linearly related to closeness and interpersonal involvement between them, and (d) fathers' awareness of their sons' sexual orientation is associated with the amount of affection that the fathers communicate to them. Participants were 170 adult men who completed questionnaires regarding affectionate communication in their relationships with their fathers. Half of the men were self-identified as exclusively heterosexual, and the other half were self-identified as exclusively homosexual or bisexual. The results supported all predictions substantially.

  13. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocument/? cote =env/jm/mono(2010)42&doclang uage=en...medicines. Every effort should be made to improve the states of characterization technology and nano/bio interaction studies. Source: Tiny traits cause

  14. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Pollutants (POPs) took place October 11-15, 2010 in Geneva, Switzerland. It formed a working group to prepare a draft risk management evaluation for...hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), risk management evaluation for endosulfan and recommended its listing in Annex A, with exemptions, risks of combined... Management Program..................................................6 8.2 Biosafety Regulations Reviewed in Context of Worrying Forecasts

  15. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    applicability to hazardous material detection in a variety of situations. Security organizations should also prepare for criminal and terrorist...Related Security Implications: These developments, if/when they reach a level of practical applicability , could make a definite contribution to...reducing the environmental footprint of installation buildings and/or provide power to remote or mobile devices. Their progress should be monitored

  16. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-30

    Kyrgyzstan, and is ready to help the country with post-conflict rehabilitation. The OSCE is working together with the international community to help... ready for a manned mission after 2021. [Related items: Steps for an International Regime for Space Debris and Space Traffic Control System in May 2009...vegetables and crops production. Similar projects are going on in Kuwait, India, Oman, and the UAE. [May 2010. Military Implications, Sources190] “Arab

  17. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Cooperation in Africa to Counter Wildlife Trafficking……………………7 6.6 Bioethics Commission Calls for Enhanced Federal Oversight of Synthetic Biology…...7...6.6 Bioethics Commission Calls for Enhanced Federal Oversight of Synthetic Biology The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues...Commission on Bioethics calls for enhanced federal oversight of synthetic biology http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=19449.php New Directions -The

  18. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    plan to be submitted to the government in 2011, with full regulation expected in five years (more)  Review of the long history of nanosilver usage and...of the Long History of Nanosilver Usage and Regulation, and Implications A recent paper, 120 Years of Nanosilver History: Implications for Policy...Makers, points out that nanosilver in the form of colloidal silver has been used for more than a century and has been registered as a biocidal material

  19. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    nanotechnolgies and nanosciences report has been issued by the Innovation Society Ltd., an independent consulting company, based at the Technology Centre of...foodproductiondaily.com/news/ng.asp?n=67935- nanotechnolgy -fsa-novel Germany Begins Risk Survey on Nanotechnology http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/news

  20. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    concentration phosphate deposits are laced with radioactive elements like uranium and thorium , or heavy metals like cadmium, environmental concerns might...New measures emerge for measuring carbon emissions, both corporate and municipal http://www.smartplanet.com/business/blog/business- brains /new...Production to End of Life o Nanotechnology Regulation: Policies Proposed by Three Organizations for the Reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act

  1. Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions.

  2. Cold sore susceptibility gene-1 genotypes affect the expression of herpes labialis in unrelated human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kriesel, John D; Bhatia, Amiteshwar; Thomas, Alun

    2014-01-01

    Our group has recently described a gene on human chromosome 21, the Cold Sore Susceptibility Gene-1 (CSSG-1, also known as C21orf91), which may confer susceptibility to frequent cold sores in humans. We present here a genotype-phenotype analysis of CSSG-1 in a new, unrelated human population. Seven hundred fifty-eight human subjects were enrolled in a case/control Cold Sore Study. CSSG-1 genotyping, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) serotyping, demographic and phenotypic data was available from 622 analyzed subjects. Six major alleles (H1-H6) were tested for associations with each of the self-reported phenotypes. The statistical analysis was adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity. Genotype-phenotype associations were analyzed from 388 HSV1-seropositive subjects. There were significant CSSG-1 haplotype effects on annual cold sore outbreaks (P=0.006), lifetime cold sores (P=0.012) and perceived cold sore severity (P=0.012). There were relatively consistent trends toward protection from frequent and severe cold sores among those with the H3 or H5/6 haplotypes, whereas those with H1, H2, and H4 haplotypes tended to have more frequent and more severe episodes. Different alleles of the newly described gene CSSG-1 affect the expression of cold sore phenotypes in this new, unrelated human population, confirming the findings of the previous family-based study.

  3. Triclosan and bisphenol a affect decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Forte, Maurizio; Mita, Luigi; Cobellis, Luigi; Merafina, Verdiana; Specchio, Raffaella; Rossi, Sergio; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Mosca, Lavinia; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; De Falco, Maria; Laforgia, Vincenza; Crispi, Stefania

    2016-02-15

    In recent years, impaired fertility and endometrium related diseases are increased. Many evidences suggest that environmental pollution might be considered a risk factor for endometrial physiopathology. Among environmental pollutants, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) act on endocrine system, causing hormonal imbalance which, in turn, leads to female and male reproductive dysfunctions. In this work, we studied the effects of triclosan (TCL) and bisphenol A (BPA), two widespread EDCs, on human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), derived from endometrial biopsies from woman not affected by endometriosis. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration and decidualization mechanisms were investigated. Treatments have been performed with both the EDCs separately or in presence and in absence of progesterone used as decidualization stimulus. Both TCL and BPA did not affect cell proliferation, but they arrested ESCs at G2/M phase of cell cycle enhancing cell migration. TCL and BPA also increased gene expression and protein levels of some decidualization markers, such as insulin growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and prolactin (PRL), amplifying the effect of progesterone alone. All together, our data strongly suggest that TCL and BPA might alter human endometrium physiology so affecting fertility and pregnancy outcome.

  4. A whole-genome RNA interference screen for human cell factors affecting myxoma virus replication.

    PubMed

    Teferi, Wondimagegnehu M; Dodd, Kristopher; Maranchuk, Rob; Favis, Nicole; Evans, David H

    2013-04-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) provides an important model for investigating host-pathogen interactions. Recent studies have also highlighted how mutations in transformed human cells can expand the host range of this rabbit virus. Although virus growth depends upon interactions between virus and host proteins, the nature of these interactions is poorly understood. To address this matter, we performed small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens for genes affecting MYXV growth in human MDA-MB-231 cells. By using siRNAs targeting the whole human genome (21,585 genes), a subset of human phosphatases and kinases (986 genes), and also a custom siRNA library targeting selected statistically significant genes ("hits") and nonsignificant genes ("nonhits") of the whole human genome screens (88 genes), we identified 711 siRNA pools that promoted MYXV growth and 333 that were inhibitory. Another 32 siRNA pools (mostly targeting the proteasome) were toxic. The overall overlap in the results was about 25% for the hits and 75% for the nonhits. These pro- and antiviral genes can be clustered into pathways and related groups, including well-established inflammatory and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, as well as clusters relating to β-catenin and the Wnt signaling cascade, the cell cycle, and cellular metabolism. The validity of a subset of these hits was independently confirmed. For example, treating cells with siRNAs that might stabilize cells in G(1), or inhibit passage into S phase, stimulated MYXV growth, and these effects were reproduced by trapping cells at the G(1)/S boundary with an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6. By using 2-deoxy-D-glucose and plasmids carrying the gene for phosphofructokinase, we also confirmed that infection is favored by aerobic glycolytic metabolism. These studies provide insights into how the growth state and structure of cells affect MYXV growth and how these factors might be manipulated to advantage in oncolytic virus therapy.

  5. The Voice of Emotion across Species: How Do Human Listeners Recognize Animals' Affective States?

    PubMed Central

    Scheumann, Marina; Hasting, Anna S.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener) versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context). Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew). Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence) or affiliative (positive emotional valence) context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms. PMID:24621604

  6. Status of worldwide Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warriner, Howard W.

    1987-01-01

    In cooperation with the International Landsat community, and through the Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG), NOAA is assembling information about the status of the Worldwide Landsat Archive. During LTWG 9, member nations agreed to participate in a survey of International Landsat data holding and of their archive experiences with Landsat data. The goal of the effort was two-fold; one, to document the Landsat archive to date, and, two, to ensure that specific nations' experience with long-term Landsat archival problems were available to others. The survey requested details such as amount of data held, the format of the archive holdings by Spacecraft/Sensor, and acquisition years; the estimated costs to accumulated process, and replace the data (if necessary); the storage space required, and any member nation's plans that would establish the insurance of continuing quality. As a group, the LTWG nations are concerned about the characteristics and reliability of long-term magnetic media storage. Each nation's experience with older data retrieval is solicited in the survey. This information will allow nations to anticipate and plan for required changes to their archival holdings. Also solicited were reports of any upgrades to a nation's archival system that are currently planned and all results of attempts to reduce archive holdings including methodology, current status, and the planned access rates and product support that are anticipated for responding to future archival usage.

  7. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  8. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  9. Inference of human affective states from psychophysiological measurements extracted under ecologically valid conditions

    PubMed Central

    Betella, Alberto; Zucca, Riccardo; Cetnarski, Ryszard; Greco, Alberto; Lanatà, Antonio; Mazzei, Daniele; Tognetti, Alessandro; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Omedas, Pedro; De Rossi, Danilo; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to standard laboratory protocols, the measurement of psychophysiological signals in real world experiments poses technical and methodological challenges due to external factors that cannot be directly controlled. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach based on an immersive and human accessible space called the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM), that incorporates the advantages of a laboratory within a life-like setting. The XIM integrates unobtrusive wearable sensors for the acquisition of psychophysiological signals suitable for ambulatory emotion research. In this paper, we present results from two different studies conducted to validate the XIM as a general-purpose sensing infrastructure for the study of human affective states under ecologically valid conditions. In the first investigation, we recorded and classified signals from subjects exposed to pictorial stimuli corresponding to a range of arousal levels, while they were free to walk and gesticulate. In the second study, we designed an experiment that follows the classical conditioning paradigm, a well-known procedure in the behavioral sciences, with the additional feature that participants were free to move in the physical space, as opposed to similar studies measuring physiological signals in constrained laboratory settings. Our results indicate that, by using our sensing infrastructure, it is indeed possible to infer human event-elicited affective states through measurements of psychophysiological signals under ecological conditions. PMID:25309310

  10. Looking at human eyes affects contralesional stimulus processing after right hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Maravita, A; Posteraro, L; Husain, M; Vuilleumier, P; Schwartz, S; Driver, J

    2007-10-16

    Human eyes are a powerful social cue that may automatically attract the attention of an observer. Here we tested whether looking toward open human eyes, as often arises in standard clinical "confrontation" tests, may affect contralesional errors in a group of right brain-damaged patients showing visual extinction. Patients were requested to discriminate peripheral shape-targets presented on the left, right, or bilaterally. On each trial they also saw a central task-irrelevant stimulus, comprising an image of the eye sector of a human face, with those seen eyes open or closed. The conditions with central eye stimuli open (vs closed) induced more errors for contralesional peripheral targets, particularly for bilateral trials. These results suggest that seeing open eyes in central vision may attract attentional resources there, reducing attention to the periphery, particularly for the affected contralesional side. The seen gaze of the examiner may thus need to be considered during confrontation testing and may contribute to the effectiveness of that clinical procedure.

  11. Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D Kirk

    2002-01-01

    Numerous aquifers worldwide carry soluble arsenic at concentrations greater than the World Health Organization--and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--recommended drinking water standard of 10 mg per liter. Sources include both natural (black shales, young sediments with low flushing rates, gold mineralization, and geothermal environments) and anthropogenic (mining activities, livestock feed additives, pesticides, and arsenic trioxide wastes and stockpiles). Increased solubility and mobility of arsenic is promoted by high pH (>8.5), competing oxyanions, and reducing conditions. In this Policy Forum, Nordstrom argues that human health risks from arsenic in ground water can be minimized by incorporating hydrogeochemical knowledge into water management decisions and by more careful monitoring for arsenic in geologically high-risk areas.

  12. Cell therapy worldwide: an incipient revolution.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mahendra; Mason, Chris; Solomon, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The regenerative medicine field is large, diverse and active worldwide. A variety of different organizational and product models have been successful, and pioneering entrepreneurs have shown both what can work and, critically, what does not. Evolving regulations, novel funding mechanisms combined with new technological breakthroughs are keeping the field in a state of flux. The field struggles to cope with the lack of infrastructure and investment, it nevertheless has evolved from its roots in human stem cell therapy and tissue and organ transplants to a field composed of a variety of products from multiple cell sources with approval for use in numerous countries. Currently, tens of thousands of patients have been treated with some kind of cell therapy.

  13. Superinduction of cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human osteoarthritis-affected cartilage. Influence of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Amin, A R; Attur, M; Patel, R N; Thakker, G D; Marshall, P J; Rediske, J; Stuchin, S A; Patel, I R; Abramson, S B

    1997-01-01

    Cartilage specimens from osteoarthritis (OA)-affected patients spontaneously released PGE2 at 48 h in ex vivo culture at levels at least 50-fold higher than in normal cartilage and 18-fold higher than in normal cartilage + cytokines + endotoxin. The superinduction of PGE2 production coincides with the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in OA-affected cartilage. Production of both nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 by OA cartilage explants is regulated at the level of transcription and translation. Dexamethasone inhibited only the spontaneously released PGE2 production, and not NO, in OA-affected cartilage. The NO synthase inhibitor HN(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine monoacetate inhibited OA cartilage NO production by > 90%, but augmented significantly (twofold) the spontaneous production of PGE2 in the same explants. Similarly, addition of exogenous NO donors to OA cartilage significantly inhibited PGE2 production. Cytokine + endotoxin stimulation of OA explants increased PGE2 production above the spontaneous release. Addition of L-NMMA further augmented cytokine-induced PGE2 production by at least fourfold. Inhibition of PGE2 by COX-2 inhibitors (dexamethasone or indomethacin) or addition of exogenous PGE2 did not significantly affect the spontaneous NO production. These data indicate that human OA-affected cartilage in ex vivo conditions shows (a) superinduction of PGE2 due to upregulation of COX-2, and (b) spontaneous release of NO that acts as an autacoid to attenuate the production of the COX-2 products such as PGE2. These studies, together with others, also suggest that PGE2 may be differentially regulated in normal and OA-affected chondrocytes. PMID:9077531

  14. City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans.

    PubMed

    Lederbogen, Florian; Kirsch, Peter; Haddad, Leila; Streit, Fabian; Tost, Heike; Schuch, Philipp; Wüst, Stefan; Pruessner, Jens C; Rietschel, Marcella; Deuschle, Michael; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2011-06-22

    More than half of the world's population now lives in cities, making the creation of a healthy urban environment a major policy priority. Cities have both health risks and benefits, but mental health is negatively affected: mood and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in city dwellers and the incidence of schizophrenia is strongly increased in people born and raised in cities. Although these findings have been widely attributed to the urban social environment, the neural processes that could mediate such associations are unknown. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in three independent experiments, that urban upbringing and city living have dissociable impacts on social evaluative stress processing in humans. Current city living was associated with increased amygdala activity, whereas urban upbringing affected the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, a key region for regulation of amygdala activity, negative affect and stress. These findings were regionally and behaviourally specific, as no other brain structures were affected and no urbanicity effect was seen during control experiments invoking cognitive processing without stress. Our results identify distinct neural mechanisms for an established environmental risk factor, link the urban environment for the first time to social stress processing, suggest that brain regions differ in vulnerability to this risk factor across the lifespan, and indicate that experimental interrogation of epidemiological associations is a promising strategy in social neuroscience.

  15. How Does Domain Replacement Affect Fibril Formation of the Rabbit/Human Prion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP) have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs. Methodology/Principal Findings As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays and Sarkosyl-soluble SDS-PAGE, the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes fibril formation of both chimeras. As evidenced by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proteinase K digestion assays, amyloid fibrils formed by human chimera have secondary structures and proteinase K-resistant features similar to those formed by the human PrP. However, amyloid fibrils formed by rabbit chimera have proteinase K-resistant features and secondary structures in crowded physiological environments different from those formed by the rabbit PrP, and secondary structures in dilute solutions similar to the rabbit PrP. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that macromolecular crowding caused human chimera but not rabbit chimera to form short fibrils and non-fibrillar particles. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate for the first time that the domains beyond PrP-H2H3 (β-strand 1, α-helix 1, and β-strand 2) have a remarkable effect on fibrillization of the rabbit PrP but almost no effect on the human PrP. Our findings can help to explain why amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary

  16. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 325.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-19

    Choco and Antioquia Departments have determined that a high percentage of the population of Indian and peasant communities near the San Juan and Atrato...Rivers in Choco and the Murri River in Antioquia have been affected. Measures are being taken to combat these diseases. [Summary] [PA211624 Bogota

  17. Magnolol causes alterations in the cell cycle in androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro by affecting expression of key cell cycle regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Brendan T; McDougall, Luke; Catalli, Adriana; Hurta, Robert A R

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in the Western world, affects many men worldwide. This study investigated the effects of magnolol, a compound found in the roots and bark of the magnolia tree Magnolia officinalis, on the behavior of 2 androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3, in vitro. Magnolol, in a 24-h exposure at 40 and 80 μM, was found to be cytotoxic to cells. Magnolol also affected cell cycle progression of DU145 and PC3 cells, resulting in alterations to the cell cycle and subsequently decreasing the proportion of cells entering the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Magnolol inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including cyclins A, B1, D1, and E, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. Protein expression levels of pRBp107 decreased and pRBp130 protein expression levels increased in response to magnolol exposure, whereas p16(INK4a), p21, and p27 protein expression levels were apparently unchanged post 24-h exposure. Magnolol exposure at 6 h did increase p27 protein expression levels. This study has demonstrated that magnolol can alter the behavior of androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro and suggests that magnolol may have potential as a novel anti-prostate cancer agent.

  18. Worldwide Status of EUV Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The bulk of radiation from million-degree plasmas is emitted at EUV wavelengths, which include critical spectral features containing diagnostic information often not available at other wavelengths (e.g., He II Ly series 228-304 Å). Thus, EUV astrophysics (Barstow & Holberg 2003) presents opportunities for intriguing results obtainable with sensitive high-resolution spectroscopy and particularly applicable to hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the interstellar medium. The US-built J-PEX spectrometer has flown twice on sounding rockets, observing and publishing results on two white dwarf targets (Cruddace et al. 2002, Barstow et al. 2005, Kowalski et al. 2011). Using multilayer-grating technology, J-PEX delivers both high effective area and the world's highest resolution in EUV, greater than Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach. However, the US program has been stalled by inability to obtain further NASA sounding rocket flights. A high level of technology readiness, plus important questions answerable solely with that technology, does not seem sufficient to win support. Nor is the substantial amount of resources invested into technology development over two decades, supported by NASA, DoD, and European partners. Proposals to turn the instrument or its technology into small satellite-based surveys have been made (results to be described) in the US and Europe, but the overall situation is precarious. The entire EUV astrophysics field is losing out on an opportunity, and is at risk of fading away, with forced discard of established assets. Only mobilization of the international EUV community -- unifying European, US, and perhaps others -- can reverse this situation. Our poster summarizes science quests within reach of proven technology, gives a current snapshot of that technology, and provides a summary of worldwide efforts to obtain necessary space access in NASA, ESA, and elsewhere. A process for building and maintaining

  19. Health in the hot zone - How could global warming affect humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1996-04-06

    A soon-to-be-released report from the World Health Organization examines the health effects of global warming, calling climate change one of the largest public health challenges for the upcoming century. The issue extends beyond tropical illness: deaths caused directly by heat, dwindling agricultural yields etc. could all affect human health. This article looks at the following health related effects and gives an overview of the scientific information available on each: temperature and mortality; tropical trouble, including vecorborne diseases and increase in susceptable populations; and waterborne problems such as cholera, harmful algal bloomes, food shortages.

  20. Do human activities affect the picoplankton structure of the Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia)?

    PubMed

    Bouvy, Marc; Dupuy, Christine; Pagano, Marc; Barani, Aude; Charpy, Loic

    2012-01-01

    The spatial variations of the picoplankton (photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms) in the Ahe atoll lagoon were studied in May and October 2008 to assess whether they were affected by human activities along the atoll. Spatial patterns were studied using 10 sampling stations chosen according to the location of the anthropogenic activities (pearl farming, harbor). Experiments were also carried out to determine whether bacterial growth, with or without predators, was limited by inorganic (N and P) substrates. The results showed that heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance was superior to the photoautotrophic organisms, especially in May. Significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in May after 24 h incubation with +P and +N (but not in October). All samples complied with the quality levels for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) defined by the European Union and there was no evidence that human sewage had any impact on picoplankton over the whole atoll.

  1. Does correlated color temperature affect the ability of humans to identify veins?

    PubMed

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we provide empirical evidence and demonstrate statistically that white illumination settings can affect the human ability to identify veins in the inner hand vasculature. A special light-emitting diode lamp with high color rendering index (CRI 84-95) was developed and the effect of correlated color temperature was evaluated, in the range between 2600 and 5700 K at an illuminance of 40±9  lx on the ability of adult humans to identify veins. It is shown that the ability to identify veins can, on average, be increased up to 24% when white illumination settings that do not resemble incandescent light are applied. The illuminance reported together with the effect of white illumination settings on direct visual perception of biosamples are relevant for clinical investigations during the night.

  2. Dominant factors affecting temperature rise in simulations of human thermoregulation during RF exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2011-12-01

    Numerical models of the human thermoregulatory system can be used together with realistic voxel models of the human anatomy to simulate the body temperature increases caused by the power absorption from radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the Pennes bioheat equation with a thermoregulatory model is used for calculating local peak temperatures as well as the body-core-temperature elevation in a realistic human body model for grounded plane-wave exposures at frequencies 39, 800 and 2400 MHz. The electromagnetic power loss is solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the discretized bioheat equation is solved by the geometric multigrid method. Human thermoregulatory models contain numerous thermophysiological and computational parameters—some of which may be subject to considerable uncertainty—that affect the simulated core and local temperature elevations. The goal of this paper is to find how greatly the computed temperature is influenced by changes in various modelling parameters, such as the skin blood flow rate, models for vasodilation and sweating, and clothing and air movement. The results show that the peak temperature rises are most strongly affected by the modelling of tissue blood flow and its temperature dependence, and mostly unaffected by the central control mechanism for vasodilation and sweating. Almost the opposite is true for the body-core-temperature rise, which is however typically greatly lower than the peak temperature rise. It also seems that ignoring the thermoregulation and the blood temperature increase is a good approximation when the local 10 g averaged specific absorption rate is smaller than 10 W kg-1.

  3. Hypericum perforatum differentially affects corticosteroid receptor-mRNA expression in human monocytic U-937 cells.

    PubMed

    Enning, F; Murck, H; Krieg, J-C; Vedder, H

    2011-09-01

    A dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis represents a prominent finding in major depression, possibly related to a dysfunction of the corticosteroid receptor system. Antidepressants are involved in the restoration of the altered feed-back mechanism of the HPA-axis, probably via normalization of corticosteroid receptor functions. Since Hypericum perforatum has antidepressive properties, we here examined its putative actions on glucocorticosteroid receptor mRNA levels in human blood cells as a peripheral model for neuroendocrine effects in human brain cells. Our data show that Hypericum (LI 160) affects the cellular mRNA levels of both, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-α and its inhibitory counterpart, the GR-β, at clinically-relevant concentrations. Under these conditions, a bimodal effect was observed. Dose-response studies suggest a rather small effective concentration range and time-effect data show a primary and transient up-regulation of GR-α mRNA levels and a down-regulation of GR-β mRNA levels after 16 h of treatment. The sodium channel blocker benzamil neutralized the effects of Hypericum, pointing to an at least partial mechanism of action via this pathway. In conclusion, Hypericum treatment differentially affects GR-mRNA levels in the human system. Our data suggest a bimodal effect on GR, resulting in a time-and dose-related modification of GR-mediated cellular effects. Such a mechanism has been alleged as an important way of action for a number of antidepressants. It is the first time that a specific effect on both receptors, especially on the subtype of GR-β, is shown under antidepressive treatment in a human system under in vitro conditions.

  4. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 332

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-14

    percent for cotton. The rice delphacid—which affected 80,000 hectares—the cotton weevil — which started the crisis—the white potato worm and potato...17 Hard Drinking Water , Cardiovascular Disease Mortalities Discussed (ZHONGHUA YUFANG YIXUE ZAZHI, No 3, May 83) 18 PERU Briefs High...to pinpoint the real sources, it may be affirmed that food and water are normally the main media for affliction. At present the second and third

  5. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Fuse, Takayuki; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Mihara, Ban; Takao, Masaki; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50) is reached approximately 1010/g brain (values varies 108.79–10.63/g). A genetic case (GSS-P102L) yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6–5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06–0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission. PMID:26070208

  6. Factors affecting platinum concentrations in human surgical tumour specimens after cisplatin.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, D. J.; Molepo, J. M.; Green, R. M.; Montpetit, V. A.; Hugenholtz, H.; Lamothe, A.; Mikhael, N. Z.; Redmond, M. D.; Gadia, M.; Goel, R.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed factors which affect cisplatin concentrations in human surgical tumour specimens. Cisplatin 10 mg m-2 was given i.v. to 45 consenting patients undergoing surgical resection of neoplasms, and platinum was assayed in resected tumour and in deproteinated plasma by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. By multiple stepwise regression analysis of normalised data, patient characteristics that emerged as being most closely associated (P < 0.05) with tumour platinum concentrations (after correcting for associations with other variables) were tumour 'source' [primary brain lymphomas, medulloblastomas and meningiomas ('type LMM') > 'others' > lung cancer > head/neck cancer > gliomas) or tumour 'type' (LMM > brain metastases > extracerebral tumours > gliomas), serum calcium and chloride (positive correlations) and bilirubin (negative). Tumour location (intracranial vs extracranial) did not correlate with platinum concentrations. If values for a single outlier were omitted, high-grade gliomas had significantly higher platinum concentrations (P < 0.003) than low-grade gliomas. For intracranial tumours, the computerised tomographic scan feature that correlated most closely with platinum concentrations in multivariate analysis was the darkness of peritumoral oedema. Tumour source or type is a much more important correlate of human tumour cisplatin concentrations than is intracranial vs extracranial location. Serum calcium, chloride and bilirubin levels may affect tumour cisplatin uptake or retention. CT scan characteristics may help predict cisplatin concentrations in intracranial tumours. PMID:7880744

  7. Transmission distortion affecting human noncrossover but not crossover recombination: a hidden source of meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Odenthal-Hesse, Linda; Berg, Ingrid L; Veselis, Amelia; Jeffreys, Alec J; May, Celia A

    2014-02-01

    Meiotic recombination ensures the correct segregation of homologous chromosomes during gamete formation and contributes to DNA diversity through both large-scale reciprocal crossovers and very localised gene conversion events, also known as noncrossovers. Considerable progress has been made in understanding factors such as PRDM9 and SNP variants that influence the initiation of recombination at human hotspots but very little is known about factors acting downstream. To address this, we simultaneously analysed both types of recombinant molecule in sperm DNA at six highly active hotspots, and looked for disparity in the transmission of allelic variants indicative of any cis-acting influences. At two of the hotspots we identified a novel form of biased transmission that was exclusive to the noncrossover class of recombinant, and which presumably arises through differences between crossovers and noncrossovers in heteroduplex formation and biased mismatch repair. This form of biased gene conversion is not predicted to influence hotspot activity as previously noted for SNPs that affect recombination initiation, but does constitute a powerful and previously undetected source of recombination-driven meiotic drive that by extrapolation may affect thousands of recombination hotspots throughout the human genome. Intriguingly, at both of the hotspots described here, this drive favours strong (G/C) over weak (A/T) base pairs as might be predicted from the well-established correlations between high GC content and recombination activity in mammalian genomes.

  8. The worldwide epidemic of obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Michael; Booth, Michael

    2003-02-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity affecting adolescents worldwide. Both in developing and in developed countries, adolescents are increasingly becoming more obese. The number of adolescents exceeding previously identified cut-points as well as the weight and fatness of the most obese individuals is increasing at a progressive rate. Despite their benign appearance, epidemics of noncommunicable disease (or their risk factors) are no less devastating to the health of populations. The two key responses to any epidemic are to discover the causes of the epidemic disease and to characterize the epidemic. The latter needs to occur in relation to prevalence, distribution across the populations (are some population groups more likely to be affected than others?), and secular trends. This chapter reviews what is currently known about the epidemiology of overweight and obesity among adolescents throughout the world. To clarify terms of epidemiology, this chapter first identifies what are considered the most appropriate measures of adiposity and defines how much fat is too much fat.

  9. Functional Assessment of Human Coding Mutations Affecting Skin Pigmentation Using Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tsetskhladze, Zurab R.; Canfield, Victor A.; Ang, Khai C.; Wentzel, Steven M.; Reid, Katherine P.; Berg, Arthur S.; Johnson, Stephen L.; Kawakami, Koichi; Cheng, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in personalized medicine is the lack of a standard way to define the functional significance of the numerous nonsynonymous, single nucleotide coding variants that are present in each human individual. To begin to address this problem, we have used pigmentation as a model polygenic trait, three common human polymorphisms thought to influence pigmentation, and the zebrafish as a model system. The approach is based on the rescue of embryonic zebrafish mutant phenotypes by “humanized” zebrafish orthologous mRNA. Two hypomorphic polymorphisms, L374F in SLC45A2, and A111T in SLC24A5, have been linked to lighter skin color in Europeans. The phenotypic effect of a second coding polymorphism in SLC45A2, E272K, is unclear. None of these polymorphisms had been tested in the context of a model organism. We have confirmed that zebrafish albino fish are mutant in slc45a2; wild-type slc45a2 mRNA rescued the albino mutant phenotype. Introduction of the L374F polymorphism into albino or the A111T polymorphism into slc24a5 (golden) abolished mRNA rescue of the respective mutant phenotypes, consistent with their known contributions to European skin color. In contrast, the E272K polymorphism had no effect on phenotypic rescue. The experimental conclusion that E272K is unlikely to affect pigmentation is consistent with a lack of correlation between this polymorphism and quantitatively measured skin color in 59 East Asian humans. A survey of mutations causing human oculocutaneous albinism yielded 257 missense mutations, 82% of which are theoretically testable in zebrafish. The developed approach may be extended to other model systems and may potentially contribute to our understanding the functional relationships between DNA sequence variation, human biology, and disease. PMID:23071798

  10. Multimodel Estimate of Global Water Resources Affected by Human Interventions and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddeland, I.; Biemans, H.; Flörke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Stacke, T.; Tessler, Z. D.; Wada, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Several global hydrologic models have recently implemented reservoir operations and water withdrawals in their modeling schemes. Seven of these models (H08, LPJmL, PCR-GLOBWB, MPI-HM, VIC, WaterGAP and WBM) have been run within the framework of two model inter-comparison projects - the currently running Inter-sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) and its predecessor on the water sector the Water Model Intercomparison Project (WaterMIP). In both projects hydrological models were forced with multiple climate projections from different Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) taking into account present day human interventions on the hydrological cycle such as dams and water withdrawals. By integrating results from the two projects we benefit form a large ensemble size that allows for assessments of uncertainties from climate projections from different AOGCMs. Here, multimodel analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the annual water cycle in some regions are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2K). In many river basins the relative effects of human interventions are much larger at the seasonal level than at the annual level. There is, however, a considerable spread in the model estimates of these impacts. Possible reasons for this spread, e.g. differences in the reservoir operation schemes, are discussed.

  11. Beta2-adrenergic signaling affects the phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cells through EMT modulation.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Francesca; Angelini, Francesco; Siciliano, Camilla; Tasciotti, Julia; Mangino, Giorgio; De Falco, Elena; Carnevale, Roberto; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Frati, Giacomo; Chimenti, Isotta

    2017-01-15

    Human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) offer great promises to cardiac cell therapy for heart failure. Many in vivo studies have shown their therapeutic benefits, paving the way for clinical translation. The 3D model of cardiospheres (CSs) represents a unique niche-like in vitro microenvironment, which includes CPCs and supporting cells. CSs have been shown to form through a process mediated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). β2-Adrenergic signaling significantly affects stem/progenitor cells activation and mobilization in multiple tissues, and crosstalk between β2-adrenergic signaling and EMT processes has been reported. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the biological response of CSs to β2-adrenergic stimuli, focusing on EMT modulation in the 3D culture system of CSs. We treated human CSs and CS-derived cells (CDCs) with the β2-blocker butoxamine (BUT), using either untreated or β2 agonist (clenbuterol) treated CDCs as control. BUT-treated CS-forming cells displayed increased migration capacity and a significant increase in their CS-forming ability, consistently associated with increased expression of EMT-related genes, such as Snai1. Moreover, long-term BUT-treated CDCs contained a lower percentage of CD90+ cells, and this feature has been previously correlated with higher cardiogenic and therapeutic potential of the CDCs population. In addition, long-term BUT-treated CDCs had an increased ratio of collagen-III/collagen-I gene expression levels, and showed decreased release of inflammatory cytokines, overall supporting a less fibrosis-prone phenotype. In conclusion, β2 adrenergic receptor block positively affected the stemness vs commitment balance within CSs through the modulation of type1-EMT (so called "developmental"). These results further highlight type-1 EMT to be a key process affecting the features of resident cardiac progenitor cells, and mediating their response to the microenvironment.

  12. Use of genotoxicity tests in a TIE to identify chemicals potentially affecting human health

    SciTech Connect

    Goudey, J.S.; Shaw, R.D.; Swanson, S.M.; Nadeau, S.

    1995-12-31

    Imperial Oil operates a sour gas processing plant in southern Alberta that has, for the past several years, been the focus of considerable public and regulatory concern over perceived contamination of soils and groundwater on a nearby ranch. Elevated concentrations of DOC ({approximately}140 mg/L) have been received in groundwater underlying the plant site. Two process-related chemicals, sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), had been previously identified as the primary components of the DOC plume, although the chemicals associated with 30% of the DOC could not be identified. A risk assessment was initiated in 1994 to determine whether off-site migration of sulfolane and DIPA or of other unidentified contaminants poses a risks to human health and/or ecological receptors. One component of the risk assessment included conducting a TIE to help identify the chemical(s) in contaminated groundwater underlying the gas plant that might adversely affect human health. Three endpoints were utilized in the TIE: MicroTox, SOS-Chromotest and the Ames test. MicroTox was used since it exhibited a response to whole groundwater from the site, while the genotoxicity tests were used because DIPA reportedly causes a response in the Ames test and because of the concern over potential human health affects arising from other unidentified contaminants. Results of the TIE indicated that the chemicals causing the toxicity in the groundwater sample were water soluble compounds, with similar characteristics to the process chemicals used at the gas plant and detected at high concentrations in groundwater from the plant site. These results provided additional evidence to help focus the risk assessment on the chemicals sulfolane and diisopropanolamine.

  13. A Whole-Genome RNA Interference Screen for Human Cell Factors Affecting Myxoma Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Teferi, Wondimagegnehu M.; Dodd, Kristopher; Maranchuk, Rob; Favis, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) provides an important model for investigating host-pathogen interactions. Recent studies have also highlighted how mutations in transformed human cells can expand the host range of this rabbit virus. Although virus growth depends upon interactions between virus and host proteins, the nature of these interactions is poorly understood. To address this matter, we performed small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens for genes affecting MYXV growth in human MDA-MB-231 cells. By using siRNAs targeting the whole human genome (21,585 genes), a subset of human phosphatases and kinases (986 genes), and also a custom siRNA library targeting selected statistically significant genes (“hits”) and nonsignificant genes (“nonhits”) of the whole human genome screens (88 genes), we identified 711 siRNA pools that promoted MYXV growth and 333 that were inhibitory. Another 32 siRNA pools (mostly targeting the proteasome) were toxic. The overall overlap in the results was about 25% for the hits and 75% for the nonhits. These pro- and antiviral genes can be clustered into pathways and related groups, including well-established inflammatory and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, as well as clusters relating to β-catenin and the Wnt signaling cascade, the cell cycle, and cellular metabolism. The validity of a subset of these hits was independently confirmed. For example, treating cells with siRNAs that might stabilize cells in G1, or inhibit passage into S phase, stimulated MYXV growth, and these effects were reproduced by trapping cells at the G1/S boundary with an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6. By using 2-deoxy-d-glucose and plasmids carrying the gene for phosphofructokinase, we also confirmed that infection is favored by aerobic glycolytic metabolism. These studies provide insights into how the growth state and structure of cells affect MYXV growth and how these factors might be manipulated to advantage in oncolytic virus therapy. PMID

  14. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides air

  15. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010–2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979–2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF’s (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979–2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010–2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides

  16. The cross-mammalian neurophenomenology of primal emotional affects: From animal feelings to human therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-06-01

    The neural correlates of human emotions are easy to harvest. In contrast, the neural constitution of emotional feelings in humans has resisted systematic scientific analysis. This review summarizes how preclinical affective neuroscience initiatives are making progress in decoding the neural nature of such feelings in animal brains. This has been achieved by studying the rewarding and punishing effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcortical emotional networks (labeled SEEING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY systems) that evoke distinct emotion action patterns, as well as rewarding and punishing effects in animals. The implications of this knowledge for development of new psychiatric interventions, especially depression, are discussed. Three new antidepressive therapeutics arising from this work are briefly noted: 1) DBS of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in humans, 2) reduction of psychological pain that may arise from excessive PANIC arousal, and 3) facilitation of social joy through the study of social play in rats The overall argument is that we may more readily develop new psychiatric interventions through preclinical models if we take animal emotional feelings seriously, as opposed to just behavioral changes, as targets for development of new treatments.

  17. 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (Erucin) from rocket plant dichotomously affects the activity of human immunocompetent cells.

    PubMed

    Gründemann, Carsten; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Lamy, Evelyn; Hanschen, Franziska S; Huber, Roman

    2015-03-15

    Isothiocyanates (ITC) from the Brassicaceae plant family are regarded as promising for prevention and treatment of cancer. However, experimental settings consider their therapeutic action without taking into account the risk of unwanted effects on healthy tissues. In the present study we investigated the effects of Eruca sativa seed extract containing MTBITC (Erucin) and pure Erucin from rocket plant on healthy cells of the human immune system in vitro. Hereby, high doses of the plant extract as well as of Erucin inhibited cell viability of human lymphocytes via induction of apoptosis to comparable amounts. Non-toxic low concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin altered the expression of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor but did not affect further T cell activation, proliferation and the release of the effector molecules interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-2 of T-lymphocytes. However, the activity of NK-cells was significantly reduced by non-toxic concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin. These results indicate that the plant extract and pure Erucin interfere with the function of human T lymphocytes and decreases the activity of NK-cells in comparable concentrations. Long-term clinical studies with ITC-enriched plant extracts from Brassicaceae should take this into account.

  18. Foetal bovine serum-derived exosomes affect yield and phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Francesco; Ionta, Vittoria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Miraldi, Fabio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a powerful tool in cardiac regenerative medicine. Pre-clinical studies suggest that most of the beneficial effects promoted by the injected cells are due to their paracrine activity exerted on endogenous cells and tissue. Exosomes are candidate mediators of this paracrine effects. According to their potential, many researchers have focused on characterizing exosomes derived from specific cell types, but, up until now, only few studies have analyzed the possible in vitro effects of bovine serum-derived exosomes on cell proliferation or differentiation. Methods: The aim of this study was to analyse, from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, the in vitro effects of bovine serum exosomes on human CPCs cultured either as cardiospheres or as monolayers of cardiosphere-forming cells. Results: Effects on proliferation, yield and molecular patterning were detected. We show, for the first time, that exogenous bovine exosomes support the proliferation and migration of human cardiosphere-forming cells, and that their depletion affects cardiospheres formation, in terms of size, yield and extra-cellular matrix production. Conclusion: These results stress the importance of considering differential biological effects of exogenous cell culture supplements on the final phenotype of primary human cell cultures. PMID:27340620

  19. Does human pressure affect the community structure of surf zone fish in sandy beaches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Landmann, Júlia G.; Gaelzer, Luiz R.; Zalmon, Ilana R.

    2017-01-01

    Intense tourism and human activities have resulted in habitat destruction in sandy beach ecosystems with negative impacts on the associated communities. To investigate whether urbanized beaches affect surf zone fish communities, fish and their benthic macrofaunal prey were collected during periods of low and high human pressure at two beaches on the Southeastern Brazilian coast. A BACI experimental design (Before-After-Control-Impact) was adapted for comparisons of tourism impact on fish community composition and structure in urbanized, intermediate and non-urbanized sectors of each beach. At the end of the summer season, we observed a significant reduction in fish richness, abundance, and diversity in the high tourist pressure areas. The negative association between visitors' abundance and the macrofaunal density suggests that urbanized beaches are avoided by surf zone fish due to higher human pressure and the reduction of food availability. Our results indicate that surf zone fish should be included in environmental impact studies in sandy beaches, including commercial species, e.g., the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. The comparative results from the less urbanized areas suggest that environmental zoning and visitation limits should be used as effective management and preservation strategies on beaches with high conservation potential.

  20. Reprogramming Methods Do Not Affect Gene Expression Profile of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Marta; Desole, Giovanna; Costanzi, Giulia; Lavezzo, Enrico; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent cells derived from adult somatic cells. After the pioneering work by Yamanaka, who first generated iPSCs by retroviral transduction of four reprogramming factors, several alternative methods to obtain iPSCs have been developed in order to increase the yield and safety of the process. However, the question remains open on whether the different reprogramming methods can influence the pluripotency features of the derived lines. In this study, three different strategies, based on retroviral vectors, episomal vectors, and Sendai virus vectors, were applied to derive iPSCs from human fibroblasts. The reprogramming efficiency of the methods based on episomal and Sendai virus vectors was higher than that of the retroviral vector-based approach. All human iPSC clones derived with the different methods showed the typical features of pluripotent stem cells, including the expression of alkaline phosphatase and stemness maker genes, and could give rise to the three germ layer derivatives upon embryoid bodies assay. Microarray analysis confirmed the presence of typical stem cell gene expression profiles in all iPSC clones and did not identify any significant difference among reprogramming methods. In conclusion, the use of different reprogramming methods is equivalent and does not affect gene expression profile of the derived human iPSCs. PMID:28117672

  1. The impact of pre- and/or probiotics on human colonic metabolism: does it affect human health?

    PubMed

    De Preter, Vicky; Hamer, Henrike M; Windey, Karen; Verbeke, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Since many years, the role of the colonic microbiota in maintaining the host's overall health and well-being has been recognized. Dietary modulation of the microbiota composition and activity has been achieved by the use of pre-, pro- and synbiotics. In this review, we will summarize the available evidence on the modification of bacterial metabolism by dietary intervention with pre-, pro- and synbiotics. Enhanced production of SCFA as a marker of increased saccharolytic fermentation is well documented in animal and in vitro studies. Decreased production of potentially toxic protein fermentation metabolites, such as sulfides, phenolic and indolic compounds, has been less frequently demonstrated. Besides, pre-, pro- and synbiotics also affect other metabolic pathways such as the deconjugation of secondary bile acids, bacterial enzyme activities and mineral absorption. Data from human studies are less conclusive. The emergence of new analytical techniques such as metabolite profiling has revealed new pathways affected by dietary intervention. However, an important challenge for current and future research is to relate changes in bacterial metabolism to concrete health benefits. Potential targets and expected benefits have been identified: reduced risk for the metabolic syndrome and prevention of colorectal cancer.

  2. Neural coding of cooperative vs. affective human interactions: 150 ms to code the action's purpose.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Paganelli, Laura; Cappa, Stefano F; Canessa, Nicola; Perani, Daniela; Zani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The timing and neural processing of the understanding of social interactions was investigated by presenting scenes in which 2 people performed cooperative or affective actions. While the role of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in understanding actions and intentions is widely accepted, little is known about the time course within which these aspects of visual information are automatically extracted. Event-Related Potentials were recorded in 35 university students perceiving 260 pictures of cooperative (e.g., 2 people dragging a box) or affective (e.g., 2 people smiling and holding hands) interactions. The action's goal was automatically discriminated at about 150-170 ms, as reflected by occipito/temporal N170 response. The swLORETA inverse solution revealed the strongest sources in the right posterior cingulate cortex (CC) for affective actions and in the right pSTS for cooperative actions. It was found a right hemispheric asymmetry that involved the fusiform gyrus (BA37), the posterior CC, and the medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11) for the processing of affective interactions, particularly in the 155-175 ms time window. In a later time window (200-250 ms) the processing of cooperative interactions activated the left post-central gyrus (BA3), the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA10), as well as the right premotor cortex (BA6). Women showed a greater response discriminative of the action's goal compared to men at P300 and anterior negativity level (220-500 ms). These findings might be related to a greater responsiveness of the female vs. male MNS. In addition, the discriminative effect was bilateral in women and was smaller and left-sided in men. Evidence was provided that perceptually similar social interactions are discriminated on the basis of the agents' intentions quite early in neural processing, differentially activating regions devoted to face/body/action coding, the limbic system and the MNS.

  3. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS), a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content. PMID:26849361

  4. 1987 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates an ever-varying aspect of the industry. Personnel names, plant sites, home office locations, sales and relocations - all have been compiled in this book. Inactive refineries have been updated and listed in a special section as well as active major refining and gas processing and construction projects worldwide. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry. It discusses the worldwide Construction Survey, U.S. Refining Survey, Worldwide Gas Processing Plant Survey, Worldwide Refining Survey, Worldwide Survey of Petroleum Derived Sulfur Production, and Worldwide Catalyst Report. Also included in the directory is the National Petroleum Refiners Association's U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Study.

  5. Training experience in gestures affects the display of social gaze in baboons' communication with a human.

    PubMed

    Bourjade, Marie; Canteloup, Charlotte; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Gaunet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Gaze behaviour, notably the alternation of gaze between distal objects and social partners that accompanies primates' gestural communication is considered a standard indicator of intentionality. However, the developmental precursors of gaze behaviour in primates' communication are not well understood. Here, we capitalized on the training in gestures dispensed to olive baboons (Papio anubis) as a way of manipulating individual communicative experience with humans. We aimed to delineate the effects of such a training experience on gaze behaviour displayed by the monkeys in relation with gestural requests. Using a food-requesting paradigm, we compared subjects trained in requesting gestures (i.e. trained subjects) to naïve subjects (i.e. control subjects) for their occurrences of (1) gaze behaviour, (2) requesting gestures and (3) temporal combination of gaze alternation with gestures. We found that training did not affect the frequencies of looking at the human's face, looking at food or alternating gaze. Hence, social gaze behaviour occurs independently from the amount of communicative experience with humans. However, trained baboons-gesturing more than control subjects-exhibited most gaze alternation combined with gestures, whereas control baboons did not. By reinforcing the display of gaze alternation along with gestures, we suggest that training may have served to enhance the communicative function of hand gestures. Finally, this study brings the first quantitative report of monkeys producing requesting gestures without explicit training by humans (controls). These results may open a window on the developmental mechanisms (i.e. incidental learning vs. training) underpinning gestural intentional communication in primates.

  6. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively neutral sites across the human genome.

    PubMed

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui; Kim, Su Yeon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Tian, Geng; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia; Feder, Alison F; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Torben; Jiang, Tao; Witte, Daniel R; Sandbæk, Annelli; Hellmann, Ines; Lauritzen, Torsten; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-10-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries of genetic variation, like allele frequencies, are also correlated with recombination rate and whether these correlations can be explained solely by negative selection against deleterious mutations or whether positive selection acting on favorable alleles is also required. Here we attempt to address these questions by analyzing three different genome-wide resequencing datasets from European individuals. We document several significant correlations between different genomic features. In particular, we find that average minor allele frequency and diversity are reduced in regions of low recombination and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations. However, models with strong positive selection on nonsynonymous mutations and little negative selection predict a stronger negative correlation between neutral diversity and nonsynonymous divergence than observed in the actual data, supporting the importance of negative, rather than positive, selection throughout the genome. Further, we show that the widespread presence of weakly deleterious alleles, rather than a small number of strongly positively selected mutations, is responsible for the correlation between neutral genetic diversity and recombination rate. This work suggests that natural selection has affected multiple aspects of linked neutral variation throughout the human genome and that positive selection is not required to explain these observations.

  7. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  8. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    SciTech Connect

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

  9. Some factors affecting the action of restriction endonucleases on human metaphase chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, R; Ferrucci, L; Vanni, R; Sumner, A T

    1985-11-01

    We have investigated whether restriction endonucleases produce bands on human chromosomes by extracting DNA, using staining methods which are stoichiometric for DNA. Restriction enzymes that produce C-band patterns appear to remove DNA extensively from chromosome arms. In general, however, those restriction enzymes that produce G-bands do not extract DNA from chromosomes, and their effects are believed to be due to conformational change in the chromosomal DNA; in these cases, the chromosomal regions affected appear to be determined by the chromosome structure and not by the specificity of the enzyme. DNA loss from chromosomes due to digestion by restriction enzymes may in some cases be uniform, although a G-banding pattern is visible after Giemsa staining.

  10. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during an insect’s larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host–parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control. PMID:27827429

  11. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-11-09

    Exposure to stress during an insect's larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host-parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control.

  12. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) affects global protein synthesis in dividing human cells.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Anna; Galluzzo, Paola; Liang, Shuang; Rambo, Brittany; Skucha, Sylvia; Weber, Megan J; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    Hypoxic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is dependent on Notch-1 signaling for survival. Targeting Notch-1 by means of γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) proved effective in killing hypoxic NSCLC. Post-mortem analysis of GSI-treated, NSCLC-burdened mice suggested enhanced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at threonines 37/46 in hypoxic tumor tissues. In vitro dissection of this phenomenon revealed that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) inhibition was responsible for a non-canonical 4E-BP1 phosphorylation pattern rearrangement-a process, in part, mediated by APP regulation of the pseudophosphatase Styx. Upon APP depletion we observed modifications of eIF-4F composition indicating increased recruitment of eIF-4A to the mRNA cap. This phenomenon was supported by the observation that cells with depleted APP were partially resistant to silvestrol, an antibiotic that interferes with eIF-4A assembly into eIF-4F complexes. APP downregulation in dividing human cells increased the rate of global protein synthesis, both cap- and IRES-dependent. Such an increase seemed independent of mTOR inhibition. After administration of Torin-1, APP downregulation and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC-1) inhibition affected 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and global protein synthesis in opposite fashions. Additional investigations indicated that APP operates independently of mTORC-1. Key phenomena described in this study were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain. The presented data suggest that APP may be a novel regulator of protein synthesis in dividing human cells, both cancerous and primary. Furthermore, APP appears to affect translation initiation using mechanisms seemingly dissimilar to mTORC-1 regulation of cap-dependent protein synthesis.

  13. Argon does not affect cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans

    PubMed Central

    Kazmaier, Stephan; Hoeks, Sanne Elisabeth; Stolker, Robert Jan; Coburn, Marc; Weyland, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective Accumulating data have recently underlined argon´s neuroprotective potential. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available on the cerebrovascular effects of argon (Ar) in humans. We hypothesized that argon inhalation does not affect mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (Vmca), cerebral flow index (FI), zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe), resistance area product (RAP) and the arterio-jugular venous content differences of oxygen (AJVDO2), glucose (AJVDG), and lactate (AJVDL) in anesthetized patients. Materials and methods In a secondary analysis of an earlier controlled cross-over trial we compared parameters of the cerebral circulation under 15 minutes exposure to 70%Ar/30%O2 versus 70%N2/30%O2 in 29 male patients under fentanyl-midazolam anaesthesia before coronary surgery. Vmca was measured by transcranial Doppler sonography. ZFP and RAP were estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure-flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. CPPe was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP. AJVDO2, AJVDG and AJVDL were calculated as the differences in contents between arterial and jugular-venous blood of oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Statistical analysis was done by t-tests and ANOVA. Results Mechanical ventilation with 70% Ar did not cause any significant changes in mean arterial pressure, Vmca, FI, ZFP, CPPe, RAP, AJVDO2, AJVDG, and AJVDL. Discussion Short-term inhalation of 70% Ar does not affect global cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans under general anaesthesia. PMID:28207907

  14. Dopamine Transporter Gene Variant Affecting Expression in Human Brain is Associated with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pinsonneault, Julia K; Han, Dawn D; Burdick, Katherine E; Kataki, Maria; Bertolino, Alessandro; Malhotra, Anil K; Gu, Howard H; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The gene encoding the dopamine transporter (DAT) has been implicated in CNS disorders, but the responsible polymorphisms remain uncertain. To search for regulatory polymorphisms, we measured allelic DAT mRNA expression in substantia nigra of human autopsy brain tissues, using two marker SNPs (rs6347 in exon 9 and rs27072 in the 3′-UTR). Allelic mRNA expression imbalance (AEI), an indicator of cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms, was observed in all tissues heterozygous for either of the two marker SNPs. SNP scanning of the DAT locus with AEI ratios as the phenotype, followed by in vitro molecular genetics studies, demonstrated that rs27072 C>T affects mRNA expression and translation. Expression of the minor T allele was dynamically regulated in transfected cell cultures, possibly involving microRNA interactions. Both rs6347 and rs3836790 (intron8 5/6 VNTR) also seemed to affect DAT expression, but not the commonly tested 9/10 VNTR in the 3′UTR (rs28363170). All four polymorphisms (rs6347, intron8 5/6 VNTR, rs27072 and 3′UTR 9/10 VNTR) were genotyped in clinical cohorts, representing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and controls. Only rs27072 was significantly associated with bipolar disorder (OR=2.1, p=0.03). This result was replicated in a second bipolar/control population (OR=1.65, p=0.01), supporting a critical role for DAT regulation in bipolar disorder. PMID:21525861

  15. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Mutant Huntingtin Does Not Affect the Intrinsic Phenotype of Human Huntington's Disease T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Miller, James R C; Träger, Ulrike; Andre, Ralph; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The peripheral innate immune system is dysregulated in Huntington's disease and may contribute to its pathogenesis. However, it is not clear whether or to what extent the adaptive immune system is also involved. Here, we carry out the first comprehensive investigation of human ex vivo T lymphocytes in Huntington's disease, focusing on the frequency of a range of T lymphocyte subsets, as well as analysis of proliferation, cytokine production and gene transcription. In contrast to the innate immune system, the intrinsic phenotype of T lymphocytes does not appear to be affected by the presence of mutant huntingtin, with Huntington's disease T lymphocytes exhibiting no significant functional differences compared to control cells. The transcriptional profile of T lymphocytes also does not appear to be significantly affected, suggesting that peripheral immune dysfunction in Huntington's disease is likely to be mediated primarily by the innate rather than the adaptive immune system. This study increases our understanding of the effects of Huntington's disease on peripheral tissues, while further demonstrating the differential effects of the mutant protein on different but related cell types. Finally, this study suggests that the potential use of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating the Huntington's disease innate immune system should not be extended to include the adaptive immune system.

  17. Bright morning light advances the human circadian system without affecting NREM sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dijk, D J; Beersma, D G; Daan, S; Lewy, A J

    1989-01-01

    Eight male subjects were exposed to either bright light or dim light between 0600 and 0900 h for 3 consecutive days each. Relative to the dim light condition, the bright light treatment advanced the evening rise in plasma melatonin and the time of sleep termination (sleep onset was held constant) for an average approximately 1 h. The magnitude of the advance of the plasma melatonin rise was dependent on its phase in dim light. The reduction in sleep duration was at the expense of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Spectral analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed that the advance of the circadian pacemaker did not affect EEG power densities between 0.25 and 15.0 Hz during either non-REM or REM sleep. The data show that shifting the human circadian pacemaker by 1 h does not affect non-REM sleep homeostasis. These findings are in accordance with the predictions of the two-process model of sleep regulation.

  18. Dissociation in human prefrontal cortex of affective influences on working memory-related activity.

    PubMed

    Perlstein, William M; Elbert, Thomas; Stenger, V Andrew

    2002-02-05

    Although neural activity associated with emotion is becoming better understood, the influence of affective parameters on brain activity reflecting cognitive functioning in humans remains poorly characterized. We examined affective influences on working memory (WM) and tested the hypotheses that (i) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity reflecting WM is influenced by the emotion-evoking qualities of task-relevant stimuli, but only when brought "on-line" by task demands, and (ii) DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activities are inversely related as a function of emotional valence. Participants performed two tasks while event-related functional MRI measured brain activity; one task required active maintenance of stimulus representations in WM, and the other task required target detection responses with no demand for WM. Stimuli were standardized emotional (pleasant and unpleasant) and neutral pictures. Emotional stimuli differentially influenced DPFC and OFC activity during WM; DLPFC was influenced by emotional valence, enhanced by pleasant and reduced by unpleasant, compared to neutral stimuli, only when task conditions required WM. OFC was valence-sensitive during both tasks, greater to arousing than neutral stimuli when WM demand was low and in inverse relationship to DLPFC with high WM demand. Further, DLPFC and OFC activities are inversely related with respect to emotional valence during the WM task. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the intrinsic valence of task-relevant stimuli maintained in WM modulates DLPFC activity but only when the DLPFC is required for task demands. Findings suggest a conceptualization of DLPFC and its involvement in WM that takes into account a role for affective parameters.

  19. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jiawen; Itahana, Koji; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  20. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (sbnd NH2), carboxyl (sbnd COOH) and methyl (sbnd CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (sbnd COOH and sbnd NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (sbnd CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the sbnd NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the sbnd COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the sbnd CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  1. 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields do not affect human lymphocyte activation and proliferation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capri, Miriam; Mesirca, Pietro; Remondini, Daniel; Carosella, Simona; Pasi, Sara; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio; Bersani, Ferdinando

    2004-12-01

    In the last 30 years, an increasing public concern about the possible harmful effects of electromagnetic fields generated by power lines and domestic appliances has pushed the scientific community to search for a correct and comprehensive answer to this problem. In this work the effects of exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields, with a magnetic flux density of 0.05 mT and 2.5 mT (peak values), were studied on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from healthy young and elderly donors. Cell activation and proliferation were investigated by using flow cytometry techniques and 3H-TdR incorporation assays, respectively. The results obtained indicated that exposure to the fields altered neither DNA synthesis nor the capacity of lymphocytes to enter the activation phase and progress into the cell cycle. Thus, the conclusions are that two important functional phases of human lymphocytes, such as activation and proliferation, are not affected by exposures to 50 Hz magnetic fields similar to those found under power lines.

  2. The absence of numbers to express the amount may affect delay discounting with humans.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Huerta, Hugo E; Dos Santos, Cristiano V

    2016-09-01

    Human delay discounting is usually studied with experimental protocols that use symbols to express delay and amount. In order to further understand discounting, we evaluated whether the absence of numbers to represent reward amounts affects discount rate in general, and whether the magnitude effect is generalized to nonsymbolic situations in particular. In Experiment 1, human participants were exposed to a delay-discounting task in which rewards were presented using dots to represent monetary rewards (nonsymbolic); under this condition the magnitude effect did not occur. Nevertheless, the magnitude effect was observed when equivalent reward amounts were presented using numbers (symbolic). Moreover, in estimation tasks, magnitude increments produced underestimation of large amounts. In Experiment 2, participants were exposed only to the nonsymbolic discounting task and were required to estimate reward amounts in each trial. Consistent with Experiment 1, the absence of numbers representing reward amounts produced similar discount rates of small and large rewards. These results suggest that value of nonsymbolic rewards is a nonlinear function of amount and that value attribution depends on perceived difference between the immediate and the delayed nonsymbolic rewards.

  3. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  4. Interacting Physical and Biological Processes Affecting Nutrient Transport Through Human Dominated Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient transport. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient transport in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through transport to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus transport, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and transport. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes affecting nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.

  5. Expansion of adipose mesenchymal stromal cells is affected by human platelet lysate and plating density.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Dominik; Stiehl, Thomas; Schellenberg, Anne; Bokermann, Gudrun; Joussen, Sylvia; Koch, Carmen; Walenda, Thomas; Pallua, Norbert; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna; Suschek, Christoph V; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The composition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) changes in the course of in vitro culture expansion. Little is known how these cell preparations are influenced by culture media, plating density, or passaging. In this study, we have isolated MSCs from human adipose tissue in culture medium supplemented with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or human platelet lysate (HPL). In addition, culture expansion was simultaneously performed at plating densities of 10 or 10,000 cells/cm(2). The use of FCS resulted in larger cells, whereas HPL significantly enhanced proliferation. Notably, HPL also facilitated expansion for more population doublings than FCS (43 ± 3 vs. 22 ± 4 population doubling; p < 0.001), while plating density did not have a significant effect on long-term growth curves. To gain further insight into population dynamics, we conceived a cellular automaton model to simulate expansion of MSCS. It is based on the assumptions that the number of cell divisions is limited and that due to contact inhibition proliferation occurs only at the rim of colonies. The model predicts that low plating densities result in more heterogeneity with regard to cell division history, and favor subpopulations of higher migratory activity. In summary, HPL is a suitable serum supplement for isolation of MSC from adipose tissue and facilitates more population doublings than FCS. Cellular automaton computer simulations provided additional insights into how complex population dynamics during long-term expansion are affected by plating density and migration.

  6. A recent evolutionary change affects a regulatory element in the human FOXP2 gene.

    PubMed

    Maricic, Tomislav; Günther, Viola; Georgiev, Oleg; Gehre, Sabine; Curlin, Marija; Schreiweis, Christiane; Naumann, Ronald; Burbano, Hernán A; Meyer, Matthias; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Gajovic, Srecko; Kelso, Janet; Enard, Wolfgang; Schaffner, Walter; Pääbo, Svante

    2013-04-01

    The FOXP2 gene is required for normal development of speech and language. By isolating and sequencing FOXP2 genomic DNA fragments from a 49,000-year-old Iberian Neandertal and 50 present-day humans, we have identified substitutions in the gene shared by all or nearly all present-day humans but absent or polymorphic in Neandertals. One such substitution is localized in intron 8 and affects a binding site for the transcription factor POU3F2, which is highly conserved among vertebrates. We find that the derived allele of this site is less efficient than the ancestral allele in activating transcription from a reporter construct. The derived allele also binds less POU3F2 dimers than POU3F2 monomers compared with the ancestral allele. Because the substitution in the POU3F2 binding site is likely to alter the regulation of FOXP2 expression, and because it is localized in a region of the gene associated with a previously described signal of positive selection, it is a plausible candidate for having caused a recent selective sweep in the FOXP2 gene.

  7. Lead and cadmium at very low doses affect in vitro immune response of human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Borella, P.; Giardino, A. )

    1991-08-01

    The effect of lead chloride and cadmium chloride on in vitro immunoglobulin (Ig) production by human lymphocytes was investigated. After 7 days in culture, lead added in the range of human exposure (207-1035 {mu}g/liter) significantly enhanced Ig production either when cells were activated by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or not. The effect was dose-dependent and was related to the Pb were measured in the extracellular medium and in the cells. Independently of the mitogen addition, about 2% of the Pb added was accumulated in the cells, most being associated with the nuclear fraction. Those findings suggest that the Pb effects could depend on its uptake and distribution in the cells. Cadmium added in the 50-500 nM range exhibited a dose-independent mitogenic activity in unstimulated cells, whereas the Ig secretion was not significantly affected by Cd when cells were PWM-activated. A considerable intraindividual variability, however, was observed when blood donors were separately examined, with both an increase, a decrease, or no variation on Ig production. Furthermore, higher percentages of Cd were accumulated in the nuclear fraction, and lower in the cytosol and precipitate, in PWM-activated compared to resting lymphocytes. Genetic factors could be of importance for the observed variability of the immune response to cadmium, and the authors support the hypothesis that differences in the metallothionein (MT) inducibility could play a role.

  8. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  9. Worldwide gas-processing growth slows

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R. )

    1990-07-02

    Continued worldwide growth is evident in this report on natural -gas processing and sulfur recovery. But the pace was slower in 1989. Canada and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region were the best performers. U.S. figures were flat, while Canadian NGL production was again up markedly. Canada's lead in worldwide sulfur-recovery capacity and production increased slightly.

  10. Thiazide diuretics affect osteocalcin production in human osteoblasts at the transcription level without affecting vitamin D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lajeunesse, D; Delalandre, A; Guggino, S E

    2000-05-01

    Besides their natriuretic and calciuretic effect, thiazide diuretics have been shown to decrease bone loss rate and improve bone mineral density. Clinical evidence suggests a specific role of thiazides on osteoblasts, because it reduces serum osteocalcin (OC), an osteoblast-specific protein, yet the mechanisms implicated are unknown. We therefore investigated the role of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) on OC production by the human osteoblast-like cell line MG-63. HCTZ dose-dependently (1-100 microM) inhibited 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]-induced OC release by these cells (maximal effect, -40-50% and p < 0.005 by analysis of variance [ANOVA]) as measured by ELISA. This effect of HCTZ on OC release was caused by a direct effect on OC gene expression because Northern blot analysis revealed that OC messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were reduced in the presence of increasing doses of the diuretic (-47.2+/-4.0%; p < 0.0001 by paired ANOVA with 100 microM 13.6+/-0.49 pmol/mg protein/15 minutes; p < 0.05) in MG-63 cells. Reducing extracellular Ca2+ concentration with 0.5 mM EDTA or 0.5 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-amino ethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) only partly prevented the inhibitory effect of the diuretic on OC secretion (maximal effect, -22.5+/-6.9%), suggesting that thiazide-dependent Ca2+ influx is not sufficient to elicit the inhibition of OC secretion. Because OC production is strictly dependent on the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 in human osteoblasts, we next evaluated the possible role of HCTZ on vitamin D3 receptors (VDR) at the mRNA and protein levels. Both Northern and Western blot analyses showed no effect of HCTZ (1-100 microM) on VDR levels. The presence of EGTA in the culture media reduced slightly the VDR mRNA levels under basal condition but this was not modified in the presence of increasing levels of HCTZ. The OC gene promoter also is under the control of transcription factors such as Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and cFOS. Western blot analysis revealed

  11. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Balmford, Andrew; Gravestock, Pippa; Hockley, Neal; McClean, Colin J; Roberts, Callum M

    2004-06-29

    Declines in marine harvests, wildlife, and habitats have prompted calls at both the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and the 2003 World Parks Congress for the establishment of a global system of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs that restrict fishing and other human activities conserve habitats and populations and, by exporting biomass, may sustain or increase yields of nearby fisheries. Here we provide an estimate of the costs of a global MPA network, based on a survey of the running costs of 83 MPAs worldwide. Annual running costs per unit area spanned six orders of magnitude, and were higher in MPAs that were smaller, closer to coasts, and in high-cost, developed countries. Models extrapolating these findings suggest that a global MPA network meeting the World Parks Congress target of conserving 20-30% of the world's seas might cost between 5 billion and 19 billion US dollars annually to run and would probably create around one million jobs. Although substantial, gross network costs are less than current government expenditures on harmful subsidies to industrial fisheries. They also ignore potential private gains from improved fisheries and tourism and are dwarfed by likely social gains from increasing the sustainability of fisheries and securing vital ecosystem services.

  12. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kuss, J.

    2011-05-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  13. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kuss, J.

    2011-01-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentration have decreased by about 20 to 38% since 1996 as indicated by long term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 yrs is unprecedented among most of atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant emissions over the period. It suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  14. Neuropathology training worldwide-evolution and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Del Bigio, Marc R; Hainfellner, Johannes A; McLean, Catriona A; Powell, Suzanne Z; Sikorska, Beata; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Weis, Joachim; Xuereb, John H

    2014-04-01

    Training of neuropathologists varies worldwide. Systems range from highly organized specialist and subspecialist education with national certification, to regulated training with diploma recognition, to informal apprenticeships in neurological hospitals and no formal recognition. This overview compiles and summarizes the history of regulated training systems, the status of neuropathology within various countries' medical systems and the manner in which neuropathologists are trained. Anecdotal evidence suggests that countries with regulated systems of neuropathology training and an active professional organization are more likely to have an adequate supply of diagnostic specialists and a vibrant research community. The different training systems reflect the style of medical services delivery in the respective countries. In general, the existence of formal neuropathology training systems occurs only in countries with relatively high levels of per capita health expenditures, reflecting the development of medical specialization overall. Evolving diagnostic technologies and major international research endeavors, whose goals are to understand structure and function of the human brain, demand that neuropathology training is more than simply diagnostic histopathology.

  15. Worldwide Genetic Analysis of the CFTR Region

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Eva; Calafell, Francesc; Lao, Oscar; Bonné-Tamir, Batsheva; Kidd, Judith R.; Pakstis, Andrew; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2001-01-01

    Mutations at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis, the most prevalent severe genetic disorder in individuals of European descent. We have analyzed normal allele and haplotype variation at four short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CFTR in 18 worldwide population samples, comprising a total of 1,944 chromosomes. The rooted phylogeny of the SNP haplotypes was established by typing ape samples. STRP variation within SNP haplotype backgrounds was highest in most ancestral haplotypes—although, when STRP allele sizes were taken into account, differences among haplotypes became smaller. Haplotype background determines STRP diversity to a greater extent than populations do, which indicates that haplotype backgrounds are older than populations. Heterogeneity among STRPs can be understood as the outcome of differences in mutation rate and pattern. STRP sites had higher heterozygosities in Africans, although, when whole haplotypes were considered, no significant differences remained. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) shows a complex pattern not easily related to physical distance. The analysis of the fraction of possible different haplotypes not found may circumvent some of the methodological difficulties of LD measure. LD analysis showed a positive correlation with locus polymorphism, which could partly explain the unusual pattern of similar LD between Africans and non-Africans. The low values found in non-Africans may imply that the size of the modern human population that emerged “Out of Africa” may be larger than what previous LD studies suggested. PMID:11104661

  16. Factors affecting disease-free survival in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer who receive adjuvant trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Seyda; Göksu, Sema Sezgin; Arslan, Deniz; Tatli, Ali Murat; Uysal, Mükremin; Gündüz, Umut Riza; Sevinç, Mert Mahsuni; Coşkun, Hasan Senol; Bozcuk, Hakan; Mutlu, Hasan; Savas, Burhan

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer-related mortality. A total of 20-30% of patients with early-stage breast cancer develop recurrence within the first 5 years following diagnosis. Trastuzumab significantly improves overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early and locally advanced breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect DFS following adjuvant transtuzumab therapy. A total of 62 patients treated with trastuzumab for early and locally advanced breast cancer were included in our study. Data, including pathology, treatment and treatment outcome, rate of recurrence and laboratory tests, were retrospectively collected. There was no significant association between DFS and age, menopausal status, disease stage and hormone receptor status. The median follow-up was 48.4 months. The median DFS of patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab was 64.1 months. In addition, the median DFS was 44.3 vs. 66.8 months in patients with platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) ≤200 vs. >200, respectively (log-rank test; P=0.001), and 70 vs. 45 months in patients with eosinophil count ≤70 vs. >70×10(3)/mm(3) (log-rank test; P=0.001). Our data revealed the prognostic relevance of a decrease in the peripheral blood eosinophil count and PLR value following trastuzumab therapy in breast cancer. PLR and eosinophil count measurements are cost-effective, readily available worldwide, non-invasive and safe. Combined with other markers, such as patient age, tumor stage and tumor histology, may be effectively used for patients with breast cancer.

  17. Factors affecting disease-free survival in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer who receive adjuvant trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    GÜNDÜZ, SEYDA; GÖKSU, SEMA SEZGIN; ARSLAN, DENIZ; TATLI, ALI MURAT; UYSAL, MÜKREMIN; GÜNDÜZ, UMUT RIZA; SEVINÇ, MERT MAHSUNI; COŞKUN, HASAN SENOL; BOZCUK, HAKAN; MUTLU, HASAN; SAVAS, BURHAN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer-related mortality. A total of 20–30% of patients with early-stage breast cancer develop recurrence within the first 5 years following diagnosis. Trastuzumab significantly improves overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early and locally advanced breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect DFS following adjuvant transtuzumab therapy. A total of 62 patients treated with trastuzumab for early and locally advanced breast cancer were included in our study. Data, including pathology, treatment and treatment outcome, rate of recurrence and laboratory tests, were retrospectively collected. There was no significant association between DFS and age, menopausal status, disease stage and hormone receptor status. The median follow-up was 48.4 months. The median DFS of patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab was 64.1 months. In addition, the median DFS was 44.3 vs. 66.8 months in patients with platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) ≤200 vs. >200, respectively (log-rank test; P=0.001), and 70 vs. 45 months in patients with eosinophil count ≤70 vs. >70×103/mm3 (log-rank test; P=0.001). Our data revealed the prognostic relevance of a decrease in the peripheral blood eosinophil count and PLR value following trastuzumab therapy in breast cancer. PLR and eosinophil count measurements are cost-effective, readily available worldwide, non-invasive and safe. Combined with other markers, such as patient age, tumor stage and tumor histology, may be effectively used for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26623060

  18. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gallium in human serum.

    PubMed

    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections.

  20. Ionizing radiation affects human MART-1 melanoma antigen processing and presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Butterfield, Lisa H; Economou, James S; Ribas, Antoni; Meng, Wilson S; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; McBride, William H

    2004-08-15

    Radiation is generally considered to be an immunosuppressive agent that acts by killing radiosensitive lymphocytes. In this study, we demonstrate the noncytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on MHC class I Ag presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that have divergent consequences depending upon whether peptides are endogenously processed and loaded onto MHC class I molecules or are added exogenously. The endogenous pathway was examined using C57BL/6 murine DCs transduced with adenovirus to express the human melanoma/melanocyte Ag recognized by T cells (AdVMART1). Prior irradiation abrogated the ability of AdVMART1-transduced DCs to induce MART-1-specific T cell responses following their injection into mice. The ability of these same DCs to generate protective immunity against B16 melanoma, which expresses murine MART-1, was also abrogated by radiation. Failure of AdVMART1-transduced DCs to generate antitumor immunity following irradiation was not due to cytotoxicity or to radiation-induced block in DC maturation or loss in expression of MHC class I or costimulatory molecules. Expression of some of these molecules was affected, but because irradiation actually enhanced the ability of DCs to generate lymphocyte responses to the peptide MART-1(27-35) that is immunodominant in the context of HLA-A2.1, they were unlikely to be critical. The increase in lymphocyte reactivity generated by irradiated DCs pulsed with MART-1(27-35) also protected mice against growth of B16-A2/K(b) tumors in HLA-A2.1/K(b) transgenic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that radiation modulates MHC class I-mediated antitumor immunity by functionally affecting DC Ag presentation pathways.

  1. Olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect glucose uptake and energy metabolism in human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Britta; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Scherr, Michaela; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Kahl, Kai G

    2017-05-01

    The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake. Further measurements comprised mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, GLUT1 protein expression, DNA methylation of GLUT1 promoter region, and proteins involved in downstream glucometabolic processes. We observed a 2-fold increase in glucose uptake after stimulation with aripiprazole. In contrast, olanzapine stimulation decreased glucose uptake by 40%, accompanied by downregulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT1 protein expression increased, GLUT1 mRNA expression decreased, and GLUT1 promoter was hypermethylated with both antipsychotics. Pyruvat-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity decreased with olanzapine only. Our findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect energy metabolism in PBMC. The observed decrease in glucose uptake in olanzapine stimulated PBMC, accompanied by decreased PDH point to a worsening in cellular energy metabolism not compensated by AMKP upregulation. In contrast, aripiprazole stimulation lead to increased glucose uptake, while not affecting PDH complex expression. The observed differences may be involved in the different metabolic profiles observed in aripiprazole and olanzapine treated patients.

  2. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) affects hyaluronan synthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N; Hascall, Vincent C; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-10-11

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20-50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL.

  3. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns.

  4. GAD2 Alternative Transcripts in the Human Prefrontal Cortex, and in Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Gao, Yuan; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C.; Lipska, Barbara K.; Shin, Joo Heon; Xie, Bin; Ye, Tianzhang; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Hyde, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation and early adverse environmental events work together to increase risk for schizophrenia. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain, plays a major role in normal brain development, and has been strongly implicated in the pathobiology of schizophrenia. GABA synthesis is controlled by two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, GAD1 and GAD2, both of which produce a number of alternative transcripts. Genetic variants in the GAD1 gene are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, and reduced expression of its major transcript in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). No consistent changes in GAD2 expression have been found in brains from patients with schizophrenia. In this work, with the use of RNA sequencing and PCR technologies, we confirmed and tracked the expression of an alternative truncated transcript of GAD2 (ENST00000428517) in human control DLPFC homogenates across lifespan besides the well-known full length transcript of GAD2. In addition, using quantitative RT-PCR, expression of GAD2 full length and truncated transcripts were measured in the DLPFC of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. The expression of GAD2 full length transcript is decreased in the DLPFC of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, while GAD2 truncated transcript is increased in bipolar disorder patients but decreased in schizophrenia patients. Moreover, the patients with schizophrenia with completed suicide or positive nicotine exposure showed significantly higher expression of GAD2 full length transcript. Alternative transcripts of GAD2 may be important in the growth and development of GABA-synthesizing neurons as well as abnormal GABA signaling in the DLPFC of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. PMID:26848839

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of human STING can affect innate immune response to cyclic dinucleotides.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guanghui; Brendel, Volker P; Shu, Chang; Li, Pingwei; Palanathan, Satheesh; Cheng Kao, C

    2013-01-01

    The STING (stimulator of interferon genes) protein can bind cyclic dinucleotides to activate the production of type I interferons and inflammatory cytokines. The cyclic dinucleotides can be bacterial second messengers c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP, 3'5'-3'5' cyclic GMP-AMP (3'3' cGAMP) produced by Vibrio cholerae and metazoan second messenger 2'5'-3'5' Cyclic GMP-AMP (2'3' cGAMP). Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from the 1000 Genome Project revealed that R71H-G230A-R293Q (HAQ) occurs in 20.4%, R232H in 13.7%, G230A-R293Q (AQ) in 5.2%, and R293Q in 1.5% of human population. In the absence of exogenous ligands, the R232H, R293Q and AQ SNPs had only modest effect on the stimulation of IFN-β and NF-κB promoter activities in HEK293T cells, while HAQ had significantly lower intrinsic activity. The decrease was primarily due to the R71H substitution. The SNPs also affected the response to the cyclic dinucleotides. In the presence of c-di-GMP, the R232H variant partially decreased the ability to activate IFN-βsignaling, while it was defective for the response to c-di-AMP and 3'3' cGAMP. The R293Q dramatically decreased the stimulatory response to all bacterial ligands. Surprisingly, the AQ and HAQ variants maintained partial abilities to activate the IFN-β signaling in the presence of ligands due primarily to the G230A substitution. Biochemical analysis revealed that the recombinant G230A protein could affect the conformation of the C-terminal domain of STING and the binding to c-di-GMP. Comparison of G230A structure with that of WT revealed that the conformation of the lid region that clamps onto the c-di-GMP was significantly altered. These results suggest that hSTING variation can affect innate immune signaling and that the common HAQ haplotype expresses a STING protein with reduced intrinsic signaling activity but retained the ability to response to bacterial cyclic dinucleotides.

  6. Accumulation of distinct prelamin A variants in human diploid fibroblasts differentially affects cell homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Candelario, Jose; Borrego, Stacey; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2011-02-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a major role in the structural organization and function of the nucleus. Lamin A is synthesized as a prelamin A precursor which undergoes four sequential post-translational modifications to generate mature lamin A. Significantly, a large number of point mutations in the LMNA gene cause a range of distinct human disorders collectively known as laminopathies. The mechanisms by which mutations in lamin A affect cell function and cause disease are unclear. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that alterations in the normal lamin A pathway can contribute to cellular dysfunction. Specifically, we and others have shown, at the cellular level, that in the absence of mutations or altered splicing events, increased expression of wild-type prelamin A results in a growth defective phenotype that resembles that of cells expressing the mutant form of lamin A, termed progerin, associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS). Remarkably, the phenotypes of cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A can be reversed by either treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, a critical prelamin A processing enzyme, suggesting that minor increases in the steady-state levels of one or more prelamin A intermediates is sufficient to induce cellular toxicity. Here, to investigate the molecular basis of the lamin A pathway toxicity, we characterized the phenotypic changes occurring in cells expressing distinct prelamin A variants mimicking specific prelamin A processing intermediates. This analysis demonstrates that distinct prelamin A variants differentially affect cell growth, nuclear membrane morphology, nuclear distribution of lamin A and the fundamental process of transcription. Expression of prelamin A variants that are constitutively farnesylated induced the formation of lamin A aggregates and dramatic changes in nuclear membrane morphology, which led to reduced

  7. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) essential oil: antifungal activity and mode of action on Candida spp., and molecular targets affected in human whole-genome expression.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça; Furletti, Vivian Fernandes; Sartoratto, Adilson; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Figueira, Glyn Mara; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Janaina Aparecida; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO) known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human cells. The EO phytochemical profile indicates monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as major components, which are likely to negatively impact the viability of yeast cells. There seems to be a synergistic activity of the EO chemical compounds as their isolation into fractions led to a decreased antimicrobial effect. C. sativum EO may bind to membrane ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it does not act on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. This mode of action is illustrated by photomicrographs showing disruption in biofilm integrity caused by the EO at varied concentrations. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration. Finally, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells, with putative mechanisms affecting gene expression in pathways involving chemokines and MAP-kinase (proliferation/apoptosis), as well as adhesion proteins. These findings highlight the potential antifungal activity of the EO from C. sativum leaves and suggest avenues for future translational toxicological research.

  8. 1988 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Innumerable revisions in names, addresses, phone numbers, telex numbers, and cable numbers have been made since the publication of the previous edition. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry including the U.S. Refining Survey, The Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Eax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association.

  9. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Nagai, Momoko; Tajino, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Iijima, Hirotaka; Zhang, Xiangkai; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C) for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and citrate synthase (CS), which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1) and aggrecan (ACAN), was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and chondrogenesis.

  10. Contraction history affects the in vivo quadriceps torque-velocity relationship in humans.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Levente; Béres, Sándor; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, József

    2002-08-01

    We hypothesized that the history of contraction would affect the in vivo quadriceps torque-velocity relationship. We examined the quadriceps torque-velocity relationship of the human knee extensors at the descending and ascending limb of the torque-position relationship by initiating the knee extension at a knee angle position of 1.39 rad (80 degrees ) or 0.87 rad (50 degrees ) over a 0.52 rad (30 degrees ) range of motion under conditions of constant or linearly increasing velocity. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extension torque (M(0)) was measured at 1.87 rad, 0.87 rad, and 0.35 rad, and concentric torque was measured. The subjects carried out ten maximal knee extensions at ten distinct velocities, each velocity ranging between 0.52 rad x s(-1) to 5.24 rad x s(-1) in steps of 0.52 rad x s(-1). Peak concentric torque was measured and mean torque calculated from the respective torque-time curves. Peak or mean torque, computed from the individual torque-time curves, and velocity data were fitted to the Hill equation under the four experimental conditions and the curve parameters computed. The M(0) was similar at 0.87 rad and 1.39 rad, but it was significantly lower at 0.35 rad. In the low-velocity domain of the torque-velocity curve where a plateau normally occurs, peak torque was always lower than M(0). Peak and mean torque were significantly greater under linearly increasing velocity conditions and the 1.39 rad starting knee position. Mean torque but not peak torque data could be well fitted to the Hill equation and the two computations resulted in significantly different Hill curve parameters including the concavity ratio, peak power, and maximal angular velocity. We concluded that the history of contraction significantly modifies the in vivo torque-velocity relationship of the human quadriceps muscle. Muscle mechanics and not neural factors may have accounted for the inconsistencies in the human torque-velocity relationships reported previously.

  11. How electrode montage affects transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Ricardo; Wenger, Cornelia; Nitsche, Michael A; Miranda, Pedro C

    2015-01-01

    Several different electrode configurations were originally proposed to induce excitability changes in the hand area of the motor cortex in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). However only one was found to efficiently affect cortical excitability: anode/cathode over the primary motor cortex and return electrode placed over the contralateral orbit (M-CF configuration). In this work we used the finite element method to calculate the electric field (E-field) induced in a realistic human head model in all the proposed electrode configurations. In order to analyze the results, average values of the E-field's magnitude and polar/azimuthal angles were calculated in several cortical motor and premotor areas which may have an effect on the output of the primary motor cortex. The average E-field's magnitude at the hand-knob (HK) was similar between the M-CF configuration (0.16 V/m) and a few other tested configurations, the same happening for the average polar angle (129°). However this configuration achieved the highest mean E-field values over premotor (PM) areas (0.21 V/m). These results show that the polar angle and the average magnitude of the E-field evaluated at the HK and at the PM cortex might be important parameters in predicting the success of a specific electrode montage in tDCS.

  12. Factors affecting cognitive functioning in a sample of human immunodeficiency virus-positive injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Arthur; Avants, S Kelly; Warburton, Lara A; Hawkins, Keith A

    2002-06-01

    Injection drug users represent a major vector of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the nation's inner cities, and are an important population for harm reduction treatment interventions to target. However, there has been relatively little research examining the specific contribution of the multiple factors contributing to cognitive functioning among injection drug users that may affect engagement in, and response to, addiction and HIV-related interventions. The current study examined the independent contributions to neuropsychological (NP) test performance of premorbid educational attainment, medical and psychiatric history, long- and short-term drug use, assessed by laboratory, observation, and self-report measures, and HIV disease, assessed by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load and CD4+ count, in a sample of 90 HIV-positive injection drug users dually addicted to heroin and cocaine. Fully 88% of the sample showed evidence of impairment (>1 standard deviation below the population mean) on an NP test battery selected to assess processes associated with successful engagement in the treatment of substance abuse and HIV, such as learning and memory of verbal information, capacity to solve new problems and deal with more than one stimulus at a time, visual-motor coordination, and visual tracking and cognitive flexibility. In addition to drug use, independent predictors of NP test performance were HIV viral load, educational attainment, and premorbid medical and psychiatric problems. Findings underscore the multiplicity of factors that contribute to cognitive impairment in HIV-positive drug-abusing individuals in addition to drug use. Clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Immunosuppressive drugs affect high-mannose/hybrid N-glycans on human allostimulated leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Pocheć, Ewa; Bocian, Katarzyna; Ząbczyńska, Marta; Korczak-Kowalska, Grażyna; Lityńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    N-glycosylation plays an important role in the majority of physiological and pathological processes occurring in the immune system. Alteration of the type and abundance of glycans is an element of lymphocyte differentiation; it is also common in the development of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The N-glycosylation process is very sensitive to different environmental agents, among them the pharmacological environment of immunosuppressive drugs. Some results show that high-mannose oligosaccharides have the ability to suppress different stages of the immune response. We evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A (CsA) and rapamycin (Rapa) on high-mannose/hybrid-type glycosylation in human leukocytes activated in a two-way mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). CsA significantly reduced the number of leukocytes covered by high-mannose/hybrid N-glycans, and the synergistic action of CsA and Rapa led to an increase of these structures on the remaining leukocytes. This is the first study indicating that β1 and β3 integrins bearing high-mannose/hybrid structures are affected by Rapa and CsA. Rapa taken separately and together with CsA changed the expression of β1 and β3 integrins and, by regulating the protein amount, increased the oligomannose/hybrid-type N-glycosylation on the leukocyte surface. We suggest that the changes in the glycosylation profile of leukocytes may promote the development of tolerance in transplantation.

  14. Gut Microbiota Profiling: Metabolomics Based Approach to Unravel Compounds Affecting Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases. Metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are some of the meta-omics approaches to study the modulation of the gut microbiota. Metabolomic research applied to biofluids allows to: define the metabolic profile; identify and quantify classes and compounds of interest; characterize small molecules produced by intestinal microbes; and define the biochemical pathways of metabolites. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principal technologies applied to metabolomics in terms of coverage, sensitivity and quantification. Moreover, the use of biostatistics and mathematical approaches coupled with metabolomics play a key role in the extraction of biologically meaningful information from wide datasets. Metabolomic studies in gut microbiota-related research have increased, focusing on the generation of novel biomarkers, which could lead to the development of mechanistic hypotheses potentially applicable to the development of nutritional and personalized therapies. PMID:27507964

  15. PMCA activity and membrane tubulin affect deformability of erythrocytes from normal and hypertensive human subjects.

    PubMed

    Monesterolo, Noelia E; Nigra, Ayelen D; Campetelli, Alexis N; Santander, Verónica S; Rivelli, Juan F; Arce, Carlos A; Casale, Cesar H

    2015-11-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated formation of a complex between acetylated tubulin and brain plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), and the effect of the lipid environment on structure of this complex and on PMCA activity. Deformability of erythrocytes from hypertensive human subjects was reduced by an increase in membrane tubulin content. In the present study, we examined the regulation of PMCA activity by tubulin in normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes, and the effect of exogenously added diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) on erythrocyte deformability. Some of the key findings were that: (i) PMCA was associated with tubulin in normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes, (ii) PMCA enzyme activity was directly correlated with erythrocyte deformability, and (iii) when tubulin was present in the erythrocyte membrane, treatment with DAG or PA led to increased deformability and associated PMCA activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that PMCA activity is involved in deformability of both normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes. This rheological property of erythrocytes is affected by acetylated tubulin and its lipid environment because both regulate PMCA activity.

  16. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism affects accumulation of mtDNA damage in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Altilia, Serena; Santoro, Aurelia; Malagoli, Davide; Lanzarini, Catia; Álvarez, Josué Adolfo Ballesteros; Galazzo, Gianluca; Porter, Donald Carl; Crocco, Paolina; Rose, Giuseppina; Passarino, Giuseppe; Roninson, Igor Boris; Franceschi, Claudio; Salvioli, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Human TP53 gene is characterised by a polymorphism at codon 72 leading to an Arginine-to-Proline (R/P) substitution. The two resulting p53 isoforms have a different subcellular localisation after stress (more nuclear or more mitochondrial for the P or R isoform, respectively). p53P72 variant is more efficient than p53R72 in inducing the expression of genes involved in nuclear DNA repair. Since p53 is involved also in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, we wondered whether these p53 isoforms are associated with different accumulation of mtDNA damage. We observed that cells bearing p53R72 accumulate lower amount of mtDNA damage upon rotenone stress with respect to cells bearing p53P72, and that p53R72 co-localises with polymerase gamma more than p53P72. We also analysed the in vivo accumulation of heteroplasmy in a 300 bp fragment of mtDNA D-loop of 425 aged subjects. We observed that subjects with heteroplasmy higher than 5% are significantly less than expected in the p53R72/R72 group. On the whole, these data suggest that the polymorphism of TP53 at codon 72 affects the accumulation of mtDNA mutations, likely through the different ability of the two p53 isoforms to bind to polymerase gamma, and may contribute to in vivo accumulation of mtDNA mutations. PMID:22289634

  17. Molecular basis of human transcobalamin II deficiency in an affected family

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Seetharam, S.; Seetharam, B.

    1994-09-01

    Transcobalamin II (TC II) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease leading to cobalamin (Cbl, Vitamin B{sub 12}) deficiency. Patients with this disorder fail to absorb and transport Cbl across cellular membranes and develop Cbl deficiency, symptoms of which include failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, impaired immunodefence and neurological disorders. The molecular basis for this disease is not known. By means of Southern blotting and sequence analysis of TC II, cDNA amplified from fibroblasts of an affected child and his parents, we have identified two mutant TC II alleles. The maternally derived allele had a gross deletion, while the paternally derived allele had a 4-nucleotide ({sup 1023}TCTG) deletion which caused a reading frame shift and generation of a premature termination codon, 146 nucleotides downstream from the deletion. Both these deletions caused markedly reduced levels of TC II mRNA and protein. In addition, these two deletions were unique to this family and were not detected in four other unrelated TC II deficient patients who also exhibited the same (TC II protein/mRNA deficiency) phenotypes. Based on this study we suggest, (1) that the molecular defect in the most common form of human TC II deficiency (lack of immunoprecipitable plasma TC II) is heterogeneous and (2) these mutations cause TC II mRNA and protein deficiency leading to defective plasma transport of Cbl and the development of Cbl deficiency.

  18. Experimental Evidence for Anomalous Retroactive Influences on Human Cognition and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, Daryl J.

    2011-11-01

    Six experiments are described that take well-established psychological effects on human cognition and affect and "time-reverse" them so that the individual's responses are obtained before the putatively causal stimulus events occur. Two of the experiments tested for the retroactive facilitation of recall: It is well known that rehearsing or practicing a set of verbal materials enhances an individual's ability to recall them on a subsequent test. In our experiments, participants were first shown 48 common words one at a time and were then asked to recall as many of those words as they could. They were then given practice exercises on a randomly selected subset of those words. The results show that participants recalled more of the words they later practiced than the control words they did not practice. Two experiments on retroactive priming provide evidence for retroactive influence on an individual's response times when judging the pleasantness or unpleasantness of visual stimuli. Finally, two experiments provide evidence for the retroactive habituation to emotionally arousing visual stimuli. Each of the six experiments yielded statistically significant results, with a combined z = 3.66, p = .0001, and an effect size (d) of 0.25. The six experiments are a subset of nine retroactive influence experiments reported in Bem [1] that yielded a combined z = 6.66, p = 1.34×10-11, and an effect size of 0.22.

  19. African dust carries microbes across the ocean: are they affecting human and ecosystem health?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric transport of dust from northwest Africa to the western Atlantic Ocean region may be responsible for a number of environmental hazards, including the demise of Caribbean corals; red tides; amphibian diseases; increased occurrence of asthma in humans; and oxygen depletion (eutrophication) in estuaries. Studies of satellite images suggest that hundreds of millions of tons of dust are trans-ported annually at relatively low altitudes across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean Sea and southeastern United States. The dust emanates from the expanding Sahara/Sahel desert region in Africa and carries a wide variety of bacteria and fungi. The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the NASA/Goddard Spaceflight Center, is conducting a study to identify microbes--bacteria, fungi, viruses--transported across the Atlantic in African soil dust. Each year, millions of tons of desert dust blow off the west African coast and ride the trade winds across the ocean, affecting the entire Caribbean basin, as well as the southeastern United States. Of the dust reaching the U.S., Florida receives about 50 percent, while the rest may range as far north as Maine or as far west as Colorado. The dust storms can be tracked by satellite and take about one week to cross the Atlantic.

  20. TNFα Affects Ciliary Beat Response to Increased Viscosity in Human Pediatric Airway Epithelium.

    PubMed

    González, Claudia; Droguett, Karla; Rios, Mariana; Cohen, Noam A; Villalón, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In airway epithelium, mucociliary clearance (MCC) velocity depends on the ciliary beat frequency (CBF), and it is affected by mucus viscoelastic properties. Local inflammation induces secretion of cytokines (TNFα) that can alter mucus viscosity; however airway ciliated cells have an autoregulatory mechanism to prevent the collapse of CBF in response to increase in mucus viscosity, mechanism that is associated with an increment in intracellular Ca(+2) level ([Ca(2+)]i). We studied the effect of TNFα on the autoregulatory mechanism that regulates CBF in response to increased viscosity using dextran solutions, in ciliated cells cultured from human pediatric epithelial adenoid tissue. Cultures were treated with TNFα, before and after the viscous load was changed. TNFα treatment produced a significantly larger decrease in CBF in cultures exposed to dextran. Furthermore, an increment in [Ca(2+)]i was observed, which was significantly larger after TNFα treatment. In conclusion, although TNFα has deleterious effects on ciliated cells in response to maintaining CBF after increasing viscous loading, it has a positive effect, since increasing [Ca(2+)]i may prevent the MCC collapse. These findings suggest that augmented levels of TNFα associated with an inflammatory response of the nasopharyngeal epithelium may have dual effects that contribute to maintaining the effectiveness of MCC in the upper airways.

  1. Characterization of human arterial tissue affected by atherosclerosis using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baria, Enrico; Cicchi, Riccardo; Rotellini, Matteo; Nesi, Gabriella; Massi, Daniela; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a widespread cardiovascular disease caused by the deposition of lipids (such as cholesterol and triglycerides) on the inner arterial wall. The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, resulting in a thrombus, is one of the leading causes of death in the Western World. Preventive assessment of plaque vulnerability is therefore extremely important and can be performed by studying collagen organization and lipid composition in atherosclerotic arterial tissues. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires immune-histochemical examination and a morpho-functional approach. Instead, a label-free and non-invasive alternative is provided by nonlinear microscopy. In this study, we combined SHG and FLIM microscopy in order to characterize collagen organization and lipids in human carotid ex vivo tissues affected by atherosclerosis. SHG and TPF images, acquired from different regions within atherosclerotic plaques, were processed through image pattern analysis methods (FFT, GLCM). The resulting information on collagen and cholesterol distribution and anisotropy, combined with collagen and lipids fluorescence lifetime measured from FLIM images, allowed characterization of carotid samples and discrimination of different tissue regions. The presented method can be applied for automated classification of atherosclerotic lesions and plaque vulnerability. Moreover, it lays the foundation for a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to be used in clinical setting.

  2. Co-cultivation of human aortic smooth muscle cells with epicardial adipocytes affects their proliferation rate.

    PubMed

    Ždychová, J; Čejková, S; Králová Lesná, I; Králová, A; Malušková, J; Janoušek, L; Kazdová, L

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Adipocytes produce several bioactive paracrine substances that can affect the growth and migration of VSMCs. Our study focuses on the direct effect of the bioactive substances in conditioned media (CM) that was obtained by incubation with primary adipocyte-derived cell lines, including cell lines derived from both preadipocytes and from more mature cells, on the proliferation rate of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). We used a Luminex assay to measure the adipokine content of the CM and showed that there was a higher concentration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in renal preadipocyte-CM compared with the HAoSMC control (p<0.5). The addition of both renal preadipocyte- and epicardial adipocyte- CM resulted in the elevated production of vascular endothelial growth factor compared with the control HASoSMC CM (p<0.001). The adiponectin content in renal adipocyte-CM was increased compared to all the remaining adipocyte-CM (p<0.01). Moreover, the results showed a higher proliferation rate of HAoSMCs after co-culture with epicardial adipocyte-CM compared to the HAoSMC control (p<0.05). These results suggest that bioactive substances produced by adipocytes have a stimulatory effect on the proliferation of VSMCs.

  3. A dynamic evolution model of human opinion as affected by advertising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gui-Xun; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Diao, Su-Meng; Xiong, Fei

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new model to investigate the dynamics of human opinion as affected by advertising, based on the main idea of the CODA model and taking into account two practical factors: one is that the marginal influence of an additional friend will decrease with an increasing number of friends; the other is the decline of memory over time. Simulations show several significant conclusions for both advertising agencies and the general public. A small difference of advertising’s influence on individuals or advertising coverage will result in significantly different advertising effectiveness within a certain interval of value. Compared to the value of advertising’s influence on individuals, the advertising coverage plays a more important role due to the exponential decay of memory. Meanwhile, some of the obtained results are in accordance with people’s daily cognition about advertising. The real key factor in determining the success of advertising is the intensity of exchanging opinions, and people’s external actions always follow their internal opinions. Negative opinions also play an important role.

  4. TNFα Affects Ciliary Beat Response to Increased Viscosity in Human Pediatric Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Droguett, Karla; Rios, Mariana; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    In airway epithelium, mucociliary clearance (MCC) velocity depends on the ciliary beat frequency (CBF), and it is affected by mucus viscoelastic properties. Local inflammation induces secretion of cytokines (TNFα) that can alter mucus viscosity; however airway ciliated cells have an autoregulatory mechanism to prevent the collapse of CBF in response to increase in mucus viscosity, mechanism that is associated with an increment in intracellular Ca+2 level ([Ca2+]i). We studied the effect of TNFα on the autoregulatory mechanism that regulates CBF in response to increased viscosity using dextran solutions, in ciliated cells cultured from human pediatric epithelial adenoid tissue. Cultures were treated with TNFα, before and after the viscous load was changed. TNFα treatment produced a significantly larger decrease in CBF in cultures exposed to dextran. Furthermore, an increment in [Ca2+]i was observed, which was significantly larger after TNFα treatment. In conclusion, although TNFα has deleterious effects on ciliated cells in response to maintaining CBF after increasing viscous loading, it has a positive effect, since increasing [Ca2+]i may prevent the MCC collapse. These findings suggest that augmented levels of TNFα associated with an inflammatory response of the nasopharyngeal epithelium may have dual effects that contribute to maintaining the effectiveness of MCC in the upper airways. PMID:28025644

  5. Women's Literacy in World-Wide Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the special issue includes worldwide statistics on women's literacy, women's role in international decision making, and the role of international aid in increasing or decreasing sex bias. (SK)

  6. 75 FR 51273 - Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus... Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. Notice of Intent to increase... Announcement CDC-RFA-PS10-10138, ``Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for...

  7. Worldwide Report. Telecommunications Policy, Research, and Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    044110 JPRS-TTP-85-027 6 November 1985 Worldwide Report TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY , RESEARCH , AND DEVELOPMENT * DISTRIBUTION STATEl^TT A...Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TTP-85-027 6 November 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY , RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS ASIA...into an expenditure of 3.25 bil- lion in current lire on research and development —a period that corresponds on the average to 11.5 percent of

  8. The worldwide use of steroidal contraception.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, E

    1989-01-01

    Historically, concerns about rapidly growing populations and resources that could not support them persuaded governments of developing countries to initiate family planning programs. Between the early 1960s and the early 1980s, the number of governments supporting these programs increased from 7 to approximately 120. Today, 52 governments in developing countries provide support to family planning programs because of the demographic rationale, and 65 governments do so because of human rights and health considerations: The effective use of family planning significantly diminishes infant, child, and maternal mortality and morbidity. Forty-five percent of married women of reproductive age worldwide are practicing contraception today; however, 69% do so in East Asia and only 11% in Africa. Female sterilization and use of intrauterine devices are the most popular methods in developing countries, and oral contraceptives and condoms, in developed countries. Of the 400 million women of reproductive age, 140 million (35%) are relying on family planning methods requiring male cooperation and less than 60 million (15%) are using oral contraceptives. More than half of these oral contraceptive users live in four countries: the United States, Brazil, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. On the other hand, the percentage of currently married women, aged 15 to 19 years, who have never used any form of contraception is as high as 85% to 90% in Bangladesh, Sudan, and Pakistan. In many developing countries, there is a statistically significant correlation between women's use of contraception and years of education. Other important factors influencing contraceptive prevalence include the established or perceived side effects of currently available methods, the status of women, the political climate, and a number of behavioral and social determinants.

  9. Genetic factors affecting gene transcription and catalytic activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in human liver.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanqing; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Gamazon, Eric R; Mirkov, Snezana; Chen, Peixian; Wu, Kehua; Sun, Chang; Cox, Nancy J; Cook, Edwin; Das, Soma; Ratain, Mark J

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to discover cis- and trans-acting factors significantly affecting mRNA expression and catalytic activity of human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Transcription levels of five major hepatic UGT1A (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6 and UGT1A9) and five UGT2B (UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17) genes were quantified in human liver tissue samples (n = 125) using real-time PCR. Glucuronidation activities of 14 substrates were measured in 47 livers. We genotyped 167 tagSNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in UGT1A (n = 43) and UGT2B (n = 124), as well as the known functional UGT1A1*28 and UGT2B17 CNV (copy number variation) polymorphisms. Transcription levels of 15 transcription factors (TFs) known to regulate these UGTs were quantified. We found that UGT expression and activity were highly variable among the livers (median and range of coefficient of variations: 135%, 74-217% and 52%, 39-105%, respectively). CAR, PXR and ESR1 were found to be the most important trans-regulators of UGT transcription (median and range of correlation coefficients: 46%, 6-58%; 47%, 9-58%; and 52%, 24-75%, respectively). Hepatic UGT activities were mainly determined by UGT gene transcription levels. Twenty-one polymorphisms were significantly (FDR-adjusted P < 0.05) associated with mRNA expression and/or activities of UGT1A1, UGT1A3 and UGT2B17. We found novel SNPs in the UGT2B17 CNV region accounting for variability in UGT2B17 gene transcription and testosterone glucuronidation rate, in addition to that attributable to the UGT2B17 CNV. Our study discovered novel pharmacogenetic markers and provided detailed insight into the genetic network regulating hepatic UGTs.

  10. Replacement of Val3 in Human Thymidylate Synthase Affects Its Kinetic Properties and Intracellular Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiao; Gibson, Lydia M.; Bell, Brittnaie J.; Lovelace, Leslie L.; Pea, Maria Marjorette O.; Berger, Franklin G.; Berger, Sondra H.; Lebioda, Lukasz

    2010-11-03

    Human and other mammalian thymidylate synthase (TS) enzymes have an N-terminal extension of {approx}27 amino acids that is not present in bacterial TSs. The extension, which is disordered in all reported crystal structures of TSs, has been considered to play a primary role in protein turnover but not in catalytic activity. In mammalian cells, the variant V3A has a half-life similar to that of wild-type human TS (wt hTS) while V3T is much more stable; V3L, V3F, and V3Y have half-lives approximately half of that for wt hTS. Catalytic turnover rates for most Val3 mutants are only slightly diminished, as expected. However, two mutants, V3L and V3F, have strongly compromised dUMP binding, with K{sub m,app} values increased by factors of 47 and 58, respectively. For V3L, this observation can be explained by stabilization of the inactive conformation of the loop of residues 181-197, which prevents substrate binding. In the crystal structure of V3L, electron density corresponding to a leucine residue is present in a position that stabilizes the loop of residues 181-197 in the inactive conformation. Since this density is not observed in other mutants and all other leucine residues are ordered in this structure, it is likely that this density represents Leu3. In the crystal structure of a V3F {center_dot} FdUMP binary complex, the nucleotide is bound in an alternative mode to that proposed for the catalytic complex, indicating that the high K{sub m,app} value is caused not by stabilization of the inactive conformer but by substrate binding in a nonproductive, inhibitory site. These observations show that the N-terminal extension affects the conformational state of the hTS catalytic region. Each of the mechanisms leading to the high K{sub m,app} values can be exploited to facilitate design of compounds acting as allosteric inhibitors of hTS.

  11. How Has Human-induced Climate Change Affected California Drought Risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Hoerling, M. P.; Aghakouchak, A.; Livneh, B.; Quan, X. W.; Eischeid, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    The current California drought has cast a heavy burden on statewide agriculture and water resources, further exacerbated by concurrent extreme high temperatures. Furthermore, industrial-era global radiative forcing brings into question the role of long-term climate change on CA drought. How has human-induced climate change affected California drought risk? Here, observations and model experimentation are applied to characterize this drought employing metrics that synthesize drought duration, cumulative precipitation deficit, and soil moisture depletion. The model simulations show that increases in radiative forcing since the late 19th Century induces both increased annual precipitation and increased surface temperature over California, consistent with prior model studies and with observed long-term change. As a result, there is no material difference in the frequency of droughts defined using bivariate indicators of precipitation and near-surface (10-cm) soil moisture, because shallow soil moisture responds most sensitively to increased evaporation driven by warming, which compensates the increase in the precipitation. However, when using soil moisture within a deep root zone layer (1-m) as co-variate, droughts become less frequent because deep soil moisture responds most sensitively to increased precipitation. The results illustrate the different land surface responses to anthropogenic forcing that are relevant for near-surface moisture exchange and for root zone moisture availability. The latter is especially relevant for agricultural impacts as the deep layer dictates moisture availability for plants, trees, and many crops. The results thus indicate the net effect of climate change has made agricultural drought less likely, and that the current severe impacts of drought on California's agriculture has not been substantially caused by long-term climate changes.

  12. Heparin affects human bone marrow stromal cell fate: Promoting osteogenic and reducing adipogenic differentiation and conversion.

    PubMed

    Simann, Meike; Schneider, Verena; Le Blanc, Solange; Dotterweich, Julia; Zehe, Viola; Krug, Melanie; Jakob, Franz; Schilling, Tatjana; Schütze, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Heparins are broadly used for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis and embolism. Yet, osteoporosis is considered to be a severe side effect in up to one third of all patients on long-term treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying this clinical problem are only partially understood. To investigate if heparin affects differentiation of skeletal precursors, we examined the effects of heparin on the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). Due to the known inverse relationship between adipogenesis and osteogenesis and the capacity of pre-differentiated cells to convert into the respective other lineage, we also determined heparin effects on osteogenic conversion and adipogenic differentiation/conversion. Interestingly, heparin did not only significantly increase mRNA expression and enzyme activity of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP), but it also promoted mineralization during osteogenic differentiation and conversion. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of the osteogenic marker bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) was enhanced. In addition, heparin administration partly prevented adipogenic differentiation and conversion demonstrated by reduced lipid droplet formation along with a decreased expression of adipogenic markers. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays, inhibitor experiments and gene expression analyses revealed that heparin had putative permissive effects on osteogenic signaling via the BMP pathway and reduced the mRNA expression of the Wnt pathway inhibitors dickkopf 1 (DKK1) and sclerostin (SOST). Taken together, our data show a rather supportive than inhibitory effect of heparin on osteogenic hBMSC differentiation and conversion in vitro. Further studies will have to investigate the net effects of heparin administration on bone formation versus bone resorption in vivo to unravel the molecular mechanisms of heparin-associated osteoporosis and reconcile

  13. Serotonin (5-HT) receptor 5A sequence variants affect human plasma triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, E. M.; Baye, T. M.; Eckert, J. V.; Abraham, L. J.; Moses, E. K.; Kissebah, A. H.; Martin, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) work closely with leptin and insulin to fine-tune the metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to dietary intake. Losing the sensitivity to excess food intake can lead to obesity, diabetes, and a multitude of behavioral disorders. It is largely unclear how different serotonin receptor subtypes respond to and integrate metabolic signals and which genetic variations in these receptor genes lead to individual differences in susceptibility to metabolic disorders. In an obese cohort of families of Northern European descent (n = 2,209), the serotonin type 5A receptor gene, HTR5A, was identified as a prominent factor affecting plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), supported by our data from both genome-wide linkage and targeted association analyses using 28 publicly available and 12 newly discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 3 were strongly associated with plasma TG levels (P < 0.00125). Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN) analysis identified a putative causal promoter SNP (rs3734967) with substantial posterior probability (P = 0.59). Functional analysis of rs3734967 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed distinct binding patterns of the two alleles of this SNP with nuclear proteins from glioma cell lines. In conclusion, sequence variants in HTR5A are strongly associated with high plasma levels of TG in a Northern European population, suggesting a novel role of the serotonin receptor system in humans. This suggests a potential brain-specific regulation of plasma TG levels, possibly by alteration of the expression of HTR5A. PMID:20388841

  14. AGE-RELATED FACTORS AFFECTING THE POST-YIELD ENERGY DISSIPATION OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Tyler, Jerrod H.; Acuna, Rae L.; Gayle, Heather J.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    The risk of bone fracture depends in part on the quality of the tissue, not just the size and mass. This study assessed the post-yield energy dissipation of cortical bone in tension as a function of age and composition. Tensile specimens were prepared from tibiae of human cadavers in which male and female donors were divided into two age groups: middle aged (51 to 56 years old, n = 9) and elderly (72 to 90 years old, n = 8). By loading, unloading, and reloading a specimen with rest period inserted in between, tensile properties at incremental strain levels were assessed. In addition, the post-yield toughness was estimated and partitioned as follows: plastic strain energy related to permanent deformation, released elastic strain energy related to stiffness loss, and hysteresis energy related to viscous behavior. Porosity, mineral and collagen content, and collagen crosslinks of each specimen were also measured to determine the micro and ultrastructural properties of the tissue. It was found that age affected all the energy terms plus strength but not elastic stiffness. The post-yield energy terms were correlated with porosity, pentosidine (a marker of non-enzymatic crosslinks), and collagen content, all of which significantly varied with age. General linear models with the highest possible R2 value suggested that the pentosidine concentration and collagen content provided the best explanation of the age-related decrease in the post-yield energy dissipation of bone. Among them, pentosidine concentration had the greatest contribution to plastic strain energy and was the best explanatory variable of damage accumulation. PMID:17266142

  15. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Aug, Argo; Altraja, Siiri; Kilk, Kalle; Porosk, Rando; Soomets, Ursel; Altraja, Alan

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL) on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1) to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  16. Donor age of human platelet lysate affects proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (<35 years) as compared to older donors (>45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.

  17. Stress during pregnancy affects general intellectual and language functioning in human toddlers.

    PubMed

    Laplante, David P; Barr, Ronald G; Brunet, Alain; Galbaud du Fort, Guillaume; Meaney, Michael L; Saucier, Jean-Francois; Zelazo, Philip R; King, Suzanne

    2004-09-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to impair functioning in nonhuman primate offspring. Little is known about the effects of prenatal stress on intellectual and language development in humans because it is difficult to identify sufficiently large samples of pregnant women who have been exposed to an independent stressor. We took advantage of a natural disaster (January 1998 ice storm in Québec, Canada) to determine the effect of the objective severity of pregnant women's stress exposure on general intellectual and language development of their children. Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI) scores and parent-reported language abilities of 58 toddlers of mothers who were exposed to varying levels of prenatal stress were obtained at 2 y of age. The hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that the toddlers' birth weight and age at testing accounted for 12.0% and 14.8% of the variance in the Bayley MDI scores and in productive language abilities, respectively. More importantly, the level of prenatal stress exposure accounted for an additional 11.4% and 12.1% of the variance in the toddlers' Bayley MDI and productive language abilities and uniquely accounted for 17.3% of the variance of their receptive language abilities. The more severe the level of prenatal stress exposure, the poorer the toddlers' abilities. The level of prenatal stress exposure accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the three dependent variables above and beyond that already accounted for by non-ice storm-related factors. We suspect that high levels of prenatal stress exposure, particularly early in the pregnancy, may negatively affect the brain development of the fetus, reflected in the lower general intellectual and language abilities in the toddlers.

  18. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  19. Anxiety affects the amplitudes of red and green color-elicited flash visual evoked potentials in humans.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Yuki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Urushihara, Ryo; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Kinouchi, Yohsuke

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that negative emotional changes and conditions affect the visual faculties of humans at the neural level. On the other hand, the effects of emotion on color perception in particular, which are based on evoked potentials, are unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether different anxiety levels affect the color information processing for each of 3 wavelengths by using flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In results, significant positive correlations were observed between FVEP amplitudes and state or trait anxiety scores in the long (sensed as red) and middle (sensed as green) wavelengths. On the other hand, short-wavelength-evoked FVEPs were not correlated with anxiety level. Our results suggest that negative emotional conditions may affect color sense processing in humans.

  20. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.

    2000-03-01

    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  1. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  2. Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR): Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention in Alternative/Therapeutic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Lescano, Celia M.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Barker, David; Viau, Lisa; Zlotnick, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR), a 14-session HIV-prevention program for adolescents at alternative/therapeutic schools. Because these youth frequently have difficulties with emotions and cognitions, it was designed to improve sexuality-specific affect management and cognitive monitoring, as…

  3. How does enhancing cognition affect human values? How does this translate into social responsibility?

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rise in the use of different technologies aimed at enhancing cognition of normal healthy individuals. While values have been acknowledged to be an important aspect of cognitive enhancement practices, the discussion has predominantly focused on just a few values, such as safety, peer pressure, and authenticity. How are values, in a broader sense, affected by enhancing cognitive abilities? Is this dependent on the type of technology or intervention used to attain the enhancement, or does the cognitive domain targeted play a bigger role in how values are affected? Values are not only likely to be affected by cognitive enhancement practices; they also play a crucial role in defining the type of interventions that are likely to be undertaken. This paper explores the way values affect and are affected by enhancing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it argues that knowledge of the interplay between values and cognitive enhancement makes a strong case for social responsibility around cognitive enhancement practices.

  4. Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The report presents a digest of geothermal energy technology. The worldwide distribution of geothermal resources is described, and the degree to which various countries are exploiting their resources estimated. Detailed information about US technologies is presented, from exploration through applications to cost factors. (ACR)

  5. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  6. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop genetic diversity is concentrated within specific geographic regions worldwide. While access to this diversity is critical to continued increases in agricultural productivity, the geopolitical significance of the geography of crop diversity has not been quantified. We assess the degree to which...

  7. 1979 Worldwide Adventure TravelGuide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Guidebook descriptions of the 3000 worldwide adventure trips open to public participation include highlights, itinerary, level of experience necessary, requirements, location, duration, dates, cost, and addresses and telephone numbers of the operating organizations. The guidebook is organized in four major sections and, within each section, into…

  8. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  9. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  10. Cross-species affective functions of the medial forebrain bundle-implications for the treatment of affective pain and depression in humans.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Volker A; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Maedler, Burkhard; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Major depression (MD) might be conceptualized as pathological under-arousal of positive affective systems as parts of a network of brain regions assessing, reconciling and storing emotional stimuli versus an over-arousal of parts of the same network promoting separation-distress/GRIEF. In this context depression can be explained as an emotional pain state that is the result of a disregulation of several sub-systems that under physiological conditions are concerned with bodily or emotional homeostasis of the human organism in a social context. Physiologically, homeostasis is maintained by influences of the SEEKING system represented - amongst others - by the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Neuroimaging studies show that the MFB has a proven access to the GRIEF/Sadness system. A functional decoupling of these systems with a dysfunctional GRIEF pathway might result in MD. Therewith GRIEF and SEEKING/PLEASURE systems play important roles as opponents in maintenance of emotional homeostasis. Chronic electrical modulation of the reward SEEKING pathways with deep brain stimulation might show anti-depressive effects in humans suffering from MD by re-initiating an emotional equilibrium (of higher or lower activity) between these opposing systems.

  11. A functional MiR-124 binding-site polymorphism in IQGAP1 affects human cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Ming; Wu, Xujun; Wang, Jianhong; Huang, Lin; Shi, Xiaodong; Li, Qingwei; Su, Bing

    2014-01-01

    As a product of the unique evolution of the human brain, human cognitive performance is largely a collection of heritable traits. Rather surprisingly, to date there have been no reported cases to highlight genes that underwent adaptive evolution in humans and which carry polymorphisms that have a marked effect on cognitive performance. IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), a scaffold protein, affects learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. Its expression is regulated by miR-124 through the binding sites in the 3'UTR, where a SNP (rs1042538) exists in the core-binding motif. Here we showed that this SNP can influence the miR-target interaction both in vitro and in vivo. Individuals carrying the derived T alleles have higher IQGAP1 expression in the brain as compared to the ancestral A allele carriers. We observed a significant and male-specific association between rs1042538 and tactile performances in two independent cohorts. Males with the derived allele displayed higher tactual performances as compared to those with the ancestral allele. Furthermore, we found a highly diverged allele-frequency distribution of rs1042538 among world human populations, likely caused by natural selection and/or recent population expansion. These results suggest that current human populations still carry sequence variations that affect cognitive performances and that these genetic variants may likely have been subject to comparatively recent natural selection.

  12. Putative sex-specific human pheromones do not affect gender perception, attractiveness ratings or unfaithfulness judgements of opposite sex faces

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Robin M.; Schlatter, Sophie; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Debate continues over the existence of human sex pheromones. Two substances, androstadienone (AND) and estratetraenol (EST), were recently reported to signal male and female gender, respectively, potentially qualifying them as human sex pheromones. If AND and EST truly signal gender, then they should affect reproductively relevant behaviours such as mate perception. To test this hypothesis, heterosexual, Caucasian human participants completed two computer-based tasks twice, on two consecutive days, exposed to a control scent on one day and a putative pheromone (AND or EST) on the other. In the first task, 46 participants (24 male, 22 female) indicated the gender (male or female) of five gender-neutral facial morphs. Exposure to AND or EST had no effect on gender perception. In the second task, 94 participants (43 male, 51 female) rated photographs of opposite-sex faces for attractiveness and probable sexual unfaithfulness. Exposure to the putative pheromones had no effect on either attractiveness or unfaithfulness ratings. These results are consistent with those of other experimental studies and reviews that suggest AND and EST are unlikely to be human pheromones. The double-blind nature of the current study lends increased support to this conclusion. If human sex pheromones affect our judgements of gender, attractiveness or unfaithfulness from faces, they are unlikely to be AND or EST.

  13. SLC24A5, a putative cation exchanger, affects pigmentation in zebrafish and humans.

    PubMed

    Lamason, Rebecca L; Mohideen, Manzoor-Ali P K; Mest, Jason R; Wong, Andrew C; Norton, Heather L; Aros, Michele C; Jurynec, Michael J; Mao, Xianyun; Humphreville, Vanessa R; Humbert, Jasper E; Sinha, Soniya; Moore, Jessica L; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur; Zhao, Wei; Ning, Gang; Makalowska, Izabela; McKeigue, Paul M; O'donnell, David; Kittles, Rick; Parra, Esteban J; Mangini, Nancy J; Grunwald, David J; Shriver, Mark D; Canfield, Victor A; Cheng, Keith C

    2005-12-16

    Lighter variations of pigmentation in humans are associated with diminished number, size, and density of melanosomes, the pigmented organelles of melanocytes. Here we show that zebrafish golden mutants share these melanosomal changes and that golden encodes a putative cation exchanger slc24a5 (nckx5) that localizes to an intracellular membrane, likely the melanosome or its precursor. The human ortholog is highly similar in sequence and functional in zebrafish. The evolutionarily conserved ancestral allele of a human coding polymorphism predominates in African and East Asian populations. In contrast, the variant allele is nearly fixed in European populations, is associated with a substantial reduction in regional heterozygosity, and correlates with lighter skin pigmentation in admixed populations, suggesting a key role for the SLC24A5 gene in human pigmentation.

  14. Human affection exchange: II. Affectionate communication in father-son relationships.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Morman, Mark T

    2003-10-01

    The father-son dyad might be the most socially significant male-male relationship in the life course, yet its negative qualities have been the sole focus in most research on the relationship. One communicative aspect that has received little scholarly attention is the expression of affection between fathers and sons, despite the strong correlation of affectionate communication with positive involvement, closeness, and relational satisfaction for fathers and sons. In 2 studies, the authors tested hypotheses about father-son affection that were derived from affection exchange theory (K. Floyd, in press). Results indicated that U.S. men are more affectionate with biological sons than with stepsons or adopted sons and that they are more affectionate with their biological sons than their biological sons are with them.

  15. Wildfire contribution to world-wide desertification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Wittenberg, L.; Bautista, S.; Ffolliott, P.

    2009-04-01

    a three-year period (2003 - 2005). In 2005, 338,262 ha of forest land burned. This was a 77% increase over the 10-year burn average of 189,500 ha. Desertification is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function, biological productivity, and other ecosystem services as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects one third of the earth's surface and over a billion people. In the past, desertification was considered a problem of only arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas. However, humid zones can undergo desertification with the wrong combination of human impacts. The Amazon region is an example of where forest harvesting, shifting cut and burn agriculture, and large-scale grazing are producing desertification of a tropical rain forest on a large scale. Some of the environmental consequences of wildfires are vegetation destruction, plant species and type shifts, exotic plant invasions, wildlife habitat destruction, soil erosion, floods, watershed function decline, water supply disruption, and air pollution. All of these are immediate impacts. Some impacts will persist beyond the careers and lifetimes of individuals. Small, isolated areas do not produce noticeable desertification. But, the cumulative effect of multiple, large area, and adjacent fires can be landscape-level desertification. This paper examines wildfire contributions to desertification in regions of the world that are prone to wildfire and climate change.

  16. Exploring the Universe with the Worldwide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Microsoft Research WorldWide Telescope is a software platform for exploring the universe. Whether you are a researcher, student or just a casual explorer WorldWide Telescope uses cutting edge technology to take you anywhere in the universe and visualize data collected by science programs from across the globe, including NASA great observatories and planetary probes. WWT leverages technologies such as Virtual reality headsets, multi-channel full dome projection and HTML5/WebGL to bring the WWT experience to any device and any scale. We will discuss how to use WWT to browse previously curated data, as well as how to process and visualize your own data, using examples from NASA Mars missions.

  17. Human impacts affect tree community features of 20 forest fragments of a vanishing neotropical hotspot.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Aldo Alves; de Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Miranda, Pedro L S; de Lemos Filho, José Pires

    2015-02-01

    The loss in forest area due to human occupancy is not the only threat to the remaining biodiversity: forest fragments are susceptible to additional human impact. Our aim was to investigate the effect of human impact on tree community features (species composition and abundance, and structural descriptors) and check if there was a decrease in the number of slender trees, an increase in the amount of large trees, and also a reduction in the number of tree species that occur in 20 fragments of Atlantic montane semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. We produced digital maps of each forest fragment using Landsat 7 satellite images and processed the maps to obtain morphometric variables. We used investigative questionnaires and field observations to survey the history of human impact. We then converted the information into scores given to the extent, severity, and duration of each impact, including proportional border area, fire, trails, coppicing, logging, and cattle, and converted these scores into categorical levels. We used linear models to assess the effect of impacts on tree species abundance distribution and stand structural descriptors. Part of the variation in floristic patterns was significantly correlated to the impacts of fire, logging, and proportional border area. Structural descriptors were influenced by cattle and outer roads. Our results provided, for the first time, strong evidence that tree species occurrence and abundance, and forest structure of Atlantic seasonal forest fragments respond differently to various modes of disturbance by humans.

  18. Human Impacts Affect Tree Community Features of 20 Forest Fragments of a Vanishing Neotropical Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, José Aldo Alves; de Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; Miranda, Pedro L. S.; de Lemos Filho, José Pires

    2015-02-01

    The loss in forest area due to human occupancy is not the only threat to the remaining biodiversity: forest fragments are susceptible to additional human impact. Our aim was to investigate the effect of human impact on tree community features (species composition and abundance, and structural descriptors) and check if there was a decrease in the number of slender trees, an increase in the amount of large trees, and also a reduction in the number of tree species that occur in 20 fragments of Atlantic montane semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. We produced digital maps of each forest fragment using Landsat 7 satellite images and processed the maps to obtain morphometric variables. We used investigative questionnaires and field observations to survey the history of human impact. We then converted the information into scores given to the extent, severity, and duration of each impact, including proportional border area, fire, trails, coppicing, logging, and cattle, and converted these scores into categorical levels. We used linear models to assess the effect of impacts on tree species abundance distribution and stand structural descriptors. Part of the variation in floristic patterns was significantly correlated to the impacts of fire, logging, and proportional border area. Structural descriptors were influenced by cattle and outer roads. Our results provided, for the first time, strong evidence that tree species occurrence and abundance, and forest structure of Atlantic seasonal forest fragments respond differently to various modes of disturbance by humans.

  19. The order of ostensive and referential signals affects dogs' responsiveness when interacting with a human.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Tibor; Csík, Andor; Kis, Anna; Kovács, Krisztina; Topál, József

    2015-07-01

    Ostensive signals preceding referential cues are crucial in communication-based human knowledge acquisition processes. Since dogs are sensitive to both human ostensive and referential signals, here we investigate whether they also take into account the order of these signals and, in an object-choice task, respond to human pointing more readily when it is preceded by an ostensive cue indicating communicative intent. Adult pet dogs (n = 75) of different breeds were presented with different sequences of a three-step human action. In the relevant sequence (RS) condition, subjects were presented with an ostensive attention getter (verbal addressing and eye contact), followed by referential pointing at one of two identical targets and then a non-ostensive attention getter (clapping of hands). In the irrelevant sequence (IS) condition, the order of attention getters was swapped. We found that dogs chose the target indicated by pointing more frequently in the RS as compared to the IS condition. While dogs selected randomly between the target locations in the IS condition, they performed significantly better than chance in the RS condition. Based on a further control experiment (n = 22), it seems that this effect is not driven by the aversive or irrelevant nature of the non-ostensive cue. This suggests that dogs are sensitive to the order of signal sequences, and the exploitation of human referential pointing depends on the behaviour pattern in which the informing cue is embedded.

  20. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  1. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today's science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  2. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  3. No support for dual process accounts of human affective learning in simple Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Purkis, Helena M

    2005-02-01

    Dual process accounts of affective learning state that the learning of likes and dislikes reflects a learning mechanism that is distinct from the one reflected in expectancy learning, the learning of signal relationships, and has different empirical characteristics. Affective learning, for example, is said not to be affected by: (a) extinction training; (b) occasion setting; (c) cue competition; and (d) awareness of the CS-US contingencies. These predictions were tested in a series of experiments that employed simple Pavlovian conditioning procedures. Neutral visual pictures of geometric shapes, or tactile conditional stimuli (CS) were paired with aversive electrotactile unconditional stimuli (US). Dependent measures were physiological (skin conductance, blink startle modulation) or verbal (US expectancy, on-line and off-line ratings of CS pleasantness). Different combinations of these dependent measures were employed across different experiments in an attempt to assess affective and expectancy learning simultaneously. Changes in CS pleasantness as indexed by ratings or blink startle modulation were readily observed. However, contrary to the predictions from dual-process accounts, results indicated that acquired CS unpleasantness is subject to extinction, occasion setting, cue competition, and not found in absence of CS-US contingency awareness.

  4. Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors?

    PubMed

    Bowles, Samuel

    2009-06-05

    Since Darwin, intergroup hostilities have figured prominently in explanations of the evolution of human social behavior. Yet whether ancestral humans were largely "peaceful" or "warlike" remains controversial. I ask a more precise question: If more cooperative groups were more likely to prevail in conflicts with other groups, was the level of intergroup violence sufficient to influence the evolution of human social behavior? Using a model of the evolutionary impact of between-group competition and a new data set that combines archaeological evidence on causes of death during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene with ethnographic and historical reports on hunter-gatherer populations, I find that the estimated level of mortality in intergroup conflicts would have had substantial effects, allowing the proliferation of group-beneficial behaviors that were quite costly to the individual altruist.

  5. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  6. Human erythrocytes and neuroblastoma cells are affected in vitro by Au(III) ions

    SciTech Connect

    Suwalsky, Mario; Gonzalez, Raquel; Villena, Fernando; Aguilar, Luis F.; Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Bolognin, Silvia; Zatta, Paolo

    2010-06-25

    Gold compounds are well known for their neurological and nephrotoxic implications. However, haematological toxicity is one of the most serious toxic and less studied effects. The lack of information on these aspects of Au(III) prompted us to study the structural effects induced on cell membranes, particularly that of human erythrocytes. AuCl{sub 3} was incubated with intact erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) and molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane. The latter consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. This report presents evidence that Au(III) interacts with red cell membranes as follows: (a) in scanning electron microscopy studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that Au(III) induced shape changes at a concentration as low as 0.01 {mu}M; (b) in isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes Au(III) induced a decrease in the molecular dynamics and/or water content at the glycerol backbone level of the lipid bilayer polar groups in a 5-50 {mu}M concentration range, and (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that Au(III) in the 10 {mu}m-1 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation only to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Additional experiments were performed in human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. A statistically significant decrease of cell viability was observed with Au(III) ranging from 0.1 {mu}M to 100 {mu}M.

  7. Could viruses contribute to the worldwide epidemic of obesity?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children increased rapidly starting about 1980 in both developed and developing countries. Studies of changes in diet and physical activity, television watching, and food advertisements on television suggest that these are not sufficient to explain the epidemic. The pattern of rapid spread is suggestive of an infectious origin. The concept of virus-induced obesity is not new. Eight viruses have been shown to cause obesity in animals and there is evidence for virus-induced obesity in humans. Recent evidence on animal and human adenoviruses suggests that these adenoviruses may infect adipocytes to alter enzymes and transcription factors resulting in accumulation of triglycerides and differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. The E4orf1 gene of Ad-36 has been shown to be responsible for the adipogenic effect. It appears that a portion of the worldwide epidemic of obesity since 1980 could be due to infections with human adenoviruses.

  8. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying HTT gene CAG expansion of 45 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 92% Oct4, 75% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4 and demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  9. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea091 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Schaft, Julia; McKernan, Robert; Hu, Jesselyn; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea091 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 40 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 92% of cells expressed Nanog, 97% Oct4, 79% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4 and gave a Pluritest pluripotency score of 38.36, Novelty of 1.35. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  10. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea089 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; McKernan, Robert; Hu, Jesselyn; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea089 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 41 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 91% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 90% Tra1-60 and 100% SSEA4 and gave a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 39.28, Novelty of 1.2. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  11. Derivation of Huntington disease affected Genea020 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Peura, Teija; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea020 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 48 repeats, indicative of Huntington disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 89% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 29% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest pluripotency score of 27.51, novelty of 1.43 and demonstrated alkaline phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  12. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea018 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Main, Heather; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli; Peura, Teija

    2016-03-01

    The Genea018 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 46 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 75% of cells expressed Nanog, 91% Oct4, 73% Tra1-60 and 96% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest pluripotency score of 31.12, Novelty of 1.45, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  13. Growth Factor Content in Human Sera Affects the Isolation of Mesangiogenic Progenitor Cells (MPCs) from Human Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Montali, Marina; Barachini, Serena; Panvini, Francesca M.; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Fulceri, Franca; Petrini, Iacopo; Pacini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Mesangiogenic Progenitor Cells (MPCs) are human bone marrow-derived multipotent cells, isolated in vitro under selective culture conditions and shown to retain both mesengenic and angiogenic potential. MPCs also co-isolated with multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) when bone marrow primary cultures were set up for clinical applications, using human serum (HS) in place of fetal bovine serum (FBS). MPC culture purity (over 95%) is strictly dependent on HS supplementation with significant batch-to-batch variability. In the present paper we screened different sources of commercially available pooled human AB type serum (PhABS) for their ability to promote MPC production under selective culture conditions. As the majority of “contaminating” cells in MPC cultures were represented by MSC-like cells, we hypothesized a role by differentiating agents present in the sera. Therefore, we tested a number of growth factors (hGF) and found that higher concentrations of FGF-2, EGF, PDGF-AB, and VEGF-A as well as lower concentration of IGF-1 give sub-optimal MPC recovery. Gene expression analysis of hGF receptors was also carried out both in MSCs and MPCs, suggesting that FGF-2, EGF, and PDGF-AB could act promoting MSC proliferation, while VEGF-A contribute to MSC-like cell contamination, triggering MPC differentiation. Here we demonstrated that managing hGF contents, together with applying specific receptors inhibitors (Erlotinib-HCl and Nintedanib), could significantly mitigate the batch-to-batch variability related to serum supplementation. These data represent a fundamental milestone in view of manufacturing MPC-based medicinal products. PMID:27800477

  14. Immunogenetic factors affecting susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses and the clinical course of hantaviral disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Pagès, Marie; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-05-26

    We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) allele 2 and IL-1β (-511) allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin). The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives.

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Factors Affecting Trust in Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    necessary presence of a human caregiver (Graf, Hans, & Schraft, 2004). Other robotic devices, such as wheelchairs (Yanco, 2001) and exoskeletons (e.g...body bots [robotic exoskeletons ]. IEEE Spectrum, 42(10), 50–56. Hancock, P. A. (1996). Effects of control order, augmented feed- back, input device and

  16. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V) and subcutaneous (S) adipose tissue (AT) in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX) on positive and negative clock ...

  17. CULTURE CONDITIONS AFFECT HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RESPONSE TO DIESEL PARTICLE EXPOSURE IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant that may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter inhalation. In vitro studies have shown that DEP exposure induces pro-inflammatory proteins in human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) with varying...

  18. N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist Kynurenic Acid Affects Human Cortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Bagasrawala, Inseyah; Zecevic, Nada; Radonjić, Nevena V.

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan degradation, acts as an endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. Elevated levels of KYNA have been observed in pregnant women after viral infections and are considered to play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the consequences of KYNA-induced NMDAR blockade in human cortical development still remain elusive. To study the potential impact of KYNA on human neurodevelopment, we used an in vitro system of multipotent cortical progenitors, i.e., radial glia cells (RGCs), enriched from human cerebral cortex at mid-gestation (16–19 gestational weeks). KYNA treatment significantly decreased RGCs proliferation and survival by antagonizing NMDAR. This alteration resulted in a reduced number of cortical progenitors and neurons while number and activation of astrocytes increased. KYNA treatment reduced differentiation of RGCs into GABAergic neurons, while differentiation into glutamatergic neurons was relatively spared. Furthermore, in mixed cortical cultures KYNA triggered an inflammatory response as evidenced by increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. In conclusion, elevated levels of KYNA play a significant role in human RGC fate determination by antagonizing NMDARs and by activating an inflammatory response. The altered cell composition observed in cell culture following exposure to elevated KYNA levels suggests a mechanism for impairment of cortical circuitry formation in the fetal brain after viral infection, as seen in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:27746712

  19. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  20. Muecas: a multi-sensor robotic head for affective human robot interaction and imitation.

    PubMed

    Cid, Felipe; Moreno, Jose; Bustos, Pablo; Núñez, Pedro

    2014-04-28

    This paper presents a multi-sensor humanoid robotic head for human robot interaction. The design of the robotic head, Muecas, is based on ongoing research on the mechanisms of perception and imitation of human expressions and emotions. These mechanisms allow direct interaction between the robot and its human companion through the different natural language modalities: speech, body language and facial expressions. The robotic head has 12 degrees of freedom, in a human-like configuration, including eyes, eyebrows, mouth and neck, and has been designed and built entirely by IADeX (Engineering, Automation and Design of Extremadura) and RoboLab. A detailed description of its kinematics is provided along with the design of the most complex controllers. Muecas can be directly controlled by FACS (Facial Action Coding System), the de facto standard for facial expression recognition and synthesis. This feature facilitates its use by third party platforms and encourages the development of imitation and of goal-based systems. Imitation systems learn from the user, while goal-based ones use planning techniques to drive the user towards a final desired state. To show the flexibility and reliability of the robotic head, the paper presents a software architecture that is able to detect, recognize, classify and generate facial expressions in real time using FACS. This system has been implemented using the robotics framework, RoboComp, which provides hardware-independent access to the sensors in the head. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the real-time functioning of the whole system, including recognition and imitation of human facial expressions.

  1. Does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis)?

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Blundell, Gail M; Ben-David, Merav

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (Lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. To identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-ranging marine-foraging river otters were tested for antibodies to selected pathogens. Thirty-five animals were captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), an area of low human density, and 20 were captured in the San Juan Islands, Washington State (USA), an area characterized by higher human density. Of 40 river otters tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, 17.5% were seropositive (titer > or =320) for Toxoplasma gondii. All positive animals came from Washington. Of 35 river otters tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test, 10 of 20 (50%) from Washington were seropositive (titer > or =200). None of the 15 tested animals from Alaska were positive. Antibodies to Neospora caninum (n=40), Sarcocystis neurona (n=40), Brucella abortus (n=55), avian influenza (n=40), canine distemper virus (n=55), phocine distemper virus (n=55), dolphin morbillivirus (n=55), porpoise morbillivirus (n=55), and Aleutian disease parvovirus (n=46) were not detected. Identifying exposure to T. gondii and L. interrogans in otters from Washington State but not in otters from Alaska suggests that living proximal to higher human density and its associated agricultural activities, domestic animals, and rodent populations could enhance river otter exposure to these pathogens.

  2. Muecas: A Multi-Sensor Robotic Head for Affective Human Robot Interaction and Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Cid, Felipe; Moreno, Jose; Bustos, Pablo; Núñez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-sensor humanoid robotic head for human robot interaction. The design of the robotic head, Muecas, is based on ongoing research on the mechanisms of perception and imitation of human expressions and emotions. These mechanisms allow direct interaction between the robot and its human companion through the different natural language modalities: speech, body language and facial expressions. The robotic head has 12 degrees of freedom, in a human-like configuration, including eyes, eyebrows, mouth and neck, and has been designed and built entirely by IADeX (Engineering, Automation and Design of Extremadura) and RoboLab. A detailed description of its kinematics is provided along with the design of the most complex controllers. Muecas can be directly controlled by FACS (Facial Action Coding System), the de facto standard for facial expression recognition and synthesis. This feature facilitates its use by third party platforms and encourages the development of imitation and of goal-based systems. Imitation systems learn from the user, while goal-based ones use planning techniques to drive the user towards a final desired state. To show the flexibility and reliability of the robotic head, the paper presents a software architecture that is able to detect, recognize, classify and generate facial expressions in real time using FACS. This system has been implemented using the robotics framework, RoboComp, which provides hardware-independent access to the sensors in the head. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the real-time functioning of the whole system, including recognition and imitation of human facial expressions. PMID:24787636

  3. Factors affecting the human-feeding behavior of anopheline mosquitoes in Egyptian oases.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, M A; Beier, J C; Asiago, C M; el Said, S

    1990-09-01

    Blood meals were tested by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 424 Anopheles sergentii and for 63 An. multicolor collected in Siwa, Farafra and Bahariya oases in the Western Desert of Egypt. Both species were highly zoophilic. Human blood-feeding by An. sergentii was less common in Bahariya (2.3%) and Farafra (1.3%) than in Siwa (15.3%). A likely explanation is that large domestic animals are held at night inside houses in Bahariya and in Farafra whereas in Siwa, animals are usually housed outdoors in sheds. These patterns of An. sergentii human-feeding behavior may contribute to the persistence of low-level Plasmodium vivax transmission in Siwa in contrast to negligible or no transmission in Bahariya and Farafra.

  4. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea017 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli; Peura, Teija

    2016-03-01

    The Genea017 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 40 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, genetic analysis confirmed a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 87% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 88% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, gave a PluriTest pluripotency score of 34.74, novelty of 1.27, demonstrated alkaline phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  5. How Can Diet Affect the Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End-Products in the Human Body?

    PubMed Central

    Guilbaud, Axel; Niquet-Leridon, Celine; Boulanger, Eric; Tessier, Frederic J.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is associated with the complications of diabetes, kidney disease, metabolic disorders and degenerative diseases. It is recognized that the pool of glycation products found in the human body comes not only from an endogenous formation, but also from a dietary exposure to exogenous AGEs. In recent years, the development of pharmacologically-active ingredients aimed at inhibiting endogenous glycation has not been successful. Since the accumulation of AGEs in the human body appears to be progressive throughout life, an early preventive action against glycation could be effective through dietary adjustments or supplementation with purified micronutrients. The present article provides an overview of current dietary strategies tested either in vitro, in vivo or both to reduce the endogenous formation of AGEs and to limit exposure to food AGEs. PMID:28231179

  6. Derivation of FSHD1 affected human embryonic stem cell line Genea049.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea049 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying a deletion in 4q35 with only 5 D4Z4 repeats by PGD linkage analysis, indicative of FSHD1. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 90% of cells expressed Nanog, 96% Oct4, 80% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 23.16, Novelty of 1.43 and demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  7. What affects facing direction in human facial profile drawing? A meta-analytic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Sümeyra; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Two meta-analyses were conducted to examine two potential sources of spatial orientation biases in human profile drawings by brain-intact individuals. The first examined profile facing direction as function of hand used to draw. The second examined profile facing direction in relation to directional scanning biases related to reading/writing habits. Results of the first meta-analysis, based on 27 study samples with 4171 participants, showed that leftward facing of profiles (from the viewer's perspective) was significantly associated with using the right hand to draw. The reading/writing direction meta-analysis, based on 10 study samples with 1552 participants, suggested a modest relationship between leftward profile facing and primary use of a left-to-right reading/writing direction. These findings suggest that biomechanical and cultural factors jointly influence hand movement preferences and in turn the direction of facing of human profile drawings.

  8. Resveratrol affects DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Basso, Emiliano; Regazzo, Giulia; Fiore, Mario; Palma, Valentina; Traversi, Gianandrea; Testa, Antonella; Degrassi, Francesca; Cozzi, Renata

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RSV) acts on cancer cells in several ways, inducing cell cycle delay and apoptotic death, and enhancing ionizing radiation (IR)-mediated responses. However, fewer studies have examined RSV effects on normal cells. We have treated human lymphocytes in vitro with RSV, either alone or combined with IR, to evaluate its potential use as a radioprotector. We measured the effects of RSV on induction of DNA damage, repair kinetics, and modulation of histone deacetylase activity.

  9. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height

    PubMed Central

    Lango Allen, Hana; Estrada, Karol; Lettre, Guillaume; Berndt, Sonja I.; Weedon, Michael N.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Willer, Cristen J.; Jackson, Anne U.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Ferreira, Teresa; Wood, Andrew R.; Weyant, Robert J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Soranzo, Nicole; Park, Ju-Hyun; Yang, Jian; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Randall, Joshua C.; Qi, Lu; Smith, Albert Vernon; Mägi, Reedik; Pastinen, Tomi; Liang, Liming; Heid, Iris M.; Luan, Jian'an; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Winkler, Thomas W.; Goddard, Michael E.; Lo, Ken Sin; Palmer, Cameron; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Johansson, Åsa; Zillikens, M.Carola; Feitosa, Mary F.; Esko, Tõnu; Johnson, Toby; Ketkar, Shamika; Kraft, Peter; Mangino, Massimo; Prokopenko, Inga; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Ernst, Florian; Glazer, Nicole L.; Hayward, Caroline; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Monda, Keri L.; Polasek, Ozren; Preuss, Michael; Rayner, Nigel W.; Robertson, Neil R.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Nyholt, Dale R.; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Perry, John R.B.; Surakka, Ida; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Altmaier, Elizabeth L.; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Bhangale, Tushar; Boucher, Gabrielle; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chen, Constance; Coin, Lachlan; Cooper, Matthew N.; Dixon, Anna L.; Gibson, Quince; Grundberg, Elin; Hao, Ke; Junttila, M. Juhani; Kaplan, Lee M.; Kettunen, Johannes; König, Inke R.; Kwan, Tony; Lawrence, Robert W.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lorentzon, Mattias; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P.; Müller, Martina; Ngwa, Julius Suh; Purcell, Shaun; Rafelt, Suzanne; Salem, Rany M.; Salvi, Erika; Sanna, Serena; Shi, Jianxin; Sovio, Ulla; Thompson, John R.; Turchin, Michael C.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verlaan, Dominique J.; Vitart, Veronique; White, Charles C.; Ziegler, Andreas; Almgren, Peter; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Campbell, Harry; Citterio, Lorena; De Grandi, Alessandro; Dominiczak, Anna; Duan, Jubao; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Eriksson, Johan G.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Geus, Eco J.C.; Glorioso, Nicola; Haiqing, Shen; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Illig, Thomas; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Koiranen, Markku; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Laitinen, Jaana; Liu, Jianjun; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Marusic, Ana; Maschio, Andrea; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Peden, John F.; Petersmann, Astrid; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H.; Stringham, Heather M.; Walters, G.Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zagato, Laura; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Alavere, Helene; Farrall, Martin; McArdle, Wendy L.; Nelis, Mari; Peters, Marjolein J.; Ripatti, Samuli; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Aben, Katja K.; Ardlie, Kristin G; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John P.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Collins, Francis S.; Cusi, Daniele; den Heijer, Martin; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gejman, Pablo V.; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Iribarren, Carlos; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Kocher, Thomas; Launer, Lenore J.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Melander, Olle; Mosley, Tom H.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ohlsson, Claes; Oostra, Ben; Palmer, Lyle J.; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rissanen, Aila; Rivolta, Carlo; Schunkert, Heribert; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siscovick, David S.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Viikari, Jorma; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Province, Michael A.; Kayser, Manfred; Arnold, Alice M.; Atwood, Larry D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chanock, Stephen J.; Deloukas, Panos; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Hall, Per; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Lathrop, G.Mark; Salomaa, Veikko; Schreiber, Stefan; Uda, Manuela; Waterworth, Dawn; Wright, Alan F.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Hofman, Albert; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cupples, L.Adrienne; Erdmann, Jeanette; Fox, Caroline S.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Harris, Tamara B.

    2010-01-01

    Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified >600 variants associated with human traits1, but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the utility of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait2,3. The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P=0.016), and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P<0.001). Second, the likely causal gene is often located near the most strongly associated variant: in 13 of 21 loci containing a known skeletal growth gene, that gene was closest to the associated variant. Third, at least 19 loci have multiple independently associated variants, suggesting that allelic heterogeneity is a frequent feature of polygenic traits, that comprehensive explorations of already-discovered loci should discover additional variants, and that an appreciable fraction of associated loci may have been identified. Fourth, associated variants are enriched for likely functional effects on genes, being over-represented amongst variants that alter amino acid structure of proteins and expression levels of nearby genes. Our data explain ∼10% of the phenotypic variation in height, and we estimate that unidentified common variants of similar effect sizes would increase this figure to ∼16% of phenotypic variation (∼20% of heritable variation). Although additional approaches are needed to fully dissect the genetic architecture of polygenic human traits, our findings indicate that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that

  10. Cdx2 Polymorphism Affects the Activities of Vitamin D Receptor in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Human Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  11. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pulito, Claudio; Terrenato, Irene; Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression.

  12. Neural networks to simulate regional ground water levels affected by human activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaoyuan; Kang, Shaozhong; Huo, Zailin; Chen, Shaojun; Mao, Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    In arid regions, human activities like agriculture and industry often require large ground water extractions. Under these circumstances, appropriate ground water management policies are essential for preventing aquifer overdraft, and thereby protecting critical ecologic and economic objectives. Identification of such policies requires accurate simulation capability of the ground water system in response to hydrological, meteorological, and human factors. In this research, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were developed and applied to investigate the effects of these factors on ground water levels in the Minqin oasis, located in the lower reach of Shiyang River Basin, in Northwest China. Using data spanning 1980 through 1997, two ANNs were developed to model and simulate dynamic ground water levels for the two subregions of Xinhe and Xiqu. The ANN models achieved high predictive accuracy, validating to 0.37 m or less mean absolute error. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with the models demonstrating that agricultural ground water extraction for irrigation is the predominant factor responsible for declining ground water levels exacerbated by a reduction in regional surface water inflows. ANN simulations indicate that it is necessary to reduce the size of the irrigation area to mitigate ground water level declines in the oasis. Unlike previous research, this study demonstrates that ANN modeling can capture important temporally and spatially distributed human factors like agricultural practices and water extraction patterns on a regional basin (or subbasin) scale, providing both high-accuracy prediction capability and enhanced understanding of the critical factors influencing regional ground water conditions.

  13. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A.; Girardin, Martin P.; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-09-01

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees.

  14. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers

    PubMed Central

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A.; Girardin, Martin P.; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees. PMID:26330162

  15. Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanpin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the host and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a pivotal role in the outcome of an infection. HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns.Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). However, very few host factors have been identified that interact with the UL130 protein. In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer inHCMV-infected U373-S cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis.

  16. Multiple factors affect immunogenicity of DNA plasmid HIV vaccines in human clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xia; Morgan, Cecilia; Yu, Xuesong; DeRosa, Stephen; Tomaras, Georgia D; Montefiori, David C; Kublin, James; Corey, Larry; Keefer, Michael C

    2015-05-11

    Plasmid DNA vaccines have been licensed for use in domesticated animals because of their excellent immunogenicity, but none have yet been licensed for use in humans. Here we report a retrospective analysis of 1218 healthy human volunteers enrolled in 10 phase I clinical trials in which DNA plasmids encoding HIV antigens were administered. Elicited T-cell immune responses were quantified by validated intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) stimulated with HIV peptide pools. HIV-specific binding and neutralizing antibody activities were also analyzed using validated assays. Results showed that, in the absence of adjuvants and boosting with alternative vaccines, DNA vaccines elicited CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses in an average of 13.3% (95% CI: 9.8-17.8%) and 37.7% (95% CI: 31.9-43.8%) of vaccine recipients, respectively. Three vaccinations (vs. 2) improved the proportion of subjects with antigen-specific CD8+ responses (p=0.02), as did increased DNA dosage (p=0.007). Furthermore, female gender and participants having a lower body mass index were independently associated with higher CD4+ T-cell response rate (p=0.001 and p=0.008, respectively). These vaccines elicited minimal neutralizing and binding antibody responses. These findings of the immunogenicity of HIV DNA vaccines in humans can provide guidance for future clinical trials.

  17. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  18. Atrazine affects phosphoprotein and protein expression in MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Song, Qisheng

    2014-10-01

    Atrazine, a member of the 2-chloro-s-triazine family of herbicides, is the most widely used pesticide in the world and often detected in agriculture watersheds. Although it was generally considered as an endocrine disruptor, posing a potential threat to human health, the molecular mechanisms of atrazine effects remain unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we identified a panel of differentially expressed phosphoproteins and total proteins in human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells after being exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine. Atrazine treatments for 6 h resulted in differential expression of 4 phosphoproteins and 8 total-proteins as compared to the control cells (>1.5-fold, p<0.05). MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins belong to various cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, membrane) and varied in function, including those regulating the stress response such as peroxiredoxin I, HSP70 and HSP27; structural proteins such as tropomyosin and profilin 1; and oncogenesis proteins such as ANP32A. Six of the 12 identified proteins were verified by quantitative PCR for their transcript levels. The most up-regulated phosphoprotein by atrazine treatment, ANP32A, was further analyzed for its expression, distribution and cellular localization using Western blot and immunocytochemical approaches. The results revealed that ANP32 expression after atrazine treatment increased dose and time dependently and was primarily located in the nucleus. This study may provide new evidence on the potential toxicity of atrazine in human cells.

  19. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers.

    PubMed

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A; Girardin, Martin P; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-09-02

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees.

  20. Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Function and Dendritic Cell Differentiation Are Affected by Bisphenol-A Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ariemma, Fabiana; Cimmino, Ilaria; Bruzzese, Dario; Scerbo, Roberta; Picascia, Stefania; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollutants, including endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), interfere on human health, leading to hormonal, immune and metabolic perturbations. Bisphenol-A (BPA), a main component of polycarbonate plastics, has been receiving increased attention due to its worldwide distribution with a large exposure. In humans, BPA, for its estrogenic activity, may have a role in autoimmunity, inflammatory and allergic diseases. To this aim, we assessed the effect of low BPA doses on functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and on in vitro differentiation of dendritic cells from monocytes (mDCs). Fresh peripheral blood samples were obtained from 12 healthy adult volunteers. PBMCs were left unstimulated or were activated with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies and incubated in presence or absence of BPA at 0.1 and 1nM concentrations. The immune-modulatory effect of BPA was assessed by evaluating the cell proliferation and the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) secreted by PBMCs. mDCs were differentiated with IL-4 and GC-CSF with or without BPA and the expression of differentiation/maturation markers (CD11c, CD1a, CD86, HLA-DR) was evaluated by flow cytometry; furthermore, a panel of 27 different cytokines, growth factors and chemokines were assayed in the mDC culture supernatants. PBMCs proliferation significantly increased upon BPA exposure compared to BPA untreated cells. In addition, a significant decrease in IL-10 secretion was observed in PBMCs incubated with BPA, either in unstimulated or mitogen-stimulated cells, and at both 0.1 and 1nM BPA concentrations. Similarly, IL-13 was reduced, mainly in cells activated by antiCD3/CD28. By contrast, no significant changes in IFN-γ and IL-4 production were found in any condition assayed. Finally, BPA at 1nM increased the density of dendritic cells expressing CD1a and concomitantly

  1. Do you see what I see? The difference between dog and human visual perception may affect the outcome of experiments.

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Péter; Ujvári, Vera; Faragó, Tamás; Miklósi, Ádám; Péter, András

    2017-04-07

    The visual sense of dogs is in many aspects different than that of humans. Unfortunately, authors do not explicitly take into consideration dog-human differences in visual perception when designing their experiments. With an image manipulation program we altered stationary images, according to the present knowledge about dog-vision. Besides the effect of dogs' dichromatic vision, the software shows the effect of the lower visual acuity and brightness discrimination, too. Fifty adult humans were tested with pictures showing a female experimenter pointing, gazing or glancing to the left or right side. Half of the pictures were shown after they were altered to a setting that approximated dog vision. Participants had difficulty to find out the direction of glancing when the pictures were in dog-vision mode. Glances in dog-vision setting were followed less correctly and with a slower response time than other cues. Our results are the first that show the visual performance of humans under circumstances that model how dogs' weaker vision would affect their responses in an ethological experiment. We urge researchers to take into consideration the differences between perceptual abilities of dogs and humans, by developing visual stimuli that fit more appropriately to dogs' visual capabilities.

  2. Crucial Dimensions of Human Altruism. Affective vs. Conceptual Factors Leading to Helping or Reinforcing Others

    PubMed Central

    Szuster, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify factors leading to favorable attitudes toward other people from different social categories. The parts of article reflect diverse levels of altruism regulation from primary affective responses to the environment, through social norms, to abstract moral concepts related to good and evil. The latter allow understanding of the perspective of other people (including those belonging to out-groups), acceptance of their values and engagement not only in helping behavior but also in supporting the development of others. PMID:27148127

  3. RNASET2 silencing affects miRNAs and target gene expression pattern in a human ovarian cancer cell model.

    PubMed

    Turconi, Giovanna; Scaldaferri, Debora; Fabbri, Marco; Monti, Laura; Lualdi, Marta; Pedrini, Edoardo; Gribaldo, Laura; Taramelli, Roberto; Acquati, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are hydrolytic enzymes endowed with the ability to either process or degrade ribonucleic acids. Among the many biological functions assigned to RNases, a growing attention has been recently devoted to the control of cancer growth, in the attempt to bring novel therapeutic approaches to clinical oncology. Indeed, several enzymes belonging to different ribonuclease families have been reported in the last decade to display a marked oncosuppressive activity in a wide range of experimental models. The human RNASET2 gene, the only member of the highly conserved T2/Rh/S family of endoribonucleolytic enzymes described in our species, has been shown to display oncosuppressive roles in both in vitro and in vivo models representing several human malignancies. In the present study, we extend previous findings obtained in ovarian cancer models to shed further light on the cell-autonomous roles played by this gene in the context of its oncosuppresive role and to show that RNASET2 silencing can significantly affect the transcriptional output in one of the most thoroughly investigated human ovarian cancer cell lines. Moreover, we report for the first time that RNASET2-mediated changes in the cell transcriptome are in part mediated by its apparent ability to affect the cell's microRNA expression pattern.

  4. Two Maps and Worldwide Ipod Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machete, Reason L.

    2011-11-01

    There is often a desire to determine if the dynamics of interest are chaotic or not. Since positive Lyapunov exponents are a signature for chaos, they are often used to determine this. Reliable estimates of Lyapunov exponents should demonstrate evidence of convergence; but literature abounds in which this evidence lacks. This paper presents two maps through which it highlights the importance of providing evidence of convergence of Lyapunov exponent estimates. Worldwide ipod interest is then used as a practical example and the results bear semblance to both maps.

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Mouse and Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Function

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao; Walter, Nicole A. R.; Harkness, John H.; Neve, Kim A.; Williams, Robert W.; Lu, Lu; Belknap, John K.; Eshleman, Amy J.; Phillips, Tamara J.; Janowsky, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites such as tyramine, octopamine, and β-phenethylamine stimulate the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 has been implicated in human conditions including obesity, schizophrenia, depression, fibromyalgia, migraine, and addiction. Additionally TAAR1 is expressed on lymphocytes and astrocytes involved in inflammation and response to infection. In brain, TAAR1 stimulation reduces synaptic dopamine availability and alters glutamatergic function. TAAR1 is also expressed at low levels in heart, and may regulate cardiovascular tone. Taar1 knockout mice orally self-administer more MA than wild type and are insensitive to its aversive effects. DBA/2J (D2) mice express a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Taar1 that does not respond to MA, and D2 mice are predisposed to high MA intake, compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we demonstrate that endogenous agonists stimulate the recombinant B6 mouse TAAR1, but do not activate the D2 mouse receptor. Progeny of the B6XD2 (BxD) family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been used to characterize the genetic etiology of diseases, but contrary to expectations, BXDs derived 30–40 years ago express only the functional B6 Taar1 allele whereas some more recently derived BXD RI strains express the D2 allele. Data indicate that the D2 mutation arose subsequent to derivation of the original RIs. Finally, we demonstrate that SNPs in human TAAR1 alter its function, resulting in expressed, but functional, sub-functional and non-functional receptors. Our findings are important for identifying a predisposition to human diseases, as well as for developing personalized treatment options. PMID:27031617

  6. Oral pathogens change proliferation properties of oral tumor cells by affecting gene expression of human defensins.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, T; Kraus, D; Novak, N; Probstmeier, R; Frentzen, M; Wenghoefer, M; Jepsen, S; Winter, J

    2016-10-01

    The impact of oral pathogens onto the generation and variability of oral tumors has only recently been investigated. To get further insights, oral cancer cells were treated with pathogens and additionally, as a result of this bacterial cellular infection, with human defensins, which are as anti-microbial peptide members of the innate immune system. After cell stimulation, proliferation behavior, expression analysis of oncogenic relevant defensin genes, and effects on EGFR signaling were investigated. The expression of oncogenic relevant anti-microbial peptides was analyzed with real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were performed to examine cellular impacts caused by stimulation, i.e., altered gene expression, proliferation rate, and EGF receptor-dependent signaling. Incubation of oral tumor cells with an oral pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis) and human α-defensins led to an increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, another oral bacterium used, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, enhanced cell death. The bacteria and anti-microbial peptides exhibited diverse effects on the transcript levels of oncogenic relevant defensin genes and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These two oral pathogens exhibited opposite primary effects on the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells. Nevertheless, both microbe species led to similar secondary impacts on the proliferation rate by modifying expression levels of oncogenic relevant α-defensin genes. In this respect, oral pathogens exerted multiplying effects on tumor cell proliferation. Additionally, human defensins were shown to differently influence epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, supporting the hypothesis that these anti-microbial peptides serve as ligands of EGFR, thus modifying the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells.

  7. Factors affecting the structure and maturation of human tissue engineered skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Martin, Neil R W; Passey, Samantha L; Player, Darren J; Khodabukus, Alastair; Ferguson, Richard A; Sharples, Adam P; Mudera, Vivek; Baar, Keith; Lewis, Mark P

    2013-07-01

    Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has great utility in experimental studies of physiology, clinical testing and its potential for transplantation to replace damaged tissue. Despite recent work in rodent tissue or cell lines, there is a paucity of literature concerned with the culture of human muscle derived cells (MDCs) in engineered constructs. Here we aimed to tissue engineer for the first time in the literature human skeletal muscle in self-assembling fibrin hydrogels and determine the effect of MDC seeding density and myogenic proportion on the structure and maturation of the constructs. Constructs seeded with 4 × 10(5) MDCs assembled to a greater extent than those at 1 × 10(5) or 2 × 10(5), and immunostaining revealed a higher fusion index and a higher density of myotubes within the constructs, showing greater structural semblance to in vivo tissue. These constructs primarily expressed perinatal and slow type I myosin heavy chain mRNA after 21 days in culture. In subsequent experiments MACS(®) technology was used to separate myogenic and non-myogenic cells from their heterogeneous parent population and these cells were seeded at varying myogenic (desmin +) proportions in fibrin based constructs. Only in the constructs seeded with 75% desmin + cells was there evidence of striations when immunostained for slow myosin heavy chain compared with constructs seeded with 10 or 50% desmin + cells. Overall, this work reveals the importance of cell number and myogenic proportions in tissue engineering human skeletal muscle with structural resemblance to in vivo tissue.

  8. How Human and Natural Disturbance Affects the U.S. Carbon Sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Gridded datasets of Net Ecosystem Exchange derived from eddy covariance and remote sensing measurements (EC-MOD and FLUXNET-MTE) provide a means of validating Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP, opposite of NEE) from terrestrial ecosystem models. While most forested regions in the U.S. are observed to be moderate to strong carbon sinks, models not including human or natural disturbances will tend to be more carbon neutral, which is expected of mature ecosystems. I have developed the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model Hydro version (TEM-Hydro) to include both human and natural disturbances to compare against gridded NEP datasets. Human disturbances are based on the Hurtt et al. land use transition dataset and include transient agricultural (crops and pasture) conversion and abandonment and timber harvest. Natural disturbances include tropical storms and hurricane and fires based on stochastic return intervals. Model results indicate that forests are the largest carbon sink, seconded by croplands and pastures, if not accounting for decomposition of agricultural products and animal respiration. Grasslands and shrublands are both small sinks or carbon neutral. The NEP of forests in EC-MOD from 2001-2006 is 240 gCm2yr-1 and for FLUXNET-MTE from 1982-2007 is 375 gCm-2yr-1. With potential vegetation, the respective forest sinks for those two time periods are 54 and 62 gCm-2yr-1, respectively. Including the effects of human disturbance increases the sinks to 154 and 147 gCm-2yr-1. The effect of stochastic fire and storms is to reduce the NEP to 114 and 108 gCm-2yr-1. While the positive carbon sink today is the result of past land use disturbance, net carbon sequestration, including product decomposition, conversion fluxes, and animal respiration, has not yet returned to predisturbance levels as seen in the potential vegetation. Differences in response to disturbance have to do with the type, frequency, and intensity of disturbance. Fire, in particular, is seen to have a net

  9. Scorched earth: how will changes in ozone deposition caused by drought affect human health and ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, L. D.; Kitwiroon, N.; Beevers, S.; Büker, P.; Cinderby, S.

    2012-10-01

    This unique study investigates the effect of ozone (O3) deposition on ground level O3 concentrations and subsequent human health and ecosystem risk under hot summer "heat wave" type meteorological events. Under such conditions, extended drought can effectively "turn off" the O3 vegetation sink leading to a substantial increase in ground level O3 concentrations. Two models that have been used for human health (the CMAQ chemical transport model) and ecosystem (the DO3SE O3 deposition model) risk assessment are combined to provide a powerful policy tool capable of novel integrated assessments of O3 risk using methods endorsed by the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This study investigates 2006, a particularly hot and dry year during which a heat wave occurred during the summer across much of the UK and Europe. To understand the influence of variable O3 dry deposition three different simulations were investigated during June and July: (i) actual conditions in 2006; (ii) conditions that assume a perfect vegetation sink for O3 deposition and (iii) conditions that assume an extended drought period that reduces the vegetation sink to a minimum. The risk of O3 to human health, assessed by estimating the number of days during which running 8-h mean O3 concentrations exceeded 100 μg m-3, show that on average across the UK, there is a difference of 16 days exceedance of the threshold between the perfect sink and drought conditions. These average results hide local variation with exceedances reaching as high as 20 days in the East Midlands and Eastern UK. Estimates of acute exposure effects show that O3 removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition during the June and July period would have been responsible for approximately 460 premature deaths. Conversely, reduced O3 dry deposition will decrease the amount of O3 taken up by vegetation and, according to flux-based assessments of vegetation damage, will lead to protection from O3 across the UK

  10. Chromatid damage in human lymphocytes is not affected by 50 Hz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hone, P; Lloyd, D; Szłuińska, M; Edwards, A

    2006-01-01

    Cultured human blood lymphocytes were exposed during the S/G(2) phases of the cell cycle to continuous extremely low frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields of 0.23, 0.47 or 0.7 mT either alone or immediately after an acute exposure to 1.0 Gy of gamma rays. The ionising radiation, as expected, induced chromosomal aberrations of the chromatid-type observed at the next metaphase. The field applied alone did not induce chromosomal damage nor did it modify the frequency of aberrations caused by the gamma rays.

  11. Orphans and Vulnerable Children Affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 15.1 million children have been orphaned because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They face significant vulnerabilities, including stigma and discrimination, trauma and stress, illness, food insecurity, poverty, and difficulty accessing education. Millions of additional children who have living parents are vulnerable because their parents or other relatives are infected. This article reviews the current situation of orphans and vulnerable children, explores the underlying determinants of vulnerability and resilience, describes the response by the global community, and highlights the challenges as the HIV pandemic progresses through its fourth decade.

  12. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed.

  13. A polymorphism in IRF4 affects human pigmentation through a tyrosinase-dependent MITF/TFAP2A pathway

    PubMed Central

    Praetorius, Christian; Grill, Christine; Stacey, Simon N.; Metcalf, Alexander M.; Gorkin, David U.; Robinson, Kathleen C.; Van Otterloo, Eric; Kim, Reuben S.Q.; Bergsteinsdottir, Kristin; Ogmundsdottir, Margret H.; Magnusdottir, Erna; Mishra, Pravin J.; Davis, Sean R.; Guo, Theresa; Zaidi, M. Raza; Helgason, Agnar S.; Sigurdsson, Martin I.; Melzer, Paul S.; Merlino, Glenn; Petit, Valerie; Larue, Lionel; Loftus, Stacie K.; Adams, David R.; Sobhiafshar, Ulduz; Emre, N. C. Tolga; Pavan, William J.; Cornell, Robert; Smith, Aaron G.; McCallion, Andrew S.; Fisher, David E.; Stefansson, Kari; Sturm, Richard A.; Steingrímsson, Eiríkur

    2013-01-01

    Sequence polymorphisms linked to human diseases and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies often affect non-coding regions. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within an intron of the gene encoding Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4), a transcription factor with no known role in melanocyte biology, is strongly associated with sensitivity of skin to sun exposure, freckles, blue eyes and brown hair color. Here we demonstrate that this SNP lies within an enhancer of IRF4 transcription in melanocytes. The allele associated with this pigmentation phenotype impairs binding of the TFAP2A transcription factor which together with the melanocyte master regulator MITF, regulates activity of the enhancer. Assays in zebrafish and mice reveal that IRF4 cooperates with MITF to activate expression of Tyrosinase (TYR), an essential enzyme in melanin synthesis. Our findings provide a clear example of a non-coding polymorphism that affects a phenotype by modulating a developmental gene regulatory network. PMID:24267888

  14. Disrupting Mitochondrial–Nuclear Coevolution Affects OXPHOS Complex I Integrity and Impacts Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Gershoni, Moran; Levin, Liron; Ovadia, Ofer; Toiw, Yasmin; Shani, Naama; Dadon, Sara; Barzilai, Nir; Bergman, Aviv; Atzmon, Gil; Wainstein, Julio; Tsur, Anat; Nijtmans, Leo; Glaser, Benjamin; Mishmar, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The mutation rate of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is higher by an order of magnitude as compared with the nuclear genome, enforces tight mitonuclear coevolution to maintain mitochondrial activities. Interruption of such coevolution plays a role in interpopulation hybrid breakdown, speciation events, and disease susceptibility. Previously, we found an elevated amino acid replacement rate and positive selection in the nuclear DNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex I subunit NDUFC2, a phenomenon important for the direct interaction of NDUFC2 with the mtDNA-encoded complex I subunit ND4. This finding underlines the importance of mitonuclear coevolution to physical interactions between mtDNA and nuclear DNA-encoded factors. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether this interaction is important for the stability and activity of complex I. Here, we show that siRNA silencing of NDUFC2 reduced growth of human D-407 retinal pigment epithelial cells, significantly diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, and interfered with complex I integrity. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis of a positively selected amino acid in NDUFC2 significantly interfered with the interaction of NDUFC2 with its mtDNA-encoded partner ND4. Finally, we show that a genotype combination involving this amino acid (NDUFC2 residue 46) and the mtDNA haplogroup HV likely altered susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ashkenazi Jews. Therefore, mitonuclear coevolution is important for maintaining mitonuclear factor interactions, OXPHOS, and for human health. PMID:25245408

  15. Contractility and calcium signaling of human myometrium are profoundly affected by cholesterol manipulation: implications for labor?

    PubMed

    Jie Zhang; Kendrick, Annabelle; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan

    2007-07-01

    The authors elucidate cholesterol's effect on human uterine contractility and calcium signaling to test the hypotheses that elevation of cholesterol decreases uterine activity and that oxytocin cannot augment contraction when cholesterol is elevated. The effects of cholesterol extraction with methyl beta-cyclodextrin and enrichment with low-density lipoproteins and cholesterol on contractile activity and intracellular calcium signaling in spontaneous or oxytocin-stimulated myometrium are determined. Force occurring spontaneously and with oxytocin is significantly increased by cholesterol extraction. Cholesterol enrichment profoundly inhibits force production in a dose-dependent manner and could reverse the effects of cholesterol extraction. Qualitatively similar results are found for nonpregnant and pregnant laboring and non-laboring myometrium. These contractile changes are related to changes in intracellular Ca2+ . Thus, elevated cholesterol is deleterious to contractility and Ca2+ signaling in human myometrium. Cholesterol may contribute to uterine quiescence but could cause difficulties in labor in obese/dyslipidemic women, consistent with their increased cesarean delivery rates.

  16. Human and environmental factors affecting Aedes aegypti distribution in an arid urban environment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kathleen R; Joy, Teresa K; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Ramberg, Frank B

    2011-06-01

    Aedes aegypti has reappeared in urban communities in the southwestern U.S.A. in the 1990s after a 40-year absence. In 2003 and 2004, a systematic survey was conducted throughout metropolitan Tucson, AZ, to identify human and environmental factors associated with Ae. aegypti distribution within an arid urban area. Aedes aegypti presence and abundance were measured monthly using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention enhanced oviposition traps at sampling sites established in a grid at 3- to 4-km intervals across the city. Sampling occurred in the summer rainy season (July through September), the peak of mosquito activity in the region. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine relationships between mosquito density and factors that could influence mosquito distribution. House age was the only factor that showed a consistent significant association with Ae. aegypti abundance in both years: older houses had more mosquito eggs. This is the 1st study of Ae. aegypti distribution at a local level to identify house age as an explanatory factor independent of other human demographic factors. Further research into the reasons why mosquitoes were more abundant around older homes may help inform and refine future vector surveillance and control efforts in the event of a dengue outbreak in the region.

  17. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  18. Tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer control worldwide.

    PubMed Central

    Love, R. R.; Koroltchouk, V.

    1993-01-01

    In most developed and many developing countries, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. At least 50% of all breast cancer patients worldwide would survive longer, however, if public awareness about and early detection of the condition were increased and greater use were made of efficient treatment of proven value. With early-stage, localized breast cancer, local treatment combined with adjuvant hormonal therapy with tamoxifen, a synthetic estrogen, could save the lives of 6 women out of 100 compared with local treatment alone. Tamoxifen has anti-estrogenic effects not only on breast cancer cells but also on liver metabolism and bone, with concomitant decreases in risk factors for chronic skeletal and vascular system diseases. Long-term tamoxifen treatment causes major adverse clinical effects in < 5% of women; menopausal and vasomotor symptoms occur in the majority of treated women, but their severity lessens over time. Tamoxifen is being considered as a standard therapy and is included in the WHO list of essential drugs for the treatment of breast cancer patients in both developing and developed countries. For the control of breast cancer more successfully worldwide, one challenge is to make tamoxifen therapy available to greater numbers of women. PMID:8313498

  19. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  20. Worldwide gas processing enjoys solid 1991

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R. )

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that worldwide gas-processing operations exhibited growth across the board last year as demand for NGLs, primarily as petrochemical feedstock and gasoline blendstock, pushed operators to increases in capacities, throughput, and production. Most evident were the gains in the U.S., Canada, and Latin America. As has been true for several years, the U.S. continued to lead the rest of the world in gas-processing capacity and NGL production. Outside the U.S., the rest of the world continued to grow, although not as markedly. Canada and the countries of Latin America led others with solid gains in capacities, gas processed, and NGLs produced. These developments are reflected in the exclusive, plant-by-plant, world-wide gas-processing survey along with an international survey of petroleum-derived sulfur recovery. Last year, one major plant in the Caribbean came on stream adding 650 MMcfd of capacity and producing almost 10,000 b/d of product. By the time the next year's report, a major Canadian sour-gas plant near Calgary will be running.

  1. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  2. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  3. Keeping Pace with Your Eating: Visual Feedback Affects Eating Rate in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Matthew L.; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Deliberately eating at a slower pace promotes satiation and eating quickly has been associated with a higher body mass index. Therefore, understanding factors that affect eating rate should be given high priority. Eating rate is affected by the physical/textural properties of a food, by motivational state, and by portion size and palatability. This study explored the prospect that eating rate is also influenced by a hitherto unexplored cognitive process that uses ongoing perceptual estimates of the volume of food remaining in a container to adjust intake during a meal. A 2 (amount seen; 300ml or 500ml) x 2 (amount eaten; 300ml or 500ml) between-subjects design was employed (10 participants in each condition). In two ‘congruent’ conditions, the same amount was seen at the outset and then subsequently consumed (300ml or 500ml). To dissociate visual feedback of portion size and actual amount consumed, food was covertly added or removed from a bowl using a peristaltic pump. This created two additional ‘incongruent’ conditions, in which 300ml was seen but 500ml was eaten or vice versa. We repeated these conditions using a savoury soup and a sweet dessert. Eating rate (ml per second) was assessed during lunch. After lunch we assessed fullness over a 60-minute period. In the congruent conditions, eating rate was unaffected by the actual volume of food that was consumed (300ml or 500ml). By contrast, we observed a marked difference across the incongruent conditions. Specifically, participants who saw 300ml but actually consumed 500ml ate at a faster rate than participants who saw 500ml but actually consumed 300ml. Participants were unaware that their portion size had been manipulated. Nevertheless, when it disappeared faster or slower than anticipated they adjusted their rate of eating accordingly. This suggests that the control of eating rate involves visual feedback and is not a simple reflexive response to orosensory stimulation. PMID:26828922

  4. Reciprocity in computer-human interaction: source-based, norm-based, and affect-based explanations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Liang, Yuhua Jake

    2015-04-01

    Individuals often apply social rules when they interact with computers, and this is known as the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) effect. Following previous work, one approach to understand the mechanism responsible for CASA is to utilize computer agents and have the agents attempt to gain human compliance (e.g., completing a pattern recognition task). The current study focuses on three key factors frequently cited to influence traditional notions of compliance: evaluations toward the source (competence and warmth), normative influence (reciprocity), and affective influence (mood). Structural equation modeling assessed the effects of these factors on human compliance with computer request. The final model shows that norm-based influence (reciprocity) increased the likelihood of compliance, while evaluations toward the computer agent did not significantly influence compliance.

  5. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields do not affect DNA damage and gene expression profiles of yeast and human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Luceri, Cristina; De Filippo, Carlotta; Giovannelli, Lisa; Blangiardo, Marta; Cavalieri, Duccio; Aglietti, Filippo; Pampaloni, Monica; Andreuccetti, Daniele; Pieri, Lapo; Bambi, Franco; Biggeri, Annibale; Dolara, Piero

    2005-09-01

    We studied the effects of extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on peripheral human blood lymphocytes and DBY747 Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Graded exposure to 50 Hz magnetic flux density was obtained with a Helmholtz coil system set at 1, 10 or 100 microT for 18 h. The effects of EMFs on DNA damage were studied with the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) in lymphocytes. Gene expression profiles of EMF-exposed human and yeast cells were evaluated with DNA microarrays containing 13,971 and 6,212 oligonucleotides, respectively. After exposure to the EMF, we did not observe an increase in the amount of strand breaks or oxidated DNA bases relative to controls or a variation in gene expression profiles. The results suggest that extremely low-frequency EMFs do not induce DNA damage or affect gene expression in these two different eukaryotic cell systems.

  6. A preliminary analysis of human factors affecting the recognition accuracy of a discrete word recognizer for C3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellen, H. W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature pertaining to Voice Recognition abounds with information relevant to the assessment of transitory speech recognition devices. In the past, engineering requirements have dictated the path this technology followed. But, other factors do exist that influence recognition accuracy. This thesis explores the impact of Human Factors on the successful recognition of speech, principally addressing the differences or variability among users. A Threshold Technology T-600 was used for a 100 utterance vocubalary to test 44 subjects. A statistical analysis was conducted on 5 generic categories of Human Factors: Occupational, Operational, Psychological, Physiological and Personal. How the equipment is trained and the experience level of the speaker were found to be key characteristics influencing recognition accuracy. To a lesser extent computer experience, time or week, accent, vital capacity and rate of air flow, speaker cooperativeness and anxiety were found to affect overall error rates.

  7. Taeniasis/cysticercosis trend worldwide and rationale for control.

    PubMed

    Montresor, Antonio; Palmer, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Pig production has increased significantly worldwide in recent years. Small-scale pig husbandry has become a popular source of income in rural and resource-poor communities in most of developing countries. A parallel increase of human Taenia carrier and human cysticercosis is expected but detailed data are not available. However, Taenia solium is considered responsible for over 10% of acute case admission to the neurological ward of countries where it is endemic. The control strategy that seems at the moment more promising is a combination of the different tools available and includes the identification of areas at high risk and the presumptive treatment of the suspected cases and their families. This active finding and treatment of probable tapeworm carriers should be accompanied by health education and control swine cysticercosis. WHO invites all endemic countries to recognize the importance of taeniasis/cysticercosis control and to collect epidemiological data and to adopt policies and strategies for its control.

  8. [Epidemiology of malaria, the 1st world-wide endemia. Various observations].

    PubMed

    Picq, J J

    1982-01-01

    Malaria is still the main worldwide endemia. More than one milliard of people live in some malaria infected areas. After having affected almost all parts of the continents, malaria, nowadays, is mainly limited to tropical and subtropical zones. There is not one single malaria but the disease offers four aspects according to the existence of four human plasmodial species, P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae. P. falciparum is responsible for the more damageable effects on public health. It is the killing agent of tropical malaria. After a brief recall of the geographical distribution of the four human plasmodial species, the author reviews each link of the epidemiological chain: the pathogenic parasite, man as parasite reservoir, the anopheles as the vector in its relations with man and Plasmodium, receptive man regarding malarial infection, aspects of acquired immunity in the individual as well as in human groups of populations in endemic areas. These few up-to-date notes in malarial epidemiology may help to a better understanding of the endemicity levels, stable and unstable malaria, critic levels for transmission. A chapter deals with mathematical models for transmission. Rules for antimalarial control and reasons of the set backs of this control in tropical Africa are briefly reviewed.

  9. Head-up displays and their automotive application: an overview of human factors issues affecting safety.

    PubMed

    Ward, N J; Parkes, A

    1994-12-01

    In response to the recent innovations to use head-up displays (HUDs) in vehicles, this paper discusses the relevant human factors issues arising from this display format and the potential safety implications. A review is made of the relevant HUD literature, primarily from the aviation field. The primary issues for automotive HUDs relevant to system performance and safety in the driving task involve interference from background scene complexity, system novelty, user perceptual style, cognitive disruption, and perceptual tunnelling. Basic research is necessary to investigate the extent of these issues as well as to resolve fundamental design specifications (e.g. HUD size, shape, placement, information content). It is suggested that the introduction of HUDs into vehicles be carefully considered. This will necessitate not only the reconsideration what constitutes an in-vehicle display, but also what constitutes the information to be conveyed.

  10. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate affects the response of human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Colas, Nicolas; Petit-Jentreau, Laetitia; Barreiro, Luis B; Durand, Sylvère; Soubigou, Guillaume; Lecointe, Cécile; Klibi, Jihène; Rezaï, Keyvan; Lokiec, François; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Gicquel, Brigitte; Tailleux, Ludovic

    2014-09-01

    Granulomas are the hallmark of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. As the host fails to control the bacteria, the center of the granuloma exhibits necrosis resulting from the dying of infected macrophages. The release of the intracellular pool of nucleotides into the surrounding medium may modulate the response of newly infected macrophages, although this has never been investigated. Here, we show that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) indirectly modulates the expression of 272 genes in human macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis and that it induces their alternative activation. ATP is rapidly hydrolyzed by the ecto-ATPase CD39 into adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and it is AMP that regulates the macrophage response through the adenosine A2A receptor. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for the purinergic pathway in the host response to M. tuberculosis. Dampening inflammation through signaling via the adenosine A2A receptor may limit tissue damage but may also favor bacterial immune escape.

  11. Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Kalin, Ned H; Thurow, Marchell E; Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Davidson, Richard J

    2003-06-01

    In a test of the effects of cortisol on emotional memory, 90 men were orally administered placebo or 20 or 40 mg cortisol and presented with emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli. On memory tests administered within 1 hr of stimulus presentation, cortisol elevations caused a reduction in the number of errors committed on free-recall tasks. Two evenings later, when cortisol levels were no longer manipulated, inverted-U quadratic trends were found for recognition memory tasks, reflecting memory facilitation in the 20-mg group for both negative and neutral information. Results suggest that the effects of cortisol on memory do not differ substantially for emotional and neutral information. The study provides evidence of beneficial effects of acute cortisol elevations on explicit memory in humans.

  12. Antibiotics in ingested human blood affect the mosquito microbiota and capacity to transmit malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Rodgers, Faye H.; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé S.; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Cohuet, Anna; Christophides, George K.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria reduction is most efficiently achieved by vector control whereby human populations at high risk of contracting and transmitting the disease are protected from mosquito bites. Here, we identify the presence of antibiotics in the blood of malaria-infected people as a new risk of increasing disease transmission. We show that antibiotics in ingested blood enhance the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to malaria infection by disturbing their gut microbiota. This effect is confirmed in a semi-natural setting by feeding mosquitoes with blood of children naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibiotic exposure additionally increases mosquito survival and fecundity, which are known to augment vectorial capacity. These findings suggest that malaria transmission may be exacerbated in areas of high antibiotic usage, and that regions targeted by mass drug administration programs against communicable diseases may necessitate increased vector control. PMID:25562286

  13. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on–1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on–3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased “voluntary activation.” In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT. PMID:27445844

  14. I saw where you have been--The topography of human demonstration affects dogs' search patterns and perseverative errors.

    PubMed

    Péter, András; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Performance in object search tasks is not only influenced by the subjects' object permanence ability. For example, ostensive cues of the human manipulating the target markedly affect dogs' choices. However, the interference between the target's location and the spatial cues of the human hiding the object is still unknown. In a five-location visible displacement task, the experimental groups differed in the hiding route of the experimenter. In the 'direct' condition he moved straight towards the actual location, hid the object and returned to the dog. In the 'indirect' conditions, he additionally walked behind each screen before returning. The two 'indirect' conditions differed from each other in that the human either visited the previously baited locations before (proactive interference) or after (retroactive interference) hiding the object. In the 'indirect' groups, dogs' performance was significantly lower than in the 'direct' group, demonstrating that for dogs, in an ostensive context, spatial cues of the hider are as important as the observed location of the target. Based on their incorrect choices, dogs were most attracted to the previously baited locations that the human visited after hiding the object in the actual trial. This underlines the importance of retroactive interference in multiple choice tasks.

  15. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Martina; Paar, Margret; Eder, Christina; Brandis, Janina; Moser, Elena; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Grond, Susanne; Radner, Franz P W; Cerk, Ines; Cornaciu, Irina; Oberer, Monika; Kersten, Sander; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2012-11-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1 switch gene-2 (G0S2). CGI-58 activates and G0S2 inhibits ATGL activity. In contrast to mice, the functional role of G0S2 in human adipocyte lipolysis is poorly characterized. Here we show that overexpression or silencing of G0S2 in human SGBS adipocytes decreases and increases lipolysis, respectively. Human G0S2 is upregulated during adipocyte differentiation and inhibits ATGL activity in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, C-terminally truncated ATGL mutants, which fail to localize to lipid droplets, translocate to the lipid droplet upon coexpression with G0S2, suggesting that G0S2 anchors ATGL to lipid droplets independent of ATGL's C-terminal lipid binding domain. Taken together, our results indicate that G0S2 also regulates human lipolysis by affecting enzyme activity and intracellular localization of ATGL. Increased lipolysis is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and G0S2 expression has been shown to be reduced in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Our data indicate that downregulation of G0S2 in adipose tissue could represent one of the underlying causes leading to increased lipolysis in the insulin-resistant state.

  16. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles.

    PubMed

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on-1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on-3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased "voluntary activation." In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  17. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  18. Pulsatile atheroprone shear stress affects the expression of transient receptor potential channels in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Florian; Vorderwülbecke, Bernd J; Marki, Alex; Krueger, Katharina; Liu, Ying; Baumunk, Daniel; Zakrzewicz, Andreas; Tepel, Martin

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to assess whether pulsatile atheroprone shear stress modulates the expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPC3, TRPC6, TRPM7, and TRPV1 mRNA, in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Exposure of cultured vascular endothelial cells to defined shear stress, producing a constant laminar flow (generating a shear stress of 6 dyne/cm(2)), laminar pulsatile atheroprotective flow (with a mean shear stress of 20 dyne/cm(2)), or laminar atheroprone bidirectional flow (with a mean shear stress of 0 dyne/cm(2)) differentially induced TRPC6 and TRPV1 mRNA as measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and normalized to GAPDH expression. Thereby, TRPC6 and TRPV1 mRNA expressions were significantly increased after 24 hours of exposure to an atheroprone flow profile compared with an atheroprotective flow profile. Furthermore, the expression of transcription factors GATA1 and GATA4 was significantly correlated with the expression of TRPC6 mRNA. In contrast, after 24 hours of constant laminar flow, the expression of TRPC6 and TRPV1 mRNA was unchanged, whereas the expression of TRPC3 and TRPM7 was significantly higher in endothelial cells exposed to shear stress in comparison with endothelial cells grown under static conditions. There was a significant association between the expression of TRPC6 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in human vascular tissue. No-flow and atheroprone flow conditions are equally characterized by an increase in the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α; however, inflammation-associated endothelial cell reactions may be further aggravated at atheroprone flow conditions by the increase of TRPV1 and TRPC6, as observed in our study.

  19. Does tropicamide affect choroidal blood flow in humans? a laser Doppler flowmetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, Nithiyanantham; Riva, Charles E.; Rovati, Luigi; Cellini, Mauro; Gizzi, Corrado; Strobbe, Ernesto; Campos, Emilio C.

    2012-03-01

    The measurement of blood flow in the ocular fundus is of scientific and clinical interest. Investigating ocular blood flow in the choroid may be important to understand the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases, such as glaucoma or agerelated macular degeneration (AMD). Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was applied to measure relative velocity, volume and flux of red blood cells in the tissues of human eye. Its main application lies in the possibility of assessing alterations in blood flow early in the course of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of pupil dilatation with one drop of 1% tropicamide on blood flow in the foveal region of the choroid of the human fundus. The blood flow parameters were measured in 24 eyes during 30 minutes (one measurement in every 3 minutes) after the application of the drop. Since the Doppler parameters depend on the scattering geometry, which may change as the pupil dilates; an artificial pupil of 4mm in diameter was placed directly in front the eye. Following the administration of tropicamide the mean pupil diameter was increased from 3.29 mm to 8.25 mm (P<0.0001, Paired student t-test). In comparison to the baseline values, the data shows no significant increases were observed in velocity, volume, and flow with 4 mm artificial pupil (0.2%, 1.3%, 0.8% respectively) and a statistically significant increases were observed without artificial pupil (10.7%, 13.9%, 12.8% respectively) following the application of tropicamide.

  20. A long-term forecast analysis on worldwide land uses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Qi, Yanhong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2006-08-01

    More and more lands worldwide are being cultivated for food production while forests are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. This paper aims to make a long-term forecast on land uses worldwide and provide the public, researchers, and government officials with a clear profile for land uses in the future. Data of land uses since 1961 were used to fit historical trajectories and make the forecast. The results show that trajectories of land areas can be well fitted with univariate linear regressions. The forecasts of land uses during the coming 25 years were given in detail. Areas of agricultural land, arable land, and permanent pasture land worldwide would increase by 6.6%, 7.2%, and 6.3% respectively in the year 2030 as compared to the current areas. Permanent crops land area all over the world is forecasted to increase 0.64% by 2030. By the year 2030 the areas of forests and woodland, nonarable and nonpermanent land worldwide would decrease by 2.4% and 0.9% against the current areas. All other land area in the world would dramatically decline by 6.4% by the year 2030. Overall the land area related to agriculture would tend to decrease in developed countries, industrialized countries, Europe, and North and Central America. The agriculture related land area would considerably increase in developing countries, least developed countries, low-income countries, Asia, Africa, South America, etc. Developing countries hold larger total land area than developed countries. Dramatic and continuous growth in agricultural land area of developing countries would largely contribute to the expected growth of world agricultural land area in the coming years. Population explosion, food shortage and poverty in the world, especially in developing countries, together caused the excessive cultivation of land for agricultural uses in the past years. Increasing agricultural land area exacerbates the climate changes and degradation of environment. How to limit the growth of human

  1. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD )

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  2. The quality of sperm preparation medium affects the motility, viability, and DNA integrity of human spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali; Ghazali, Shahin; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Johansson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The goal was to compare the effects of three different sperm preparation media on sperm motility, viability, and DNA integrity of semen samples from normozoospermic men. METHODS: A total of 15 normozoospermic males were included in the study. The semen analysis (SA) was performed in accordance with the WHO guidelines (2010). After SA, each sample was divided into three aliquots, and swim-up was performed with three different sperm preparation media (Sperm Preparation Media, Origio, Denmark; Ham's F10, Biochrome, Berlin, Germany; and VitaSperm™, Innovative Biotech, Iran). Sperm motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 24 h after swim-up. RESULTS: There were no significant differences, at any time intervals, in the total sperm motility between the different sperm preparation media. However, the rate of progressive motility was significantly higher in spermatozoa prepared using the media from Origio in comparison with VitaSperm™ (P = 0.03), whereas no significant difference was found against Ham's F10 medium. No significant differences in sperm viability were seen between the media products. However, 1 h after swim-up, the extent of sperm DNA fragmentation was lower in the medium from Origio versus VitaSperm™ (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The data showed that the quality of medium for preparation of semen samples from normozoospermic men significantly affects the performance of spermatozoa in assisted conception programs. PMID:28216914

  3. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland).

  4. Does hypercalcaemia or calcium antagonism affect human melatonin secretion or renal excretion?

    PubMed

    Wikner, J; Wetterberg, L; Röjdmark, S

    1997-05-01

    Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have higher serum melatonin concentrations during active disease than after surgical cure. Whether this is caused by hypercalcaemia per se, increased parathyroid hormone secretion or other mechanisms is unknown. We decided to elucidate whether exogenous hypercalcaemia influences melatonin secretion. For this purpose, eight healthy volunteers were infused with calcium and saline on separate days and in random order (experiment A). Hypercalcaemia inhibited nocturnal melatonin secretion by 20% but left urinary melatonin excretion unaffected. If exogenous hypercalcaemia inhibits melatonin secretion, it is reasonable to assume that calcium channel blockers such as verapamil might have the opposite effect. This was investigated in experiment B, in which eight healthy subjects were treated on separate occasions with oral verapamil and placebo. Verapamil did not affect nocturnal melatonin secretion but increased melatonin excretion by 145%. As 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin is the main melatonin metabolite excreted by the kidneys, it was considered important to find out whether verapamil would also influence the excretion of 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin. This was investigated in experiment C, in which eight healthy volunteers were treated, on separate occasions, with oral verapamil and placebo. In this experiment also, verapamil increased urinary melatonin excretion significantly (by 67%), but left excretion of 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin unaffected. These findings imply that verapamil influences the renal and/or hepatic handling of melatonin.

  5. Pioglitazone does not affect vascular or inflammatory responses after endotoxemia in humans.

    PubMed

    Schaller, G; Kolodjaschna, J; Pleiner, J; Mittermayer, F; Kapiotis, S; Schmetterer, L; Wolzt, M

    2008-08-01

    PPARgamma agonists have been proposed to exert more than metabolic benefits, particularly by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We hypothesized that pioglitazone might modulate inflammatory and vascular responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In a placebo-controlled parallel-group study in 18 healthy male subjects, the E. coli endotoxin model of inflammation (20 IU/kg i. v.) was employed to test the effect of 60 mg pioglitazone over nine days on inflammatory cytokines. Macrovascular function and microvascular blood flow were assessed by brachial artery ultrasound and retinal blood flow parameters, respectively. Pioglitazone increased brachial artery diameter by 5.6% but had no effect on other outcome parameters under resting conditions. LPS increased cytokine levels to peak concentrations of 91.3+/-22.5 ng/ml (IL-6), 261.4+/-60.0 ng/ml (TNFalpha), and 524.5+/-15.3 ng/ml (VCAM-1). The endotoxin caused microvascular vasodilation and increased retinal white blood cell flux, while baseline brachial artery diameter remained unchanged. Pioglitazone had no effect on inflammatory cytokine or adhesion molecule release but mitigated LPS-induced hypotension (p<0.05). Neither brachial artery function nor microvascular blood flow was altered by pioglitazone. In conclusion, acute immune reactions to LPS are not affected by pioglitazone, which exerts subtle vascular effects alone and during endotoxemia. The anti-inflammatory properties of short-term pioglitazone to endotoxins in healthy subjects are therefore limited.

  6. Aging does not affect the sleep endocrine response to total sleep deprivation in humans.

    PubMed

    Murck, H; Antonijevic, I A; Schier, T; Frieboes, R M; Barthelmes, J; Steiger, A

    1999-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased sleep continuity, slow wave sleep (SWS), growth hormone (GH) release and an increased hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity. Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is a strong stimulus for sleep. To determine if aging affects the response to TSD, for the first time the combined effects of TSD on conventional and spectral sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters and GH, cortisol and prolactin secretion were compared in elderly (60-80 years; n = 7) vs. younger subjects (20-30 years; n = 7). MANOVA revealed a reduction of SWS in the elderly. TSD led to an increase in SWS, a decrease in sleep onset latency, rapid eye movement (REM) density and by trend REM-latency without a global group difference. GH was reduced, whereas prolactin was enhanced in the elderly. After TSD GH was unchanged and prolactin secretion was enhanced without group difference. Thus, the plasticity of the sleep-endocrine system in response to TSD is sustained during aging. The possible involvement of the GABAergic system, that seems not to be severely impaired with age, is proposed.

  7. Hyperthermia Severely Affects the Vascular Effects of MDMA and Metabolites in the Human Internal Mammary Artery In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, D A; Guerra, A F; Carvalho, F; Fernandes, E; Ferreira, L M; Branco, P S; Antunes, P E; Antunes, M J; Cotrim, M D

    2017-01-13

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a recreational drug used worldwide for its distinctive psychotropic effects. Although important cardiovascular effects, such as increased blood pressure and heart rate, have also been described, the vascular effects of MDMA and metabolites and their correlation with hyperthermia (major side effect of MDMA) are not yet fully understood and have not been previously reported. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of MDMA and its main catechol metabolites, alpha-methyldopamine (α-MeDA), N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine (N-Me-α-MeDA), 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(GSH)-α-MeDA] and 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(GSH)-N-Me-α-MeDA], on the 5-HT-dependent vasoactivity in normothermia (37 °C) and hyperthermia (40 °C) of the human internal mammary artery (IMA) in vitro. The results showed the ability of MDMA, α-MeDA and N-Me-α-MeDA to exert vasoconstriction of the IMA which was considerably higher in hyperthermic conditions (about fourfold for MDMA and α-MeDA and twofold for N-Me-α-MeDA). The results also showed that all the compounds may influence the 5-HT-mediated concentration-dependent response of IMA, as MDMA, α-MeDA and N-Me-α-MeDA behaved as partial agonists and 5-(GSH)-α-MeDA and 5-(GSH)-N-Me-α-MeDA as antagonists. In conclusion, MDMA abuse may imply a higher cardiovascular risk associated both to MDMA and its metabolites that might be relevant in patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases, particularly in hyperthermia.

  8. Human resources in nursing education: a worldwide crisis.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Redman, Richard W; Landstrom, Gay

    2009-01-01

    The global shortage of nurses is escalating. A key contributing factor to the production of new nurses is the growing shortage of qualified faculty. This paper explores the forces influencing the global faculty shortage, including those that increase demand and those that limit the supply of nursing faculty. The authors discuss potential solutions to the shortage, placing particular emphasis on leveraging the strengths of the profession to accelerate the progression of nurses to graduate school, the enhancement of funding for graduate education, changing the paradigm of clinical education, and the expansion of the science base for practice.

  9. Prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium in human populations worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high prevalence of cryptosporidiosis has been reported in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa, especially, but not exclusively, the malnourished and those positive for HIV infection. Infection rates are highest during the rainy season. Cryptosporidium hominis, which is transmitted ...

  10. H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects SO4= Transport in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, Rossana; Romano, Orazio; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to verify the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein, responsible for Cl-/HCO3- as well as for cell membrane deformability, due to its cross link with cytoskeletal proteins. The role of cytoplasmic proteins binding to Band 3 protein has been also considered by assaying H2O2 effects on hemoglobin-free resealed ghosts of erythrocytes. Oxidative conditions were induced by 30 min exposure of human erythrocytes to different H2O2 concentrations (10 to 300 μM), with or without GSH (glutathione, 2 mM) or curcumin (10 μM), compounds with proved antioxidant properties. Since SO4= influx through Band 3 protein is slower and better controllable than Cl- or HCO3- exchange, the rate constant for SO4= uptake was measured to prove anion transport efficiency, while MDA (malondialdehyde) levels and –SH groups were estimated to quantify the effect of oxidative stress. H2O2 induced a significant decrease in rate constant for SO4= uptake at both 100 and 300 μM H2O2. This reduction, observed in erythrocytes but not in resealed ghosts and associated to increase in neither MDA levels nor in –SH groups, was impaired by both curcumin and GSH, whereas only curcumin effectively restored H2O2-induced changes in erythrocytes shape. Our results show that: i) 30 min exposure to 300 μM H2O2 reduced SO4= uptake in human erythrocytes; ii) oxidative damage was revealed by the reduction in rate constant for SO4= uptake, but not by MDA or –SH groups levels; iii) the damage was produced via cytoplasmic components which cross link with Band 3 protein; iv) the natural antioxidant curcumin may be useful in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative injury; v) SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein may be reasonably suggested as a tool to monitor erythrocytes function under oxidative conditions possibly deriving from alcohol consumption, use of drugs, radiographic contrast media administration, hyperglicemia or

  11. H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects SO4= Transport in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Romano, Orazio; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to verify the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein, responsible for Cl-/HCO3- as well as for cell membrane deformability, due to its cross link with cytoskeletal proteins. The role of cytoplasmic proteins binding to Band 3 protein has been also considered by assaying H2O2 effects on hemoglobin-free resealed ghosts of erythrocytes. Oxidative conditions were induced by 30 min exposure of human erythrocytes to different H2O2 concentrations (10 to 300 μM), with or without GSH (glutathione, 2 mM) or curcumin (10 μM), compounds with proved antioxidant properties. Since SO4= influx through Band 3 protein is slower and better controllable than Cl- or HCO3- exchange, the rate constant for SO4= uptake was measured to prove anion transport efficiency, while MDA (malondialdehyde) levels and -SH groups were estimated to quantify the effect of oxidative stress. H2O2 induced a significant decrease in rate constant for SO4= uptake at both 100 and 300 μM H2O2. This reduction, observed in erythrocytes but not in resealed ghosts and associated to increase in neither MDA levels nor in -SH groups, was impaired by both curcumin and GSH, whereas only curcumin effectively restored H2O2-induced changes in erythrocytes shape. Our results show that: i) 30 min exposure to 300 μM H2O2 reduced SO4= uptake in human erythrocytes; ii) oxidative damage was revealed by the reduction in rate constant for SO4= uptake, but not by MDA or -SH groups levels; iii) the damage was produced via cytoplasmic components which cross link with Band 3 protein; iv) the natural antioxidant curcumin may be useful in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative injury; v) SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein may be reasonably suggested as a tool to monitor erythrocytes function under oxidative conditions possibly deriving from alcohol consumption, use of drugs, radiographic contrast media administration, hyperglicemia or neurodegenerative

  12. Xenobiotics that affect oxidative phosphorylation alter differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells at concentrations that are found in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Llobet, Laura; Toivonen, Janne M.; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; López-Gallardo, Ester

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adipogenesis is accompanied by differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells to adipocytes. As part of this differentiation, biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system occurs. Many chemical compounds used in medicine, agriculture or other human activities affect oxidative phosphorylation function. Therefore, these xenobiotics could alter adipogenesis. We have analyzed the effects on adipocyte differentiation of some xenobiotics that act on the oxidative phosphorylation system. The tested concentrations have been previously reported in human blood. Our results show that pharmaceutical drugs that decrease mitochondrial DNA replication, such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as ribosomal antibiotics, diminish adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion. By contrast, the environmental chemical pollutant tributyltin chloride, which inhibits the ATP synthase of the oxidative phosphorylation system, can promote adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion, leading to obesity and metabolic syndrome as postulated by the obesogen hypothesis. PMID:26398948

  13. Xenobiotics that affect oxidative phosphorylation alter differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells at concentrations that are found in human blood.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Laura; Toivonen, Janne M; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; López-Gallardo, Ester

    2015-11-01

    Adipogenesis is accompanied by differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells to adipocytes. As part of this differentiation, biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system occurs. Many chemical compounds used in medicine, agriculture or other human activities affect oxidative phosphorylation function. Therefore, these xenobiotics could alter adipogenesis. We have analyzed the effects on adipocyte differentiation of some xenobiotics that act on the oxidative phosphorylation system. The tested concentrations have been previously reported in human blood. Our results show that pharmaceutical drugs that decrease mitochondrial DNA replication, such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as ribosomal antibiotics, diminish adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion. By contrast, the environmental chemical pollutant tributyltin chloride, which inhibits the ATP synthase of the oxidative phosphorylation system, can promote adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion, leading to obesity and metabolic syndrome as postulated by the obesogen hypothesis.

  14. Thymic epithelial cells of human patients affected by myasthenia gravis overexpress IGF-I immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Marinova, Tsvetana T; Kuerten, Stefanie; Petrov, Danail B; Angelov, Doychin N

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that several kinds of thymic cells express insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which is known to play an important role in T cell ontogeny under both physiological and pathological conditions. Still, little is known about the mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in the pathological transformation of the thymocyte microenvironment. The present study focuses on a comparative analysis of the IGF-I immunoreactivity of thymic epithelial cells (EC) from human patients with hyperplasia-associated myasthenia gravis (MG) versus physiological thymic tissue from healthy controls using immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. We show that myasthenic EC overexpress IGF-I in comparison to EC from control subjects. The IGF-I immunoreactivity in the medullary and cortical EC from MG patients was stronger than in the normal gland. The increased expression of IGF-I and more frequent distribution of IGF-I and IGF-I-receptor (IGF-IR) immunopositive EC correlated with modulation in the immunoreactivity of double (IGF-I/IGF-IR) positive EC. Our data provide new immunocytochemial evidence for alterations of IGF-I and IGF-IR immunoreactivity in EC from pathological thymi. The persisting expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR most likely indicates that the myasthenic thymus is still capable of governing IGF-I signaling pathways, which are involved in the local regulation of T cell development and plasticity.

  15. Nutritional status affects branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase activity during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Jackman, M L; Gibala, M J; Hultman, E; Graham, T E

    1997-02-01

    We examined the effect of glycogen availability and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCOAD) activity during exercise. Six subjects cycled at approximately 75% of their maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion on three occasions under different preexercise conditions: 1) low muscle glycogen (LOW), 2) low muscle glycogen plus BCAA supplementation (LOW+BCAA), and 3) high muscle glycogen (CON). The LOW trial was performed first, followed by the other two conditions in random order, and biopsies for all trials were obtained at rest, after 15 min of exercise (15 min), and at the point of exhaustion during the LOW trial (49 min). BCOAD activity was not different among the three conditions at rest; however, at 15 min BCOAD activity was higher (P < or = 0.05) for the LOW (31 +/- 5%) and LOW+BCAA (43 +/- 11%) conditions compared with CON (12 +/- 1%). BCOAD activity at 49 min was not different from respective values at 15 min for any condition. These data indicate that BCOAD is rapidly activated during submaximal exercise under conditions associated with low carbohydrate availability. However, there was no relationship between BCOAD activity and glycogen concentration or net glycogenolysis, which suggests that factors other than glycogen availability are important for BCOAD regulation during exercise in humans.

  16. Creatine supplementation does not affect human skeletal muscle glycogen content in the absence of prior exercise.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Dean A; Robinson, Tristan M; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2008-02-01

    Due to the current lack of clarity, we examined whether 5 days of dietary creatine (Cr) supplementation per se can influence the glycogen content of human skeletal muscle. Six healthy male volunteers participated in the study, reporting to the laboratory on four occasions to exercise to the point of volitional exhaustion, each after 3 days of a controlled normal habitual dietary intake. After a familiarization visit, participants cycled to exhaustion in the absence of any supplementation (N), and then 2 wk later again they cycled to exhaustion after 5 days of supplementation with simple sugars (CHO). Finally, after a further 2 wk, they again cycled to exhaustion after 5 days of Cr supplementation. Muscle samples were taken at rest before exercise, at the time point of exhaustion in visit 1, and at subsequent visit time of exhaustion. There was a treatment effect on muscle total Cr content in Cr compared with N and CHO supplementation (P < 0.01). Resting muscle glycogen content was elevated above N following CHO (P < 0.05) but not after Cr. At exhaustion following N, glycogen content was no different from CHO and Cr measured at the same time point during exercise. Cr supplementation under conditions of controlled habitual dietary intake had no effect on muscle glycogen content at rest or after exhaustive exercise. We suggest that any Cr-associated increases in muscle glycogen storage are the result of an interaction between Cr supplementation and other mediators of muscle glycogen storage.

  17. 5-azacytidine affects TET2 and histone transcription and reshapes morphology of human skin fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Elena F. M.; Pennarossa, Georgia; deEguileor, Magda; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Gandolfi, Fulvio; Brevini, Tiziana A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotype definition is controlled by epigenetic regulations that allow cells to acquire their differentiated state. The process is reversible and attractive for therapeutic intervention and for the reactivation of hypermethylated pluripotency genes that facilitate transition to a higher plasticity state. We report the results obtained in human fibroblasts exposed to the epigenetic modifier 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR), which increases adult cell plasticity and facilitates phenotype change. Although many aspects controlling its demethylating action have been widely investigated, the mechanisms underlying 5-aza-CR effects on cell plasticity are still poorly understood. Our experiments confirm decreased global methylation, but also demonstrate an increase of both Formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-Carboxylcytosine (5caC), indicating 5-aza-CR ability to activate a direct and active demethylating effect, possibly mediated via TET2 protein increased transcription. This was accompanied by transient upregulation of pluripotency markers and incremented histone expression, paralleled by changes in histone acetylating enzymes. Furthermore, adult fibroblasts reshaped into undifferentiated progenitor-like phenotype, with a sparse and open chromatin structure. Our findings indicate that 5-aza-CR induced somatic cell transition to a higher plasticity state is activated by multiple regulations that accompany the demethylating effect exerted by the modifier. PMID:27841324

  18. Phenotypic differentiation does not affect tumorigenicity of primary human colon cancer initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Dubash, Taronish D; Hoffmann, Christopher M; Oppel, Felix; Giessler, Klara M; Weber, Sarah; Dieter, Sebastian M; Hüllein, Jennifer; Zenz, Thorsten; Herbst, Friederike; Scholl, Claudia; Weichert, Wilko; Werft, Wiebke; Benner, Axel; Schmidt, Manfred; Schneider, Martin; Glimm, Hanno; Ball, Claudia R

    2016-02-28

    Within primary colorectal cancer (CRC) a subfraction of all tumor-initiating cells (TIC) drives long-term progression in serial xenotransplantation. It has been postulated that efficient maintenance of TIC activity in vitro requires serum-free spheroid culture conditions that support a stem-like state of CRC cells. To address whether tumorigenicity is indeed tightly linked to such a stem-like state in spheroids, we transferred TIC-enriched spheroid cultures to serum-containing adherent conditions that should favor their differentiation. Under these conditions, primary CRC cells did no longer grow as spheroids but formed an adherent cell layer, up-regulated colon epithelial differentiation markers, and down-regulated TIC-associated markers. Strikingly, upon xenotransplantation cells cultured under either condition equally efficient formed serially transplantable tumors. Clonal analyses of individual lentivirally marked TIC clones cultured under either culture condition revealed no systematic differences in contributing clone numbers, indicating that phenotypic differentiation does not select for few individual clones adapted to unfavorable culture conditions. Our results reveal that CRC TIC can be propagated under conditions previously thought to induce their elimination. This phenotypic plasticity allows addressing primary human CRC TIC properties in experimental settings based on adherent cell growth.

  19. Scanning electron microscopic study of human neuroblastoma cells affected with Naegleria fowleri Thai strains.

    PubMed

    Tiewcharoen, Supathra; Rabablert, Jundee; Chetanachan, Pruksawan; Junnu, Virach; Worawirounwong, Dusit; Malainual, Nat

    2008-10-01

    In order to understand the pathogenesis of Naegleria fowleri in primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, the human neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells were studied in vitro. Amoeba suspension in cell-culture medium was added to the confluent monolayer of SK-N-MC and Vero cells. The cytopathic activity of N. fowleri trophozoites in co-culture system was elucidated by scanning electron microscope at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h. Two strains of N. fowleri displayed well-organized vigorous pseudopods in Nelson's medium at 37 degrees C. In co-culture, the target monolayer cells were damaged by two mechanisms, phagocytosis by vigorous pseudopods and engulfment by sucker-like apparatus. N. fowleri trophozoites produced amoebostomes only in co-culture with SK-N-MC cells. In contrast, we could not find such apparatus in the co-culture with Vero cells. The complete destruction time (100%) at 1:1 amoeba/cells ratio of SK-N-MC cells (1 day) was shorter than the Vero cells (12 days). In conclusion, SK-N-MC cells were confirmed to be a target model for studying neuropathogenesis of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis.

  20. The second-shell metal ligands of human arginase affect coordination of the nucleophile and substrate.

    PubMed

    Stone, Everett M; Chantranupong, Lynne; Georgiou, George

    2010-12-14

    The active sites of eukaryotic arginase enzymes are strictly conserved, especially the first- and second-shell ligands that coordinate the two divalent metal cations that generate a hydroxide molecule for nucleophilic attack on the guanidinium carbon of l-arginine and the subsequent production of urea and l-ornithine. Here by using comprehensive pairwise saturation mutagenesis of the first- and second-shell metal ligands in human arginase I, we demonstrate that several metal binding ligands are actually quite tolerant to amino acid substitutions. Of >2800 double mutants of first- and second-shell residues analyzed, we found more than 80 unique amino acid substitutions, of which four were in first-shell residues. Remarkably, certain second-shell mutations could modulate the binding of both the nucleophilic water/hydroxide molecule and substrate or product ligands, resulting in activity greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. The data presented here constitute the first comprehensive saturation mutagenesis analysis of a metallohydrolase active site and reveal that the strict conservation of the second-shell metal binding residues in eukaryotic arginases does not reflect kinetic optimization of the enzyme during the course of evolution.

  1. An analysis of factors affecting the mercury content in the human femoral bone.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, A; Dąbrowski, M; Kubaszewski, Ł; Rogala, P; Kowalski, A; Frankowski, M

    2017-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the content of mercury in bone tissue of the proximal femur (head and neck bone) of 95 patients undergoing total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis, using CF-AFS analytical technique. Furthermore, the investigations were aimed at assessing the impact of selected factors, such as age, gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical substance at work, type of degenerative changes, clinical evaluation and radiological parameters, type of medications, on the concentration of mercury in the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Mercury was obtained in all samples of the head and neck of the femur (n = 190) in patients aged 25-91 years. The mean content of mercury for the whole group of patients was as follows: 37.1 ± 35.0 ng/g for the femoral neck and 24.2 ± 19.5 ng/g for the femoral head. The highest Hg contents were found in femoral neck samples, both in women and men, and they amounted to 169.6 and 176.5 ng/g, respectively. The research showed that the mercury content of bones can be associated with body mass index, differences in body anatomy, and gender. The uses of statistical analysis gave the possibility to define the influence of factors on mercury content in human femoral bones.

  2. Human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit affects the expression of apoptosis-regulating factors in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Szczerba, Anna; Śliwa, Aleksandra; Kubiczak, Marta; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Jankowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin, especially its free β subunit (hCGβ) were shown to play an important role in cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. It is postulated that hCGβ is one of the factors determining cancer cell survival. To test this hypothesis, we applied two models: an in vitro model of ovarian cancer using OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cell lines transfected with the CGB5 gene and an in vivo model of ovarian cancer tissues. The material was tested against changes in expression level of genes encoding factors involved in apoptosis: BCL2, BAX and BIRC5. Overexpression of hCGβ was found to cause a decrease in expression of the analyzed genes in the transfected cells compared with the control cells. In ovarian cancer tissues, high expression of CGB was related to significantly lower BCL2 but higher BAX and BIRC5 transcript levels. Moreover, a low BCL2/BAX ratio, characteristic of advanced stages of ovarian cancer, was revealed. Since tumors were discriminated by a significantly lower LHCGR level than the level noted in healthy fallopian tubes and ovaries, it may be stated that the effect of hCGβ on changes in the expression of apoptosis-regulating agents observed in ovarian cancer is LHCGR-independent. The results of the study suggest that the biological effects evoked by hCGβ are related to apoptosis suppression.

  3. Irradiation affects cellular properties and Eph receptor expression in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mosch, Birgit; Pietzsch, Doreen; Pietzsch, Jens

    2012-01-01

    X-ray irradiation influences metastatic properties of tumor cells and, moreover, metastasis and cellular motility can be modified by members of the Eph receptor/ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases. We hypothesized that irradiation-induced changes in cellular properties relevant for metastasis in melanoma cells could be mediated by Eph receptor/ephrin signaling. In this pilot study, we analyzed one pre-metastatic (Mel-Juso) and three metastatic human melanoma (Mel-Juso-L3, A375, and A2058) cells lines and predominantly found anti-metastatic effects of X-ray irradiation with impaired cell growth, clonal growth and motility. Additionally, we observed an irradiation-induced increase in adhesion paralleled by a decrease in migration in Mel-Juso and Mel-Juso-L3 cells and, in part, also in A375 cells. We further demonstrate a decrease of EphA2 both in expression and activity at 7 d after irradiation paralleled by an upregulation of EphA3. Analyzing downstream signaling after irradiation, we detected decreased Src kinase phosphorylation, but unchanged focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, indicating, in part, irradiation-induced downregulation of signaling via the EphA2-Src-FAK axis in melanoma cells. However, to which extent this finding contributes to the modification of metastasis-relevant cellular properties remains to be elucidated. PMID:22568947

  4. A probing dose of phenylacetate does not affect glucose production and gluconeogenesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Wajngot, A; Chandramouli, V; Schumann, W C; Brunengraber, H; Efendic, S; Landau, B R

    2000-09-01

    Phenylacetate ingestion has been used to probe Krebs cycle metabolism and to augment waste nitrogen excretion in urea cycle disorders. Phenylalkanoic acids, including phenylacetate, have been proposed as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of diabetes. They inhibit gluconeogenesis in the liver in vitro and reduce the blood glucose concentration in diabetic rats. The effect of sodium phenylacetate ingestion on blood glucose and the contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production have now been studied in 7 type 2 diabetic patients. The study was not designed to test whether the changes in glucose metabolism observed in the rat could be reproduced in humans. After an overnight fast, over a period of 1 hour, 4.8 g phenylacetate was ingested, which is the highest dose used to probe Krebs cycle metabolism. Glucose production was measured by tracer kinetics using [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and gluconeogenesis by the labeling of the hydrogens of blood glucose on (2)H20 ingestion. The concentration of phenylacetate in plasma peaked by 2 hours after its ingestion, and about 40% of the dose was excreted in 5 hours. The plasma glucose concentration and production, and the contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production, were unaffected by phenylacetate ingestion at the highest dose used to probe Krebs cycle metabolism.

  5. Lip colour affects perceived sex typicality and attractiveness of human faces.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ian D; McKeegan, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    The luminance contrast between facial features and facial skin is greater in women than in men, and women's use of make-up enhances this contrast. In black-and-white photographs, increased luminance contrast enhances femininity and attractiveness in women's faces, but reduces masculinity and attractiveness in men's faces. In Caucasians, much of the contrast between the lips and facial skin is in redness. Red lips have been considered attractive in women in geographically and temporally diverse cultures, possibly because they mimic vasodilation associated with sexual arousal. Here, we investigate the effects of lip luminance and colour contrast on the attractiveness and sex typicality (masculinity/femininity) of human faces. In a Caucasian sample, we allowed participants to manipulate the colour of the lips in colour-calibrated face photographs along CIELab L* (light--dark), a* (red--green), and b* (yellow--blue) axes to enhance apparent attractiveness and sex typicality. Participants increased redness contrast to enhance femininity and attractiveness of female faces, but reduced redness contrast to enhance masculinity of men's faces. Lip blueness was reduced more in female than male faces. Increased lightness contrast enhanced the attractiveness of both sexes, and had little effect on perceptions of sex typicality. The association between lip colour contrast and attractiveness in women's faces may be attributable to its association with oxygenated blood perfusion indicating oestrogen levels, sexual arousal, and cardiac and respiratory health.

  6. Visually Exploring Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chhatwal, Shree D.; Rose, Stuart J.

    2008-01-27

    This paper presents refinements of an existing analytic tool, Juxter, which was developed for the visualization of multi-dimensional categorical data, and explores its application to support exploration and interaction with open source Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) data. The volume and complexity of data available on terrorism makes it hard to analyze. Information systems that can efficiently and effectively collect, access, analyze, and report terrorist incidents can help in further studies focused on preventing, detecting, and responding to terrorist attacks. Existing interfaces to the WITS data support advanced search capabilities, and geolocation but lack functionality for identifying patterns and trends. To better support efficient browsing we have refined Juxter’s existing capabilities for filtering, selecting, and sorting elements and categories within the visualization.

  7. World-wide aeronautical satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter; Smith, Keith

    1988-01-01

    INMARSAT decided to expand the spectrum covered by its new generation of satellites, INMARSAT-2, to include 1 MHz (subsequently increased to 3 MHz) of the spectrum designed for aeronautical use. It began a design study that led to the specifications for the system that is now being implemented. Subsequently, INMARSAT awarded contracts for the design of avionics and high gain antennas to a number of manufactures, while several of the signatories that provide ground equipment for communicating with the INMARSAT satellites are modifying their earth stations to work with the avionic equipment. As a resullt of these activities, a world-wide aeronautical satellite system supporting both voice and data will become operational in 1989.

  8. The worldwide epidemic of female obesity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheona; Shaw, Dorothy

    2015-04-01

    The rapidly rising number of individuals who are overweight and obese has been called a worldwide epidemic of obesity with >35% of adults today considered to be overweight or obese. Women are more likely to be overweight and obese than their male counterparts, which has far-reaching effects on reproductive health and specifically pregnancy, with obese women facing an increased risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, operative delivery, fetal macrosomia, and neonatal morbidity. The etiology of obesity is highly complex encompassing genetic, environmental, physiologic, cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors, making it challenging to develop effective interventions on both a local and global scale. This article describes the extent and the cost of the obesity epidemic, which, although historically seen as a disease of high-income countries, is now clearly a global epidemic that impacts low- and middle-income countries and indigenous groups who bear an ever-increasing burden of this disease.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  10. Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands.

    PubMed

    Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Renoult, Julien P; Grégoire, Arnaud; Crochet, Pierre-André; Covas, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Island environments share distinctive characteristics that offer unique opportunities to investigate parallel evolution. Previous research has produced evidence of an island syndrome for morphological traits, life-history strategies and ecological niches, but little is known about the response to insularity of other important traits such as animal signals. Here, we tested whether birds' plumage colouration is part of the island syndrome. We analysed with spectrophotometry the colouration of 116 species endemic to islands and their 116 closest mainland relatives. We found a pattern of reduced brightness and colour intensity for both sexes on islands. In addition, we found a decrease in the number of colour patches on islands that, in males, was associated with a decrease in the number of same-family sympatric species. These results demonstrate a worldwide pattern of parallel colour changes on islands and suggest that a relaxation of selection on species recognition may be one of the mechanisms involved.

  11. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  12. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    PubMed

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  13. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  14. Bottom-up and top-down human impacts interact to affect a protected coastal Chilean marsh.

    PubMed

    Fariña, José M; He, Qiang; Silliman, Brian R; Bertness, Mark D

    2016-03-01

    Many ecosystems, even in protected areas, experience multiple anthropogenic impacts. While anthropogenic modification of bottom-up (e.g., eutrophication) and top-down (e.g., livestock grazing) forcing often co-occurs, whether these factors counteract or have additive or synergistic effects on ecosystems is poorly understood. In a Chilean bio-reserve, we examined the interactive impacts of eutrophication and illegal livestock grazing on plant growth with a 4-yr fertilization by cattle exclusion experiment. Cattle grazing generally decreased plant biomass, but had synergistic, additive, and antagonistic interactions with fertilization in the low, middle, and high marsh zones, respectively. In the low marsh, fertilization increased plant biomass by 112%, cattle grazing decreased it by 96%, and together they decreased plant biomass by 77%. In the middle marsh, fertilization increased plant biomass by 47%, cattle grazing decreased it by 37%, and together they did not affect plant biomass. In the high marsh, fertilization and cattle grazing decreased plant biomass by 81% and 92%, respectively, but together they increased plant biomass by 42%. These interactions were also found to be species specific. Different responses of plants to fertilization and cattle grazing were likely responsible for these variable interactions. Thus, common bottom-up and top-down human impacts can interact in different ways to affect communities even within a single ecosystem. Incorporating this knowledge into conservation actions will improve ecosystem management in a time when ecosystems are increasingly challenged by multiple interacting human impacts.

  15. Sub-toxic nicotine concentrations affect extracellular matrix and growth factor signaling gene expressions in human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Marinucci, Lorella; Bodo, Maria; Balloni, Stefania; Locci, Paola; Baroni, Tiziano

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to nicotine and other compounds contained in cigarette smoking affects human health. This study examined the effects of exposure to a single or multiple sub-toxic nicotine concentrations on human osteoblasts. Cell growth and expression of genes involved in bone differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism, and growth factor signaling pathways were investigated in nicotine-treated cells compared to untreated cells. Depending on osteoblast concentration and maturation stages, nicotine differently regulated cell growth. Real-time PCR showed regulated expressions of genes expressed by nicotine-treated osteoblasts compared to untreated cells. Among ECM genes, type I collagen was down-regulated and osteonectin was up-regulated in nicotine-treated osteoblasts; similarly, fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), two members of FGF signaling system, were discordantly modulated; genes involved in osteoblast maturation and differentiation such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), and bone sialoprotein (BSP) were over-expressed after drug treatment. Our results show a positive association between nicotine exposure and osteoblast phenotype and illustrate for the first time a mechanism whereby acute or chronic exposure to sub-toxic nicotine concentrations may affect bone formation through the impairment of growth factor signaling system and ECM metabolism.

  16. Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Kirjavainen, Ilkka; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-12-01

    The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger.

  17. Topical anaesthesia does not affect cutaneous vasomotor or sudomotor responses in human skin.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Wilson, K; Wilson, T E

    2013-10-01

    (1) The effects of local sensory blockade (topical anaesthesia) on eccrine sweat glands and cutaneous circulation are not well understood. This study aimed to determine whether topical lidocaine/prilocaine alters eccrine sweat gland and cutaneous blood vessel responses. (2) Sweating (capacitance hygrometry) was induced via forearm intradermal microdialysis of five acetylcholine (ACh) doses (1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(0) m, 10-fold increments) in control and treated forearm sites in six healthy subjects. Nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatory (sodium nitroprusside) and adrenergic vasoconstrictor (noradrenaline) agonists were iontophoresed in lidocaine/prilocaine-treated and control forearm skin in nine healthy subjects during blood flow assessment (laser Doppler flowmetry, expressed as% from baseline cutaneous vascular conductance; CVC; flux/mean arterial pressure). (3) Non-linear regression curve fitting identified no change in the ED50 of ACh-induced sweating after sensory blockade (-1.42 ± 0.23 logM) compared to control (-1.27 ± 0.23 logM; P > .05) or in Emax (0.43 ± 0.08 with, 0.53 ± 0.16 mg cm(-2) min(-1) without lidocaine/prilocaine; P > .05). Sensory blockade did not alter the vasodilator response to sodium nitroprusside (1280 ± 548% change from baseline CVC with, 1204 ± 247% without lidocaine/prilocaine) or vasoconstrictor response to noradrenaline (-14 ± 4% change from baseline CVC with, -22 ± 14% without lidocaine/prilocaine; P > 0.05). (4) Cutaneous sensory blockade does not appear to alter nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation, adrenergic vasoconstriction, or cholinergic eccrine sweating dose-response sensitivity or responsiveness to maximal dose. Thus, lidocaine/prilocaine treatment should not affect sweat gland function or have blood flow implications for subsequent research protocols or clinical procedures.

  18. Mutations in the human adenosine deaminase gene that affect protein structure and RNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Akeson, A.L.; Wiginton, D.A.; States, C.J.; Perme, C.M.; Dusing, M.R.; Hutton, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Adenosine deaminase deficiency is one cause of the genetic disease severe combined immunodeficiency. To identify mutations responsible for ADA deficiency, the authors synthesized cDNAs to ADA mRNAs from two cell lines, GM2756 and GM2825A, derived from ADA-deficient immunodeficient patients. Sequence analysis of GM2756 cDNA clones revealed a different point mutation in each allele that causes amino acid changes of alanine to valine and arginine to histidine. One allele of GM2825A also has a point mutation that causes an alanine to valine substitution. The other allele of GM2825A was found to produce an mRNA in which exon 4 had been spliced out but had no other detrimental mutations. S1 nuclease mapping of GM2825A mRNA showed equal abundance of the full-length ADA mRNA and the ADA mRNA that was missing exon 4. Several of the ADA cDNA clones extended 5' of the major initiation start site, indicating multiple start sites for ADA transcription. The point mutations in GM2756 and GM2825A and the absence of exon 4 in GM2825A appear to be directly responsible for the ADA deficiency. Comparison of a number of normal and mutant ADA cDNA sequences showed a number of changes in the third base of codons. These change do not affect the amino acid sequence. Analyses of ADA cDNAs from different cell lines detected aberrant RNA species that either included intron 7 or excluded exon 7. Their presence is a result of aberrant splicing of pre-mRNAs and is not related to mutations that cause ADA deficiency.

  19. Analysis of mobile phone design features affecting radiofrequency power absorbed in a human head phantom.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Sven; Kelsh, Michael A; Kuster, Niels; Sheppard, Asher R; Shum, Mona

    2013-09-01

    The US FCC mandates the testing of all mobile phones to demonstrate compliance with the rule requiring that the peak spatial SAR does not exceed the limit of 1.6 W/kg averaged over any 1 g of tissue. These test data, measured in phantoms with mobile phones operating at maximum antenna input power, permitted us to evaluate the variation in SARs across mobile phone design factors such as shape and antenna design, communication technology, and test date (over a 7-year period). Descriptive statistical summaries calculated for 850 MHz and 1900 MHz phones and ANOVA were used to evaluate the influence of the foregoing factors on SARs. Service technology accounted for the greatest variability in compliance test SARs that ranged from AMPS (highest) to CDMA, iDEN, TDMA, and GSM (lowest). However, the dominant factor for SARs during use is the time-averaged antenna input power, which may be much less than the maximum power used in testing. This factor is largely defined by the communication system; e.g., the GSM phone average output can be higher than CDMA by a factor of 100. Phone shape, antenna type, and orientation of a phone were found to be significant but only on the order of up to a factor of 2 (3 dB). The SAR in the tilt position was significantly smaller than for touch. The side of the head did not affect SAR levels significantly. Among the remaining factors, external antennae produced greater SARs than internal ones, and brick and clamshell phones produced greater SARs than slide phones. Assuming phone design and usage patterns do not change significantly over time, we have developed a normalization procedure and formula that permits reliable prediction of the relative SAR between various communication systems. This approach can be applied to improve exposure assessment in epidemiological research.

  20. Overview and forecast on forestry productions worldwide.

    PubMed

    Wenjun, Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions.

  1. Metabolic/bariatric surgery Worldwide 2008.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Henry; Oien, Danette M

    2009-12-01

    Periodically, the state of bariatric surgery worldwide should be assessed; the most recent prior evaluation was in 2003. An email survey was sent to the leadership of the 36 International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders nations or national groupings, as well as Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Responses were tabulated; calculation of relative prevalence of specific procedures was done by weighted averages. Out of a potential 39, 36 nations or national groupings responded. In 2008, 344,221 bariatric surgery operations were performed by 4,680 bariatric surgeons; 220,000 of these operations were performed in USA/Canada by 1,625 surgeons. The most commonly performed procedures were laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (AGB; 42.3%), laparoscopic standard Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 39.7%), and total sleeve gastrectomies 4.5%. Over 90% of procedures were performed laparoscopically. Comparing the 5-year trend from 2003 to 2008, all categories of procedures, with the exception of biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch, increased in absolute numbers performed. However, the relative percent of all RYGBs decreased from 65.1% to 49.0%; whereas, AGB increased from 24.4% to 42.3%. Markedly, different trends were found for Europe and USA/Canada: in Europe, AGB decreased from 63.7% to 43.2% and RYGB increased from 11.1% to 39.0%; whereas, in USA/Canada, AGB increased from 9.0% to 44.0% and RYGB decreased from 85.0% to 51.0%. The absolute growth rate of bariatric surgery decreased over the past 5 years (135% increase), in comparison to the preceding 5 years (266% increase). Bariatric surgery continues to grow worldwide, but less so than in the past. The types of procedures are in flux; trends in Europe vs USA/Canada are diametrically opposed.

  2. WWT Ambassadors: Worldwide Telescope For Interactive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2012-01-01

    WorldWide Telescope (WWT) offers an unparalleled view of the world's store of online astronomical data. This free software weaves astronomical images from all wavelengths into an interface that resembles their natural context-the Sky-while offering deep opportunities to teach and learn the science behind the images. The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program (WWTA) is an outreach initiative run by researchers at Harvard University and Microsoft Research. WWT Ambassadors are experts on Astronomy and Physics who use WWT to educate the public about astronomy and science. Ambassadors and learners alike use WWT to create dynamic, interactive Tours of the Universe, which are shared in schools, public venues, and online. Ambassador-created Tours are being made freely available and will ultimately form a comprehensive learning resource for Astronomy and Astrophysics. In this poster, we present summary results of WWTA's work in 6th-grade classrooms, reaching 400 students over the past 2 years. The WWTA Pilot compared learning outcomes for 80 students who participated in WWTA and 70 students at the same school and grade who only used traditional learning materials. After the six-week unit, twice as many "WWT” as "non-WWT” students understand complex three dimensional orbital relationships; and tremendous gains are seen in student interest in science overall, and astronomy in particular. In anonymous written surveys, 90% of the 6th-graders described WWT as "awesome,” "cool,” or "a fun way to learn science,” and said they would recommend WWT to their best friend. We outline new plans to develop and field-test WWT-based interactive visualization labs that teach students standards-based middle school space science topics, and we describe the development of an online community that serves as a resource for Ambassadors, teachers, and students across the US and beyond. Learn more about WWTA at: wwtambassadors.org

  3. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  4. Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; Canani, Roberto Berni; Matamoros, Sebastien; Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Gaita, Marcello; Cerino, Pellegrino; Negri, Rossella; Greco, Luigi; Cani, Patrice D; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2015-11-01

    Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities.

  5. Factors affecting ultraviolet-A photon emission from β-irradiated human keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Le, M; Mothersill, C E; Seymour, C B; Ahmad, S B; Armstrong, A; Rainbow, A J; McNeill, F E

    2015-08-21

    The luminescence intensity of 340±5 nm photons emitted from HaCaT (human keratinocyte) cells was investigated using a single-photon-counting system during cellular exposure to (90)Y β-particles. Multiple factors were assessed to determine their influence upon the quantity and pattern of photon emission from β-irradiated cells. Exposure of 1 x 10(4) cells/5 mL to 703 μCi resulted in maximum UVA photoemission at 44.8 x 10(3)±2.5 x 10(3) counts per second (cps) from live HaCaT cells (background: 1-5 cps); a 16-fold increase above cell-free controls. Significant biophoton emission was achieved only upon stimulation and was also dependent upon presence of cells. UVA luminescence was measured for (90)Y activities 14 to 703 μCi where a positive relationship between photoemission and (90)Y activity was observed. Irradiation of live HaCaT cells plated at various densities produced a distinct pattern of emission whereby luminescence increased up to a maximum at 1 x 10(4) cells/5 mL and thereafter decreased. However, this result was not observed in the dead cell population. Both live and dead HaCaT cells were irradiated and were found to demonstrate different rates of photon emission at low β activities (⩽400 μCi). Dead cells exhibited greater photon emission rates than live cells which may be attributable to metabolic processes taking place to modulate the photoemissive effect. The results indicate that photon emission from HaCaT cells is perturbed by external stimulation, is dependent upon the activity of radiation delivered, the density of irradiated cells, and cell viability. It is postulated that biophoton emission may be modulated by a biological or metabolic process.

  6. Signatures of natural selection on genetic variants affecting complex human traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ge; Muglia, Louis J; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Akey, Joshua M; Williams, Scott M

    2013-12-01

    It has recently been hypothesized that polygenic adaptation, resulting in modest allele frequency changes at many loci, could be a major mechanism behind the adaptation of complex phenotypes in human populations. Here we leverage the large number of variants that have been identified through genome-wide association (GWA) studies to comprehensively study signatures of natural selection on genetic variants associated with complex traits. Using population differentiation based methods, such as FST and phylogenetic branch length analyses, we systematically examined nearly 1300 SNPs associated with 38 complex phenotypes. Instead of detecting selection signatures at individual variants, we aimed to identify combined evidence of natural selection by aggregating signals across many trait associated SNPs. Our results have revealed some general features of polygenic selection on complex traits associated variants. First, natural selection acting on standing variants associated with complex traits is a common phenomenon. Second, characteristics of selection for different polygenic traits vary both temporarily and geographically. Third, some studied traits (e.g. height and urate level) could have been the primary targets of selection, as indicated by the significant correlation between the effect sizes and the estimated strength of selection in the trait associated variants; however, for most traits, the allele frequency changes in trait associated variants might have been driven by the selection on other correlated phenotypes. Fourth, the changes in allele frequencies as a result of selection can be highly stochastic, such that, polygenic adaptation may accelerate differentiation in allele frequencies among populations, but generally does not produce predictable directional changes. Fifth, multiple mechanisms (pleiotropy, hitchhiking, etc) may act together to govern the changes in allele frequencies of genetic variants associated with complex traits.

  7. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Extraembryonic Tissues of Fetuses Affected by Monogenic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Spitalieri, Paola; Talarico, Rosa V; Botta, Annalisa; Murdocca, Michela; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Orlandi, Augusto; Giardina, Emiliano; Santoro, Massimo; Brancati, Francesco; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from an autologous extraembryonic fetal source is an innovative personalized regenerative technology that can transform own-self cells into embryonic stem-like ones. These cells are regarded as a promising candidate for cell-based therapy, as well as an ideal target for disease modeling and drug discovery. Thus, hiPSCs enable researchers to undertake studies for treating diseases or for future applications of in utero therapy. We used a polycistronic lentiviral vector (hSTEMCCA-loxP) encoding OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC genes and containing loxP sites, excisible by Cre recombinase, to reprogram patient-specific fetal cells derived from prenatal diagnosis for several genetic disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), β-thalassemia (β-Thal), lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as from wild-type (WT) fetal cells. Because cell types tested to create hiPSCs influence both the reprogramming process efficiency and the kinetics, we used chorionic villus (CV) and amniotic fluid (AF) cells, demonstrating how they represent an ideal cell resource for a more efficient generation of hiPSCs. The successful reprogramming of both CV and AF cells into hiPSCs was confirmed by specific morphological, molecular, and immunocytochemical markers and also by their teratogenic potential when inoculated in vivo. We further demonstrated the stability of reprogrammed cells over 10 and more passages and their capability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers, as well as into neural cells. These data suggest that hiPSCs-CV/AF can be considered a valid cellular model to accomplish pathogenesis studies and therapeutic applications.

  8. Factors affecting ultraviolet-A photon emission from β-irradiated human keratinocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, M.; Mothersill, C. E.; Seymour, C. B.; Ahmad, S. B.; Armstrong, A.; Rainbow, A. J.; McNeill, F. E.

    2015-08-01

    The luminescence intensity of 340+/- 5 nm photons emitted from HaCaT (human keratinocyte) cells was investigated using a single-photon-counting system during cellular exposure to 90Y β-particles. Multiple factors were assessed to determine their influence upon the quantity and pattern of photon emission from β-irradiated cells. Exposure of 1× {{10}4} cells/5 mL to 703 μCi resulted in maximum UVA photoemission at 44.8× {{10}3}+/- 2.5× {{10}3} counts per second (cps) from live HaCaT cells (background: 1-5 cps); a 16-fold increase above cell-free controls. Significant biophoton emission was achieved only upon stimulation and was also dependent upon presence of cells. UVA luminescence was measured for 90Y activities 14 to 703 μCi where a positive relationship between photoemission and 90Y activity was observed. Irradiation of live HaCaT cells plated at various densities produced a distinct pattern of emission whereby luminescence increased up to a maximum at 1× {{10}4} cells/5 mL and thereafter decreased. However, this result was not observed in the dead cell population. Both live and dead HaCaT cells were irradiated and were found to demonstrate different rates of photon emission at low β activities (⩽400 μCi). Dead cells exhibited greater photon emission rates than live cells which may be attributable to metabolic processes taking place to modulate the photoemissive effect. The results indicate that photon emission from HaCaT cells is perturbed by external stimulation, is dependent upon the activity of radiation delivered, the density of irradiated cells, and cell viability. It is postulated that biophoton emission may be modulated by a biological or metabolic process.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Infection Does Not Affect Human Immunodeficiency Virus Viral Load in Coinfected Rwandan Adults

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Plank, Rebeca M.; Lin, Nina; Goldman-Yassen, Adam; Ivan, Emil; Becerril, Carlos; Kemal, Kimdar; Heo, Moonseong; Keller, Marla J.; Mutimura, Eugene; Anastos, Kathryn; Daily, Johanna P.

    2014-01-01

    Background  Plasmodium falciparum infection has been reported to increase human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (VL), which can facilitate HIV transmission. We prospectively studied the impact of mild P falciparum coinfection on HIV VL in Rwanda. Methods  We measured plasma HIV VL at presentation with malaria infection and weekly for 4 weeks after artemether-lumefantrine treatment in Rwandan adults infected with HIV with P falciparum malaria. Regression analyses were used to examine associations between malaria infection and HIV VL changes. Samples with detectable virus underwent genotypic drug-resistance testing. Results  We enrolled 28 HIV-malaria coinfected patients and observed 27 of them for 5 weeks. Three patients (11%) were newly diagnosed with HIV. Acute P falciparum infection had no significant effect on HIV VL slope over 28 days of follow-up. Ten patients with VL <40 copies/mL at enrollment maintained viral suppression throughout. Seventeen patients had a detectable VL at enrollment including 9 (53%) who reported 100% adherence to ARVs; 3 of these had detectable genotypic drug resistance. Conclusions  Unlike studies from highly malaria-endemic areas, we did not identify an effect of P falciparum infection on HIV VL; therefore, malaria is not likely to increase HIV-transmission risk in our setting. However, routine HIV testing should be offered to adults presenting with acute malaria in Rwanda. Most importantly, we identified a large percentage of patients with detectable HIV VL despite antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Some of these patients had HIV genotypic drug resistance. Larger studies are needed to define the prevalence and factors associated with detectable HIV VL in patients prescribed ARVs in Rwanda. PMID:25734136

  10. Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A-549 ATCC Is Differentially Affected by Supranutritional Organic and Inorganic Selenium

    PubMed Central

    Flores Villavicencio, Lérida Liss; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Kornhauser-Araujo, Carlos; Mendoza-Garrido, M. Eugenia; de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Sabanero-López, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    The effects of organic and inorganic forms of selenium (Se) on human cells have been extensively studied for nutritional concentrations; however, to date, little is known about the potential toxicity at supranutritional levels. In the present study we determined the effects of sodium selenite (SSe) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cell growth and intracellular structures in lung cancer cells exposed at Se concentrations between 0 and 3 mM. Our results showed that SSe affected cell growth more rapidly than SeMet (24 h and 48 h, resp.). After 24 h of cells exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mM SSe, cell growth was reduced by 10, 50, and 60%, as compared to controls. After 48 h, nuclear fragmentation was evident in cells exposed to SSe, suggesting an induction to cell death. In contrast, SeMet did not affect cell proliferation, and the cells were phenotypically similar to controls. Microtubules and microfilaments structures were also affected by both Se compounds, again SSe being more toxic than SeMet. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential effects of organic and inorganic Se in supranutritional levels in lung cancer cells. PMID:25477771

  11. TGF-β stimulation in human and murine cells reveals commonly affected biological processes and pathways at transcription level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The TGF-β signaling pathway is a fundamental pathway in the living cell, which plays a key role in many central cellular processes. The complex and sometimes contradicting mechanisms by which TGF-β yields phenotypic effects are not yet completely understood. In this study we investigated and compared the transcriptional response profile of TGF-β1 stimulation in different cell types. For this purpose, extensive experiments are performed and time-course microarray data are generated in human and mouse parenchymal liver cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells and mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells at different time points. We applied a panel of bioinformatics methods on our data to uncover common patterns in the dynamic gene expression response in respective cells. Results Our analysis revealed a quite variable and multifaceted transcriptional response profile of TGF-β1 stimulation, which goes far beyond the well-characterized classical TGF-β1 signaling pathway. Nonetheless, we could identify several commonly affected processes and signaling pathways across cell types and species. In addition our analysis suggested an important role of the transcription factor EGR1, which appeared to have a conserved influence across cell-types and species. Validation via an independent dataset on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells largely confirmed our findings. Network analysis suggested explanations, how TGF-β1 stimulation could lead to the observed effects. Conclusions The analysis of dynamical transcriptional response to TGF-β treatment experiments in different human and murine cell systems revealed commonly affected biological processes and pathways, which could be linked to TGF-β1 via network analysis. This helps to gain insights about TGF-β pathway activities in these cell systems and its conserved interactions between the species and tissue types. PMID:24886091

  12. Are emotionally attached companion animal caregivers conscientious and neurotic? Factors that affect the human-companion animal relationship.

    PubMed

    Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership.

  13. Sodium orthovanadate affects growth of some human epithelial cancer cells (A549, HTB44, DU145).

    PubMed

    Klein, Andrzej; Holko, Przemyslaw; Ligeza, Janusz; Kordowiak, Anna M

    2008-01-01

    Within the concentration range of 1-20 microM, orthovanadate (Na3VO4) demonstrated a time and dose-dependent inhibition of autocrine growth of the human carcinoma cell lines A549 (lung), HTB44 (kidney) and DU145 (prostate), as compared to appropriate controls (without Na3VO4). The investigation was conducted by two methods: staining with N-hexa-methylpararosaniline (crystal violet=CV) or bromide3-(4,5-dimethyltio-azo-2)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazole (MTT). In 5, 10 and 20 microM of Na3VO4 in serum-free medium, the mean values of these two tests for A549 were approximately 40%, 45% or 65% as compared to the appropriate controls. HTB44 had the greatest opportunity (statistically insignificant) at lower vanadium concentrations (up to 10 microM), whereas at 20 microM growth inhibition of these cells was approximately 50% of the controls. DU145 showed approximately 33%, 65% and 98% growth inhibition for 5, 10 and 20 microM of Na3VO4, respectively Additionally, hypothetical curves obtained by a MANOVA test based on the CV results after 72 h incubation with Na3VO4 in serum-free medium, and an example of a time-dependent effect of Na3VO4 on A549 cells, were also presented. Sodium orthovanadate was also examined for its cytotoxic capabilities, especially its ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis; the results were compared with the effect of paclitaxel. The target cells were dyed by differential staining (HOECHST33258 and propidium iodide) after 3 h and 24 h (DU145) or 3 h and 72 h (A549) of incubation with the vanadium compound. Contrary to the two cancer cell lines (viable, apoptotic or necrotic in experimental conditions), the renal HTB44 cells were insensitive up to 15 microM Na3VO4 concentrations. After 3 h incubation with Na3VO4, both lung (A549) and prostate (DU145) cancer cells showed a slight but significant reduction in the percentage of viable cells, and an increased amount of apoptotic cells. In contrast to the lung cells, DU145 prostate cells after 24 h were more

  14. FINDbase: a worldwide database for genetic variation allele frequencies updated

    PubMed Central

    Georgitsi, Marianthi; Viennas, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Dimitris I.; Gkantouna, Vassiliki; van Baal, Sjozef; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Poulas, Konstantinos; Tzimas, Giannis; Patrinos, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of INherited Disorders database (FIND base; http://www.findbase.org) records frequencies of causative genetic variations worldwide. Database records include the population and ethnic group or geographical region, the disorder name and the related gene, accompanied by links to any related external resources and the genetic variation together with its frequency in that population. In addition to the regular data content updates, we report the following significant advances: (i) the systematic collection and thorough documentation of population/ethnic group-specific pharmacogenomic markers allele frequencies for 144 markers in 14 genes of pharmacogenomic interest from different classes of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, representing 150 populations and ethnic groups worldwide; (ii) the development of new data querying and visualization tools in the expanded FINDbase data collection, built around Microsoft’s PivotViewer software (http://www.getpivot.com), based on Microsoft Silverlight technology (http://www.silverlight.net) that facilitates querying of large data sets and visualizing the results; and (iii) the establishment of the first database journal, by affiliating FINDbase with Human Genomics and Proteomics, a new open-access scientific journal, which would serve as a prime example of a non-profit model for sustainable database funding. PMID:21113021

  15. World-wide projections for hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, B; Johnell, O; Kanis, J A

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the present and future incidence of hip fracture world-wide. From a survey of available data on current incidence, population trends and the secular changes in hip fracture risk, the numbers of hip fractures expected in 2025 and 2050 were computed. The total number of hip fractures in men and women in 1990 was estimated to be 338,000 and 917,000 respectively, a total of 1.26 million. Assuming no change in the age- and sex-specific incidence, the number of hip fractures is estimated to approximately double to 2.6 million by the year 2025, and 4.5 million by the year 2050. The percentage increase will be greater in men (310%) than in women (240%). With modest assumptions concerning secular trends, the number of hip fractures could range between 7.3 and 21.3 million by 2050. The major demographic changes will occur in Asia. In 1990, 26% of all hip fractures occurred in Asia, whereas this figure could rise to 37% in 2025 and to 45% in 2050. We conclude that the socioeconomic impact of hip fractures will increase markedly throughout the world, particularly in Asia, and that there is an urgent need to develop preventive strategies, particularly in the developing countries.

  16. Worldwide Phylogenetic Relationship of Avian Poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy. PMID:23408635

  17. Worldwide burden of colorectal cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Favoriti, Pasqualino; Carbone, Gabriele; Greco, Marco; Pirozzi, Felice; Pirozzi, Raffaele Emmanuele Maria; Corcione, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem, being the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth cause of cancer death worldwide. There is wide variation over time among the different geographic areas due to variable exposure to risk factors, introduction and uptake of screening as well as access to appropriate treatment services. Indeed, a large proportion of the disparities may be attributed to socioeconomic status. Although colorectal cancer continues to be a disease of the developed world, incidence rates have been rising in developing countries. Moreover, the global burden is expected to further increase due to the growth and aging of the population and because of the adoption of westernized behaviors and lifestyle. Colorectal cancer screening has been proven to greatly reduce mortality rates that have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries. Statistics on colorectal cancer occurrence are essential to develop targeted strategies that could alleviate the burden of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of incidence, mortality and survival rates for colorectal cancer as well as their geographic variations and temporal trends.

  18. Small world picture of worldwide seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Douglas S. R.; Papa, Andrés R. R.; Menezes, Ronaldo

    2014-08-01

    The understanding of long-distance relations between seismic activities has for long been of interest to seismologists and geologists. In this paper we have used data from the worldwide earthquake catalog for the period between 1972 and 2011 to generate a network of sites around the world for earthquakes with magnitude m≥4.5 in the Richter scale. After the network construction, we have analyzed the results under two viewpoints. First, in contrast to previous works, which have considered just small areas, we showed that the best fitting for networks of seismic events is not a pure power law, but a power law with exponential cutoff; we also have found that the global network presents small-world properties. Second, we have found that the time intervals between successive earthquakes have a cumulative probability distribution well fitted by nontraditional functional forms. The implications of our results are significant because they seem to indicate that seisms around the world are not independent. In this paper we provide evidence to support this argument.

  19. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  20. WWT Ambassadors: Worldwide Telescope For Interactive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Strom, S. E.; Udomprasert, P.; Valva, A.; Wong, C.

    2011-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program (WWTA) is new outreach initiative run by researchers at Harvard University, WGBH, and Microsoft Research. WWT Ambassadors are astrophysically-literate volunteers who are trained to be experts in using WWT as teaching tool. Ambassadors and learners alike use WWT to create dynamic, interactive Tours of the Universe, which are shared in schools, public venues, and online. Ambassador-created Tours are being made freely available and will ultimately form a comprehensive learning resource for Astronomy and Astrophysics. In this short talk, we will describe the results of a Pilot Study where volunteer Ambassadors helped sixth-graders use WWT during their six-week Astronomy unit. The results of the study compare learning outcomes for 80 students who participated in WWTA and 80 students who only used traditional learning materials. In the comparison, we find that, after the six-week unit: twice as many "WWT” as "non-WWT” students understand complex three dimensional orbital relationships; and tremendous gains are seen in student interest in science overall, astronomy in particular, and even in using "real” telescopes. Plans for WWTA include expansion to five US sites within the coming year, and ultimately to an International Program. Online materials will ultimately be available through several sites (at WGBH, Harvard and Microsoft), and will be integrated with existing online curriculum programs such as WGBH's Teachers’ Domain and Microsoft's Partners in Learning. More inormation is presently available at www.cfa.harvard.edu/WWTAmbassadors/.

  1. CMS centres worldwide: A new collaborative infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Lucas; Gottschalk, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC is establishing a global network of inter-connected 'CMS Centres' for controls, operations and monitoring. These support: (1) CMS data quality monitoring, detector calibrations, and analysis; and (2) computing operations for the processing, storage and distribution of CMS data. We describe the infrastructure, computing, software, and communications systems required to create an effective and affordable CMS Centre. We present our highly successful operations experiences with the major CMS Centres at CERN, Fermilab, and DESY during the LHC first beam data-taking and cosmic ray commissioning work. The status of the various centres already operating or under construction in Asia, Europe, Russia, South America, and the USA is also described. We emphasise the collaborative communications aspects. For example, virtual co-location of experts in CMS Centres Worldwide is achieved using high-quality permanently-running 'telepresence' video links. Generic Web-based tools have been developed and deployed for monitoring, control, display management and outreach.

  2. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide.

    PubMed

    Seebens, Hanno; Blackburn, Tim M; Dyer, Ellie E; Genovesi, Piero; Hulme, Philip E; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Pagad, Shyama; Pyšek, Petr; Winter, Marten; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bacher, Sven; Blasius, Bernd; Brundu, Giuseppe; Capinha, César; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Dawson, Wayne; Dullinger, Stefan; Fuentes, Nicol; Jäger, Heinke; Kartesz, John; Kenis, Marc; Kreft, Holger; Kühn, Ingolf; Lenzner, Bernd; Liebhold, Andrew; Mosena, Alexander; Moser, Dietmar; Nishino, Misako; Pearman, David; Pergl, Jan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Roques, Alain; Rorke, Stephanie; Rossinelli, Silvia; Roy, Helen E; Scalera, Riccardo; Schindler, Stefan; Štajerová, Kateřina; Tokarska-Guzik, Barbara; van Kleunen, Mark; Walker, Kevin; Weigelt, Patrick; Yamanaka, Takehiko; Essl, Franz

    2017-02-15

    Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970-2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of European settlers in the nineteenth century and to the acceleration in trade in the twentieth century. For all taxonomic groups, the increase in numbers of alien species does not show any sign of saturation and most taxa even show increases in the rate of first records over time. This highlights that past efforts to mitigate invasions have not been effective enough to keep up with increasing globalization.

  3. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Seebens, Hanno; Blackburn, Tim M.; Dyer, Ellie E.; Genovesi, Piero; Hulme, Philip E.; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Pagad, Shyama; Pyšek, Petr; Winter, Marten; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bacher, Sven; Blasius, Bernd; Brundu, Giuseppe; Capinha, César; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Dawson, Wayne; Dullinger, Stefan; Fuentes, Nicol; Jäger, Heinke; Kartesz, John; Kenis, Marc; Kreft, Holger; Kühn, Ingolf; Lenzner, Bernd; Liebhold, Andrew; Mosena, Alexander; Moser, Dietmar; Nishino, Misako; Pearman, David; Pergl, Jan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Roques, Alain; Rorke, Stephanie; Rossinelli, Silvia; Roy, Helen E.; Scalera, Riccardo; Schindler, Stefan; Štajerová, Kateřina; Tokarska-Guzik, Barbara; van Kleunen, Mark; Walker, Kevin; Weigelt, Patrick; Yamanaka, Takehiko; Essl, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970–2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of European settlers in the nineteenth century and to the acceleration in trade in the twentieth century. For all taxonomic groups, the increase in numbers of alien species does not show any sign of saturation and most taxa even show increases in the rate of first records over time. This highlights that past efforts to mitigate invasions have not been effective enough to keep up with increasing globalization. PMID:28198420

  4. A Mixture Reflecting Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Profiles Detected in Human Follicular Fluid Significantly Affects Steroidogenesis and Induces Oxidative Stress in a Female Human Granulosa Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Pavine L C; Wade, Mike; Goodyer, Cindy; Hales, Barbara F; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Brominated flame retardants are incorporated into consumer products to prevent flame propagation. These compounds leach into the domestic environment, resulting in chronic exposure. Pregnancy failure is associated with high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a major class of brominated flame retardants, in human follicular fluid, raising serious questions regarding their impact on female fertility. Our goal was to elucidate the effects of a mixture of PBDEs, similar to the profile found in human follicular fluid, on an immortalized human granulosa cell line, the KGN cell line. We showed that cell viability was altered and oxidative stress was induced as reflected by increased reactive oxygen species formation at 100 μM of the PBDE mixture. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that PBDE treatments of 1, 5, and 20 μM altered the expression of several genes involved in the reactive oxygen species signaling pathway. Significant dose-dependent reductions in progesterone and estradiol levels in the culture medium were measured after PBDE treatment; in parallel, the expression of genes involved in estradiol metabolism, namely CYP1A1, was up-regulated by 5 and 20 μM of the PBDE mixture. Treatment with 20 μM PBDE also increased the expression and secretion of the proinflammatory factor, IL-6, into the KGN cell culture medium. Our results demonstrate that PBDEs can alter human granulosa cell functions by inducing oxidative stress and disrupting steroidogenesis. These results indicate that PBDEs may be detrimental to ovarian functions and thus may adversely affect female reproductive health after chronic exposure.

  5. Affirmative Action Implications for Worldwide Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Lora

    This paper views the interrelatedness of political, economic, and family systems as they are being affected by the growing awareness of sex discrimination. The reduction in sex inequalities throughout the world, regardless of political or economic orientation, will necessitate a new perception of the woman's role in the family unit. The hypothesis…

  6. Do positive affectivity and boundary preferences matter for work-family enrichment? A study of human service workers.

    PubMed

    McNall, Laurel A; Scott, Lindsay D; Nicklin, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    More individuals than ever are managing work and family roles, but relatively little research has been done exploring whether boundary preferences help individuals benefit from multiple role memberships. Drawing on Greenhaus and Powell's (2006) work-family enrichment theory, along with Boundary Theory (Ashforth, Kreiner, & Fugate, 2000) and Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 2002), we explore the impact of personal characteristics as enablers of work-family enrichment, and in turn, work outcomes relevant to human service workers: turnover intentions and emotional exhaustion. In a 2-wave study of 161 human service employees, we found that individuals high in positive affectivity were more likely to experience both work-to-family and family to-work enrichment, whereas those with preferences toward integration were more likely to experience work-to-family enrichment (but not family to-work enrichment). In turn, work-to-family enrichment (but not family to-work enrichment) was related to lower turnover intentions and emotional exhaustion. Enrichment served as a mediating mechanism for only some of the hypothesized relationships. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  7. miR-186 affects the proliferation, invasion and migration of human gastric cancer by inhibition of Twist1

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chunhong; Sun, Deguang; Zhang, Liang; Song, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that miRNAs are dysregulated in a variety of cancers including gastric cancer (GC), and emerging as key oncogenes or tumor suppressors. In this study, qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of miR-186 in GC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and then more in-vitro experiments were used to investigate the role of miR-186 in GC cells. Here, we identified miR-186 was generally down-regulated in GC tissues; however, Twist1 was generally up-regulated in GC tissues. Moreover, miR-186 and Twist1 were associated with larger tumor size and advanced clinical stage of GC. In-vitro experiments demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of miR-186 inhibited GC cell proliferation, invasion and migration; however, inhibited expression of miR-186 enhanced cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Furthermore, the luciferase reporter assay demonstrated Twist1 as a direct target of miR-186. Finally, over-expression of Twist1 abrogated inhibitory impact of miR-186 on cell proliferation, invasion and migration. In conclusion, miR-186 affects the proliferation, invasion and migration of human gastric cancer by inhibition of Twist1, and could be a tumor suppressor in GC development. Thus, miR-186 may be served as a candidate prognostic biomarker and target for new therapies in human gastric cancer. PMID:27835599

  8. Worldwide research productivity in critical care medicine

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Argyris; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Rizos, Michael; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The number of publications and the impact factor of journals are accepted estimates of the quantity and quality of research productivity. The objective of the present study was to assess the worldwide scientific contribution in the field of critical care medicine. Method All research studies published between 1995 and 2003 in medical journals that were listed in the 2003 Science Citation Index (SCI®) of Journal Citation Reports under the subheading 'critical care' and also indexed in the PubMed database were reviewed in order to identify their geographical origin. Results Of 22,976 critical care publications in 14 medical journals, 17,630 originated from Western Europe and the USA (76.7%). A significant increase in the number of publications originated from Western European countries during the last 5 years of the study period was noticed. Scientific publications in critical care medicine increased significantly (25%) from 1995 to 2003, which was accompanied by an increase in the impact factor of the corresponding journals (47.4%). Canada and Japan had the better performance, based on the impact factor of journals. Conclusion Significant scientific progress in critical care research took place during the period of study (1995–2003). Leaders of research productivity (in terms of absolute numbers) were Western Europe and the USA. Publications originating from Western European countries increased significantly in quantity and quality over the study period. Articles originating from Canada, Japan, and the USA had the highest mean impact factor.. Canada was the leader in productivity when adjustments for gross domestic product and population were made. PMID:15987399

  9. Early neonatal death: A challenge worldwide.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Liisa; Gimeno, Ana; Parra-Llorca, Anna; Vento, Máximo

    2017-02-23

    Early neonatal death (ENND), defined as the death of a newborn between zero and seven days after birth, represents 73% of all postnatal deaths worldwide. Despite a 50% reduction in childhood mortality, reduction of ENND has significantly lagged behind other Millennium Developmental Goal achievements and is a growing contributor to overall mortality in children aged <5 years. The etiology of ENND is closely related to the level of a country's industrialization. Hence, prematurity and congenital anomalies are the leading causes in high-income countries. Furthermore, sudden unexpected early neonatal deaths (SUEND) and collapse have only recently been identified as relevant and often preventable causes of death. Concomitantly, perinatal-related events such as asphyxia and infections are extremely relevant in Africa, South East Asia, and Latin America and, together with prematurity, are the principal contributors to ENND. In high-income countries, according to current research evidence, survival may be improved by applying antenatal and perinatal therapies and immediate newborn resuscitation, as well as by centralizing at-risk deliveries to centers with appropriate expertise available around the clock. In addition, resources should be allocated to the close surveillance of newborn infants, especially during the first hours of life. Many of the conditions leading to ENND in low-income countries are preventable with relatively easy and cost-effective interventions such as contraception, vaccination of pregnant women, hygienic delivery at a hospital, training health care workers in resuscitation practices, simplified algorithms that allow for early detection of perinatal infections, and early initiation of breastfeeding and skin-to-skin care. The future is promising. As initiatives undertaken in previous decades have led to substantial reduction in childhood mortality, it is expected that new initiatives targeting the perinatal/neonatal periods are bound to reduce ENND and

  10. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  11. Growth status significantly affects the response of human lung cancer cells to antitumor polyamine-analogue exposure.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Diane L; Devereux, Wendy L; Hacker, Amy; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2002-08-01

    Human solid tumors frequently have a relatively small growth fraction,which interferes with the action of many chemotherapeutic agents that target actively cycling cells. Several polyamine analogues are currently being developed for clinical application against human solid tumors including N1,N11-bis(ethyl)norspermine. Therefore, an effort was made to examine the effects of growth rate on polyamine-analogue efficacy. Low growth fraction (LGF) cell cultures of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H157 were generated to partially mimic solid tumors with low mitotic indices. Log-phase cells were compared with LGF cells with respect to cell survival and biochemical effects after exposure to polyamine analogues. The results demonstrate generally that LGF NCI-H157 cells were sensitive to analogue treatment. However, the dose necessary to elicit a response in LGF cells was an order of magnitude higher than the dose needed in log-phase cells. Additionally, the biochemical effects of analogues were similar between log phase and LGF cells with regard to a down-regulation of polyamine biosynthesis as measured by ornithine decarboxylase activity and an increase in polyamine catabolism as indicated by an increase in spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. However, biochemical effects were less dramatic in the LGF cells than those observed in the log-phase cells. The overall results of these studies suggest that the growth status of solid tumors can significantly affect the response to antitumor polyamine analogues, and growth fraction must be considered in the continued development and use of the polyamine analogues.

  12. Wolf population dynamics in the U.S. Northern Rocky Mountains are affected by recruitment and human-caused mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gude, J.A.; Mitchell, M.S.; Russell, R.E.; Sime, C.A.; Bangs, E.E.; Mech, L.D.; Ream, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable analyses can help wildlife managers make good decisions, which are particularly critical for controversial decisions such as wolf (Canis lupus) harvest. Creel and Rotella (2010) recently predicted substantial population declines in Montana wolf populations due to harvest, in contrast to predictions made by Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP). We replicated their analyses considering only those years in which field monitoring was consistent, and we considered the effect of annual variation in recruitment on wolf population growth. Rather than assuming constant rates, we used model selection methods to evaluate and incorporate models of factors driving recruitment and human-caused mortality rates in wolf populations in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Using data from 27 area-years of intensive wolf monitoring, we show that variation in both recruitment and human-caused mortality affect annual wolf population growth rates and that human-caused mortality rates have increased with the sizes of wolf populations. We document that recruitment rates have decreased over time, and we speculate that rates have decreased with increasing population sizes and/or that the ability of current field resources to document recruitment rates has recently become less successful as the number of wolves in the region has increased. Estimates of positive wolf population growth in Montana from our top models are consistent with field observations and estimates previously made by MFWP for 2008-2010, whereas the predictions for declining wolf populations of Creel and Rotella (2010) are not. Familiarity with limitations of raw data, obtained first-hand or through consultation with scientists who collected the data, helps generate more reliable inferences and conclusions in analyses of publicly available datasets. Additionally, development of efficient monitoring methods for wolves is a pressing need, so that analyses such as ours will be possible in future years when fewer resources

  13. Generation of a Genome Scale Lentiviral Vector Library for EF1α Promoter-Driven Expression of Human ORFs and Identification of Human Genes Affecting Viral Titer

    PubMed Central

    Škalamera, Dubravka; Dahmer, Mareike; Purdon, Amy S.; Wilson, Benjamin M.; Ranall, Max V.; Blumenthal, Antje; Gabrielli, Brian; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The bottleneck in elucidating gene function through high-throughput gain-of-function genome screening is the limited availability of comprehensive libraries for gene overexpression. Lentiviral vectors are the most versatile and widely used vehicles for gene expression in mammalian cells. Lentiviral supernatant libraries for genome screening are commonly generated in the HEK293T cell line, yet very little is known about the effect of introduced sequences on the produced viral titer, which we have shown to be gene dependent. We have generated an arrayed lentiviral vector library for the expression of 17,030 human proteins by using the GATEWAY® cloning system to transfer ORFs from the Mammalian Gene Collection into an EF1alpha promoter-dependent lentiviral expression vector. This promoter was chosen instead of the more potent and widely used CMV promoter, because it is less prone to silencing and provides more stable long term expression. The arrayed lentiviral clones were used to generate viral supernatant by packaging in the HEK293T cell line. The efficiency of transfection and virus production was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of IRES driven GFP, co-expressed with the ORFs. More than 90% of cloned ORFs produced sufficient virus for downstream screening applications. We identified genes which consistently produced very high or very low viral titer. Supernatants from select clones that were either high or low virus producers were tested on a range of cell lines. Some of the low virus producers, including two previously uncharacterized proteins were cytotoxic to HEK293T cells. The library we have constructed presents a powerful resource for high-throughput gain-of-function screening of the human genome and drug-target discovery. Identification of human genes that affect lentivirus production may lead to improved technology for gene expression using lentiviral vectors. PMID:23251614

  14. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Does Not Affect MicroRNA Expression When Suppressing Human Th17 Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Liang, Zibin; Kuang, Ying; Jia, Fujie; Yang, Yaqi; Kang, Miaomiao; Xie, Muke; Li, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is an import regulator of T helper 17 (Th17) differentiation, but our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. In the present study, we aimed to detect the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) during human Th17 differentiation and evaluate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the bioactive form of vitamin D, on Th17 differentiation and miRNA expression. Material/Methods We cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro and activated them with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies in the presence of Th17-promoting cytokines interleukin (IL)-23, IL-1β, TGF-β1, and IL-6 for 72 hours. 1,25(OH)2D3 was added to the medium at a final concentration of 100 nM on day 0. The production of IL-17A in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression levels of miRNAs during Th17 differentiation were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Six miRNAs were found to be dysregulated during human Th17 differentiation. Of these miRNAs, hsa-miR-155 was significantly up-regulated (median fold change: 3.61, P<0.05), whereas hsa-miR-20b, hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-181a, hsa-miR-210, and hsa-miR-301a were significantly down-regulated (median fold change: 0.44, 0.37, 0.18, 0.15, and 0.26, respectively, P<0.05). 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment significantly decreased IL-17A production (median [interquartile range], 745.7 [473.5] pg/mL vs. 2535.4 [2153.3] pg/mL, P<0.05). However, expression of these miRNAs was not changed after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Conclusions 1,25(OH)2D3 suppressed human Th17 differentiation without affecting miRNA expression. PMID:28133358

  15. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Vancouver THE SUN, 18 Oct 85) 19 20 Mitel Centralizes PBX Switch Management Units (Lawrence Surtees; Toronto THE GLOBE AND MAIL, 16 Nov 85) Nortel...cellu- lar telephone network in the zone has run into snags. CTS general . manager Peter Hutton said yesterday the deal has been put on hold until...basic human needs," Dougan’s message said. Girmaw Ingidayehu, general manager of the Ethiopian Telecommunications Authority noted that developing

  16. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  17. Progress toward polio eradication--Worldwide, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Moturi, Edna K; Porter, Kimberly A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Jafari, Hamid

    2014-05-30

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide, and in 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of global polio eradication a programmatic emergency for public health. By 2013, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by >99% since 1988, and only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2013-2014 and updates previous reports. In 2013, a total of 416 WPV cases were reported globally from eight countries, an 86% increase from the 223 WPV cases reported from five countries in 2012. This upsurge in 2013 was caused by a 60% increase in WPV cases detected in Pakistan, and by outbreaks in five previously polio-free countries resulting from international spread of WPV. In 2014, as of May 20, a total of 82 WPV cases had been reported worldwide, compared with 34 cases during the same period in 2013. Polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) were detected in eight countries in 2013 and in two countries so far in 2014. To achieve polio eradication in the near future, further efforts are needed to 1) address health worker safety concerns in areas of armed conflict in priority countries, 2) to prevent further spread of WPV and new outbreaks after importation into polio-free countries, and 3) to strengthen surveillance globally. Based on the international spread of WPV to date in 2014, the WHO Director General has issued temporary recommendations to reduce further international exportation of WPV through vaccination of persons traveling from currently polio-affected countries.

  18. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  19. Sharka epidemiology and worldwide management strategies: learning lessons to optimize disease control in perennial plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plant epidemics that cause major economic losses cannot be controlled with pesticides. Among them, sharka epidemics severely affect prunus trees worldwide. Its causal agent, Plum pox virus (PPV;, genus Potyvirus), has been classified as a quarantine pathogen in numerous countries. As a result, ...

  20. The obesity epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M; Doak, C M

    1998-04-01

    Obesity is not just a disease of developed nations. Obesity levels in some lower-income and transitional countries are as high as or higher than those reported for the United States and other developed countries, and those levels are increasing rapidly. Shifts in diet and activity are consistent with these changes, but little systematic work has been done to understand all the factors contributing to these high levels. The goal of this review is to provide an understanding of the patterns and trends of obesity around the world and some of the major forces affecting these trends. Several nationally representative and nationwide surveys are discussed.