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Sample records for affecting irradiation-induced volume

  1. Ultraviolet Irradiation-Induced Volume Alteration of Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to understand how extracellular stresses, such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, affect corneal epithelial cells. Cell volume changes, damage to corneal epithelial integrity, and cellular responses were assessed after exposure to UVC stresses. Methods Primary human and rabbit corneal epithelial cells were exposed to UVC light in culture conditions. Ultraviolet C irradiation–induced changes in cell size and volume were measured by real-time microscopy and self-quenching of the fluorescent dye calcein, respectively. The effects of UVC irradiation on Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and FAK-dependent integrin signaling were detected by ELISA, immunoblotting, and immunostaining. Results Ultraviolet C irradiation induced both size and volume shifts in human and rabbit corneal epithelial cells. Ultraviolet C irradiation-induced decrease of cell volume elicited activation of Src and FAK, characterized by increased phosphorylations of SrcY416, FAKY397, and FAKY925. In addition, immunostaining studies showed UVC irradiation–induced increases in phosphorylation of FAK and formation of integrin β5 clustering. Application of Kv channel blockers, including 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), α-DTX, and depressing substance-1 (BDS-1), effectively suppressed UVC irradiation–induced cell volume changes, and subsequently inhibited UVC irradiation–induced phosphorylation of Src/FAK, and formation of integrin β5 clustering, suggesting UVC irradiation–induced volume changes and Src/FAK activation. Hyperosmotic pressure–induced volume decreases were measured in comparison with effects of UVC irradiation on volume and Src/FAK activation. However, Kv channel blocker, 4-AP, had no effect on hyperosmotic pressure–induced responses. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that UVC irradiation–induced decreases in cell volume lead to Src/FAK activation due to a rapid loss of K ions through membrane Kv channels. PMID:27978555

  2. Trait positive affect is associated with hippocampal volume and change in caudate volume across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Byrne, Michelle L; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-03-01

    Trait positive affect (PA) in childhood confers both risk and resilience to psychological and behavioral difficulties in adolescence, although explanations for this association are lacking. Neurodevelopment in key areas associated with positive affect is ongoing throughout adolescence, and is likely to be related to the increased incidence of disorders of positive affect during this period of development. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationship between trait indices of PA and brain development in subcortical reward regions during early to mid-adolescence in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 89 (46 male, 43 female) adolescents participated in magnetic resonance imaging assessments during both early and mid-adolescence (mean age at baseline = 12.6 years, SD = 0.45; mean follow-up period = 3.78 years, SD = 0.21) and also completed self-report measures of trait positive and negative affect (at baseline). To examine the specificity of these effects, the relation between negative affect and brain development was also examined. The degree of volume reduction in the right caudate over time was predicted by PA. Independent of time, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with higher PA, and negative affect was associated with smaller left amygdala volume. The moderating effect of negative affect on the development of the left caudate varied as a function of lifetime psychiatric history. These findings suggest that early to mid-adolescence is an important period whereby neurodevelopmental processes may underlie key phenotypes conferring both risk and resilience for emotional and behavioral difficulties later in life.

  3. Postnatal irradiation-induced hippocampal neuropathology, cognitive impairment and aging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2017-04-01

    Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging. Fractionated irradiation also reduces neurogenesis. Furthermore, irradiation induces hippocampal neuronal loss in CA1 and CA3 areas, neuroinflammation and reduces gliogenesis. The hippocampal neurovascular niche and the total number of microvessels are also changed after radiation exposures. Each or combination of these pathological changes may cause cognitive impairment and aging. Interestingly, acute irradiation of aged brain with a certain amount of radiation has also been reported to induce brain hormesis or neurogenesis. At molecular levels, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, neural growth factors, neurotransmitters, their receptors and signal transduction systems, reactive oxygen species are involved in radiation-induced adverse effect on brain development and functions. Further study at different omics levels after low dose/dose rate irradiation may not only unravel the mechanisms of radiation-induced adverse brain effect or hormesis, but also provide clues for detection or diagnosis of radiation exposure and for therapeutic approaches to effectively prevent radiation-induced cognitive impairment and aging. Investigation focusing on radiation-induced changes of critical brain development events may reveal many previously unknown adverse effects.

  4. Lithium increases proliferation of hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells and rescues irradiation-induced cell cycle arrest in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Giulia; Di Martino, Elena; Omelyanenko, Anna; Andäng, Michael; Delle, Ulla; Elmroth, Kecke; Blomgren, Klas

    2015-11-10

    Radiotherapy in children causes debilitating cognitive decline, partly linked to impaired neurogenesis. Irradiation targets primarily cancer cells but also endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) leading to cell death or cell cycle arrest. Here we evaluated the effects of lithium on proliferation, cell cycle and DNA damage after irradiation of young NSPCs in vitro.NSPCs were treated with 1 or 3 mM LiCl and we investigated proliferation capacity (neurosphere volume and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation). Using flow cytometry, we analysed apoptosis (annexin V), cell cycle (propidium iodide) and DNA damage (γH2AX) after irradiation (3.5 Gy) of lithium-treated NSPCs.Lithium increased BrdU incorporation and, dose-dependently, the number of cells in replicative phase as well as neurosphere growth. Irradiation induced cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2/M phases. Treatment with 3 mM LiCl was sufficient to increase NSPCs in S phase, boost neurosphere growth and reduce DNA damage. Lithium did not affect the levels of apoptosis, suggesting that it does not rescue NSPCs committed to apoptosis due to accumulated DNA damage.Lithium is a very promising candidate for protection of the juvenile brain from radiotherapy and for its potential to thereby improve the quality of life for those children who survive their cancer.

  5. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  6. Early stages of irradiation induced dislocations in urania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, A.; Onofri, C.; Van Brutzel, L.; Sabathier, C.; Dorosh, O.; Jagielski, J.

    2016-10-01

    The early stages of nucleation and growth of dislocations by irradiation in urania is clarified based on the combination of experiments and atomistic calculations. It is established that irradiation induced dislocations follow a five stage process: (i) point defects are first created by irradiation, (ii) they aggregate into clusters, (iii) from which nucleate Frank loops, (iv) which transform into unfaulted loops via Shockley that in turn grow, and (v) finally reorganize into forest dislocations. Stages (i)-(iii) participate in the lattice expansion while the onset of lattice contraction starts with stage (iv), i.e., when unfaulted loops nucleate. Irradiation induced dislocations operate in the spontaneous recombination regime, to be opposed to the thermal diffusion regime. Body of arguments collaborates to this statement, the main one is the comparison between characteristic distances estimated from the dose rate (Vat/(K0×τ ) ) 1/3 and from the diffusion coefficient (D×τ ) 1/2 . Such a comparison identifies materials under irradiation as belonging either into the recombination regime or not.

  7. Prenatal irradiation-induced brain neuropathology and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Ren, Bo Xu; Tang, Feng Ru

    2017-01-01

    Embryo/fetus is much more radiosensitive than neonatal and adult human being. The main potential effects of pre-natal radiation exposure on the human brain include growth retardation, small head/brain size, mental retardation, neocortical ectopias, callosal agenesis and brain tumor which may result in a lifetime poor quality of life. The patterns of prenatal radiation-induced effects are dependent not only on the stages of fetal development, the sensitivity of tissues and organs, but also on radiation sources, doses, dose rates. With the increased use of low dose radiation for diagnostic or radiotherapeutic purposes in recent years, combined with postnatal negative health effect after prenatal radiation exposure to fallout of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, the great anxiety and unnecessary termination of pregnancies after the nuclear disaster, there is a growing concern about the health effect of radiological examinations or therapies in pregnant women. In this paper, we reviewed current research progresses on pre-natal ionizing irradiation-induced abnormal brain structure changes. Subsequent postnatal neuropsychological and neurological diseases were provided. Relationship between irradiation and brain aging was briefly mentioned. The relevant molecular mechanisms were also discussed. Future research directions were proposed at the end of this paper. With limited human data available, we hoped that systematical review of animal data could relight research interests on prenatal low dose/dose rate irradiation-induced brain microanatomical changes and subsequent neurological and neuropsychological disorders.

  8. Proton irradiation induced defects in GaN: Rutherford backscattering and thermally stimulated current studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Nishikata, N.; Kamioka, K.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.

    2016-03-01

    The proton irradiation induced defects in GaN are studied by combining elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), thermally stimulated current (TSC), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) measurements. The proton irradiation (peak concentration: 1.0 × 1015 cm-2) into GaN films with a thickness of 3 μm is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The proton concentration by a TRIM simulation is maximum at 3600 nm in depth, which means that the proton beam almost passes through the GaN film. The carrier concentration decreases three orders of magnitude to 1015 cm-3 by the proton irradiation, suggesting the existence of the proton irradiation-induced defects. The ERDA measurements using the 1.5 MeV helium beam can evaluate hydrogen from the surface to ∼300 nm. The hydrogen concentration at ∼220 nm is ∼8.3 × 1013 cm-2 and ∼1.0 × 1014 cm-2 for un-irradiated and as-irradiated samples, respectively, suggesting that electrical properties are almost not affected by hydrogen. TSC measurements show a broad spectrum at around 110 K which can be divided into three traps, P1 (ionization energy 173 meV), P2 (251 meV), and P3 (330 meV). The peak intensity of P1 is much larger than that of P2 and P3. These traps are related to the N vacancy and/or complex involving N vacancy (P1), neutral Ga vacancy (VGa) (P2), and complex involving VGa (P3). The Ga displacement concentration evaluated by RBS measurements is 1.75 × 1019 cm-3 corresponding to 1/1000 of the Ga concentration in GaN. The observed Ga displacement may be origins of P2 and P3 traps.

  9. Free Volume Related Fluorescence Properties of Electron Irradiated Chalcone Doped PMMA Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindrachary, Ismayil V.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Harisha, A.; Praveena, S. D.

    2011-07-15

    Effect of electron irradiation on free volume related fluorescence properties of chalcone doped Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) composite films have been studied using Positron Annihilation and Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. In this polymer composite, enhancement of fluorescence at lower doses and reduction at higher doses has been observed under electron irradiation. From Positron annihilation studies suggests that at lower doses of irradiation induced crosslinking which affect the free volume properties and inturn hinders the chalcone molecular rotation. At higher doses chain scission process affect matrix relaxation. Under the restricted condition the chromophore molecules likely to emit enhanced fluorescence and its mobility is directly related to the free volume around it.

  10. Irradiation-induced amorphization of AlPO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeram, A. N.; Hobbs, L. W.; Bordes, N.; Ewing, R. C.

    1996-08-01

    AlPO 4, in the mineral form berlinite, is isostructural with α-quartz. We have investigated the irradiation-induced amorphization of hydrothermally-grown berlinite and found that — like quartz and other silicas but unlike most other phosphates — it undergoes solid-state radiolyis, with an efficiency fifty times that of quartz at room temperature, and amorphizes at an absorbed ionization dose of about 1 GGy. High-resolution TEM revealed that — unlike quartz in which small amorphous inclusions nucleate — electron-irradiated AlPO 4 proceeds uniformly to an aperiodic state, much as do cristobalite and tridymite, and 20 times faster. It was found also to amorphize under 1.5 MeV Kr + ion irradiation at a collisional energy density (10 eV/atom) similar to that for quartz and in keeping with the degree of structural freedom afforded by its tetrahedral network structure. The critical ion fluence for amorphization was found to increase by a factor of 5 between 300 and 600 K. Radial distribution functions derived from energy-filtered electron diffraction patterns from regions amorphized by electrons resemble those of electron-amorphized quartz with some additional features.

  11. Increased EZH2 and decreased osteoblastogenesis during local irradiation-induced bone loss in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Changjun; Li, Changwei; Yang, Kai; Kang, Hui; Xu, Xiaoya; Xu, Xiangyang; Deng, Lianfu

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat cancer patients but exhibits adverse effects, including insufficiency fractures and bone loss. Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Here, we reported local bone changes after single-dose exposure to 137CS irradiation in rats. Femur bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone volume in the tibia were significantly decreased at 12 weeks after irradiation. Micro-CT results showed that tBMD, Tb.h and Tb.N were also significantly reduced at 12 weeks after irradiation exposure. ALP-positive OB.S/BS was decreased by 42.3% at 2 weeks after irradiation and was decreased by 50.8% at 12 weeks after exposure. In contrast to the decreased expression of Runx2 and BMP2, we found EZH2 expression was significantly increased at 2 weeks after single-dose 137CS irradiation in BMSCs. Together, our results demonstrated that single-dose 137CS irradiation induces BMD loss and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture in the rat skeleton. Furthermore, EZH2 expression increased and osteoblastogenesis decreased after irradiation. The underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:27499068

  12. Does temporary socket removal affect residual limb fluid volume of trans-tibial amputees?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Hartley, TL; Phillips, RH; Ciol, MA; Hafner, BJ; Allyn, KJ; Harrison, DS

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower-limb prosthesis users typically experience residual limb volume losses over the course of the day that can detrimentally affect socket fit. Objectives To determine if temporarily doffing the prosthesis encouraged residual limb fluid volume recovery and if the recovered fluid was maintained. Study Design Experimental design. Methods Residual limb fluid volume was monitored on sixteen participants in three test sessions each. Participants conducted six cycles of resting/standing/walking. Between the third and fourth cycles, participants sat for 30 minutes with the prosthesis and liner: donned (ON), the prosthesis doffed but the liner donned (LINER), or the prosthesis and liner doffed (OFF). Results Percentage fluid volume gain and retention were greatest for the OFF condition followed by the LINER condition. Participants experienced fluid volume losses for the ON condition. Conclusion Doffing the prosthesis and/or liner during rest improved residual limb fluid volume retention compared with leaving the prosthesis and liner donned. Clinical Relevance Practitioners should advise patients who undergo high daily limb volume losses to consider temporarily doffing their prosthesis. Fluid volume retention during subsequent activity will be highest if both the prosthesis and liner are doffed. PMID:25710944

  13. Synchrotron microbeam irradiation induces neutrophil infiltration, thrombocyte attachment and selective vascular damage in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Brönnimann, Daniel; Bouchet, Audrey; Schneider, Christoph; Potez, Marine; Serduc, Raphaël; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Graber, Werner; von Gunten, Stephan; Laissue, Jean Albert; Djonov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was the visualizing the vascular damage and acute inflammatory response to micro- and minibeam irradiation in vivo. Microbeam (MRT) and minibeam radiation therapies (MBRT) are tumor treatment approaches of potential clinical relevance, both consisting of parallel X-ray beams and allowing the delivery of thousands of Grays within tumors. We compared the effects of microbeams (25–100 μm wide) and minibeams (200–800 μm wide) on vasculature, inflammation and surrounding tissue changes during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration in vivo. Microbeam irradiation triggered an acute inflammatory response restricted to the regenerating tissue. Six hours post irradiation (6 hpi), it was infiltrated by neutrophils and fli1a+ thrombocytes adhered to the cell wall locally in the beam path. The mature tissue was not affected by microbeam irradiation. In contrast, minibeam irradiation efficiently damaged the immature tissue at 6 hpi and damaged both the mature and immature tissue at 48 hpi. We demonstrate that vascular damage, inflammatory processes and cellular toxicity depend on the beam width and the stage of tissue maturation. Minibeam irradiation did not differentiate between mature and immature tissue. In contrast, all irradiation-induced effects of the microbeams were restricted to the rapidly growing immature tissue, indicating that microbeam irradiation could be a promising tumor treatment tool. PMID:27640676

  14. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  15. Parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify physical parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. [Methods] Eighteen patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Expiratory abdominal compression was performed on patients lying in a supine position. The abdomen above the navel was vertically compressed in synchronization with expiration and released with inspiration. We measured the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Results] The mean tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was higher than that at rest (430.6 ± 127.1 mL vs. 344.0 ± 94.3 mL). The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was correlated with weight, days of ventilator support, dynamic compliance and abdominal expansion. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that weight (β = 0.499), dynamic compliance (β = 0.387), and abdominal expansion (β = 0.365) were factors contributing to the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Conclusion] Expiratory abdominal compression increased the tidal volume in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was influenced by each of the pulmonary conditions and the physical characteristics. PMID:26311947

  16. RhNRG-1β Protects the Myocardium against Irradiation-Induced Damage via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gu, Anxin; Jie, Yamin; Sun, Liang; Zhao, Shuping; E, Mingyan; You, Qingshan

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), which is a serious side effect of the radiotherapy applied for various tumors due to the inevitable irradiation of the heart, cannot be treated effectively using current clinical therapies. Here, we demonstrated that rhNRG-1β, an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like protein, protects myocardium tissue against irradiation-induced damage and preserves cardiac function. rhNRG-1β effectively ameliorated irradiation-induced myocardial nuclear damage in both cultured adult rat-derived cardiomyocytes and rat myocardium tissue via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. By activating ErbB2, rhNRG-1β maintained mitochondrial integrity, ATP production, respiratory chain function and the Krebs cycle status in irradiated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the protection of irradiated cardiomyocytes and myocardium tissue by rhNRG-1β was at least partly mediated by the activation of the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Long-term observations further showed that rhNRG-1β administered in the peri-irradiation period exerts continuous protective effects on cardiac pump function, the myocardial energy metabolism, cardiomyocyte volume and interstitial fibrosis in the rats receiving radiation via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. Our findings indicate that rhNRG-1β can protect the myocardium against irradiation-induced damage and preserve cardiac function via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  17. Variations in cereal volume affect the amount selected and eaten for breakfast.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J; Meengs, Jennifer S; Roe, Liane S

    2014-09-01

    Food volume could influence both the portions that people take and the amount that they eat, but these effects have had little investigation. The influence of food volume was tested by systematically reducing the flake size of a breakfast cereal so that the cereal was more compact and the same weight filled a smaller volume. In a crossover design, 41 adults ate cereal for breakfast once a week for 4 weeks during 2011 and 2012. The cereal was either standard wheat flakes or the same cereal crushed to reduce the volume to 80%, 60%, or 40% of the standard. A constant weight of cereal was provided in an opaque container and participants poured the amount they wanted into a bowl, added fat-free milk and noncalorie sweetener as desired, and consumed as much as they wanted. Results from a mixed linear model showed that as flake size was reduced, subjects poured a smaller volume of cereal, but still took a greater amount by weight and energy content (both P values <0.0001). Despite these differences, subjects estimated that they had taken a similar number of calories of all versions of the cereal. They ate most of the cereal they took, so as flake size was reduced, breakfast energy intake increased from a mean±standard error of the mean of 286±18 kcal to 358±19 kcal, an increase of a mean±standard error of the mean 34%±7% (P<0.0001). These findings demonstrate that variations in food volume associated with the size of a food's individual pieces affect the portion served, which in turn affects energy intake.

  18. Influence of DGKH variants on amygdala volume in patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kittel-Schneider, S; Wobrock, T; Scherk, H; Schneider-Axmann, T; Trost, S; Zilles, D; Wolf, C; Schmitt, A; Malchow, B; Hasan, A; Backens, M; Reith, W; Falkai, P; Gruber, O; Reif, A

    2015-03-01

    The diacylglycerol kinase eta (DGKH) gene, first identified in a genome-wide association study, is one of the few replicated risk genes of bipolar affective disorder (BD). Following initial positive studies, it not only was found to be associated with BD but also implicated in the etiology of other psychiatric disorders featuring affective symptoms, rendering DGKH a cross-disorder risk gene. However, the (patho-)physiological role of the encoded enzyme is still elusive. In the present study, we investigated primarily the influence of a risk haplotype on amygdala volume in patients suffering from schizophrenia or BD as well as healthy controls and four single nucleotide polymorphisms conveying risk. There was a significant association of the DGKH risk haplotype with increased amygdala volume in BD, but not in schizophrenia or healthy controls. These findings add to the notion of a role of DGKH in the pathogenesis of BD.

  19. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rat skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-04-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B) and schisandrin C (Sch C), but not schisandrin A and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate, protected rat skin tissue against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury, as evidenced by a reversal of solar irradiation-induced changes in cellular reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde production. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production in rat skin microsomes. Taken together, Sch B or Sch C, by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent eliciting of a glutathione antioxidant response, may prevent photo-aging of skin.

  20. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hee Jin; Lee, Eun-Mi; Nguyen, Long Duy; Shim, Jaekyung; Song, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis.

  1. Irradiation induced structural change in Mo2Zr intermetallic phase

    DOE PAGES

    Gan, J.; Keiser, Jr., D. D.; Miller, B. D.; ...

    2016-05-14

    The Mo2Zr phase has been identified as a major interaction product at the interface of U-10Mo and Zr. Transmission electron microscopy in-situ irradiation with Kr ions at 200 °C with doses up to 2.0E+16 ions/cm2 was carried out to investigate the radiation stability of the Mo2Zr. The Mo2Zr undergoes a radiation-induced structural change, from a large cubic (cF24) to a small cubic (cI2), along with an estimated 11.2% volume contraction without changing its composition. The structural change begins at irradiation dose below 1.0E+14 ions/cm2. Furthermore, the transformed Mo2Zr phase demonstrates exceptional radiation tolerance with the development of dislocations without bubblemore » formation.« less

  2. Ion-irradiation-induced hardening in Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunn, J. D.; Lee, E. H.; Byun, T. S.; Mansur, L. K.

    2001-07-01

    Inconel 718 is a material under consideration for areas in the target region of the spallation neutron source (SNS), now under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. In these positions, displacement damage from protons and neutrons will affect the mechanical properties. In addition, significant amounts of helium and hydrogen will build up in the material due to transmutation reactions. Nanoindentation measurements of solution-annealed (SA) Inconel 718 specimens, implanted with Fe-, He-, and H-ions to simulate SNS target radiation conditions, have shown that hardening occurs due to ion-induced displacement damage as well as due to the build-up of helium bubbles in the irradiated layer. Precipitation-hardened (PH) Inconel 718 also exhibited hardening by helium build-up but showed softening as a function of displacement damage due to dissolution of the γ ' and γ″ precipitates.

  3. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Is hippocampal volume affected by specialization for food hoarding in birds?

    PubMed

    Brodin, Anders; Lundborg, Ken

    2003-08-07

    The hypothesis that spatial-memory specialization affects the size of the hippocampus has become widely accepted among scientists. The hypothesis comes from studies on birds primarily in two families, the Paridae (tits, titmice and chickadees) and the Corvidae (crows, nutcrackers, jays, etc.). Many species in these families store food and rely on spatial memory to relocate the cached items. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is thought to be important for memory. Several studies report that hoarding species in these families possess larger hippocampi than non-hoarding relatives, and that species classified as large-scale hoarders have larger hippocampi than less specialized hoarders. We have investigated the largest dataset on hippocampus size and food-hoarding behaviour in these families so far but did not find a significant correlation between food-hoarding specialization and hippocampal volume. The occurrence of such an effect in earlier studies may depend on differences in the estimation of hippocampal volumes or difficulties in categorizing the degree of specialization for hoarding or both. To control for discrepancies in measurement methods we made our own estimates of hippocampal volumes in 16 individuals of four species that have been included in previous studies. Our estimates agreed closely with previous ones, suggesting that measurement methods are sufficiently consistent. Instead, the main reasons that previous studies have found an effect where we did not are difficulties in assessing the degree of hoarding specialization and the fact that smaller subsets of species were compared than in our study. Our results show that a correlation between food-hoarding specialization and hippocampal volume cannot be claimed on the basis of present data in these families.

  5. Irradiation-induced embrittlement of a 2.25Cr1Mo steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.-H.; Faulkner, R. G.; Flewitt, P. E. J.; Smith, R. F.; Marmy, P.; Victoria, M.

    2000-07-01

    Irradiation-induced embrittlement of a 2.25Cr1Mo is investigated by means of small punch testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) determined by the small punch test is much lower than that determined by the standard Charpy test. There are some irradiation-induced embrittlement effects after the steel is irradiated at about 270°C for 46 days with a neutron dose rate of 1.05×10 -8 dpa s -1 and at about 400°C for 86 days with a neutron dose rate of 1.75×10 -8 dpa s -1. In addition, there is some temper embrittlement after the steel is aged at about 400°C for 86 days.

  6. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Po Yee; Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-06-01

    The effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) and its analogs on solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury were examined in BJ human fibroblasts. Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C) increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and protected against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury. The photoprotection was paralleled by decreases in the elastases-type protease activity and matrix-metalloproteinases-1 expression in solar-irradiated fibroblasts. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production. The results suggest that by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B or Sch C may offer the prospect of preventing skin photo-aging.

  7. Irradiation-Induced Thermal Effects in Alloyed Metal Fuel of Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, F. N.; Nikitin, O. N.; Kuzmin, S. V.; Belyaeva, A. V.; Gilmutdinov, I. F.; Grin, P. I.; Zhemkov, I. Yu

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studying alloyed metal fuel after irradiation in a fast reactor. Determined is the mechanism of fuel irradiation swelling, mechanical interaction between fuel and cladding, and distribution of fission products. Experience gained in fuel properties and behavior under irradiation as well as in irradiation-induced thermal effects occurred in alloyed metal fuel provides for a fuel pin design to have a burnup not less than 20% h. a.

  8. Naringenin Inhibits UVB Irradiation-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Skin of Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Barbosa, Décio S; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-24

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause inflammation- and oxidative-stress-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Naringenin (1) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are still not known. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential of naringenin to mitigate UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in the skin of hairless mice. Skin edema, myeloperoxidase (neutrophil marker) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, and cytokine production were measured after UVB irradiation. Oxidative stress was evaluated by 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reduced glutathione levels, catalase activity, lipid peroxidation products, superoxide anion production, and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. The intraperitoneal treatment with naringenin reduced skin inflammation by inhibiting skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, MMP-9 activity, and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β and IL-10) cytokines. Naringenin also inhibited oxidative stress by reducing superoxide anion production and the mRNA expression of gp91phox. Therefore, naringenin inhibits UVB irradiation-induced skin damage and may be a promising therapeutic approach to control skin disease.

  9. Cardiolipin-Specific Peroxidase Reactions of Cytochrome c in Mitochondria During Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Belikova, Natalia A.; Jiang Jianfei; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Zhao Qing; Epperly, Michael W.; Greenberger, Joel; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To determine whether cytochrome c (cyt c) content and associated cardiolipin oxidation can be determinants of cell sensitivity to irradiation-induced apoptosis. Methods and Materials: The small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach was used to engineer HeLa cells with lowered contents of cyt c (14%, HeLa 1.2 cells). Cells were treated by {gamma}-irradiation (in doses of 5-40 Gy). Lipid oxidation was characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis and fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography-based Amplex Red assay. Release of a proapoptotic factor (cyt c, Smac/DIABLO) was detected by Western blotting. Apoptosis was revealed by caspase-3/7 activation and phosphatidylserine externalization. Results: Irradiation caused selective accumulation of hydroperoxides in cardiolipin (CL) but not in other phospholipids. HeLa 1.2 cells responded by a lower irradiation-induced accumulation of CL oxidation products than parental HeLa cells. Proportionally decreased release of a proapoptotic factor, Smac/DIABLO, was detected in cyt c-deficient cells after irradiation. Caspase-3/7 activation and phosphatidylserine externalization were proportional to the cyt c content in cells. Conclusions: Cytochrome c is an important catalyst of CL peroxidation, critical to the execution of the apoptotic program. This new role of cyt c in irradiation-induced apoptosis is essential for the development of new radioprotectors and radiosensitizers.

  10. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Deng, Bo; Li, Linfan; Jiang, Haiqing; Li, Jingye

    2012-01-01

    Acrylonitrile has been widely used in the modification of polymers by graft polymerization. In the present work, pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization method is used to introduce acrylonitrile onto PE nonwoven fabric instead of the traditional reaction in organic solvents system. The degree of grafting (DG) is measured by gravimetric method and the kinetics of the graft polymerization is studied. The existence of the graft chains is proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Thermal stability of the grafted polymer is measured by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  11. Irradiation-induced grain growth in nanocrystalline reduced activation ferrite/martensite steel

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W. B.; Chen, L. Q.; Zhang, C. Yang, Z. G.; Ji, Y. Z.; Zang, H.; Shen, T. L.

    2014-09-22

    In this work, we investigate the microstructure evolution of surface-nanocrystallized reduced activation ferrite/martensite steels upon high-dose helium ion irradiation (24.3 dpa). We report a significant irradiation-induced grain growth in the irradiated buried layer at a depth of 300–500 nm, rather than at the peak damage region (at a depth of ∼840 nm). This phenomenon can be explained by the thermal spike model: minimization of the grain boundary (GB) curvature resulting from atomic diffusion in the cascade center near GBs.

  12. Ion irradiation induced disappearance of dislocations in a nickel-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. C.; Li, D. H.; Lui, R. D.; Huang, H. F.; Li, J. J.; Lei, G. H.; Huang, Q.; Bao, L. M.; Yan, L.; Zhou, X. T.; Zhu, Z. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Under Xe ion irradiation, the microstructural evolution of a nickel based alloy, Hastelloy N (US N10003), was studied. The intrinsic dislocations are decorated with irradiation induced interstitial loops and/or clusters. Moreover, the intrinsic dislocations density reduces as the irradiation damage increases. The disappearance of the intrinsic dislocations is ascribed to the dislocations climb to the free surface by the absorption of interstitials under the ion irradiation. Moreover, the in situ annealing experiment reveals that the small interstitial loops and/or clusters induced by the ion irradiation are stable below 600 °C.

  13. Hesperidin methyl chalcone inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-01

    Hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) is a safe flavonoid used to treat chronic venous diseases, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress have never been described in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of HMC in skin oxidative stress and inflammation induced by UVB irradiation. To induce skin damage, hairless mice were exposed to an acute UVB irradiation dose of 4.14 J/cm(2), and the dorsal skin samples were collected to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The intraperitoneal treatment with HMC at the dose of 300 mg/kg inhibited UVB irradiation-induced skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity. HMC also protected the skin from UVB irradiation-induced oxidative stress by maintaining ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability and antioxidant levels (reduced glutathione and catalase). Corroborating, HMC inhibited UVB irradiation-induced superoxide anion generation and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of HMC resulted in lower production of inflammatory mediators, including lipid hydroperoxides and a wide range of cytokines. Taken together, these results unveil a novel applicability of HMC in the treatment of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress.

  14. Neutron irradiation induced microstructural changes in NBG-18 and IG-110 nuclear graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Karthik, Chinnathambi; Kane, Joshua; Butt, Darryl P.; Windes, William E.; Ubic, Rick

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports the neutron-irradiation-induced effects on the microstructure of NBG-18 and IG-110 nuclear graphites. The high-temperature neutron irradiation at two different irradiation conditions was carried out at the Advanced Test Reactor National User Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. NBG-18 samples were irradiated to 1.54 dpa and 6.78 dpa at 430 °C and 678 °C respectively. IG-110 samples were irradiated to 1.91 dpa and 6.70 dpa at 451 °C and 674 °C respectively. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to study the changes in different microstructural components such as filler particles, microcracks, binder and quinoline-insoluble (QI) particles. Significant changes have been observed in samples irradiated to about 6.7 dpa. The closing of pre-existing microcracks was observed in both the filler and the binder phases. The binder phase exhibited substantial densification with near complete elimination of the microcracks. The QI particles embedded in the binder phase exhibited a complete microstructural transformation from rosettes to highly crystalline solid spheres. The lattice images indicate the formation of edge dislocations as well as extended line defects bridging the adjacent basal planes. The positive climb of these dislocations has been identified as the main contributor to the irradiation-induced swelling of the graphite lattice.

  15. Irradiation-induced structural changes in surveillance material of VVER 440-type weld metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, M.; Denner, V.; Böhmert, J.; Mathon, M.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The irradiation-induced microstructural changes in surveillance materials of the VVER 440-type weld metal Sv-10KhMFT were investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and anomalous small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Due to the high fluence, a strong effect was found in the SANS experiment. No significant effect of the irradiation is detected by SAXS. The reason for this discrepancy is the different scattering contrast of irradiation-induced defects for neutrons and X-rays. An analysis of the SAXS shows that the scattering intensity is mainly caused by vanadium-containing (VC) precipitates and grain boundaries. Both types of scattering defects are hardly changed by irradiation. Neutron irradiation rather produces additional scattering defects of a few nanometers in size. Assuming these defects are clusters containing copper and other foreign atoms with a composition according to results of atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) investigations, both the high SANS and the low SAXS effect can be explained.

  16. Heavy ion irradiation induced dislocation loops in AREVA's M5® alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengstler-Eger, R. M.; Baldo, P.; Beck, L.; Dorner, J.; Ertl, K.; Hoffmann, P. B.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Kirk, M. A.; Petry, W.; Pikart, P.; Rempel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) Zr-based alloy structural materials show creep and growth under neutron irradiation as a consequence of the irradiation induced microstructural changes in the alloy. A better scientific understanding of these microstructural processes can improve simulation programs for structural component deformation and simplify the development of advanced deformation resistant alloys. As in-pile irradiation leads to high material activation and requires long irradiation times, the objective of this work was to study whether ion irradiation is an applicable method to simulate typical PWR neutron damage in Zr-based alloys, with AREVA's M5® alloy as reference material. The irradiated specimens were studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at different dose levels and temperatures. The irradiation induced microstructure consisted of - and -type dislocation loops with their characteristics corresponding to typical neutron damage in Zr-based alloys; it can thus be concluded that heavy ion irradiation under the chosen conditions is an excellent method to simulate PWR neutron damage.

  17. Irradiation-induced grain growth and defect evolution in nanocrystalline zirconia with doped grain boundaries.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanchita; Mardinly, John; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A; Holesinger, Terry G; Uberuaga, Blas P; Ditto, Jeff J; Drazin, John W; Castro, Ricardo H R

    2016-06-22

    Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observed to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.

  18. Irradiation-induced grain growth and defect evolution in nanocrystalline zirconia with doped grain boundaries

    DOE PAGES

    Dey, Sanchita; Mardinly, John; Wang, Yongqiang; ...

    2016-05-27

    Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here, in this study, we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observedmore » to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.« less

  19. Irradiation-induced grain growth and defect evolution in nanocrystalline zirconia with doped grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Sanchita; Mardinly, John; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James Anthony; Holesinger, Terry George; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Ditto, Jeff J.; Drazin, John W.; Castro, Ricardo H. R.

    2016-05-27

    Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here, in this study, we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observed to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.

  20. HOW DOES ADDING AND REMOVING LIQUID FROM SOCKET BLADDERS AFFECT RESIDUAL LIMB FLUID VOLUME?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Cagle, JC; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Adding and removing liquid from socket bladders is a means for people with limb loss to accommodate residual limb volume change. Nineteen people with trans-tibial amputation using their regular prosthetic socket fitted with fluid bladders on the inside socket surface underwent cycles of bladder liquid addition and removal. In each cycle, subjects sat, stood, and walked for 90s with bladder liquid added and then sat, stood, and walking for 90s again with the bladder liquid removed. The amount of bladder liquid added was increased in each cycle. Bioimpedance analysis was implemented to measure residual limb fluid volume. Results showed that the preferred bladder liquid volume was 16.8 mL (s.d.8.4), corresponding to 1.7% (s.d.0.8%) of the average socket volume between the bioimpedance voltage-sensing electrodes. Limb fluid volume driven out of the residual limb when bladder liquid was added was typically not recovered upon subsequent bladder liquid removal. Fifteen of nineteen subjects experienced a gradual limb fluid volume loss over the test session. Care should be taken when implementing adjustable socket technologies in people with limb amputation. Reducing socket volume may accentuate limb fluid volume loss. PMID:24203546

  1. Sildenafil treatment in COPD does not affect stroke volume or exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Rietema, H; Holverda, S; Bogaard, H J; Marcus, J T; Smit, H J; Westerhof, N; Postmus, P E; Boonstra, A; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A

    2008-04-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, stroke volume response to exercise is impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 3 months of sildenafil treatment improves stroke volume and, if so, whether this improvement is related to the pulmonary artery pressure and translated into an improved exercise capacity. A total of 15 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV) underwent right heart catheterisation at rest and during exercise. Stroke volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at rest and during submaximal exercise in the supine position and compared with eight age-matched controls. Additionally, a cardiopulmonary exercise test and a 6-min walking distance test were performed. Exercise tests and MRI were repeated after 12 weeks of oral therapy with 50 mg sildenafil three times daily. Stroke volume in COPD patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (62+/-12 versus 81+/-22 mL at rest and 70+/-15 versus 101+/-28 mL during exercise). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was diagnosed in nine patients and was absent in six. Treatment with sildenafil had no effect on stroke volume or exercise capacity. Although the stroke volume was lower in COPD patients with associated PH in comparison with non-PH patients, there was no difference in treatment response between both groups. In the present group of 15 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, a reduced stroke volume was found at rest and during exercise. Neither stroke volume nor exercise capacity were improved by 3 months of sildenafil therapy.

  2. Correlation between irradiation-induced changes of microstructural parameters and mechanical properties of RPV steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhmert, J.; Viehrig, H.-W.; Ulbricht, A.

    2004-08-01

    Radiation hardening, displayed by the yield stress increase, and irradiation embrittlement, described by the Charpy transition temperature shift, were experimentally determined for a broad variety of irradiation specimens machined from different reactor pressure vessel base and weld materials and irradiated in several VVER-type reactors. Additionally, the same specimens were investigated by small angle neutron scattering. The analysis of the neutron scattering data suggests the presence of nano-scaled irradiation defects. The volume fraction of these defects depends on the neutron fluence and the material. Both irradiation hardening and irradiation embrittlement correlate linearly with the square root of the defect volume fraction. However, a generally valid proportionality is only a rough approximation. In detail, chemical composition and technological pretreatment clearly affect the correlation.

  3. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  4. Irradiation-induced nano-voids in strained tin precipitates in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiduk, P. I.; Lundsgaard Hansen, J.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.

    2014-04-01

    We report on self-assembling of spherically shaped voids in nanometer size strained Sn precipitates after irradiation with He+ ions in different conditions. It is found that high-temperature irradiation induces vacancies which are collected by compressively strained Sn precipitates enhancing of out-diffusion of Sn atoms from the precipitates. Nano-voids formation takes place simultaneously with a β- to α-phase transformation in the Sn precipitates. Post-irradiation thermal treatment leads to the removal of voids and a backward transformation of the Sn phase to β-phase. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects along with vacancy assisted Sn out-diffusion and precipitate dissolution are discussed.

  5. Irradiation-induced permeability in pyrocarbon coatings. Final report of work conducted under PWS FD-12

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, M.J.; Thiele, B.A.; Homan, F.J.

    1982-10-01

    Two US irradiation experiments were planned to provide information to supplement data from the German program on irradiation-induced permeability in pyrocarbon coatings. Hopefully, the data from both programs could be combined to define the onset of neutron-induced permeability in a variety of Biso coatings produced with different process variables (coating temperature, coating gases, and coating rates). The effort was not successful. None of the preirradiation characterization procedures were able to adequately predict irradiation performance. A large amount of within-batch scatter was observed in the fission gas and cesium release data along with significant within-batch variation in coating properties. Additional preirradiation characterization might result in a procedure that could successfully predict irradiation performance, but little can be done about the within-batch variation in coating properties. This variation is probably the result of random movement of particles within the coating furnace during pyrocarbon deposition. 19 figures, 4 tables.

  6. {gamma} Irradiation-induced degradation of organochlorinated pollutants in fatty esters and in Cod

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, F.L.; Brochu, F.; Milot, S.

    1995-02-01

    The {gamma} irradiation-induced degradation of 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) dissolved in methyl myristate and methyl oleate was studied. DDT and DDE produced DDD and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)chloroethylene (DDMU) respectively, in agreement with a previous study performed with aliphatic solvents. The degradation of these two former compounds was larger in methyl myristate than in methyl oleate and addition products between methyl myristate and the organochlorines were found. While DDD, DDE, and many PCB congeners in a cod sample were not measurably degraded at 15 KGy, DDT underwent 30% degradation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Ion irradiation-induced diffusion in bixbyite-fluorite related oxides: Dislocations and phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolly, Gaboriaud; Fabien, Paumier; Bertrand, Lacroix

    2014-05-01

    Ion-irradiation induced diffusion and the phase transformation of a bixbyite-fluorite related rare earth oxide thin films are studied. This work is focused on yttrium sesquioxide, Y2O3, thin films deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates using the ion beam sputtering technique (IBS). As-deposited samples were annealed ant then irradiated at cryogenic temperature (80 K) with 260 keV Xe2+ at different fluences. The irradiated thin oxide films are characterized by X-ray diffraction. A cubic to monoclinic phase transformation was observed. Analysis of this phenomenon is done in terms of residual stresses. Stress measurements as a function of irradiation fluences were realised using the XRD-sin2ψ method. Stress evolution and kinetic of the phase transformation are compared and leads to the role-played by the nucleation of point and extended defects.

  8. Thermally stimulated current studies on neutron irradiation induced defects in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, K.; Ooi, M.; Onoue, A.; Kushida, K.; Okada, M.; Xu, Q.

    2006-03-01

    The evaluation of the neutron irradiation induced defects in GaN is studied using a thermally stimulated current (TSC) method with excitation above (below) the energy band gap using ultraviolet (blue, green, red, and infrared) emitting diodes. Annealing at 1000°C, a broad TSC spectrum for excitation by the ultraviolet light is resolved by five traps, P1 (ionization energy is 200meV), P2 (270meV), P3 (380meV), P4 (490meV), and P5 (595meV). Infrared illumination shows a remarkable reduction in TSC for the P2 and P3 traps, indicating the photoquenching behavior. The possible origins of the observed five traps are discussed.

  9. Gamma-ray irradiation induced bulk photochromism in WO3-P2O5 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Baccaro, Stefania; Cemmi, Alessia; Xu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guorong

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, photochromism of WO3-P2O5 glass under gamma-ray irradiation was reported. As-prepared glass samples with different WO3 content are all optically transparent in the visible wavelength range thanks to the addition of a small amount of oxidizing couple Sb2O3-NaNO3. The photochromic properties are identified by transmission spectra of the glasses before and after irradiation. The results show that the irradiation induced darkening results from the reduction of W6+ to W5+ or W4+. The existence of WO6 clusters in glasses of high WO3 content is proved by XPS, which is the main reason for the obvious photochromic effects. The WO3-P2O5 glass is a promising candidate in gamma-ray sensitive detector.

  10. Irradiation-induced nano-voids in strained tin precipitates in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Gaiduk, P. I.; Lundsgaard Hansen, J. Nylandsted Larsen, A.

    2014-04-14

    We report on self-assembling of spherically shaped voids in nanometer size strained Sn precipitates after irradiation with He{sup +} ions in different conditions. It is found that high-temperature irradiation induces vacancies which are collected by compressively strained Sn precipitates enhancing of out-diffusion of Sn atoms from the precipitates. Nano-voids formation takes place simultaneously with a β- to α-phase transformation in the Sn precipitates. Post-irradiation thermal treatment leads to the removal of voids and a backward transformation of the Sn phase to β-phase. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects along with vacancy assisted Sn out-diffusion and precipitate dissolution are discussed.

  11. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced phase transformation in calcite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagabhushana, H.; Nagabhushana, B. M.; Lakshminarasappa, B. N.; Singh, Fouran; Chakradhar, R. P. S.

    2009-11-01

    Ion irradiation induced phase transformation in calcite single crystals have been studied by means of Raman and infrared spectroscopy using 120 MeV Au 9+ ions. The observed bands have been assigned according to group theory analysis. For higher fluence of 5×10 12 ion/cm 2, an extra peak on either side of the 713 cm -1 peak and an increase in the intensity of 1085 cm -1 peak were observed in Raman studies. FTIR spectra exhibit extra absorption bands at 674, 1589 cm -1 and enhancement in bands at 2340 and 2374 cm -1 was observed. This might be due to the phase transformation from calcite to vaterite. The damage cross section ( σ) for all the Raman and FTIR active modes was determined. The increase of FWHM, shift in peak positions and appearance of new peaks indicated that calcite phase is converted into vaterite.

  12. The effect of electronic energy loss on irradiation-induced grain growth in nanocrystalline oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, Philip D; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N; Weber, William J

    2014-05-07

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, energetic ions deposit their energy to both atomic nuclei and electrons. Our experimental results have shown that irradiation-induced grain growth is dependent on the total energy deposited, where electronic energy loss and elastic collisions between atomic nuclei both contribute to the production of disorder and grain growth. Our atomistic simulations reveal that a high density of disorder near grain boundaries leads to locally rapid grain movement. The additive effect from both electronic excitation and atomic collision cascades on grain growth demonstrated in this work opens up new possibilities for controlling grain sizes to improve functionality of nanocrystalline materials.

  13. Targeting Pro-Apoptotic TRAIL Receptors Sensitizes HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells to Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maduro, John H.; Vries, Elisabeth de; Meersma, Gert-Jan; Hougardy, Brigitte; Zee, Ate G.J. van der; Jong, Steven de

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of irradiation in combination with drugs targeting the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor (DR)4 and DR5 and their mechanism of action in a cervical cancer cell line. Methods and Materials: Recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) and the agonistic antibodies against DR4 and DR5 were added to irradiated HeLa cells. The effect was evaluated with apoptosis and cytotoxicity assays and at the protein level. Membrane receptor expression was measured with flow cytometry. Small-interfering RNA against p53, DR4, and DR5 was used to investigate their function on the combined effect. Results: rhTRAIL and the agonistic DR4 and DR5 antibodies strongly enhanced 10-Gy-induced apoptosis. This extra effect was 22%, 23%, and 29% for rhTRAIL, DR4, and DR5, respectively. Irradiation increased p53 expression and increased the membrane expression of DR5 and DR4. p53 suppression, as well as small-interfering RNA against DR5, resulted in a significant downregulation of DR5 membrane expression but did not affect apoptosis induced by irradiation and rhTRAIL. After small-interfering RNA against DR4, rhTRAIL-induced apoptosis and the additive effect of irradiation on rhTRAIL-induced apoptosis were abrogated, implicating an important role for DR4 in apoptosis induced through irradiation in combination with rhTRAIL. Conclusion: Irradiation-induced apoptosis is strongly enhanced by targeting the pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptors DR4 or DR5. Irradiation results in a p53-dependent increase in DR5 membrane expression. The sensitizing effect of rhTRAIL on irradiation in the HeLa cell line is, however especially mediated through the DR4 receptor.

  14. Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Joao C. M.; Goncalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?" In the first approach, the answer is yes as a result of a common students' alternative conception; the second approach, valid only for ideal…

  15. Disk drive flat optics:design factors affecting manufacturing and cost in volume.

    PubMed

    Westney, R P; Swaby, B L

    1988-02-15

    Polarizers and beam splitters for optical drives are small but expensive. Crystalline, prismatic, or cemented optics can often be replaced with coated flats of comparable performance- Cost drivers are examined, and spectral comparison is made between a plate and cube polarizer. Moisture stability of thin film coatings is discussed, and related applications examined, especially those involving control of the relative phase shift between S and P polarization on reflection. Processes now exist enabling the volume manufacture of these optics.

  16. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Christian; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Papiol, Sergi; Monnheimer, Mathieu; Faria, Diana; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Schramek, Natalie; Schmitt, Corinna; Margos, Gabriele; Michel, Angelika; Kraiczy, Peter; Pawlita, Michael; Schreiber, Rainer; Schulz, Thomas F; Fingerle, Volker; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-02-23

    In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl(-) channels and phospholipid scramblases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl(-) currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca(2+) signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection.

  17. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  18. Manufacturing lot affects polyethylene tibial insert volume, thickness, and surface geometry.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Milner, Jaques S; MacDonald, Steven J; Naudie, Douglas D R

    2013-08-01

    To perform wear measurements on retrieved joint replacement implants, a reference geometry of the implant's original state is required. Since implants are rarely individually scanned before implantation, a different, new implant of the same kind and size is frequently used. However, due to manufacturing variability, errors may be introduced into these measurements, as the dimensions between the retrieved and reference components may not be exactly the same. The hypothesis of this study was that new polyethylene tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots would demonstrate greater variability than those from the same lot. In total, 12 new tibial inserts of the same model and size were obtained, 5 from the same lot and the remainder from different lots. The geometry of each tibial insert was obtained using microcomputed tomography. Measurements of tibial insert volume, thickness, and three-dimensional surface deviations were obtained and compared between tibial inserts from the same and different manufacturing lots. Greater variability was found for the tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots for all types of measurements, including a fourfold difference in volume variability (p < 0.001) and a maximum of 0.21 mm difference in thickness (p < 0.001). Investigators should be aware of this potential confounding error and take steps to minimize it, such as by averaging together the geometries of multiple new components from different manufacturing lots for use as the reference geometry.

  19. Measurements of near-ultimate strength for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and irradiation-induced crosslinking improvements.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, B.; Locascio, M.; Zapol, P.; Li, S.; Mielke, S. L.; Schatz, G. C.; Espinosa, H. D.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are being exploited in a growing number of applications from ballistic armour to nanoelectronics. However, measurements of these properties have not achieved the values predicted by theory due to a combination of artifacts introduced during sample preparation and inadequate measurements. Here we report multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a mean fracture strength >100 GPa, which exceeds earlier observations by a factor of approximately three. These results are in excellent agreement with quantum-mechanical estimates for nanotubes containing only an occasional vacancy defect, and are {approx}80% of the values expected for defect-free tubes. This performance is made possible by omitting chemical treatments from the sample preparation process, thus avoiding the formation of defects. High-resolution imaging was used to directly determine the number of fractured shells and the chirality of the outer shell. Electron irradiation at 200 keV for 10, 100 and 1,800 s led to improvements in the maximum sustainable loads by factors of 2.4, 7.9 and 11.6 compared with non-irradiated samples of similar diameter. This effect is attributed to crosslinking between the shells. Computer simulations also illustrate the effects of various irradiation-induced crosslinking defects on load sharing between the shells.

  20. Blue light irradiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo via ROS generation in rat gingival tissue.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Shiotsu-Ogura, Yukako; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Toyama, Toshizo; Yoshino, Fumihiko

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is induced by blue light irradiation to a living body. Only limited research has been reported in dental field on the dangers of blue light, mostly focusing on cytotoxicity associated with heat injury of dental pulp. We thus performed an in vivo study on oral tissue exposed to blue light. ROS generated upon blue light irradiation of flavin adenine dinucleotide were measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. After blue light irradiation, the palatal gingiva of Wistar rats were isolated. Collected samples were subjected to biochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and glutathione. Singlet oxygen was generated by blue light irradiation, but was significantly quenched in an N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) concentration-dependent manner. Blue light significantly accelerated oxidative stress and increased the oxidized glutathione levels in gingival tissue. These effects were also inhibited by NAC pre-administration. The results suggest that blue light irradiation at clinical levels of tooth bleaching treatment may enhance lipid peroxidation by the induction of oxidative stress and the consumption of a significant amount of intracellular glutathione. In addition, NAC might be an effective supplement for the protection of oral tissues against blue light irradiation-induced oxidative damage.

  1. Interaction of irradiation-induced prismatic dislocation loops with free surfaces in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikar, Jan; Gröger, Roman; Schäublin, Robin

    2017-02-01

    The prismatic dislocation loops appear in metals as a result of high-energy irradiation. Understanding their formation and interaction is important for quantification of irradiation-induced deterioration of mechanical properties. Characterization of dislocation loops in thin foils is commonly made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), but the results are inevitably influenced by the proximity of free surfaces. The prismatic loops are attracted to free surfaces by image forces. Depending on the type, size and depth of the loop in the foil, they can escape to the free surface, thus invalidating TEM observations and conclusions. In this article small prismatic hexagonal and circular dislocation loops in tungsten with the Burgers vectors 1/2 < 1 1 1 > and < 1 0 0 > are studied by molecular statics simulations using three embedded atom method (EAM) potentials. The calculated image forces are compared to known elastic solutions. A particular attention is paid to the critical stress to move edge dislocations. The escape of the loop to the free surface is quantified by a combination of atomistic simulations and elastic calculations. For example, for the 1/2 < 1 1 1 > loop with diameter 7.4 nm in a 55 nm thick foil we calculated that about one half of the loops will escape to the free surface. This implies that TEM observations detect only approx. 50% of the loops that were originally present in the foil.

  2. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Ying; Remmer, Henriette A; Voorhees, John; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis). Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  3. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, K.; Bei, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm-2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing the ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.

  4. Particle irradiation induces FGF2 expression in normal human lens cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, P. Y.; Bjornstad K, A.; Chang, E.; McNamara, M.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Lin, S. P.; Aragon, G.; Polansky, J. R.; Lui, G. M.; Blakely, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Particle Irradiation Induces FGF2 Expression in Normal Human Lens Cells. Particle radiations, including both proton and helium-ion beams, have been used to successfully treat choroidal melanoma, but with the complication of radiation-induced cataract. We have investigated a role for radiation-induced changes in the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) gene expression as part of the mechanism(s) underlying lens cell injury associated with cataract. Normal human lens epithelial (HLE) cells were cultured in vitro on extracellular matrix (ECM) originated from bovine corneal endothelial cells. This study reports evidence for rapid but transient induction of FGF2 transcripts, an increase of between 5- and 8-fold, within 0.5 h after exposure to particle radiation, followed by another wave of increased transcription at 2-3 h postirradiation. Immunofluorescence results confirm the enhanced levels of FGF2 protein rapidly after exposure to protons or helium ions, followed by another wave of increased activity unique to helium at 6 h postirradiation. This second wave of increased immunoreactivity was not observed in the proton-irradiated samples. Total FGF2 protein analysis after helium-ion exposures shows induced expression of three FGF2 isoforms, with an increase of up to 2-fold in the 18-kDa low-molecular-weight species. Studies of the effects of protons on individual FGF2 protein isoforms are in progress. Several mechanisms involving a role for FGF2 in radiation-induced cataract are discussed.

  5. The p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates cranial irradiation-induced hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xin; Wu, Hao-Hao; Ji, Sheng-Jun; Cai, Shang; Dai, Pei-Wen; Xu, Mei-Ling; Zhang, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Qi-Xian; Tian, Ye; Ma, Quan-Hong

    2017-03-23

    Cognitive deficits, characterized by progressive problems with hippocampus-dependent learning, memory and spatial processing, are the most serious complication of cranial irradiation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is involved in a diverse arrays of cellular responses, including neurite outgrowth, neurogenesis, and negative regulation of spine density, which are associated with various neurological disorders. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received 10 Gy cranial irradiation. Then, we evaluated the expression of p75NTR in the hippocampus after cranial irradiation and explored its potential role in radiation-induced synaptic dysfunction and memory deficits. We found that the expression of p75NTR was significantly increased in the irradiated rat hippocampus. Knockdown of p75NTR by intrahippocampal infusion of AAV8-shp75 ameliorated dendritic spine abnormalities, and restored synapse-related protein levels, thus preventing memory deficits, likely through normalization the phosphor-AKT activity. Moreover, viral-mediated overexpression of p75NTR in the normal hippocampus reproduced learning and memory deficits. Overall, this study demonstrates that p75NTR is an important mediator of irradiation-induced cognitive deficits by regulating dendritic development and synapse structure.

  6. Irradiation-induced precipitation and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys at <430 C

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Gazda, J.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    Recent attention to V-base alloys has focused on the effect of low-temperature (<430 C) irradiation on tensile and impact properties of V-4Cr-4Ti. In previous studies, dislocation channeling, which causes flow localization and severe loss of work-hardening capability, has been attributed to dense, irradiation-induced precipitation of very fine particles. However, efforts to identify the precipitates were unsuccessful until now. In this study, analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was conducted on unalloyed V, V-5Ti, V-3Ti-1Si, and V-4Cr-4Ti specimens that were irradiated at <430 C in conventional and dynamic helium charging experiments. By means of dark-field imaging and selected-area-diffraction analysis, the characteristic precipitates were identified to be (V,Ti{sub 1{minus}x})(C,O,N). In V-3Ti-1Si, precipitation of (V,Ti{sub 1{minus}x})(C,O,N) was negligible at <430 C, and as a result, dislocation channeling did not occur and work-hardening capability was high.

  7. Gamma irradiation induced in situ synthesis of lead sulfide nanoparticles in poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuljanin-Jakovljević, Jadranka Ž.; Radosavljević, Aleksandra N.; Spasojević, Jelena P.; Carević, Milica V.; Mitrić, Miodrag N.; Kačarević-Popović, Zorica M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the nanocomposites based on semiconductor lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were investigated. The gamma irradiation induced in situ incorporation of PbS nanoparticles in crosslinked polymer network i.e. PVA hydrogel was performed. PVA hydrogel was previously obtained also under the influence of gamma irradiation. UV-Vis absorption and X-ray diffraction measurements were employed to investigate optical and structural properties of PbS nanoparticles, respectively, and obtained results indicates the presence of nanoparticles with approximately 6 nm in diameter and face centered cubic rock-salt crystal structure. The porous morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Swelling data revealed that investigated hydrogels (PVA and PbS-PVA nanocomposite) shows non-Fickian diffusion, indicating that both diffusion and polymer relaxation processes controlled the fluid transport. The values of diffusion coefficients have an order of magnitude 10-9 cm2/s (typical values for water diffusion in polymers) and the best fit with the experimental results showed the Etters approximation. Comparing the thermal properties of PbS-PVA xerogel nanocomposite with PVA xerogel it was observed that incorporation of PbS nanoparticles in crosslinked PVA matrix just slightly enhanced the thermal stability of nanocomposite.

  8. Irradiation-induced effects of proton irradiation on zirconium carbides with different stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Huang; B.R. Maier; T.R. Allen

    2014-10-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in deep burn TRISO fuel particles for hightemperature, gas-cooled reactors. Zirconium carbide has a cubic B1 type crystal structure along with a very high melting point (3420 ?C), exceptional hardness and good thermal and electrical conductivities. Understanding the ZrC irradiation response is crucial for establishing ZrC as an alternative component in TRISO fuel. Until now, very few studies on irradiation effects on ZrC have been released and fundamental aspects of defect evolution and kinetics are not well understood although some atomistic simulations and phenomenological studies have been performed. This work was carried out to understand the damage evolution in float-zone refined ZrC with different stoichiometries. Proton irradiations at 800 ?C up to doses of 3 dpa were performed on ZrCx (where x ranges from 0.9 to 1.2) to investigate the damage evolution. The irradiation-induced defects, such as density of dislocation loops, at different stoichiometries and doses which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented and discussed.

  9. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm–2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing the ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Here, under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.

  10. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm–2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing themore » ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Here, under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.« less

  11. Ion irradiation induced nanocrystal formation in amorphous Zr 55Cu 30Al 10Ni 5 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Jesse; Fu, E. G.; Martin, Michael; Xie, Guoqiang; Zhang, X.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wijesundera, D.; Wang, X. M.; Chu, Wei-Kan; McDeavitt, Sean M.; Shao, Lin

    2009-09-01

    Ion irradiation can be used to induce partial crystallization in metallic glasses to improve their surface properties. We investigated the microstructural changes in ribbon Zr 55Cu 30Al 10Ni 5 metallic glass after 1 MeV Cu-ion irradiation at room temperature, to a fluence of 1.0 × 10 16 cm -2. In contrast to a recent report by others that there was no irradiation induced crystallization in the same alloy [S. Nagata, S. Higashi, B. Tsuchiya, K. Toh, T. Shikama, K. Takahiro, K. Ozaki, K. Kawatusra, S. Yamamoto, A. Inouye, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 257 (2007) 420], we have observed nanocrystals in the as-irradiated samples. Two groups of nanocrystals, one with diameters of 5-10 nm and another with diameters of 50-100 nm are observed by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Experimentally measured planar spacings ( d-values) agree with the expectations for Cu 10Zr 7, NiZr 2 and CuZr 2 phases. We further discussed the possibility to form a substitutional intermetallic (Ni xCu 1-x)Zr 2 phase.

  12. UV irradiation induced transformation of TiO2 nanoparticles in water: aggregation and photoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-21

    Transformation of nanomaterials in aqueous environment has significant impact on their behavior in engineered application and natural system. In this paper, UV irradiation induced transformation of TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous solutions was demonstrated, and its effect on the aggregation and photocatalytic reactivity of TiO2 was investigated. UV irradiation of a TiO2 nanoparticle suspension accelerated nanoparticle aggregation that was dependent on the irradiation duration. The aggregation rate increased from <0.001 nm/s before irradiation to 0.027 nm/s after 50 h irradiation, resulting in aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of 623 nm. The isoelectric point of the suspension was lowered from 7.0 to 6.4 after irradiation, indicating less positive charges on the surface. ATR-FTIR spectra displayed successive growth of surface hydroxyl groups with UV irradiation which might be responsible for the change of surface charge and aggregation rate. UV irradiation also changed the photocatalytic degradation rate of Rhodamine B by TiO2, which initially increased with irradiation time, then decreased. Based on the photoluminescence decay and photocurrent collection data, the change was attributed to the variation in interparticle charge transfer kinetics. These results highlight the importance of light irradiation on the transformation and reactivity of TiO2 nanomaterials.

  13. The fine structure of electron irradiation induced EL2-like defects in n-GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunhuma, S. M.; Auret, F. D.; Legodi, M. J.; Diale, M.

    2016-04-01

    Defects induced by electron irradiation in n-GaAs have been studied using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace DLTS (L-DLTS). The E0.83 (EL2) is the only defect observed prior to irradiation. Ru/n-GaAs Schottky diodes were irradiated with high energy electrons from a Sr-90 radionuclide up to a fluence of 2.45 × 1013 cm-2. The prominent electron irradiation induced defects, E0.04, E0.14, E0.38, and E0.63, were observed together with the metastable E0.17. Using L-DLTS, we observed the fine structure of a broad base EL2-like defect peak. This was found to be made up of the E0.75, E0.83, and E0.85 defects. Our study reveals that high energy electron irradiation increases the concentration of the E0.83 defect and introduces a family of defects with electronic properties similar to those of the EL2.

  14. Irradiation-induced Ag nanocluster nucleation in silicate glasses: Analogy with photography

    SciTech Connect

    Espiau de Lamaestre, R.; Bea, H.; Bernas, H.; Belloni, J.; Marignier, J. L.

    2007-11-15

    The synthesis of Ag nanoclusters in soda lime silicate glasses and silica was studied by optical absorption and electron spin resonance experiments under both low (gamma ray) and high (MeV ion) deposited energy density irradiation conditions. Both types of irradiation create electrons and holes whose density and thermal evolution--notably via their interaction with defects--are shown to determine the clustering and growth rates of Ag nanocrystals. We thus establish the influence of redox interactions of defects and silver (poly)ions. The mechanisms are similar to the latent image formation in photography: Irradiation-induced photoelectrons are trapped within the glass matrix, notably on dissolved noble metal ions and defects, which are thus neutralized (reverse oxidation reactions are also shown to exist). Annealing promotes metal atom diffusion, which, in turn, leads to cluster nuclei formation. The cluster density depends not only on the irradiation fluence but also--and primarily--on the density of deposited energy and the redox properties of the glass. Ion irradiation (i.e., large deposited energy density) is far more effective in cluster formation, despite its lower neutralization efficiency (from Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}) as compared to gamma photon irradiation.

  15. Irradiation Induced Fluorescence Enhancement in PEGylated Cyanine-based NIR Nano- and Meso-scale GUMBOS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chengfei; Das, Susmita; Magut, Paul K. S.; Li, Min; El Zahab, Bilal; Warner, Isiah M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of a PEGylated IR786 GUMBOS (Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts). The synthesis of this material was accomplished using a three step protocol: (1) substitution of chloride on the cyclohexenyl ring in the heptamethine chain of IR786 by 6-aminohexanoic acid, (2) grafting of methoxy poly ethyleneglycol (MeOPEG) onto the 6-aminohexanoic acid via an esterification reaction, and (3) anion exchange between [PEG786][I] and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiNTf2) or sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in order to obtain PEG786 GUMBOS. Examination of spectroscopic data for this PEG786 GUMBOS indicates a large stokes shift (122 nm). It was observed that this PEG786 GUMBOS associates in aqueous solution to form nano-and meso-scale self-assemblies with sizes ranging from 100 to 220 nm. These nano- and meso-scale GUMBOS are also able to resist nonspecific binding to proteins. PEGylation of the original IR786 leads to reduced cytotoxicity. In addition, it was noted that anions, such as NTf2 and AOT, play a significant role in improving the photostability of PEG786 GUMBOS. Irradiation-induced J aggregation in [PEG786][NTf2] and to some extent in [PEG786][AOT] produced enhanced photostability. This observation was supported by use of both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. PMID:22957476

  16. Analysis of Obstacle Hardening Models Using Dislocation Dynamics: Application to Irradiation-Induced Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, Cameron; Bertin, Nicolas; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation hardening in -iron represents a critical factor in nuclear reactor design and lifetime prediction. The dispersed barrier hardening, Friedel Kroupa Hirsch (FKH), and Bacon Kocks Scattergood (BKS) models have been proposed to predict hardening caused by dislocation obstacles in metals, but the limits of their applicability have never been investigated for varying defect types, sizes, and densities. In this work, dislocation dynamics calculations of irradiation-induced obstacle hardening in the athermal case were compared to these models for voids, self-interstitial atom (SIA) loops, and a combination of the two types. The BKS model was found to accurately predict hardening due to voids, whereas the FKH model was superior for SIA loops. For both loops and voids, the hardening from a normal distribution of defects was compared to that from the mean size, and was shown to have no statistically significant dependence on the distribution. A mean size approach was also shown to be valid for an asymmetric distribution of voids. A non-linear superposition principle was shown to predict the hardening from the simultaneous presence of voids and SIA loops.

  17. Influence of irradiation-induced disorder on the Peierls transition in TTF-TCNQ microdomains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, Vita; Cmyrev, Anastasia; Sachser, Roland; Reith, Heiko; Huth, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The combined influence of electron irradiation-induced defects, substrate-induced strain and finite size effects on the electronic transport properties of individual micron-sized thin film growth domains of the organic charge transfer compound tetrathiafulvalene- tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) have been studied. The TTF-TCNQ domains have been isolated and electrically contacted by focused ion beam etching and focused ion and electron-beam-induced deposition, respectively. This allowed us to measure the temperature-dependent resistivity and the current-voltage characteristics of individual domains. The dependence of the resistivity on temperature follows a variable-range hopping behaviour which shows a crossover of the exponents as the Peierls transition is approached. The low temperature behaviour is analysed within the segmented rod model of Fogler, Teber and Shklovskii which was developed for charge-ordered quasi one-dimensional electron crystals (Fogler et al 2004 Phys. Rev. B 69 035413). The effect of substrate-induced biaxial strain on the Peierls transition temperature is discussed with regard to its interplay with the defect-induced changes.

  18. Electron Irradiation Induced Phase Transition of an Amorphous Phase and Face-Centered Cubic Solid Solutions in Zr66.7Pd33.3 Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Takeshi; Hosokawa, Takashi; Umakoshi, Yukichi

    2007-02-01

    Both amorphization and crystallization were observed in Zr66.7Pd33.3 metallic glass under electron irradiation. The melt-spun amorphous phase was not stable under 2.0 MV electron irradiation and two kinds of fcc-solid solution were precipitated through electron irradiation induced crystallization at 103 and 298 K. The fcc-solid solution obtained by electron irradiation induced crystallization at 298 K transformed to an amorphous phase during irradiation at 103 K. Electron irradiation induced phase transformation behavior in Zr66.7Pd33.3 metallic glass can be explained by phase stability of an amorphous phase and crystalline phases against electron irradiation.

  19. How Broadcast Volume and Emotional Content Affect Youth Recall of Anti-Tobacco Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Wakefield, Melanie; Shiner, Cecilia M.; Siegel, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Televised anti-tobacco advertising has been shown to be effective for discouraging smoking initiation; however, purchasing broadcasting time is very costly. This study investigated the relative impact of the broadcast volume (media weight) and the emotional content of an ad as predictors of advertising recall. Methods The data come from a random-digit-dialed survey conducted in 2001 and 2002 of 3863 youth aged 12–17. Media weight was based on commercial TV ratings data. The emotional intensity of advertisements was derived from the ratings made by independent youth judges. Results Data analyses were conducted between 2005 and 2007. Results indicated that media weight was a significant predictor of recall, but the emotional content of the ad was an even stronger predictor. Also, ads low in emotional intensity required more media weight than those high in emotional intensity to achieve the same amount of increase in recall. Conclusions This study extends prior research that highlights the importance of emotional intensity for effective anti-tobacco advertising. It also indicates that, relative to unemotional advertisements, emotionally arousing advertisements require fewer broadcasts to achieve the same level of recall, and hence are likely to be less costly to a public health campaign. PMID:18482819

  20. Collagen modifications in postmenopausal osteoporosis: advanced glycation endproducts may affect bone volume, structure and quality.

    PubMed

    Willett, Thomas L; Pasquale, Julia; Grynpas, Marc D

    2014-09-01

    The classic model of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PM-OP) starts with the depletion of estrogen, which in turn stimulates imbalanced bone remodeling, resulting in loss of bone mass/volume. Clinically, this leads to fractures because of structural weakness. Recent work has begun to provide a more complete picture of the mechanisms of PM-OP involving oxidative stress and collagen modifications known as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). On one hand, AGEs may drive imbalanced bone remodeling through signaling mediated by the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), stimulating resorption and inhibiting formation. On the other hand, AGEs are associated with degraded bone material quality. Oxidative stress promotes the formation of AGEs, inhibits normal enzymatically derived crosslinking and can degrade collagen structure, thereby reducing fracture resistance. Notably, there are multiple positive feedback loops that can exacerbate the mechanisms of PM-OP associated with oxidative stress and AGEs. Anti-oxidant therapies may have the potential to inhibit the oxidative stress based mechanisms of this disease.

  1. Heavy metals affect regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in nematocytes isolated from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca.

    PubMed

    Morabito, R; Marino, A; La Spada, G

    2013-06-01

    The environmental contamination caused by heavy metals raises the question of their effect on biological systems. Among bio-indicators useful to monitor the toxicological effects of these chemicals, Cnidarians offer a unique model. Cnidarians possess highly specialized stinging cells, termed nematocytes, which respond to hyposmotic solution with well established homeostatic parameters as an acute osmotic phase (OP), leading to cell swelling, and then a slower regulatory volume decrease (RVD) phase, causing cell shrinkage. Here we report the effect of 65% artificial sea water (ASW) containing heavy metals, such as Cd, La, Co, Cu and Zn (concentrations comprised between 100 and 0.1 μM) on both OP and RVD in nematocytes isolated from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca by 605 mM NaSCN plus 0.01 mM Ca(2+). The exposure of the cells to Co and La inhibited RVD but not OP. However, Cu, Cd and Zn prevented the OP in a dose-dependent manner and, hence, also the detection of RVD. These results suggest that, in isolated nematocytes, heavy metal pollutants impair RVD either directly or indirectly through interference with the OP, thus negating RVD. Although further studies need to clarify the exact mechanisms whereby heavy metals exert their toxicity, it is evident that nematocytes of Cnidarians could serve as a model for ecotoxicological investigations.

  2. Irradiation-induced impurity segregation and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift in high chromium ferritic/martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Faulkner, R. G.; Flewitt, P. E. J.

    2007-08-01

    A model is presented to predict irradiation-induced impurity segregation and its contribution to the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) shift in high chromium ferritic steels. The hardening contribution (dislocation loops, voids and precipitates) is also considered in this study. The predicted results are compared with the experimental DBTT shifts data for irradiated 9Cr1MoVNb and 12Cr1MoVW steels with different grain sizes.

  3. Culture Volume and Vessel Affect Long-Term Survival, Mutation Frequency, and Oxidative Stress of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kram, Karin E.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria such as Escherichia coli are frequently studied during exponential- and stationary-phase growth. However, many strains can survive in long-term stationary phase (LTSP), without the addition of nutrients, from days to several years. During LTSP, cells experience a variety of stressors, including reactive oxidative species, nutrient depletion, and metabolic toxin buildup, that lead to physiological responses and changes in genetic stability. In this study, we monitored survival during LTSP, as well as reporters of genetic and physiological change, to determine how the physical environment affects E. coli during long-term batch culture. We demonstrate differences in yield during LTSP in cells incubated in LB medium in test tubes versus Erlenmeyer flasks, as well as growth in different volumes of medium. We determined that these differences are only partially due to differences in oxygen levels by incubating the cells in different volumes of media under anaerobic conditions. Since we hypothesized that differences in long-term survival are the result of changes in physiological outputs during the late log and early stationary phases, we monitored alkalization, mutation frequency, oxidative stress response, and glycation. Although initial cell yields are essentially equivalent under each condition tested, physiological responses vary greatly in response to culture environment. Incubation in lower-volume cultures leads to higher oxyR expression but lower mutation frequency and glycation levels, whereas incubation in high-volume cultures has the opposite effect. We show here that even under commonly used experimental conditions that are frequently treated as equivalent, the stresses experienced by cells can differ greatly, suggesting that culture vessel and incubation conditions should be carefully considered in the planning or analysis of experiments. PMID:24375138

  4. Modeling investigation of the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of nanoscale precipitates in advanced structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian

    2015-04-08

    Materials used in extremely hostile environment such as nuclear reactors are subject to a high flux of neutron irradiation, and thus vast concentrations of vacancy and interstitial point defects are produced because of collisions of energetic neutrons with host lattice atoms. The fate of these defects depends on various reaction mechanisms which occur immediately following the displacement cascade evolution and during the longer-time kinetically dominated evolution such as annihilation, recombination, clustering or trapping at sinks of vacancies, interstitials and their clusters. The long-range diffusional transport and evolution of point defects and self-defect clusters drive a microstructural and microchemical evolution that are known to produce degradation of mechanical properties including the creep rate, yield strength, ductility, or fracture toughness, and correspondingly affect material serviceability and lifetimes in nuclear applications. Therefore, a detailed understanding of microstructural evolution in materials at different time and length scales is of significant importance. The primary objective of this work is to utilize a hierarchical computational modeling approach i) to evaluate the potential for nanoscale precipitates to enhance point defect recombination rates and thereby the self-healing ability of advanced structural materials, and ii) to evaluate the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of such nanoscale precipitates resulting from enhanced point defect transport to and annihilation at precipitate interfaces. This project will utilize, and as necessary develop, computational materials modeling techniques within a hierarchical computational modeling approach, principally including molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and spatially-dependent cluster dynamics modeling, to identify and understand the most important physical processes relevant to promoting the “selfhealing” or radiation resistance in advanced materials containing

  5. Irradiation-induced disordering and amorphization of Al3Ti-based intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Il-Hyun; Motta, Arthur T.; Ulmer, Christopher J.; Kirk, Marquis A.; Ryan, Edward A.; Baldo, Peter M.

    2015-12-01

    An in situ ion-irradiation study, simultaneously examined using transmission electron microscopy, was performed to investigate irradiation-induced disordering and amorphization of Al3Ti-based intermetallic compounds. Thin foil samples of two crystalline structures: D022-structured Al3Ti and L12-structured (Al,Cr)3Ti were irradiated using 1.0 MeV Kr ions at a temperature range from 40 K to 573 K to doses up to 4.06 × 1015 ions/cm2. The results showed that both the compounds underwent an order-disorder transformation under irradiation, where both Al3Ti and (Al,Cr)3Ti ordered structures were fully transformed to the disordered face-centered cubic (FCC) structure except at the highest irradiation temperature of 573 K. A slightly higher irradiation dose was required for order-disorder transformation in case of Al3Ti as compared to (Al,Cr)3Ti at a given temperature. However, their amorphization resistances were different: while the disordered FCC (Al,Cr)3Ti amorphized at the irradiation dose of 6.25 × 1014 ions/cm2 (0.92 dpa) at 40 K and 100 K, the Al3Ti compound with the same disordered FCC structure maintained crystallinity up to 4.06 × 1015 ions/cm2 (5.62 dpa) at 40 K. The critical temperature for amorphization of (Al,Cr)3Ti under Kr ion irradiation is likely between 100 K and room temperature and the critical temperature for disordering between room temperature and 573 K.

  6. Ion irradiation induced evolution of nanostructure in a graded multi-trilayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sumalay; Ghatak, J.; Dev, B. N.

    2012-02-01

    Nanostructural modifications in a double-graded Pt/Ni/C multi-trilayer, due to irradiation by an energetic ion-beam, have been analyzed using X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray standing wave (XSW) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM) techniques. 2 MeV Au2+ ions were rastered on Pt/Ni/C multi-trilayer samples producing a uniformly irradiated area at ion-fluences ranging from 1 × 1014 ions/cm2 to 2 × 1015 ions/cm2. Ion irradiation induced modifications of microstructural parameters, e.g., layer thicknesses and electron densities of individual layers and interface roughnesses have been obtained from XRR analysis. Pt- and Ni-fluorescence yield from the as-deposited sample under the XSW condition show the distinct existence of Pt and Ni layers. The almost indistinguishable Pt- and Ni-fluorescence data over the first order Bragg peak from the sample irradiated at the highest ion-fluence, suggest complete mixing of Pt and Ni. Strong mixing between Pt and Ni in the ion irradiated samples is also corroborated by XRR results. X-TEM studies reveal the individual layer structure in the as-deposited sample. This layer structure is lost in the sample irradiated at the highest ion fluence indicating a complete mixing between Pt and Ni layers and nanoscale grain growth of Pt-Ni alloys. Additionally, formation of Pt-Ni alloy nano-clusters in the C-layers is observed. The results are understood in the light of the positive heat of mixing between Pt and C, and Ni and C and the negative heat of mixing between Pt and Ni. The effect of heat of mixing becomes dominant at high fluence irradiation.

  7. ZNF804A variants confer risk for heroin addiction and affect decision making and gray matter volume in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhao, Li-Yan; Wang, Gui-Bin; Yue, Wei-Hua; He, Yong; Shu, Ni; Lin, Qi-Xiang; Wang, Fan; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Wang, Hui-Min; Kosten, Thomas R; Feng, Jia-Jia; Wang, Jun; Tang, Yu-De; Liu, Shu-Xue; Deng, Gui-Fa; Diao, Gan-Huan; Tan, Yun-Long; Han, Hong-Bin; Lin, Lu; Shi, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction shares common neurobiological pathways and risk genes with other psychiatric diseases, including psychosis. One of the commonly identified risk genes associated with broad psychosis has been ZNF804A. We sought to test whether psychosis risk variants in ZNF804A increase the risk of heroin addiction by modulating neurocognitive performance and gray matter volume (GMV) in heroin addiction. Using case-control genetic analysis, we compared the distribution of ZNF804A variants (genotype and haplotype) in 1035 heroin abusers and 2887 healthy subjects. We also compared neurocognitive performance (impulsivity, global cognitive ability and decision-making ability) in 224 subjects and GMV in 154 subjects based on the ZNF804A variants. We found significant differences in the distribution of ZNF804A intronic variants (rs1344706 and rs7597593) allele and haplotype frequencies between the heroin and control groups. Decision-making impairment was worse in heroin abusers who carried the ZNF804A risk allele and haplotype. Subjects who carried more risk alleles and haplotypes of ZNF804A had greater GMV in the bilateral insular cortex, right temporal cortex and superior parietal cortex. The interaction between heroin addiction and ZNF804A variants affected GMV in the left sensorimotor cortex. Our findings revealed several ZNF804A variants that were significantly associated with the risk of heroin addiction, and these variants affected decision making and GMV in heroin abusers compared with controls. The precise neural mechanisms that underlie these associations are unknown, which requires future investigations of the effects of ZNF804A on both dopamine neurotransmission and the relative increases in the volume of various brain areas.

  8. Tracing irradiation-induced defect state of monazite by photoluminescence of rare Earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panczer, G.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A. M.; Montel, J. M.; Champagnon, B.

    2003-04-01

    Natural monazite is known in contrast to zircon, to almost never be found in the metamict state (Ewing, 1975) despite the fact that it received intensive radiation doses during geologic history by U and Th incorporation. Radiation damages in natural monazite seems to be limited to isolated domains within the crystal (Meldrum et al., 1998). Such property controlled the fact that the monazite lattice is easily healed even at low temperature as it was shown by TEM, XRD and Raman spectrometry (Seydoux-Guillaume et al., 2002). In order to estimate the degree of disorder and the healing of defects we used trivalent neodymium as an internal luminescent probe (Gaft et al., 2001). As a matter of fact the radiative electronic transitions of rare earth elements are very sensible to the short-range crystallographic order around them. Three natural monazites thermally untreated and quenched at 450, 500, 700, 800 and 1000^oC were analyzed under 514 nm Argon laser excitation with a Renishaw microspectrometer. Nd3+ emission was recorded in the range of 750 nm to 1 μm. The ^4F3/2 rightarrow ^4I9/2 transition parameters (position and width) show that 1) the position of the Stark levels do not change during thermal treatment, and 2) that the emission line widths decrease continuously (from 25 to 37%) from room temperature to 1000^oC. These results indicates that before annealing, sub sites of Nd were present with slight different environments induced by internal irradiation induced displacement of ions around them (short range disorder). After thermal treatment a continuous reorganization of the lattice occurs up to 1000^oC with quite strong rearrangement of the environment around the rare-earth leading to a decrease of the Nd sub site number. Thus, the luminescent probe reveals that defect healing continue at much higher temperatures than what was previously reported indicating that luminescence is a very sensible tool to appreciate the degree of disorder in mineral phases. Gaft M

  9. Irradiation-induced angiosarcoma and anti-angiogenic therapy: A therapeutic hope?

    SciTech Connect

    Azzariti, Amalia; Porcelli, Letizia; Mangia, Anita; Saponaro, Concetta; Quatrale, Anna E.; Popescu, Ondina S.; Strippoli, Sabino; Simone, Gianni; Paradiso, Angelo; Guida, Michele

    2014-02-15

    Angiosarcomas are rare soft-tissue sarcomas of endothelial cell origin. They can be sporadic or caused by therapeutic radiation, hence secondary breast angiosarcomas are an important subgroup of patients. Assessing the molecular biology of angiosarcomas and identify specific targets for treatment is challenging. There is currently great interest in the role of angiogenesis and of angiogenic factors associated with tumor pathogenesis and as targets for treatment of angiosarcomas. A primary cell line derived from a skin fragment of a irradiation-induced angiosarcoma patient was obtained and utilized to evaluate cell biomarkers CD31, CD34, HIF-1alpha and VEGFRs expression by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence, drugs cytotoxicity by cell counting and VEGF release by ELISA immunoassay. In addition to previous biomarkers, FVIII and VEGF were also evaluated on tumor specimens by immunohistochemistry to further confirm the diagnosis. We targeted the VEGF–VEGFR-2 axis of tumor angiogenesis with two different class of vascular targeted drugs; caprelsa, the VEGFR-2/EGFR/RET inhibitor and bevacizumab the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody. We found the same biomarkers expression either in tumor specimens and in the cell line derived from tumor. In vitro experiments demonstrated that angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in the progression of this tumor as cells displayed high level of VEGFR-2, HIF-1 alpha strongly accumulated into the nucleus and the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF was released by cells in culture medium. The evaluation of caprelsa and bevacizumab cytotoxicity demonstrated that both drugs were effective in inhibiting tumor proliferation. Due to these results, we started to treat the patient with pazopanib, which was the unique tyrosine kinase inhibitor available in Italy through a compassionate supply program, obtaining a long lasting partial response. Our data suggest that the study of the primary cell line could help physicians in choosing a therapeutic approach

  10. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-02-08

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by {gamma}-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10 Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment.

  11. Electron beam irradiation induced compatibilization of immiscible polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) blends: Mechanical properties and morphology stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entezam, Mehdi; Aghjeh, Mir Karim Razavi; Ghaffari, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Gel content, mechanical properties and morphology of immiscible PE/EVA blends irradiated by high energy electron beam were studied. The results of gel content measurements showed that the capability of cross-linking of the blend samples increased with an increase of the EVA composition. Also, the gel content for most compositions of the blends displayed a positive deviation from the additive rule. The results of mechanical properties showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of the samples increased and decreased, respectively, with irradiation dose. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of the irradiated blends also depicted a positive deviation from additive rule contrary to the un-irradiated blends. A synergistic effect observed for the mechanical properties improvement of the irradiated blends and it was attributed to the probable formation of the PE-graft-EVA copolymers at the interface of the blends during the irradiation process. A theoretical analysis revealed that irradiation induced synergistic effect was more significant for EVA-rich blends with weaker interfacial interaction as compared to PE-rich blends. The morphological analysis indicated that the blend morphology was not affected obviously, whereas it was stabilized by irradiation.

  12. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Ma, Hongjuan; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2014-01-01

    A pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization method was used to introduce acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a PE nonwoven fabric. The use of acrylic acid is meant to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified fabric. The kinetics of co-graft polymerization were studied. The existence of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) graft chains was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The existence of the nitrile groups in the graft chains indicates that they are ready for further amidoximation and adsorption of heavy metal ions.

  13. Hesperidin a flavanoglycone protects against gamma-irradiation induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Kannampalli; Park, Sang Hyun; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-10

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of gamma-irradiation induced cellular damage and the administration of dietary antioxidants has been suggested to protect against the subsequent tissue damage. Here, we present the data to explore the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of hesperidin, a naturally occurring citrus flavanoglycone, against gamma-irradiation induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to gamma-irradiation (1 Gy, 3 Gy and 5 Gy) and were administered hesperidin (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, b.w, orally) for 7 days post irradiation. The changes in body weight, liver weight, spleen index, serum and liver aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and serum ceruloplasmin levels were determined along with differences in the liver histopathology. Liver thiobarbuturic acid reactive substance as an index for lipid peroxidation and the levels of enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and the status of non-enzymatic antioxidants as an index for oxidative stress were also determined. Exposure to gamma-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular damage in a dose-dependent manner, featuring a significantly decreased body weight and liver weight and higher levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and gamma-GT levels and a simultaneous decrease in their levels in the liver tissue. Oxidative stress was evidenced by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the levels of key enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the liver. However, the gamma-irradiation induced toxic effects were dramatically and dose-dependently inhibited by hesperidin treatment as observed by the restoration in the altered levels of the marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the biochemical

  14. Effects of compositional complexity on the ion-irradiation induced swelling and hardening in Ni-containing equiatomic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, K.; Lu, C.; Wang, L. M.; Qu, J.; Weber, W. J.; Zhang, Y.; Bei, H.

    2016-04-14

    The impact of compositional complexity on the ion-irradiation induced swelling and hardening is studied in Ni and six Ni-containing equiatomic alloys with face-centered cubic structure. The irradiation resistance at the temperature of 500 °C is improved by controlling the number and, especially, the type of alloying elements. Alloying with Fe and Mn has a stronger influence on swelling reduction than does alloying with Co and Cr. Lastly, the quinary alloy NiCoFeCrMn, with known excellent mechanical properties, has shown 40 times higher swelling tolerance than nickel.

  15. METHOD OF INHIBITING IRRADIATION-INDUCED VISCOSITY INCREASE OF ORGANIC FLUIDS

    DOEpatents

    Denison, G.H.; Bolt, R.O.; Kent, J.W.; Christiansen, F.A.; Carroll, J.G.

    1963-12-24

    Methods of reducing radiation-induced thickening of lubricating oils are presented. A system subjected to nuclear radiation is lubricated with an oil containing iodonaphthalene, preferably in the amount of 0.5 to 16 per cent by volume. (AEC)

  16. Protective effect of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate from salmon skin on UV irradiation-induced photoaging of mice skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tiejun; Hou, Hu; Lu, Jiaohan; Zhang, Kai; Li, Bafang

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of gelatin (SG) isolated from salmon skin and its hydrolysate (SGH) on photoaging skin, and the mechanism responsible for anti-photoaging. The average molecular weights of SG and SGH were 65 kDa and 873 Da, respectively. The amino acid compositions of SG and SGH were similar. Both of them were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. Twenty-five peptides were identified from SGH. SG and SGH could improve UV irradiation-induced pathological changes of macroscopical tissue texture and skin morphology. Hydroxyproline content is an indicator of matrix collagen content, SG and SGH could inhibit the decrease of hydroxyproline content in photoaging skin in a dose dependent manner. In addition, SG and SGH could alleviate UV irradiation-induced oxidative damages to skin by increasing the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), increasing the content of glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, SG and SGH could enhance immune regulation system by increasing the thymus index. Thus, the anti-photoaging mechanisms of SG and SGH were by inhibiting the depletion of antioxidant defense components, involving in the synthesis of collagen and enhancing the function of immune system. Besides, SGH showed a better result in protecting skin from photoaging than SG.

  17. How do sock ply changes affect residual limb fluid volume in people with trans-tibial amputation?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Allyn, KJ; Myers, TR; Ciol, MA; Tsai, EC

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of sock addition and sock removal on residual limb fluid volume in people using prosthetic limbs. We used bioimpedance analysis to measure residual limb extracellular fluid volume on 28 transtibial amputee subjects during 30-minute test sessions. Upon addition of a 1-ply polyester sock, residual limb fluid volume changes ranged from −4.0% to 0.8% (mean −0.9% (s.d.=1.3%)) of the initial limb fluid volume. Changes for sock removal ranged from −1.2% to 2.8% (mean 0.5% (s.d.=0.8%)). Subjects who reduced in fluid volume with both addition and removal of a sock and subjects with high positive ratios between the fluid volume loss upon sock addition and the gain upon sock removal (high Add/Remove(AR) ratios) tended to have arterial disease, were obese and smokers. Subjects with low positive AR ratios, subjects who increased in fluid volume both with sock addition and removal, and a single subject who increased in fluid volume with sock addition and decreased with sock removal tended to be non-smokers and either healthy individuals without complications or individuals without arterial problems. Results are relevant towards anticipating limb volume changes during prosthetic fitting and towards the design of adjustable-socket technologies. PMID:22773526

  18. Do Sustained Lung Inflations during Neonatal Resuscitation Affect Cerebral Blood Volume in Preterm Infants? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwaberger, Bernhard; Pichler, Gerhard; Avian, Alexander; Binder-Heschl, Corinna; Baik, Nariae; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained lung inflations (SLI) during neonatal resuscitation may promote alveolar recruitment in preterm infants. While most of the studies focus on respiratory outcome, the impact of SLI on the brain hasn’t been investigated yet. Objective Do SLI affect cerebral blood volume (CBV) in preterm infants? Methods Preterm infants of gestation 28 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days with requirement for respiratory support (RS) were included in this randomized controlled pilot trial. Within the first 15 minutes after birth near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements using ‘NIRO-200-NX’ (Hamamatsu, Japan) were performed to evaluate changes in CBV and cerebral tissue oxygenation. Two groups were compared based on RS: In SLI group RS was given by applying 1–3 SLI (30 cmH2O for 15 s) continued by respiratory standard care. Control group received respiratory standard care only. Results 40 infants (20 in each group) with mean gestational age of 32 weeks one day (±2 days) and birth weight of 1707 (±470) g were included. In the control group ΔCBV was significantly decreasing, whereas in SLI group ΔCBV showed similar values during the whole period of 15 minutes. Comparing both groups within the first 15 minutes ΔCBV showed a tendency toward different overall courses (p = 0.051). Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating an impact of SLI on CBV. Further studies are warranted including reconfirmation of the present findings in infants with lower gestational age. Future investigations on SLI should not only focus on respiratory outcome but also on the consequences on the developing brain. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005161 https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/setLocale_EN.do PMID:26406467

  19. Bone volume fraction explains the variation in strength and stiffness of cancellous bone affected by metastatic cancer and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Ara; von Stechow, Dietrich; Zurakowski, David; Müller, Ralph; Snyder, Brian D

    2008-12-01

    Preventing nontraumatic fractures in millions of patients with osteoporosis or metastatic cancer may significantly reduce the associated morbidity and reduce health-care expenditures incurred by these fractures. Predicting fracture occurrence requires an accurate understanding of the relationship between bone structure and the mechanical properties governing bone fracture that can be readily measured. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a single analytic relationship with either bone tissue mineral density or bone volume fraction (BV/TV) as independent variables could predict the strength and stiffness of normal and pathologic cancellous bone affected by osteoporosis or metastatic cancer. After obtaining institutional review board approval and informed consent, 15 patients underwent excisional biopsy of metastatic prostate, breast, lung, ovarian, or colon cancer from the spine and/or femur to obtain 41 metastatic cancer specimens. In addition, 96 noncancer specimens were excised from 43 age- and site-matched cadavers. All specimens were imaged using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and backscatter emission imaging and tested mechanically by uniaxial compression and nanoindentation. The minimum BV/TV, measured using quantitative micro-CT, accounted for 84% of the variation in bone stiffness and strength for all cancellous bone specimens. While relationships relating bone density to strength and stiffness have been derived empirically for normal and osteoporotic bone, these relationships have not been applied to skeletal metastases. This simple analytic relationship will facilitate large-scale screening and prediction of fracture risk for normal and pathologic cancellous bone using clinical CT systems to determine the load capacity of bones altered by metastatic cancer, osteoporosis, or both.

  20. Performance of membrane electrode assemblies based on proton exchange membranes prepared by pre-irradiation induced grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingye; Matsuura, Akio; Kakigi, Tomoyuki; Miura, Takaharu; Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared by pre-irradiation induced grafting of styrene (S) or styrene/divinylbenzene (S/DVB) into the radiation-crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (RX-PTFE) films and then sulfonated. The thicknesses of the obtained PEMs were lower than 20 μm and the ion exchange capacity (IEC) values were around 2 meq g -1. The surfaces of the PEMs and carbon electrodes were coated with Nafion ® dispersion, and then membrane electrode assembles (MEAs) were prepared by hot-pressing them together. A MEA based on a Nafion ® 112 membrane was also prepared under same procedure for comparison. The performances of the MEAs in a single cell were tested under different cell temperatures and humidifications. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were measured with ac frequencies which ranged from 100 kHz to 1 Hz at a dc density of 0.5 A cm -2. The obtained impedance curves in Nyquist representation were semicircular.

  1. Irradiation-induced changes of the atomic distributions around the interfaces of carbides in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyama, T.; Tsuchiya, N.; Nagai, Y.; Almazouzi, A.; Hatakeyama, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Ohkubo, T.; van Walle, E.; Gerard, R.

    2010-10-01

    Irradiation-induced changes of the atomic distributions of solute and impurity elements around carbides in a reactor pressure vessel steel of a Belgium nuclear power reactor were investigated by laser-assisted local electrode-type three-dimensional atom probe, before and after in-service irradiation of 12 years. Before irradiation, nano-scale Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo carbides were found to be intragranular. The atomic distributions of Mn, Cr and Mo inside the carbide indicate that their concentrations around the inner carbide-matrix interface were enhanced, while a clear segregation of P at the interface was observed. After irradiation, the Mn concentration in the carbide increased substantially. In addition, the enhancement of Mn, Cr and Mo concentrations around the interface and the segregation of P were markedly intensified.

  2. Corrosion- and irradiation-induced porosity changes of a nuclear graphitic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoinkis, E.; Eatherly, W. P.; Krautwasser, P.; Robens, E.

    1986-11-01

    In pristine specimens of a nuclear grade graphitic material the volume of accessible pores with diameters <0.1 μm is much smaller (0.9 mm 3 g -1) than the total accessible pore volume (82 mm 3 g -1) but the former increased with corrosion much more than the latter (36 and 160 mm 3 g -1, respectively, at a burn-off = 5 wt%). The specimens were oxidized by CO 2 at 900°C. Independent of burn-off the most frequent pore diameter is ˜2 nm, as was determined from N 2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. Corrosion leads also to a pronounced increase in pores in the range 2-5 nm and in the apparent BET surface area from 0.6 m 2 g -1 (pristine) to 39 m 2 g -1 (burn-off = 5 wt%). The analysis of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) curves revealed that at the beginning of corrosion the existing 1 nm pores are enlarged. Additional micropores are developed with further burn-off. A neutron fluence of 5 × 10m 21 cm -2 EDN (equivalent to about 7 dpa) at 950°C caused a marked increase in the volume of pores with 2.5 nm diameter. From a comparison of the SAXS results with the data obtained by xylene impregnation and N 2 adsorption it was concluded that most of the pores generated by irradiation are accessible to gases.

  3. Early Life Hormetic Treatments Decrease Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Damage, Increase Longevity, and Enhance Sexual Performance during Old Age in the Caribbean Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Early life events can have dramatic consequences on performance later in life. Exposure to stressors at a young age affects development, the rate of aging, risk of disease, and overall lifespan. In spite of this, mild stress exposure early in life can have beneficial effects on performance later in life. These positive effects of mild stress are referred to as physiological conditioning hormesis. In our current study we used anoxia conditioning hormesis as a pretreatment to reduce oxidative stress and improve organismal performance, lifespan, and healthspan of Caribbean fruit flies. We used gamma irradiation to induce mild oxidative damage in a low-dose experiment, and massive oxidative damage in a separate high-dose experiment, in pharate adult fruit flies just prior to adult emergence. Irradiation-induced oxidative stress leads to reduced adult emergence, flight ability, mating performance, and lifespan. We used a hormetic approach, one hour of exposure to anoxia plus irradiation in anoxia, to lower post-irradiation oxidative damage. We have previously shown that this anoxic-conditioning treatment elevates total antioxidant capacity and lowers post-irradiation oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In this study, conditioned flies had lower mortality rates and longer lifespan compared to those irradiated without hormetic conditioning. As a metric of healthspan, we tracked mating both at a young age (10 d) and old age (30 d). We found that anoxia-conditioned male flies were more competitive at young ages when compared to unconditioned irradiation stressed male flies, and that the positive effects of anoxic conditioning hormesis on mating success were even more pronounced in older males. Our data shows that physiological conditioning hormesis at a young age, not only improves immediate metrics of organismal performance (emergence, flight, mating), but the beneficial effects also carry into old age by reducing late life oxidative damage and improving lifespan and

  4. An Integrated Approach to Seismic Event Location. 1. Evaluating How Method of Location Affects the Volume of Groups of Hypocenters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-12

    1985: and Pujol , 1988). 3) Methods for evaluating errors in event locations. The classical approach to error analysis utilizes a formal statistical...minimum volume polyhedron as a practical enclosure for a set of points has not been suggested previously in the seismological or geological literature. 4 2...Set of Points in Space Background: There exist’numerous applications in seismology and geology where it is useful to define a volume in space which

  5. Sensitivity analysis of some critical factors affecting simulated intrusion volumes during a low pressure transient event in a full-scale water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Ebacher, G; Besner, M C; Clément, B; Prévost, M

    2012-09-01

    Intrusion events caused by transient low pressures may result in the contamination of a water distribution system (DS). This work aims at estimating the range of potential intrusion volumes that could result from a real downsurge event caused by a momentary pump shutdown. A model calibrated with transient low pressure recordings was used to simulate total intrusion volumes through leakage orifices and submerged air vacuum valves (AVVs). Four critical factors influencing intrusion volumes were varied: the external head of (untreated) water on leakage orifices, the external head of (untreated) water on submerged air vacuum valves, the leakage rate, and the diameter of AVVs' outlet orifice (represented by a multiplicative factor). Leakage orifices' head and AVVs' orifice head levels were assessed through fieldwork. Two sets of runs were generated as part of two statistically designed experiments. A first set of 81 runs was based on a complete factorial design in which each factor was varied over 3 levels. A second set of 40 runs was based on a latin hypercube design, better suited for experimental runs on a computer model. The simulations were conducted using commercially available transient analysis software. Responses, measured by total intrusion volumes, ranged from 10 to 366 L. A second degree polynomial was used to analyze the total intrusion volumes. Sensitivity analyses of both designs revealed that the relationship between the total intrusion volume and the four contributing factors is not monotonic, with the AVVs' orifice head being the most influential factor. When intrusion through both pathways occurs concurrently, interactions between the intrusion flows through leakage orifices and submerged AVVs influence intrusion volumes. When only intrusion through leakage orifices is considered, the total intrusion volume is more largely influenced by the leakage rate than by the leakage orifices' head. The latter mainly impacts the extent of the area affected by

  6. Protective effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone-wrapped fullerene against intermittent ultraviolet-A irradiation-induced cell injury in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Yasukazu; Ohta, Hiroaki; Hyodo, Sayuri

    2016-10-01

    To identify compounds that suppress UV irradiation-induced oxidative stress in the skin, various types of antioxidants have been studied. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-entrapped fullerene (C60/PVP) is known as a powerful antioxidant that exerts a cytoprotective effect against UV irradiation-induced cell injury in human skin cells and skin models. However, the effects of the alternate attractive C60/PVP feature, persistent antioxidant ability, on cytoprotection have rarely been ascertained. In this study we therefore investigated the efficacies of C60/PVP using an intermittently repeated UVA irradiation model wherein human keratinocytes were repeatedly exposed to UVA five times every 1h and compared the cytoprotective effects with those provided by ascorbic acid-2-O-phosphate-disodium salt (APS) and α-tocopherol (α-Toc). Our results demonstrated that C60/PVP yielded prominent cytoprotective effects against intermittently repeated UVA irradiation-induced injuries in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed intracellular superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) generation both during and after the repeated UVA irradiation. Additionally, C60/PVP also repressed the intermittent UVA irradiation-induced apoptosis via suppression of chromatin condensation and caspase-3/7 activation. Furthermore, the observed cytoprotective effects were superior to the effects of the typical antioxidants APS and α-Toc. These data suggest that C60/PVP might function as a potent cosmetic antioxidant against the effects of repeated and prolonged UVA irradiation through its persistent antioxidative property.

  7. Single-Limb Irradiation Induces Local and Systemic Bone Loss in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Wright, Laura E; Buijs, Jeroen T; Kim, Hun-Soo; Coats, Laura E; Scheidler, Anne M; John, Sutha K; She, Yun; Murthy, Sreemala; Ma, Ning; Chin-Sinex, Helen J; Bellido, Teresita M; Bateman, Ted A; Mendonca, Marc S; Mohammad, Khalid S; Guise, Theresa A

    2015-07-01

    Increased fracture risk is commonly reported in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, particularly at sites within the field of treatment. The direct and systemic effects of ionizing radiation on bone at a therapeutic dose are not well-characterized in clinically relevant animal models. Using 20-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice, effects of irradiation (right hindlimb; 2 Gy) on bone volume and microarchitecture were evaluated prospectively by microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry and compared to contralateral-shielded bone (left hindlimb) and non-irradiated control bone. One week postirradiation, trabecular bone volume declined in irradiated tibias (-22%; p < 0.0001) and femurs (-14%; p = 0.0586) and microarchitectural parameters were compromised. Trabecular bone volume declined in contralateral tibias (-17%; p = 0.003), and no loss was detected at the femur. Osteoclast number, apoptotic osteocyte number, and marrow adiposity were increased in irradiated bone relative to contralateral and non-irradiated bone, whereas osteoblast number was unchanged. Despite no change in osteoblast number 1 week postirradiation, dynamic bone formation indices revealed a reduction in mineralized bone surface and a concomitant increase in unmineralized osteoid surface area in irradiated bone relative to contralateral and non-irradiated control bone. Further, dose-dependent and time-dependent calvarial culture and in vitro assays confirmed that calvarial osteoblasts and osteoblast-like MC3T3 cells were relatively radioresistant, whereas calvarial osteocyte and osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cell apoptosis was induced as early as 48 hours postirradiation (4 Gy). In osteoclastogenesis assays, radiation exposure (8 Gy) stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cell differentiation, and coculture of irradiated RAW264.7 cells with MLO-Y4 or murine bone marrow cells enhanced this effect. These studies highlight the multifaceted nature of radiation-induced bone loss by demonstrating direct

  8. Irradiation induced structural change in Mo2Zr intermetallic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, J.; Keiser, Jr., D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Eriksson, N.; Sohn, Y. H.; Kirk, M.

    2016-05-14

    The Mo2Zr phase has been identified as a major interaction product at the interface of U-10Mo and Zr. Transmission electron microscopy in-situ irradiation with Kr ions at 200 °C with doses up to 2.0E+16 ions/cm2 was carried out to investigate the radiation stability of the Mo2Zr. The Mo2Zr undergoes a radiation-induced structural change, from a large cubic (cF24) to a small cubic (cI2), along with an estimated 11.2% volume contraction without changing its composition. The structural change begins at irradiation dose below 1.0E+14 ions/cm2. Furthermore, the transformed Mo2Zr phase demonstrates exceptional radiation tolerance with the development of dislocations without bubble formation.

  9. Dart model for irradiation-induced swelling of dispersion fuel elements including aluminum-fuel interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART) contains models for fission-gas induced fuel swelling, interaction of fuel with the matrix aluminum, resultant reaction-product swelling, and calculation of the stress gradient within the fuel particle. The effects of an aluminide shell on fuel particle swelling are evaluated. Validation of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of DART calculations of fuel swelling of U{sub 3}SiAl-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al for various dispersion fuel element designs with the data. DART results are compared with data for fuel swelling Of U{sub 3}SiAl-Al in plate, tube, and rod configurations as a function of fission density. Plate and tube calculations were performed at a constant fuel temperature of 373 K and 518 K, respectively. An irradiation temperature of 518 K results in a calculated aluminide layer thickness for the Russian tube that is in the center of the measured range (16 {mu}m). Rod calculations were performed with a temperature gradient across the rod characterized by surface and central temperatures of 373 K and 423 K, respectively. The effective yield stress of irradiated Al matrix material and the aluminide was determined by comparing the results of DART calculations with postirradiation immersion volume measurement of U{sub 3}SiAl plates. The values for the effective yield stress were used in all subsequent simulations. The lower calculated fuel swelling in the rod-type element is due to an assumed biaxial stress state. Fuel swelling in plates results in plate thickness increase only. Likewise, in tubes, only the wall thickness increases. Irradiation experiments have shown that plate-type dispersion fuel elements can develop blisters or pillows at high U-235 burnup when fuel compounds exhibiting breakaway swelling are used at moderate to high fuel volume fractions. DART-calculated interaction layer thickness and fuel swelling follows the trends of the observations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Atomistic simulation of Er irradiation induced defects in GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ullah, M. W. Kuronen, A.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Stukowski, A.

    2014-09-28

    Classical molecular dynamics simulation was used to irradiate a GaN nanowire with rear-earth erbium (Er). Ten cumulative irradiations were done using an ion energy of 37.5 keV on a 10 × 10 nm²surface area which corresponds to a fluence of 1 × 10¹³ cm⁻². We studied the location and types of defects produced in the irradiation. Er implantation leads to a net positive (expansion) strain in the nanowire and especially at the top region a clear expansion has been observed in the lateral and axial directions. The lattice expansion is due to the hydrostatic strain imposed by a large number of radiation induced defects at the top of the NW. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, most of the defects were concentrated at the surface region, which suggests that the experimentally observed yellow luminescence (YL) in ion implanted GaN NWs arises from surface defects. We observed big clusters of point defects and vacancy clusters which are correlated with stable lattice strain and the YL band, respectively.

  11. Protective effects of sodium selenite supplementation against irradiation-induced damage in non-cancerous human esophageal cells.

    PubMed

    Puspitasari, Irma M; Yamazaki, Chiho; Abdulah, Rizky; Putri, Mirasari; Kameo, Satomi; Nakano, Takashi; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    .423). These results suggest that 50 nM sodium selenite supplementation administered for 72 h prior to irradiation may protect CHEK-1 cells from irradiation-induced damage by inhibiting irradiation-induced apoptosis. Therefore, sodium selenite is a potential radioprotective compound for non-cancerous cells in clinical radiotherapy.

  12. Protective effects of sodium selenite supplementation against irradiation-induced damage in non-cancerous human esophageal cells

    PubMed Central

    Puspitasari, Irma M.; Yamazaki, Chiho; Abdulah, Rizky; Putri, Mirasari; Kameo, Satomi; Nakano, Takashi; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    .423). These results suggest that 50 nM sodium selenite supplementation administered for 72 h prior to irradiation may protect CHEK-1 cells from irradiation-induced damage by inhibiting irradiation-induced apoptosis. Therefore, sodium selenite is a potential radioprotective compound for non-cancerous cells in clinical radiotherapy. PMID:28123581

  13. Electron-beam irradiation induced transformation of Cu2(OH)3NO3 nanoflakes into nanocrystalline CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, S. K.; Gottapu, S. N.; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2016-05-01

    The transmission electron microscope electron-beam (TEM e-beam) as a material modification tool has been demonstrated. The material modification is realised in the high-resolution TEM mode (largest condenser aperture, 150 μm, and 200 nm spot size) at a 200 keV beam energy. The Cu2(OH)3NO3 (CHN) nanoflakes used in this study were microwave solution processed that were layered single crystals and radiation sensitive. The single domain CHN flakes disintegrate into a large number of individual CuO crystallites within a 90 s span of time. The sequential bright-field, dark-field, and selected area electron diffraction modes were employed to record the evolved morphology, microstructural changes, and structural transformation that validate CHN modification. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging of e-beam irradiated regions unambiguously supports the growth of CuO nanoparticles (11.8(3.2) nm in diameter). This study demonstrates e-beam irradiation induced CHN depletion, subsequent nucleation and growth of nanocrystalline CuO regions well embedded in the parent burnt porous matrix which can be useful for miniaturized sensing applications. NaBH4 induced room temperature reduction of CHN to elemental Cu and its printability on paper was also demonstrated.The transmission electron microscope electron-beam (TEM e-beam) as a material modification tool has been demonstrated. The material modification is realised in the high-resolution TEM mode (largest condenser aperture, 150 μm, and 200 nm spot size) at a 200 keV beam energy. The Cu2(OH)3NO3 (CHN) nanoflakes used in this study were microwave solution processed that were layered single crystals and radiation sensitive. The single domain CHN flakes disintegrate into a large number of individual CuO crystallites within a 90 s span of time. The sequential bright-field, dark-field, and selected area electron diffraction modes were employed to record the evolved morphology, microstructural changes, and structural

  14. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    SciTech Connect

    Grilo, Clara; Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into account

  15. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide by infrared irradiation induced photothermal reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Honglei; Peng, Mao; Zhu, Zhongming; Sun, Lina

    2013-09-01

    We present a green and scalable route toward the formation of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) by photothermal reduction induced by infrared (IR) irradiation, utilizing a bathroom IR lamp as the source of IR light. Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the reduction of r-GO by IR light. Ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectra indicate that adsorption of IR light by original GO films is less than that of UV and visible light; but when GO is exposed to IR light, its adsorption of IR light increases very rapidly with time. The influence of the power density of the IR light on the structure and properties of r-GO was investigated. At high IR power density, the reduction reaction was so fierce that r-GO became highly porous due to the rapid degassing and exfoliation of GO sheets. The r-GO powder revealed good performance as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. At relatively low IR power density, the reduction process was found to be mild but relatively slow. Crack-free and uniform conductive r-GO thin films with a volume conductivity of 1670 S m-1 were then prepared by two-step IR irradiation, i.e. first at low IR power density and then at high IR power density. Moreover, the r-GO films were also observed to exhibit obvious and reversible IR light-sensing behavior.We present a green and scalable route toward the formation of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) by photothermal reduction induced by infrared (IR) irradiation, utilizing a bathroom IR lamp as the source of IR light. Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the reduction of r-GO by IR light. Ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectra indicate that adsorption of IR light by original GO films is less than that of UV and visible light; but when GO is exposed to IR light, its adsorption of IR light increases very rapidly with time. The influence of the power

  16. Deltoid muscle volume affects clinical outcome of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jong Pil; Seo, Anna; Kim, Jeong Jun; Lee, Chang-Hwa; Baek, Seung-Hun; Kim, Shin Yoon; Jeong, Eun Taek; Oh, Kyung-Soo

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the interrelation between preoperative deltoid muscle status by measuring the 3-dimensional deltoid muscle volume and postoperative functional outcomes after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty(RTSA). Thirty-five patients who underwent RTSA participated in this study. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) as well as pre- and postoperative radiography and various functional outcome evaluations at least 1 year. The primary outcome parameter was set as age- and sex-matched Constant scores. The 3-dimensional deltoid muscle model was generated using a medical image processing software and in-house code, and the deltoid muscle volume was calculated automatically. Various clinical and radiographic factors comprising the deltoid muscle volume adjusted for body mass index(BMI) were analyzed, and their interrelation with the outcome parameters was appraised using a multivariate analysis. As a result, all practical consequences considerably improved following surgery(all p<0.01). Overall, 20 and 15 indicated a higher and a lower practical consequence than the average, respectively, which was assessed by the matched Constant scores. The deltoid muscle volume adjusted for BMI(p = 0.009), absence of a subscapularis complete tear (p = 0.040), and greater change in acromion-deltoid tuberosity distance(p = 0.013) were associated with higher matched Constant scores. Multivariate analysis indicated that the deltoid muscle volume was the single independent prognostic factor for practical consequences(p = 0.011). In conclusion, the preoperative deltoid muscle volume significantly affected the functional outcome following RTSA in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears. Therefore, more attention should be paid to patients with severe atrophied deltoid muscle who are at a high risk for poor practical consequences subsequent to RTSA. PMID:28355234

  17. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2016-11-01

    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape.

  18. He+ irradiation induced cracking and exfoliating on the surface of Ti3AlC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. H.; Ao, L.; Li, F. Z.; Peng, S. M.; Zhang, H. B.; Sun, K.; Zu, X. T.

    2017-03-01

    We report a systematic study of the effects of a 400 keV helium ion beam irradiation on the surface morphology and crystal structure of Ti3AlC2 by combined scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Helium irradiation experiments were performed at both room temperature and 500 °C, respectively, with fluence up to 2.0 × 1017 He+/cm2. After irradiation, intragranular orientated cracks grew along the (10 1 bar 0)Ti3AlC2 plane and the surface has started to exfoliate. The formation of the cracks is mainly attributed to the reduction of the lattice parameter along the a direction induced by ion irradiation, and the crack growth is affected by the grain size and the content of impurity phase TiAl3. The surface exfoliation is due to the blistering of He bubbles at the projected depth.

  19. Egr-1 regulates irradiation-induced autophagy through Atg4B to promote radioresistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, W-x; Wan, Y-y; Gong, A-h; Ge, L; Jin, J; Xu, M; Wu, C-y

    2017-01-01

    Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually response to radiation therapy, radioresistance is still the major obstacle that limits the efficacy of radiotherapy for HCC patients. Therefore, further investigation of underlying mechanisms in radioresistant HCC cells is warranted. In this study, we determined the effect of early growth response factor (Egr-1) on irradiation-induced autophagy and radioresistance in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and HepG2. We showed that autophagy-related gene 4B (Atg4B) is induced by Egr-1 upon ionizing radiation (IR) in HCC cells. Luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that Egr-1 binds to the Atg4B promoter to upregulate its expression in HCC cells. Suppression of Egr-1 function by dominant-negative Egr-1 dampens IR-induced autophagy, cell migration, and increases cell sensitivity to radiotherapy. Together, these results suggest that Egr-1 contributes to HCC radioresistance through directly upregulating target gene Atg4B, which may serve as a protective mechanism by preferential activation of the autophagy. PMID:28134935

  20. Ameliorative effect of septilin, an ayurvedic preparation against gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Heba Hosny; Ismael, Naglaa El-Sayed Rifaat; Hafez, Hafez Farouk

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce multiple organ dysfunctions directly related to an increase of cellular oxidative stress, due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was aimed to investigate the effect of septilin (an ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing the principal herbs, namely Commiphora wightii, Trinospora cordifolia, Rubia cardifolia, Emblica officinalis, Saussurea lappa and Glycyrrhiza glabra) against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in hepatic and brain tissues in rats. Administration of septilin for 5 days (100 mg/kg) prior to radiation resulted in a significant increase in both superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total glutathione (GSH) level in hepatic and brain tissues, while serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) was reduced by gamma-irradiation. Also, septilin resulted in a significant decrease in NO(x), nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic and brain tissues and a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) and total cholesterol levels and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, as well as serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that septilin exhibited potential antioxidant activity and showed radioprotective effect against gamma-radiation by preventing oxidative stress and scavenging free radicals.

  1. Commercial sunscreen formulations: UVB irradiation stability and effect on UVB irradiation-induced skin oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Fernanda M P; Oliveira, Franciane M; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A; Cunha, Thiago M; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2016-10-01

    Evidence shows that sunscreens undergo degradation processes induced by UV irradiation forming free radicals, which reduces skin protection. In this regard, the biological effects of three commercial sunscreen formulations upon UVB irradiation in the skin were investigated. The three formulations had in common the presence of benzophenone-3 added with octyl methoxycinnamate or octyl salycilate or both, which are regular UV filters in sunscreens. The results show that formulations F1 and F2 presented partial degradation upon UVB irradiation. Formulations F1 and F2 presented higher skin penetration profiles than F3. None of the formulations avoided UVB irradiation-induced GSH depletion, but inhibited reduction of SOD activity, suggesting the tested formulations did not present as a major mechanism inhibiting all UVB irradiation-triggered oxidative stress pathways. The formulations avoided the increase of myeloperoxidase activity and cytokine production (IL-1β and TNF-α), but with different levels of protection in relation to the IL-1β release. Concluding, UVB irradiation can reduce the stability of sunscreens, which in turn, present the undesirable properties of reaching viable skin. Additionally, the same SPF does not mean that different sunscreens will present the same biological effects as SPF is solely based on a skin erythema response. This found opens up perspectives to consider additional studies to reach highly safe sunscreens.

  2. Topical Formulation Containing Naringenin: Efficacy against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Silva, Thais C C; Caviglione, Carla V; Bottura, Carolina; Fonseca, Maria J V; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Vignoli, Josiane A; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2016-01-01

    Naringenin (NGN) exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, but it remains undetermined its topical actions against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and functional antioxidant stability of NGN containing formulations, and the effects of selected NGN containing formulation on UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative damage in hairless mice. NGN presented ferric reducing power, ability to scavenge 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radical, and inhibited iron-independent and dependent lipid peroxidation. Among the three formulations containing NGN, only the F3 kept its physicochemical and functional stability over 180 days. Topical application of F3 in mice protected from UVB-induced skin damage by inhibiting edema and cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10). Furthermore, F3 inhibited superoxide anion and lipid hydroperoxides production and maintained ferric reducing and ABTS scavenging abilities, catalase activity, and reduced glutathione levels. In addition, F3 maintained mRNA expression of cellular antioxidants glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione reductase and transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), and induced mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1. In conclusion, a formulation containing NGN may be a promising approach to protecting the skin from the deleterious effects of UVB irradiation.

  3. [X-ray irradiation induces apoptosis of mouse GC1 sperm cells via nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiying; Ding, Jingbin; Wang, Zhijun; Ding, Juan; Xia, Xinshe; Zhao, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Objective To study the effect of X-ray irradiation on the localization of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in mouse GC1 sperm cells. Methods After GC1 cells were treated with 0, 3, 6 and 9 Gy X irradiation, BrdU incorporation assay was performed to detect the proliferation of GC1 cells. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, the nuclear condensation was observed by DAPI staining. The subcellular localization of AIF was showed using the immunofluorescence staining, both in the whole cell extracts and in nuclear extracts, and the expression levels of AIF were detected using Western blot analysis. Results With the increase of X-ray irradiation dose, the proliferation of GC1 cells significantly decreased, and the activity of cells was weakened. After 6 Gy irradiation, in nuclear extracts, but not in the whole cell extracts, the protein AIF was upregulated significantly. It meant the nuclear translocation of protein AIF. Conclusion X-ray irradiation induces the apoptosis of mouse GC1 sperm cells, meanwhile, the nuclear translocation of AIF occurs.

  4. Topical Formulation Containing Naringenin: Efficacy against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Renata M.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Steffen, Vinicius S.; Silva, Thais C. C.; Caviglione, Carla V.; Bottura, Carolina; Fonseca, Maria J. V.; Vicentini, Fabiana T. M. C.; Vignoli, Josiane A.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Georgetti, Sandra R.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Casagrande, Rubia

    2016-01-01

    Naringenin (NGN) exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, but it remains undetermined its topical actions against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and functional antioxidant stability of NGN containing formulations, and the effects of selected NGN containing formulation on UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative damage in hairless mice. NGN presented ferric reducing power, ability to scavenge 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radical, and inhibited iron-independent and dependent lipid peroxidation. Among the three formulations containing NGN, only the F3 kept its physicochemical and functional stability over 180 days. Topical application of F3 in mice protected from UVB-induced skin damage by inhibiting edema and cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10). Furthermore, F3 inhibited superoxide anion and lipid hydroperoxides production and maintained ferric reducing and ABTS scavenging abilities, catalase activity, and reduced glutathione levels. In addition, F3 maintained mRNA expression of cellular antioxidants glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione reductase and transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), and induced mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1. In conclusion, a formulation containing NGN may be a promising approach to protecting the skin from the deleterious effects of UVB irradiation. PMID:26741806

  5. Synthesis of atom probe experiments on irradiation-induced solute segregation in French ferritic pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, P.; Pareige, P.; Welzel, S.; Van Duysen, J.-C.

    2000-08-01

    Microstructural changes due to neutron irradiation cause an evolution of the mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) steels. This paper aims at identifying and characterising the microstructural changes which have been found to be responsible in part for the observed embrittlement. This intensive work relies principally on an atom probe (AP) study of a low Cu-level French RPV steel (Chooz A). This material has been irradiated in in-service conditions for 0-16 years in the frame of the surveillance program. Under this aging condition, solute clustering occurs (Cu, Ni, Mn, Si, P, …). In order to identify the role of copper, experiments were also carried out on Fe-Cu model alloys submitted to different types of irradiations (neutron, electron, ion). Cu-cluster nucleation appears to be directly related to the presence of displacement cascades during neutron (ion) irradiation. The operating basic physical process is not clearly identified yet. A recovery of the mechanical properties of the irradiated material can be achieved by annealing treatments (20 h at 450°C in the case of the RPV steel under study, following microhardness measurements). It has been shown that the corresponding microstructural evolution was a rapid dissolution of the high number density of irradiation-induced solute clusters and the precipitation of a very low number density of Cu-rich particles.

  6. Report on fundamental modeling of irradiation-induced swelling and creep in FeCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kohnert, Aaron A.; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Wirth, Brian; Linton, Kory D.

    2016-09-23

    In order to improve the accident tolerance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel, alternative cladding materials have been proposed to replace zirconium (Zr)-based alloys. Of these materials, there is a particular focus on iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys due to much slower oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam than Zr-alloys. This should decrease the energy release due to oxidation and allow the cladding to remain integral longer in the presence of high temperature steam, making accident mitigation more likely. As a continuation of the development for these alloys, the material response must be demonstrated to provide suitable radiation stability, in order to ensure that there will not be significant dimensional changes (e.g., swelling), as well as quantifying the radiation hardening and radiation creep behavior. In this report, we describe the use of cluster dynamics modeling to evaluate the defect physics and damage accumulation behavior of FeCrAl alloys subjected to neutron irradiation, with a particular focus on irradiation-induced swelling and defect fluxes to dislocations that are required to model irradiation creep behavior.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of irradiation-induced amorphizaton of Gd2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Lian, J.; Wang, L. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Boatner, L. A.

    2001-09-01

    The radiation-induced evolution of the microstructure of Gd2Ti2O7, an important pyrochlore phase in radioactive waste disposal ceramics and a potential solid electrolyte and oxygen gas sensor, has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Following the irradiation of a Gd2Ti2O7 single crystal with 1.5 MeV Xe+ ions at a fluence of 1.7×1014Xe+/cm2, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a 300-nm-thick amorphous layer at the specimen surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the Ti 2p and O 1s electron binding energy shifts of Gd2Ti2O7 before and after amorphization showed that the main results of ion-irradiation-induced disorder are a decrease in the coordination number of titanium and a transformation of the Gd-O bond. These features resemble those occurring in titanate glass formation, and they have implications for the chemical stability and electronic properties of pyrochlores subjected to displacive radiation damage.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation aggravates irradiation-induced injury to the young mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Roughton, Karolina; Andreasson, Ulf; Blomgren, Klas; Kalm, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment strategy in the treatment of brain tumors, but it is also a major cause of long-term complications, especially in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Cognitive decline caused by cranial radiotherapy is thought, at least partly, to depend on injury to stem and progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This study investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation at the time of irradiation (IR) in the growing mouse brain. A single injection of LPS (0.3 mg/kg) was administered 24 h prior to cranial IR of 14-day-old male mice. LPS pretreatment increased the levels of the chemokine CCL2 and the cytokine IL-1β in the brain by 440 and 560%, respectively, compared to IR alone. IR disrupted hippocampal neurogenesis and the growth of the dentate gyrus, and the mice pretreated with LPS displayed an even more pronounced lack of growth than the vehicle-treated group 2 months after IR. The density of microglia was not affected, but LPS-pretreated mice displayed 48% fewer bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells and 43% fewer doublecortin-positive cells in the granule cell layer 2 months after IR compared with the vehicle-treated group. In conclusion, an ongoing inflammation in the brain at the time of IR further enhanced the IR-induced loss of neurogenesis, and may aggravate future cognitive deficits in patients treated with cranial radiotherapy.

  9. The Kinetics of Dislocation Loop Formation in Ferritic Alloys Through the Aggregation of Irradiation Induced Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnert, Aaron Anthony

    that is much too strong. The so-called nucleation catastrophe motivates a re-examination of the properties of interstitial defect clusters in iron. The behavior of interstitial clusters in iron is a complex puzzle, with high mobility predicted by computational techniques, much lower thermal mobility observed in electron microscopes, and a series of discrete discontinuous motions seen during in situ ion irradiation performed in a transmission electron microscope. This work has combined these observations and presented a trap mediated concept of interstitial cluster motion that has been incorporated into a larger scale kinetic model. This superior description of interstitial mobility is crucial to realizing many aspects of black dot damage structures, from saturation behavior to temperature dependence. Another focus of this work was to analyze the assumptions widely employed in rate theory models. Cluster dynamics, the rate theory method employed in this work, is usually invoked with a number of potentially dubious assumptions regarding the mobility and interaction characteristics of defect clusters. The effects of anisotropic reaction volumes and one dimensional diffusion have both been analyzed to determine the effect they have on the development of black dot microstructures. In the trap mediated system, one dimensional diffusion proved far more significant, and the cross section for interaction between one dimensionally diffusing interstitial clusters strongly influenced the size and density of visible damage structures. The validity of the reaction rate approach to determining cluster evolution in the trap mediated environment has been established by comparison with Monte Carlo methods. In total, this work has demonstrated the ability of mean field models to capture the key characteristics of low temperature damage microstructures in irradiated ferritic alloys when incorporating the full knowledge of interstitial cluster properties in iron, and the legitimacy of the

  10. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  11. Complete blood count using VCS (volume, conductivity, light scatter) technology is affected by hyperlipidemia in a child with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gokcebay, D G; Azik, F M; Isik, P; Bozkaya, I O; Kara, A; Tavil, E B; Yarali, N; Tunc, B

    2011-12-01

    Asparaginase, an effective drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has become an important component of most childhood ALL regimens during the remission induction or intensification phases of treatment. The incidence range of asparaginase-associated lipid abnormalities that are seen in children is 67-72%. Lipemia causes erroneous results, which uses photometric methods to analyze blood samples. We describe a case of l-asparaginase-associated severe hyperlipidemia with complete blood count abnormalities. Complete blood count analysis was performed with Beckman COULTER(®) GEN·S™ system, which uses the Coulter Volume, Conductivity, Scatter technology to probe hydrodynamically focused cells. Although an expected significant inaccuracy in hemoglobin determination occurred starting from a lipid value of 3450 mg/dl, we observed that triglyceride level was 1466 mg/dl. Complete blood count analysis revealed that exceptionally high hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels vs. discordant with red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, and hematocrit levels. Total leukocyte count altered spontaneously in a wide range, and was checked with blood smear. Platelet count was in expected range (Table 1). Thus, we thought it was a laboratory error, and the patient's follow-up especially for red cell parameters was made by red blood cell and hematocrit values.

  12. A model for the influence of microstructure, precipitate pinning and fission gas behavior on irradiation-induced recrystallization of nuclear fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, J.

    2004-03-01

    Irradiation-induced recrystallization appears to be a general phenomenon in that it is observed to occur in a variety of nuclear fuel types, e.g. U-xMo, UO2, and U3O8. For temperatures below that where significant thermal annealing of defects occurs, an expression is derived for the fission density at which irradiation-induced recrystallization is initiated that is athermal and weakly dependent on fission rate. The initiation of recrystallization is to be distinguished from the subsequent progression and eventual consumption of the original fuel grain. The formulation takes into account the observed microstructural evolution of the fuel, the role of precipitate pinning and fission gas bubbles, and the triggering event for recrystallization. The calculated dislocation density, fission gas bubble-size distribution, and fission density at which recrystallization first appears are compared to measured quantities.

  13. Factors affecting uncertainty in lung nodule volume estimation with CT: comparisons of findings from two estimation methods in a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Zeng, Rongping; Myers, Kyle J.; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    This work aimed to compare two different types of volume estimation methods (a model-based and a segmentationbased method) in terms of identifying factors affecting measurement uncertainty. Twenty-nine synthetic nodules with varying size, radiodensity, and shape were placed in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom and scanned with a 16- detector row CT scanner. Ten repeat scans were acquired using three exposures and two slice collimations, and were reconstructed with varying slice thicknesses. Nodule volumes were estimated from the reconstructed data using a matched-filter and a segmentation approach. Log transformed volumes were used to obtain measurement error with truth obtained through micro-CT. ANOVA and multiple linear regression were applied to measurement error to identify significant factors affecting volume estimation for each method. Root mean square of measurement errors (RMSE) for meaningful subgroups, repeatability coefficients (RC) for different imaging protocols, and reproducibility coefficients (RDC) for thin and thick collimation conditions were evaluated. Results showed that for both methods, nodule size, shape and slice thickness were significant factors. Collimation was significant for the matched-filter method. RMSEs for matched-filter measurements were in general smaller than segmentation. To achieve RMSE on the order of 15% or less for {5, 8, 9, 10mm} nodules, the corresponding maximum allowable slice thicknesses were {3, 5, 5, 5mm} for the matched-filter and {0.8, 3, 3, 3mm} for the segmentation method. RCs showed similar patterns for both methods, increasing with slice thickness. For 8-10mm nodules, the measurements were highly repeatable provided the slice thickness was ≤3mm, regardless of method and across varying acquisition conditions. RDCs were lower for thin collimation than thick collimation protocols. While RDC of matched filter volume estimation results was always lower than segmentation results, for 8-10mm nodules with thin

  14. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  15. Valproic acid inhibits irradiation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell-like characteristics in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kanamoto, Ayako; Ninomiya, Itasu; Harada, Shinichi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Okamoto, Koichi; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Sakai, Seisho; Makino, Isamu; Kinoshita, Jun; Hayashi, Hironori; Oyama, Katsunobu; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Fushida, Sachio; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, and is characterized by poor response to current therapy and a dismal survival rate. In this study we investigated whether irradiation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) TE9 cells and whether the classic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) suppresses these changes. First, we showed that 2 Gy irradiation induced spindle cell-like morphologic changes, decreased expression of membranous E-cadherin, upregulated vimentin expression, and altered the localization of β-catenin from its usual membrane-bound location to cytoplasm in TE9 cells. Irradiation induced upregulation of transcription factors including Slug, Snail, and Twist, which regulate EMT. Stimulation by irradiation resulted in increased TGF-β1 and HIF-1α expression and induced Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, irradiation enhanced CD44 expression, indicating acquisition of cancer stem-like cell properties. In addition, irradiation enhanced invasion and migration ability with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases. These findings indicate that single-dose irradiation can induce EMT in ESCC cells. Second, we found that treatment with 1 mM VPA induced reversal of EMT caused by irradiation in TE9 cells, resulting in attenuated cell invasion and migration abilities. These results suggest that VPA might have clinical value to suppress irradiation-induced EMT. The reversal of EMT by HDAC inhibitors may be a new therapeutic strategy to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy in ESCC by inhibiting the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. PMID:27826618

  16. A Physically Based Correlation of Irradiation-Induced Transition Temperature Shifts for RPV Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Eason, Ernest D.; Odette, George Robert; Nanstad, Randy K; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2007-11-01

    The reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) of commercial nuclear power plants are subject to embrittlement due to exposure to high-energy neutrons from the core, which causes changes in material toughness properties that increase with radiation exposure and are affected by many variables. Irradiation embrittlement of RPV beltline materials is currently evaluated using Regulatory Guide 1.99 Revision 2 (RG1.99/2), which presents methods for estimating the shift in Charpy transition temperature at 30 ft-lb (TTS) and the drop in Charpy upper shelf energy (ΔUSE). The purpose of the work reported here is to improve on the TTS correlation model in RG1.99/2 using the broader database now available and current understanding of embrittlement mechanisms. The USE database and models have not been updated since the publication of NUREG/CR-6551 and, therefore, are not discussed in this report. The revised embrittlement shift model is calibrated and validated on a substantially larger, better-balanced database compared to prior models, including over five times the amount of data used to develop RG1.99/2. It also contains about 27% more data than the most recent update to the surveillance shift database, in 2000. The key areas expanded in the current database relative to the database available in 2000 are low-flux, low-copper, and long-time, high-fluence exposures, all areas that were previously relatively sparse. All old and new surveillance data were reviewed for completeness, duplicates, and discrepancies in cooperation with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee E10.02 on Radiation Effects in Structural Materials. In the present modeling effort, a 10% random sample of data was reserved from the fitting process, and most aspects of the model were validated with that sample as well as other data not used in calibration. The model is a hybrid, incorporating both physically motivated features and empirical calibration to the U.S. power reactor surveillance

  17. Effects of Fe concentration on the ion-irradiation induced defect evolution and hardening in Ni-Fe solid solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Ke; Guo, Wei; Lu, Chenyang; ...

    2016-12-01

    Understanding alloying effects on the irradiation response of structural materials is pivotal in nuclear engineering. In order to systematically explore the effects of Fe concentration on the irradiation-induced defect evolution and hardening in face-centered cubic Ni-Fe binary solid solution alloys, single crystalline Ni-xFe (x = 0–60 at%) alloys have been grown and irradiated with 1.5 MeV Ni ions. The irradiations have been performed over a wide range of fluences from 3 × 1013 to 3 × 1016 cm-2 at room temperature. Ion channeling technique has shown reduced damage accumulation with increasing Fe concentration in the low fluence regime, which ismore » consistent to the results from molecular dynamic simulations. We did not observe any irradiation-induced compositional segregation in atom probe tomography within the detection limit, even in the samples irradiated with high fluence Ni ions. Transmission electron microscopy analyses have further demonstrated that the defect size significantly decreases with increasing Fe concentration, indicating a delay in defect evolution. Furthermore, irradiation induced hardening has been measured by nanoindentation tests. Ni and the Ni-Fe alloys have largely different initial hardness, but they all follow a similar trend for the increase of hardness as a function of irradiation fluence.« less

  18. Effects of Fe concentration on the ion-irradiation induced defect evolution and hardening in Ni-Fe solid solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Guo, Wei; Lu, Chenyang; Ullah, Mohammad W.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.; Wang, Lumin; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-12-01

    Understanding alloying effects on the irradiation response of structural materials is pivotal in nuclear engineering. In order to systematically explore the effects of Fe concentration on the irradiation-induced defect evolution and hardening in face-centered cubic Ni-Fe binary solid solution alloys, single crystalline Ni-xFe (x = 0–60 at%) alloys have been grown and irradiated with 1.5 MeV Ni ions. The irradiations have been performed over a wide range of fluences from 3 × 1013 to 3 × 1016 cm-2 at room temperature. Ion channeling technique has shown reduced damage accumulation with increasing Fe concentration in the low fluence regime, which is consistent to the results from molecular dynamic simulations. We did not observe any irradiation-induced compositional segregation in atom probe tomography within the detection limit, even in the samples irradiated with high fluence Ni ions. Transmission electron microscopy analyses have further demonstrated that the defect size significantly decreases with increasing Fe concentration, indicating a delay in defect evolution. Furthermore, irradiation induced hardening has been measured by nanoindentation tests. Ni and the Ni-Fe alloys have largely different initial hardness, but they all follow a similar trend for the increase of hardness as a function of irradiation fluence.

  19. Cytoplasmic Irradiation Induces Metabolic Shift in Human Small Airway Epithelial Cells via Activation of Pim-1 Kinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Qin; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Zou, Sirui; Hei, Tom K

    2017-02-07

    The unique cellular and molecular consequences of cytoplasmic damage caused by ionizing radiation were studied using a precision microbeam irradiator. Our results indicated that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation induced metabolic shift from an oxidative to glycolytic phenotype in human small airway epithelial cells (SAE). At 24 h postirradiation, there was an increase in the mRNA expression level of key glycolytic enzymes as well as lactate secretion in SAE cells. Using RNA-sequencing analysis to compare genes that were responsive to cytoplasmic versus nuclear irradiation, we found a glycolysis related gene, Pim-1, was significantly upregulated only in cytoplasmic irradiated SAE cells. Inhibition of Pim-1 activity using the selective pharmaceutic inhibitor Smi-4a significantly reduced the level of lactate production and glucose uptake after cytoplasmic irradiation. In addition, Pim-1 also inhibited AMPK activity, which is a well-characterized negative regulator of glycolysis. Distinct from the glycolysis induced by cytoplasmic irradiation, targeted nuclear irradiation also induced a transient and minimal increase in glycolysis that correlated with increased expression of Hif-1α. In an effort to explore the underline mechanism, we found that inhibition of mitochondria fission using the cell-permeable inhibitor mdivi-1 suppressed the induction of Pim-1, thus confirming Pim-1 upregulation as a downstream effect of mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data show and, for the first time, that cytoplasmic irradiation mediate expression level of Pim-1, which lead to glycolytic shift in SAE cells. Additionally, since glycolysis is frequently linked to cancer cell metabolism, our findings further suggest a role of cytoplasmic damage in promoting neoplastic changes.

  20. Deep level transient spectroscopy study of particle irradiation induced defects in n-6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. D.; Gong, M.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.

    2004-03-01

    Neutron and electron irradiation induced deep level defects in n-type 6H-SiC have been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) combined with annealing experiments. Deep levels ED1, E1/E2, Ei, and Z1/Z2 were observed in n-type 6H-SiC material irradiated with neutron. Thermal annealing studies of these deep levels revealed that ED1 and Ei annealed at a temperature below 350^oC, Z1/Z2 levels annealed out at 900^oC, while the intensity of the E1/E2 peaks increased with annealing temperature, reached a maximum at about 500-750^oC, and finally annealed out at 1400^oC. Upon further annealing at 1600^oC, four deep levels labeled NE1 at EC-0.44eV, NE2 EC-0.53eV, NE3 EC-0.64eV, and NE4 EC-0.68eV are produced. Ionization energies of these levels are similar to E1/E2 and Z1/Z2 respectively, but their capture cross sections are different. Samples were irradiated with electrons with different energies ranging from 0.2MeV to 1.7MeV. No deep level was detected in samples irradiated with 0.2MeV electron and deep levels ED1, E1/E2, and Ei were induced with electron energy larger than 0.3MeV.

  1. RelB regulates Bcl-xl expression and the irradiation-induced apoptosis of murine prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, LIANG; ZHU, BIN; YANG, LUOYAN; ZHAO, XIAOKUN; JIANG, HONHYI; MA, FANG

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis in prostate cancer (PCa) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) is believed to play a critical role in radioresistance. Bcl-xl, an important member of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family, has critical roles in tumor progression and development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of Bcl-xl expression and radiosensitivity from murine PCa RM-1 cells. An adenovirus-mediated RNA interference technique was employed to inhibit the expression of the RelB gene. RelB proteins were detected upon irradiation following transfection with small interfering (si)RelB, as shown by western blot analysis. The radiosensitivity of the RM-1 cells was determined by clonogenic assays. The apoptosis of the RM-1 cells were detected by flow cytometry assay, then quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to determine the expression level of Bcl-xl mRNA in the RM-1 cells. Radiation treatment increased the RelB protein levels from the cytosol and nucleus in the RM-1 cells. The protein expression levels of RelB in the pLentilox-sh-RelB-transfected RM-1 cells were significantly lower than in the negative interference group following radiation treatment. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis in the siRelB-RM-1 group was significantly higher than that in the control group following radiation treatment. Finally, a positive link between Bcl-xl expression and RelB activity was established in the RM-1 cells. Inhibition of RelB correlates with a decrease in expression of Bcl-xl. In conclusion, adenovirus-mediated siRNA targeting RelB inhibits Bcl-xl expression, enhances radiosensitivity and regulates the irradiation-induced apoptosis of the murine PCa RM-1 cell line. PMID:24839547

  2. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  3. Assessment of economic factors affecting the satellite power system. Volume 2: The systems implications of rectenna siting issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, P. K.; Bugos, B. J.; Csigi, K. I.; Glaser, P. E.; Schimke, G. R.; Thomas, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility was evaluated of finding potential sites for Solar Power Satellite (SPS) receiving antennas (rectennas) in the continental United States, in sufficient numbers to permit the SPS to make a major contribution to U.S. generating facilities, and to give statistical validity to an assessment of the characteristics of such sites and their implications for the design of the SPS system. It is found that the cost-optimum power output of the SPS does not depend on the particular value assigned to the cost per unit area of a rectenna and its site, as long as it is independent of rectenna area. Many characteristics of the sites chosen affect the optimum design of the rectenna itself.

  4. Assimilation of Cloud- and Land-Affected TOVS/ATOVS Level 1B Radiances in DAO's Next Generation Finite-Volume Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; daSilva, A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Physical-space/Finite-volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS) is the next generation global atmospheric data assimilation system in development at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. It is based on a new finite-volume general circulation model jointly developed by NASA and NCAR, and on the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) developed at the DAO. In this talk we will focus on the assimilation of data from the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), with emphasis on the impact of cloud- and land-affected level 1B radiances. Recently, it has been shown that the use of observations from satellite-borne microwave and infrared radiometers in data assimilation systems consistently increases forecast skill. Considerable effort has been expended over the past two decades, particularly with the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), to achieve this result. The positive impact on forecast skill has resulted from improvements in quality control algorithms, systematic error correction schemes, and more sophisticated data assimilation algorithms. Despite these advances, there are still many issues regarding the use of satellite data in data assimilation systems that remain unresolved. In particular, most operational centers still do not assimilate cloud- and land-affected TOVS data. In this study, we evaluate the impact of assimilating cloud-and land-affected TOVS/ATOVS level 1B data in DAO's next generation fvDAS, using a 1D variational scheme. We will discuss the impact of these data on both tropospheric and stratospheric forecasts, as well as on the general aspects of the earth climate system.

  5. Effect of carbon on irradiation-induced grain-boundary phosphorus segregation in reactor pressure vessel steels using first-principles-based rate theory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Onizawa, Kunio; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we incorporated the effect of carbon atoms on the irradiation-induced grain-boundary phosphorus segregation into the rate theory model by considering a carbon atom as a trap site of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, and simulated the grain-boundary phosphorus coverage in the reactor pressure vessel steels, A533B steels which were neutron-irradiated using the Halden reactor. As a result, by selecting the sink strength of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, the simulation reproduced the experimental grain-boundary phosphorus coverage that was measured using the scanning Auger electron microprobe analysis. It was observed that the grain-boundary phosphorus coverage does not depend on the dose rate regardless of the presence of carbon atoms. Furthermore, it was confirmed that vacancies scarcely transport phosphorus atoms to grain-boundaries as compared to the transport by self-interstitial atoms and it was found that carbon atoms influence the irradiation-induced phosphorus segregation by mainly suppressing the migration of vacancies.

  6. Skin blood flow differentially affects near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume at rest and during dynamic leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Ruddock, Alan D; Saxton, John M

    2010-11-01

    The impact of skin blood flow changes on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) and blood volume has not been fully established. We measured SmO(2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) responses of the right vastus lateralis during rest and dynamic knee extension exercise in ten young, healthy males. The protocol was repeated four times: twice without thigh heating for reliability, and twice with different grades of thigh heating for assessing the impact of cutaneous vasodilation on SmO(2) and Δ[tHb]. The reliability of our SmO(2) and [tHb] measurements was good. Thigh heating at 37 and 42°C caused marked increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during rest and exercise (P < 0.001 between each condition), and small increases in SmO(2) during rest (from 69 ± 8% to 71 ± 7% and 73 ± 6%, respectively; P < 0.05 between each condition), but not during exercise (e.g. 1 min exercise: 51 ± 11% vs. 51 ± 11% and 52 ± 11%, respectively; P > 0.05 at all time points). In contrast, heating-induced increases in %CVC(peak) were accompanied by increases in [tHb] at rest and during exercise and a decrease in Δ[tHb] during exercise (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that NIRS-derived measures of SmO(2) and blood volume are differentially affected by skin blood flow at rest and during exercise. The findings from this study should be considered in NIRS experiments where skin blood flow can change markedly (e.g. high-intensity and/or prolonged exercise).

  7. Regional contribution to ventricular stroke volume is affected on the left side, but not on the right in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ostenfeld, E; Stephensen, S S; Steding-Ehrenborg, K; Heiberg, E; Arheden, H; Rådegran, G; Holm, J; Carlsson, M

    2016-08-01

    To develop more sensitive measures of impaired cardiac function in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), since detection of impaired right ventricular (RV) function is important in these patients. With the hypothesis that a change in septal function in patients with PH is associated with altered longitudinal and lateral function of both ventricles, as a compensatory mechanism, we quantified the contributions of these parameters to stroke volume (SV) in both ventricles using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Seventeen patients (10 females) evaluated for PH underwent right heart catheterization (RHC) and CMR. CMR from 33 healthy adults (13 females) were used as controls. Left ventricular (LV) atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) and corresponding longitudinal contribution to LVSV was lower in patients (10.8 ± 3.2 mm and 51 ± 12 %) compared to controls (16.6 ± 1.9 mm and 59 ± 9 %, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.01, respectively). This decrease did not differ in patient with ejection fraction (EF) >50 % and <50 % (p = 0.5) and was compensated for by increased LV lateral contribution to LVSV in patients (49 ± 13 % vs. 37 ± 7 %, p = 0.001). Septal motion contributed less to LVSV in patients (5 ± 8 %) compared to controls (8 ± 4 %, p = 0.05). RV AVPD was lower in patients (12.0 ± 3.6 mm vs. 21.8 ± 2.2 mm, p < 0.0001) but longitudinal and lateral contribution to RVSV did not differ between patients (78 ± 17 % and 29 ± 16 %) and controls (79 ± 9 % and 31 ± 6 % p = 0.7 for both) explained by increased RV cross sectional area in patients. LV function is affected in patients with PH despite preserved global LV function. The decreased longitudinal contribution and increased lateral contribution to LVSV was not seen in the RV, contrary to previous findings in patients with volume loaded RVs.

  8. Modification of. gamma. -irradiation-induced change in myoglobin by. cap alpha. -mercaptopropionylglycine and its related compounds and the formation of sulfmyoglobin. [/sup 137/Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Motohashi, N.; Mori, I.; Sugiura, Y.; Tanaka, H.

    1981-06-01

    The effect of some sulfhydryl-containing amides in the modification of ..gamma..-irradiation-induced change in myoglobin was investigated, and the results were compared with those for cysteine and cysteamine, and discussed in terms of their chemical structures. An abnormal green pigment, sulfmyoglobin, was formed from metmyoglobin solution by the sulfhydryl-containing amide but not by corresponding mercaptocarboxylic acids. When the metmyoglobin solution was irradiated in the presence of some thiols, the formation of sulfmyoglobin and metsulfmyoglobin was observed. The degree of the formation of sulfymoglobin was found to be dependent on the ability of the thiols to release sulfur. The presence of the -CONH-bond in their molecules seemed to enhance the release of sulfur. The mechanism of the formation of sulfmyoglobin is also discussed.

  9. In vivo radioprotective effects of Nigella sativa L oil and reduced glutathione against irradiation-induced oxidative injury and number of peripheral blood lymphocytes in rats.

    PubMed

    Cemek, Mustafa; Enginar, Hüseyin; Karaca, Turan; Unak, Perihan

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most common therapies for treating human cancers. Several studies have indicated that irradiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play an important role in radiation damage of the cell. It has been shown that Nigella sativa L. (NS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) have both an antiperoxidative effect on different tissues and a scavenger effect on ROS. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant and radio-protective roles of NS and GSH against irradiation-induced oxidative injury in an experimental model. The NS group was administrated NS (1 mL/kg body weight), the GSH group was injected GSH (150 mg/kg body weight) and the control group was given physiologic saline solution (1 mL/kg body weight) for 30 consecutive days before exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy of radiation. Animals were sacrificed after irradiation. Malondialdehyde, nitrate, nitrite (oxidative stress markers) and ascorbic acid, retinol, beta-carotene, GSH and ceruloplasmin (nonenzymatic antioxidant markers) levels and peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured in all groups. There were statistically significant differences between the groups for all parameters (P < 0.05). Whole-body irradiation caused a significant increase in blood malondialdehyde, nitrate and nitrite levels. The blood oxidative stress marker levels in irradiated rats that were pretreated with NS and GSH were significantly decreased; however, non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were significantly increased. Also, our results suggest that NS and GSH administration prior to irradiation prevent the number of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase peripheral blood T lymphocytes from declining. These results clearly show that NS and GSH treatment significantly antagonize the effects of radiation. Therefore, NS and GSH may be a beneficial agent in protection against ionizing radiation-related tissue injury.

  10. Ultraviolet irradiation induces CYR61/CCN1, a mediator of collagen homeostasis, through activation of transcription factor AP-1 in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; Qin, Zhaoping; Xu, Yiru; He, Tianyuan; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2010-06-01

    UV irradiation from the sun elevates the production of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reduces the production of new collagen. This imbalance of collagen homeostasis impairs the structure and function of the dermal collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM), thereby promoting premature skin aging (photoaging). We report here that aberrant dermal collagen homeostasis in UV-irradiated human skin is mediated in part by a CCN-family member, cysteine-rich protein-61 (CYR61/CCN1). CYR61 is significantly elevated in acutely UV-irradiated human skin in vivo, and UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Knockdown of CYR61 significantly attenuates UV irradiation-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and upregulation of MMP-1. Determination of CYR61 mRNA and protein indicates that the primary mechanism of CYR61 induction by UV irradiation is transcriptional. Analysis of CYR61 proximal promoter showed that a sequence conforming to the consensus binding site for transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) is required for promoter activity. UV irradiation increased the binding of AP-1-family members c-Jun and c-Fos to this AP-1 site. Furthermore, functional blockade of c-Jun or knockdown of c-Jun significantly reduced the UV irradiation-induced activation of CYR61 promoter and CYR61 gene expression. These data show that CYR61 is transcriptionally regulated by UV irradiation through transcription factor AP-1, and mediates altered collagen homeostasis that occurs in response to UV irradiation in human skin fibroblasts.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Accumulation in the Rhizomes of Fagopyrum dibotrys and an Irradiation-Induced Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Caixia; Li, Ailian

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Fagopyrum dibotrys is a traditional Chinese medicine that has recently gained attention due to substantial findings regarding its bioactive proanthocyanidin (PA) compounds. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PA accumulation in F. dibotrys remains elusive. We previously obtained an irradiation-induced mutant (RM_R) of F. dibotrys that had a higher PA content compared to that of the wild-type (CK_R). The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying PA accumulation in F. dibotrys by comparing the rhizome transcriptomes of the irradiation-induced mutant and wild-type using RNA-seq analysis. A total of 53,540 unigenes were obtained, of which 29,901 (55.84%) were annotated based on BLAST searches against public databases, and 501 unique sequences were differentially expressed between the two samples, which consisted of 204 up-regulated and 297 down-regulated unigenes. Further analysis showed that the expression patterns of some unigenes encoding enzymes involved in PAs biosynthesis in F. dibotrys rhizomes differed between RM_R and CK_R. In addition, we identified transcription factor families and several cytochrome P450s that may be involved in PA regulation in F. dibotrys. Finally, 12 unigenes that encode PA biosynthetic enzymes were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying radiation-mediated flavonoid accumulation and regulation in F. dibotrys rhizomes. These results will also provide a platform for further functional genomic research on this particular species. PMID:27047386

  12. Intraesophageal Administration of GS-Nitroxide (JP4-039) Protects Against Ionizing Irradiation-induced Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    EPPERLY, MICHAEL W.; GOFF, JULIE P.; LI, SONG; GAO, XIANG; WIPF, PETER; DIXON, TRACY; WANG, HONG; FRANICOLA, DARCY; SHEN, HONGMEI; RWIGEMA, JEAN-CLAUDE M.; KAGAN, VALERIAN; BERNARD, MARK; GREENBERGER, JOEL S.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim This study evaluated esophageal radioprotection by the Gramicidin S (GS) derived-nitroxide, JP4-039, a mitochondrial targeting peptide-isostere covalently-linked to 4-amino-Tempo, delivered in a novel swallowed oil-based (F15) formulation. Materials and Methods C57BL/6HNsd female mice received intraesophageal F15 formulation containing JP4-039 (4 mg/ml in 100 μl volumes) 10 minutes before 28 or 29 Gy upper body irradiation compared to MnSOD-PL (100 μl containing 100 μg plasmid) 24 hours prior to irradiation. Subgroups received 1×107 C57BL/6HNsd, GFP+ male bone marrow cells intravenously 5 days after irradiation. Results JP4-039/F15 or MnSOD-PL increased survival compared to irradiated controls (p<0.0001 for either). Marrow injection further increased survival (p=0.0462 and 0.0351, respectively). Esophagi removed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 24, or 60 days showed bone marrow-derived cells in the esophagi. Conclusion Intraesophageal GS-nitroxide radioprotection is mediated primarily through recovery of endogenous esophageal progenitor cells. PMID:21164038

  13. TERT alleviates irradiation-induced late rectal injury by reducing hypoxia-induced ROS levels through the activation of NF-κB and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yong; Lv, Yuefeng; Le, Ziyu; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment which is present following irradiation has been proven to promote radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is regulated by hypoxia, and that it plays a protective role in the process of wound repair. However, its effects on radiation-induced injury remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of human TERT on irradiation-induced late rectal injury in fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. We also performed in vivo experiments. The rectums of 5-week-old female C57BL/6N mice were irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy. We then examined the fibrotic changes using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson's staining. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and TERT was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro experiments, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the autophagy level induced by exposure to hypoxia were assayed in fibroblasts. The association between TERT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the autophagy level was examined by western blot analysis. The antioxidant effects of TERT were examined on the basis of the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Rectal fibrosis was induced significantly at 12 weeks following irradiation. The HIF-1α and TERT expression levels increased in the fibrotic region. The TERT-overexpressing fibroblasts (transfected with an hTERT-expressing lentiviral vector) exhibited reduced apoptosis, reduced ROS production, a higher autophagy level, a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and stable mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the fibroblasts in which TERT had been silenced by siRNA. NF-κB was activated by TERT, and the inhibition of TERT reduced the autophagy level in the fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that TERT decreases cellular ROS production, while maintaining mitochondrial function and protecting the

  14. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  15. Local ion irradiation-induced resistive threshold and memory switching in Nb2O5/NbO(x) films.

    PubMed

    Wylezich, Helge; Mähne, Hannes; Rensberg, Jura; Ronning, Carsten; Zahn, Peter; Slesazeck, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2014-10-22

    Resistive switching devices with a Nb2O5/NbOx bilayer stack combine threshold and memory switching. Here we present a new fabrication method to form such devices. Amorphous Nb2O5 layers were treated by a krypton irradiation. Two effects are found to turn the oxide partly into a metallic NbOx layer: preferential sputtering and interface mixing. Both effects take place at different locations in the material stack of the device; preferential sputtering affects the surface, while interface mixing appears at the bottom electrode. To separate both effects, devices were irradiated at different energies (4, 10, and 35 keV). Structural changes caused by ion irradiation are studied in detail. After successful electroforming, the devices exhibit the desired threshold switching. In addition, the choice of the current compliance defines whether a memory effect adds to the device. Findings from electrical characterization disclose a model of the layer modification during irradiation.

  16. Low doses of gamma-irradiation induce an early bystander effect in zebrafish cells which is sufficient to radioprotect cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term "bystander effect" is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01-0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors.

  17. Irradiation-induced intermixing effects at the interfaces of titanium and titanium-dioxide thin films and Fe-12%Cr substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairov, A.; Sridharan, K.

    2016-11-01

    Irradiation-induced compositional and structural changes at the interfaces between Fe-12%Cr binary alloy substrate and thin films of titanium and titanium-dioxide have been investigated. Irradiations were performed with 5 MeV Ni2+ ions at 300 °C and 500 °C, up to damage levels of 35 dpa (displacements per atom). For the 300 °C irradiation case, irradiation enhanced the interdiffusion coefficient by a factor over twenty for the titanium film samples, but by a factor of only 1.2 for the titanium dioxide film samples. At 500 °C, significant intermixing was observed in the titanium film samples and resulted in the formation of a wide Fe2Ti reaction zone. For the titanium dioxide film samples, chromium was observed to diffuse into sub-stoichiometric regions of the film. Irradiation caused the formation of chromium-rich nanoprecipitates within the oxide film and promoted a phase transformation in the film from anatase TiO2 to the Ti2O3 phase.

  18. beta-sitosterol decreases irradiation-induced thymocyte early damage by regulation of the intracellular redox balance and maintenance of mitochondrial membrane stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Rong; Zhou, Zhe; Lin, Ru Xin; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Yu Ning; Tian, Lin Lin; Li, Lu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Sheng Qi

    2007-10-15

    Both radiation injury and oxidation toxicity occur when cells are exposed to ion irradiation (IR), ultimately leading to apoptosis. This study was designed to determine the effect of beta-sitosterol (BSS) on early cellular damage in irradiated thymocytes and a possible mechanism of effect on irradiation-mediated activation of the apoptotic pathways. Thymocytes were irradiated (6 Gy) with or without BSS. Cell apoptosis and apoptosis-related proteins were evaluated. BSS decreased irradiation-induced cell death and nuclear DNA strand breaks while attenuating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). BSS decreased the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol and the mitochondrio-nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Furthermore, BSS partially inhibited the radiation-induced increase of cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, and attenuated the activation of JNK and AP-1. In addition, evidence suggests that ROS generated by irradiation are involved in this course of cell damage. The results indicate that BSS confers a radioprotective effect on thymocytes by regulation of the intracellular redox balance which is carried out via the scavenging of ROS and maintenance of mitochondrial membrane stability.

  19. Diallyl disulfide attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced apoptosis in mouse testis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Di, Cui-xia; Han, Lu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Shuai; Mao, Ai-hong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Li, Hong-yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Bing; Miao, Guo-ying

    2015-11-03

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, including anti-cancer effects. However, the protective mechanism of DADS against radiation-induced mouse testis cell apoptosis has not been elucidated. In this study, the magnitude of radiation effects evoked by carbon ion irradiation was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in apoptotic cells, activation expression of p53, up regulation the ratio of pro-apoptotic Tap73/anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, pretreatment with DADS attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced morphology damages and apoptotic cells. Additionally, DADS elevated radiation-induced p53 and p21 expression, suggesting that p53 might be involved in the inhibition of cell cycle progression through up regulation of p21. Furthermore, administration with DADS prevented radiation-induced Tap73/ΔNp73 expression and consequently down regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 expression, indicating that the balance between Tap73 and ΔNp73 had potential to activate p53 responsive genes. Thus, our results showed that radio protection effect of DADS on mouse testis is mediated by blocking apoptosis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that DADS could be used as a potential radio protection agent for the testis against heavy-ion radiation.

  20. Diallyl disulfide attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced apoptosis in mouse testis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Di, Cui-xia; Han, Lu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Shuai; Mao, Ai-hong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Li, Hong-yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Bing; Miao, Guo-ying

    2015-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, including anti-cancer effects. However, the protective mechanism of DADS against radiation-induced mouse testis cell apoptosis has not been elucidated. In this study, the magnitude of radiation effects evoked by carbon ion irradiation was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in apoptotic cells, activation expression of p53, up regulation the ratio of pro-apoptotic Tap73/anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, pretreatment with DADS attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced morphology damages and apoptotic cells. Additionally, DADS elevated radiation-induced p53 and p21 expression, suggesting that p53 might be involved in the inhibition of cell cycle progression through up regulation of p21. Furthermore, administration with DADS prevented radiation-induced Tap73/ΔNp73 expression and consequently down regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 expression, indicating that the balance between Tap73 and ΔNp73 had potential to activate p53 responsive genes. Thus, our results showed that radio protection effect of DADS on mouse testis is mediated by blocking apoptosis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that DADS could be used as a potential radio protection agent for the testis against heavy-ion radiation. PMID:26526304

  1. Gamma-tocopherol-N,N-dimethylglycine ester as a potent post-irradiation mitigator against whole body X-irradiation-induced bone marrow death in mice.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Megumi; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Ikota, Nobuo; Takata, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    We examined the radioprotective and mitigative effects of gamma-tocopherol-N,N-dimethylglycine ester (GTDMG), a novel water-soluble gamma-tocopherol derivative, against X-irradiation-induced bone marrow death in mice. Mice (C3H, 10 weeks, male) were injected intraperitoneally with GTDMG suspended in a 0.5% methyl cellulose solution before or after receiving of 7.5-Gy whole body X-irradiation. GTDMG significantly enhanced the 30-day survival rate when given 30 min before or immediately after the irradiation. Its mitigative activity (administered after exposure) was examined further in detail. The optimal concentration of GTDMG given immediately after irradiation was around 100 mg/kg body weight (bw) and the 30-day survival rate was 97.6 ± 2.4%. When GTDMG was administered 1, 10 and 24 h post-irradiation, the survival rate was 85.7 ± 7.6, 75.0 ± 9.7 and 36.7 ± 8.8%, respectively, showing significant mitigation even at 24 h after irradiation (P < 0.05). The value of the dose reduction factor (100 mg/kg bw, given intraperitoneally (i.p.) immediately after irradiation) was 1.25. GTDMG enhanced the recovery of red blood cell-, white blood cell-, and platelet-counts after irradiation and significantly increased the number of endogenous spleen colonies (P < 0.05). Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration also had mitigative effects. In conclusion, GTDMG is a potent radiation mitigator.

  2. Low Doses of Gamma-Irradiation Induce an Early Bystander Effect in Zebrafish Cells Which Is Sufficient to Radioprotect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term “bystander effect” is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01–0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

  3. Gamma irradiation induces acetylcholine-evoked, endothelium-independent relaxation and activatesk-channels of isolated pulmonary artery of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, Veronique . E-mail: eder@med.univ-tours.fr; Gautier, Mathieu; Boissiere, Julien; Girardin, Catherine; Rebocho, Manuel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of irradiation (R*) on the pulmonary artery (PA). Methods and materials: Isolated PA rings were submitted to gamma irradiation (cesium, 8 Gy/min{sup -1}) at doses of 20 Gy-140 Gy. Rings were placed in an organ chamber, contracted with serotonin (10{sup -4} M 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]), then exposed to acetylcholine (ACh) in incremental concentrations. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) membrane potential was measured with microelectrodes. Results: A high dose of irradiation (60 Gy) increased 5HT contraction by 20%, whereas lower (20 Gy) doses slightly decreased it compared with control. In the absence of the endothelium, 5-HT precontracted rings exposed to 20 Gy irradiation developed a dose-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine (EI-ACh) with maximal relaxation of 60 {+-} 17% (n = 13). This was totally blocked by L-NAME (10{sup -4} M), partly by 7-nitro indazole; it was abolished by hypoxia and iberiotoxin, decreased by tetra-ethyl-ammonium, and not affected by free radical scavengers. In irradiated rings, hypoxia induced a slight contraction which was never observed in control rings. No differences in SMC membrane potential were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated PA rings. Conclusion: Irradiation mediates endothelium independent relaxation by a mechanism involving the nitric oxide pathway and K-channels.

  4. Some molecular/crystalline factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials: molecular surface electrostatic potentials, lattice free space and maximum heat of detonation per unit volume.

    PubMed

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2015-02-01

    We discuss three molecular/crystalline properties that we believe to be among the factors that influence the impact/shock sensitivities of energetic materials (i.e., their vulnerabilities to unintended detonation due to impact or shock). These properties are (a) the anomalously strong positive electrostatic potentials in the central regions of their molecular surfaces, (b) the free space per molecule in their crystal lattices, and (c) their maximum heats of detonation per unit volume. Overall, sensitivity tends to become greater as these properties increase; however these are general trends, not correlations. Nitramines are exceptions in that their sensitivities show little or no variation with free space in the lattice and heat of detonation per unit volume. We outline some of the events involved in detonation initiation and show how the three properties are related to different ones of these events.

  5. Local and national trends in general surgery residents' operative experience: do work hour limitations negatively affect case volume in small community-based programs?

    PubMed

    Markelov, Alexey; Sakharpe, Aniket; Kohli, Harjeet; Livert, David

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to analyze the impact of work hour restrictions on the operative case volume at a small community-based general surgery residency training program and compare changes with the national level. Annual national resident case log data from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) website and case logs of graduating Easton Hospital residents (years 2002-2009) were used for analysis. Weighted average change in total number of cases in our institution was -1.20 (P = 0.52) vs 1.78 (P = 0.07) for the national program average with statistically significant difference on comparison (P = 0.027). We also found significant difference in case volume changes at the national level compared with our institution for the following ACGME defined subcategories: alimentary tract [8.19 (P < 0.01) vs -1.08 (P = 0.54)], abdomen [8.48 (P < 0.01) vs -6.29 (P < 0.01)], breast [1.91 (P = 0.89) vs -3.6 (P = 0.02)], and vascular [4.03 (P = 0.02) vs -3.98 (P = 0.01)]. Comparing the national trend to the community hospital we see that there is total increase in cases at the national level whereas there is a decrease in case volume at the community hospital. These trends can also be followed in ACGME defined subcategories which form the major case load for a general surgical training such as alimentary tract, abdominal, breast, and vascular procedures. We hypothesize that work hour restrictions have been favorable for the larger programs, as these programs were able to better integrate the night float system, restructure their call schedule, and implement institutional modifications which are too resource demanding for smaller training programs.

  6. Protective effects of melatonin against 12C6+ beam irradiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA injury in the mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. H.; Zhang, H.; Wang, X. Y.; Yang, R.; Liu, B.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, W. P.; Feng, H. Y.; Xue, L. G.; Hao, J. F.; Niu, B. T.; Wang, Z. H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to estimate the protective effects of melatonin against radiation-induced brain damages in mice induced by heavy ion beams. Kun-Ming mice were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group, irradiation control group, and three different doses of melatonin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) treated groups. Apart from the normal control group, the other four groups were exposed to whole-body 4.0 Gy carbon ion beam irradiation (approximately 0.5 Gy/min) after i.p. administration of normal saline or melatonin 1 h before irradiation. The oxidative redox status of brain tissue was assessed by measurement of malondiadehyde (MDA) levels, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD, SOD1) and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, SOD2) activities at 8 h after irradiation. DNA damages were determined using the Comet assay and apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were detected by flow cytometric analyses. A dramatic dose-dependent decrease in MDA levels, tail moment, rates of tailing cells, and apoptosis, and a dose-dependent increase in T-SOD and SOD2 activities, in brain tissues in the melatonin-treated groups were detected compared with the irradiation only group. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the percentage of brain cells in the G0/G1 phase decreased significantly, while those in the S and G2/M stage increased dramatically, with mice pretreated with melatonin compared to the irradiation control group. These data indicate that melatonin has protective effects against irradiation-induced brain injury, and that its underlying protective mechanisms may relate to modulation of oxidative stress induced by heavy ionirradiation.

  7. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-07-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats.

  8. Irradiation-Induced Regulation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Six Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lines of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Artman, Tuuli; Schilling, Daniela; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in neo-angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the irradiation-induced regulation of PAI-1 and VEGF in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) cell lines of varying radiation sensitivity. Methods and Materials: Six cell lines derived from SCCHN were investigated in vitro. The colorimetric AlamarBlue assay was used to detect metabolic activity of cell lines during irradiation as a surrogate marker for radiation sensitivity. PAI-1 and VEGF secretion levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 24, 48, and 72 h after irradiation with 0, 2, 6, and 10 Gy. The direct radioprotective effect of exogenous PAI-1 was measured using the clonogenic assay. For regulation studies, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha (HIF-2alpha), or both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha were downregulated using siRNA. Results: Although baseline levels varied greatly, irradiation led to a comparable dose-dependent increase in PAI-1 and VEGF secretion in all six cell lines. Addition of exogenous stable PAI-1 to the low PAI-1-expressing cell lines, XF354 and FaDu, did not lead to a radioprotective effect. Downregulation of TGF-beta1 significantly decreased VEGF secretion in radiation-sensitive XF354 cells, and downregulation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha reduced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion in radiation-resistant SAS cells. Conclusions: Irradiation dose-dependently increased PAI-1 and VEGF secretion in all SCCHN cell lines tested regardless of their basal levels and radiation sensitivity. In addition, TGF-beta1 and HIF-1alpha could be partly responsible for VEGF and PAI-1 upregulation after irradiation.

  9. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection attenuates irradiation-induced brain injury in mice via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway and microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Tong, Fan; Cai, Qian; Chen, Ling-juan; Dong, Ji-hua; Wu, Gang; Dong, Xiao-rong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is the most common and severe adverse effect induced by cranial radiation therapy (CRT). In the present study, we examined the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) on RIBI in mice, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single dose of 20-Gy CRT. The mice were treated with SFI (20 mL·kg-1·d-1, ip) for 4 weeks. Morris water maze test was used to assess the cognitive changes. Evans blue leakage and a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) assay were used to evaluate the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The expression of inflammatory factors and microglial activation in brain tissues were detected using RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Results: CRT caused marked reductions in the body weight and life span of the mice, and significantly impaired their spatial learning. Furthermore, CRT significantly increased the BBB permeability, number of activated microglia, expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, and the levels of phosphorylated p65 and PIDD-CC (the twice-cleaved fragment of p53-induced protein with a death domain) in the brain tissues. Four-week SFI treatment (administered for 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after CRT) not only significantly improved the physical status, survival, and spatial learning in CRT-treated mice, but also attenuated all the CRT-induced changes in the brain tissues. Four-week SFI pretreatment (administered for 4 weeks before CRT) was less effective. Conclusion: Administration of SFI effectively attenuates irradiation-induced brain injury via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway and microglial activation. PMID:26526200

  10. Data quality and practical challenges of thyroid volume assessment by ultrasound under field conditions - observer errors may affect prevalence estimates of goitre

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ultrasonographic estimation of thyroid size has been advocated as being more precise than palpation to diagnose goitre. However, ultrasound also requires technical proficiency. This study was conducted among Saharawi refugees, where goitre is highly prevalent. The objectives were to assess the overall data quality of ultrasound measurements of thyroid volume (Tvol), including the intra- and inter-observer agreement, under field conditions, and to describe some of the practical challenges encountered. Methods In 2007 a cross-sectional study of 419 children (6-14 years old) and 405 women (15-45 years old) was performed on a population of Saharawi refugees with prevalent goitre, who reside in the Algerian desert. Tvol was measured by two trained fieldworkers using portable ultrasound equipment (examiner 1 measured 406 individuals, and examiner 2, 418 individuals). Intra- and inter-observer agreement was estimated in 12 children selected from the study population but not part of the main study. In the main study, an observer error was found in one examiner whose ultrasound images were corrected by linear regression after printing and remeasuring a sample of 272 images. Results The intra-observer agreement in Tvol was higher in examiner 1, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99) compared to 0.86 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.96) in examiner 2. The ICC for inter-observer agreement in Tvol was 0.38 (95% CI: -0.20, 0.77). Linear regression coefficients indicated a significant scaling bias in the original measurements of the AP and ML diameter and a systematic underestimation of Tvol (a product of AP, ML, CC and a constant). The agreement between re-measured and original Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI) was 0.76 (0.71, 0.81). The agreement between re-measured and corrected Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI) was 0.97 (0.96, 0.97). Conclusions An important challenge when using ultrasound to assess thyroid volume under field conditions is to

  11. Study of a High-Yield Cellulase System Created by Heavy-Ion Irradiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger and Mixed Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Hong; Li, Wen-Jian; Liu, Jing; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Dong, Miao-Yin; Wang, Yu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the efficiency of 12C6+ irradiation of Aspergillus niger (A. niger) or mutagenesis via mixed Trichoderma viride (T. viride) culturing as well as a liquid cultivation method for cellulase production via mixed Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) and A. niger culture fermentation. The first mutagenesis approach was employed to optimize yield from a cellulase-producing strain via heavy-ion mutagenesis and high-throughput screening, and the second was to effectively achieve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulase from a mixed culture of mutant T. viride and A. niger. We found that 12C6+-ion irradiation induced changes in cellulase biosynthesis in A. niger but had no effect on the time course of the synthesis. It is notable that the exoglucanases (CBH) activities of A. niger strains H11-1 and H differed (6.71 U/mL vs. 6.01 U/mL) and were significantly higher than that of A. niger mutant H3-1. Compared with strain H, the filter paper assay (FPA), endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) activities of mutant strain H11-1 were increased by 250.26%, 30.26% and 34.91%, respectively. A mixed culture system was successfully optimized, and the best ratio of T. reesei to A. niger was 5:1 for 96 h with simultaneous inoculation. The BGL activity of the mixed culture increased after 72 h. At 96 h, the FPA and BGL activities of the mixed culture were 689.00 and 797.15 U/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of monocultures, which were 408.70 and 646.98 U/mL for T. reesei and 447.29 and 658.89 U/mL for A. niger, respectively. The EG activity of the mixed culture was 2342.81 U/mL, a value that was significantly higher than that of monocultures at 2206.57 U/mL for T. reesei and 1727.62 U/mL for A. niger. In summary, cellulose production and hydrolysis yields were significantly enhanced by the proposed combination scheme. PMID:26656155

  12. Heavy ion irradiation-induced microstructural evolution in pyrochlore Lu{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} at room temperature and 723 K

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Q.R.; Zhang, J. Dong, X.N.; Guo, Q.X.; Li, N.

    2015-11-15

    Polycrystalline pyrochlore Lu{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} pellets were irradiated with 600 keV Kr{sup 3+} at room temperature and 723 K to a fluence of 4×10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to an average ballistic damage dose of 10 displacements per atom in the peak damage region. Irradiation-induced microstructural evolution was examined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Incomplete amorphization was observed in the sample irradiated at room temperature due to the formation of nano-crystal which has the identical structure of pyrochlore, and the formation of nano-crystal is attributed to the mechanism of epitaxial recrystallization. However, an ordered pyrochlore phase to a swelling disordered fluorite phase transformation is occurred for the Lu{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} sample irradiated at 723 K, which is due to the disordering of metal cations and anion vacancies. - Graphical Abstract: Polycrystalline pyrochlore Lu{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} pellets were irradiated with 600 keV Kr{sup 3+} to a fluence of 4×10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature and 723 K, Incomplete amorphization was observed in the sample irradiated at room temperature due to the formation of nano-crystal. However, an ordered pyrochlore phase to a swelling disordered fluorite phase transformation is occurred for the Lu{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} sample irradiated at 723 K, which is due to the disordering of metal cations and anion vacancies. - Highlights: Pyrochlore Lu{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} pellets were irradiated by heavy ions at RT and 723 K. At RT irradiation, ~75% of amorphization was achieved. The nano-crystals were formed in the damage layer at RT irradiation. The formed nano-crystals enhanced the radiation tolerance of Lu{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. A pyrochlore to fluorite phase transformation was observed at 723 K irradiation.

  13. Assessment of alterations in X-ray irradiation-induced DNA damage of glioma cells by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Xu, Yanjie; Shi, Wenqi; Li, Fuyan; Zeng, Qingshi; Yi, Cui

    2017-03-01

    Glioma is one of the most common types of brain tumors. DNA damage is closely associated with glioma cell apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation. Alterations of metabolites in glioma can be detected noninvasively by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. To noninvasively explore the micro mechanism in X-ray irradiation-induced apoptosis, the relationship between metabolites and DNA damage in glioma cells was investigated. Three glioma cell lines (C6, U87 and U251) were randomly designated as control (0Gy) and treatment groups (1, 5, 10, 15Gy). After X-ray exposure, each group was separated into four parts: (i) to detect metabolites by 1H NMR spectroscopy; (ii) to make cell colonies; (iii) to detect cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rate by flow cytometry; and (iv) to measure DNA damage by comet assay. The metabolite ratios of lactate/creatine and succinate/creatine decreased (lactate/creatine: C6, 22.17-66.27%; U87, 15.93-44.56%; U251, 26.27-74.48%. succinate/creatine: C6, 14.41-48.35%; U87, 22.03-70.62%; U251, 17.33-60.06%) and choline/creatine increased (C6, 52.22-389.68%; U87, 56.15-82.36%; U251, 31.87-278.62%) in the treatment groups compared with the control group (each P<0.05), which linearly depended on DNA damage. An increasing dose of X-ray irradiation increased numbers of apoptotic cells (P<0.01), and the DNA damage parameters were dose-dependent (P<0.05). The colony-forming rate declined (P<0.01) and the percentage of cells at G1 stage increased when exposed to 1Gy X-ray (three cell lines, P<0.05). Metabolite alterations detected by 1H NMR spectroscopy can be used to determine DNA damage induced by X-ray irradiation. 1H NMR spectroscopy is a noninvasive method to predict DNA damage of glioma cell at the micro level.

  14. Study of a High-Yield Cellulase System Created by Heavy-Ion Irradiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger and Mixed Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Yang; Jiang, Bo-Ling; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Ji-Hong; Li, Wen-Jian; Liu, Jing; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Dong, Miao-Yin; Wang, Yu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the efficiency of 12C6+ irradiation of Aspergillus niger (A. niger) or mutagenesis via mixed Trichoderma viride (T. viride) culturing as well as a liquid cultivation method for cellulase production via mixed Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) and A. niger culture fermentation. The first mutagenesis approach was employed to optimize yield from a cellulase-producing strain via heavy-ion mutagenesis and high-throughput screening, and the second was to effectively achieve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulase from a mixed culture of mutant T. viride and A. niger. We found that 12C6+-ion irradiation induced changes in cellulase biosynthesis in A. niger but had no effect on the time course of the synthesis. It is notable that the exoglucanases (CBH) activities of A. niger strains H11-1 and H differed (6.71 U/mL vs. 6.01 U/mL) and were significantly higher than that of A. niger mutant H3-1. Compared with strain H, the filter paper assay (FPA), endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) activities of mutant strain H11-1 were increased by 250.26%, 30.26% and 34.91%, respectively. A mixed culture system was successfully optimized, and the best ratio of T. reesei to A. niger was 5:1 for 96 h with simultaneous inoculation. The BGL activity of the mixed culture increased after 72 h. At 96 h, the FPA and BGL activities of the mixed culture were 689.00 and 797.15 U/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of monocultures, which were 408.70 and 646.98 U/mL for T. reesei and 447.29 and 658.89 U/mL for A. niger, respectively. The EG activity of the mixed culture was 2342.81 U/mL, a value that was significantly higher than that of monocultures at 2206.57 U/mL for T. reesei and 1727.62 U/mL for A. niger. In summary, cellulose production and hydrolysis yields were significantly enhanced by the proposed combination scheme.

  15. Overexpression of phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase in human dermal fibroblasts abrogates UVA irradiation-induced expression of interstitial collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase-1 by suppression of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide-mediated NFkappaB activation and interleukin-6 release.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Jutta; Schüller, Jutta; Hinrichs, Christina; Syrovets, Tatjana; Azoitei, Ninel; Podda, Maurizio; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Brenneisen, Peter; Schneider, Lars-A; Sabiwalsky, Andrea; Peters, Thorsten; Sulyok, Silke; Dissemond, Joachim; Schauen, Matthias; Krieg, Thomas; Wirth, Thomas; Simmet, Thomas; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2004-10-29

    Phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) exhibits high specific activity in reducing phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PCOOHs) and thus may play a central role in protecting the skin against UV irradiation-triggered detrimental long term effects like cancer formation and premature skin aging. Here we addressed the role of PHGPx in the protection against UV irradiation-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). For this purpose, we created human dermal fibroblast cell lines overexpressing human PHGPx. Overexpression led to a significant increase in PHGPx activity. In contrast to a maximal 4.5-fold induction of specific MMP-1 mRNA levels in vector-transfected cells at 24 h after UVA irradiation, no MMP-1 induction occurred at any studied time point after UVA treatment of PHGPx-overexpressing fibroblasts. As interleukin-6 (IL-6) was earlier shown to mediate the UVA induction of MMP-1, we studied whether PHGPx overexpression might interfere with the NFkappaB-mediated IL-6 induction and downstream signaling. Using transient transfections of IL-6 promoter constructs containing NFkappaB binding sites, we observed a high induction of the reporter gene luciferase in vector-transfected control cells and a significantly lower induction in PHGPx-overexpressing fibroblasts following UVA irradiation. Consistently both UVA irradiation and treatment of fibroblasts with PCOOHs led to phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, whereas cells overexpressing PHGPx exhibited impaired NFkappaB activation, p65 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation. In line with this, the PHGPx-overexpressing fibroblasts showed a reduced constitutive and UVA irradiation-induced IL-6 release. After incubating PHGPx-overexpressing cells with PCOOHs a reduced induction of IL-6 was observed. This together with the suppression of UVA irradiation-induced IL-6 release in the presence of Trolox, a chain breaker of PCOOH-initiated lipid peroxidation

  16. Can proctoring affect the learning curve of robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty? Experience at a high-volume pediatric robotic surgery center.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Diana K; Lindgren, Bruce W; Cheng, Earl Y; Gong, Edward M

    2017-03-01

    We sought to determine if the learning curve in pediatric robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) for an experienced open surgeon (OS) converting to robotics would be affected by proctoring from an experienced robotic surgeon (RS), and/or the experience of training within the framework of an established robotics program. We reviewed pediatric RALP cases by three surgeons at our institution, including the OS, RS, and a new fellowship-trained surgeon (FTS). We compared the first eight independent RALPs for the OS with the most recent ten RALPs for the RS. As an ancillary analysis, to isolate the impact of proctoring and of a robotics program, we reviewed the first ten cases of the FTS as well the first and last eight cases of the RS at a prior institution. A total of 44 patient charts were reviewed, with a mean follow-up time of 16 months (range 6.7-45 months). Radiologic improvement was seen in all patients with the exception of one who required reoperative pyeloplasty. The FTS, RS, and OS had similar mean operative times; however; when comparing robotic cases at the beginning of each of their learning curves, shorter operative times were achieved by the proctored surgeon (OS). Finally, comparing two RALP cohorts by the RS at his prior institution revealed longer operative times with an inexperienced robotics team. We demonstrate that an experienced open surgeon and fellowship-trained surgeon can quickly attain levels of expertise with pediatric RALP within an established robotic surgical program.

  17. 100 MeV O{sup 7+} irradiation induced red shift in the band gaps of 3 wt% 'Li' doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kovendhan, M. Mohan, R.; Joseph, D. Paul; Manimuthu, P.; Venkateswaran, C.; Vijayarangamuthu, K.; Asokan, K.

    2014-04-24

    Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Li (3 wt%) thin film of thickness 353 nm spray deposited onto ITO coated glass substrate at 350 °C is irradiated with 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ion at a fluence of 5×10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction shows that the pristine and irradiated films are polycrystalline with a tetragonal phase. Raman peaks suppressed upon irradiation imply large surface degradation which is also seen as a decrement in transparency in visible region to one half of the pristine film. Large red shift is observed in direct and indirect band gaps upon irradiation. Hall effect reveals slight increase in carrier concentration due to irradiation induced defects.

  18. 200 MeV silver ion irradiation induced structural modification in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} thin films at 89 K: An in situ x-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, R.; Dash, B. N.; Mishra, N. C.; John, J.; Raychaudhuri, P.; Mallick, P.; Kulriya, P. K.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Behera, D.; Mohanty, T.

    2009-09-01

    We report in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of 200 MeV Ag ion irradiation induced structural modification in c-axis oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} (YBCO) thin films at 89 K. The films remained c-axis oriented up to a fluence of 2x10{sup 13} ions cm{sup -2}, where complete amorphization sets in. The amorphous ion tracks, the strained region around these tracks, and irradiation induced point defects are shown to control the evolution of the structure with ion fluence. Secondary electrons emanating from the ion paths are shown to create point defects in a cylindrical region of 97 nm radius, which corresponds to their maximum range in the YBCO medium. The point defects are created exclusively in the CuO basal planes of fully oxygenated YBCO, which has not been possible, by other techniques including low energy ion irradiation and thermal quenching. The point defects led to a faster decrease in the integral intensity of XRD peaks at very low fluences of irradiation (PHI<=3x10{sup 10} ions cm{sup -2}) than what can be expected from amorphous tracks. The radius of amorphous ion tracks, estimated from the fluence dependence of integral XRD peak intensity beyond this fluence, was found to be 1.9 nm. Both point defect and the strained region around amorphous ion tracks are shown to contribute to the increase in the c-parameter at 89 K. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of XRD peaks arising mostly due to the strained region around the ion tracks showed an incubation effect up to 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup -2}, before increasing at higher fluences. Fluence dependence of FWHM gives the cross section of the strained region as 37.9 nm{sup 2}, which is more than three times the cross section of the amorphous ion tracks.

  19. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (αij) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.18 to -4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.81 to -7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  20. Irradiation-induced amorphization and order-disorder transformation in the tungsten delta-phase oxides Yb6W1O12 and Y6W1O12

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Ming; Uberuaga, Blas; Valdez, James; Sickafus, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Polycrystalline Yb{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12} and Y{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12} samples, which possess rhombohedral symmetry (structure known as the {delta}-phase, closely related to cubic fluorite structure), were irradiated with 280 keV Kr{sup ++} ions to fluences up to 2 x 10{sup 20} ions/m{sup 2} at cryogenic temperature (100 K). Ion irradiation damage effects in these samples were examined using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Irradiation-induced amorphization in both compounds has been observed by GIXRD and TEM, while the amorphization dose for Yb{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12} is lower than that for Yb{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12}. Experimental results also revealed that both irradiated samples experience an ordered rhombohedral to disordered cubic fluorite (O-D) transformation before amorphization. Factors influencing the irradiation damage response of these two compounds will be discussed in terms of cation radius ratio and cation antisite formation energy calculated by density functional theory (DFT).

  1. Spontaneous and irradiation-induced tumor susceptibility in BRCA2 germline mutant mice and cooperative effects with a p53 germline mutation.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Kimberly A; Houle, Christopher D; Malphurs, Jason; Ward, Toni; Collins, N Keith; Gersch, William; Wharey, Laura; Seely, John C; Betz, Laura; Bennett, L Michelle; Wiseman, Roger W; Davis, Barbara J

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in both p53 and BRCA2 are commonly seen together in human tumors suggesting that the loss of both genes enhances tumor development. To elucidate this interaction in an animal model, mice lacking the carboxy terminal domain of Brca2 were crossed with p53 heterozygous mice. Females from this intercross were then irradiated with an acute dose of 5 Gy ionizing radiation at 5 weeks of age and compared to nonirradiated controls. We found decreased survival and timing of tumor onsets, and significantly higher overall tumor incidences and prevalence of particular tumors, including stomach tumors and squamous cell carcinomas, associated with the homozygous loss of Brca2, independent of p53 status. The addition of a p53 mutation had a further impact on overall survival, incidence of osteosarcomas and stomach tumors, and tumor latency. The spectrum of tumors observed for this Brca2 germline mouse model suggest that it faithfully recapitulates some human disease phenotypes associated with BRCA2 loss. In addition, these findings include extensive in vivo data demonstrating that germline Brca2 and p53 mutations cooperatively affect animal survivals, tumor susceptibilities, and tumor onsets.

  2. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-eight. Oklahoma. Final report of a study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Oklahoma governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities, Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One: An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  4. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, L. L.; Hay, J. C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides the properties of bulk stoichiometric silicon carbide which has been amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60°C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 × 10 25 n/m 2. Amorphization was seen in both materials as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density (-10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique (-45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation (-45%), and standard Vickers hardness (-24%). Similar property changes are observed for the amorphized CVD SiC. Using measured thermal conductivity data for the CVD SiC sample, the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than ˜125°C.

  5. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 {times} 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density ({minus}10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique ({minus}45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation ({minus}45%), and standard Vickers hardness ({minus}24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C.

  6. How Might the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 Affect the Financial Viability of Rural Pharmacies? An Analysis of Preimplementation Prescription Volume and Payment Sources in Rural and Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraher, Erin P.; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Smith, Laura; Randolph, Randy; Rudolf, Matthew; Holmes, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Passage of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) has created interest in how the legislation will affect access to prescription drugs among rural beneficiaries. Policy attention has focused to a much lesser degree on the implications of the MMA for the financial viability of rural pharmacies. This article…

  7. Advances In Librarianship. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Melvin J., Ed.

    The authors of this second volume provide a composite contribution to a broader understanding of some of the major topics affecting libraries and their operation today. These contributions are in keeping with the aim of the series of providing scholarly reviews of specific topics related to the rapidly changing and advancing field of…

  8. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  9. Determinants of pulmonary blood volume

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Milena L.; Gnoj, Julian; Fisher, Vincent J.; Christianson, Lynn C.

    1970-01-01

    Pulmonary blood volume was determined by the radiocardiographic technique in 49 patients coming to cardiac catheterization. Since this method has not been directly compared with the more commonly used double injection of dye. 25 comparisons were carried out in 13 patients of the series. Agreement was good over a range of 4.5-21.1 heart cycles since there was no statistically significant difference between transit time values measured by the two methods. The relation of pulmonary blood volume to other hemodynamic factors in these 49 patients, with and without cardiac or pulmonary disease, was evaluated by means of multiple regression analysis. The analysis carried out for mean transit time indicates that this parameter varies predominately with flow. Pulmonary blood volume, in this series of resting recumbent individuals, varies to a significant degree only with total blood volume and with pulmonary venous pressure. No parameters of vascular distensibility, such as pulmonary vascular resistance, were found to affect the volume of blood in the lungs. The fact that variations in pulmonary blood volume among the subjects could be described by a multiple regression equation linear with respect to total blood volume and pulmonary venous pressure indicates that these variations are the result of passive distention of components of the vascular bed. PMID:4902826

  10. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part C, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 5: A summary of information concerning historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    DaMassa, C.L.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    A significant number of information sources have been identified that are relevant to historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation. The information that has been reviewed as part of this Task 5 investigation has shown that numerous residences and farms have historically been present near the ORR boundary and that a variety of land uses and recreational activities have been practiced. Based on this information alone, it would appear that many routes of off-site exposure could have been plausible. Most of the available published information addresses demographic and land use data on a regional or county-wide basis over fairly broad time periods. The information sources that are most readily available do not support direct evaluation of potential exposure pathways at specific geographic locations near the Oak Ridge facilities at specific points in time. A number of information sources have been identified that can provide demography and land use information more specific to locations and time periods that are identified to be of interest. Examples of data sources in this category include individual USGS topographic maps, aerial photographs, lowest-level census tract data, and interviews with long-time local residents. However, specific release events and periods of interest should be identified prior to attempts to collect more specific demographic or land use information for actual dose reconstruction.

  11. Flex bearing UUEC, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapper, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    This volume, Volume 2, of this Flex Bearing UUEC Final Report documents findings and data pertaining to Team B's tasks. Team B was organized as one of two sub-teams of the Unplanned/Unintended Event or Condition (UUEC) board established per InterOffice Memorandum (IOM) A100-FY93-072. Team A determined the cause of the unacceptable unbonds (referred to as 'heat-affect' unbonds), including the initial, light rust film, in the FSM #3 flex bearing was overheating of the Forward End Ring (FER) during cure, specifically in zone 8 of the mold. Team A's findings are documented in Volume 1 of this report. Team B developed flight rationale for existing bearings, based on absence or presence of an unpropitious unbond condition like that in FSM #3's flex bearing.

  12. Irrigation timing and volume affects growth of container grown maples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container nursery production requires large inputs of water and nutrients but frequently irrigation inputs exceed plant demand and lack application precision or are not applied at optimal times for plant production. The results from this research can assist producers in developing irrigation manage...

  13. Multivariate volume rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  14. [Volume replenishment in haemorrhage: caution advised].

    PubMed

    Kooter, Albertus J; Zweegman, Sonja; Smulders, Yvo M

    2011-01-01

    Acute haemorrhage is a frequent problem in medicine. Patients with acute bleeding may present with signs of hypotension and reduced organ perfusion. The physician's reflex action is often to treat such patients with intravenous volume replenishment using colloid or cristalloid liquids. Intravenous volume replenishment has, however, a downside: it increases the tendency to bleed and therefore can increase blood loss. Previous clinical observations and experimental animal and human studies addressing volume replenishment in haemorrhagic shock have repeatedly shown that accepting hypotension favourably affects prognosis. However, relevant practice guidelines, such as for gastrointestinal bleeding, usually advise liberal intravenous volume replenishment if hypotension is present. In this article we advocate caution when considering intravenous blood volume adjustment in haemorrhage.

  15. The volume change during solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rittich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid-solid phase transformation of solidifying metallic melts is accompanied by a volume change Delta-Vm. This volume change produces a gravity-independent microscopic flow near the solidification front. In a ground-based laboratory, solidification processes are also affected by convection due to temperature and concentration gradients. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of these flows on the formation of structure requires reproducible values of Delta-Vm. Alloys with Delta-Vm = 0 would be best suited for such an evaluation, while alloys with a constant value for Delta-Vm are still usable. Another requirement is related to a solidus-liquidus interval which is as small as possible. One-phase alloys, which would be particularly well suited, could not be found. For these reasons, alloys which solidify in two phases, as for example eutectics, have been considered, taking into account the Al-Ge system. Attention is given to the volume change at the melting point, the measurement of this change, the volume change at solidification, and applications to terrestrial technology.

  16. Direct interval volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Weiskopf, Daniel; Carr, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    We extend direct volume rendering with a unified model for generalized isosurfaces, also called interval volumes, allowing a wider spectrum of visual classification. We generalize the concept of scale-invariant opacity—typical for isosurface rendering—to semi-transparent interval volumes. Scale-invariant rendering is independent of physical space dimensions and therefore directly facilitates the analysis of data characteristics. Our model represents sharp isosurfaces as limits of interval volumes and combines them with features of direct volume rendering. Our objective is accurate rendering, guaranteeing that all isosurfaces and interval volumes are visualized in a crack-free way with correct spatial ordering. We achieve simultaneous direct and interval volume rendering by extending preintegration and explicit peak finding with data-driven splitting of ray integration and hybrid computation in physical and data domains. Our algorithm is suitable for efficient parallel processing for interactive applications as demonstrated by our CUDA implementation.

  17. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Brain Volumes and Changes in Brain Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Bryan, R. Nick; Goveas, Joseph S.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Siddiqui, Mustafa S.; Liu, Simin; Hogan, Patricia E.; Casanova, Ramon; Coker, Laura H.; Yaffe, Kristine; Masaki, Kamal; Rossom, Rebecca; Resnick, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study how type 2 diabetes adversely affects brain volumes, changes in volume, and cognitive function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Regional brain volumes and ischemic lesion volumes in 1,366 women, aged 72–89 years, were measured with structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Repeat scans were collected an average of 4.7 years later in 698 women. Cross-sectional differences and changes with time between women with and without diabetes were compared. Relationships that cognitive function test scores had with these measures and diabetes were examined. RESULTS The 145 women with diabetes (10.6%) at the first MRI had smaller total brain volumes (0.6% less; P = 0.05) and smaller gray matter volumes (1.5% less; P = 0.01) but not white matter volumes, both overall and within major lobes. They also had larger ischemic lesion volumes (21.8% greater; P = 0.02), both overall and in gray matter (27.5% greater; P = 0.06), in white matter (18.8% greater; P = 0.02), and across major lobes. Overall, women with diabetes had slightly (nonsignificant) greater loss of total brain volumes (3.02 cc; P = 0.11) and significant increases in total ischemic lesion volumes (9.7% more; P = 0.05) with time relative to those without diabetes. Diabetes was associated with lower scores in global cognitive function and its subdomains. These relative deficits were only partially accounted for by brain volumes and risk factors for cognitive deficits. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is associated with smaller brain volumes in gray but not white matter and increasing ischemic lesion volumes throughout the brain. These markers are associated with but do not fully account for diabetes-related deficits in cognitive function. PMID:22933440

  18. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  19. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization.

  20. Variable volume combustor

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  1. A geometric analysis of mastectomy incisions: Optimizing intraoperative breast volume

    PubMed Central

    Chopp, David; Rawlani, Vinay; Ellis, Marco; Johnson, Sarah A; Buck, Donald W; Khan, Seema; Bethke, Kevin; Hansen, Nora; Kim, John YS

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The advent of acellular dermis-based tissue expander breast reconstruction has placed an increased emphasis on optimizing intraoperative volume. Because skin preservation is a critical determinant of intraoperative volume expansion, a mathematical model was developed to capture the influence of incision dimension on subsequent tissue expander volumes. METHODS: A mathematical equation was developed to calculate breast volume via integration of a geometrically modelled breast cross-section. The equation calculates volume changes associated with excised skin during the mastectomy incision by reducing the arc length of the cross-section. The degree of volume loss is subsequently calculated based on excision dimensions ranging from 35 mm to 60 mm. RESULTS: A quadratic relationship between breast volume and the vertical dimension of the mastectomy incision exists, such that incrementally larger incisions lead to a disproportionally greater amount of volume loss. The vertical dimension of the mastectomy incision – more so than the horizontal dimension – is of critical importance to maintain breast volume. Moreover, the predicted volume loss is more profound in smaller breasts and primarily occurs in areas that affect breast projection on ptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to model the relationship between the vertical dimensions of the mastectomy incision and subsequent volume loss. These geometric principles will aid in optimizing intra-operative volume expansion during expander-based breast reconstruction. PMID:22654531

  2. Unsteady flow volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  3. Kinesics of Affective Instability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dil, Nasim

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the rationale of studying kinesics of affective instability, describes the phenonmenon of affective instability, examines the role of kinesics in the overall process of communication, and presents three case studies. (Author/AM)

  4. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  5. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  6. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody

    PubMed Central

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity. PMID:27802287

  7. Resonance microwave volume plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Misakyan, M. A.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M.; Lee, Young Dong

    2007-07-15

    A conceptual design of a microwave gas-discharge plasma source is described. The possibility is considered of creating conditions under which microwave energy in the plasma resonance region would be efficiently converted into the energy of thermal and accelerated (fast) electrons. Results are presented from interferometric and probe measurements of the plasma density in a coaxial microwave plasmatron, as well as the data from probe measurements of the plasma potential and electron temperature. The dynamics of plasma radiation was recorded using a streak camera and a collimated photomultiplier. The experimental results indicate that, at relatively low pressures of the working gas, the nonlinear interaction between the microwave field and the inhomogeneous plasma in the resonance region of the plasmatron substantially affects the parameters of the ionized gas in the reactor volume.

  8. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  9. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  10. Volume of a laser-induced microjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Sennosuke; Hayasaka, Keisuke; Noguchi, Yuto; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Needle-free injection systems are of great importance for medical treatments. In spite of their great potential, these systems are not commonly used. One of the common problems is strong pain caused by diffusion shape of the jet. To solve this problem, the usage of a high-speed highly-focused microjet as needle-free injection system is expected. It is thus crucial to control important indicators such as ejected volume of the jet for its safe application. We conduct experiments to reveal which parameter influences mostly the ejected volume. In the experiments, we use a glass tube of an inner diameter of 500 micro-meter, which is filled with the liquid. One end is connected to a syringe and the other end is opened. Radiating the pulse laser instantaneously vapors the liquid, followed by the generation of a shockwave. We find that the maximum volume of a laser-induced bubble is approximately proportional to the ejected volume. It is also found that the occurrence of cavitation does not affect the ejected volume while it changes the jet velocity.

  11. Melatonin protects rat liver against irradiation-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Koc, Mehmet; Taysi, Seyithan; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin; Bakan, Nuri

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant roles of different doses of melatonin (5 and 10 mg x kg (-1) ) against gamma-irradiation-caused oxidative damage in liver tissue after total body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6.0 Gy. Fifty adult rats were divided into 5 equal groups, 10 rats each. Groups I and II were injected with 5 and 10 mg x kg (-1) of melatonin, and group III was injected with an isotonic NaCl solution. Group IV was injected with only 5 mg x kg (-1) of melatonin. Group V was reserved as a sham control. Following a 30-min-period, 6.0 Gy TBI was given to groups 1, 2 and 3 in a single fraction. The liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in all groups. TBI resulted in a significant increase in the liver tissue MDA levels and a decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities. The results demonstrated that the liver tissue MDA levels in irradiated rats that were pretreated with melatonin (5 or 10 mg x kg (-1) ) were significantly decreased, while the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased. Decreasing the MDA levels by melatonin was dose dependent, but the liver tissue SOD and GSH activities were not. The data obtained in this study suggest that melatonin administration prior to irradiation may prevent liver damage by irradiation.

  12. Electron-irradiation-induced crystallization of amorphous orthophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, A.; Ewing, R.C.; Boatner, L.A.

    1996-12-01

    Amorphous LaPO{sub 4}, EuPO{sub 4}, GdPO{sub 4}, ScPO{sub 4}, and fluorapatite [Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] were irradiated by electron beam in a TEM. Irradiations were done at -150 to 300 C, 80 to 200 keV, and current densities from 0.3 to 16 A/cm{sup 2}. In all cases, the materials crystallized to form a randomly oriented polycrystalline assemblage. Crystallization is driven dominantly by inelastic processes, although ballistic collisions with target nuclei can be important above 175 keV, particularly in apatite. Using a high current density, crystallization is so fast that continuous lines of crystallites can be ``drawn`` on the amorphous matrix.

  13. Irradiation-induced heterogeneous nucleation in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Garcia, P.; Sabathier, C.; Van Brutzel, L.; Dorado, B.; Garrido, F.; Maillard, S.

    2010-07-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the first stages of defect cluster formation resulting from 10 keV displacement cascades in uranium dioxide. Nanometre size cavities and dislocation loops are shown to appear as a result of the irradiation process. A specifically designed TEM experiment involving He implanted thin foils have also been carried out to support this modelling work. These results, in conjunction with several other observations taken from the literature of ion implanted or neutron irradiated uranium dioxide, suggest a radiation damage controlled heterogeneous mechanism for insoluble fission product segregation in UO 2.

  14. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-08

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond.

  15. A revised description of graphite irradiation induced creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Mark A.; Bradford, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The UK fleet of advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR) have been operating for a substantial period of time and rely on data obtained from material test reactor (MTR) programs, dating back to the 1960s and through to the end of the 1980s, to support current and future operation. Historically an empirical approach to the irradiation behaviour of graphite has been used and, due to the nature of the available MTR data and the lack of a consistent set of data containing all the relevant measurements, this is still largely the case at present. Differences in interpretation of the available MTR data can have a significant impact on the assessed integrity of core components. Consequently, a thorough review of the basis of the current models is being carried out, and new models are being developed as necessary. This paper presents some new interpretations of the available low fluence MTR data for irradiation creep and application of a revised model to some high fluence MTR data.

  16. Irradiation-induced composition patterns in binary solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Santosh; El-Azab, Anter

    2013-09-28

    A theoretical/computational model for the irradiation-driven compositional instabilities in binary solid solutions has been developed. The model is suitable for investigating the behavior of structural alloys and metallic nuclear fuels in a reactor environment as well as the response of alloy thin films to ion beam irradiation. The model is based on a set of reaction-diffusion equations for the dynamics of vacancies, interstitials, and lattice atoms under irradiation. The dynamics of these species includes the stochastic generation of defects by collision cascades as well as the defect reactions and diffusion. The atomic fluxes in this model are derived based on the transitions of lattice defects. The set of reaction-diffusion equations are stiff, hence a stiffly stable method, also known as the Gear method, has been used to numerically approximate the equations. For the Cu-Au alloy in the solid solution regime, the model results demonstrate the formation of compositional patterns under high-temperature particle irradiation, with Fourier space properties (Fourier spectrum, average wavelength, and wavevector) depending on the cascade damage characteristics, average composition, and irradiation temperature.

  17. Irradiation-induced patterning in dilute Cu-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumphy, B.; Chee, S. W.; Vo, N. Q.; Averback, R. S.; Bellon, P.; Ghafari, M.

    2014-10-01

    Compositional patterning in dilute Cu1-xFex (x ≈ 12%) induced by 1.8 MeV Kr+ irradiation was studied as a function of temperature using atom probe tomography. Irradiation near room temperature led to homogenization of the sample, whereas irradiation at 300 °C and above led to precipitation and macroscopic coarsening. Between these two temperatures the irradiated alloys formed steady state patterns of composition where precipitates grew to a fixed size. The size in this regime increased somewhat with temperature. It was also observed that the steady state concentrations of Fe in Cu matrix and Cu in the Fe precipitates both greatly exceeded their equilibrium solubilities, with the degree of supersaturation in each phase decreasing with increasing temperature. In the macroscopic coarsening regime, the Fe-rich precipitates showed indications of a “cherry-pit” structure, with Cu precipitates forming within the Fe precipitates. In the patterning regime, interfaces between Fe-rich precipitates and the Cu-rich matrix were irregular and diffuse.

  18. Study of neutron irradiation-induced colors in Brazilian topaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, A. S.; Krambrock, K.; Ribeiro, L. G. M.; Menezes, M. Â. B. C.; Vermaercke, P.; Sneyers, L.

    2007-09-01

    In this work, preliminary results of the investigation of the coloring mechanisms in topaz from different regions of Brazil, irradiated by the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 and BR1 nuclear reactors of the CDTN/CNEN (Brazil) and SCK.CEN(Belgium), respectively, are presented . The samples were analyzed by the k0-NAA method for impurities and total activity. The color and color centers were investigated by optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The total integrated flux dependence of the induced blue colors and color centers is discussed.

  19. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  20. Deafness Annual, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Arthur G., Ed.

    Presented is the second of two volumes on deafness which contains 12 papers and a review of programs or grants sponsored by the federal government and other groups. Larry Stewart identifies the deaf in "A Truly Silent Minority". In the "Seven-Faces of Deafness", G. Loyd tells what deafness means to seven people. E. Mindel maintains that parents…

  1. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  2. FLES News, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLES News, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Volume 8 of the newslettter for teachers of foreign language in elementary schools (FLES) features these articles: "The Teacher's Voice: Action Research in Your Classroom" (Anna Uhl Chamot); "Teacher Preparation: Using Videotapes in a Teaching Practicum" (Gisela Ernst, Kerri J. Richard); and "Hawaiian Language Immersion:…

  3. Children's Literature. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.; Brockman, Bennett A., Ed.

    This volume applies critical literary standards to the field of children's literature in a long-range effort to improve its quality and teaching. Contributors and editors represent international scholarship in all of the humanities, as well as in the specific area of children's literature. Articles span topics from European children's literature…

  4. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  5. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions.

  6. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  7. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  8. Wound Volume Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    III and IV decubitus ulcers ). Wounds can also be classified by etiology as (a) surgical, (b) traumatic (such as mechanical or thermal injuries), and...had either decubitus ulcers or venous stasis ulcers . Each patient’s wound was measured with each of the three methods. First, the wound was...standardized and clinically available method to estimate wound volume is needed to determine rate of pressure ulcer healing. This quasi-experimental

  9. Apodized Volume Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, Sergiy

    2015-03-01

    Reflective and transmissive volume Bragg grating (VBGs) are widely used in high power laser applications because of their large operational aperture and robustness. They are fabricated in photosensitive material through holographic recording of uniform interference pattern of two overlapping coherent waves obtained by splitting a flat-top shaped laser beam. The following thermal treatment produces permanent refractive index modulation (RIM). Reflective VBGs have fringes parallel to operational anti-reflective coated surfaces and they demonstrate narrow reflection bandwidth. Transmissive VBGs are cut with fringes perpendicular to surfaces and they are characterized by narrow angular selectivity. Uniform RIM causes secondary lobes in corresponding reflection and transmission spectra due to sharp boundary conditions for volume Bragg diffraction. We propose to create apodization of RIM by recording two interference patterns with slightly different parameters in the same volume which would create slow varying moire envelope of amplitude of RIM. Cutting the specimen at zeros of moire envelope with one sine semi-period thickness will produce VBGs apodized at sides which will reduce parasitic secondary lobes in spectra. In reflection geometry, two patterns of the same orientation with slightly different periods are required for apodization along Bragg wave vector. In transmission case, recording of the same interference patterns with small mutual rotation angle provides apodization in direction perpendicular to Bragg wave vector. Modeling results show significant improvement in selective properties of VBGs with such moire apodization.

  10. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  11. Insular volume reduction in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeremy D; Nichols, Taylor; Brignone, Laura; Hall, Scott S; Reiss, Allan L

    2011-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental deficit and is caused by mutations of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. While males and females with the full FMR1 mutation are affected differently because the disorder is X-linked, both suffer from varying degrees of cognitive impairment, attention deficits and social anxiety. The insula is a sensory integrative region that has been increasingly suggested as a critical area involved in anxiety manifestation. The current study was designed to examine possible changes in insular volume in FraX compared to age- and gender-matched typically developing healthy controls (HC) as well as age-, gender-, and intelligence-matched developmentally delayed controls (DD). An established native-space, manual morphometry method was utilized to quantify total and regional insular volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Total, anterior and posterior insular volumes were found to be reduced in FraX compared to both HC and DD. The current data add to a growing literature concerning brain abnormalities in FraX and suggests that significant volume reduction of the insula is a component of the FraX neuroanatomical phenotype. This finding also provides an intriguing potential neural correlate for hyperarousal and gaze aversion, which are prominent behavioral symptoms of FraX.

  12. Insular Volume Reduction in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeremy D.; Nichols, Taylor; Brignone, Laura; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental deficit and is caused by mutations of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. While males and females with the full FMR1 mutation are affected differently because the disorder is X-linked, both suffer from varying degrees of cognitive impairment, attention deficits and social anxiety. The insula is a sensory integrative region that has been increasingly suggested as a critical area involved in anxiety manifestation. The current study was designed to examine possible changes in insular volume in FraX compared to age- and gender-matched typically developing healthy controls (HC) as well as age, gender-, and intelligence-matched developmentally delayed controls (DD). An established native-space, manual morphometry method was utilized to quantify total and regional insular volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Total, anterior and posterior insular volumes were found to be reduced in FraX compared to both HC and DD. The current data add to a growing literature concerning brain abnormalities in FraX and suggests that significant volume reduction of the insula is a component of the FraX neuroanatomical phenotype. This finding also provides an intriguing potential neural correlate for hyperarousal and gaze aversion, which are prominent behavioral symptoms of FraX. PMID:21291994

  13. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  14. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  15. Individual Differences in Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  16. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  17. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-09

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory.

  18. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  19. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  20. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  1. Preparing for an uncertain climate. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Climate change poses many potential problems for human and natural systems, and the long-term effects of climate change on these systems are becoming increasingly important in public policy. For example, international agreements were recently signed on both climate change and biodiversity. Recognizing the potential problems, Congress asked OTA to examine how the Nation can best prepare for an uncertain future climate. This assessment tackles the difficult tasks of assessing how natural and human systems may be affected by climate change and of evaluating the tools at our disposal to ease adaptation to a warmer climate. Volume 1 addresses coastal areas, water resources, and agriculture (PB--94-134640); volume 2 includes wetlands, preserved lands, and forests.

  2. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  3. Mining volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph Saul (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In a shaft with a curved or straight primary segment and smaller off-shooting segments, at least one standing wave is generated in the primary segment. The shaft has either an open end or a closed end and approximates a cylindrical waveguide. A frequency of a standing wave that represents the fundamental mode characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. Alternatively, a frequency differential between two successive harmonic modes that are characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. In either event, the measured frequency or frequency differential is characteristic of the length and thus the volume of the shaft based on length times the bore area.

  4. Turbulent forces within river plumes affect spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    When rivers drain into oceans through narrow mouths, hydraulic forces squeeze the river water into buoyant plumes that are clearly visible in satellite images. Worldwide, river plumes not only disperse freshwater, sediments, and nutrients but also spread pollutants and organisms from estuaries into the open ocean. In the United States, the Columbia River—the largest river by volume draining into the Pacific Ocean from North America—generates a plume at its mouth that transports juvenile salmon and other fish into the ocean. Clearly, the behavior and spread of river plumes, such as the Columbia River plume, affect the nation's fishing industry as well as the global economy.

  5. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  6. External bulb variable volume maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Cervenka, P. O. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A maser functioning as a frequency standard stable to one part in 10 to the 14th power includes a variable volume, constant surface area storage bulb having a fixed volume portion located in a resonant cavity from which the frequency standard is derived. A variable volume portion of the bulb, exterior to the resonant cavity, has a maximum volume on the same order of magnitude as the fixed volume bulb portion. The cavity has a length to radius ratio of at least 3:1 so that the operation is attained without the need for a feedback loop. A baffle plate, between the fixed and variable volume bulb portions, includes apertures for enabling hydrogen atoms to pass between the two bulb portions and is an electromagnetic shield that prevents coupling of the electromagnetic field of the cavity into the variable volume bulb portion.

  7. Volume Bragg lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divliansky, Ivan; Jain, Apurva; Drachenberg, Derrek; Podvyaznyy, Alexey; Smirnov, Vadim; Venus, George; Glebov, Leonid

    2010-09-01

    This paper is a survey of recent achievements at the College of Optics and Photonics/CREOL at the University of Central Florida in the use of newly developed diffractive optical elements which are volume Bragg gratings recorded in a photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass. Three levels of semiconductor laser design are proposed to achieve high-power low-divergence output. The first level is coherent coupling of emitters by means of PTR Bragg gratings which provide excitation of only one common mode in a multichannel resonator. This type of phase locking automatically leads to a narrow spectral width of emission usually not exceeding a few tens of picometers. The second level is a change of the mechanism of transverse mode selection from spatial selection by apertures to angular selection by PTR Bragg gratings. This approach allows increasing of the aperture size without increasing the length and selecting of arbitrary mode but not necessarily a fundamental one. The third level is spectral beam combining by PTR Bragg gratings which re-direct radiation from several high-power fiber lasers to co-propagate in the same direction with diffraction limited divergence. This approach allows simplification of the thermal management because only passive devices with low absorption (a PTR volume Bragg gratings) are placed in the path of high power laser beam.

  8. Affect in electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  9. Conditions affecting the foreskin.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions.

  10. Comprehensive affected environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Energy Vision 2020 evaluates the affected environment to help provide a baseline for measuring the environmental consequences of alternative energy strategies. Because this report is also an environmental impact statement, special emphasis is given to the environment. This regional perspective takes in both natural conditions and those resulting from human development. It considers socioeconomic, air, water, and land resources. This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report provides the overview for the environmental assessment.

  11. Change in Seroma Volume During Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rajiv; Spierer, Marnee Mutyala, Subhakar; Thawani, Nitika; Cohen, Hillel W.; Hong, Linda; Garg, Madhur K.; Kalnicki, Shalom

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: After breast-conserving surgery, a seroma often forms in the surgical cavity. If not drained, it may affect the volume of tumor bed requiring a boost after whole-breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Our objective was to evaluate the change in seroma volume that occurs during WBRT, before boost planning. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed of women receiving breast-conserving therapy with evidence of seroma at the time of WBRT planning. Computed tomography (CT) simulation was performed before WBRT and before the tumor bed boost. All patients received either a hypofractionated (42.4 Gy/16 fraction + 9.6 Gy/4 fraction boost) or standard fractionated (50.4 Gy/28 fraction + 10 Gy/5 fraction boost) regimen. Seroma volumes were contoured and compared on CT at the time of WBRT simulation and tumor bed boost planning. Results: Twenty-four patients with evidence of seroma were identified and all patients received WBRT without drainage of the seroma. Mean seroma volume before WBRT and at boost planning were significantly different at 65.7 cm{sup 3} (SD, 50.5 cm{sup 3}) and 35.6 cm{sup 3} (SD, 24.8 cm{sup 3}), respectively (p < 0.001). Mean and median reduction in seroma volume during radiation were 39.6% (SD, 23.8%) and 46.2% (range, 10.7-76.7%), respectively. Fractionation schedule was not correlated with change in seroma volume. Length of time from surgery to start of radiation therapy showed an inverse correlation with change in seroma volume (Pearson correlation r = -0.53, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The volume of seroma changes significantly during WBRT. Consequently, the accuracy of breast boost planning is likely affected, as is the volume of normal breast tissue irradiated. CT-based boost planning before boost irradiation is suggested to ensure appropriate coverage.

  12. Comparison of Statistically Modeled Contaminated Soil Volume Estimates and Actual Excavation Volumes at the Maywood FUSRAP Site - 13555

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, James; Hays, David; Quinn, John; Johnson, Robert; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    As part of the ongoing remediation process at the Maywood Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) properties, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) assisted the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) New York District by providing contaminated soil volume estimates for the main site area, much of which is fully or partially remediated. As part of the volume estimation process, an initial conceptual site model (ICSM) was prepared for the entire site that captured existing information (with the exception of soil sampling results) pertinent to the possible location of surface and subsurface contamination above cleanup requirements. This ICSM was based on historical anecdotal information, aerial photographs, and the logs from several hundred soil cores that identified the depth of fill material and the depth to bedrock under the site. Specialized geostatistical software developed by Argonne was used to update the ICSM with historical sampling results and down-hole gamma survey information for hundreds of soil core locations. The updating process yielded both a best guess estimate of contamination volumes and a conservative upper bound on the volume estimate that reflected the estimate's uncertainty. Comparison of model results to actual removed soil volumes was conducted on a parcel-by-parcel basis. Where sampling data density was adequate, the actual volume matched the model's average or best guess results. Where contamination was un-characterized and unknown to the model, the actual volume exceeded the model's conservative estimate. Factors affecting volume estimation were identified to assist in planning further excavations. (authors)

  13. Civil-Military Roles of Indigenous Armed Forces (CRIAF). Volume 1. Executive Summary. Volume 2. Main Report. Volume 3. Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-01

    AD-A009 190 CIVIL-MILITARY ROLES OF INDIGENOUS ARMED FORCES (CRIAF). VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . VOLUME II MAIN REPORT . VOLUME III...H FINAL REPORT VOLUME I - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VOLUME II - MAIN REPORT VOLUME III - APPENDIXES o o DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...Sussex: Conference of Political Development, 1968. 23. Einaudi, Luigi R. The Peruvian Military: A Summary Political Analysis . Santa

  14. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  15. Psychological factors affecting migraine.

    PubMed

    Shulman, B H

    1989-01-01

    Psychological factors are known to increase the severity and intensity of headaches. When they are shown to be present, an appropriate psychiatric diagnosis is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual's (DSMIII-R) category of psychological factors affecting physical condition (code no. 316.0). These factors can be differentiated into stress factors, personality traits, psychodynamic factors, learned behaviors, and mood disturbances. The factors overlap and intertwine in the average headache patient. Attention to these factors in a systematic way should enhance our understanding and treatment of the chronic headache patient.

  16. BODY VOLUME OF ADULT MEN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ideal weight given on the USAF standard weight table was found to have a correlation coefficient of only .672 with calculated percent body fat....volume from height and weight revealed the chart to be biased for adult men. Body volume was found to correlate well with body weight ( correlation ... coefficient of .996). Body volume of men in liters, V, may be estimated from body weight in kilograms, W, by using the formula: V = -4.7573 + 1.0153 W

  17. Volume dependence of computed grain boundary energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bristowe, P.D.; Brokman, A.

    1980-08-01

    Over the past five years there have been numerous studies of grain boundary structure using the method of computer molecular statics which assume pairwise central potentials for the interatomic interaction. Emphasis is usually placed on relative grain boundary energies but these may be inaccurate due to various, but related, approximations and constraints implicity imposed on the calculation-namely central forces, finite model size, fixed border conditions and volume dependent contributions to the energy of the system. It is the purpose of this work to clarify how these particular properties of the model can affect the computed grain boundary energy and demonstrate instances in which the quoted energy has strictly been inaccurate. The implication of these results, especially on how they affect the method of relaxation and the resulting grain boundary structure is discussed.

  18. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference.

  19. Handbook of the Economics of Education. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A., Ed.; Machin, Stephen J., Ed.; Woessmann, Ludger, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    How does education affect economic and social outcomes, and how can it inform public policy? Volume 3 of the Handbooks in the Economics of Education uses newly available high quality data from around the world to address these and other core questions. With the help of new methodological approaches, contributors cover econometric methods and…

  20. Accurate measurement of gas volumes by liquid displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Mariotte bottle as liquid displacement device was used to measure gas volumes at flow rates that are far below threshold of wet test gas meters. Study of factors affecting amount of liquid displaced by gas flow was completed, and equations were derived which relate different variables.

  1. Race, Ethnicity, and Education. Praeger Perspectives. [Four Volumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.; Pang, Valerie Ooka, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book moves beyond traditional thinking and approaches to multicultural education to more accurately reflect the dramatically changing circumstances faced by North American schools in an age of globalization. The volumes address ways in which race and ethnicity affect learning across the life span, at all levels of formal education as well as…

  2. Performing Arts Management and Law. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman, Joseph

    Performing arts management and law are reviewed in detail in these volumes. Special attention is paid to the issue of copyright, both the current law and proposed changes, in the light of technological changes in the media used by the arts. Volume I describes the scope covered by this work, and discusses the market place, copyright, and contract.…

  3. The Occupational Thesaurus: Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Everett A.

    Presented in two volumes, the job guide handbook can be used by high school and college counselors, students, recruiters for business and industry, and parents in determining areas of employment which are compatible with a student's or potential employee's interests, abilities, and preparation. Volume 1 lists job areas for students majoring in…

  4. Healthy People 2010: Conference Edition, Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the two volumes of the Conference Edition of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda. The first section of Volume I, "Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health," includes "Introduction,""Leading Health Indicators," and…

  5. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  6. The Impact of Individual Surgeon Volume on Hysterectomy Costs

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jonathan P.; Kantartzis, Kelly L.; Lee, Ted; Bonidie, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Hysterectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures women will undergo in their lifetime. Several factors affect surgical outcomes. It has been suggested that high-volume surgeons favorably affect outcomes and hospital cost. The objective is to determine the impact of individual surgeon volume on total hospital costs for hysterectomy. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort of women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications from 2011 to 2013 at 10 hospitals within the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center System. Cases that included concomitant procedures were excluded. Costs by surgeon volume were analyzed by tertile group and with linear regression. Results: We studied 5,961 hysterectomies performed by 257 surgeons: 41.5% laparoscopic, 27.9% abdominal, 18.3% vaginal, and 12.3% robotic. Surgeons performed 1–542 cases (median = 4, IQR = 1–24). Surgeons were separated into equal tertiles by case volume: low (1–2 cases; median total cost, $4,349.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] [$3,903.54–$4,845.34]), medium (3–15 cases; median total cost, $2,807.90; 95% CI [$2,693.71–$2,926.93]) and high (>15 cases, median total cost $2,935.12, 95% CI [$2,916.31–$2,981.91]). ANOVA analysis showed a significant decrease (P < .001) in cost from low-to-medium– and low-to-high–volume surgeons. Linear regression showed a significant linear relationship (P < .001), with a $1.15 cost reduction per case with each additional hysterectomy. Thus, if a surgeon performed 100 cases, costs were $115 less per case (100 × $1.15), for a total savings of $11,500.00 (100 × $115). Conclusion: Overall, in our models, costs decreased as surgeon volume increased. Low-volume surgeons had significantly higher costs than both medium- and high-volume surgeons.

  7. Project: "Teach 'n' Reach" Affective Domain: Self-Concept, Attitude. (Book 1 out of 4.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Arleen

    The second of five volumes (and the first of the four curriculum guides) which make up Project Teach 'n' Reach, designed to help regular classroom teachers teach nondisabled children about disabilities, focuses on the affective domain. The volume presents goals, performance objectives, and activity ideas (along with information on materials and…

  8. Factors affecting bone growth.

    PubMed

    Gkiatas, Ioannis; Lykissas, Marios; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Korompilias, Anastasios; Batistatou, Anna; Beris, Alexandros

    2015-02-01

    Bone growth and development are products of the complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Longitudinal bone growth depends on the growth plate. The growth plate has 5 different zones-each with a different functional role-and is the final target organ for longitudinal growth. Bone length is affected by several systemic, local, and mechanical factors. All these regulation systems control the final length of bones in a complicated way. Despite its significance to bone stability, bone growth in width has not been studied as extensively as longitudinal bone growth. Bone growth in width is also controlled by genetic factors, but mechanical loading regulates periosteal apposition. In this article, we review the most recent data regarding bone growth from the embryonic age and analyze the factors that control bone growth. An understanding of this complex system is important in identifying metabolic and developmental bone diseases and fracture risk.

  9. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -22 deg through -30 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 s and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  10. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -40 deg through -49 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 sec and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  11. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  12. Isosmotic volume reabsorption in rat proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model incorporation both active and passive forces has been developed for fluid reabsorption from split oil droplets in rat intermediate and late proximal tubule. Of necessity, simplifying assumptions have been introduced; we have assumed that the epithelium can be treated as a single membrane and that the membrane "effective" HCO3 permeability is near zero. Based on this model with its underlying assumptions, the following conclusions are drawn. Regardless of the presence or absence of active NaCl transport, fluid reabsorption from the split oil droplet is isosmotic. The reabsorbate osmolarity can be affected by changes in tubular permeability parameters and applied forces but is not readily altered from an osmolarity essentially equal to that of plasma. In a split droplet, isosmotic flow need not be a special consequence of active Na transport, is not the result of a particular set of permeability properties, and is not merely a trivial consequence of a very high hydraulic conductivity; isosmotic flow can be obtained with hydraulic conductivity nearly an order of magnitude lower than that previously measured in the rat proximal convoluted tubule. Isosmotic reabsorption is, in part, the result of the interdependence of salt and water flows, their changing in parallel, and thus their ratio, the reabsorbate concentration being relatively invariant. Active NaCl transport can cause osmotic water flow by reducing the luminal fluid osmolarity. In the presence of passive forces the luminal fluid can be hypertonic to plasma, and active NaCl transport can still exert its osmotic effect on volume flow. There are two passive forces for volume flow: the Cl gradient and the difference in effective osmotic pressure; they have an approximately equivalent effect on volume flow. Experimentally, we have measured volume changes in a droplet made hyperosmotic by the addition of 50 mM NaCl; the experimental results are predicted reasonably well by our theoretical model

  13. Isosmotic volume reabsorption in rat proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Warner, R R; Lechene, C

    1980-11-01

    A theoretical model incorporation both active and passive forces has been developed for fluid reabsorption from split oil droplets in rat intermediate and late proximal tubule. Of necessity, simplifying assumptions have been introduced; we have assumed that the epithelium can be treated as a single membrane and that the membrane "effective" HCO3 permeability is near zero. Based on this model with its underlying assumptions, the following conclusions are drawn. Regardless of the presence or absence of active NaCl transport, fluid reabsorption from the split oil droplet is isosmotic. The reabsorbate osmolarity can be affected by changes in tubular permeability parameters and applied forces but is not readily altered from an osmolarity essentially equal to that of plasma. In a split droplet, isosmotic flow need not be a special consequence of active Na transport, is not the result of a particular set of permeability properties, and is not merely a trivial consequence of a very high hydraulic conductivity; isosmotic flow can be obtained with hydraulic conductivity nearly an order of magnitude lower than that previously measured in the rat proximal convoluted tubule. Isosmotic reabsorption is, in part, the result of the interdependence of salt and water flows, their changing in parallel, and thus their ratio, the reabsorbate concentration being relatively invariant. Active NaCl transport can cause osmotic water flow by reducing the luminal fluid osmolarity. In the presence of passive forces the luminal fluid can be hypertonic to plasma, and active NaCl transport can still exert its osmotic effect on volume flow. There are two passive forces for volume flow: the Cl gradient and the difference in effective osmotic pressure; they have an approximately equivalent effect on volume flow. Experimentally, we have measured volume changes in a droplet made hyperosmotic by the addition of 50 mM NaCl; the experimental results are predicted reasonably well by our theoretical model.

  14. Development of Reduced Sediment Volume Test Procedures for the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sediment volume requirements of toxicity and bioaccumulation bioassays affect the cost of the assessment related to field collection, transportation, storage, disposal, and labor associated with organism recovery at bioassay termination. Our objective was to assess four redu...

  15. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  16. Evaluation of Reduced Sediment Volume Procedures for Acute Toxicity Tests Using the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost due to sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs assoc...

  17. Coastal Benthic Boundary Layer Special Research Program: A Review of the First Year. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-06

    cracterzion and modeling of benthic boundary layer processes and the impact of the processe on seafloor structure, properties, and behavior. In volume I of...52 I 3.5 Processes of Macro Scale Volume Inhomogeneity in the Benthic Boundary Layer (Principal...Rapid Predictor of Physical and * Acoustic Properties of Unconsolidated Marine Sediments and Processes Affecting Their Relationships (Principal

  18. Reviving the Rural Factory: Automation and Work in the South. Volumes 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.; And Others

    These two volumes examine how the public sector can help revitalize southern rural counties adversely affected by global competition and technological advances. The first volume examines public and private factors that influence investment decisions in new technologies and outcomes of those decisions; effects of automation on employment and the…

  19. Hydration and blood volume effects on human thermoregulation in the heat: Space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Pandolf, Kent B.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to prolonged weightlessness will experience deconditioning, dehydration, and hypovolemia which all adversely affect thermoregulation. These thermoregulatory problems can be minimized by several countermeasures that manipulate body water and vascular volumes. USARIEM scientists have extensively studied dehydration effects and several possible countermeasures including hyperhydration, plasma and erythrocyte volume expansion. This paper reviews USARIEM research into these areas.

  20. Plasma volume in isosmotic hypervolaemia.

    PubMed

    Kishegyi, J; Horváth, G; Kövér, G

    1978-01-01

    The Evans-blue distribution volume, haematocrit, and plasma protein concentration were investigated in non-hydrated (control), hydrated, and acutely nephrectomized hydrated, anaesthetized dogs. In control anaesthetized dogs a decrease of the plasma protein level was observed as part of the plasma proteins was lost into the extravascular space and did not return into the circulating plasma during the experimental period. Under the effect of hydration, the Evans-blue distribution volume increased significantly, while the haematocrit and plasma volume did not change. The phenomenon was ascribed to an increase in capillary permeability. During hydration following acute nephrectomy, the Evans-blue distribution volume increased but the haematocrit disecreased and the circulating plasma volume increased. It is concluded that a material (or materials) orginating from the kidney may influence capillary permeability.

  1. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  2. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  3. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Jane C.S. Long; Laura C. Feinstein; Corinne E. Bachmann; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Camarillo, Mary Kay; Jeremy K. Domen; Foxall, William; Houseworth, James; Jin, Ling; Preston D. Jordan; Randy L. Maddalena; Thomas E. McKone; Dev E. Millstein; Matthew T. Reagan; Whitney L. Sandelin; William T. Stringfellow; Varadharajan, Charuleka; Cooley, Heather; Donnelly, Kristina; Matthew G. Heberger; Hays, Jake; Seth B.C. Shonkoff; Brandt, Adam; Jacob G. Englander; Hamdoun, Amro; Sascha C.T. Nicklisch; Robert J. Harrison; Zachary S. Wettstein; Banbury, Jenner; Brian L. Cypher; Scott E. Phillips

    2015-07-01

    This study is issued in three volumes. Volume I, issued in January 2015, describes how well stimulation technologies work, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II, the present volume, discusses how well stimulation could affect water, atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, and human health. Volume II reviews available data, and identifies knowledge gaps and alternative practices that could avoid or mitigate these possible impacts. Volume III, also issued in July 2015, presents case studies that assess environmental issues and qualitative risks for specific geographic regions. A final Summary Report summarizes key findings, conclusions and recommendations of all three volumes.

  4. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Jane C.S. Long; Laura C. Feinstein; Birkholzer, Jens; Foxall, William; Houseworth, James; Jordan, Preston; Lindsey, Nathaniel; Maddalena, Randy; McKone, Thomas; Stringfellow, William; Ulrich, Craig; Heberger, Matthew; Shonkoff, Seth; Brandt, Adam; Ferrar, Kyle; Gautier, Donald; Phillips, Scott; Greenfield, Ben; Jerrett, Michael L.B.

    2015-07-01

    This study is issued in three volumes. Volume I, issued in January 2015, describes how well stimulation technologies work, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II, issued in July 2015, discusses how well stimulation could affect water, atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, and human health. Volume II reviews available data, and identifies knowledge gaps and alternative practices that could avoid or mitigate these possible impacts. Volume III, this volume, presents case studies that assess environmental issues and qualitative risks for specific geographic regions. The Summary Report summarizes key findings, conclusions and recommendations of all three volumes.

  5. Community structure affects behavior.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, C

    1991-06-01

    AID's prevention efforts can benefit from taking into account 5 main aspects (KEPRA) of community structure identified by anthropologists: 1) kinship patterns, 2) economics, 3) politics, 4) religion, and 5) associations. For example, in Uganda among the Basoga and paternal aunt or senga is responsible for female sex education. Such culturally determined patterns need to be targeted in order to enhance education and effectiveness. Economics can reflect differing systems of family support through sexual means. The example given involves a poor family with a teenager in Thailand who exchanges a water buffalo or basic necessity for this daughter's prostitution. Politics must be considered because every society identifies people who have the power to persuade, influence, exchange resources, coerce, or in some way get people to do what is wanted. Utilizing these resources whether its ministers of health, factory owners, or peers is exemplified in the Monterey, Mexico factor floor supervisor and canteen worker introducing to workers the hows and whys of a new AID's education program. His peer status will command more respect than the director with direct authority. Religious beliefs have explanations for causes of sickness or disease, or provide instruction in sex practices. The example given is of a health workers in Uganda discussing AIDS with rural women by saying that we all know that disease and deaths are caused by spells. "But not AIDS - slim. AIDS is different." Associations can help provide educational, economic, and emotional assistance to the AID's effort or families affected.

  6. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K/sup +/-H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca/sup 2 +/ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchange systems.

  7. Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash

    PubMed Central

    Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

  8. Assessment of affect integration: validation of the affect consciousness construct.

    PubMed

    Solbakken, Ole André; Hansen, Roger Sandvik; Havik, Odd E; Monsen, Jon T

    2011-05-01

    Affect integration, or the capacity to utilize the motivational and signal properties of affect for personal adjustment, is assumed to be an important aspect of psychological health and functioning. Affect integration has been operationalized through the affect consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine discrete affects. A semistructured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs) have been developed to specifically assess these aspects of affect integration. This study explored the construct validity of AC in a Norwegian clinical sample including estimates of reliability and assessment of structure by factor analyses. External validity issues were addressed by examining the relationships between scores on the ACSs and self-rated symptom- and interpersonal problem measures as well as independent, observer-based ratings of personality disorder criteria and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994).

  9. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  10. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast volume summary - Volume 1 and Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-02-22

    Solid waste forecast volumes to be generated or received ;at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste program over the life cycle of the site are described in this report. Previous forecast summary reports have covered only a 30-year period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted for this FY 1996 report to ensure consistency with waste volumes reported in the 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans (MYPP). The volume data were collected on a life-cycle basis from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently ship or plan to ship solid waste to the Solid Waste program. The volumes described in detail are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic-mixed (TRU(M)) waste. The volumes reported in this document represent the external volume of the containers selected to ship the waste. Summary level information pertaining to low-level waste (LLW) is described in Appendix B. Hazardous waste volumes are also provided in Appendices E and F but are not described in detail since they will be managed by a commercial facility. Emphasis is placed on LLMW and TRU(M) waste because it will require processing and storage at Hanford Solid Waste`s Central Waste Complex (CORK) prior to final disposal. The LLW will generally be sent directly to disposal. The total baselines volume of LLMW and TRU(M) waste forecast to be received by the Solid Waste program (until 2070) is approximately 100,900 cubic meters. This total waste volume is composed of the following waste categories: 077,080 cubic meters of LLMW; 23,180 cubic meters of TRU(M); 640 cubic meters of greater-than-class III LLMW. This total is about 40% of the total volume reported last year (FY 1995).

  11. Drugs affecting the eye.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  12. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  13. [Emotions and affect in psychoanalysisis].

    PubMed

    Carton, Solange; Widlöcher, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to give some indications on the concept of affect in psychoanalysis. There is no single theory of affect, and Freud gave successive definitions, which continue to be deepened in contemporary psychoanalysis. We review some steps of Freud works on affect, then we look into some present major questions, such as its relationship to soma, the nature of unconscious affects and the repression of affect, which is particularly developed in the field of psychoanalytic psychosomatic. From Freud's definitions of affect as one of the drive representative and as a limit-concept between the somatic and the psychic, we develop some major theoretical perspectives, which give a central place to soma and drive impulses, and which agree on the major idea that affect is the result of a process. We then note some parallelism between psychoanalysis of affect and psychology and neurosciences of emotion, and underline the gaps and conditions of comparison between these different epistemological approaches.

  14. On Issues of Precision for Hardware-based Volume Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    LaMar, E C

    2003-04-11

    This paper discusses issues with the limited precision of hardware-based volume visualization. We will describe the compositing OVER operator and how fixed-point arithmetic affects it. We propose two techniques to improve the precision of fixed-point compositing and the accuracy of hardware-based volume visualization. The first technique is to perform dithering of color and alpha values. The second technique we call exponent-factoring, and captures significantly more numeric resolution than dithering, but can only produce monochromatic images.

  15. Affective Induction and Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Díaz, María D. Martín

    2013-01-01

    Three studies explored the relation between affect and production of creative divergent thinking, assessed with the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural TTCT). In the first study, general, positive, and negative affect, assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were compared with creative production. In the second study,…

  16. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  17. Volume inside old black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Marios; De Lorenzo, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1 +1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  18. Closing volume during normal pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Garrard, G S; Littler, W A; Redman, C W

    1978-01-01

    Serial lung function studies were performed in ten healthy, primiparous women aged 21--28. Measurements were made at two-monthly intervals during pregnancy and included functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), specific conductance (SGaw) and closing volume (CV) on each occasion. Closing volume expressed as formular: (see text), showed a progressive rise during pregnancy in all subjects with a linear relationship to time (P less than 0.001, P greater than 0.01, respectively). No consistent changes in lung volume could be shown during pregnancy over the study period. It is suggested that the increase in closing volume during pregnancy might result in abnormalities of distribution of ventilation sufficient to explain the maternal blood gas disturbances of pregnancy. PMID:694802

  19. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  20. Volume of discrete brain structures in complex dissociative disorders: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Ehling, T; Nijenhuis, E R S; Krikke, A P

    2008-01-01

    Based on findings in traumatized animals and patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and on traumatogenic models of complex dissociative disorders, it was hypothesized that (1) patients with complex dissociative disorders have smaller volumes of hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala than normal controls, (2) these volumes are associated with severity of psychoform and somatoform dissociative symptoms, and (3) patients who recovered from dissociative identity disorder (DID) have more hippocampal volume that patients with florid DID. The preliminary findings of the study are supportive of these hypotheses. Psychotherapy for dissociative disorders may affect hippocampal volume, but longitudinal studies are required to document this potential causal relationship.

  1. The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-29

    This report is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains EIA`s findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The data contained herein should assist members of the Congress, Federal, State and local governments, analysts, researchers, the media and academia to understand the RFG program and the current status of implementation. The second volume contains 10 appendices that include letter from Congressman Dingell, survey results, survey forms, and historical summary data. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are printed in Volumes 1 and 2.

  2. The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-28

    This report is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains EIA`s findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The data contained herein should assist members of the Congress, Federal, State and local governments, analysts, researchers, the media and academia to understand the RFG program and the current status of implementation. This second volume contains 10 appendices that include letter from Congressman Dingell, survey results, survey forms, and historical summary data. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are printed in Volumes 1 and 2.

  3. Projection-Based Volume Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingbo; Snapp, Robert R.; Ruiz, Teresa; Radermacher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    When heterogeneous samples of macromolecular assemblies are being examined by 3D electron microscopy (3DEM), often multiple reconstructions are obtained. For example, subtomograms of individual particles can be acquired from tomography, or volumes of multiple 2D classes can be obtained by random conical tilt reconstruction. Of these, similar volumes can be averaged to achieve higher resolution. Volume alignment is an essential step before 3D classification and averaging. Here we present a projection-based volume alignment (PBVA) algorithm. We select a set of projections to represent the reference volume and align them to a second volume. Projection alignment is achieved by maximizing the cross-correlation function with respect to rotation and translation parameters. If data are missing, the cross-correlation functions are normalized accordingly. Accurate alignments are obtained by averaging and quadratic interpolation of the cross-correlation maximum. Comparisons of the computation time between PBVA and traditional 3D cross-correlation methods demonstrate that PBVA outperforms the traditional methods. Performance tests were carried out with different signal-to-noise ratios using modeled noise and with different percentages of missing data using a cryo-EM dataset. All tests show that the algorithm is robust and highly accurate. PBVA was applied to align the reconstructions of a subcomplex of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, followed by classification and averaging. PMID:23410725

  4. The dyadic regulation of affect.

    PubMed

    Fosha, D

    2001-02-01

    Accelerated Experiential-Dynamic Psychotherapy integrates experiential, relational, and psychodynamic elements. Deep authentic affective experience and its regulation through coordinated emotional interchanges between patient and therapist are viewed as key transformational agents. When maintaining attachment with caregivers necessitates excluding particular affects, a patient's capacity to regulate emotion becomes compromised. Being in an emotionally alive therapeutic relationship enables patients to better tolerate and communicate affective states; doing so, in turn, fosters security, openness, and intimacy in their other relationships. A clinical vignette will illustrate how using the therapist's affect, and focusing on the patient's experience of it, contributes to the repair of affect regulatory difficulties.

  5. Affect as a Psychological Primitive

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

  6. Non-thermic skin affections.

    PubMed

    Broz, L; Kripner, J

    2000-01-01

    The Centre for Burns can help by its means (material, technical and personal) in the treatment of burns with extensive and deep losses of the skin cover and other tissue structures and in some affections with a different etiology (non-thermic affections). Indicated for admission are, in particular, extensive exfoliative affections--Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS), Lyell's syndrome--toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), deep skin and tissue affections associated with fulminant purpura (PF), possibly other affections (epidermolysis bullosa, posttraumatic avulsions etc.). The similarity with burn injuries with loss of the skin cover grade II is typical, in particular in exfoliative affections with a need for adequate fluid replacement in the acute stage and aseptic surgical treatment of the affected area from the onset of the disease. In conditions leading to full thickness skin loss, in addition to general treatment rapid plastic surgical interventions dominate.

  7. An Aromatic Inventory of the Local Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, A. R.; Engelbracht, C. W.; van Zee, L.; Dale, D. A.; Smith, J. D. T.; Gordon, K. D.; Wu, Y.; Lee, J. C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Johnson, L. C.; Block, M.; Calzetti, D.; Cohen, S. A.; Lee, H.; Schuster, M. D.

    2010-05-01

    Using infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we perform the first inventory of aromatic feature emission (also commonly referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission) for a statistically complete sample of star-forming galaxies in the local volume. The photometric methodology involved is calibrated and demonstrated to recover the aromatic fraction of the Infrared Array Camera 8 μm flux with a standard deviation of 6% for a training set of 40 SINGS galaxies (ranging from stellar to dust dominated) with both suitable mid-infrared Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra and equivalent photometry. A potential factor of 2 improvement could be realized with suitable 5.5 μm and 10 μm photometry, such as what may be provided in the future by the James Webb Space Telescope. The resulting technique is then applied to mid-infrared photometry for the 258 galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey, a large sample dominated in number by low-luminosity dwarf galaxies for which obtaining comparable mid-infrared spectroscopy is not feasible. We find the total LVL luminosity due to five strong aromatic features in the 8 μm complex to be 2.47 × 1010 L sun with a mean volume density of 8.8 × 106 L sun Mpc-3. Twenty-four of the LVL galaxies, corresponding to a luminosity cut at MB = -18.22, account for 90% of the aromatic luminosity. Using oxygen abundances compiled from the literature for 129 of the 258 LVL galaxies, we find a correlation between metallicity and the aromatic-to-total infrared emission ratio but not the aromatic-to-total 8 μm dust emission ratio. A possible explanation is that metallicity plays a role in the abundance of aromatic molecules relative to the total dust content, but other factors, such as star formation and/or the local radiation field, affect the excitation of those molecules.

  8. Encountering science education's capacity to affect and be affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-09-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.

  9. Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness.

    PubMed

    Muse, M R; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models were developed to reveal which structural elements of ice cream affect melting rate and hardness. Ice creams were frozen in a batch freezer with three types of sweetener, three levels of the emulsifier polysorbate 80, and two different draw temperatures to produce ice creams with a range of microstructures. Ice cream mixes were analyzed for viscosity, and finished ice creams were analyzed for air cell and ice crystal size, overrun, and fat destabilization. The ice phase volume of each ice cream were calculated based on the freezing point of the mix. Melting rate and hardness of each hardened ice cream was measured and correlated with the structural attributes by using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Fat destabilization, ice crystal size, and the consistency coefficient of the mix were found to affect the melting rate of ice cream, whereas hardness was influenced by ice phase volume, ice crystal size, overrun, fat destabilization, and the rheological properties of the mix.

  10. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema.

  11. How do aerosols affect storm electrification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansell, E. R.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) on cloud microphysics have long been recognized, but the resultant effects on storm electrification are relatively unexplored. In the present study, a high-resolution 3D model is employed with 2-moment microphysics (hydrometeor mass and number concentration) and electrification and lightning processes. CCN concentration is predicted as a single category monodisperse size spectrum approximating small aerosols. Graupel and hail particle densities are also predicted and are mainly determined by rime density. Rime density in turn is a function of droplet size (affected by CCN concentration) and impact speed. Graupel density is also used as a crude roughness parameter to scale the drag coefficient in the fall speed. A range of CCN concentrations (50 to 2000 cm-3) were tested in two cases of low CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) that produced unicell or weakly multicell convection. The TELEX and WK cases have CAPE values of 918 J/kg and 795 J/kg, respectively, and storm lifetimes on the order of 30 to 45 minutes and maximum flash rates of 1 to 16 per minute. Higher CCN concentrations reduced collision-coalescence formation of rain/drizzle, but even at the highest CCN concentrations, the primary process of graupel initiation is through drop freezing. Despite high CCN, vapor supply in the updraft remains sufficient for droplets eventually to grow large enough for coalescence to become appreciable. For both cases, time-integrated volume of graupel (above the freezing level) increases monotonically with increasing CCN, although with different power law relationships (Fig. 1). Time-integrated updraft volume generally increases with greater CCN concentrations, as well, but reached a plateau in the TELEX case for CCN greater than 500 cm-3. Other effects of CCN concentration were variable. In the TELEX case, the greatest electrification (total lightning soures) was for CCN concentrations of 1000 cm-3 and

  12. Positive affect and psychobiological processes.

    PubMed

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes is independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes.

  13. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  14. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    PubMed

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  15. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders.

  16. Reduced Regional Grey Matter Volumes in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Philby, Mona F.; Macey, Paul M.; Ma, Richard A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric OSA is associated with cognitive risk. Since adult OSA manifests MRI evidence of brain injury, and animal models lead to regional neuronal losses, pediatric OSA patients may also be affected. We assessed the presence of neuronal injury, measured as regional grey matter volume, in 16 OSA children (8 male, 8.1 ± 2.2 years, AHI:11.1 ± 5.9 events/hr), and 200 control subjects (84 male, 8.2 ± 2.0 years), 191 of whom were from the NIH-Pediatric MRI database. High resolution T1-weighted whole-brain images were assessed between groups with voxel-based morphometry, using ANCOVA (covariates, age and gender; family-wise error correction, P < 0.01). Significant grey matter volume reductions appeared in OSA throughout areas of the superior frontal and prefrontal, and superior and lateral parietal cortices. Other affected sites included the brainstem, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and superior temporal lobe, mostly on the left side. Thus, pediatric OSA subjects show extensive regionally-demarcated grey matter volume reductions in areas that control cognition and mood functions, even if such losses are apparently independent of cognitive deficits. Since OSA disease duration in our subjects is unknown, these findings may result from either delayed neuronal development, neuronal damaging processes, or a combination thereof, and could either reflect neuronal atrophy or reductions in cellular volume (neurons and glia). PMID:28303917

  17. Thermodynamic volume of cosmological solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarek, Saoussen; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-02-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter a, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass Mout satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring Mout to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  18. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  19. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  20. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  1. Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics 4 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2011-11-01

    Volume 1: Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies Luis C. Ho. Volume 2: Measuring and Modelling the Universe Wendy L. Freedman. Volume 3: Clusters of Galaxies John S. Mulchaey, Alan Dressler and Augustus Oemler. Volume 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements Andrew McWilliam and Michael Rauch.

  2. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  3. Gas volume contents within a container, smart volume instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for determining the volume of an incompressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment. The method includes inducing a volumetric displacement within a container and measuring the resulting pressure change. From this data, the liquid level can be determined.

  4. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  5. Be the Volume: A Classroom Activity to Visualize Volume Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylov, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on activity can help multivariable calculus students visualize surfaces and understand volume estimation. This activity can be extended to include the concepts of Fubini's Theorem and the visualization of the curves resulting from cross-sections of the surface. This activity uses students as pillars and a sheet or tablecloth for the…

  6. Thai Basic Course. Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Warren G.; Tryon, Absorn

    The 40 lessons in these two volumes and the accompanying tape recordings are designed to teach standard spoken Thai to Foreign Service Officers and other American Government personnel. After completing the "Programed Introduction to Thai Phonology," the student should be able to read the phonemic transcription in which all Thai material is…

  7. Pharyngeal swallow adaptations to bolus volume measured with high resolution manometry

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; Mielens, Jason D.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of bolus volume on pharyngeal swallowing using high resolution manometry (HRM). Study design Repeated measures with subjects serving as own controls. Methods Twelve subjects swallowed four bolus volumes in the neutral head position: saliva; 5 ml water; 10 ml water; and 20 ml water. Pressure measurements were taken along the length of the pharynx using a high resolution manometer, with emphasis placed on the velopharynx, tongue base, and upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Variables were analyzed across bolus volumes using three-way repeated measures analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) investigating the effect of sex, bolus volume, and pharynx length. Pearson’s product moment tests were performed to evaluate how pharyngeal pressure and timing events changed across bolus volume. Results Velopharyngeal duration, maximum tongue base pressure, tongue base pressure rise rate, UES opening duration, and total swallow duration varied significantly across bolus volume. Sex did not have an effect, while pharynx length appeared to affect tongue base pressure duration. Maximum velopharyngeal pressure and minimum UES pressure had a direct relationship with bolus volume, while maximum tongue base pressure had an inverse relationship. Velopharyngeal pressure duration, UES opening duration, and total swallow duration increased as bolus volume increased. Conclusions Differences in pharyngeal pressures and timing of key pressure events were detected across varying bolus volumes. Knowing the relationships between bolus volume and pharyngeal pressure activity can be valuable when diagnosing and treating dysphagic patients. Level of evidence N/A. PMID:21108425

  8. Disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Glogowska, E; Gallagher, P G

    2015-05-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneities characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis.

  9. Anterior Insula Volume and Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Belden, Andy C.; Barch, Deanna M.; Oakberg, Timothy J.; April, Laura M.; Harms, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE This is the first study to date to examine volumetric alterations in the anterior insula (AI) as a potential biomarker for the course of childhood major depressive disorder (MDD). OBJECTIVES To examine whether children with a history of preschool-onset (PO) MDD show reduced AI volume, whether a specific symptom of PO MDD (pathological guilt) is related to AI volume reduction (given the known relationship between AI and guilt processing), and whether AI volumes predict subsequent likelihood of having an episode of MDD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a prospective longitudinal study, 306 children (age range, 3.00–5.11 years) and caregivers completed DSM diagnostic assessments at 6 annual time points during 10 years as part of the Preschool Depression Study. Magnetic resonance imaging was completed on a subset of 145 school-age children (age range, 6.11–12.11 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Whole-brain–adjusted AI volume measured using magnetic resonance imaging at school age and children’s diagnosis of MDD any time after their imaging. RESULTS Compared with children without a history of PO MDD, school-age children previously diagnosed as having PO MDD had smaller left and right AI volumes (Wilks Λ = 0.94, F2,124 = 3.37, P = .04, Cohen d = 0.23). However, the effect of PO MDD on reduced AI volumes was better explained by children’s experience of pathological guilt during preschool (Λ = 0.91, F2,120 = 6.17, P = .003, d = .30). When covarying for children’s lifetime history of MDD episodes, their experience of pathological guilt during preschool, as well as their sex and age at the time of imaging, schoolchildren’s right-side AI volume was a significant predictor of being diagnosed as having an MDD episode after imaging (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.01–0.75; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results provide evidence that structural abnormalities in AI volume are related to the neurobiology of depressive disorders starting in

  10. Vector quantization for volume rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1992-01-01

    Volume rendering techniques typically process volumetric data in raw, uncompressed form. As algorithmic and architectural advances improve rendering speeds, however, larger data sets will be evaluated requiring consideration of data storage and transmission issues. In this paper, we analyze the data compression requirements for volume rendering applications and present a solution based on vector quantization. The proposed system compresses volumetric data and then renders images directly from the new data format. Tests on a fluid flow data set demonstrate that good image quality may be achieved at a compression ratio of 17:1 with only a 5 percent cost in additional rendering time.

  11. Foaming volume and foam stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  12. Time-Critical Volume Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Arie

    1998-01-01

    For the past twelve months, we have conducted and completed a joint research entitled "Time- Critical Volume Rendering" with NASA Ames. As expected, High performance volume rendering algorithms have been developed by exploring some new faster rendering techniques, including object presence acceleration, parallel processing, and hierarchical level-of-detail representation. Using our new techniques, initial experiments have achieved real-time rendering rates of more than 10 frames per second of various 3D data sets with highest resolution. A couple of joint papers and technique reports as well as an interactive real-time demo have been compiled as the result of this project.

  13. Reduced volume of the nucleus accumbens in heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Christian L; Magon, Stefano; Sprenger, Till; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G; Denier, Niklaus; Vogel, Marc; Schmidt, André; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Marc

    2015-12-01

    The neural mechanisms of heroin addiction are still incompletely understood, even though modern neuroimaging techniques offer insights into disease-related changes in vivo. While changes on cortical structure have been reported in heroin addiction, evidence from subcortical areas remains underrepresented. Functional imaging studies revealed that the brain reward system and particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of drug addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a volume difference of the NAcc in heroin addiction in comparison to healthy controls. A further aim was to correlate subcortical volumes with clinical measurements on negative affects in addiction. Thirty heroin-dependent patients under maintenance treatment with diacetylmorphine and twenty healthy controls underwent structural MRI scanning at 3T. Subcortical segmentation analysis was performed using FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool function of FSL. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess trait anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. A decreased volume of the left NAcc was observed in heroin-dependent patients compared to healthy controls. Depression score was negatively correlated with left NAcc volume in patients, whereas a positive correlation was found between the daily opioid dose and the volume of the right amygdala. This study indicates that there might be structural differences of the NAcc in heroin-dependent patients in comparison with healthy controls. Furthermore, correlations of subcortical structures with negative emotions and opioid doses might be of future relevance for the investigation of heroin addiction.

  14. Methodological aspects of flow-volume studies in infants.

    PubMed

    Turner, D J; Morgan, S E; Landau, L I; LeSouëf, P N

    1990-01-01

    Although valuable information is being obtained using new techniques to assess infant respiratory mechanics, there have been several concerns about the methodology. These relate to the possibility that chloral hydrate may affect flow-volume measurements by altering upper airway caliber. There is also the possibility that physiological changes may be induced by inhalation of non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic nebulized solutions. The aim of this study was to investigate these phenomena in a group of normal infants. Thoracic gas volume was determined and respiratory mechanics measured using the passive and forced expiratory flow-volume techniques. Respiratory function was assessed in infants before and after 1) sleep was induced by administration of chloral hydrate (n = 10, mean age, 21 weeks); 2) inhalation of nebulized saline (n = 10, mean age, 19 weeks); 3) inhalation of nebulized salbutamol (n = 7, mean age, 22 weeks). A fall in tidal volume was found following administration of chloral hydrate but no significant change was seen in any other respiratory parameter. In addition, no change was seen in any parameter post-saline or salbutamol nebulization. This study provides data which support several basic assumptions made about the infant flow-volume techniques and should provide useful background information for future studies using these techniques.

  15. Increased Volume of the Striatum in Psychopathic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Andrea L.; Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S.; Yang, Yaling

    2009-01-01

    Background The corpus striatum, comprised of the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus, plays an important role in reward processing and may be involved in the pathophysiology of antisocial behavior. Few studies have explored whether differences are present in the striatum of antisocial individuals. Here we examine the structure of the striatum in relation to psychopathy. Methods Using a case-control design, we examined the volume of the striatum in psychopathic individuals compared to controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and substance dependence. Twenty-two psychopathic individuals assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised and twenty-two comparison subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Volumes of the left and right lenticular nucleus (putamen and globus pallidus), caudate head, and caudate body were assessed and the psychopathic and control groups were compared. Results Psychopathic individuals showed a 9.6% increase in striatum volumes. Analyses of subfactors of psychopathy revealed that caudate body volumes were primarily associated with the interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy, while caudate head volumes were primarily associated with the impulsive, stimulation-seeking features. Conclusions These findings provide new evidence for differences in the striatum of psychopathic individuals. This structural difference may partially underlie the reward-seeking and decision-making deficits associated with psychopathy. PMID:19683706

  16. Association of Diet With Prostate Specific Antigen and Prostate Volume

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Ariafar, Ali; Zeyghami, Shahryar; Hosseini, Mohammad Mehdi; Khezri, Abdol Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate is an important male reproductive system gland and its disorders can affect men's quality of life and health. Prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate adenocarcinoma are major disorders that can be found in all men in different ages. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of diet with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level as well as prostate volume. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 950 men older than 40 years of age who had attended our clinic for a screening program for prostate cancer were enrolled. Data was extracted from the program database. The eligible cases included all noncancerous subjects with available data concerning serum PSA level and prostate volume; the patients had completed a 50-item self-administered food frequency questionnaire about their diet during the preceding two year. Results: No overall association was found between the consumption of foods and prostate volume as well as serum PSA level. There was a significant correlations between age and serum PSA level (r = 0.24) as well as with prostate volume (r = 0.22) (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant correlation between serum PSA level and prostate volume (r = 0.41 and P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed the previous reports regarding the serum PSA level correlation with prostate volume. There was no evidence that dietary patterns might have any important effect on prostate volume and serum PSA in this Iranian population. PMID:25695023

  17. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  18. Affect and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly…

  19. Measurement of Family Affective Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Three studies demonstrate that the Inventory of Family Feelings, a measure of family affective structure, has high reliability and construct and concurrent validity. It is appropriate for affective comparisons by age, sex, and ordinal position of children and for measuring change after family or marital therapy, or after predictable stress…

  20. Developing Effective Affective Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, William; Hart, Aaron; Foley, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical educators generally understand the importance of the affective domain for student growth and development. However, many teachers struggle with assessing affective behaviors in a way that can be documented and reported. The five-step process outlined in this article can assist teachers in developing an effective way to assess the affective…

  1. Left medial orbitofrontal cortex volume correlates with skydive-elicited euphoric experience.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joshua M; Cha, Jiook; Fekete, Tomer; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2016-11-01

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex has been linked to the experience of positive affect. Greater medial orbitofrontal cortex volume is associated with greater expression of positive affect and reduced medial orbital frontal cortex volume is associated with blunted positive affect. However, little is known about the experience of euphoria, or extreme joy, and how this state may relate to variability in medial orbitofrontal cortex structure. To test the hypothesis that variability in euphoric experience correlates with the volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, we measured individuals' (N = 31) level of self-reported euphoria in response to a highly anticipated first time skydive and measured orbitofrontal cortical volumes with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Skydiving elicited a large increase in self-reported euphoria. Participants' euphoric experience was predicted by the volume of their left medial orbitofrontal cortex such that, the greater the volume, the greater the euphoria. Further analyses indicated that the left medial orbitofrontal cortex and amygdalo-hippocampal complex independently explain variability in euphoric experience and that medial orbitofrontal cortex volume, in conjunction with other structures within the mOFC-centered corticolimbic circuit, can be used to predict individuals' euphoric experience.

  2. Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

  3. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    PubMed

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  4. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  5. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 14-18 for the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content concentrates on the background needed to understand the periodic table; names of inorganic compounds; structures, names and classes of common organic material; chemistry and…

  6. Cerebral ventricular volume during hyponatraemia.

    PubMed Central

    Decaux, G; Szyper, M; Grivegnée, A

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine if the neurologic manifestations in chronic hyponatraemia result partly from brain oedema, we measured the cerebral ventricular volume before and after correction of hyponatraemia in eight patients with central nervous system manifestations. Only the three patients with seizures showed a clear change in the ventricular size and probably had brain oedema. PMID:6101182

  7. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  8. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the first of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  10. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of a series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, synthetic polymers, other natural products, chemical separations…

  11. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  12. Thinkers on Education. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the first volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  13. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  14. Thinkers on Education. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the third volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  15. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  16. Construction Cluster Volume III [Plumbing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the third of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on plumbing and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study. The units include: (1) importance of plumbing; (2) pipe and tubing…

  17. Workshop Training Kits. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ted; And Others

    Presented in the second of a two volume series are six workshop training kits for development of teacher skills to be used with learning disabled (LD) children. The first section of each kit contains a leader's guide which gives activity, objectives, teacher prerequisites, time required, materials needed, step-by-step procedures, a discussion…

  18. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: the nature of reversible processes, equilibrium constants, variable reaction tendencies, practical…

  19. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  20. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  1. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  2. Thinkers on Education. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the fourth volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  3. Studies in Interpretation. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Esther M., Ed.; Floyd, Virginia Hastings, Ed.

    The purpose of this second book of 21 self-contained essays is the same as that of the first volume published in 1972: to bring together the scholarly theory and current research regarding oral interpretation. One third of the essays are centered on literature itself: prose fiction, poetry, and the drama. These essays discuss topics such as point…

  4. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the second of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  5. Skylab Experiments, Volume 6, Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Volume 6, one of a series of booklets designed to acquaint teachers with the Skylab Program, is focused on mechanics. Introductory material provides background information on Skylab and its related education program. Section 1 of the booklet presents relevant physics content concerning the concept of mechanics. Section 2 contains a discussion of…

  6. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVII, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…

  7. Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This volume of newsletters addresses issues related to the treatment and prevention of medical emergencies in the wilderness. Each issue includes feature articles, book reviews, product reviews, letters to the editor, notices of upcoming wilderness conferences and training courses, additional resources, and general information relevant to medical…

  8. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  9. Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

  10. Literacy Works, Volume 1, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Works, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the first four issues (Volume 1) of "Literacy Works," a newsletter of the Saskatchewan Literacy Network. The premier issue reports on the board, staff, and historical perspective of the network, and also contains a brief article on education for the workplace, a review of "Writing to Read" by Martin…

  11. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  12. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidi, H.

    1996-06-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang`s algorithm. The dual window method was used for scatter subtraction. The author used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of (1) fixed thresholding, (2) automatic thresholding, (3) attenuation, (4) scatter, and (5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are performed. The relative error is within 7% for the GLH method combined with attenuation and scatter corrections.

  13. Thinkers on Education. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the second volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  14. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  15. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the third of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  16. Healing Magazine, Volume 8, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This volume of "Healing Magazine" features practical, clinical information aimed at sharing current work in children's mental health. The first issue contains articles on intervention for self-injurious behavior, providing school-based grief groups, effectively using time-out as a parenting tool, and KidsPeace's suicide prevention…

  17. Construction Cluster Volume 5 [Electrical].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the fifth of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on electrical work and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study: (1) safety precautions and first aid for electrical workers; (2) planning a simple installation;…

  18. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and…

  19. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing. Volume 2: Access vocabulary. Volume 3: Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    There are over 17,500 postable terms and some 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

  20. Factors Affecting the Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat to γ-Irradiation: Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linshu; Guo, Huijun; Xie, Yongdun; Zhao, Shirong; Song, Xiyun; Han, Longzhi; Liu, Luxiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the radiosensitivity of plants, an important factor in crop mutation breeding programs, requires a thorough investigation of the factors that contribute to this trait. In this study, we used the highly radiosensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety HY1 and J411, a γ-irradiation-insensitive control, which were screened from a natural population, to examine the factors affecting radiosensitivity, including free radical content and total antioxidant capacity, as well as the expression of TaKu70 and TaKu80 (DNA repair-related genes) as measured by real-time PCR. We also investigated the alternative splicing of this gene in the wild-type wheat ecotype by sequence analysis. Free radical contents and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased upon exposure of HY1 wheat to γ-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in J411, the free radical contents exhibited a similar trend, but the total antioxidant capacity exhibited a downward trend upon increasing γ-irradiation. Additionally, we detected dose-dependent increases in TaKu70 and TaKu80 expression levels in γ-irradiated HY1, while in J411, TaKu70 expression levels increased, followed by a decline. We also detected alternative splicing of TaKu70 mRNA, namely, intron retention, in HY1 but not in J411. Our findings indicate that γ-irradiation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hexaploid wheat, resulting in growth retardation of seedlings, and they suggest that TaKu70 may play a causal role in radiosensitivity in HY1. Further studies are required to exploit these factors to improve radiosensitivity in other wheat varieties. PMID:27551965

  1. Geological factors affecting CO2 plume distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Leetaru, H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the lateral extent of a CO2 plume has important implications with regards to buying/leasing pore volume rights, defining the area of review for an injection permit, determining the extent of an MMV plan, and managing basin-scale sequestration from multiple injection sites. The vertical and lateral distribution of CO2 has implications with regards to estimating CO2 storage volume at a specific site and the pore pressure below the caprock. Geologic and flow characteristics such as effective permeability and porosity, capillary pressure, lateral and vertical permeability anisotropy, geologic structure, and thickness all influence and affect the plume distribution to varying degrees. Depending on the variations in these parameters one may dominate the shape and size of the plume. Additionally, these parameters do not necessarily act independently. A comparison of viscous and gravity forces will determine the degree of vertical and lateral flow. However, this is dependent on formation thickness. For example in a thick zone with injection near the base, the CO2 moves radially from the well but will slow at greater radii and vertical movement will dominate. Generally the CO2 plume will not appreciably move laterally until the caprock or a relatively low permeability interval is contacted by the CO2. Conversely, in a relatively thin zone with the injection interval over nearly the entire zone, near the wellbore the CO2 will be distributed over the entire vertical component and will move laterally much further with minimal vertical movement. Assuming no geologic structure, injecting into a thin zone or into a thick zone immediately under a caprock will result in a larger plume size. With a geologic structure such as an anticline, CO2 plume size may be restricted and injection immediately below the caprock may have less lateral plume growth because the structure will induce downward vertical movement of the CO2 until the outer edge of the plume reaches a spill

  2. Resistance exercise volume affects myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation in young men

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Nicholas A; Holwerda, Andrew M; Selby, Keegan C; West, Daniel W D; Staples, Aaron W; Cain, Nathan E; Cashaback, Joshua G A; Potvin, James R; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine if any mechanistic differences exist between a single set (1SET) and multiple sets (i.e. 3 sets; 3SET) of resistance exercise by utilizing a primed constant infusion of [ring-13C6]phenylalanine to determine myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and Western blot analysis to examine anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Eight resistance-trained men (24 ± 5 years, BMI = 25 ± 4 kg m−2) were randomly assigned to perform unilateral leg extension exercise at 70% concentric one repetition maximum (1RM) until volitional fatigue for 1SET or 3SET. Biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken in the fasted state (Fast) and fed state (Fed; 20 g of whey protein isolate) at rest, 5 h Fed, 24 h Fast and 29 h Fed post-exercise. Fed-state MPS was transiently elevated above rest at 5 h for 1SET (2.3-fold) and returned to resting levels by 29 h post-exercise. However, the exercise induced increase in MPS following 3SET was superior in amplitude and duration as compared to 1SET at both 5 h (3.1-fold above rest) and 29 h post-exercise (2.3-fold above rest). Phosphorylation of 70 kDa S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) demonstrated a coordinated increase with MPS at 5 h and 29 h post-exercise such that the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation was related to the MPS response (r = 0.338, P = 0.033). Phosphorylation of 90 kDa ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p90RSK) and ribosomal protein S6 (rps6) was similar for 1SET and 3SET at 24 h Fast and 29 h Fed, respectively. However, 3SET induced a greater activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2Bɛ (eIF2Bɛ) and rpS6 at 5 h Fed. These data suggest that 3SET of resistance exercise is more anabolic than 1SET and may lead to greater increases in myofibrillar protein accretion over time. PMID:20581041

  3. Out-of-School Factors Affecting Academic Achievement. Information Capsule. Volume 1004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This Information Capsule is the third in a series of papers addressing factors contributing to low academic achievement. The two previous papers addressed issues relevant to class size reduction and teacher quality/preparation. The premise of this Information Capsule is that there is no single smoking gun relative to improving school performance.…

  4. Assessment of economic factors affecting the satellite power system. Volume 1: System cost factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The factors relevant to SPS costing and selection of preferred SPS satellite configurations were studied. The issues discussed are: (1) consideration of economic factors in the SPS system that relate to selection of SPS satellite configuration; (2) analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system definition studies; and (3) the impacts of differential inflation on SPS system definition costing procedures. A cost-risk comparison of the SPS satellite configurations showed a significant difference in the levelized cost of power from them. It is concluded, that this difference is the result more of differences in the procedures for assessing costs rather than in the satellite technologies required or of any advantages of one satellite configuration over the other. Analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system is 4 percent. The major item of differential inflation to be expected over this period of time is the real cost of labor. This cost is likely to double between today and the period of SPS construction.

  5. AMC-SWMO Countermeasures Study. Volume 1. Guide to How Countermeasures Affect Smart Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    products. CM processes and programs are multifaceted. Adequate inclusion of cost-effective CM solutions in the technology-driven, autonomous , miniaturized...to contain many targets. Brilliant munitions remain in the notional state. it is conceived that these munitions would also operate autonomously , as...performed autonomously . The TOW missile is also a GM; however, once it Is fired, the gunner must maintain target lock throughout missile flight. In a SM

  6. Expiratory tidal volume displayed on Bird 8400 STi can exceed the preset tidal volume due to cardiogenic oscillation: a lung model study.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Muneyuki; Tachibana, Kazuya; Nishimura, Masaji

    2004-01-01

    We noticed that monitored tidal volumes often exceeded preset tidal volumes in patients with large cardiogenic oscillation. To investigate whether triggering modes affect this discrepancy, we simulated cardiogenic oscillation of 90 breaths/min in a lung model, which was ventilated with a Bird 8400 STi ventilator (Bird, Palm Springs, CA, USA). The magnitude of cardiogenic oscillation was defined as peak expiratory flow fluctuation at the lung model. Two respiratory rates (5 and 10 breaths/min) and two triggering modes (flow-triggering and pressure-triggering) were applied, while tidal volume was set at 500 ml. We recorded tidal volume on a ventilator monitor and calculated the discrepancy from the set tidal volume. We also measured fluctuation in flow and airway opening pressure created by cardiogenic oscillation. During flow-triggering, larger flow fluctuation and smaller airway pressure fluctuation were observed compared with during pressure-triggering. During flow-triggering, the discrepancy between monitored tidal volume and set value ranged from 0 to +327 ml at 5 breaths/min, and from 0 to +105 ml at 10 breaths/min. There was a linear correlation between the magnitude of cardiogenic oscillation and the overestimation of tidal volume. By contrast, during pressure-triggering, the discrepancy was small. In conclusion, tidal volume is overestimated during flow-triggering but not during pressure-triggering when cardiogenic oscillation is large.

  7. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  8. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. Two tables are provided at the end of the Glossary to help readers: the first defines the prefixes

  9. RESNA Resource Guide for Assistive Technology Outcomes: Developing Domains of Need and Criteria of Services. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    The third volume in a series of three resource guides, this volume provides an explanation of domains of anticipated assistive technology impact across functional areas of an individual's life. A matrix grid of functional categories affected by assistive technology is provided to serve as a developmental step toward the creation of guidelines for…

  10. O*NET Final Technical Report. Volume I [and] Volume II [and] Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Norman G.; Mumford, Michael D.; Borman, Walter C.; Jeanneret, P. Richard; Fleishman, Edwin A.; Levin, Kerry Y.

    This document contains the three volumes of the technical report for development of the prototype of the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), which is intended to replace the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles.""General Introduction" (Norman G. Peterson) presents an overview of O*NET's purpose, content, and structure.…

  11. On Patterns in Affective Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ADAMATZKY, ANDREW

    In computational experiments with cellular automaton models of affective solutions, where chemical species represent happiness, anger, fear, confusion and sadness, we study phenomena of space time dynamic of emotions. We demonstrate feasibility of the affective solution paradigm in example of emotional abuse therapy. Results outlined in the present paper offer unconventional but promising technique to design, analyze and interpret spatio-temporal dynamic of mass moods in crowds.

  12. Impact of Volume Management on Volume Overload and Rehospitalization in CAPD Patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Yang, Shen-Min; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Hai-Fang; Niu, Mei-E; Yang, Yi-Qun; Lu, Guo-Yuan; Pang, Jian-Hong; Wang, Fei; Li, Lin

    2016-12-01

    Heart failure due to volume overload is a major reason for rehospitalization in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Strict volume control provides better cardiac functions and blood pressure in this population. Volume management, which is a volume control strategy, may decrease volume overload and related complications. Using a quasi-experimental design, 66 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group ( n = 34) and control group ( n = 32). The patients were followed up for 6 months with scheduled clinic and/or telephone visits; the intervention group adopted volume management strategy, while the control group adopted conventional care. Volume overload and cardiac function were compared between the two groups at the baseline and at 6 months. At Month 6, the intervention group resulted in significant improvement in volume overloaded status, cardiac function, and volume-overload-related rehospitalization. Volume management strategy allows for better control of volume overload and is associated with fewer volume-related readmissions.

  13. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  14. AN AROMATIC INVENTORY OF THE LOCAL VOLUME

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, A. R.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Block, M.; Van Zee, L.; Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Schuster, M. D.; Smith, J. D. T.; Gordon, K. D.; Wu, Y.; Lee, J. C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Johnson, L. C.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, H.

    2010-05-20

    Using infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we perform the first inventory of aromatic feature emission (also commonly referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission) for a statistically complete sample of star-forming galaxies in the local volume. The photometric methodology involved is calibrated and demonstrated to recover the aromatic fraction of the Infrared Array Camera 8 {mu}m flux with a standard deviation of 6% for a training set of 40 SINGS galaxies (ranging from stellar to dust dominated) with both suitable mid-infrared Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra and equivalent photometry. A potential factor of 2 improvement could be realized with suitable 5.5 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m photometry, such as what may be provided in the future by the James Webb Space Telescope. The resulting technique is then applied to mid-infrared photometry for the 258 galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey, a large sample dominated in number by low-luminosity dwarf galaxies for which obtaining comparable mid-infrared spectroscopy is not feasible. We find the total LVL luminosity due to five strong aromatic features in the 8 {mu}m complex to be 2.47 x 10{sup 10} L{sub sun} with a mean volume density of 8.8 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} Mpc{sup -3}. Twenty-four of the LVL galaxies, corresponding to a luminosity cut at M{sub B} = -18.22, account for 90% of the aromatic luminosity. Using oxygen abundances compiled from the literature for 129 of the 258 LVL galaxies, we find a correlation between metallicity and the aromatic-to-total infrared emission ratio but not the aromatic-to-total 8 {mu}m dust emission ratio. A possible explanation is that metallicity plays a role in the abundance of aromatic molecules relative to the total dust content, but other factors, such as star formation and/or the local radiation field, affect the excitation of those molecules.

  15. Appropriate technology sourcebook. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.; Keller, K.; Pam, R

    1981-01-01

    The second in a 2 volume set of guides to practical books and plans for village and small community technology, with over 500 annotated references in print in 1980/1. The forestry section includes material on deforestation, conservation, reforestation, firewood crops, agroforestry, timber drying and the safe use of chain saws. Improved cooking stoves and charcoal kilns are covered in another section, and there is also a section on aquaculture. A glossary and a general index are included.

  16. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD, Gill and Kapteyn 1895-1900) is a Photographic survey of southern stars in the declination range -18 to -90 degrees. This volume covers the declination range -53 through -89 degrees. Positions are given for 1875 equinox. The summary of the positional uncertainties quoted in the third volume of the published catalog gives +/- 0.28 sec (R.A.), +/- 0.044 arcmin (Dec.) for zones - 18 to -57 degrees, + 0.157 sec + 0.0764/cos(delta) sec (R.A.), +/- 0.056 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -58 to -85 degrees, +0.157 sec + 0.0353/cos (delta) sec (R.A.), + 0.0127 arcmin (Dec.) for the polar plate where, as explained in the introduction to the third volume, many positions were derived from rectangular coordinates (these are positions reported to 0.1 SCC (R.A.) and 0.001 arcmin (Dec.) in the -86 to -89 degree zones in the catalog). The probable error of a photographic magnitude, as determined by combining results for different magnitudes and weighting proportionately according to the numbers of stars in each class of magnitude, is given as +0.055 mag. From an analysis of the faint magnitude limits on the plates discussed in the third volume introduction, the catalog as a whole can be considered complete to photographic magnitude 9.2, but it is stated that it will be found practically complete, in or near the Milky Way, to magnitude 9.5.

  17. Proving Program Correctness. Volume V.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    td&Ot’ ’i number) Programming Sy Stems S.. - nulation Pr~ogramming Languages Sche,!%L -g Algorithm Programming Grammars Logic Programming 9roving...able to prove that programs perform as they are specified than is currently possible. Task 3. Grammars of Programming (P.I.: E.F. Storm). This group is...is "An Algorithmic Solution for a Queueing Model of a Computer System with Interactive and Batch Jobs. Volume 4. Report from the Grammars of

  18. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD, Gill and Kapleyn 1895-1900) is a photographic survey of southern stars in the declination range -18 to -90 degrees. This volume covers the declination range -53 through -89 degrees. Positions are given for the 1875 equinox. The summary of the positional uncertainties quoted in the third volume of the published catalog gives +/- 0.28 sec (R.A.), + 0.044 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -18 to -57 degrees, + 0.157 sec + 0.0764/cos(delta) sec (R.A.), +/- 0.056 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -58 to -85 degrees, +0.157 sec + 0.0353/cos(delta) sec (R.A.), +/- 0.0127 arcmin (Dec.) for the polar plate where, as explained in the introduction to the third volume, many positions were derived from rectangular coordinates (these are positions reported to 0.1 sec (R.A.) and 0.001 arcmin (Dec.) in the -86 to -89 degree zones in the catalog). The probable error of a photographic magnitude, as determined by combining results for different magnitudes and weighting proportionately according to the numbers of stars in each class of magnitude, is given as +0.055 mag. From an analysis of the faint magnitude limits on the plates discussed in the third volume introduction, the catalog as a whole can be considered complete to photographic magnitude 9.2, but it is stated that it will be found practically complete, in or near the Milky Way, to magnitude 9.5.

  19. Astronautic Structures Manual, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This document (Volumes I, II, and III) presents a compilation of industry-wide methods in aerospace strength analysis that can be carried out by hand, that are general enough in scope to cover most structures encountered, and that are sophisticated enough to give accurate estimates of the actual strength expected. It provides analysis techniques for the elastic and inelastic stress ranges. It serves not only as a catalog of methods not usually available, but also as a reference source for the background of the methods themselves. An overview of the manual is as follows: Section A is a general introduction of methods used and includes sections on loads, combined stresses, and interaction curves; Section B is devoted to methods of strength analysis; Section C is devoted to the topic of structural stability; Section D is on thermal stresses; Section E is on fatigue and fracture mechanics; Section F is on composites; Section G is on rotating machinery; and Section H is on statistics. These three volumes supersede Volumes I and II, NASA TM X-60041 and NASA TM X-60042, respectively.

  20. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD Gill and Kapteyn 1895-1900) is a photographic survey of southern stars in the declination range -18 to -90 degrees. This volume covers the declination range -18 through -37 degrees. Positions are given for the 1875 equinox. The summary of the positional uncertainties quoted in the third volume of the published catalog gives +/- 0.28 sec (R.A.) +/- 0.044 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -18 to -57 degrees. The probable error of a photographic magnitude as determined by combining results for different magnitudes and weighting proportionately according to the numbers of stars in each class of magnitude is given as +/- 0.055 mag. From an analysis of the taint magnitude limits on the plates discussed in the third volume introduction, the catalog as a whole can be considered complete to photographic magnitude 9.2 but it is stated that it will be found practically complete in or near the Milky Way, to magnitude 9.5.

  1. Effects of tongue volume reduction on craniofacial growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Gu, Gaoman; Perkins, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between tongue size/volume and craniofacial skeletal growth is essential for understanding the mechanism of specific types of malocclusion and objectively measuring outcomes of various surgical and/or orthodontic treatments. Currently available information on this interaction is limited. This study was designed to examine how tongue body volume reduction affects craniofacial skeleton and dental arch formation during the rapid growth period in five 12-week-old Yucatan minipig sibling pairs. One of each pair received a standardized reduction glossectomy to reduce tongue volume by 15-17% (reduction group), and the other had the reduction glossectomy incisions without tissue removal (sham group). Before surgery, five stainless steel screws were implanted into standardized craniofacial skeletal locations. A series of cephalograms, lateral and axial, were obtained longitudinally at 1 week preoperative, and 2 and 4 weeks postoperative. These images were traced using superimposition, and linear and angular variables were measured digitally. Upon euthanasia, direct osteometric measurements were obtained from harvested skulls. Five en-bloc bone pieces were further cut for bone mineral examination by dual photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that: (1) while daily food consumption and weekly body weight were not significantly affected, tongue volume reduction showed an overall negative effect on the linear expansion of craniofacial skeletons; (2) premaxilla and mandibular symphysis lengths, and anterior dental arch width were significantly less in reduction than sham animals at 2 and/or 4 weeks after the surgery; (3) both premaxilla/maxilla and mandible bone mineral density and content were lower in reduction than sham animals, significantly lower in anterior mandible; (4) craniofacial skeletal and dental arch size were significantly smaller in reduction than sham animals, being most significant in the mandibular anterior length and

  2. Dissociable morphometric profiles of the affective and cognitive dimensions of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Jorien; van Tol, Marie-José; Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2014-05-01

    Alexithymia ("no words for feelings") is a psychological construct that can be divided in a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension reflects the ability to identify, verbalize and analyze feelings, whereas the affective dimension reflects the degree to which individuals get aroused by emotional stimuli and their ability to fantasize. These two alexithymia dimensions may differentially put individuals at risk to develop psychopathology. However, their neural correlates have rarely been investigated. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the cognitive and affective alexithymia dimension are associated with unique anatomical profiles. Structural MRI scans of 57 participants (29 males; mean age: 34) were processed using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) - Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the common and specific associations between gray and white matter volume and alexithymia subdimensions. The results revealed that the cognitive dimension was related to lower dorsal anterior cingulate volume. In contrast, the affective alexithymia was associated with lower gray matter volume in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lower white matter volume in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) near the angular gyrus. No relationship between corpus callosum volume and alexithymia was observed. These results are consistent with the idea that there are two separable neural systems underlying alexithymia. This finding might encourage future research into the link between specific alexithymia subtypes and the development of psychopathology.

  3. Application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Measure Fasting and Postprandial Volumes in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Jeff; Bharucha, Adil E.; Camilleri, Michael; Camp, Jon; Burton, Duane; Grimm, Roger; Riederer, Stephen J.; Robb, Richard A.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Our aims were to measure the gastric volume response in excess of ingested meal volume (i.e., gastric accommodation), contribution of swallowed air to this excess, day-to-day variability of gastric volumes measured by MRI and their relationship to volumes measured by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT). In 20 healthy volunteers, fasting and postprandial gastric volumes were measured after technetium99m-pertechnetate labeling of the gastric mucosa by SPECT and separately by MRI, using 3D gradient echo and 2D half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequences. Ten of these subjects had a second MRI exam to assess intra-individual variation. Thereafter, another 10 subjects had 2 MRI studies during which they ingested the nutrient in 30 or 150 mL aliquots. During MRI, the postprandial gastric volume change exceeded the ingested meal volume by 106 ± 12 mL (Mean ± SEM). The HASTE and gradient echo sequences distinguished air from fluid under fasting and postprandial conditions respectively. This postprandial excess mainly comprised air (61 ± 5 mL), which was not significantly different when ingested as 30 mL or 150 mL aliquots. Fasting and postprandial gastric volumes measured by MRI were generally reproducible within subjects. During SPECT, postprandial volumes increased by 158 ± 18 mL; gastric volumes measured by SPECT were higher than MRI. MRI measures gastric volumes with acceptable performance characteristics; the postprandial excess primarily consists of air, which is not affected by the mode of ingestion. Gastric volumes are technique specific and differ between MRI and SPECT. PMID:19019018

  4. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  5. RADTRAN 4: User guide. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K S; Kanipe, F L

    1992-01-01

    RADTRAN 4 is used to evaluate radiological consequences of incident-free transportation, as well as the radiological risks from vehicular accidents occurring during transportation. This User Guide is Volume 3 in a series of four volume of the documentation of the RADTRAN 4 computer code for transportation risk analysis. The other three volumes are Volume 1, the Executive Summary; Volume 2, the Technical Manual; and Volume 4, the Programmer`s Manual. The theoretical and calculational basis for the operations performed by RADTRAN 4 are discussed in Volume 2. Throughout this User Guide the reader will be referred to Volume 2 for detailed discussions of certain RADTRAN features. This User Guide supersedes the document ``RADTRAN III`` by Madsen et al. (1983). This RADTRAN 4 User Guide specifies and describes the required data, control inputs, input sequences, user options, program limitations, and other activities necessary for execution of the RADTRAN 4 computer code.

  6. Measurement Corner: Volume, Temperature and Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teates, Thomas G.

    1977-01-01

    Boyle's Law and basic relationships between volume and pressure of a gas at constant temperature are presented. Suggests two laboratory activities for demonstrating the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas or liquid. (CS)

  7. Stratified volume diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Diana Marie

    2000-11-01

    Gratings with high diffraction efficiency into a single order find use in applications ranging from optical interconnects to beam steering. Such gratings have been realized with volume holographic, blazed, and diffractive optical techniques. However, each of these methods has limitations that restrict the range of applications in which they can be used. In this work an alternate, novel approach and method for creating high efficiency gratings has been developed. These new gratings are named stratified volume diffractive optical elements (SVDOE's). In this approach diffractive optic techniques are used to create an optical structure that emulates volume grating behavior. An SVDOE consists of binary gratings interleaved with homogeneous layers in a multi-layer, stratified grating structure. The ridges of the binary gratings form fringe planes analogous to those of a volume hologram. The modulation and diffraction of an incident beam, which occur concurrently in a volume grating, are achieved sequentially by the grating layers and the homogeneous layers, respectively. The layers in this type of structure must be fabricated individually, which introduces the capability to laterally shift the binary grating layers relative to one another to create a grating with slanted fringe planes. This allows an element to be designed with high diffraction efficiency into the first order for any arbitrary angle of incidence. A systematic design process has been developed for SVDOE's. Optimum modulation depth of the SVDOE is determined analytically and the number of grating layers along with the thickness of homogeneous layers is determined by numerical simulation. A rigorous electromagnetic simulation of the diffraction properties of multi-layer grating structures, based on the Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA) algorithm, was developed and applied to SVDOE performance prediction. Fabrication of an SVDOE structure presents unique challenges. Microfabrication combined with

  8. Irradiation affects cellular properties and Eph receptor expression in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mosch, Birgit; Pietzsch, Doreen; Pietzsch, Jens

    2012-01-01

    X-ray irradiation influences metastatic properties of tumor cells and, moreover, metastasis and cellular motility can be modified by members of the Eph receptor/ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases. We hypothesized that irradiation-induced changes in cellular properties relevant for metastasis in melanoma cells could be mediated by Eph receptor/ephrin signaling. In this pilot study, we analyzed one pre-metastatic (Mel-Juso) and three metastatic human melanoma (Mel-Juso-L3, A375, and A2058) cells lines and predominantly found anti-metastatic effects of X-ray irradiation with impaired cell growth, clonal growth and motility. Additionally, we observed an irradiation-induced increase in adhesion paralleled by a decrease in migration in Mel-Juso and Mel-Juso-L3 cells and, in part, also in A375 cells. We further demonstrate a decrease of EphA2 both in expression and activity at 7 d after irradiation paralleled by an upregulation of EphA3. Analyzing downstream signaling after irradiation, we detected decreased Src kinase phosphorylation, but unchanged focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, indicating, in part, irradiation-induced downregulation of signaling via the EphA2-Src-FAK axis in melanoma cells. However, to which extent this finding contributes to the modification of metastasis-relevant cellular properties remains to be elucidated. PMID:22568947

  9. Potential animal models of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depressive episodes during winter that are alleviated during summer and by morning bright light treatment. Currently, there is no animal model of SAD. However, it may be possible to use rodents that respond to day length (photoperiod) to understand how photoperiod can shape the brain and behavior in humans. As nights lengthen in the autumn, the duration of the nightly elevation of melatonin increase; seasonally breeding animals use this information to orchestrate seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. SAD may originate from the extended duration of nightly melatonin secretion during fall and winter. These similarities between humans and rodents in melatonin secretion allows for comparisons with rodents that express more depressive-like responses when exposed to short day lengths. For instance, Siberian hamsters, fat sand rats, Nile grass rats, and Wistar rats display a depressive-like phenotype when exposed to short days. Current research in depression and animal models of depression suggests that hippocampal plasticity may underlie the symptoms of depression and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. It is also possible that day length induces structural changes in human brains. Many seasonally breeding rodents undergo changes in whole brain and hippocampal volume in short days. Based on strict validity criteria, there is no animal model of SAD, but rodents that respond to reduced day lengths may be useful to approximate the neurobiological phenomena that occur in people with SAD, leading to greater understanding of the etiology of the disorder as well as novel therapeutic interventions.

  10. Estimating freshwater flows from tidally affected hydrographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagendam, D. E.; Percival, D. B.

    2015-03-01

    Detiding end-of-catchment flow data are an important step in determining the total volumes of freshwater (and associated pollutant loads) entering the ocean. We examine three approaches for separating freshwater and tidal flows from tidally affected data: (i) a simple low-pass Butterworth filter (BWF); (ii) a robust, harmonic analysis with Kalman smoothing (RoHAKS) which is a novel approach introduced in this paper; and (iii) dynamic harmonic regression (DHR). Using hydrographic data collected in the Logan River, Australia, over a period of 452 days, we judge the accuracy of the three methods based on three criteria: consistency of freshwater flows with upstream gauges; consistency of total discharge volumes with the raw data over the event; and minimal upstream flow. A simulation experiment shows that RoHAKS outperforms both BWF and DHR on a number of criteria. In addition, RoHAKS enjoys a computational advantage over DHR in speed and use of freely available software.

  11. Emergent Chemical Behavior in Variable-Volume Protocells

    PubMed Central

    Shirt-Ediss, Ben; Solé, Ricard V.; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2015-01-01

    Artificial protocellular compartments and lipid vesicles have been used as model systems to understand the origins and requirements for early cells, as well as to design encapsulated reactors for biotechnology. One prominent feature of vesicles is the semi-permeable nature of their membranes, able to support passive diffusion of individual solute species into/out of the compartment, in addition to an osmotic water flow in the opposite direction to the net solute concentration gradient. Crucially, this water flow affects the internal aqueous volume of the vesicle in response to osmotic imbalances, in particular those created by ongoing reactions within the system. In this theoretical study, we pay attention to this often overlooked aspect and show, via the use of a simple semi-spatial vesicle reactor model, that a changing solvent volume introduces interesting non-linearities into an encapsulated chemistry. Focusing on bistability, we demonstrate how a changing volume compartment can degenerate existing bistable reactions, but also promote emergent bistability from very simple reactions, which are not bistable in bulk conditions. One particularly remarkable effect is that two or more chemically-independent reactions, with mutually exclusive reaction kinetics, are able to couple their dynamics through the variation of solvent volume inside the vesicle. Our results suggest that other chemical innovations should be expected when more realistic and active properties of protocellular compartments are taken into account. PMID:25590570

  12. Medial temporal lobe volume predicts elders' everyday memory.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Head, Denise; Kurby, Christopher A; Sargent, Jesse Q

    2013-07-01

    Deficits in memory for everyday activities are common complaints among healthy and demented older adults. The medial temporal lobes and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are both affected by aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease, and are known to influence performance on laboratory memory tasks. We investigated whether the volume of these structures predicts everyday memory. Cognitively healthy older adults and older adults with mild Alzheimer's-type dementia watched movies of everyday activities and completed memory tests on the activities. Structural MRI was used to measure brain volume. Medial temporal but not prefrontal volume strongly predicted subsequent memory. Everyday memory depends on segmenting activity into discrete events during perception, and medial temporal volume partially accounted for the relationship between performance on the memory tests and performance on an event-segmentation task. The everyday-memory measures used in this study involve retrieval of episodic and semantic information as well as working memory updating. Thus, the current findings suggest that during perception, the medial temporal lobes support the construction of event representations that determine subsequent memory.

  13. Medial Temporal Lobe Volume Predicts Elders' Everyday Memory

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Head, Denise; Kurby, Christopher A.; Sargent, Jesse Q.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in memory for everyday activities are common complaints among healthy and demented older adults. The medial temporal lobes and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are both affected by aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease, and are known to influence performance on laboratory memory tasks. We investigated whether the volume of these structures predicts everyday memory. Cognitively healthy older adults and older adults with mild Alzheimer's-type dementia watched movies of everyday activities and completed memory tests on the activities. Structural MRI was used to measure brain volume. Medial temporal but not prefrontal volume strongly predicted subsequent memory. Everyday memory depends on segmenting activity into discrete events during perception, and medial temporal volume partially accounted for the relationship between performance on the memory tests and performance on an event-segmentation task. The everyday-memory measures used in this study involve retrieval of episodic and semantic information as well as working memory updating. Thus, the current findings suggest that during perception, the medial temporal lobes support the construction of event representations that determine subsequent memory. PMID:23630222

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Maureen; Mai, Treui; Baldwin, Sam; Brinkman, Greg; Sandor, Debbie; Denholm, Paul; Heath, Garvin; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One. This is part of a series of four volumes describing exploring a high-penetration renewable electricity future for the United States of America. This data set is provides data for the entire volume one document and includes all data for the charts and graphs included in the document.

  15. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  16. BEGINNING POLISH, VOLUME TWO. YALE LINGUISTIC SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHENKER, ALEXANDER M.

    THIS BOOK OF DRILLS IS DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY FOR CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION. ITS PURPOSE IS TO SUPPLEMENT, RATHER THAN CONTINUE, VOLUME I OF "BEGINNING POLISH." IT EXPANDS THE PATTERN DRILLS GIVEN IN THE "SENTENCES" OF VOLUME I AND ADDS TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS PROVIDED IN THE "GRAMMAR." PARALLELING THE STRUCTURE OF VOLUME I, IT HAS 25 LESSONS, DIVIDED IN…

  17. Pituitary volume in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Patricia; Christian, Christopher; Robinson, Delbert G; Sevy, Serge; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Napolitano, Barbara; Bilder, Robert M; Szeszko, Philip R

    2012-07-30

    Pituitary volumes were measured in 55 first-episode schizophrenia patients at a baseline timepoint with 38 receiving a followup scan after antipsychotic treatment. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers had baseline scans with 34 receiving a followup scan. There were no baseline group differences in pituitary volumes or changes in volume following antipsychotic treatment.

  18. Pituitary volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Patricia; Christian, Christopher; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sevy, Serge; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Napolitano, Barbara; Bilder, Robert M.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary volumes were measured in 55 first-episode schizophrenia patients at a baseline timepoint with 38 receiving a followup scan after antipsychotic treatment. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers had baseline scans with 34 receiving a followup scan. There were no baseline group differences in pituitary volumes or changes in volume following antipsychotic treatment. PMID:22858406

  19. Tetroon evaluation program. [volume accuracies under superpressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beemer, J. D.; Markhardt, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    The actual volume of a constant volume superpressured tetrahedron shaped balloon changes as the amount of superpressure is changed. The experimental methods used to measure these changes in volume are described and results are presented. The basic equations used to determine the amount of inflation gas required for a tetroon to float at a predetermined flight level are presented and inflation techniques discussed.

  20. Appalachian Bibliography, Volumes I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Univ., Morgantown.

    The 2-volume Appalachian bibliography is alphabetically arranged by authors' last names under alphabetically listed subject headings. Volume I contains A-L subject headings, while Volume II contains L-W subject headings. The majority of the 8,220 documents cited are annotated and were published between 1891 and 1970. The bibliography contains such…

  1. Slicing the Apple: Need Amidst Affluence in New York City, 2002. Volume I: Technical Report [and] Volume II: Appendicies [and] Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This report provides a broad overview of significant issues and trends affecting human services in New York City. Written for decision makers, policymakers, service providers, and financial supporters, the first volume includes (1) "Introduction" (the social temperature of New York City); (2) "Who are New Yorkers?" (population…

  2. Cumulative Heat Diffusion Using Volume Gradient Operator for Volume Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurijala, K C; Wang, Lei; Kaufman, A

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a simple, yet powerful method called the Cumulative Heat Diffusion for shape-based volume analysis, while drastically reducing the computational cost compared to conventional heat diffusion. Unlike the conventional heat diffusion process, where the diffusion is carried out by considering each node separately as the source, we simultaneously consider all the voxels as sources and carry out the diffusion, hence the term cumulative heat diffusion. In addition, we introduce a new operator that is used in the evaluation of cumulative heat diffusion called the Volume Gradient Operator (VGO). VGO is a combination of the LBO and a data-driven operator which is a function of the half gradient. The half gradient is the absolute value of the difference between the voxel intensities. The VGO by its definition captures the local shape information and is used to assign the initial heat values. Furthermore, VGO is also used as the weighting parameter for the heat diffusion process. We demonstrate that our approach can robustly extract shape-based features and thus forms the basis for an improved classification and exploration of features based on shape.

  3. Political Trends Affecting Nonmetropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachtigal, Paul M.

    There are two stories about political trends affecting nonmetropolitan America. The old story, which is the story of declining rural population and declining rural influence on public policy formation, has its roots in early deliberations about governance in this country. Jefferson's republicanism focused on direct citizen involvement in decision…

  4. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  5. How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary “choices” were ...

  6. Decoding Children's Expressions of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Joel A.; Feldman, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Mothers' ability to decode their children's nonverbal expressions of four affects (happiness, sadness, fear, and anger) was contrasted with the decoding ability of a matched group of nonmothers. Results indicate that mothers were accurately able to decode expressions of happiness but had relative difficulty with decoding expressions of sadness,…

  7. RACIAL AFFECT IN READING COMPREHENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AARON, ROBERT L.; WHITE, WILLIAM F.

    THREE FIFTH-GRADE CLASSES OF ECONOMICALLY DEPRIVED NEGRO CHILDREN, EQUATED ON INTELLIGENCE AND READING ACHIEVEMENT, PARTICIPATED IN A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF VARYING AMOUNTS AND TYPES OF RACIAL CUEING ON AFFECTIVE SETS TOWARD THE PROTAGONIST AND ANTAGONIST IN A CLOZE TYPE READING SELECTION. ALL THREE CLASSES READ THE SELECTION, BUT CLASS A WAS…

  8. Supersonic Wave Interference Affecting Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Eugene S.

    1958-01-01

    Some of the significant interference fields that may affect stability of aircraft at supersonic speeds are briefly summarized. Illustrations and calculations are presented to indicate the importance of interference fields created by wings, bodies, wing-body combinations, jets, and nacelles.

  9. Affective temperament and personal identity.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Rosfort, René

    2010-10-01

    The complex relationship between temperament and personal identity, and between these and mental disorders, is of critical interest to both philosophy and psychopathology. More than other living creatures, human beings are constituted and characterized by the interplay of their genotype and phenotype. There appears to be an explanatory gap between the almost perfect genetic identity and the individual differences among humans. One reason for this gap is that a human being is a person besides a physiological organism. We propose an outline of a theoretical model that might somewhat mitigate the explanatory discrepancies between physiological mechanisms and individual human emotional experience and behaviour. Arguing for the pervasive nature of human affectivity, i.e., for the assumption that human consciousness and behaviour is characterised by being permeated by affectivity; to envisage the dynamics of emotional experience, we make use of a three-levelled model of human personal identity that differentiates between factors that are simultaneously at work in the constitution of the individual human person: 1) core emotions, 2) affective temperament types/affective character traits, and 3) personhood. These levels are investigated separately in order to respect the methodological diversity among them (neuroscience, psychopathology, and philosophy), but they are eventually brought together in a hermeneutical account of human personhood.

  10. Demographic Factors Affecting Faculty Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Allen L.

    1995-01-01

    Specific demographic attributes that influence salary at institutions of higher education were studied through data from 420 faculty members at 9 institutions. Results suggested that experience, publication rates, time at the institution, and possession of a terminal degree affected salary levels. The presence of salary compression was noted. (SLD)

  11. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  12. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  13. Affective Parent Education in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jessie M.

    It is apparent that the family, and the parents in particular, are powerful influences on the child's learning, even before the child reaches school. The home is the place where children learn first, and the extent to which they learn later in life is determined greatly by what goes on at home. The Affective Education Program, a Title I funded…

  14. Does Positive Affect Influence Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Sarah D.; Cohen, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This review highlights consistent patterns in the literature associating positive affect (PA) and physical health. However, it also raises serious conceptual and methodological reservations. Evidence suggests an association of trait PA and lower morbidity and of state and trait PA and decreased symptoms and pain. Trait PA is also associated with…

  15. Affecting Critical Thinking through Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Virginia P.

    Intended for teachers, this booklet shows how spoken language can affect student thinking and presents strategies for teaching critical thinking skills. The first section discusses the theoretical and research bases for promoting critical thinking through speech, defines critical thinking, explores critical thinking as abstract thinking, and tells…

  16. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  17. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  18. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  19. The Spitzer Local Volume Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, Robert; Lee, J. C.; Engelbracht, C.; Begum, A.; Block, M.; Calzetti, D.; Dalcanton, J.; Dale, D.; Funes, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gordon, K.; Johnson, B.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E.; van Zee, L.; Walter, F.; Weisz, D.; Williams, B.; Wu, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The Local Volume Legacy (LVL) is a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, aimed at obtaining IRAC and MIPS imaging for a complete sample of 258 galaxies within 11 Mpc. Our observations probe the spatially- resolved star formation, dust, and red stellar populations of galaxies that have been drawn from a statistically robust local sample, in which a full diversity of galaxy properties such as luminosities, surface brightnesses, metallicities are represented. Our sample includes: (i) a complete volume-limited galaxy sample within 3.5 Mpc, and (ii) an unbiased sample of S-Irr galaxies within an 11 Mpc sphere. LVL will produce a multi-wavelength census of the Galactic neighborhood, extending to the faintest limits of the galactic luminosity function and exploiting the highest spatial resolution and absolute depth achievable with Spitzer. Our ancillary dataset includes H-alpha and UV imaging from the GALEX 11HUGS and NGS surveys, stellar population mapping from the HST ANGST Treasury survey, HI mapping with the VLA and GMRT, and optical broad-band imaging and spectroscopy. By homogeneously filling in critical gaps in the current Spitzer coverage of the Local Volume, and providing SED coverage from the UV to the FIR, LVL will supply an enduring homogeneous core dataset on the Galactic neighborhood for the astronomical community. Science issues to be addressed include: constraining the physical mechanisms underlying dust heating and understanding correlations between FIR emission, dust content and global galaxy properties; establishing the primary factors which influence PAH emission and evaluating the robustness of PAH emission as a SFR indicator, particularly at low metallicities and high specific SFRs; probing the temporal variation of star formation as a function of global properties, with special focus on dwarf galaxies. This poster will highlight the scientific goals and design of the survey, and present early results from the imaging campaign.

  20. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  2. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  3. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    COMMAND United States Patent ij fill 4,102,610 Taboada et al. [45] Jul. 25,1i978 154] CONSTANT VOLUME SEAL-FREE 3.522,794 7/1970 DNJl................318...MATCHING [561 Rafaree. Cited SPACER U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS [751 Inventors: Sidney Michael Cole. Waved 7; Paul 3.533.607 1/1971 Lehrreld . ...... 331/34 tA...Schwadron 11) let. CV ....................... F16K 21/18; FI7C 13/02; Aiistant Examiner-A. Michael Chambers GOlF 23/24 Attorney Agent, orFirm-Joseph E

  4. Management Support Services. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    AD-A36 273 MANAGEMENT SUPPORT SERVICES VOLUME 2(U) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF IARMY) WASHINGTON D C 01 OCT 83 IINCLASSIF ED F/G 5/ 1 HI...STANDARDS - 1963- ’ad S TUDY D PROGRAM0 C c MANAGEMENT A OFFICE FISCAL YEAR 84 REPORT MANAGEMENT SUPPORT SERVICES " / 1 ’ DTICFLrL.CTIE >... DEC 2 3 IM8...AVOLUME 11II 1 - - for P1) crle s n 8 e l LL.. htributio is i s 3 12 07 037 0’ 3 TOTAL ARMY GOALS The mision of the Total Army is to deter any

  5. Holographically Encoded Volume Phase Masks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    experiments have been performed using an HPM recorded in a 1.97-mm thick photo -thermo-refractive (PTR) glass sample as illustrated in Fig. 1. PTR glass is a...spiral phase plate,” Appl. Opt. 43(12), 2397–2399 (2004). 19. K. Peithmann et al., “Low-spatial-frequency refractive-index changes in iron- doped ...Binary volume phase masks in photo -thermo-refrac- tive glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1190–1192 (2012). 21. M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill

  6. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  7. Advances in drying: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include recent thoughts in modeling of drying phenomena, use of computers in rational design of drying particulates, recent advances in drying of wood, and heat/mass transfer phenomena in drying of solids. As the readers will no doubt notice, special effort is made to ensure the truly international nature of the contents of this serial publication. As existing knowledge on drying and dryers becomes more widely and readily accessible, it is expected that more and more dryers will be designed rationally rather than built solely with the benefit of empiricism.

  8. Multilayer Volume Holographic Optical Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, Vladimir; Millerd, James; Trolinger, James; Norrie, Mark; Downie, John; Timucin, Dogan; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate a scheme for volume holographic storage based on the features of shift selectivity of a speckle reference wave hologram. The proposed recording method allows more efficient use of the recording medium and increases the storage density in comparison with spherical or plane-wave reference beams. Experimental results of multiple hologram storage and replay in a photorefractive crystal of iron-doped lithium niobate are presented. The mechanism of lateral and longitudinal shift selectivity are described theoretically and shown to agree with experimental measurements.

  9. Effect of supercooling and cell volume on intracellular ice formation.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Richelle C; Marquez-Curtis, Leah A; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2015-04-01

    Intracellular ice formation (IIF) has been linked to death of cells cryopreserved in suspension. It has been assumed that cells can be supercooled by 2 to 10°C before IIF occurs, but measurements of the degree of supercooling that cells can tolerate are often confounded by changing extracellular temperature and solutions of different osmolality (which affect the cell volume). The purpose of this study was to examine how the incidence of IIF in the absence of cryoprotectants is affected by the degree of supercooling and cell volume. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were suspended in isotonic (300 mOsm) and hypertonic (∼600 to 700 mOsm) solutions and exposed to supercooling ranging from 2 to 10°C before extracellular ice was nucleated. The number of cells undergoing IIF was examined in a cryostage (based on the darkening of cells upon intracellular freezing ("flashing")) as a function of the degree of supercooling, and cell survival post-thaw was assessed using a membrane integrity assay. We found that while the incidence of IIF increased with supercooling in both isotonic and hypertonic solutions, it was higher in the isotonic solution at any given degree of supercooling. Since cells in hypertonic solution were shrunken due to water efflux, we hypothesized that the difference in IIF behavior could be attributed to the decreased volume of cells in the hypertonic solution. Our results confirm that cells with a smaller diameter before extracellular ice nucleation have a decreased probability of IIF and suggest that cell volume could play a more significant role in the incidence of IIF than the extracellular ice nucleation temperature.

  10. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  11. Hybrid LTA vehicle controllability as affected by buoyancy ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D. N.; Kubicki, P.; Tarczynski, T.; Fairbanks, A.; Piasecki, F. N.

    1979-01-01

    The zero and low speed controllability of heavy lift airships under various wind conditions as affected by the buoyancy ratio are investigated. A series of three hybrid LTA vehicls were examined, each having a dynamic thrust system comprised of four H-34 helicopters, but with buoyant envelopes of different volumes (and hence buoyancies), and with varying percentage of helium inflation and varying useful loads (hence gross weights). Buoyancy ratio, B, was thus examined varying from approximately 0.44 to 1.39. For values of B greater than 1.0, the dynamic thrusters must supply negative thrust (i.e. downward).

  12. Reduced pyramidal cell somal volume in auditory association cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Robert A; Pierri, Joseph N; Auh, Sungyoung; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2003-03-01

    Subjects with schizophrenia have decreased gray matter volume of auditory association cortex in structural imaging studies, and exhibit deficits in auditory sensory memory processes subserved by this region. In dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC), similar in vivo observations of reduced regional volume and working memory deficits in subjects with schizophrenia have been related to reduced somal volume of deep layer 3 pyramidal cells. We hypothesized that deep layer 3 pyramidal cell somal volume would also be reduced in auditory association cortex (BA42) in schizophrenia. We used the nucleator to estimate the somal volume of pyramidal neurons in deep layer 3 of BA42 in 18 subjects with schizophrenia, each of whom was matched to one normal comparison subject for gender, age, and post-mortem interval. For all subject pairs, somal volume of pyramidal neurons in deep layer 3 of dPFC (BA9) had previously been determined. In BA42, somal volume was reduced by 13.1% in schizophrenic subjects (p=0.03). Reductions in somal volume were not associated with the history of antipsychotic use, alcohol dependence, schizoaffective disorder, or death by suicide. The percent change in somal volume within-subject pairs was highly correlated between BA42 and BA9 (r=0.67, p=0.002). Deep layer 3 pyramidal cell somal volume is reduced in BA42 of subjects with schizophrenia. This reduction may contribute to impairment in auditory function. The correlated reductions of somal volume in BA42 and BA9 suggest that a common factor may affect deep layer 3 pyramidal cells in both regions.

  13. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  14. Large volume manufacture of dymalloy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-22

    The purpose of this research was to test the commercial viability and feasibility of Dymalloy, a composite material to measure thermal conductivity. Dymalloy was developed as part of a CRADA with Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems was a potential end user of Dymalloy as a substrate for MCMS. Sun had no desire to be involved in the manufacture of this material. The goal of this small business CRADA with Spectra Mat was to establish the high volume commercial manufacturing industry source for Dymalloy required by an end-user such as Sun Microsystems. The difference between the fabrication technique developed during the CRADA and this proposed work related to the mechanical technique of coating the diamond powder. Mechanical parts for the high-volume diamond powder coating process existed; however, they needed to be installed in an existing coating system for evaluation. Sputtering systems similar to the one required for this project were available at LLNL. Once the diamond powder was coated, both LLNL and Spectra Mat could make and test the Dymalloy composites. Spectra Mat manufactured Dymalloy composites in order to evaluate and establish a reasonable cost estimate on their existing processing capabilities. This information was used by Spectra Mat to define the market and cost-competitive products that could be commercialized from this new substrate material.

  15. The GPS Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F. H.; Moreau, M. C.; Dahle-Melsaether, M. E.; Petrofski, W. P.; Stanton, B. J.; Thomason, S.; Harris, G. A.; Sena, R. P.; Temple, L. Parker, III

    2006-01-01

    Prior to the advent of artificial satellites, the concept of navigating in space and the desire to understand and validate the laws of planetary and satellite motion dates back centuries. At the initiation of orbital flight in 1957, space navigation was dominated by inertial and groundbased tracking methods, underpinned by the laws of planetary motion. It was early in the 1980s that GPS was first explored as a system useful for refining the position, velocity, and timing (PVT) of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers. As a result, an entirely new GPS utility was developed beyond its original purpose of providing PVT services for land, maritime, and air applications. Spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation now receive the GPS signals, including the signals that spill over the limb of the Earth. The use of radionavigation satellite services for space navigation in High Earth Orbits is in fact a capability unique to GPS. Support to GPS space applications is being studied and planned as an important improvement to GPS. This paper discusses the formalization of PVT services in space as part of an overall GPS improvement effort. It describes the GPS Space Service Volume (SSV) and compares it to the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV). It also discusses SSV coverage with the current GPS constellation, coverage characteristics as a function of altitude, expected power levels, and coverage figures of merit.

  16. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  17. Sperm Flagellum Volume Determines Freezability in Red Deer Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Álvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

    2014-01-01

    The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF) or bad freezers (BF) at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006). The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = −0.60; p<0.001). Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success. PMID:25380133

  18. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Alvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

    2014-01-01

    The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF) or bad freezers (BF) at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006). The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; p<0.001). Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.

  19. Relation Between the Cell Volume and the Cell Cycle Dynamics in Mammalian cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magno, A. C. G.; Oliveira, I. L.; Hauck, J. V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The main goal of this work is to add and analyze an equation that represents the volume in a dynamical model of the mammalian cell cycle proposed by Gérard and Goldbeter (2011) [1]. The cell division occurs when the cyclinB/Cdkl complex is totally degraded (Tyson and Novak, 2011)[2] and it reaches a minimum value. At this point, the cell is divided into two newborn daughter cells and each one will contain the half of the cytoplasmic content of the mother cell. The equations of our base model are only valid if the cell volume, where the reactions occur, is constant. Whether the cell volume is not constant, that is, the rate of change of its volume with respect to time is explicitly taken into account in the mathematical model, then the equations of the original model are no longer valid. Therefore, every equations were modified from the mass conservation principle for considering a volume that changes with time. Through this approach, the cell volume affects all model variables. Two different dynamic simulation methods were accomplished: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic simulation, the volume affects every model's parameters which have molar unit, whereas in the deterministic one, it is incorporated into the differential equations. In deterministic simulation, the biochemical species may be in concentration units, while in stochastic simulation such species must be converted to number of molecules which are directly proportional to the cell volume. In an effort to understand the influence of the new equation a stability analysis was performed. This elucidates how the growth factor impacts the stability of the model's limit cycles. In conclusion, a more precise model, in comparison to the base model, was created for the cell cycle as it now takes into consideration the cell volume variation

  20. Rodent empathy and affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P

    2011-10-01

    In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. Thus, rodent behavioral models can now be developed to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp's theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences.

  1. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    SciTech Connect

    Reidy, M.

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  2. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tapp, A.

    1988-05-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

  3. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted.

  4. Anthropogenic noise affects vocal interactions.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Heather; Schmidt, Rouven; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2014-03-01

    Animal communication plays a crucial role in many species, and it involves a sender producing a signal and a receiver responding to that signal. The shape of a signal is determined by selection pressures acting upon it. One factor that exerts selection on acoustic signals is the acoustic environment through which the signal is transmitted. Recent experimental studies clearly show that senders adjust their signals in response to increased levels of anthropogenic noise. However, to understand how noise affects the whole process of communication, it is vital to know how noise affects the receiver's response during vocal interactions. Therefore, we experimentally manipulated ambient noise levels to expose male European robins (Erithacus rubecula) to two playback treatments consisting of the same song: one with noise and another one without noise. We found that males responding to a conspecific in a noise polluted environment increased minimum frequency and decreased song complexity and song duration. Thus, we show that the whole process of communication is affected by noise, not just the behaviour of the sender.

  5. Affective robot for elderly assistance.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Laura; Gaggioli, Andrea; Pioggia, Giovanni; De Rossi, Federico; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several robotic solutions for the elderly have been proposed. However, to date, the diffusion of these devices has been limited: available robots are too cumbersome, awkward, and expensive to become widely adopted. Another key issue which reduces the appeal of assistive robots is the lack of socio-emotional interaction: affective interchanges represent key requirements to create sustainable relationships between elderly and robots. In this paper, we propose a new approach to enhance the acceptability of robotic systems, based on the introduction of affective dimensions in human-robot interaction. This strategy is aimed at designing a new generation of relational and cognitive robots fusing information from embodied unobtrusive sensory interfaces. The final objective is to develop embodied interfaces, which are able to learn and adapt their affective responses to the user's behavior. User and robot will engage in natural interactions, involving verbal and non-verbal communication, improving empathic exchange of moods and feelings. Relevant independent living and quality of life related issues will be addressed: on-going monitoring of health parameters, assistance in everyday's activities, social support and cognitive/physical exercises. We expect that the proposed strategy will enhance the user's acceptance and adoption of the assistive robotic system.

  6. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Musical affect regulation in infancy.

    PubMed

    Trehub, Sandra E; Ghazban, Niusha; Corbeil, Mariève

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents and adults commonly use music for various forms of affect regulation, including relaxation, revitalization, distraction, and elicitation of pleasant memories. Mothers throughout the world also sing to their infants, with affect regulation as the principal goal. To date, the study of maternal singing has focused largely on its acoustic features and its consequences for infant attention. We describe recent laboratory research that explores the consequences of singing for infant affect regulation. Such work reveals that listening to recordings of play songs can maintain 6- to 9-month-old infants in a relatively contented or neutral state considerably longer than recordings of infant-directed or adult-directed speech. When 10-month-old infants fuss or cry and are highly aroused, mothers' multimodal singing is more effective than maternal speech at inducing recovery from such distress. Moreover, play songs are more effective than lullabies at reducing arousal in Western infants. We explore the implications of these findings along with possible practical applications.

  8. EXCHANGE. Volume 9-92

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  9. A Graph Based Interface for Representing Volume Visualization Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, James M.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses a graph based user interface for representing the results of the volume visualization process. As images are rendered, they are connected to other images in a graph based on their rendering parameters. The user can take advantage of the information in this graph to understand how certain rendering parameter changes affect a dataset, making the visualization process more efficient. Because the graph contains more information than is contained in an unstructured history of images, the image graph is also helpful for collaborative visualization and animation.

  10. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    SciTech Connect

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  11. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Suying

    2010-08-19

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2009 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine sampling at the Laboratory, except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4 of Volume I. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: for completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2009 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2008 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 6, 2009, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2008 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System (SI) units. For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. (For example, stack air tritium results reported as < 1.5 Bq/m3 are shown variously as < 39 and < 41 pCi/m3. Both of these results are rounded correctly to two significant digits.)

  12. Completing HST's Local Volume Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne

    2007-07-01

    Nearby galaxies offer one of the few laboratories within which stellar populations can be tied to multi-wavelength observations. They are thus essential for calibrating and interpreting key astrophysical observables, such as broad-band luminosities, durations and energy input from starbursts, and timescales of UV, H-alpha, and FIR emission. The study of stellar populations in nearby galaxies requires high-resolution observations with HST, but HST's legacy for this limited set of galaxies remains incomplete.As a first attempt to establish this legacy, The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury {ANGST} began observations in late 2006. ANGST was designed to carry out a uniform multi-color survey of a volume-limited sample of 70 nearby galaxies that could be used for systematic studies of resolved stellar populations. The resulting data provide nuanced constraints on the processes which govern star formation and galaxy evolution, for a well-defined population of galaxies. All photometry for the survey has been publicly released.However, the failure of ACS 4.5 months after ANGST began taking data led to a drastic reduction in the planned survey. The loss is two-fold. First, the goals of completeness and uniformity were greatly compromised, impacting global comparison studies. Second, the variety of observed star formation histories was reduced. Given that we have never found two galaxies with identical star formation histories, and fully sampling the population allows us to catch those few systems whose star formation rates and metallicities place the strongest constraints on key astrophysical processes.Here we propose WFPC2 observations of all remaining galaxies within the Local Volume {D<3.5Mpc} for which current HST observations are insufficient for meaningful stellar population studies. We will use these observations for research on the star formation histories of individual galaxies and the Local Volume, detailed calibrations of star formation rate indicators, and the

  13. Red Blood Cell Volume, Plasma Volume and Total Blood Volume in Healthy Elderly Men and Women Aged 64 to 100

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    had an adeguate oxygen supply to the tissues. The deficiency in red blood cell volume in our elderly subjects was consistent with an adaptive and... ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 BY C.R. VALERI, L.E. PIVACEK, H. SIEBENS, and M.D. ALTSCHULE NAVAL BLOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY BOSTON...TITLE (and Submit) RED BLOOD CELL VOLUME, PLASMA VOLUME AND TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IN HEALTHY ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 7. AUTHORf»J C

  14. Remedial actions at the former Climax Uranium Company, Uranium Mill site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices: Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-12-01

    This volume contains Appendix F--hydrology report, and Appendix G--flood plain and wetland assessment. Contents of the hydrology report include: surface water; ground water; potentially affected hydrogeologic environment-processing site; potentially affected hydrogeologic environment-Cheney reservoir site; potentially affected hydrogeologic environment-Two Road site; and conclusions-ground water.

  15. Reduced olfactory bulb volume in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Negoias, Simona; Symmank, Anja; Schellong, Julia; Joraschky, Peter; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The human olfactory bulb (OB) is the first relay station of the olfactory pathway and may have the potential for postnatal neurogenesis in early childhood. In animals, chronic stress affects the OB and olfactory functioning. For humans, it has been shown that major depressive disorder is accompanied by reduced OB volume and reduced olfactory function. However, it is not clear if major stress in childhood development also affects olfactory functioning and OB volume in humans. OB volume was measured and olfactory function was tested in 17 depressive patients with and 10 without a history of severe childhood maltreatment (CM). CM patients exhibited a significantly reduced olfactory threshold and identification ability. The OB volume of the CM patients was significantly reduced to 80% of the non-CM patients. In conclusion, postnatal neurogenesis might be by reduced in CM, which may affect olfactory function of the brain in later life. Alternatively, a reduced OB volume may enhance psychological vulnerability in the presence of adverse childhood conditions although other areas not analyzed in this study may also be involved.

  16. Three-dimensional lateral pterygoid muscle volume: MRI analyses with insertion patterns correlation.

    PubMed

    Melke, Gabriela Sobral de Figueiredo; Costa, André Luiz Ferreira; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro; Fuziy, Acacio; Ferreira-Santos, Rívea Inês

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated lateral pterygoid muscle volume in closed and open mouth positions in association with anterior disc displacement, effusion and abnormal articular disc shape from three-dimensional reformations of MRI. A total of 24 MRI of a sample (15 females, 9 males) aged 19-64 years (37.2 years±11.4) were assessed. Segmentation and volumetric assessment of the total, upper and lower heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle were performed using free software. The upper head of the lateral pterygoid muscle had a smaller volume than the lower head at both sides, in the closed- and open-mouth positions. In the open-mouth position, individuals with a subdivided upper head, where one component was inserted in the articular disc and another in the mandibular head, displayed a significantly larger volume of the upper head compared to individuals who had a single attachment to the articular disc (p=0.0130). The lateral pterygoid muscle has different volumes in the closed- and open-mouth positions. Gender affected muscle volume, specifically the upper head component. Insertion type in the upper head also seemed to affect muscle volume.

  17. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rice, Katherine; Viscomi, Brieana; Riggins, Tracy; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others' eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task). We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume) were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing) versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind) items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  18. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  19. Space resources. Volume 3: Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered.

  20. Expanding a Model for Affective Development: Implications for an Activity Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Nancye E.

    One useful framework for understanding and articulating instructional design to change biased beliefs is the Martin and Reigeluth model for affective development, appearing in Volume II of Reigeluth's "Instructional-Design Theories and Models" (1999). Using this recently developed framework to examine a Web-based multimedia instructional program…

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dddddd... - Emission Limits and Standards for New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per million by volume (ppmv). Total hydrocarbons All resin types 46 ppmv measured as propane Total... types 0.56 ppmv. Total hydrocarbons All resin types 2.3 ppmv measured as propane Total organic HAP b All... oxygen, dry basis. b Affected sources have the option to comply with either the total hydrocarbon...

  2. [Plasma osmolarity and cerebral volume].

    PubMed

    Boulard, G

    2001-02-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, the osmolarity of extracellular fluids (ECFs) and natremia are controlled by two regulatory mechanisms modulating the water balance and sodium outflow from information collected by the osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, respectively. As well, under normal physiological conditions, water and electrolytes of brain ECFs are secreted by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Furthermore, isotonicity is present on both sides of the blood-brain barrier. In the event of systemic osmolarity disorders, water transport subject to osmosis laws occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier. In the case of plasmatic hyperosmolarity cerebral dehydration is observed, while cerebral edema occurs in the contrary case. However, plasmatic osmolarity disorders have less effect on the cerebral volume when their introduction is slow. Experimentation in acute conditions shows that measured variations of the cerebral water content are lower than calculated variations, thus suggesting the existence of an adaptive mechanism, that is, the cerebral osmoregulation which limits the variation of the volume of brain cells by modulating their osmoactive molecule content. These osmoactive molecules are, on the one hand, the electrolytes, which are early and rapidly mobilized, and, on the other hand, the organic osmoles (amino acids, etc.), whose secretion is slower and delayed. This phenomenon should be taken into account in the treatment of osmolarity disorders. Thus, the related-risk of treatment for natremia disorders is therapeutic reversal of the osmotic gradient at the level of the blood-brain barrier. This reversal, which corresponds to a second osmotic stress, requires the implementation of a new procedure of cerebral osmoregulation in the opposite direction of the preceding one. As successive osmotic stresses decrease the effectiveness of brain osmoregulation, the risk for cerebral dehydration and pontine myelinolysis increases when the treatment

  3. The Local Volume Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D. A.; Gordon, K. D.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Skillman, E.; Begum, A.; Funes, J. G.; Gil de Paz, A.; Johnson, B.; Sakai, S.; van Zee, L.; Walter, F.; Weisz, D.; Williams, B.; Wu, Y.; Block, M.

    2008-10-01

    We introduce the Local Volume Legacy (LVL), a Spitzer Cycle 4 IRAC and MIPS Legacy survey of a complete sample of 258 galaxies within 11 Mpc. The broad goal of LVL is to provide critical insight into two of the primary processes that shape the growth of galaxies: star formation and its interaction with the interstellar medium. This goal will be achieved by investigating the spatially-resolved star formation, dust, and red stellar populations of galaxies that have been drawn from a statistically robust local sample, in which the full diversity of galaxy properties (e.g., luminosities, surface brightnesses, metallicities) are represented. Our tiered sample includes: (1) all known galaxies inside a sub-volume bounded by 3.5 Mpc, and (2) an unbiased sample of S-Irr galaxies within the larger, and more representative, 11 Mpc sphere. LVL will produce a multi-wavelength census of the Galactic neighborhood, extending to the faintest limits of the galactic luminosity function and exploiting the highest spatial resolution and absolute depth achievable with Spitzer. Our rich suite of ancillary data includes Hα and UV imaging from the GALEX 11HUGS and NGS surveys, stellar population mapping from the HST ANGST Treasury survey, H I mapping with the VLA and GMRT, optical broad-band imaging and spectroscopy. LVL will homogeneously fill in critical gaps in the current Spitzer coverage of the LV, provide SED coverage from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, and thus supply the community with a core archival dataset on the Galactic neighborhood.

  4. ATF2 Proposal Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, B.I.; Logachev, P.; Podgorny, F.; Telnov, V.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.; Kalinin, A.; Napoly, O.; Payet, J.; Braun, H.H.; Schulte, D.; Zimmermann, F.; Appleby, R.; Barlow, R.; Bailey, I.; Jenner, L.; Jones, R.; Kourevlev, G.; Elsen, E.; Vogel, V.; Walker, N.; /DESY /Fermilab /Hiroshima U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Oxford U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Orsay, LAL /Valencia U. /Annecy, LAPP /LBL, Berkeley /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /Chiba, Natl. Inst. Rad. Sci. /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oregon U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /SLAC /Tokyo U.

    2006-02-27

    For achieving the high luminosity required at the International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS), and to maintain the beam collision with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, it has been proposed to implement an ILC-like final focus optics in an extension of the existing extraction beamline of ATF at KEK. The ATF is considered to be the best platform for this exercise, since it provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam in a manner dedicated to the development of ILC. The two major goals for this facility, called ATF2, are: (A) Achievement of a 37 nm beam size, and (B) control of beam position down to 2 nm level. The scientific justification for the ATF2 project and its technical design have been described in Volume 1 of the ATF2 Proposal [1]. We present here Volume 2 of the ATF2 Proposal, in which we present specifics of the construction plans and the group organization to execute the research programs at ATF2. The sections in this report have been authored by relevant ATF2 subgroups within the International ATF Collaboration. The time line of the project is described in Section 2. Section 3 discuss the structure of the international collaboration. Sections 4 and 5 discuss budget considerations, which are presented as well as the design and construction tasks to be shared by the international collaboration at ATF2. Concluding remarks have been contributed by Dr. Ewan Paterson, Chair of the International Collaboration Board of the ATF collaboration.

  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects joints, it sometimes causes lung disease ...

  6. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Eyes?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects ...

  7. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

  8. Waterpower`95. Volume 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Waterpower `95 is organized around 70 sessions with four papers being presented in each session and a poster paper forum, There are 26 topic area, with Volume I containing 5 topics and the poster session papers; Volume II containing 11 topics, and Volume III containing 10 topics and the student paper submittals. The topics are: Volume I (1) environmental, (2) case studies, (3) legal and licensing, (4) performance testing, (5) performance measurement, (6) posters, (7) construction; Volume II (8) rehabilitation and modernization, (9) operation and maintenance, (10) turbines and pump turbines, (11) electrical systems and controls, (12) generators, (13) recreation, (14) EPRI, (15) planning, (16) economics and finance, (17) integrated resource management, (18) technology transfer; Volume III (19) research and development, (20) safety, (21) risk analysis, (22) reservoir system operations, (23) hydraulic analysis, (24) hydrologic analysis, (25) geotechnical, (26) mechanical systems, (27) civil works, and (28) scholarship contest.

  9. NASA Safety Manual. Volume 3: System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This Volume 3 of the NASA Safety Manual sets forth the basic elements and techniques for managing a system safety program and the technical methods recommended for use in developing a risk evaluation program that is oriented to the identification of hazards in aerospace hardware systems and the development of residual risk management information for the program manager that is based on the hazards identified. The methods and techniques described in this volume are in consonance with the requirements set forth in NHB 1700.1 (VI), Chapter 3. This volume and future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall not be rewritten, reprinted, or reproduced in any manner. Installation implementing procedures, if necessary, shall be inserted as page supplements in accordance with the provisions of Appendix A. No portion of this volume or future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall be invoked in contracts.

  10. Efficient computation of volume in flow predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, M.; Kordulla, W.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating cell volumes for time-dependent three-dimensional flow predictions by finite volume calculations is presented. Eight arbitrary corner points are considered and the shape face is divided into two planar triangles. The volume is then dependent on the orientation of the partitioning. In the case of a hexahedron, it is noted that any open surface with a boundary that is a closed curve possesses a surface vector independent of the surface shape. Expressions are defined for the surface vector, which is independent of the partitioning surface diagonal used to quantify the volume. Using a decomposition of the cell volume involving two corners, with each the vertex of three diagonals and six corners which are vertices of one diagonal, gives portions which are tetrahedra. The resultant mesh is can be used for time-dependent finite volume calculations one requires less computer time than previous methods.

  11. Effects of chronic exercise and treatment with the antipsychotic drug olanzapine on hippocampal volume in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Barr, A M; Wu, C H; Wong, C; Hercher, C; Töpfer, E; Boyda, H N; Procyshyn, R M; Honer, W G; Beasley, C L

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that the hippocampus in schizophrenia patients is reduced in volume compared to the normal population. Antipsychotic medications have had mixed benefits in maintaining hippocampal volume or reversing volume loss. Recent evidence indicates that routine aerobic exercise represents a promising intervention for reversing hippocampal loss and cognitive deficits. In the present study, we measured the effects of chronic treatment with olanzapine and daily exercise on the hippocampal volumes of rats. Adult female rats were treated during the week with either olanzapine (10mg/kg) or vehicle for 9 consecutive weeks. Subgroups of animals were provided access to exercise running wheels for 1 or 3h per day during the same period, or were sedentary. Metabolic indices, including glucose tolerance, were measured on a weekly basis. At the conclusion of the study, brains were perfused and hippocampal sections were Nissl stained. Total hippocampal volume was measured using the Cavalieri estimator. Treatment with olanzapine caused a significant decrease in hippocampal volume in sedentary rats. However, exercise was able to reverse most of this volume loss. The hippocampal sub-regions of the dentate gyrus and CA1 were most strongly affected by olanzapine and exercise. Of interest, there was a strong and highly significant negative correlation between glucose intolerance and hippocampal volume, whereby greater glucose intolerance was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume. These findings indicate that exercise may have beneficial effects on the hippocampus when antipsychotic medication can contribute to changes in volume.

  12. Does trade affect child health?

    PubMed

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  13. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  14. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  15. Flexible Manufacturing System Handbook. Volume IV. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    controls. (9) Sets of batteries (one set per vehicle per shift). (3) Battery chargers . (1) Frequency generator. Necessary area controllers. Necessary battery ...When Date Entered)__________________ REPOT DC -U171,NTATON AGEREAD INSTRUCTIONSREPOT DOIJIENTAION AGEBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUb’EER 2.GOVT...Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ii FMS Handbook, Volume IV PREFACE This is the fourth volume in a five-volume series designed to answer the

  16. Ipsilesional Motor-Evoked Potential Absence in Pediatric Hemiparesis Impacts Tracking Accuracy of the Less Affected Hand

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Jessica M.; Carey, James R.; Lu, Chiahao; Krach, Linda E.; Feyma, Tim; Durfee, William K.; Gillick, Bernadette T.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between electrophysiological responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), finger tracking accuracy, and volume of neural substrate in children with congenital hemiparesis. Nineteen participants demonstrating an ipsilesional motor-evoked potential (MEP) were compared with eleven participants showing an absent ipsilesional MEP response. Comparisons of finger tracking accuracy from the affected and less affected hands and ipsilesional/contralesional (I/C) volume ratio for the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC) were done using two-sample t-tests. Participants showing an ipsilesional MEP response demonstrated superior tracking performance from the less affected hand (p = 0.016) and significantly higher I/C volume ratios for M1 (p= 0.028) and PLIC (p = 0.005) compared to participants without an ipsilesional MEP response. Group differences in finger tracking accuracy from the affected hand were not significant. These results highlight differentiating factors amongst children with congenital hemiparesis showing contrasting MEP responses: less affected hand performance and preserved M1 and PLIC volume. Along with MEP status, these factors pose important clinical implications in pediatric stroke rehabilitation. These findings may also reflect competitive developmental processes associated with the preservation of affected hand function at the expense of some function in the less affected hand. PMID:26426515

  17. Respiration, metabolic balance, and attention in affective picture processing.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Patrick; Shafy, Samiha; Danuser, Brigitta

    2008-05-01

    The respiratory behavior during affective states is not completely understood. We studied breathing pattern responses to picture series in 37 participants. We also measured end-tidal pCO2 (EtCO2) to determine if ventilation is in balance with metabolic demands and spontaneous eye-blinking to investigate the link between respiration and attention. Minute ventilation (MV) and inspiratory drive increased with self-rated arousal. These relationships reflected increases in inspiratory volume rather than shortening of the time parameters. EtCO2 covaried with pleasantness but not arousal. Eye-blink rate decreased with increasing unpleasantness in line with a negativity bias in attention. This study confirms that respiratory responses to affective stimuli are organized to a certain degree along the dimensions of valence and arousal. It shows, for the first time, that during picture viewing, ventilatory increases with increasing arousal are in balance with metabolic activity and that inspiratory volume is modulated by arousal. MV emerges as the most reliable respiratory index of self-perceived arousal.

  18. Brain putamen volume changes in newly-diagnosed patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Farahvar, Salar; Ogren, Jennifer A; Macey, Paul M; Thompson, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Yan-Go, Frisca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by cognitive, motor, autonomic, learning, and affective abnormalities. The putamen serves several of these functions, especially motor and autonomic behaviors, but whether global and specific sub-regions of that structure are damaged is unclear. We assessed global and regional putamen volumes in 43 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA (age, 46.4 ± 8.8 years; 31 male) and 61 control subjects (47.6 ± 8.8 years; 39 male) using high-resolution T1-weighted images collected with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Global putamen volumes were calculated, and group differences evaluated with independent samples t-tests, as well as with analysis of covariance (covariates; age, gender, and total intracranial volume). Regional differences between groups were visualized with 3D surface morphometry-based group ratio maps. OSA subjects showed significantly higher global putamen volumes, relative to controls. Regional analyses showed putamen areas with increased and decreased tissue volumes in OSA relative to control subjects, including increases in caudal, mid-dorsal, mid-ventral portions, and ventral regions, while areas with decreased volumes appeared in rostral, mid-dorsal, medial-caudal, and mid-ventral sites. Global putamen volumes were significantly higher in the OSA subjects, but local sites showed both higher and lower volumes. The appearance of localized volume alterations points to differential hypoxic or perfusion action on glia and other tissues within the structure, and may reflect a stage in progression of injury in these newly-diagnosed patients toward the overall volume loss found in patients with chronic OSA. The regional changes may underlie some of the specific deficits in motor, autonomic, and neuropsychologic functions in OSA.

  19. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  20. Rapid Decimation for Direct Volume Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Jonathan; VanGelder, Allen; Verma, Vivek; Wilhelms, Jane

    1997-01-01

    An approach for eliminating unnecessary portions of a volume when producing a direct volume rendering is described. This reduction in volume size sacrifices some image quality in the interest of rendering speed. Since volume visualization is often used as an exploratory visualization technique, it is important to reduce rendering times, so the user can effectively explore the volume. The methods presented can speed up rendering by factors of 2 to 3 with minor image degradation. A family of decimation algorithms to reduce the number of primitives in the volume without altering the volume's grid in any way is introduced. This allows the decimation to be computed rapidly, making it easier to change decimation levels on the fly. Further, because very little extra space is required, this method is suitable for the very large volumes that are becoming common. The method is also grid-independent, so it is suitable for multiple overlapping curvilinear and unstructured, as well as regular, grids. The decimation process can proceed automatically, or can be guided by the user so that important regions of the volume are decimated less than unimportant regions. A formal error measure is described based on a three-dimensional analog of the Radon transform. Decimation methods are evaluated based on this metric and on direct comparison with reference images.