Science.gov

Sample records for affecting local support

  1. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  2. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies(AED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery s...

  3. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. 2: Experimental support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    The microscopic characteristics of the Coulomb cross section show that there are three natural subpopulations for plasma electrons: the subthermals with local kinetic energy E kT sub c; the transthermals with kT sub c E 7 kT sub c and the extrathermals E 7 kT sub c. Data from three experimental groups on three different spacecraft in the interplanetary medium over a radial range are presented to support the five interrelations projected between solar wind electron properties and changes in the interplanetary medium: (1) subthermals respond primarily to local changes (compression and rarefactions) in stream dynamics; (2) the extrathermal fraction of the ambient electron density should be anti-correlated with the asymptotic bulk speed; (3) the extrathermal "temperature" should be anti-correlated with the local wind speed at 1 AU; (4) the heat flux carried by electrons should be anti-correlated with the local bulk speed; and (5) the extrathermal differential 'temperature' should be nearly independent of radius within 1 AU.

  4. Variation at Local Government Level in the Support for Families of Severely Disabled Children and the Factors that Affect It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Method: Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the…

  5. Local autonomic failure affecting a limb.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R H; Robinson, B J

    1987-01-01

    Three patients are described who presented with autonomic failure affecting predominantly one limb. Physiological studies revealed that there was sweating loss in the limb which appeared to be due to a preganglionic autonomic lesion and not to a sweat gland abnormality. In all three patients there was also evidence of failure of vasomotor control. There was no evidence of more generalised autonomic failure or neurological deficit. In two patients the condition appeared to be static and, according to the patients' accounts was life long. In the third the sweating loss was present for three years prior to pain loss becoming evident from C2/3 to T1 on the same side as the sweating loss. These patients, together with two recent case reports, indicate that isolated local autonomic failure, probably from a discrete cord lesion, can be a cause of presenting symptoms related to sweating loss or to change in temperature in a limb. PMID:3612155

  6. Urban soil moisture affecting local air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Sarah; Ament, Felix; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The climate in cities differs from that in the surrounding area due to modified surfaces. Parameters like surface sealing ratio, vegetation and building material are known to be relevant for the intensity of the microclimatic modification. But what about the influence of soil moisture content and availability at the soil surface? Soil acts as a storage and transmitter for water. In doing so, it may have a differently pronounced impact on local climate through distinct evapotranspiration. The actual evapotranspiration rates are determined by water availability at the surface - dependant from soil physical properties and water refill from above or below - and the presence of evapotranspirators, i.e. plants that transpire water from deeper soil areas. The issue of soil hydrological characteristics and water replenishment limiting the local cooling effect of soils is the topic of this contribution. A long-term record (2010-2014) of ongoing measurements in the city of Hamburg, Germany, is evaluated. The data is provided by atmospheric and pedologic measurement sites of the HUSCO network (Hamburg Urban Soil Climate Observatory). They are located within six urban districts: the city core, four suburban districts, featuring different mean groundwater table depths (> 5 m below surface / < 2.5 m below surface), and one industrial area. The temporal evolutions of water content and soil water tension of the suburban soil profiles are found to be very diverse, related to soil substrate, organic matter content and groundwater table depth. Most distinct variations are observed within the upper horizons of suburban soil. Soil hydrological processes show characteristic patterns at each measurement site, including topsoil water content (Θ) variability. Yet, differences between distinct urban land use types are visible only according to differences in the prevailing soil texture. Impacts of different vegetation types on the soil water dynamics can be identified, while the influence

  7. Measures with locally finite support and spectrum.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Yves F

    2016-03-22

    The goal of this paper is the construction of measures μ on R(n)enjoying three conflicting but fortunately compatible properties: (i) μ is a sum of weighted Dirac masses on a locally finite set, (ii) the Fourier transform μ f μ is also a sum of weighted Dirac masses on a locally finite set, and (iii) μ is not a generalized Dirac comb. We give surprisingly simple examples of such measures. These unexpected patterns strongly differ from quasicrystals, they provide us with unusual Poisson's formulas, and they might give us an unconventional insight into aperiodic order.

  8. Securing Local Support for Your Computer Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecks, Alan L.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines for securing and maintaining local funding for computer-related projects include suggestions in the areas of establishing and maintaining project/school board relationships, encountering social and political factors, and defining guidelines for project implementation. Successes and failures of the MICA project are provided as…

  9. Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Danhua

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

  10. Community Support of Ethanol Plants: Does Local Ownership Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Carmen; Prokos, Anastasia; Liu, Hexuan

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from six communities in Kansas and Iowa, we explore the factors that are related to community members' current levels of overall support for local ethanol plants. What are residents' opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of local ownership of ethanol plants? How does that awareness lead to overall support of plants? Our…

  11. 47 CFR 54.301 - Local switching support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.301 Local switching support. (a) Calculation of... shall be applied to the study area's 1996 unweighted interstate DEM factor to derive a new local... been designated an eligible telecommunications carrier and that serves a study area with 50,000...

  12. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  13. Local School Finance in North Carolina. A Yardstick for Measuring Local Support of Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public School Forum of North Carolina, Raleigh.

    This document presents the results of a Forum study of local financial support of schools. The primary objective was to devise a yardstick to measure the local effort in a way useful to both citizens and policymakers. Data on property wealth for each of the 140 local school systems in North Carolina were developed. School systems making the…

  14. 47 CFR 54.301 - Local switching support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cash Working Capital Defined in 47 CFR 65.820(d) III Accumulated Depreciation Account 3100 Accumulated... 2005, 2680, 2690, 3410); Net Deferred Operating Income Taxes (Accounts 4100, 4340); Network Support... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local switching support. 54.301 Section...

  15. Prediction of disease-related mutations affecting protein localization

    PubMed Central

    Laurila, Kirsti; Vihinen, Mauno

    2009-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic cells contain numerous compartments, which have different protein constituents. Proteins are typically directed to compartments by short peptide sequences that act as targeting signals. Translocation to the proper compartment allows a protein to form the necessary interactions with its partners and take part in biological networks such as signalling and metabolic pathways. If a protein is not transported to the correct intracellular compartment either the reaction performed or information carried by the protein does not reach the proper site, causing either inactivation of central reactions or misregulation of signalling cascades, or the mislocalized active protein has harmful effects by acting in the wrong place. Results Numerous methods have been developed to predict protein subcellular localization with quite high accuracy. We applied bioinformatics methods to investigate the effects of known disease-related mutations on protein targeting and localization by analyzing over 22,000 missense mutations in more than 1,500 proteins with two complementary prediction approaches. Several hundred putative localization affecting mutations were identified and investigated statistically. Conclusion Although alterations to localization signals are rare, these effects should be taken into account when analyzing the consequences of disease-related mutations. PMID:19309509

  16. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Olson, Zachary H; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  17. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Zachary H.; Beasley, James C.; Rhodes, Olin E.

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  18. ADP1 affects plant architecture by regulating local auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruixi; Li, Jieru; Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  19. Glycolytic Enzymes Localize to Synapses under Energy Stress to Support Synaptic Function.

    PubMed

    Jang, SoRi; Nelson, Jessica C; Bend, Eric G; Rodríguez-Laureano, Lucelenie; Tueros, Felipe G; Cartagenova, Luis; Underwood, Katherine; Jorgensen, Erik M; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A

    2016-04-20

    Changes in neuronal activity create local and transient changes in energy demands at synapses. Here we discover a metabolic compartment that forms in vivo near synapses to meet local energy demands and support synaptic function in Caenorhabditis elegans neurons. Under conditions of energy stress, glycolytic enzymes redistribute from a diffuse localization in the cytoplasm to a punctate localization adjacent to synapses. Glycolytic enzymes colocalize, suggesting the ad hoc formation of a glycolysis compartment, or a "glycolytic metabolon," that can maintain local levels of ATP. Local formation of the glycolytic metabolon is dependent on presynaptic scaffolding proteins, and disruption of the glycolytic metabolon blocks the synaptic vesicle cycle, impairs synaptic recovery, and affects locomotion. Our studies indicate that under energy stress conditions, energy demands in C. elegans synapses are met locally through the assembly of a glycolytic metabolon to sustain synaptic function and behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  20. Localized waves supported by the rotating waveguide array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-09-01

    We show that truncated rotating square waveguide arrays support new types of localized modes that exist even in the linear case, in complete contrast to localized excitations in nonrotating arrays requiring nonlinearity for their existence and forming above the energy flow threshold. These new modes appear either around array center, since rotation leads to the emergence of the effective attractive potential with a minimum at the rotation axis, or in the array corners, in which case localization occurs due to competition between centrifugal force (in terms of quasi-particle analogy) and total internal reflection at the interface of the truncated array. The degree of localization of the central and corner modes mediated by rotation increases with rotation frequency. Stable rotating soliton families bifurcating from linear modes are analyzed in both focusing and defocusing media.

  1. Localized waves supported by the rotating waveguide array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-09-01

    We show that truncated rotating square waveguide arrays support new types of localized modes that exist even in the linear case, in complete contrast to localized excitations in nonrotating arrays requiring nonlinearity for their existence and forming above the energy flow threshold. These new modes appear either around an array center, since the rotation leads to the emergence of the effective attractive potential with a minimum at the rotation axis, or in the array corners, in which case localization occurs due to competition between the centrifugal force and total internal reflection at the interface of the truncated array. The degree of localization of the central and corner modes mediated by the rotation increases with the rotation frequency. The stable rotating soliton families bifurcating from linear modes are analyzed in both focusing and defocusing media. PMID:27607984

  2. Localized waves supported by the rotating waveguide array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-09-01

    We show that truncated rotating square waveguide arrays support new types of localized modes that exist even in the linear case, in complete contrast to localized excitations in nonrotating arrays requiring nonlinearity for their existence and forming above the energy flow threshold. These new modes appear either around an array center, since the rotation leads to the emergence of the effective attractive potential with a minimum at the rotation axis, or in the array corners, in which case localization occurs due to competition between the centrifugal force and total internal reflection at the interface of the truncated array. The degree of localization of the central and corner modes mediated by the rotation increases with the rotation frequency. The stable rotating soliton families bifurcating from linear modes are analyzed in both focusing and defocusing media.

  3. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson P.; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36), as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37). Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs. PMID:26236986

  4. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson P; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete's decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36), as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37). Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players' willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs. PMID:26236986

  5. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson P; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete's decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36), as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37). Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players' willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  6. A novel support vector machine with globality-locality preserving.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng-Long; Yuan, Yu-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is regarded as a powerful method for pattern classification. However, the solution of the primal optimal model of SVM is susceptible for class distribution and may result in a nonrobust solution. In order to overcome this shortcoming, an improved model, support vector machine with globality-locality preserving (GLPSVM), is proposed. It introduces globality-locality preserving into the standard SVM, which can preserve the manifold structure of the data space. We complete rich experiments on the UCI machine learning data sets. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, especially on the Wine and Iris databases; the recognition rate is above 97% and outperforms all the algorithms that were developed from SVM. PMID:25045750

  7. Rapid communication: Global-local processing affects recognition of distractor emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown links between happy faces and global, distributed attention as well as sad faces to local, focused attention. Emotions have been shown to affect global-local processing. Given that studies on emotion-cognition interactions have not explored the effect of perceptual processing at different spatial scales on processing stimuli with emotional content, the present study investigated the link between perceptual focus and emotional processing. The study investigated the effects of global-local processing on the recognition of distractor faces with emotional expressions. Participants performed a digit discrimination task with digits at either the global level or the local level presented against a distractor face (happy or sad) as background. The results showed that global processing associated with broad scope of attention facilitates recognition of happy faces, and local processing associated with narrow scope of attention facilitates recognition of sad faces. The novel results of the study provide conclusive evidence for emotion-cognition interactions by demonstrating the effect of perceptual processing on emotional faces. The results along with earlier complementary results on the effect of emotion on global-local processing support a reciprocal relationship between emotional processing and global-local processing. Distractor processing with emotional information also has implications for theories of selective attention.

  8. 'Informal' learning to support breastfeeding: local problems and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Stephen; Renfrew, Mary J; McFadden, Alison

    2006-10-01

    This study explored 'informal' learning opportunities in three health economies, both for National Health Service (NHS) staff and lay people wishing to promote and support breastfeeding and for new mothers wishing to breastfeed. The word 'informal' indicates local learning opportunities that are not part of recognized academic or professional training courses. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 31 key informants, including health visitors, midwives, infant feeding advisers, Sure Start personnel, voluntary organization representatives, Strategic Health Authority representatives, senior nurses and trainers. The results were analysed thematically. In each site, there were regular training events for NHS staff to acquire or update knowledge and skills. Training was provided by a small number of enthusiasts. Midwives and health visitors were the groups who attend most frequently, although many find it difficult to make time. Although many training events were multidisciplinary, few doctors appeared to attend. Individual staff also used additional learning opportunities, e.g. other courses, conferences, web-based learning, and training by voluntary organizations. Services offered to lay people by the NHS, Sure Start and voluntary organizations included parentcraft, antenatal and post-natal classes, breastfeeding support groups, 'baby cafés' and telephone counselling. Interviewees' organizations did not have a specific breastfeeding strategy, although action groups were trying to take the agenda forward. Local opportunities were over-dependent on individual champions working in relative isolation, and support is needed from local health economies for the facilitation of coordination and networking. PMID:16999768

  9. Localization Corrections for Mobile Laser Scanner Using Local Support-Based Outlier Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtola, V. V.; Virtanen, J.-P.; Rönnholm, P.; Nüchter, A.

    2016-06-01

    Following the pioneering work introduced in [Lehtola et al., ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 99, 2015, pp. 25-29], we extend the state-of-the-art intrinsic localization solution for a single two-dimensional (2D) laser scanner from one into (quasi) three dimensions (3D). By intrinsic localization, we mean that no external sensors are used to localize the scanner, such as inertial measurement devices (IMU) or global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Specifically, the proposed method builds on a novel concept of local support-based filtering of outliers, which enables the use of six degrees-of-freedom (DoF) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) for the purpose of enacting appropriate trajectory corrections into the previous one-dimensional solution. Moreover, the local support-based filtering concept is platform independent, and is therefore likely to be widely generalizable. The here presented overall method is yet limited into quasi-3D by its inability to recover trajectories with steep curvature, but in the future, it may be further extended into full 3D.

  10. Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Jácome, Antonio; Montaña, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Key Results Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. Conclusions The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting

  11. Supporting Local Aliases as Usable Presentation of Secure Pseudonyms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Elke; Liesebach, Katja

    Privacy-Enhancing Identity Management (PIM) enables users to control which personal data they provide to whom by partitioning this information into subsets called partial identities. Since these partial identities should not be linkable except by their owner, randomly generated pseudonyms that are unique are used as their identifiers instead of real names. Randomly generated pseudonyms do not leak any information about the corresponding user, but their handling is not easy for human beings. Users should therefore be enabled to assign local aliases according to their individual preferences to such pseudonyms to allow for a better recognizability in interaction scenarios. However, the use of local aliases requires a reasonable support to ensure both privacy and usability.

  12. National ecosystem assessments supported by scientific and local knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, J.E.; Lessard, V.C.; Spaeth, K.E.; Shaver, P.L.; Dayton, R.S.; Pyke, D.A.; Jolley, L.; Goebel, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  13. National ecosystem assessments supported by scientific and local knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Lessard, Veronica C.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Shaver, Patrick L.; Dayton, Robert S.; Pyke, David A.; Jolley, Leonard; Goebel, J. Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers.

  14. Adhesion and friction control localized folding in supported graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Arroyo, M.

    2013-05-01

    Graphene deposited on planar surfaces often exhibits sharp and localized folds delimiting seemingly planar regions, as a result of compressive stresses transmitted by the substrate. Such folds alter the electronic and chemical properties of graphene, and therefore, it is important to understand their emergence, to either suppress them or control their morphology. Here, we study the emergence of out-of-plane deformations in supported and laterally strained graphene with high-fidelity simulations and a simpler theoretical model. We characterize the onset of buckling and the nonlinear behavior after the instability in terms of the adhesion and frictional material parameters of the graphene-substrate interface. We find that localized folds evolve from a distributed wrinkling linear instability due to the nonlinearity in the van der Waals graphene-substrate interactions. We identify friction as a selection mechanism for the separation between folds, as the formation of far apart folds is penalized by the work of friction. Our systematic analysis is a first step towards strain engineering of supported graphene, and is applicable to other compressed thin elastic films weakly coupled to a substrate.

  15. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  16. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  17. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

  18. Local insulin therapy affects fracture healing in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Park, Andrew G; Paglia, David N; Al-Zube, Loay; Hreha, Jeremy; Vaidya, Swaroopa; Breitbart, Eric; Benevenia, Joseph; O'Connor, J Patrick; Lin, Sheldon S

    2013-05-01

    A significant number of lower extremity fractures result in mal-union necessitating effective treatments to restore ambulation. Prior research in diabetic animal fracture models demonstrated improved healing following local insulin application to the fracture site and indicated that local insulin therapy can aid bone regeneration, at least within an insulin-dependent diabetic animal model. This study tested whether local insulin therapy could accelerate femur fracture repair in normal, non-diabetic rats. High (20 units) and low (10 units) doses of insulin were delivered in a calcium sulfate carrier which provided sustained release of the exogenous insulin for 7 days after fracture. Histomorphometry, radiographic scoring, and torsional mechanical testing were used to measure fracture healing. The fracture calluses from rats treated with high-dose insulin had significantly more cartilage than untreated rats after 7 and 14 days of healing. After 4 weeks of healing, femurs from rats treated with low-dose insulin had significantly higher radiographic scores and mechanical strength (p < 0.05), compared to the no treatment control groups. The results of this study suggest that locally delivered insulin is a potential therapeutic agent for treating bone fractures. Further studies are necessary, such as large animal proof of concepts, prior to the clinical use of insulin for bone fracture treatment.

  19. Alternative splicing affects the subcellular localization of Drosha.

    PubMed

    Link, Steffen; Grund, Stefanie E; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-06-20

    The RNase III enzyme Drosha is a key factor in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and as such indispensable for cellular homeostasis and developmental processes. Together with its co-factor DGCR8, it converts the primary transcript (pri-miRNA) into the precursor hairpin (pre-miRNA) in the nucleus. While the middle and the C-terminal domain are crucial for pri-miRNA processing and DGCR8 binding, the function of the N-terminus remains cryptic. Different studies have linked this region to the subcellular localization of Drosha, stabilization and response to stress. In this study, we identify alternatively spliced Drosha transcripts that are devoid of a part of the arginine/serine-rich (RS-rich) domain and expressed in a large set of human cells. In contrast to their expected habitation, we find two isoforms also present in the cytoplasm, while the other two isoforms reside exclusively in the nucleus. Their processing activity for pri-miRNAs and the binding to co-factors remains unaltered. In multiple cell lines, the endogenous mRNA expression of the Drosha isoforms correlates with the localization of endogenous Drosha proteins. The pri-miRNA processing efficiency is not significantly different between groups of cells with or without cytoplasmic Drosha expression. In summary, we discovered novel isoforms of Drosha with differential subcellular localization pointing toward additional layers of complexity in the regulation of its activity. PMID:27185895

  20. Does utility spent nuclear fuel storage affect local property values?

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.; Allison, T.; Clark, D.E.

    1997-05-01

    With federal policy apparently forcing more utilities to store their spent nuclear fuel at their reactor sites for the foreseeable future, the question arises whether residential sale prices will be affected because of the public perceptions of risk and negative imagery. This article discusses the question using the following topic areas: estimates of economic consequences; california plant case studies; real estate data used in the analyses; hedonic modeling; iterative hedonic modeling; 25-mile analyses; 15 mile analyses; news coverage analysis. 3 figs.

  1. Issues in the support and disaster preparedness of severely disabled children in affected areas.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Soichiro

    2013-03-01

    Relative to their numbers, more than twice the number of disabled children fell victim to the Great East Japan Earthquake than did normal people. It was important to find out needs and provide support, as the needs of disabled children vulnerable to the disaster, such as a shortage of diapers of the right size for disabled children in the affected areas, were not given priority. In addition, the role of coordinators to spread word of who needed what and where, and linking this to specific support, was important. Regions and authorities need to determine how disabled children are to be evacuated in a disaster. Each household should prepare, as disaster prevention measures, their own private power generator and carry medical information for oral or other medicine. Each region should prepare, as a local disaster measure, welfare evacuation areas for disabled children. One thing that was felt acutely in this recent disaster is that disaster preparations and manuals need to be revised from the point of view of welfare, and that the most reliable people were those who, whether as assisters or the assisted, were involved with the disabled on a daily basis from before the disaster. The existence of disabled children as a familiar part of society, and supporting agencies networking based around the children as part of normal operations, plays a very large part. Raising children as part of their local communities is the biggest factor in saving them from disasters.

  2. Respecting and Supporting Students' Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Too often educators pay too little attention to the psychological and emotional impact subject matter has on students. Teaching effectiveness would be greatly enhanced if educators would consider students' affective reactions to material delivered in courses, workshops, and other collegiate learning experiences.

  3. LaRC local area networks to support distributed computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, E. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Local Area Network (LAN) effort is discussed. LaRC initiated the development of a LAN to support a growing distributed computing environment at the Center. The purpose of the network is to provide an improved capability (over inteactive and RJE terminal access) for sharing multivendor computer resources. Specifically, the network will provide a data highway for the transfer of files between mainframe computers, minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers. An important influence on the overall network design was the vital need of LaRC researchers to efficiently utilize the large CDC mainframe computers in the central scientific computing facility. Although there was a steady migration from a centralized to a distributed computing environment at LaRC in recent years, the work load on the central resources increased. Major emphasis in the network design was on communication with the central resources within the distributed environment. The network to be implemented will allow researchers to utilize the central resources, distributed minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers to obtain the proper level of computing power to efficiently perform their jobs.

  4. Measuring natural pest suppression at different spatial scales affects the importance of local variables.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A B; Gratton, C

    2012-10-01

    The role biodiversity plays in the provision of ecosystem services is widely recognized, yet few ecological studies have identified characteristics of natural systems that support and maintain ecosystem services. The purpose of this study was to identify landscape variables correlated with natural pest suppression carried out by arthropod natural enemies, predators and parasitoids. We conducted two field experiments, one observational and one experimental, where landscape variables at broad and local scales were measured and related to natural pest suppression. The first experiment measured natural pest suppression at 16 sites across an urban to rural landscape gradient in south central Wisconsin. We found natural enemy diversity positively affected natural pest suppression, whereas flower diversity negatively affected pest suppression. No relationship was found between natural pest suppression and broad scale variables, which measured the percentage of different land cover classes in the surrounding landscape. In the second experiment, we established small (2- by 3-m) replicated plots that experimentally varied flower diversity (0, 1, or 7 species) within a plot. We found no significant relationship between natural pest suppression and the different levels of flower diversity. The fact that we only found differences in natural pest suppression in our first experiment, which measured natural pest suppression at sites separated by larger distances than our second experiment, suggests the more appropriate scale for measuring ecosystem services performed by mobile organisms like insects, is across broad spatial scales where variation in natural enemies communities and the factors that affect them become more apparent.

  5. Disentangling the brain networks supporting affective speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Razafimandimby, Annick; Vigneau, Mathieu; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2012-07-16

    Areas involved in social cognition, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) appear to be active during the classification of sentences according to emotional criteria (happy, angry or sad, [Beaucousin et al., 2007]). These two regions are frequently co-activated in studies about theory of mind (ToM). To confirm that these regions constitute a coherent network during affective speech comprehension, new event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired, using the emotional and grammatical-person sentence classification tasks on a larger sample of 51 participants. The comparison of the emotional and grammatical tasks confirmed the previous findings. Functional connectivity analyses established a clear demarcation between a "Medial" network, including the mPFC and TPJ regions, and a bilateral "Language" network, which gathered inferior frontal and temporal areas. These findings suggest that emotional speech comprehension results from interactions between language, ToM and emotion processing networks. The language network, active during both tasks, would be involved in the extraction of lexical and prosodic emotional cues, while the medial network, active only during the emotional task, would drive the making of inferences about the sentences' emotional content, based on their meanings. The left and right amygdalae displayed a stronger response during the emotional condition, but were seldom correlated with the other regions, and thus formed a third entity. Finally, distinct regions belonging to the Language and Medial networks were found in the left angular gyrus, where these two systems could interface.

  6. Differences among Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate: Does Support for the Local Teacher Union Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Although some school improvement literature has suggested that schools will improve when unions are removed from the school system, unions have rarely been isolated in the research. This study involved a mixed method case study approach to explore whether support of the local teacher union affected perceptions of school climate, as measured by the…

  7. Phylogenetic isolation of host trees affects assembly of local Heteroptera communities.

    PubMed

    Vialatte, A; Bailey, R I; Vasseur, C; Matocq, A; Gossner, M M; Everhart, D; Vitrac, X; Belhadj, A; Ernoult, A; Prinzing, A

    2010-07-22

    A host may be physically isolated in space and then may correspond to a geographical island, but it may also be separated from its local neighbours by hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary history, and may form in this case an evolutionarily distinct island. We test how this affects the assembly processes of the host's colonizers, this question being until now only invoked at the scale of physically distinct islands or patches. We studied the assembly of true bugs in crowns of oaks surrounded by phylogenetically more or less closely related trees. Despite the short distances (less than 150 m) between phylogenetically isolated and non-isolated trees, we found major differences between their Heteroptera faunas. We show that phylogenetically isolated trees support smaller numbers and fewer species of Heteroptera, an increasing proportion of phytophages and a decreasing proportion of omnivores, and proportionally more non-host-specialists. These differences were not due to changes in the nutritional quality of the trees, i.e. species sorting, which we accounted for. Comparison with predictions from meta-community theories suggests that the assembly of local Heteroptera communities may be strongly driven by independent metapopulation processes at the level of the individual species. We conclude that the assembly of communities on hosts separated from their neighbours by long periods of evolutionary history is qualitatively and quantitatively different from that on hosts established surrounded by closely related trees. Potentially, the biotic selection pressure on a host might thus change with the evolutionary proximity of the surrounding hosts.

  8. Social Support, Unfulfilled Expectations, and Affective Well-Being on Return to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiger, Christine P.; Wiese, Bettina S.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate how social support from the partner is related to mothers' affective well-being during their return to employment after maternity leave and whether expectations of that support have an additional impact. We differentiated four forms of support and their respective expectation discrepancies:…

  9. How does spatial dispersal network affect the evolution of parasite local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Vogwill, Tom; Fenton, Andy; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2010-06-01

    Studying patterns of parasite local adaptation can provide insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of host-parasite coevolution. Many factors, both biotic and abiotic, have been identified that influence parasite local adaptation. In particular, dispersal and population structuring are considered important determinants of local adaptation. We investigated how the shape of the spatial dispersal network within experimental landscapes affected local adaptation of a bacteriophage parasite to its bacterial host. Regardless of landscape topology, dispersal always led to the evolution of phages with broader infectivity range. However, when the spatial dispersal network resulted in spatial variation in the breadth of phage infectivity range, significant levels of parasite local adaptation and local maladaptation were detected within the same landscape using the local versus foreign definition of local adaptation. By contrast, local adaptation was not detected using the home versus away or local versus global definitions of local adaptation. This suggests that spatial dispersal networks may play an important role in driving parasite local adaptation, particularly when the shape of the dispersal network generates nonuniform levels of host resistance or parasite infectivity throughout a species' range. PMID:20050909

  10. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Empathy in Spouses' Support Interactions: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Verhofstadt, Lesley; Devoldre, Inge; Buysse, Ann; Stevens, Michael; Hinnekens, Céline; Ickes, William; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined how support providers' empathic dispositions (dispositional perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) as well as their situational empathic reactions (interaction-based perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) relate to the provision of spousal support during observed support interactions. Forty-five committed couples provided questionnaire data and participated in two ten-minute social support interactions designed to assess behaviors when partners are offering and soliciting social support. A video-review task was used to assess situational forms of perspective taking (e.g., empathic accuracy), empathic concern and personal distress. Data were analyzed by means of the multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results revealed that providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., dispositional empathic concern), provided lower levels of negative support. In addition, for male partners, scoring higher on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) was related to lower levels of negative support provision. For both partners, higher scores on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) correlated with more instrumental support provision. Male providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., situational personal distress) provided higher levels of instrumental support. Dispositional perspective taking was related to higher scores on emotional support provision for male providers. The current study furthers our insight into the empathy-support link, by revealing differential effects (a) for men and women, (b) of both cognitive and affective empathy, and

  11. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: the role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders. PMID:22969712

  12. Ordinary Social Interaction and the Main Effect Between Perceived Support and Affect.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Brian; Vander Molen, Randy J; Fles, Elizabeth; Andrews, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Relational regulation theory hypothesizes that (a) the main effect between perceived support and mental health primarily reflects ordinary social interaction rather than conversations about stress and how to cope with it, and (b) the extent to which a provider regulates a recipient's mental health primarily reflects the recipient's personal taste (i.e., is relational), rather than the provider's objective supportiveness. In three round-robin studies, participants rated each other on supportiveness and the quality of ordinary social interaction, as well as their own affect when interacting with each other. Samples included marines about to deploy to Afghanistan (N = 100; 150 dyads), students sharing apartments (N = 64; 96 dyads), and strangers (N = 48; 72 dyads). Perceived support and ordinary social interaction were primarily relational, and most of perceived support's main effect on positive affect was redundant with ordinary social interaction. The main effect between perceived support and affect emerged among strangers after brief text conversations, and these links were partially verified by independent observers. Findings for negative affect were less consistent with theory. Ordinary social interaction appears to be able to explain much of the main effect between perceived support and positive affect.

  13. Performance-Based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA). Implementation and Supporting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.; And Others

    This document contains two sections: implementation of the performance-based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA), and supporting research. Section 1 presents OABA, an analytic procedure designed to identify those affective behaviors important to success in an occupation, and gives directions on how to implement the procedure. The…

  14. Solitons supported by localized nonlinearities in periodic media

    SciTech Connect

    Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-03-15

    Nonlinear periodic systems, such as photonic crystals and Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC's) loaded into optical lattices, are often described by the nonlinear Schroedinger or Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a sinusoidal potential. Here, we consider a model based on such a periodic potential, with the nonlinearity (attractive or repulsive) concentrated either at a single point or at a symmetric set of two points, which are represented, respectively, by a single {delta} function or a combination of two {delta} functions. With the attractive or repulsive sign of the nonlinearity, this model gives rise to ordinary solitons or gap solitons (GS's), which reside, respectively, in the semi-infinite or finite gaps of the system's linear spectrum, being pinned to the {delta} functions. Physical realizations of these systems are possible in optics and BEC's, using diverse variants of the nonlinearity management. First, we demonstrate that the single {delta} function multiplying the nonlinear term supports families of stableregular solitons in the self-attractive case, while a family of solitons supported by the attractive {delta} function in the absence of the periodic potential is completely unstable. In addition, we show that the {delta} function can support stable GS's in the first finite band gap in both the self-attractive and repulsive models. The stability analysis for the GS's in the second finite band gap is reported too, for both signs of the nonlinearity. Alongside the numerical analysis, analytical approximations are developed for the solitons in the semi-infinite and first two finite gaps, with the single {delta} function positioned at a minimum or maximum of the periodic potential. In the model with the symmetric set of two {delta} functions, we study the effect of the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the pinned solitons. Two configurations are considered, with the {delta} functions set symmetrically with respect to the minimum or maximum of the underlying

  15. Simulation to Support Local Search in Trajectory Optimization Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.; Venable, K. Brent; Lindsey, James

    2012-01-01

    NASA and the international community are investing in the development of a commercial transportation infrastructure that includes the increased use of rotorcraft, specifically helicopters and civil tilt rotors. However, there is significant concern over the impact of noise on the communities surrounding the transportation facilities. One way to address the rotorcraft noise problem is by exploiting powerful search techniques coming from artificial intelligence coupled with simulation and field tests to design low-noise flight profiles which can be tested in simulation or through field tests. This paper investigates the use of simulation based on predictive physical models to facilitate the search for low-noise trajectories using a class of automated search algorithms called local search. A novel feature of this approach is the ability to incorporate constraints directly into the problem formulation that addresses passenger safety and comfort.

  16. Local initiatives: USAID / Peru supports national legislation on domestic violence.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This brief article describes the activities of USAID-funded groups that promote gender equality and the protection of women and children against domestic violence in Peru. The Peruvian legislature passed Public Law 26260 in 1993, which addresses the issue of domestic violence. The Movimiento Mujers Peruanas Manuela Ramos received support from USAID to develop a registration, protection, redress, and referral system for women who suffer domestic violence. A campaign was conducted that used leaflets and radio and television to educate women about the new law and their rights under it. USAID also supported the Ombudsman's Office for Women. This office instituted a national study on domestic violence that will provide a database for monitoring reductions in domestic violence expected from the new law and the campaign. ReproSalud has a reproductive health project that USAID is funding. This group as well as 18 other groups function under an umbrella group, the Manuela Ramos. The target is poor women living in disadvantaged rural and urban areas, who are at greater risk of domestic violence. Manuela Ramos conducted participatory, qualitative research that helps women rank their reproductive health needs. All 18 organizations found domestic violence to be a reproductive health problem. One organization identified it as the most serious problem, and one that contributes to complications during delivery. Manuela Ramos works to make men more aware of the negative impact that domestic violence has on women.

  17. Total Variation Denoising and Support Localization of the Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambolle, A.; Duval, V.; Peyré, G.; Poon, C.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the geometrical properties of the solutions to the total variation denoising method. A folklore statement is that this method is able to restore sharp edges, but at the same time, might introduce some staircasing (i.e. “fake” edges) in flat areas. Quite surprisingly, put aside numerical evidences, almost no theoretical result are available to backup these claims. The first contribution of this paper is a precise mathematical definition of the “extended support” (associated to the noise-free image) of TV denoising. This is intuitively the region which is unstable and will suffer from the staircasing effect. Our main result shows that the TV denoising method indeed restores a piece-wise constant image outside a small tube surrounding the extended support. Furthermore, the radius of this tube shrinks toward zero as the noise level vanishes and in some cases, an upper bound on the convergence rate is given.

  18. National, State, and Local Trends: Environmental Scan of Trends and Key Issues Affecting Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Jon; Budros, Kathleen; Yoshioka, Joyce

    This document is a collection of one-page summaries, or "Trends Newsletters" (Numbers 50, 54-7, 59-60, 67-71, and 73-91), that analyze the national, state, and local trends affecting planning for the San Jose/Evergreen Community College District in California. The document is divided into two sections: External Scan and Internal Scan. Topics…

  19. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Empathy in Spouses' Support Interactions: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Verhofstadt, Lesley; Devoldre, Inge; Buysse, Ann; Stevens, Michael; Hinnekens, Céline; Ickes, William; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined how support providers’ empathic dispositions (dispositional perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) as well as their situational empathic reactions (interaction-based perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) relate to the provision of spousal support during observed support interactions. Forty-five committed couples provided questionnaire data and participated in two ten-minute social support interactions designed to assess behaviors when partners are offering and soliciting social support. A video-review task was used to assess situational forms of perspective taking (e.g., empathic accuracy), empathic concern and personal distress. Data were analyzed by means of the multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results revealed that providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., dispositional empathic concern), provided lower levels of negative support. In addition, for male partners, scoring higher on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) was related to lower levels of negative support provision. For both partners, higher scores on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) correlated with more instrumental support provision. Male providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., situational personal distress) provided higher levels of instrumental support. Dispositional perspective taking was related to higher scores on emotional support provision for male providers. The current study furthers our insight into the empathy-support link, by revealing differential effects (a) for men and women, (b) of both cognitive and affective empathy, and (c) of dispositional as well as situational empathy, on different types of support provision. PMID:26910769

  20. Supporting tobacco control: stimulating local newspaper coverage with a technical assistance website for local coalitions.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Helme, Donald; Young, Walter F; Borland, Ron; Maloy, Julie A; Cutter, Gary R; Andersen, Peter A; Walther, Joseph B

    2011-11-01

    A large and growing literature confirms that well-designed web-based programs can be effective in preventing or treating several chronic diseases. This study examined how the Internet can deliver information and train community activists and specifically tested the effects of web-based technical assistance on local tobacco control coalitions' efforts to use media advocacy to advance their agendas. The authors compared a highly interactive, Enhanced website (intervention) to a noninteractive, Basic text-based website (comparison) in Colorado communities. A total of 24 tobacco control coalitions led by local county health departments and nursing services were enrolled in the project and randomly assigned to use either the intervention or comparison website. A total of 73 local daily and weekly newspapers were identified in the service areas of 23 of the 24 coalitions. A posttest assessment of newspaper coverage was conducted to locate all newspaper articles with tobacco control information published between January 1 and April 9, 2004, the last 3 months of the intervention. Although there was no evidence of a treatment effect on the frequency of newspaper articles on tobacco-related issues, there was, however, evidence that newspapers in counties where the coalition had access to the Enhanced website printed more stories focused on local/regional issues and more anti-tobacco local/regional stories than in the counties where coalitions had access to the Basic website. Coalitions can improve their influence on local media for community tobacco control when high-quality online technical assistance, training, and resources are available to them. PMID:22068581

  1. Temporal dynamics of a local fish community are strongly affected by immigration from the surrounding metacommunity

    PubMed Central

    Stoffels, Rick J; Clarke, Kenneth Robert; Linklater, Danielle S

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year time series of annual censuses was collected from a large floodplain lake to determine how dynamics of the local fish community were affected by changes in hydrological connectivity with the surrounding metacommunity. The lake was disconnected from the metacommunity for 1 year prior to our study and remained disconnected until 3 months before our third annual census, when a flood reconnected the lake to the metacommunity. We determined how changes in connectivity affected temporal dynamics of (1) local community composition and (2) the population composition, condition, and growth of catfish, to shed light on how immigration of other species might affect local population dynamics. Before reconnection, the community was likely shaped by interactions between the local environment and species traits. The reconnection caused significant immigration and change in community composition and correlated with a significant and abrupt decline in catfish condition, growth, and abundance; effects likely due to the immigration of a competitor with a similar trophic niche: carp. The community was slow to return to its preconnection state, which may be due to dispersal traits of the fishes, and a time-lag in the recovery of the local catfish population following transient intensification of species interactions. The dynamics observed were concordant with the species sorting and mass-effects perspectives of metacommunity theory. Floods cause episodic dispersal in floodplain fish metacommunities, and so, flood frequency determines the relative importance of regional and local processes. Local processes may be particularly important to certain species, but these species may need sufficient time between floods for population increase, before the next flood-induced dispersal episode brings competitors and predators that might cause population decline. Accordingly, species coexistence in these metacommunities may be facilitated by spatiotemporal storage effects, which may in

  2. Explaining the enforcement gap in China: local government support and internal agency obstacles as predictors of enforcement actions in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Fryxell, Gerald E; van Rooij, Benjamin; Wang, Wei; Honying Li, Pansy

    2012-11-30

    This study investigates how local government support for enforcement and internal agency obstacles explain the enforcement gap in Guangzhou, China. It was found that agency obstacles associated with insufficient resources and job ambiguity, in particular, affect enforcement officials' perceptions of enforcement difficulty. Somewhat more surprisingly, however, local government support was not found to be a significant predictor of these perceptions. In addition, this study identified four significant relationships associated with specific enforcement actions. First and second, perceptions of enforcement difficulty appear to lead to fewer inspections, but also have a weak positive effect on the frequency of fines levied. Third, poor coordination within the bureau was found to be associated with fewer violations being processed. Fourth, and contrary to expectations, local government support was found to suppress the frequency of inspections while having no significant effect on violations or fines. Overall, these findings suggest that increased local government support for the enforcement of environmental regulation in China may not necessarily lead to more rigorous enforcement, at least if enforcement rigor is measured in terms of inspections, citations and fines.

  3. The ties that bind: perceived social support, stress, and IBS in severely affected patients

    PubMed Central

    LACKNER, J. M.; BRASEL, A. M.; QUIGLEY, B M.; KEEFER, L.; KRASNER, S. S.; POWELL, C.; KATZ, L. A.; SITRIN, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the association between social support and the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in a sample of severely affected IBS patients recruited to an NIH-funded clinical trial. In addition, we examined if the effects of social support on IBS pain are mediated through the effects on stress. Methods Subjects were 105 Rome II diagnosed IBS patients (F = 85%) who completed seven questionnaires which were collected as part of a pretreatment baseline assessment. Key Results Partial correlations were conducted to clarify the relationships between social support and clinically relevant variables with baseline levels of psychopathology, holding constant number of comorbid medical diseases, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and education. Analyses indicated that social support was inversely related to IBS symptom severity. Social support was positively related with less severe pain. A similar pattern of data was found for perceived stress but not quality of life impairment. Regression analyses examined if the effects of social support on pain are mediated by stress. The effects of social support on bodily pain were mediated by stress such that the greater the social support the less stress and the less pain. This effect did not hold for symptom severity, quality of life, or psychological distress. Conclusions & Inferences This study links the perceived adequacy of social support to the global severity of symptoms of IBS and its cardinal symptom (pain). It also suggests that the mechanism by which social support alleviates pain is through a reduction in stress levels. PMID:20465594

  4. Targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing local transmission of malaria.

    PubMed

    Domanović, D; Kitchen, A; Politis, C; Panagiotopoulos, T; Bluemel, J; Van Bortel, W; Overbosch, D; Lieshout-Krikke, R; Fabra, C; Facco, G; Zeller, H

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of locally acquired Plasmodium vivax malaria in Greece started in 2009 and peaked in 2011. Targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing transmission of malaria raised questions of how to define spatial boundaries of such an area and when to trigger any specific blood safety measures, including whether and which blood donation screening strategy to apply. To provide scientific advice the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) organised expert meetings in 2013. The outcomes of these consultations are expert opinions covering spatial targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing local transmission of malaria and blood donation screening strategy for evidence of malaria infection in these areas. Opinions could help EU national blood safety authorities in developing a preventive strategy during malaria outbreaks. PMID:27238883

  5. The Role of Universities in Supporting Local Agroindustry: The Case of the Piceno District in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavoletti, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of universities in supporting local agroindustry using the case of the Piceno agroindustrial district in Italy. Emerging countries' comparative advantages, made stronger by increased international trade and the rediscovery of local traditions and typicality, do not signify that there will be a less knowledge-intensive…

  6. The Transfer of Local Authority School Support Services to External Social Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores an emerging and largely unresearched sector of the school education market, the transfer of local authority support services to external social enterprises. It locates these new social enterprises as a consequence of government strategies to reduce public spending, shrink local government and create competitive markets in…

  7. Investigation of factors affecting backside hotspot localization in infrared lock-in thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Nicholas Chiu Yen; Sim, Kok Swee; Hoe, Tiong Min

    2015-07-01

    Infrared lock-in thermography (IR-LIT) is a fault localization technique that serves the purpose of detecting a local heat source or hotspot emitted by the faulty area. Performing backside hotspot localization overcomes the limitation during frontside hotspot localization, especially for shorted areas that emit a low heat source. In order to produce better hotspot localization from the package backside, it is important to study more of the factors affecting backside hotspot localization, including the power settings of the device, the lock-in frequency, and the die thickness of the packages. Power packages are inspected using a tool with varying power and frequency settings. The results are collected by observing the size of the hotspot and by recording the time taken for the hotspot to appear. To investigate the die thickness, the die surface is grinded from the backside of the die and the thickness of the die was measured using x-rays. The relationship between the power settings, the frequency settings, and the die thickness does show significant changes to the hotspot size and the time taken to generate a hotspot.

  8. The Role of Social Protection Programmes in Supporting Education in Conflict-Affected Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of social protection in supporting education in conflict-affected contexts. In recent years, social protection has gained popularity as a mechanism to reduce poverty and vulnerability, in part by enabling households to better access and use basic services as a result of increased household income. In…

  9. A Quantitative Study of Factors Affecting Learner Acceptance of a Computer-Based Training Support Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, G. Dale; Flannery, Daniele D.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and empirically tests factors that may influence learners' use of a computer-based training support system (TSS). The areas of research and theory were drawn from human-computer interaction, information and business management, and adult education. The factors suggested in the literature that may affect learner's use of a TSS…

  10. Library Support for Academic Program Review--From an Evolving Local Model to What's Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ming-Ming Shen

    A local model for support of periodic academic program reviews by the Indiana Commission for Higher Education (ICHE) has developed and evolved at the Ball State University library. The process of devising a format to systematically report library holdings statistics to support program reviews and other collections development duties began in 1975;…

  11. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24423572

  12. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Fluidizing the membrane by a local anesthetic: phenylethanol affects membrane protein oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, Veerappan; Munz, Carmen; Tome, Lydia; Schneider, Dirk

    2010-12-17

    The exact mechanism of action of anesthetics is still an open question. While some observations suggest specific anesthetic-protein interactions, nonspecific perturbation of the lipid bilayer has also been suggested. Perturbations of bilayer properties could subsequently affect the structure and function of membrane proteins. Addition of the local anesthetic phenylethanol (PEtOH) to model membranes and intact Escherichia coli cells not only affected membrane fluidity but also severely altered the defined helix-helix interaction within the membrane. This experimental observation suggests that certain anesthetics modulate membrane physical properties and thereby indirectly affect transmembrane (TM) helix-helix interactions, which are not only involved in membrane protein folding and assembly but also important for TM signaling.

  14. Longitudinal Effects of Social Support and Adaptive Coping on the Emotional Well-Being of Survivors of Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Eric S.; Penedo, Frank J.; Bustillo, Natalie E.; Benedict, Catherine; Rasheed, Mikal; Lechner, Suzanne; Soloway, Mark; Kava, Bruce R.; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of prostate cancer experience treatment-related physical side effects that can compromise emotional well-being for years post treatment. There is limited research investigating how social support and the use of coping may affect the emotional well-being of this population following treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support and coping impact emotional well-being 2 years after treatment in survivors of localized prostate cancer who have received either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Psychosocial and disease-specific measures were administered to an ethnically and demographically diverse sample of 180 men treated for localized prostate cancer at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher levels of social support at baseline predicted better emotional well-being 2 years later. Furthermore, higher levels of adaptive coping at baseline partially mediated the relationship between social support and emotional well-being. Supportive relationships may contribute to improved emotional well-being following treatment by facilitating the use of adaptive coping strategies. Attention should be given to strengthening social support networks and educating survivors of prostate cancer on adaptive coping techniques. PMID:21086876

  15. Children’s representations of school support for HIV-affected peers in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV has left many African children caring for sick relatives, orphaned or themselves HIV-positive, often facing immense challenges in the absence of significant support from adults. With reductions in development funding, public sector budgetary constraints, and a growing emphasis on the importance of indigenous resources in the HIV response, international policy allocates schools a key role in ‘substituting for families’ (Ansell, 2008) in supporting child health and well-being. We explore children’s own accounts of the challenges facing their HIV-affected peers and the role of schools in providing such support. Methods Contextualised within a multi-method study of school support for HIV-affected children in rural Zimbabwe, and regarding children’s views as a key resource for child-relevant intervention and policy, 128 school children (10–14) wrote a story about an HIV-affected peer and how school assisted them in tackling their problems. Results Children presented harrowing accounts of negative impacts of HIV on the social, physical and mental well-being of peers, and how these manifested in the school setting. Whilst relationships with fellow learners and teachers were said to provide a degree of support, this was patchy and minimal, generally limited to small-scale and often one-off acts of material help or kindness (e.g. teachers giving children pens and exercise books or peers sharing school lunches), with little potential to impact significantly on the wider social drivers of children’s daily challenges. Despite having respect for the enormity of the challenges many HIV-affected peers were coping with, children tended to keep a distance from them. School was depicted as a source of the very bullying, stigma and social exclusion that undermined children’s opportunities for well-being in their lives more generally. Conclusions Our findings challenge glib assumptions that schools can serve as a significant ‘indigenous’ supports of

  16. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  17. Madness or sadness? Local concepts of mental illness in four conflict-affected African communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concepts of ‘what constitutes mental illness’, the presumed aetiology and preferred treatment options, vary considerably from one cultural context to another. Knowledge and understanding of these local conceptualisations is essential to inform public mental health programming and policy. Methods Participants from four locations in Burundi, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were invited to describe ‘problems they knew of that related to thinking, feeling and behaviour?’ Data were collected over 31 focus groups discussions (251 participants) and key informant interviews with traditional healers and health workers. Results While remarkable similarities occurred across all settings, there were also striking differences. In all areas, participants were able to describe localized syndromes characterized by severe behavioural and cognitive disturbances with considerable resemblance to psychotic disorders. Additionally, respondents throughout all settings described local syndromes that included sadness and social withdrawal as core features. These syndromes had some similarities with nonpsychotic mental disorders, such as major depression or anxiety disorders, but also differed significantly. Aetiological concepts varied a great deal within each setting, and attributed causes varied from supernatural to psychosocial and natural. Local syndromes resembling psychotic disorders were seen as an abnormality in need of treatment, although people did not really know where to go. Local syndromes resembling nonpsychotic mental disorders were not regarded as a ‘medical’ disorder, and were therefore also not seen as a condition for which help should be sought within the biomedical health-care system. Rather, such conditions were expected to improve through social and emotional support from relatives, traditional healers and community members. Conclusions Local conceptualizations have significant implications for the planning of mental

  18. Climate change adaptation among Tibetan pastoralists: challenges in enhancing local adaptation through policy support.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Grumbine, R Edward; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Yun; Xu, Jian-Chu; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2012-10-01

    While researchers are aware that a mix of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), community-based resource management institutions, and higher-level institutions and policies can facilitate pastoralists' adaptation to climate change, policy makers have been slow to understand these linkages. Two critical issues are to what extent these factors play a role, and how to enhance local adaptation through government support. We investigated these issues through a case study of two pastoral communities on the Tibetan Plateau in China employing an analytical framework to understand local climate adaptation processes. We concluded that LEK and community-based institutions improve adaptation outcomes for Tibetan pastoralists through shaping and mobilizing resource availability to reduce risks. Higher-level institutions and policies contribute by providing resources from outside communities. There are dynamic interrelationships among these factors that can lead to support, conflict, and fragmentation. Government policy could enhance local adaptation through improvement of supportive relationships among these factors. While central government policies allow only limited room for overt integration of local knowledge/institutions, local governments often have some flexibility to buffer conflicts. In addition, government policies to support market-based economic development have greatly benefited adaptation outcomes for pastoralists. Overall, in China, there are still questions over how to create innovative institutions that blend LEK and community-based institutions with government policy making.

  19. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    PubMed

    Schartel, Tyler E; Schauber, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty) feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  20. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    PubMed

    Schartel, Tyler E; Schauber, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty) feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference. PMID:26978659

  1. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey

    PubMed Central

    Schartel, Tyler E.; Schauber, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty) feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference. PMID:26978659

  2. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  3. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  4. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  5. Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization but partially affects its apoptotic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-H.; Cheng, C.-M.; Chang, Y.-F.; Wang, T.-Y.; Yuo, C.-Y.; E-mail: m815006@kmu.edu.tw

    2007-03-09

    Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, induces apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in normal cells. In addition, Apoptin also exhibits tumor-specific nuclear localization and tumor-specific phosphorylation on threonine 108 (T108). Here, we studied the effects of T108 phosphorylation on the tumor-specific nuclear localization and apoptotic activity of Apoptin. We first showed that a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Apoptin, but not the green fluorescent protein-fused Apoptin used in many previous studies, exhibited the same intracellular distribution pattern as native Apoptin. We then made and analyzed an HA-Apoptin mutant with its T108 phosphorylation site abolished. We found that Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization and abolishing the T108 phosphorylation of Apoptin does affect its apoptotic activity in tumor cells but only partially. Our results support the previous finding that Apoptin contains two distinct apoptosis domains located separately at the N- and C-terminal regions and suggest that the T108 phosphorylation may only be required for the apoptotic activity mediated through the C-terminal apoptosis domain.

  6. The economic effects of supporting tuberculosis-affected households in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Marco A.; Huff, Doug; Boccia, Delia; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Lewis, James J.; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2016-01-01

    The End TB Strategy mandates that no tuberculosis (TB)-affected households face catastrophic costs due to TB. However, evidence is limited to evaluate socioeconomic support to achieve this change in policy and practice. The objective of the present study was to investigate the economic effects of a TB-specific socioeconomic intervention. The setting was 32 shantytown communities in Peru. The participants were from households of consecutive TB patients throughout TB treatment administered by the national TB programme. The intervention consisted of social support through household visits and community meetings, and economic support through cash transfers conditional upon TB screening in household contacts, adhering to TB treatment/chemoprophylaxis and engaging with social support. Data were collected to assess TB-affected household costs. Patient interviews were conducted at treatment initiation and then monthly for 6 months. From February 2014 to June 2015, 312 households were recruited, of which 135 were randomised to receive the intervention. Cash transfer total value averaged US$173 (3.5% of TB-affected households' average annual income) and mitigated 20% of households' TB-related costs. Households randomised to receive the intervention were less likely to incur catastrophic costs (30% (95% CI 22–38%) versus 42% (95% CI 34–51%)). The mitigation impact was higher among poorer households. The TB-specific socioeconomic intervention reduced catastrophic costs and was accessible to poorer households. Socioeconomic support and mitigating catastrophic costs are integral to the End TB strategy, and our findings inform implementation of these new policies. PMID:27660507

  7. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  8. Selling your self? The psychological impact of street sex work and factors affecting support seeking.

    PubMed

    Gorry, Jo; Roen, Katrina; Reilly, James

    2010-09-01

    Previous research investigating the risks of female street sex work has tended to focus on the most tangible risks to physical health and safety. This is reflected in the provision of support services for sex workers, where these aspects are prioritised. There is little research focusing solely on the psychological risks of sex work. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perceived psychological impact of street sex work and factors that affected support seeking. Interviews were carried out with a sample of UK female street sex workers (n = 7) who attended a drop-in clinic and health professionals (n = 5) who provided input to the drop-in service. The analytic process, which drew from an interpretative phenomenological approach, revealed four main themes that work together to describe the emotional impact of selling sex. Implications for support services and future research are highlighted.

  9. Local stereo matching with adaptive shape support window based cost aggregation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yafan; Zhao, Yan; Ji, Mengqi

    2014-10-10

    Cost aggregation is the most important step in a local stereo algorithm. In this work, a novel local stereo-matching algorithm with a cost-aggregation method based on adaptive shape support window (ASSW) is proposed. First, we compute the initial cost volume, which uses both absolute intensity difference and gradient similarity to measure dissimilarity. Second, we apply an ASSW-based cost-aggregation method to get the aggregated cost within the support window. There are two main parts: at first we construct a local support skeleton anchoring each pixel with four varying arm lengths decided on color similarity; as a result, the support window integral of multiple horizontal segments spanned by pixels in the neighboring vertical is established. Then we utilize extended implementation of guided filter to aggregate cost volume within the ASSW, which has better edge-preserving smoothing property than bilateral filter independent of the filtering kernel size. In this way, the number of bad pixels located in the incorrect depth regions can be effectively reduced through finding optimal support windows with an arbitrary shape and size adaptively. Finally, the initial disparity value of each pixel is selected using winner takes all optimization and post processing symmetrically, considering both the reference and the target image, is adopted. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves outstanding matching performance compared with other existing local algorithms on the Middlebury stereo benchmark, especially in depth discontinuities and piecewise smooth regions. PMID:25322396

  10. Local to regional emission sources affecting mercury fluxes to New York lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookman, Revital; Driscoll, Charles T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Effler, Steven W.

    Lake-sediment records across the Northern Hemisphere show increases in atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) over the last 150 years. Most of the previous studies have examined remote lakes affected by the global atmospheric Hg reservoir. In this study, we present Hg flux records from lakes in an urban/suburban setting of central New York affected also by local and regional emissions. Sediment cores were collected from the Otisco and Skaneateles lakes from the Finger Lakes region, Cross Lake, a hypereutrophic lake on the Seneca River, and Glacial Lake, a small seepage lake with a watershed that corresponds with the lake area. Sediment accumulation rates and dates were established by 210Pb. The pre-anthropogenic regional atmospheric Hg flux was estimated to be 3.0 μg m -2 yr -1 from Glacial Lake, which receives exclusively direct atmospheric deposition. Mercury fluxes peaked during 1971-2001, and were 3 to more than 30 times greater than pre-industrial deposition. Land use change and urbanization in the Otisco and Cross watersheds during the last century likely enhanced sediment loads and Hg fluxes to the lakes. Skaneateles and Glacial lakes have low sediment accumulation rates, and thus are excellent indicators for atmospheric Hg deposition. In these lakes, we found strong correlations with emission records for the Great Lakes region that markedly increased in the early 1900s, and peaked during WWII and in the early 1970s. Declines in modern Hg fluxes are generally evident in the core records. However, the decrease in sediment Hg flux at Glacial Lake was interrupted and has increased since the early 1990s probably due to the operation of new local emission sources. Assuming the global Hg reservoir tripled since the pre-industrial period, the contribution of local and regional emission sources to central New York lakes was estimated to about 80% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition.

  11. Attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affects rapid scene categorization.

    PubMed

    Brand, John; Johnson, Aaron P

    2014-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated how attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affected the selection of diagnostic spatial scale information used in scene categorization. We explored this issue by asking observers to classify hybrid images (i.e., images that contain low spatial frequency (LSF) content of one image, and high spatial frequency (HSF) content from a second image) immediately following global and local Navon tasks. Hybrid images can be classified according to either their LSF, or HSF content; thus, making them ideal for investigating diagnostic spatial scale preference. Although observers were sensitive to both spatial scales (Experiment 1), they overwhelmingly preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that LSF based hybrid categorization was faster following global Navon tasks, suggesting that LSF processing associated with global Navon tasks primed the selection of LSFs in hybrid images. In Experiment 4, replicating Experiment 3 but suppressing the LSF information in Navon letters by contrast balancing the stimuli examined this hypothesis. Similar to Experiment 3, observers preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content; however and in contrast, LSF based hybrid categorization was slower following global than local Navon tasks.

  12. Comparative community case studies as research tools: A national effort to support local sustainability planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    The provisioning of aquatic ecosystem goods and services (EGS) is a key concept in USEPA Office of Research and Development research programs. This is a national issue, yet many decisions affecting EGS sustainability are made at the local level where decisions can have substanti...

  13. Factors Affecting Mental Health of Local Staff Working in the Vanni Region, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol; Petit, Pilar; Ghitis, Frida; Sivilli, Teresa I.; Scholte, Willem F.; Ager, Alastair; Eriksson, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of the civil war that extended from 1983–2009, humanitarian organizations provided aid to the conflict-affected population of the Vanni region in northern Sri Lanka. In August, 2010, a needs assessment was conducted to determine the mental-health status of Sri Lankan national humanitarian aid staff working in conditions of stress and hardship, and consider contextual and organizational characteristics influencing such status. A total of 398 staff members from nine organizations working in the Vanni area participated in the survey, which assessed stress, work characteristics, social support, coping styles, and symptoms of psychological distress. Exposure to traumatic, chronic, and secondary stressors was common. Nineteen percent of the population met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 53% of participants reported elevated anxiety symptoms, and 58% reported elevated depression symptoms. Those reporting high levels of support from their organizations were less likely to suffer depression and PTSD symptoms than those reporting lower levels of staff support (OR =.23, p < .001) and (OR =.26, p < .001), respectively. Participants who were age 55 or older were significantly less likely to suffer anxiety symptoms than those who were between 15 and 34 years of age (OR =.13, p = .011). Having experienced travel difficulties was significantly associated with more anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.35, p < .001). It was recommended that organizations provide stress-management training and increase support to their staff. PMID:27099648

  14. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, Anne M.; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in two college communities, the present study: 1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol over-service in on-premise outlets; 2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems; and 3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. Methods We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents ages 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Results Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. Conclusions It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and

  15. Private and Local Support of Post-Secondary Public Vocational-Technical Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enger, John M.; Lacey, Candace H.

    Arkansas has 10 public postsecondary stand-alone vocational-technical institutes that collectively serve more than 3,000 full-time and 22,000 part-time students. Private sector and local government support of those 10 institutes was examined in a descriptive study based on semi-structured interviews of their presidents and directors and interviews…

  16. Creating Synergies: Local Government Facilitating Learning and Development through Partnerships--Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Peter; Virgona, Crina; Brown, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This research sought to document and better understand four evolving learning communities in Victoria. It was based upon an earlier study by the Victorian Local Governance Association (VLGA) (Snelling, 2003). The study was qualitative in nature, based on face-to-face interviews and case studies. This supporting document provides the literature…

  17. Changes in Capacity among Local Coordinated Community Response Coalitions (CCRs) Supported by the DELTA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela J.; Finkelstein, Daniel M.; Perez, Victoria E.; Rosenbach, Margo L.

    2010-01-01

    Coalitions are often the means through which communities plan and coordinate services for individuals and address larger environmental issues associated with social problems. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has supported local coordinated community response coalitions (CCRs) in 14 states to prevent intimate partner…

  18. Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

  19. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  20. Relaying support in disaster-affected areas: the social implications of a 'pay-it-forward' network.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Tomohide

    2014-07-01

    When a disaster strikes a country, a temporary so-called post-disaster utopia emerges in which local residents help each other and outsiders support survivors and victims. However, this utopia does not last. Survivors are likely to have no chance to pay people back for the help they have received and thus return to their daily lives with a sense of debt. After the Great East Japan Earthquake the author motivated survivors of other disasters to help survivors in the Tohoku region in eastern Japan in return for the support they had received in the past. Two findings are revealed: firstly, this pay-it-forward support among disaster-affected areas allows for intermittent rebuilding of the post-disaster utopia. Secondly, a theoretical examination of the network theory also suggests that the pay-it-forward network is likely to expand and cover the whole of society very quickly. The psychological and sociological implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:24905812

  1. Relaying support in disaster-affected areas: the social implications of a 'pay-it-forward' network.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Tomohide

    2014-07-01

    When a disaster strikes a country, a temporary so-called post-disaster utopia emerges in which local residents help each other and outsiders support survivors and victims. However, this utopia does not last. Survivors are likely to have no chance to pay people back for the help they have received and thus return to their daily lives with a sense of debt. After the Great East Japan Earthquake the author motivated survivors of other disasters to help survivors in the Tohoku region in eastern Japan in return for the support they had received in the past. Two findings are revealed: firstly, this pay-it-forward support among disaster-affected areas allows for intermittent rebuilding of the post-disaster utopia. Secondly, a theoretical examination of the network theory also suggests that the pay-it-forward network is likely to expand and cover the whole of society very quickly. The psychological and sociological implications of these findings are also discussed.

  2. DIRECT COMPARISON OF KINETIC AND LOCAL EQUILIBRIUM FORMULATIONS FOR SOLUTE TRANSPORT AFFECTED BY SURFACE REACTIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahr, Jean M.; Rubin, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    Modeling transport of reacting solutes in porous media often requires a choice between models based on the local equilibrium assumption (LEA) and models involving reaction kinetics. Direct comparison of the mathematical formulations for these two types of transport models can aid in this choice. For cases of transport affected by surface reaction, such a comparison is made possible by a new derivation procedure. This procedure yields a kinetics-based formulation that is the sum of the LEA formulation and one or more kinetically influenced terms. The dimensionless form of the new kinetics-based formulation facilitates identification of critical parameter groupings which control the approach to transport behavior consistent with LEA model predictions. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that criteria for LEA applicability can be expressed conveniently in terms of these parameter groupings. The derivation procedure is demonstrated for examples of surface reactions including first-order reversible sorption, Langmuir-type kinetics and binary, homovalent ion exchange.

  3. Socio-emotional support in French hospitals: Effects on French nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Ruiller, Caroline; Van Der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2016-02-01

    In spite of the differences in human resource management (HRM) practices between the non-profit health care sector and business life, the majority of health care sector research appears to be based on the HRM (for human resources management) blueprint for business life staff policy and practice. This study is aimed to better understand the impact of workplace social support in the context of French hospitals. Concrete, the first objective of this article comprises a thorough conceptualization and operationalization of workplace social support (i.e. both professional and personal social support). Data were collected in a French hospital among a sample of 62 respondents (for the qualitative part of our study), and among a sample of 171 health care professionals (nurses and nurse aids) (for the quantitative part of our study). Our outcomes indicate that, especially, personal support given by one's supervisor is strongly and positively related to nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment. After a discussion about the outcomes, followed by some recommendations for future research, the article concludes with some practical implications for management in hospitals. PMID:26856519

  4. Socio-emotional support in French hospitals: Effects on French nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Ruiller, Caroline; Van Der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2016-02-01

    In spite of the differences in human resource management (HRM) practices between the non-profit health care sector and business life, the majority of health care sector research appears to be based on the HRM (for human resources management) blueprint for business life staff policy and practice. This study is aimed to better understand the impact of workplace social support in the context of French hospitals. Concrete, the first objective of this article comprises a thorough conceptualization and operationalization of workplace social support (i.e. both professional and personal social support). Data were collected in a French hospital among a sample of 62 respondents (for the qualitative part of our study), and among a sample of 171 health care professionals (nurses and nurse aids) (for the quantitative part of our study). Our outcomes indicate that, especially, personal support given by one's supervisor is strongly and positively related to nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment. After a discussion about the outcomes, followed by some recommendations for future research, the article concludes with some practical implications for management in hospitals.

  5. Local and regional factors affecting atmospheric mercury speciation at a remote location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manolopoulos, H.; Schauer, J.J.; Purcell, M.D.; Rudolph, T.M.; Olson, M.L.; Rodger, B.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of elemental (Hg0), reactive gaseous (RGM), and particulate (PHg) mercury were measured at two remote sites in the midwestern United States. Concurrent measurements of Hg0, PHg, and RGM obtained at Devil's Lake and Mt. Horeb, located approximately 65 km apart, showed that Hg0 and PHg concentrations were affected by regional, as well as local sources, while RGM was mainly impacted by local sources. Plumes reaching the Devil's Lake site from a nearby coal-fired power plant significantly impacted SO2 and RGM concentrations at Devil's Lake, but had little impact on Hg0. Our findings suggest that traditional modeling approaches to assess sources of mercury deposited that utilize source emissions and large-scale grids may not be sufficient to predict mercury deposition at sensitive locations due to the importance of small-scale sources and processes. We suggest the use of a receptor-based monitoring to better understand mercury source-receptor relationships. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the localization and signaling of PIP3/AKT in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhennan; Wu, Jiansheng; Wang, Shihua; Suburu, Janel; Chen, Haiqin; Thomas, Michael J; Shi, Lihong; Edwards, Iris J; Berquin, Isabelle M; Chen, Yong Q

    2013-09-01

    AKT is a serine-threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. It is activated after binding to phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) with phosphate groups at positions 3,4 and 3,4,5 on the inositol ring. In spite of extensive research on AKT, one aspect has been largely overlooked, namely the role of the fatty acid chains on PIPs. PIPs are phospholipids composed of a glycerol backbone with fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-2 position and inositol at the sn-3 position. Here, we show that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modify phospholipid content. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω3 PUFA, can replace the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone, thereby changing the species of phospholipids. DHA also inhibits AKT(T308) but not AKT(S473) phosphorylation, alters PI(3,4,5)P3 (PIP3) and phospho-AKT(S473) protein localization, decreases pPDPK1(S241)-AKT and AKT-BAD interaction and suppresses prostate tumor growth. Our study highlights a potential novel mechanism of cancer inhibition by ω3 PUFA through alteration of PIP3 and AKT localization and affecting the AKT signaling pathway.

  7. Do the Concentration and Volume of Local Anesthetics Affect the Onset and Success of Infraclavicular Anesthesia?

    PubMed Central

    Mosaffa, Faramarz; Gharaei, Babak; Qoreishi, Mohammad; Razavi, Sajjad; Safari, Farhad; Fathi, Mohammad; Mohseni, Gholamreza; Elyasi, Hedayatollah; Hosseini, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although local anesthesia is a suitable method for upper limb surgeries, there is debate regarding the effects of appropriate dosing. Objectives: In the current study, we investigated the effects of the concentration and volume of a local anesthetic on the beginning and quality of anesthesia during upper limb orthopedic surgeries. Patients and Methods: This double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients aged between 18 and 85 years candidated for upper limb orthopedic operations. The patients were equally and randomly distributed into two groups (n = 30). Under ultrasound imaging guidance, the first group received 7 mL of 2% lidocaine and the second group 10 mL of 1.3% lidocaine into the brachial plexus cords. The onset of block and the level of sensory and motor block were documented for each nerve territory. Results: The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly shorter in the 1.3% lidocaine group than in the 2% lidocaine group (P ≤ 0.05). The success rate of sensory and motor block was not different. The quality (completeness) of sensory block for the musculocutaneous nerve and that of motor block for the radial nerve were significantly better in the 1.3% lidocaine group than in the 2% lidocaine group. Conclusions: The volume of the injected anesthetic accelerated the onset of sensory and motor block without affecting the rate of success in our patients. PMID:26473102

  8. Efficacy and Factors Affecting Outcome of Gemcitabine Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P.-I.; Chao, Yee; Li, C.-P.; Lee, R.-C.; Chi, K.-H.; Shiau, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-W.; Yen, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and prognostic factors of gemcitabine (GEM) concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2005, 55 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with GEM (400 mg/m{sup 2}/wk) concurrently with radiotherapy (median dose, 50.4 Gy; range, 26-61.2) at Taipei Veterans General Hospital were enrolled. GEM (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}) was continued after CCRT as maintenance therapy once weekly for 3 weeks and repeated every 4 weeks. The response, survival, toxicity, and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.8 months, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 52% and 19%, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) and median time to progression (TTP) was 12.4 and 5.9 months, respectively. The response rate was 42% (2 complete responses and 21 partial responses). The major Grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (22%) and anorexia (19%). The median OS and TTP was 15.8 and 9.5 months in the GEM CCRT responders compared with 7.5 and 3.5 months in the nonresponders, respectively (both p < 0.001). The responders had a better Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (86 {+-} 2 vs. 77 {+-} 2, p = 0.002) and had received a greater GEM dose intensity (347 {+-} 13 mg/m{sup 2}/wk vs. 296 {+-} 15 mg/m{sup 2}/wk, p = 0.02) than the nonresponders. KPS and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were the most significant prognostic factors of OS and TTP. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that GEM CCRT is effective and tolerable for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The KPS and GEM dose correlated with response. Also, the KPS and CA 19-9 level were the most important factors affecting OS and TTP.

  9. Guide for the design and development of a local radiological defense support system. Civil preparedness guide

    SciTech Connect

    Grow, R.

    1981-06-01

    This publication was developed to provide guidance to local director/coordinators, and Radiological Defense (RADEF) staff, for designing and developing local RADEF support systems. In some communities, the application of this guidance may require only the realignment or improvement of already existing capabilities. In others, the design, development and implementation of additional capabilities may be necessary. The guide is designed to be a working tool. It contains guides, checklists, and worksheets to help in the development of the local RADEF support system. First, it should be read in total to provide a complete picture of the RADEF program. However, it is developed in sections which can stand alone and be used separately. This may result in minor repetition of some points. Most importantly, the guide is written from the point of view that a person need not be an expert in nuclear physics or fully understand the biological effects of radiation to help implement a local RADEF support system. If properly used, it will assist any community to develop a more reliable RADEF program.

  10. The neuroanatomical basis of affective mentalizing in schizophrenia: comparison of patients with schizophrenia and patients with localized prefrontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2007-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impaired emotional and social behavior, such as misinterpretation of social situations and lack of Theory of Mind (ToM). However, the neuroanatomical basis of impaired ToM and its nature in schizophrenia is still largely unknown. Based on previous findings, the present study suggests that impaired social cognition observed in schizophrenic patients may be similar to that observed in patients with prefrontal (PFC) damage due to impaired 'affective ToM' abilities, rather than to a general impairment in ToM. We examined the behavioral and neural mechanisms that underlie the social and communicative impairments observed in patients with schizophrenia and with PFC damage, by looking at differential patterns of ToM impairment in these individuals. The performance of 24 patients with schizophrenia was compared to the responses of patients with localized lesions in the ventromedial (VM) or dorsolateral PFC, patients with non-frontal lesions, and healthy control subjects. Patients with schizophrenia and those with VM lesions were impaired on 'affective ToM' tasks but not in cognitive ToM conditions. It was concluded that the pattern of mentalizing impairments in schizophrenia resembled those seen in patients with lesions of the frontal lobe, particularly with VM damage, providing support for the notion of a disturbance of the fronto-limbic circuits in schizophrenia. PMID:17182218

  11. Local Navon letter processing affects skilled behavior: a golf-putting experiment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael B; Dawkins, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Expert or skilled behaviors (for example, face recognition or sporting performance) are typically performed automatically and with little conscious awareness. Previous studies, in various domains of performance, have shown that activities immediately prior to a task demanding a learned skill can affect performance. In sport, describing the to-be-performed action is detrimental, whereas in face recognition, describing a face or reading local Navon letters is detrimental. Two golf-putting experiments are presented that compare the effects that these three tasks have on experienced and novice golfers. Experiment 1 found a Navon effect on golf performance for experienced players. Experiment 2 found, for experienced players only, that performance was impaired following the three tasks described above, when compared with reading or global Navon tasks. It is suggested that the three tasks affect skilled performance by provoking a shift from automatic behavior to a more analytic style. By demonstrating similarities between effects in face recognition and sporting behavior, it is hoped to better understand concepts in both fields. PMID:25102927

  12. Local Navon letter processing affects skilled behavior: a golf-putting experiment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael B; Dawkins, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Expert or skilled behaviors (for example, face recognition or sporting performance) are typically performed automatically and with little conscious awareness. Previous studies, in various domains of performance, have shown that activities immediately prior to a task demanding a learned skill can affect performance. In sport, describing the to-be-performed action is detrimental, whereas in face recognition, describing a face or reading local Navon letters is detrimental. Two golf-putting experiments are presented that compare the effects that these three tasks have on experienced and novice golfers. Experiment 1 found a Navon effect on golf performance for experienced players. Experiment 2 found, for experienced players only, that performance was impaired following the three tasks described above, when compared with reading or global Navon tasks. It is suggested that the three tasks affect skilled performance by provoking a shift from automatic behavior to a more analytic style. By demonstrating similarities between effects in face recognition and sporting behavior, it is hoped to better understand concepts in both fields.

  13. Servant leadership and affective commitment in the Chinese public sector: the mediating role of perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingying; Miao, Qing

    2014-10-01

    This study examined a possible mediating mechanism between servant leadership and the affective commitment in Chinese employees. Servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and affective commitment was assessed among 239 full-time employees in the Chinese public sector in three rounds of surveys. Servant leadership influenced affective commitment through perceived organizational support. The effect of servant leadership exists in Chinese culture as well as Western cultures.

  14. Cognitive and Affective Uses of a Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Facebook Support Group.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2014-09-01

    There are currently many disease-specific groups on Facebook in which patients may take an active part (Greene, Choudhry, Kilabuk, & Shrank, 2011). Although uses and gratifications of patient-disease groups have begun to be identified for chronic diseases, rare diseases have been omitted, even though they collectively affect roughly 30 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide. This study is a content analysis of one Facebook rare disease patient group, the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) Awareness group. All wall posts were recorded and content analyzed for cognitive and affective categories and subcategories between October 9, 2011 (date of site origin), and May 1, 2012. Analysis of cognitive needs indicated TOS patients used the site more to share information about their own TOS symptoms and journey with diagnosis than to seek information. Analysis of affective needs found patients were more likely to use the site to give support and encouragement to others than to express concerns and complaints. The complaints they did express were primarily related to their frustration with the general medical community's perceived inability to diagnose and understand their disease or to question a specific doctor's diagnosis/recommendation. Results point to needs specific to TOS patients that uses and gratifications research can help clarify.

  15. Cognitive and Affective Uses of a Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Facebook Support Group.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2014-09-01

    There are currently many disease-specific groups on Facebook in which patients may take an active part (Greene, Choudhry, Kilabuk, & Shrank, 2011). Although uses and gratifications of patient-disease groups have begun to be identified for chronic diseases, rare diseases have been omitted, even though they collectively affect roughly 30 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide. This study is a content analysis of one Facebook rare disease patient group, the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) Awareness group. All wall posts were recorded and content analyzed for cognitive and affective categories and subcategories between October 9, 2011 (date of site origin), and May 1, 2012. Analysis of cognitive needs indicated TOS patients used the site more to share information about their own TOS symptoms and journey with diagnosis than to seek information. Analysis of affective needs found patients were more likely to use the site to give support and encouragement to others than to express concerns and complaints. The complaints they did express were primarily related to their frustration with the general medical community's perceived inability to diagnose and understand their disease or to question a specific doctor's diagnosis/recommendation. Results point to needs specific to TOS patients that uses and gratifications research can help clarify. PMID:24171492

  16. Factors affecting elementary principals' and teachers' decisions to support outdoor field trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    Outdoor field trips are recommended in science education reform, yet they are not frequently taken. Barriers may prevent elementary public school teachers from participating in outdoor field trips (Mirka, 1973; Falk & Balling, 1979; Ham, 1988; Orion, 1993). To determine what would increase students' attendance at a nature preserve, factors that may affect elementary private and public school principals' and teachers' decisions to support field trips were identified and compared. Private school principals supported field trips. They believed field trips were safe, and easy to arrange, and that the field trips helped students experience culture in the community. Experienced public school principals who were supportive and believed field trips should be required believed field trips fit into the teacher's lesson plan and were taken for enrichment. Public school principals who were less experienced with field trips believed field trips should be extracurricular. They believed that field trips served as a reward, and that they needed more information. They did not support field trips. Private school teachers believed that field trips did not have overly demanding administrative concerns. They believed field trips were safe, easy to arrange, and were supported by their administrator. Public school teachers who supported field trips and believed field trips should be required were white, female, experienced, and older. They believed that field trips were safe, easy to arrange, enjoyable, and that they had enough help to conduct trips. Public school teachers who may not support trips had administrative concerns, and they did not believe field trips met the needs of students. These were male, white or non-white, young or middle-aged, and less experienced. They may believe field trips are a waste of time and money. They believed they had a nonsupportive administrator. Money for transportation was a barrier for older public school teachers and principals. No improvement on

  17. Central system of psychosocial support to the Czech victims affected by the tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-01-01

    The tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  18. Central System of Psychosocial Support to the Czech Victims Affected by the Tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-02-01

    The Tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  19. Social support at work and affective commitment to the organization: the moderating effect of job resource adequacy and ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Vincent; Aubé, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether both supervisor and coworker support may be positively related to affective commitment to the organization on one hand; and on the other hand, it examined the moderating effect of job resource adequacy and ambient conditions on these relationships. The sample included 215 participants working within a health care organization. Results of regression analysis showed that supervisor and coworker support have an additive effect on affective commitment. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that supervisor and coworker support are more strongly related to affective commitment when job resource adequacy is high. Furthermore, ambient conditions moderate the relationship between supervisor support and affective commitment in such a way that favorable ambient conditions strengthen this relationship. Overall, these findings reinforce the importance of taking into account contingent factors in the study of antecedents of affective commitment to the organization.

  20. Fast Coalescent-Based Computation of Local Branch Support from Quartet Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Sayyari, Erfan; Mirarab, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Species tree reconstruction is complicated by effects of incomplete lineage sorting, commonly modeled by the multi-species coalescent model (MSC). While there has been substantial progress in developing methods that estimate a species tree given a collection of gene trees, less attention has been paid to fast and accurate methods of quantifying support. In this article, we propose a fast algorithm to compute quartet-based support for each branch of a given species tree with regard to a given set of gene trees. We then show how the quartet support can be used in the context of the MSC to compute (1) the local posterior probability (PP) that the branch is in the species tree and (2) the length of the branch in coalescent units. We evaluate the precision and recall of the local PP on a wide set of simulated and biological datasets, and show that it has very high precision and improved recall compared with multi-locus bootstrapping. The estimated branch lengths are highly accurate when gene tree estimation error is low, but are underestimated when gene tree estimation error increases. Computation of both the branch length and local PP is implemented as new features in ASTRAL. PMID:27189547

  1. Fast Coalescent-Based Computation of Local Branch Support from Quartet Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Sayyari, Erfan; Mirarab, Siavash

    2016-07-01

    Species tree reconstruction is complicated by effects of incomplete lineage sorting, commonly modeled by the multi-species coalescent model (MSC). While there has been substantial progress in developing methods that estimate a species tree given a collection of gene trees, less attention has been paid to fast and accurate methods of quantifying support. In this article, we propose a fast algorithm to compute quartet-based support for each branch of a given species tree with regard to a given set of gene trees. We then show how the quartet support can be used in the context of the MSC to compute (1) the local posterior probability (PP) that the branch is in the species tree and (2) the length of the branch in coalescent units. We evaluate the precision and recall of the local PP on a wide set of simulated and biological datasets, and show that it has very high precision and improved recall compared with multi-locus bootstrapping. The estimated branch lengths are highly accurate when gene tree estimation error is low, but are underestimated when gene tree estimation error increases. Computation of both the branch length and local PP is implemented as new features in ASTRAL. PMID:27189547

  2. Atrazine exposure affects the ability of crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) to localize a food odor source.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Peters, Tyler J; Sabhapathy, Gita S; Khan, Sana; Katta, Juhi; Abraham, Noor K

    2015-05-01

    Environmental pollutants, found in aquatic ecosystems, have been shown to have an effect on olfactory-mediated behaviors including feeding, mate attraction, and other important social behaviors. Crayfish are polytrophic, meaning that they feed on and become prey for all levels of the aquatic food web as well as are also important for the transfer of energy between benthic and terrestrial food webs. Because crayfish are a keystone species, it is important to investigate any factors that may affect their population size. Crayfish are active at night and rely heavily on their sensory appendages (e.g., antennulues, maxillipeds, and pereopods) to localize food sources. In this experiment, we investigated the effects of atrazine (ATR) exposure on the chemosensory responses of male and female crayfish to food odors. We exposed crayfish to environmentally relevant, sublethal levels of ATR [80 ppb (µg/L)] for 72 h and then examined the behavioral responses of both ATR-treated and control crayfish to food odor delivered from one end of a test arena. We used Noldus Ethovision XT software to measure odor localization and locomotory behaviors of crayfish in response to food (fish) odor. We found that control crayfish spent more time in the proximal region of the test arena and at the odor source compared with ATR-treated crayfish. Furthermore, there were no differences in the time spent moving and not moving, total distance travelled in the tank, and walking speed (cm/s) when control and ATR-treated crayfish were compared. Overall, this indicates that acute ATR exposure alters chemosensory abilities of crayfish, whereas overall motor function remains unchanged.

  3. Decision Support from Local Data: Creating Adaptive Order Menus from Past Clinician Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Jeffrey G.; Szolovits, Peter; Downs, Stephen; Schadow, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reducing care variability through guidelines has significantly benefited patients. Nonetheless, guideline-based clinical decision support (CDS) systems are not widely implemented or used, are frequently out-of-date, and cannot address complex care for which guidelines do not exist. Here, we develop and evaluate a complementary approach - using Bayesian network (BN) learning to generate adaptive, context-specific treatment menus based on local order-entry data. These menus can be used as a draft for expert review, in order to minimize development time for local decision support content. This is in keeping with the vision outlined in the US Health Information Technology Strategic Plan, which describes a healthcare system that learns from itself. Materials and Methods We used the Greedy Equivalence Search algorithm to learn four 50-node domain-specific BNs from 11,344 encounters: abdominal pain in the emergency department, inpatient pregnancy, hypertension in the urgent visit clinic, and altered mental state in the intensive care unit. We developed a system to produce situation-specific, rank-ordered treatment menus from these networks. We evaluated this system with a hospital-simulation methodology and computed Area Under the Receiver-Operator Curve (AUC) and average menu position at time of selection. We also compared this system with a similar association-rule-mining approach. Results A short order menu on average contained the next order (weighted average length 3.91–5.83 items). Overall predictive ability was good: average AUC above 0.9 for 25% of order types and overall average AUC .714–.844 (depending on domain). However, AUC had high variance (.50–.99). Higher AUC correlated with tighter clusters and more connections in the graphs, indicating importance of appropriate contextual data. Comparison with an association rule mining approach showed similar performance for only the most common orders with dramatic divergence as orders are less

  4. Perturbation of chromatin structure globally affects localization and recruitment of splicing factors.

    PubMed

    Schor, Ignacio E; Llères, David; Risso, Guillermo J; Pawellek, Andrea; Ule, Jernej; Lamond, Angus I; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin structure is an important factor in the functional coupling between transcription and mRNA processing, not only by regulating alternative splicing events, but also by contributing to exon recognition during constitutive splicing. We observed that depolarization of neuroblastoma cell membrane potential, which triggers general histone acetylation and regulates alternative splicing, causes a concentration of SR proteins in nuclear speckles. This prompted us to analyze the effect of chromatin structure on splicing factor distribution and dynamics. Here, we show that induction of histone hyper-acetylation results in the accumulation in speckles of multiple splicing factors in different cell types. In addition, a similar effect is observed after depletion of the heterochromatic protein HP1α, associated with repressive chromatin. We used advanced imaging approaches to analyze in detail both the structural organization of the speckle compartment and nuclear distribution of splicing factors, as well as studying direct interactions between splicing factors and their association with chromatin in vivo. The results support a model where perturbation of normal chromatin structure decreases the recruitment efficiency of splicing factors to nascent RNAs, thus causing their accumulation in speckles, which buffer the amount of free molecules in the nucleoplasm. To test this, we analyzed the recruitment of the general splicing factor U2AF65 to nascent RNAs by iCLIP technique, as a way to monitor early spliceosome assembly. We demonstrate that indeed histone hyper-acetylation decreases recruitment of U2AF65 to bulk 3' splice sites, coincident with the change in its localization. In addition, prior to the maximum accumulation in speckles, ∼20% of genes already show a tendency to decreased binding, while U2AF65 seems to increase its binding to the speckle-located ncRNA MALAT1. All together, the combined imaging and biochemical approaches support a model where chromatin

  5. Seasonality and Locality Affect the Diversity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Midgut Microbiota from Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Pels, Nana Adjoa P.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Christophides, George K.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria can have important implications in the development and competence of disease vectors. In Anopheles mosquitoes, the composition of the midgut microbiota is largely influenced by the larval breeding site, but the exact factors shaping this composition are currently unknown. Here, we examined whether the proximity to urban areas and seasons have an impact on the midgut microbial community of the two major malaria vectors in Africa, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Larvae and pupae were collected from selected habitats in two districts of Ghana during the dry and rainy season periods. The midgut microbiota of adults that emerged from these collections was determined by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. We show that in both mosquito species, Shewanellaceae constituted on average of 54% and 73% of the midgut microbiota from each site in the dry and rainy season, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae was found in comparatively low abundance below 1% in 22/30 samples in the dry season, and in 25/38 samples in the rainy season. Our data indicate that seasonality and locality significantly affect both the diversity of microbiota and the relative abundance of bacterial families with a positive impact of dry season and peri-urban settings. PMID:27322614

  6. Seasonality and Locality Affect the Diversity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Midgut Microbiota from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akorli, Jewelna; Gendrin, Mathilde; Pels, Nana Adjoa P; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Christophides, George K; Wilson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria can have important implications in the development and competence of disease vectors. In Anopheles mosquitoes, the composition of the midgut microbiota is largely influenced by the larval breeding site, but the exact factors shaping this composition are currently unknown. Here, we examined whether the proximity to urban areas and seasons have an impact on the midgut microbial community of the two major malaria vectors in Africa, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Larvae and pupae were collected from selected habitats in two districts of Ghana during the dry and rainy season periods. The midgut microbiota of adults that emerged from these collections was determined by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. We show that in both mosquito species, Shewanellaceae constituted on average of 54% and 73% of the midgut microbiota from each site in the dry and rainy season, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae was found in comparatively low abundance below 1% in 22/30 samples in the dry season, and in 25/38 samples in the rainy season. Our data indicate that seasonality and locality significantly affect both the diversity of microbiota and the relative abundance of bacterial families with a positive impact of dry season and peri-urban settings.

  7. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  8. Seasonality and Locality Affect the Diversity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Midgut Microbiota from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akorli, Jewelna; Gendrin, Mathilde; Pels, Nana Adjoa P; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Christophides, George K; Wilson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria can have important implications in the development and competence of disease vectors. In Anopheles mosquitoes, the composition of the midgut microbiota is largely influenced by the larval breeding site, but the exact factors shaping this composition are currently unknown. Here, we examined whether the proximity to urban areas and seasons have an impact on the midgut microbial community of the two major malaria vectors in Africa, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Larvae and pupae were collected from selected habitats in two districts of Ghana during the dry and rainy season periods. The midgut microbiota of adults that emerged from these collections was determined by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. We show that in both mosquito species, Shewanellaceae constituted on average of 54% and 73% of the midgut microbiota from each site in the dry and rainy season, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae was found in comparatively low abundance below 1% in 22/30 samples in the dry season, and in 25/38 samples in the rainy season. Our data indicate that seasonality and locality significantly affect both the diversity of microbiota and the relative abundance of bacterial families with a positive impact of dry season and peri-urban settings. PMID:27322614

  9. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality. PMID:25945619

  10. Thyroid status affects number and localization of thyroid hormone receptor expressing mast cells in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Siebler, T; Robson, H; Bromley, M; Stevens, D A; Shalet, S M; Williams, G R

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T(3)) plays a key role in endochondral ossification. The process relies on the coordinated synthesis and degradation of cartilage matrix and is disrupted in juvenile hypothyroidism, leading to abnormal skeletal development. Mast cells synthesize and store matrix-degrading enzymes. We examined whether thyroid status influences skeletal mast cell distribution in growing rats to determine whether they might modulate the actions of T(3) in bone. Tibiae were collected for histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence analysis. Mast cells were increased throughout the bone marrow in hypothyroid rats compared with euthyroid, thyrotoxic, and hypothyroid-thyroxine replaced animals. Large numbers were present in metaphyseal marrow adjacent to the growth plate in hypothyroid animals and cells were distributed evenly throughout the marrow. Very few mast cells were present in metaphyseal marrow in other groups, but their numbers increased with increasing distance from the growth plate. T(3) receptor alpha1 (TRalpha1) was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of skeletal mast cells, whereas TRalpha2 and TRbeta1 were restricted to the cytoplasm. Localization of TRs was not affected by altered thyroid status. Thus, disrupted endochondral ossification in hypothyroidism may be mediated in part by skeletal mast cells, which express TR proteins and may function as T(3) target cells.

  11. Expression and subcellular localization of Ewing sarcoma (EWS) protein is affected by the methylation process.

    PubMed

    Belyanskaya, Larisa L; Delattre, Olivier; Gehring, Heinz

    2003-08-15

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) protein contains an N-terminal transcriptional activation domain (EAD) and a C-terminal RNA-binding domain (RBD). Recently, we had shown that EWS protein is not only localized in the nucleus and cytosol, but also on the surface of T cells and that its RBD is extensively asymmetrically dimethylated on arginine residues. Here we show that stimulation of T cells with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) caused a time-dependent 10-fold increase in expression of methylated EWS protein on the cell surface and a sixfold increase in the nuclei of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Mitogenic stimulation of malignant T cell lines, however, did not increase their inherently high expression of EWS protein. This expression seemed to correlate with methionine adenosyltransferase activity and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) utilization in PBMC and tumor cells and thus indicates dependence on the methylation process. Inhibition of methylation in normal and malignant cells with the methylation inhibitor adenosine dialdehyde (AdOx) resulted in a three to fivefold decreased expression of EWS protein not only in the nucleus but also on the cell surface. The inhibitory effect of AdOx was compensated and negligible in PBMC, but not in tumor cells if they were treated simultaneously with mitogenic PHA concentrations. The present findings indicate that expression of EWS protein in the various subcellular compartments is affected by the methylation process, in particular by the availability of intracellular AdoMet.

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular localization of tipE: A gene affecting sodium channels in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, G.; Deak, P.; Hall, L.M.

    1995-04-01

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels play a key role in nerve cells where they are responsible for the increase in sodium permeability during the rising phase of action potentials. In Drosophila melanogaster a subset of temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations affect sodium channel function. One such mutation is temperature-induced paralysis locus E (tipE), which has been shown by electrophysiology and ligand binding studies to reduce sodium channel numbers. Three new {gamma}-ray-induced tipE alleles associated with either visible deletions in 64AB or a translocation breakpoint within 64B2 provide landmarks for positional cloning of tipE. Beginning with the flanking cloned gene Ras2, a 140-kb walk across the translocation breakpoint was completed. Germline transformation using a 42-kb cosmid clone and successively smaller subclones localized the tipE gene within a 7.4-kb genomic DNA segment. Although this chromosome region is rich in transcripts, only three overlapping mRNAs (5.4, 4.4, and 1.7 kb) lie completely within the smallest rescuing construct. The small sizes of the rescuing construct and transcripts suggests that tipE does not encode a standard sodium channel {alpha}-subunit with four homologous repeats. Sequencing these transcripts will elucidate the role of the tipE gene product in sodium channel functional regulation. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. [MOSS- Mobile Sensing and Support Detection of depressive moods with an app and help those affected].

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Wahle, Fabian; Rufer, Michael; Hörni, Anja; Kowatsch, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    Major depression is regarded as a significant and serious disease with an increasing prevalence worldwide. However, not all individuals with depressive pressive symptoms seek help for their problems. These untreated "hidden" individuals with depressive symptoms require the design and dissemination of evidence-based, /ow-cost and scalable mental health interventions. Such interventions provided by mobile applications are promising as they have the potential to support people in their everyday life. However, as of today it is unclear how to design mental health applications that are effective and motivating yet non-intrusive. In addressing this problem, the MOSS application is a recent endeavor of a Swiss project team from Universitiitsspital Zurich, ETH Zurich, University of St. Gallen and makora AG, to support people with depressive symptoms. In particular, evidence-based micro-interventions are recommended and triggered by individual characteristics that are derived from self-reports, smartphone interactions and sensor data. After one year of development, the study team now conducts a first empirical study and thus, recruits people affected by depressive symptoms to improve not only the application as such but with it, the delivery of mental health interventions in the long run.

  14. Factors Affecting Depression During Pregnancy and the Correlation Between Social Support and Pregnancy Depression

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Songul; Yesilcicek Calik, Kiymet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women are seriously subjected to psychiatric diseases during pregnancy and depression is the most prevailing one among these diseases. There is a relation between the social support and depression in pregnancy whose predisposing factors are genetic, psychological, biological, environmental, and hormonal. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression symptoms, and its risk factors. Also it studied the correlation between social support and pregnancy depression. Patients and Methods: This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study. It was conducted on 266 pregnant women selected by simple random method from all pregnant women admitted at the Maternity Hospital of Trabzon, Turkey from May 21 to June 13, 2008. The data were collected with a questionnaire form, the Beck depression inventory (BDI), and the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS). Results: The mean BDI score of the pregnant women was 11.12 ± 6.65. According to the BDI, 46.2% of the pregnant women had no depression symptoms, 34.59% of them had mild, 13.91% had moderate, and 4.89% had severe level of depression symptoms. It was found that such factors as the educational level of the pregnant women and their husbands, having an undesired pregnancy, suffering from a chronic disease before pregnancy, presence of pregnancy-related problems, having a child with disability or having relatives whose children had disability, and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors affecting the severity of the depression symptoms and these results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the mean MSPSS score was 67.89 ± 14.26 and it was found that the pregnant women got the highest social support from their husbands. It was found that there was a significant correlation between BDI and MSPSS total score and its subscale scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions: According to this study, one-fifth of pregnant women were found to experience depressive

  15. How Does Supervisor Support Influence Turnover Intent Among Frontline Hospital Workers? The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Helen M; Swanberg, Jennifer E; Bright, Charlotte Lyn

    2016-01-01

    Turnover among frontline hospital service workers can disrupt organizational effectiveness, reduce profitability, and limit the ability to provide high-quality, patient-centered care. This concern is compounded by the increasing reliance on frontline supervisors to manage this workforce, often without necessary training and support. However, research addressing the relationship between frontline supervisor support and intent to turnover among service workers and the process by which these variables are related is limited. By surveying 270 housekeeping and dietary service workers employed at 2 US hospitals, this study examined the relationship between supervisor support and turnover intent and assessed the mediating role of affective commitment between supervisor support and intent to turnover. Turnover intentions were lower for workers who reported greater levels of supervisor support and affective commitment; both supervisor support and affective commitment were significant predictors of turnover intent when tested individually. However, when controlling for affective commitment, supervisor support no longer predicted turnover intent, indicating that affective commitment fully mediated the relationship between supervisor support and intent to turnover. Implications for further research and organizational practice are discussed. PMID:27455369

  16. How Does Supervisor Support Influence Turnover Intent Among Frontline Hospital Workers? The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Helen M; Swanberg, Jennifer E; Bright, Charlotte Lyn

    2016-01-01

    Turnover among frontline hospital service workers can disrupt organizational effectiveness, reduce profitability, and limit the ability to provide high-quality, patient-centered care. This concern is compounded by the increasing reliance on frontline supervisors to manage this workforce, often without necessary training and support. However, research addressing the relationship between frontline supervisor support and intent to turnover among service workers and the process by which these variables are related is limited. By surveying 270 housekeeping and dietary service workers employed at 2 US hospitals, this study examined the relationship between supervisor support and turnover intent and assessed the mediating role of affective commitment between supervisor support and intent to turnover. Turnover intentions were lower for workers who reported greater levels of supervisor support and affective commitment; both supervisor support and affective commitment were significant predictors of turnover intent when tested individually. However, when controlling for affective commitment, supervisor support no longer predicted turnover intent, indicating that affective commitment fully mediated the relationship between supervisor support and intent to turnover. Implications for further research and organizational practice are discussed.

  17. Supporting local planning and budgeting for maternal, neonatal and child health in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Responsibility for planning and delivery of health services in the Philippines is devolved to the local government level. Given the recognised need to strengthen capacity for local planning and budgeting, we implemented Investment Cases (IC) for Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) in three selected sub-national units: two poor, rural provinces and one highly-urbanised city. The IC combines structured problem-solving by local policymakers and planners to identify key health system constraints and strategies to scale-up critical MNCH interventions with a decision-support model to estimate the cost and impact of different scaling-up scenarios. Methods We outline how the initiative was implemented, the aspects that worked well, and the key limitations identified in the sub-national application of this approach. Results Local officials found the structured analysis of health system constraints helpful to identify problems and select locally appropriate strategies. In particular the process was an improvement on standard approaches that focused only on supply-side issues. However, the lack of data available at the local level is a major impediment to planning. While the majority of the strategies recommended by the IC were incorporated into the 2011 plans and budgets in the three study sites, one key strategy in the participating city was subsequently reversed in 2012. Higher level systemic issues are likely to have influenced use of evidence in plans and budgets and implementation of strategies. Conclusions Efforts should be made to improve locally-representative data through routine information systems for planning and monitoring purposes. Even with sound plans and budgets, evidence is only one factor influencing investments in health. Political considerations at a local level and issues related to decentralisation, influence prioritisation and implementation of plans. In addition to the strengthening of capacity at local level, a parallel process at

  18. High-order spoof localized surface plasmons supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that multiple high-order spoof localized surface plasmons (spoof-LSPs) modes can be supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure, which were absent in the previously reported spoof-LSPs modes. Through exact numerical simulations and near-field imaging experiments, we directly observe these high-order spoof-LSPs modes at microwave frequencies. We also show that these higher-order spoof-LSPs modes exhibit larger frequency shifts caused by the local environmental refractive index change than the previously reported low-order spoof-LSPs modes. Hence the complementary MSS may find potential applications as plasmonic sensor in the microwave and terahertz frequencies. PMID:27079658

  19. Measuring agreement between decision support reminders: the cloud vs. the local expert

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A cloud-based clinical decision support system (CDSS) was implemented to remotely provide evidence-based guideline reminders in support of preventative health. Following implementation, we measured the agreement between preventive care reminders generated by an existing, local CDSS and the new, cloud-based CDSS operating on the same patient visit data. Methods Electronic health record data for the same set of patients seen in primary care were sent to both the cloud-based web service and local CDSS. The clinical reminders returned by both services were captured for analysis. Cohen’s Kappa coefficient was calculated to compare the two sets of reminders. Kappa statistics were further adjusted for prevalence and bias due to the potential effects of bias in the CDS logic and prevalence in the relative small sample of patients. Results The cloud-based CDSS generated 965 clinical reminders for 405 patient visits over 3 months. The local CDSS returned 889 reminders for the same patient visit data. When adjusted for prevalence and bias, observed agreement varied by reminder from 0.33 (95% CI 0.24 – 0.42) to 0.99 (95% CI 0.97 – 1.00) and demonstrated almost perfect agreement for 7 of the 11 reminders. Conclusions Preventive care reminders delivered by two disparate CDS systems show substantial agreement. Subtle differences in rule logic and terminology mapping appear to account for much of the discordance. Cloud-based CDSS therefore show promise, opening the door for future development and implementation in support of health care providers with limited resources for knowledge management of complex logic and rules. PMID:24720863

  20. The local heating effect by magnetic nanoparticles aggregate on support lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changling; Xu, Ruizhi; Tang, Liming

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we established a theoretical model to investigate the local heating effect of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) aggregate on the support lipid bilayers (SLBs) under external alternating current (AC) magnetic field, which may be helpful to understand hyperthermia at single cell level. Using atomic force microscope (AFM), the transformation of the support phospholipid bilayers surrounding MNPs aggregate was observed in real-time. We found that the fluidity of lipid bilayers changed when the size of MNPs aggregate larger than 200 nm, as a result of magnetic heating in the AC magnetic field. These experimental data were consistent with the simulation results, which demonstrated the valid of our established model, as well as described more realistically the above phenomenon.

  1. Psychosocial support intervention for HIV-affected families in Haiti: implications for programs and policies for orphans and vulnerable children.

    PubMed

    Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Surkan, Pamela J; Scanlan, Fiona; Hook, Sarah; Mancuso, Anna; Mukherjee, Joia S

    2012-05-01

    Given the increased access of antiretroviral therapy (ART) throughout the developing world, what was once a terminal illness is now a chronic disease for those receiving treatment. This requires a paradigmatic shift in service provision for those affected by HIV/AIDS in low-resource settings. Although there is a need for psychosocial support interventions for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers, to date there has been limited empirical evidence on the effectiveness of curriculum-based psychosocial support groups in HIV-affected families in low-income countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility and assess the preliminary effectiveness of a psychosocial support group intervention for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers in central Haiti. The study was conducted at six Partners In Health-affiliated sites between February 2006 and September 2008 and included quantitative as well as qualitative methods. HIV-affected youth (n = 168) and their caregivers (n = 130) completed a baseline structured questionnaire prior to participation in a psychosocial support group intervention. Ninety-five percent of families completed the intervention and a follow-up questionnaire. Psychological symptoms, psychosocial functioning, social support, and HIV-related stigma at baseline were compared with outcomes one year later. Qualitative methods were also used to assess the participants' perspectives of the intervention. Comparing pre- and post-intervention assessment, youth affected by HIV experienced decreased psychological symptoms as well as improved psychosocial functioning and social support. Caregivers (95% HIV-positive) demonstrated a significant reduction in depressive symptoms, improved social support, and decreased HIV-related stigma. Although further study is needed to assess effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial, corroborative findings from qualitative data reflected reduced psychological distress, less social isolation and

  2. A Local Support-Operators Diffusion Discretization Scheme for Hexahedral Meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, J. E.; Hall, Michael L.; Shashkov, Mikhail J.

    2001-06-01

    We derive a cell-centered 3-D diffusion differencing scheme for unstructured hexahedral meshes using the local support-operators method. Our method is said to be local because it yields a sparse matrix representation for the diffusion equation, whereas the traditional support-operators method yields a dense matrix representation. The diffusion discretization scheme that we have developed offers several advantages relative to existing schemes. Most importantly, it offers second-order accuracy on reasonably well-behaved nonsmooth meshes, rigorously treats material discontinuities, and has a symmetric positive-definite coefficient matrix. The order of accuracy is demonstrated computationally rather than theoretically. Rigorous treatment of material discontinuities implies that the normal component of the flux is continuous across such discontinuities while the parallel components may be either continuous or discontinuous in accordance with the exact solution to the problem being considered. The only disadvantage of the method is that it has both cell-centered and face-centered scalar unknowns as opposed to just cell-center scalar unknowns. Computational examples are given which demonstrate the accuracy and cost of the new scheme.

  3. Position of the American Dietetic Association: local support for nutrition integrity in schools.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ethan A; Gordon, Ruth W

    2010-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that schools and communities have a shared responsibility to provide students with access to high-quality, affordable, nutritious foods and beverages. School-based nutrition services, including the provision of meals through the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, are an integral part of the total education program. Strong wellness policies promote environments that enhance nutrition integrity and help students to develop lifelong healthy behaviors. ADA actively supported the 2004 and proposed 2010 Child Nutrition reauthorization which determines school nutrition policy. ADA believes that the Dietary Guidelines for Americans should serve as the foundation for all food and nutrition assistance programs and should apply to all foods and beverages sold or served to students during the school day. Local wellness policies are mandated by federal legislation for all school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program. These policies support nutrition integrity,including a healthy school environment. Nutrition integrity also requires coordinating nutrition education and promotion and funding research on program outcomes. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, and other credentialed staff, are essential for nutrition integrity in schools to perform in policy-making, management, education, and community building roles. A healthy school environment can be achieved through adequate funding of school meals programs and through implementation and evaluation of strong local wellness policies. PMID:20677413

  4. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LDIS was developed by NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features

  5. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  6. Local-Scale Air Quality Modeling in Support of Human Health and Exposure Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially- and temporally-sparse information on air quality is a key concern for air-pollution-related environmental health studies. Monitor networks are sparse in both space and time, are costly to maintain, and are often designed purposely to avoid detecting highly localized sources. Recent studies have shown that more narrowly defining the geographic domain of the study populations and improvements in the measured/estimated ambient concentrations can lead to stronger associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and mortality records. Traditionally, ambient air quality measurements have been used as a primary input to support human health and exposure research. However, there is increasing evidence that the current ambient monitoring network is not capturing sharp gradients in exposure due to the presence of high concentration levels near, for example, major roadways. Many air pollutants exhibit large concentration gradients near large emitters such as major roadways, factories, ports, etc. To overcome these limitations, researchers are now beginning to use air quality models to support air pollution exposure and health studies. There are many advantages to using air quality models over traditional approaches based on existing ambient measurements alone. First, models can provide spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations as direct input to exposure and health studies and thus better defining the concentration levels for the population in the geographic domain. Air quality models have a long history of use in air pollution regulations, and supported by regulatory agencies and a large user community. Also, models can provide bidirectional linkages between sources of emissions and ambient concentrations, thus allowing exploration of various mitigation strategies to reduce risk to exposure. In order to provide best estimates of air concentrations to support human health and exposure studies, model estimates should consider local-scale features

  7. Verifying of endocrine disruptor chemical affect to the mouse testes: can raman spectroscopy support histology study?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriana, Bibin B.; Oshima, Yusuke; Takanezawa, Sota; Tay, Tat W.; Rosawati Soeratman, Catherine Linda; Alam, Mohammad S.; Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Zhu, Xiao B.; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2009-02-01

    One of suspect environmental endocrine disruptors that affect mouse male reproduction by altering the morphology of Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells is phthalate. The effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), one of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate , on immature mouse testes in vivo were examined. We have recently shown that MEHP induced Sertoli cells necrosis and spermatogenic cells apoptosis in mice by TUNEL method, F-actin staining, and ultrastructural study, but there is no data for biochemical changing of testes due to those methods could not explore. To verify in detail of it, we conducted Raman spectroscopy study with 785 nm wavelength laser line, 50mW of laser power and 3 minutes of exposure time to analysis the MEHP-treated testicular tissue, which has been fixatived by 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA). Five weeks old (5 w.o) male mice were used in this experiment. As the results, the alterations were observed by Raman spectroscopy that there are significantly differences of DNA, actin filament, type IV collagen and amide I between control group (0 μM MEHP) and treatment group (100 μM MEHP). These results significantly support histology staining observation (such as the apoptotic spermatogenic cells which is associated with DNA fragmentation and F-actin disruption) and ultrastructural observation (such as mitochondria rupture and disintegration of nucleus membrane). Raman spectroscopy can be used for 4% PFA-fixatived tissue observation. However, we recommend that Raman spectroscopy may be able to be expanded as an armamentarium not just for the clarification of histology staining and ultrastructural study, but furthermore, it may be as a non-invasion assessment for screening animal tissue toxicity of chemical in future.

  8. Perceived Stress Mediates the Effects of Social Support on Health-Related Quality of Life Among Men Treated for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Eric S.; Penedo, Frank J.; Lewis, John E.; Rasheed, Mikal; Traeger, Lara; Lechner, Suzanne; Soloway, Mark; Kava, Bruce R.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    (1) Objective To examine the longitudinal effect of social support on general health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in men treated for localized prostate cancer, and to evaluate the role of perceived stress as a potential mediator of that relationship, in an ethnically and demographically diverse sample. (2) Methods Psychosocial assessments were administered to a sample of 175 men at baseline, and 2 years later. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationships between social support, perceived stress and HRQOL, while controlling for possible covariates that may affect HRQOL (e.g., age, time since diagnosis, medical co-morbidities etc.). (3) Results Higher levels of social support at baseline predicted higher levels of HRQOL at 2-year follow-up, after controlling for relevant covariates and baseline levels of HRQOL. This relationship was partially mediated by level of perceived stress at baseline. Furthermore, men perceiving high levels of social support reported significantly higher HRQOL compared with men perceiving low levels of social support. (4) Conclusions Results indicate positive social relationships contribute to improved HRQOL in patients who have undergone treatment for localized prostate cancer. One pathway through which social support can benefit HRQOL is through lower perceptions of stress. Enhancing or maintaining social support and reducing perceived stress may be potential targets for future psychosocial interventions aimed at improving HRQOL. PMID:21109047

  9. Understanding Locally, Culturally, and Contextually Relevant Mental Health Problems among Rwandan Children and Adolescents Affected by HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Beardslee, William R.; Stulac, Sara N.; Fayida, Ildephonse; Safren, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In assessing the mental health of HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers often employ mental health measures developed in other settings. However, measures derived from standard Western psychiatric criteria are frequently based on conceptual models of illness or terminology that may or may not be an appropriate for diverse populations. Understanding local perceptions of mental health problems can aid in the selection or creation of appropriate measures. This study used qualitative methodologies (Free Listing [FL], Key Informant [KI] interviews, and Clinician Interviews [C-KIs]) to understand local perceptions of mental health problems facing HIV/AIDS-affected youth in Rwinkwavu, Rwanda. Several syndrome terms were identified by participants: agahinda kenshi, kwiheba, guhangayika, ihahamuka, umushiha and uburara. While these local syndromes share some similarities with Western mood, anxiety, and conduct disorders, they also contain important culture-specific features and gradations of severity. Our findings underscore the importance of understanding local manifestations of mental health syndromes when conducting mental health assessments and when planning interventions for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in diverse settings. PMID:21271393

  10. The South West Local Health Integration Network Behavioural Supports Ontario Experience.

    PubMed

    Gutmanis, Iris; Speziale, Jennifer; Van Bussel, Lisa; Girard, Julie; Hillier, Loretta; Simpson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Creating a seamless system of care with improved system and patient outcomes is imperative to the estimated 35,000 older adults living with mental health problems and addictions in the South West Local Health Integration Network. Building on existing investments and those offered through the Behavioural Supports Ontario program, strategies to improve system coordination were put in place, cross-sectoral partnerships were fostered, interdisciplinary teams from across the care continuum were linked, and educational opportunities were promoted. This evolving, co-created system has resulted in a decrease in alternate level of care cases among those with behavioural specialized needs and improved client/family perceptions of care. Also, in fiscal year 2014/15, it provided more than 7,000 care providers with learning opportunities. PMID:26854549

  11. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. Each has benefited from 3-dimensional analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive and complete understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Recent efforts have been undertaken to update the LDIS through the formal tasking process of NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit. The goals include upgrading LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporating new sources of observational data, and making adjustments to shell scripts written to govern the system. A series of scripts run a complete modeling system consisting of the preprocessing step, the main model integration, and the post-processing step. The preprocessing step prepares the terrain, surface characteristics data sets, and the objective analysis for model initialization. Data ingested through ADAS include (but are not limited to) Level II Weather Surveillance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from six Florida radars, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) visible and infrared satellite imagery, surface and upper air observations throughout Florida from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory/Global Systems Division

  12. Strongly localized moving discrete dissipative breather-solitons in Kerr nonlinear media supported by intrinsic gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Magnus; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E.; Derevyanko, Stanislav A.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the mobility of nonlinear localized modes in a generalized discrete Ginzburg-Landau-type model, describing a one-dimensional waveguide array in an active Kerr medium with intrinsic, saturable gain and damping. It is shown that exponentially localized, traveling discrete dissipative breather-solitons may exist as stable attractors supported only by intrinsic properties of the medium, i.e., in the absence of any external field or symmetry-breaking perturbations. Through an interplay by the gain and damping effects, the moving soliton may overcome the Peierls-Nabarro barrier, present in the corresponding conservative system, by self-induced time-periodic oscillations of its power (norm) and energy (Hamiltonian), yielding exponential decays to zero with different rates in the forward and backward directions. In certain parameter windows, bistability appears between fast modes with small oscillations and slower, large-oscillation modes. The velocities and the oscillation periods are typically related by lattice commensurability and exhibit period-doubling bifurcations to chaotically "walking" modes under parameter variations. If the model is augmented by intersite Kerr nonlinearity, thereby reducing the Peierls-Nabarro barrier of the conservative system, the existence regime for moving solitons increases considerably, and a richer scenario appears including Hopf bifurcations to incommensurately moving solutions and phase-locking intervals. Stable moving breathers also survive in the presence of weak disorder.

  13. Target localization in wireless sensor networks using online semi-supervised support vector regression.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jaehyun; Kim, H Jin

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning has been successfully used for target localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to its accurate and robust estimation against highly nonlinear and noisy sensor measurement. For efficient and adaptive learning, this paper introduces online semi-supervised support vector regression (OSS-SVR). The first advantage of the proposed algorithm is that, based on semi-supervised learning framework, it can reduce the requirement on the amount of the labeled training data, maintaining accurate estimation. Second, with an extension to online learning, the proposed OSS-SVR automatically tracks changes of the system to be learned, such as varied noise characteristics. We compare the proposed algorithm with semi-supervised manifold learning, an online Gaussian process and online semi-supervised colocalization. The algorithms are evaluated for estimating the unknown location of a mobile robot in a WSN. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more accurate under the smaller amount of labeled training data and is robust to varying noise. Moreover, the suggested algorithm performs fast computation, maintaining the best localization performance in comparison with the other methods. PMID:26024420

  14. Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections and Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong-bao, Liu

    2016-06-01

    With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is widely used in stellar spectra classification. Another dimensionality reduction technique, Locality Preserving Projections (LPP) has not been widely used in astronomy. The advantage of LPP is that it can preserve the local structure of the data after dimensionality reduction. In view of this, we investigate how to apply LPP+SVM in classifying the stellar spectral subclasses. In the comparative experiment, the performance of LPP is compared with PCA. The stellar spectral classification process is composed of the following steps. Firstly, PCA and LPP are respectively applied to reduce the dimension of spectra data. Then, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to classify the 4 subclasses of K-type and 3 subclasses of F-type spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Lastly, the performance of LPP+SVM is compared with that of PCA+SVM in stellar spectral classification, and we found that LPP does better than PCA.

  15. Both population size and patch quality affect local extinctions and colonizations.

    PubMed

    Franzén, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the habitat of many species is fragmented, resulting in small local populations with individuals occasionally dispersing between the remaining habitat patches. In a solitary bee metapopulation, extinction probability was related to both local bee population sizes and pollen resources measured as host plant population size. Patch size, on the other hand, had no additional predictive power. The turnover rate of local bee populations in 63 habitat patches over 4 years was high, with 72 extinction events and 31 colonization events, but the pollen plant population was stable with no extinctions or colonizations. Both pollen resources and bee populations had strong and independent effects on extinction probability, but connectivity was not of importance. Colonizations occurred more frequently within larger host plant populations. For metapopulation survival of the bee, large pollen plant populations are essential, independent of current bee population size.

  16. The NOAA Local Climate Analysis Tool - An Application in Support of a Weather Ready Nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    Citizens across the U.S., including decision makers from the local to the national level, have a multitude of questions about climate, such as the current state and how that state fits into the historical context, and more importantly, how climate will impact them, especially with regard to linkages to extreme weather events. Developing answers to these types of questions for locations has typically required extensive work to gather data, conduct analyses, and generate relevant explanations and graphics. Too frequently providers don't have ready access to or knowledge of reliable, trusted data sets, nor sound, scientifically accepted analysis techniques such that they can provide a rapid response to queries they receive. In order to support National Weather Service (NWS) local office forecasters with information they need to deliver timely responses to climate-related questions from their customers, we have developed the Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT). LCAT uses the principles of artificial intelligence to respond to queries, in particular, through use of machine technology that responds intelligently to input from users. A user translates customer questions into primary variables and issues and LCAT pulls the most relevant data and analysis techniques to provide information back to the user, who in turn responds to their customer. Most responses take on the order of 10 seconds, which includes providing statistics, graphical displays of information, translations for users, metadata, and a summary of the user request to LCAT. Applications in Phase I of LCAT, which is targeted for the NWS field offices, include Climate Change Impacts, Climate Variability Impacts, Drought Analysis and Impacts, Water Resources Applications, Attribution of Extreme Events, and analysis techniques such as time series analysis, trend analysis, compositing, and correlation and regression techniques. Data accessed by LCAT are homogenized historical COOP and Climate Prediction Center

  17. Dynamics of Choice: Relative Rate and Amount Affect Local Preference at Three Different Time Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Carlos F.; Baum, William M.

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right…

  18. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates. PMID:26008886

  19. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates.

  20. Social Support and Behavioral and Affective School Engagement: The Effects of Peers, Parents, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estell, David B.; Perdue, Neil H.

    2013-01-01

    School engagement has long been seen as an important component of school completion, and research shows that social support in the home and school promotes engagement. However, many researchers have argued that it is not a unitary construct but rather a multifaceted phenomenon, and the role of peer social support has not been as well studied as…

  1. Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izci, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student's learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students' learning. Thus reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers' practices of…

  2. Students' Race and Teachers' Social Support Affect the Positive Feedback Bias in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Kent D.; Gorman, Jamie L.; Gengaro, Frank P.; Butisingh, Samantha; Tsang, William; Ouellette, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This research tested whether public school teachers display the positive feedback bias, wherein Whites give more praise and less criticism to minorities than to fellow Whites for equivalent work. It also tested whether teachers lacking in school-based social support (i.e., support from fellow teachers and school administrators) are more likely to…

  3. Use of the Support Group Method to Tackle Bullying, and Evaluation from Schools and Local Authorities in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter K.; Howard, Sharon; Thompson, Fran

    2007-01-01

    The Support Group Method (SGM), formerly the No Blame Approach, is widely used as an anti-bullying intervention in schools, but has aroused some controversy. There is little evidence from users regarding its effectiveness. We aimed to ascertain the use of and support for the SGM in Local Authorities (LAs) and schools; and obtain ratings of…

  4. Initial Evaluation of the Heat-Affected Zone, Local Embrittlement Phenomenon as it Applies to Nuclear Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.E.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this project was to determine if the local brittle zone (LBZ) problem, encountered in the testing of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) part of welds in offshore platform construction, can also be found in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) welds. Both structures have multipass welds and grain coarsening along the fusion line. Literature was obtained that described the metallurgical evidence and the type of research work performed on offshore structure welds.

  5. Teachers' Challenges, Strategies, and Support Needs in Schools Affected by Community Violence: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maring, Elisabeth F.; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposure to community violence compromises teacher effectiveness, student learning, and socioemotional well-being. This study examined the challenges, strategies, and support needs of teachers in urban schools affected by high levels of community violence. Methods: Twenty teachers from 3 urban middle schools with predominantly…

  6. The Role of Maternal Verbal, Affective, and Behavioral Support in Preschool Children's Independent and Collaborative Autobiographical Memory Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the individual and relative contributions of different aspects of maternal support (i.e., verbal, affective, and behavioral) in relation to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Four-year-old children discussed personal past experiences with their mothers and with a researcher. In collaborative recall with…

  7. Case Study on the Effect of Word Repetition Method Supported by Neurological Affecting Model on Fluent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Erol

    2013-01-01

    This research is a case study which is a qualitative study model and named as example event as well. The purpose of this research is determining the effect of word repetitive reading method supported with neurological affecting model on fluent reading. In this study, False Analysis Inventory was used in order to determine the student's oral…

  8. Social Support as a Neglected E-Learning Motivator Affecting Trainee's Decisions of Continuous Intentions of Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Weng, Apollo

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the social influence theory and acknowledging that the others' support within the work context affects employees' learning, values, and behaviours, an alternative framework was proposed to explain employees' learning satisfaction and future intention to participate in e-training programs in the current study. 578 survey data collected…

  9. Factors Affecting Crater Size-Frequency Distribution Measurements: Insights Supported by the LRO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Zanetti, M.; Plescia, J. B.; Ostrach, L. R.; Mahanti, P.; Meyer, H. M.; McEwen, A. S.; Pasckert, J. H.; Michael, G.; Kneissl, T.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    CSFD measurements are affected by illumination angle, count area size/slope, secondary cratering, target property effects, and differential degradation. Investigations using LRO data have made progress characterizing and quantifying these factors.

  10. Integrating Learning Styles and Personality Traits into an Affective Model to Support Learner's Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin

    The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.

  11. How Affective Is a "Like"?: The Effect of Paralinguistic Digital Affordances on Perceived Social Support.

    PubMed

    Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A

    2016-09-01

    A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs. PMID:27635443

  12. Connecting the dots: how local structure affects global integration in infants.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Melanie; Pettet, Mark; Vildavski, Vladimir; Hou, Chuan; Norcia, Anthony

    2010-07-01

    Glass patterns are moirés created from a sparse random-dot field paired with its spatially shifted copy. Because discrimination of these patterns is not based on local features, they have been used extensively to study global integration processes. Here, we investigated whether 4- to 5.5-month-old infants are sensitive to the global structure of Glass patterns by measuring visual-evoked potentials. Although we found strong responses to the appearance of the constituent dots, we found sensitivity to the global structure of the Glass patterns in the infants only over a very limited range of spatial separation. In contrast, we observed robust responses in the infants when we connected the dot pairs of the Glass pattern with lines. Moreover, both infants and adults showed differential responses to exchanges between line patterns portraying different global structures. A control study varying luminance contrast in adults suggests that infant sensitivity to global structure is not primarily limited by reduced element visibility. Together our results suggest that the insensitivity to structure in conventional Glass patterns is due to inefficiencies in extracting the local orientation cues generated by the dot pairs. Once the local orientations are made unambiguous or when the interpolation span is small, infants can integrate these signals over the image.

  13. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of moderation

  14. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J.; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of

  15. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of moderation.

  16. Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC) in Victoria, Australia: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; Cullinane, Meabh; Shafiei, Touran; Watson, Lyndsey F; Ridgway, Lael; Cramer, Rhian L; Small, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and infants. Despite recommendations from the WHO, by 6 months of age 40% of Australian infants are receiving no breast milk. Increased early postpartum breastfeeding support may improve breastfeeding maintenance. 2 community-based interventions to increase breastfeeding duration in local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia, were implemented and evaluated. Design 3-arm cluster randomised trial. Setting LGAs in Victoria, Australia. Participants LGAs across Victoria with breastfeeding initiation rates below the state average and > 450 births/year were eligible for inclusion. The LGA was the unit of randomisation, and maternal and child health centres in the LGAs comprised the clusters. Interventions Early home-based breastfeeding support by a maternal and child health nurse (home visit, HV) with or without access to a community-based breastfeeding drop-in centre (HV+drop-in). Main outcome measures The proportion of infants receiving ‘any’ breast milk at 3, 4 and 6 months (women's self-report). Findings 4 LGAs were randomised to the comparison arm and provided usual care (n=41 clusters; n=2414 women); 3 to HV (n=32 clusters; n=2281 women); and 3 to HV+drop-in (n=26 clusters; 2344 women). There was no difference in breastfeeding at 4 months in either HV (adjusted OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29) or HV+drop-in (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.08) compared with the comparison arm, no difference at 3 or 6 months, nor in any LGA in breastfeeding before and after the intervention. Some issues were experienced with intervention protocol fidelity. Conclusions Early home-based and community-based support proved difficult to implement. Interventions to increase breastfeeding in complex community settings require sufficient time and partnership building for successful implementation. We cannot conclude that additional community-based support is ineffective in improving breastfeeding

  17. Prognostic Factors Affecting Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer and Clinical Significance of Hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Kuhn, Hildegard; Schultze, Juergen; Homann, Nils; Brandenburg, Bernd; Schulte, Rainer; Krull, Andreas; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential prognostic factors, including hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy, for associations with survival and local control in patients with unirradiated locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Ten potential prognostic factors were investigated in 94 patients receiving radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer: age ({<=}68 vs. {>=}69 years), gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage ({<=}II vs. III vs. IV), grading (G1-2 vs. G3), surgery, administration of chemotherapy, radiation dose (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions: {<=}50 vs. >50 Gy), and hemoglobin levels before (<12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) and during (majority of levels: <12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses were performed, including hemoglobin levels, either before or during radiotherapy (not both) because these are confounding variables. Results: Improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.023), surgery (p = 0.011), chemotherapy (p = 0.003), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL both before (p = 0.031) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, performance status, AJCC stage, and hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy maintained significance. Improved local control was associated with better performance status (p = 0.040), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.010), lower grading (p = 0.012), surgery (p < 0.001), chemotherapy (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL before (p < 0.001) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, chemotherapy, grading, and hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy remained significant. Subgroup analyses of the patients having surgery demonstrated the extent of resection to be significantly associated with local control (p = 0.011) but not with survival (p = 0.45). Conclusion: Predictors for outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for

  18. Cryo-Balloon Catheter Localization Based on a Support-Vector-Machine Approach.

    PubMed

    Kurzendorfer, Tanja; Mewes, Philip W; Maier, Andreas; Strobel, Norbert; Brost, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Cryo-balloon catheters have attracted an increasing amount of interest in the medical community as they can reduce patient risk during left atrial pulmonary vein ablation procedures. As cryo-balloon catheters are not equipped with electrodes, they cannot be localized automatically by electro-anatomical mapping systems. As a consequence, X-ray fluoroscopy has remained an important means for guidance during the procedure. Most recently, image guidance methods for fluoroscopy-based procedures have been proposed, but they provide only limited support for cryo-balloon catheters and require significant user interaction. To improve this situation, we propose a novel method for automatic cryo-balloon catheter detection in fluoroscopic images by detecting the cryo-balloon catheter's built-in X-ray marker. Our approach is based on a blob detection algorithm to find possible X-ray marker candidates. Several of these candidates are then excluded using prior knowledge. For the remaining candidates, several catheter specific features are introduced. They are processed using a machine learning approach to arrive at the final X-ray marker position. Our method was evaluated on 75 biplane fluoroscopy images from 40 patients, from two sites, acquired with a biplane angiography system. The method yielded a success rate of 99.0% in plane A and 90.6% in plane B, respectively. The detection achieved an accuracy of 1.00 mm±0.82 mm in plane A and 1.13 mm±0.24 mm in plane B. The localization in 3-D was associated with an average error of 0.36 mm±0.86 mm.

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association: local support for nutrition integrity in schools.

    PubMed

    Pilant, Vivian B

    2006-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the schools and the community have a shared responsibility to provide all students with access to high-quality foods and school-based nutrition services as an integral part of the total education program. Educational goals, including the nutrition goals of the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, should be supported and extended through school district wellness policies that create overall school environments that promote access to healthful school meals and physical activity and provide learning experiences that enable students to develop lifelong healthful eating habits. The National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs are an important source of nutrients for school-age children, and especially for those of low-income status. The American Dietetic Association was actively involved in the 2004 reauthorization of these programs, ensuring access through continued funding, promoting nutrition education and physical activity to combat overweight and prevent chronic disease, and promoting local wellness policies. The standards established for school meal programs result in school meals that provide nutrients that meet dietary guidelines, but standards do not apply to foods and beverages served and sold outside of the school meal. Labeled as competitive foods by the US Department of Agriculture, there is a growing concern that standards should be applied to food in the entire school environment. Legislation has mandated that all school districts that participate in the US Department of Agriculture's Child Nutrition Program develop and implement a local wellness policy by the school year 2006-2007. Resources are available to assist in the development of wellness policies, and dietetics professionals can assist schools in developing policies that meet nutrition integrity standards. PMID:16390677

  20. Decision support system for localizing prostate cancer based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vijay; Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Pang, Yuxi; Pohida, Thomas; Merino, Maria J.; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter L.; Bernardo, Marcelino

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need to localize prostate cancers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to facilitate the use of image guided biopsy, focal therapy, and active surveillance follow up. Our goal was to develop a decision support system (DSS) for detecting and localizing peripheral zone prostate cancers by using machine learning approach to calculate a cancer probability map from multiparametric MR images (MP-MRI). Methods: This IRB approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study consisted of 31 patients (mean age and serum prostate specific antigen of 60.4 and 6.62 ng/ml, respectively) who had MP-MRI at 3 T followed by radical prostatectomy. Seven patients were excluded due to technical issues with their MP-MRI (e.g., motion artifact, failure to perform all sequences). Cancer and normal regions were identified in the peripheral zone by correlating them to whole mount histology slides of the excised prostatectomy specimens. To facilitate the correlation, tissue blocks matching the MR slices were obtained using a MR-based patient-specific mold. Segmented regions on the MP-MRI were correlated to histopathology and used as training sets for the learning system that generated the cancer probability maps. Leave-one-patient-out cross-validation on the cancer and normal regions was performed to determine the learning system's efficacy, an evolutionary strategies approach (also known as a genetic algorithm) was used to find the optimal values for a set of parameters, and finally a cancer probability map was generated. Results: For the 24 patients that were used in the study, 225 cancer and 264 noncancerous regions were identified from the region maps. The efficacy of DSS was first determined without optimizing support vector machines (SVM) parameters, where a region having a cancer probability greater than or equal to 50% was considered as a correct classification. The nonoptimized system had an f-measure of 85% and the

  1. Locally adapted social parasite affects density, social structure, and life history of its ant hosts.

    PubMed

    Foitzik, Susanne; Achenbach, Alexandra; Brandt, Miriam

    2009-05-01

    Selection and adaptation are important processes in the coevolution between parasites and their hosts. The slave-making ant Protomognathus americanus, an obligate ant social parasite, has previously been shown to evolve morphological, behavioral, and chemical adaptations in the coevolutionary arms race with its Temnothorax hosts. Yet empirical studies have given variable results on the strength of the selection pressure this parasite exerts on its host populations. In this study, we directly investigated the pressure exerted by P. americanus and the reactions of the main host species, T. longispinosus, in two ant communities by manipulating parasite density in the field over several years. In addition, a cross-fostering design with the exchange of parasites between host populations allowed us to investigate local adaptation of parasite or host. We demonstrate a severe impact of the social parasite on the two host populations in West Virginia and New York, but also variation in host reactions between sites, as expected by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. Host density decreased at the West Virginia site with the presence of local slave-makers, whereas at the ecologically favorable New York site, density was unaffected. Nevertheless, social organization, colony size, and investment patterns of these host colonies at this site changed in response to our parasite manipulation. The release of P. americanus colonies led to a reduction in the number of resident queens and workers, an increase in intranest relatedness, and lower productivity, but also a higher investment in reproductives. In West Virginia, colony demography did not change, but raiding activity by New York slave-makers caused different investment patterns of host colonies. In addition, the cross-fostering element revealed local adaptation of the parasite P. americanus: slave-making colonies fared better in their sympatric host population, as they contained more slave-making ant workers and slaves

  2. Carcinogen and dietary lipid regulate ras expression and localization in rat colon without affecting farnesylation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Davidson, L A; Lupton, J R; Jiang, Y H; Chapkin, R S

    1999-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that dietary fiber and fat are major determinants of colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms by which these dietary constituents alter the incidence of colon cancer have not been elucidated. Evidence indicates that dominant gain-of-function mutations short-circuit protooncogenes and contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. Therefore, we began to dissect the mechanisms whereby dietary fat and fiber, fed during the initiation, promotion and progression stages of colon tumorigenesis, regulate ras p21 localization, expression and mutation frequency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (140) were provided with corn oil or fish oil and pectin or cellulose plus or minus the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design and killed after 34 weeks. We have previously shown adenocarcinoma incidence in these animals to be 70.3% (52/74) for corn oil + AOM and 56.1% (37/66) for fish oil + AOM (P < 0.05). Total ras expression as well as ras membrane:cytosol ratio was 4- to 6-fold higher in colon tumors than in mucosa from AOM- or saline-injected rats. Expression of ras in the mucosal membrane fraction was 13% higher for animals fed corn oil compared with fish oil feeding (P < 0.05), which is noteworthy since ras must be localized at the plasma membrane to function. The elevated ras membrane:cytosol ratio in tumors was not due to increased farnesyl protein transferase activity or prenylation state, as nearly all detectable ras was in the prenylated form. Phosphorylated p42 and p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (ERK) expression was two-fold higher in tumor extracts compared with uninvolved mucosa from AOM- and saline-injected rats (P < 0.05). The frequency of K-ras mutations was not significantly different between the various groups, but there was a trend toward a greater incidence of mutations in tumors from corn oil fed rats (85%) compared with fish oil fed rats (58%). Our results indicate that the carcinogen

  3. From Global Climate Model Projections to Local Impacts Assessments: Analyses in Support of Planning for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snover, A. K.; Littell, J. S.; Mantua, N. J.; Salathe, E. P.; Hamlet, A. F.; McGuire Elsner, M.; Tohver, I.; Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    Assessing and planning for the impacts of climate change require regionally-specific information. Information is required not only about projected changes in climate but also the resultant changes in natural and human systems at the temporal and spatial scales of management and decision making. Therefore, climate impacts assessment typically results in a series of analyses, in which relatively coarse-resolution global climate model projections of changes in regional climate are downscaled to provide appropriate input to local impacts models. This talk will describe recent examples in which coarse-resolution (~150 to 300km) GCM output was “translated” into information requested by decision makers at relatively small (watershed) and large (multi-state) scales using regional climate modeling, statistical downscaling, hydrologic modeling, and sector-specific impacts modeling. Projected changes in local air temperature, precipitation, streamflow, and stream temperature were developed to support Seattle City Light’s assessment of climate change impacts on hydroelectric operations, future electricity load, and resident fish populations. A state-wide assessment of climate impacts on eight sectors (agriculture, coasts, energy, forests, human health, hydrology and water resources, salmon, and urban stormwater infrastructure) was developed for Washington State to aid adaptation planning. Hydro-climate change scenarios for approximately 300 streamflow locations in the Columbia River basin and selected coastal drainages west of the Cascades were developed in partnership with major water management agencies in the Pacific Northwest to allow planners to consider how hydrologic changes may affect management objectives. Treatment of uncertainty in these assessments included: using “bracketing” scenarios to describe a range of impacts, using ensemble averages to characterize the central estimate of future conditions (given an emissions scenario), and explicitly assessing

  4. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem.

  5. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem. PMID:26385933

  6. The anterior hippocampus supports a coarse, global environmental representation and the posterior hippocampus supports fine-grained, local environmental representations.

    PubMed

    Evensmoen, Hallvard Røe; Lehn, Hanne; Xu, Jian; Witter, Menno P; Nadel, Lynn; Håberg, Asta K

    2013-11-01

    Representing an environment globally, in a coarse way, and locally, in a fine-grained way, are two fundamental aspects of how our brain interprets the world that surrounds us. The neural correlates of these representations have not been explicated in humans. In this study we used fMRI to investigate these correlates and to explore a possible functional segregation in the hippocampus and parietal cortex. We hypothesized that processing a coarse, global environmental representation engages anterior parts of these regions, whereas processing fine-grained, local environmental information engages posterior parts. Participants learned a virtual environment and then had to find their way during fMRI. After scanning, we assessed strategies used and representations stored. Activation in the hippocampal head (anterior) was related to the multiple distance and global direction judgments and to the use of a coarse, global environmental representation during navigation. Activation in the hippocampal tail (posterior) was related to both local and global direction judgments and to using strategies like number of turns. A structural shape analysis showed that the use of a coarse, global environmental representation was related to larger right hippocampal head volume and smaller right hippocampal tail volume. In the inferior parietal cortex, a similar functional segregation was observed, with global routes represented anteriorly and fine-grained route information such as number of turns represented posteriorly. In conclusion, moving from the anterior to the posterior hippocampus and inferior parietal cortex reflects a shift from processing coarse global environmental representations to processing fine-grained, local environmental representations.

  7. Affective Teaching for Data Driven Learning: How Can Strengths-Based Training Support Urban Teacher Efficacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Teri

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine urban teachers' identified strengths in varied cognitive, affective, and psychological capacities, and their impact on self-efficacy and teacher practices. Clifton and Anderson in the Gallup Organization's Strengths Quest (2004) presented compelling evidence suggesting a mind-set of "what's right with me"…

  8. Does Neighborhood and Family Poverty Affect Mothers' Parenting, Mental Health, and Social Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebanov, Pamela Kato; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated effects of neighborhood and family poverty on maternal psychological and behavioral characteristics using data from 895 mothers. Neighborhood poverty was associated with poorer home physical environment and with less maternal warmth, controlling for family conditions. Home environment was adversely affected by family poverty, large…

  9. A Rural Road: Exploring Economic Opportunity, Social Networks, Services and Supports That Affect Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    A study examined the unique conditions affecting quality of life for low-income rural children and their families in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Qualitative data were gathered from 11 focus groups conducted in a variety of rural communities, including tribal reservations, across the three states, and from interviews with professional…

  10. Functional topography of serotonergic systems supports the Deakin/Graeff hypothesis of anxiety and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Paul, Evan D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Over 20 years ago, Deakin and Graeff hypothesized about the role of different serotonergic pathways in controlling the behavioral and physiologic responses to aversive stimuli, and how compromise of these pathways could lead to specific symptoms of anxiety and affective disorders. A growing body of evidence suggests these serotonergic pathways arise from topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons located in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. We argue that serotonergic neurons in the dorsal/caudal parts of the dorsal raphe nucleus project to forebrain limbic regions involved in stress/conflict anxiety-related processes, which may be relevant for anxiety and affective disorders. Serotonergic neurons in the "lateral wings" of the dorsal raphe nucleus provide inhibitory control over structures controlling fight-or-flight responses. Dysfunction of this pathway could be relevant for panic disorder. Finally, serotonergic neurons in the median raphe nucleus, and the developmentally and functionally-related interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus, give rise to forebrain limbic projections that are involved in tolerance and coping with aversive stimuli, which could be important for affective disorders like depression. Elucidating the mechanisms through which stress activates these topographically and functionally distinct serotonergic pathways, and how dysfunction of these pathways leads to symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders, may lead to the development of novel approaches to both the prevention and treatment of anxiety and affective disorders.

  11. Mutated otopetrin 1 affects the genesis of otoliths and the localization of Starmaker in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Christian; Schwarz, Heinz; Geisler, Robert; Nicolson, Teresa

    2004-12-01

    Otoliths in bony fishes and otoconia in mammals are composite crystals consisting of calcium carbonate and proteins. These biominerals are part of the gravity and linear acceleration detection system of the inner ear. Mutations in otopetrin 1 have been shown to result in lack of otoconia in tilted and mergulhador mutant mice. The molecular function of Otopetrin 1, a novel protein that contains ten predicted transmembrane domains, however, has remained elusive. Here we show that a mutation in the orthologous gene in zebrafish is responsible for the complete absence of otoliths in backstroke mutants. We examined the localization of Starmaker, a secreted protein that is highly abundant in otoliths in backstroke mutants. Starmaker protein accumulated within cells of the otic epithelium, indicating a possible defect in secretion. Our data suggest that Otopetrin 1 in zebrafish may be involved in the protein trafficking of components required for formation of biominerals in the ear. PMID:15480759

  12. The Affective Structure of Supportive Parenting: Depressive Symptoms, Immediate Emotions, and Child-Oriented Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Theodore; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Meunier, Leah N.; Miller, Pamela C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the maternal concerns and emotions that may regulate one form of sensitive parenting, support for children's immediate desires or intentions. While reviewing a videotape of interactions with their 1-year-olds, mothers who varied on depressive symptoms reported concerns and emotions they had during the interaction. Emotions…

  13. Barriers affecting access to and use of formal social supports among abused immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali; Humphreys, Janice

    2009-09-01

    Social support is critical for women dealing with intimate partner violence (IPV).When support from their informal sources, such as family, friends, and neighbours, is limited, women tend to access services provided by health professionals, social workers, and settlement workers. In this qualitative descriptive study, community leaders who were also first-generation immigrants describe the complexities of immigrant women's access to and use of formal supports to deal with IPV in Canada.The findings show that a number of factors negatively shape the experiences of these women: lack of familiarity with services, inappropriate services and intervention strategies, lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate services, lack of portability and coordination of services, confidentiality concerns, and discriminatory and racist practices embedded in services and service delivery. In order to improve care for women dealing with IPV in the post-migration context, health professionals must collaborate with social workers and settlement workers to address structural barriers that limit women's access to and use of formal social support.

  14. Restrictive and Supportive Parenting: Effects on Children's School Affect and Emotional Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annear, Karen D.; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this project upper primary school students were surveyed about their general liking for school, and reasons for going to school. Their parents were asked to respond on a questionnaire indicating their restrictiveness and also support for their child's autonomy. Data were collected from 92 middle SES two-parent families and analysed using…

  15. How do online patient support communities affect the experience of inflammatory bowel disease? An online survey

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Neil S

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore how participation in an online support community may impact upon the experience of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Design An online survey. Setting Study participants recruited through 35 IBD online communities. Participants A total of 249 males and females aged 16–69 years, living with either Crohn’s disease (65.9%) or ulcerative colitis (26.1%) or awaiting formal diagnosis (8%). Results Patients reported being members for an average of two years, with the majority accessing the community on a daily (46.9%) or weekly (40%) basis. Spending on average four hours per week online, approximately two-thirds of members posted between one and five messages per week. Members joined to find others in a similar situation and to obtain and share information and emotional support. Through participation members accessed a wealth of knowledge about all aspects of living with IBD and this was helpful in terms of accepting their illness and learning to manage it. The community also helped members see their illness more positively as well as contributing to an improvement in subjective wellbeing. However, some negatives aspects were noted. Conclusions Online support communities may provide a useful shared space through which IBD patients may seek and provide both informational and emotional support. Many of these benefits may not be available through traditional healthcare. Whilst online support communities may be beneficial for those who choose to participate in them, they are not without limitations. Health professionals should be aware of the potential benefits and limitations of online communities. PMID:24040493

  16. Affective behavior in patients with localized cortical excisions: role of lesion site and side.

    PubMed

    Kolb, B; Taylor, L

    1981-10-01

    The perception of emotion in verbal and facial expression, and the spontaneous production of conversational speech were studied in patients with unilateral focal excisions of frontal, temporal, or parieto-occipital cortex. Lesions of the left hemisphere impaired the matching of verbal descriptions to appropriate verbal categories of emotional states, whereas with lesions of the right hemisphere, the matching of different faces displaying similar emotional states was impaired. The effects of lesions of both left and right hemisphere occurred regardless of the locus of the lesion. On the other hand, frontal-lobe lesions had differential effects upon unsolicited talking; lesions of the left frontal lobe virtually abolished this behavior, whereas lesions of the right frontal lobe produced excessive talking. These data suggest that the nature of the behavioral stimulus as well as the locus and side of damage must be considered in the study of the neural basis of affective behavior. PMID:7280683

  17. SUMOylation affects the interferon blocking activity of the influenza A nonstructural protein NS1 without affecting its stability or cellular localization.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andres; Pal, Sangita; Chacón, Jason; Meraz, Katherine; Gonzalez, Jeanette; Prieto, Karla; Rosas-Acosta, Germán

    2013-05-01

    Our pioneering studies on the interplay between the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and influenza A virus identified the nonstructural protein NS1 as the first known SUMO target of influenza virus and one of the most abundantly SUMOylated influenza virus proteins. Here, we further characterize the role of SUMOylation for the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) NS1 protein, demonstrating that NS1 is SUMOylated not only by SUMO1 but also by SUMO2/3 and mapping the main SUMOylation sites in NS1 to residues K219 and K70. Furthermore, by using SUMOylatable and non-SUMOylatable forms of NS1 and an NS1-specific artificial SUMO ligase (ASL) that increases NS1 SUMOylation ~4-fold, we demonstrate that SUMOylation does not affect the stability or cellular localization of PR8 NS1. However, NS1's ability to be SUMOylated appears to affect virus multiplication, as indicated by the delayed growth of a virus expressing the non-SUMOylatable form of NS1 in the interferon (IFN)-competent MDCK cell line. Remarkably, while a non-SUMOylatable form of NS1 exhibited a substantially diminished ability to neutralize IFN production, increasing NS1 SUMOylation beyond its normal levels also exerted a negative effect on its IFN-blocking function. This observation indicates the existence of an optimal level of NS1 SUMOylation that allows NS1 to achieve maximal activity and suggests that the limited amount of SUMOylation normally observed for most SUMO targets may correspond to an optimal level that maximizes the contribution of SUMOylation to protein function. Finally, protein cross-linking data suggest that SUMOylation may affect NS1 function by regulating the abundance of NS1 dimers and trimers in the cell.

  18. SUMOylation Affects the Interferon Blocking Activity of the Influenza A Nonstructural Protein NS1 without Affecting Its Stability or Cellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Andres; Pal, Sangita; Chacón, Jason; Meraz, Katherine; Gonzalez, Jeanette; Prieto, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Our pioneering studies on the interplay between the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and influenza A virus identified the nonstructural protein NS1 as the first known SUMO target of influenza virus and one of the most abundantly SUMOylated influenza virus proteins. Here, we further characterize the role of SUMOylation for the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) NS1 protein, demonstrating that NS1 is SUMOylated not only by SUMO1 but also by SUMO2/3 and mapping the main SUMOylation sites in NS1 to residues K219 and K70. Furthermore, by using SUMOylatable and non-SUMOylatable forms of NS1 and an NS1-specific artificial SUMO ligase (ASL) that increases NS1 SUMOylation ∼4-fold, we demonstrate that SUMOylation does not affect the stability or cellular localization of PR8 NS1. However, NS1's ability to be SUMOylated appears to affect virus multiplication, as indicated by the delayed growth of a virus expressing the non-SUMOylatable form of NS1 in the interferon (IFN)-competent MDCK cell line. Remarkably, while a non-SUMOylatable form of NS1 exhibited a substantially diminished ability to neutralize IFN production, increasing NS1 SUMOylation beyond its normal levels also exerted a negative effect on its IFN-blocking function. This observation indicates the existence of an optimal level of NS1 SUMOylation that allows NS1 to achieve maximal activity and suggests that the limited amount of SUMOylation normally observed for most SUMO targets may correspond to an optimal level that maximizes the contribution of SUMOylation to protein function. Finally, protein cross-linking data suggest that SUMOylation may affect NS1 function by regulating the abundance of NS1 dimers and trimers in the cell. PMID:23468495

  19. Implicit attitudes toward nuclear power and mobile phone base stations: support for the affect heuristic.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Cousin, Marie-Eve

    2006-08-01

    The implicit association test (IAT) measures automatic associations. In the present research, the IAT was adapted to measure implicit attitudes toward technological hazards. In Study 1, implicit and explicit attitudes toward nuclear power were examined. Implicit measures (i.e., the IAT) revealed negative attitudes toward nuclear power that were not detected by explicit measures (i.e., a questionnaire). In Study 2, implicit attitudes toward EMF (electro-magnetic field) hazards were examined. Results showed that cell phone base stations and power lines are judged to be similarly risky and, further, that base stations are more closely related to risk concepts than home appliances are. No differences between experts and lay people were observed. Results of the present studies are in line with the affect heuristic proposed by Slovic and colleagues. Affect seems to be an important factor in risk perception.

  20. Interventions for Children Affected by War: An Ecological Perspective on Psychosocial Support and Mental Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Charrow, Alexandra P.; Tol, Wietse A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children and adolescents exposed to armed conflict are at high risk of developing mental health problems. To date, a range of psychosocial approaches and clinical/psychiatric interventions has been used to address mental health needs in these groups. Aims To provide an overview of peer-reviewed psychosocial and mental health interventions designed to address mental health needs of conflict-affected children, and to highlight areas in which policy and research need strengthening. Methods We used standard review methodology to identify interventions aimed at improving or treating mental health problems in conflict-affected youth. An ecological lens was used to organize studies according to the individual, family, peer/school, and community factors targeted by each intervention. Interventions were also evaluated for their orientation toward prevention, treatment, or maintenance, and for the strength of the scientific evidence of reported effects. Results Of 2305 studies returned from online searches of the literature and 21 sources identified through bibliography mining, 58 qualified for full review, with 40 peer-reviewed studies included in the final narrative synthesis. Overall, the peer-reviewed literature focused largely on school-based interventions. Very few family and community-based interventions have been empirically evaluated. Only two studies assessed multilevel or stepped-care packages. Conclusions The evidence base on effective and efficacious interventions for conflict-affected youth requires strengthening. Postconflict development agendas must be retooled to target the vulnerabilities characterizing conflict-affected youth, and these approaches must be collaborative across bodies responsible for the care of youth and families. PMID:23656831

  1. Mental health and psychosocial support after the tsunami: observations across affected nations.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vijay; Pandav, Rajesh; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2006-06-01

    The countries affected by the tsunami responded to the natural disaster promptly but with different results and outcomes. The reasons for this varied response were many. The outcome depended upon a number of factors, including the extent of the damage to property and lives, accessibility of the areas and existing disaster plans. In this paper we present the overall observations and suggest the way forward. PMID:16753656

  2. HSP60 interacts with YB-1 and affects its polysome association and subcellular localization

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Sachiyo; Atsumi, Megumi; Kobayashi, Shunsuke

    2009-08-07

    YB-1 is a DNA/RNA-binding protein which, in the cytoplasm, associates with polysomes and regulates translation. However, YB-1 has a novel nuclear localization signal, and its nuclear accumulation is correlated with cancer induction. Here we designated the amino-acid sequence as YB-NLS and demonstrated that YB-NLS is necessary for the nuclear translocation of overexpressed YB-1 in NG108-15 cells. In addition, we found that a heat shock protein, HSP60, binds to YB-NLS in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, when HSP60 expression was repressed, an increase of polysome-associated YB-1 was observed in heavy-sedimenting fractions on a sucrose gradient. Overexpression of HSP60 resulted in a decrease of YB-1 in the heavy-sedimenting fractions and suppression of YB-NLS activity. Furthermore, the NLS-deleted YB-1 was apparently associated with the heavy-sedimenting polysomes. These results suggest that HSP60 interacts with YB-1 at the YB-NLS region and acts as a regulator of polysome association and the subcellular distribution of YB-1.

  3. Calibration of Local Area Weather Radar—Identifying significant factors affecting the calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    A Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is an X-band weather radar developed to meet the needs of high resolution rainfall data for hydrological applications. The LAWR system and data processing methods are reviewed in the first part of this paper, while the second part of the paper focuses on calibration. The data processing for handling the partial beam filling issue was found to be essential to the calibration. LAWR uses a different calibration process compared to conventional weather radars, which use a power-law relationship between reflectivity and rainfall rate. Instead LAWR uses a linear relationship of reflectivity and rainfall rate as result of the log transformation carried out by the logarithmic receiver as opposed to the linear receiver of conventional weather radars. Based on rain gauge data for a five month period from a dense network of nine gauges within a 500 × 500 m area and data from a nearby LAWR, the existing calibration method was tested and two new methods were developed. The three calibration methods were verified with three external gauges placed in different locations. It can be concluded that the LAWR calibration uncertainties can be reduced by 50% in two out of three cases when the calibration is based on a factorized 3 parameter linear model instead of a single parameter linear model.

  4. An Experimental Investigation of Possible Memory Biases Affecting Support for Racial Health Care Policy

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to test the theory that estimates of racial disparities may be based on small recalled samples of specific individuals (Black vs White), a strategy likely to lead to underestimates of true racial disparities and a corresponding opposition to race-focused health care policies. Methods. We asked a sample of White adults to list the first 5 Black and White individuals who came to mind, and then measured support for various race-focused health care policies. Results. Analyses indicated that the Black individuals recalled by participants tended to be more famous and wealthy than their White counterparts. Furthermore, the tendency to list wealthier Black individuals predicted opposition to progressive racial health care programs. A follow-up study demonstrated that support for certain race-focused health care policies could be increased by informing Whites of potential memory biases. Conclusions. The survival and success of minority health care policies depend partially on public acceptance. Education regarding continuing racial disparities may help to increase support for race-focused health care policies. PMID:22420789

  5. Cellular localization of long non-coding RNAs affects silencing by RNAi more than by antisense oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Kim A.; Behlke, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in mammalian cells. Some have important functions and their dysregulation can contribute to a variety of disease states. However, most lncRNAs have not been functionally characterized. Complicating their study, lncRNAs have widely varying subcellular distributions: some reside predominantly in the nucleus, the cytoplasm or in both compartments. One method to query function is to suppress expression and examine the resulting phenotype. Methods to suppress expression of mRNAs include antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and RNA interference (RNAi). Antisense and RNAi-based gene-knockdown methods vary in efficacy between different cellular compartments. It is not known if this affects their ability to suppress lncRNAs. To address whether localization of the lncRNA influences susceptibility to degradation by either ASOs or RNAi, nuclear lncRNAs (MALAT1 and NEAT1), cytoplasmic lncRNAs (DANCR and OIP5-AS1) and dual-localized lncRNAs (TUG1, CasC7 and HOTAIR) were compared for knockdown efficiency. We found that nuclear lncRNAs were more effectively suppressed using ASOs, cytoplasmic lncRNAs were more effectively suppressed using RNAi and dual-localized lncRNAs were suppressed using both methods. A mixed-modality approach combining ASOs and RNAi reagents improved knockdown efficacy, particularly for those lncRNAs that localize to both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. PMID:26578588

  6. Cellular localization of long non-coding RNAs affects silencing by RNAi more than by antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Kim A; Behlke, Mark A

    2016-01-29

    Thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in mammalian cells. Some have important functions and their dysregulation can contribute to a variety of disease states. However, most lncRNAs have not been functionally characterized. Complicating their study, lncRNAs have widely varying subcellular distributions: some reside predominantly in the nucleus, the cytoplasm or in both compartments. One method to query function is to suppress expression and examine the resulting phenotype. Methods to suppress expression of mRNAs include antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and RNA interference (RNAi). Antisense and RNAi-based gene-knockdown methods vary in efficacy between different cellular compartments. It is not known if this affects their ability to suppress lncRNAs. To address whether localization of the lncRNA influences susceptibility to degradation by either ASOs or RNAi, nuclear lncRNAs (MALAT1 and NEAT1), cytoplasmic lncRNAs (DANCR and OIP5-AS1) and dual-localized lncRNAs (TUG1, CasC7 and HOTAIR) were compared for knockdown efficiency. We found that nuclear lncRNAs were more effectively suppressed using ASOs, cytoplasmic lncRNAs were more effectively suppressed using RNAi and dual-localized lncRNAs were suppressed using both methods. A mixed-modality approach combining ASOs and RNAi reagents improved knockdown efficacy, particularly for those lncRNAs that localize to both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. PMID:26578588

  7. Ergonomics support for local initiative in improving safety and health at work: International Labour Organization experiences in industrially developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, T; Kogi, K

    2005-04-15

    Ergonomics has played essential roles in the technical cooperation activities of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in occupational safety and health in industrially developing countries. Ergonomics support focusing on practical day-to-day needs at the grass-root workplace has strengthened the local initiative in improving safety and health. Practical action-tools such as ergonomics checklists, local good example photos and group discussions have assisted workers and employers in identifying feasible solutions using locally available resources. Direct participation of workers and employers has been promoted in ergonomics training aimed at immediate solutions. ILO Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems have played increasingly important roles in the systematic planning of local improvement actions. Policy-level programmes to develop network support mechanisms to the grass-root workplace were essential for following up and sustaining local achievements. Practical ergonomics support tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, should be developed and widely applied so as to reach grass-root levels and help local people create safer and healthier workplaces.

  8. How local factors affect the exponents of forced polymer translocation through a nano-pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyaa, Aniket

    2010-02-01

    We study polymer translocation through a narrow pore driven by a bias present inside the pore with an aim to compare predictions of the existing theoretical results with those that we obtain using Langevin dynamics simulation in three dimensions(3D). We find that the translocation exponent α(< τ > ˜Nα) decreases from 1.35 to 1.2 as the width of the pore is decreased from 1.5 σ to 1.1 σ. The exponent ℵ = 1.2 (extracted from chain lengths up to N = 256) not only violates the lower limit 1 + ν proposed by Kantor and Kardar (Y. Kantor and M. Kardar, Phys. Rev. E, 69, 021806 (2004)) earlier but also lower than the more recently proposed lower limit (1 + 2 ν) /(1 + ν) by Vocks et al. (H. Vocks, D. Panja, G. T. Barkema, and R. C. Ball, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 095224 (2008)). We find that the average calculated during the entire translocation process is dominated by the equilibrium configurations at the cis side and therefore, relatively insensitive to the pore width and approximately described by the equilibrium Flory exponent ν. The velocity of the center of mass of the translocating chain on the contrary exhibits a systematic variation. Therefore, if we assume (< τ > ˜ / ) , the dependence of on the pore width appears to be the primary factor that affects the translocation exponent.

  9. Similar Local and Landscape Processes Affect Both a Common and a Rare Newt Species

    PubMed Central

    Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. PMID:23658765

  10. Natural allelic variations in glutathione peroxidase-1 affect its subcellular localization and function.

    PubMed

    Bera, Soumen; Weinberg, Frank; Ekoue, Dede N; Ansenberger-Fricano, Kristine; Mao, Mao; Bonini, Marcelo G; Diamond, Alan M

    2014-09-15

    Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) has been implicated in the etiology of several common diseases due to the association between specific allelic variations and cancer risk. The most common among these variations are the codon 198 polymorphism that results in either a leucine or proline and the number of alanine repeat codons in the coding sequence. The molecular and biologic consequences of these variations remain to be characterized. Toward achieving this goal, we have examined the cellular location of GPx-1 encoded by allelic variants by ectopically expressing these genes in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells that produce undetectable levels of GPx-1, thus achieving exclusive expression in the same cellular environment. A differential distribution between the cytoplasm and mitochondria was observed, with the allele expressing the leucine-198 polymorphism and 7 alanine repeats being more cytoplasmically located than the other alleles examined. To assess whether the distribution of GPx-1 between the cytoplasm and mitochondria had a biologic consequence, we engineered derivative GPx-1 proteins that were targeted to the mitochondria by the addition of a mitochondria targeting sequence and expressed these proteins in MCF-7 cells. These cells were examined for their response to oxidative stress, energy metabolism, and impact on cancer-associated signaling molecules. The results obtained indicated that both primary GPx-1 sequence and cellular location have a profound impact on cellular biology and offer feasible hypotheses about how expression of distinct GPx-1 alleles can affect cancer risk. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5118-26. ©2014 AACR.

  11. Tipburn in salt-affected lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants results from local oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carassay, Luciano R; Bustos, Dolores A; Golberg, Alberto D; Taleisnik, Edith

    2012-02-15

    Tipburn in lettuce is a physiological disorder expressed as a necrosis in the margins of young developing leaves and is commonly observed under saline conditions. Tipburn is usually attributed to Ca(2+) deficiencies, and there has very limited research on other mechanisms that may contribute to tipburn development. This work examines whether symptoms are mediated by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Two butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties, Sunstar (Su) and Pontina (Po), with contrasting tipburn susceptibility were grown in hydroponics with low Ca(2+) (0.5 mM), and with or without 50 mM NaCl. Tipburn symptoms were observed only in Su, and only in the saline treatment. Tipburn incidence in response to topical treatments with Ca(2+) scavengers, Ca(2+) transport inhibitors, and antioxidants was assessed. All treatments were applied before symptom expression, and evaluated later, when symptoms were expected to occur. Superoxide presence in tissues was determined with nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and oxidative damage as malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were assayed. Under control and saline conditions, tipburn could be induced in both varieties by topical treatments with a Ca(2+) scavenger (EGTA) and Ca(2+) transport inhibitors (verapamil, LaCl(3)) and reduced by supplying Ca(2+) along with a ionophore (A 23187). Tipburn symptoms were associated with locally produced ROS. O(2)(·-) and oxidative damage significantly increased in leaf margins before symptom expression, while topical antioxidant applications (Tiron, DPI) reduced symptoms in treated leaves, but not in the rest of the plant. Antioxidant enzyme activity was higher in Po, and increased more in response to EGTA treatments, and may contribute to mitigating oxidative damage and tipburn expression in this variety.

  12. An Evaluation of the Local Initiatives Support Corporation: Findings from Phase II. Discussion Paper D86-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Avis C.; And Others

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of Phase II of an evaluation of the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), a national nonprofit lending and grantmaking institution founded in 1980 to draw private sector financial and technical resources into the development of deteriorated communities and neighborhoods. In this second phase…

  13. 34 CFR 222.38 - What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under section 8003(b)? 222.38 Section 222.38 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments...

  14. 34 CFR 222.31 - To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section 8003(b) of the Act? 222.31 Section 222.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS...

  15. 34 CFR 222.32 - Upon what information is a local educational agency's basic support payment based?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Upon what information is a local educational agency's basic support payment based? 222.32 Section 222.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments for Federally Connected...

  16. 34 CFR 222.38 - What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under section 8003(b)? 222.38 Section 222.38 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments...

  17. 34 CFR 222.38 - What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under section 8003(b)? 222.38 Section 222.38 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments...

  18. 34 CFR 222.32 - Upon what information is a local educational agency's basic support payment based?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Upon what information is a local educational agency's basic support payment based? 222.32 Section 222.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments for Federally Connected...

  19. 34 CFR 222.32 - Upon what information is a local educational agency's basic support payment based?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Upon what information is a local educational agency's basic support payment based? 222.32 Section 222.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments for Federally Connected...

  20. 34 CFR 222.31 - To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section 8003(b) of the Act? 222.31 Section 222.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS...

  1. 34 CFR 222.31 - To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section 8003(b) of the Act? 222.31 Section 222.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS...

  2. An Automated System for Generating Situation-Specific Decision Support in Clinical Order Entry from Local Empirical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Jeffrey G.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support is one of the only aspects of health information technology that has demonstrated decreased costs and increased quality in healthcare delivery, yet it is extremely expensive and time-consuming to create, maintain, and localize. Consequently, a majority of health care systems do not utilize it, and even when it is…

  3. Sustaining Local Tax Support for Community Colleges: Recommendations for College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael Thomas; Holt, Carleton R.

    2005-01-01

    Community colleges often rely on local taxes as an important revenue source and must occasionally seek voter approval for a local mill levy increase--a tax on property to fund a specific activity. This chapter describes strategies for planning and carrying out a campaign for securing that approval.

  4. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed Policymaking in health 11: Finding and using evidence about local conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Evidence about local conditions is evidence that is available from the specific setting(s) in which a decision or action on a policy or programme option will be taken. Such evidence is always needed, together with other forms of evidence, in order to inform decisions about options. Global evidence is the best starting point for judgements about effects, factors that modify those effects, and insights into ways to approach and address problems. But local evidence is needed for most other judgements about what decisions and actions should be taken. In this article, we suggest five questions that can help to identify and appraise the local evidence that is needed to inform a decision about policy or programme options. These are: 1. What local evidence is needed to inform a decision about options? 2. How can the necessary local evidence be found? 3. How should the quality of the available local evidence be assessed? 4. Are there important variations in the availability, quality or results of local evidence? 5. How should local evidence be incorporated with other information? PMID:20018101

  5. How local and state regulations affect the child care food environment: A qualitative study of child care center directors’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Williams, C. E.; Camp, E. J.; Mullen, P. D.; Briley, M. E.; Hoelscher, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Almost one-third of preschoolers spend regular time in child care centers where they can consume the majority of their daily dietary intake. The child care setting influences children’s dietary intake. Thus, it is important to examine factors, such as local and state regulations, that influence the food environment at the center. This qualitative study explored directors’ perceptions of how regulations influence the foods available at child care centers. Ten directors of centers in Travis County, Texas completed semi-structured interviews. Directors reported that changes in local health department regulations (e.g., kitchen specifications) result in less-healthful foods being served (e.g., more prepackaged foods). Directors of centers that do not participate in the federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) said the state licensing regulations clarify the portion size and nutritional requirements for preschoolers thereby improving the nutritional quality of the food served. Directors of centers participating in CACFP said they are not affected by state mandates, because the CACFP regulations are more stringent. These findings suggest that state regulations that specify and quantify nutritional standards may beneficially impact preschoolers’ diets. However, local health department regulations enacted to improve food safety may negatively influence the nutritional value of food served in centers. PMID:26251694

  6. Training and capacity development: the foundation of interventions to support young children affected by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda; Louw, Julia; Naicker, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Many programs to support young children and families affected by HIV and AIDS depend substantially on a model of cascaded training from international nongovernmental organizations, through in-country groups and organizations to services on the ground. In this paper, we describe the training and capacity building – as described in proposals, progress reports, and individualized questionnaires – offered by 10 international organizations funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation to provide supportive services for young children and their families in five southern and eastern African countries. We related the findings to effective features of training described in the literature. Training and capacity development were found to be the most substantial activities in rendering services to children and families, both in terms of effort and human and financial resources. A total of 67 trainings were conducted over a period of 18 months. Almost all trainings combine lecture-based instruction, group work/discussions, and role play, but only half of the trainings report some form of mentoring, supervision or coaching following the training. Drawing on the literature, it is likely that more purposeful planning is required in terms of the selection of trainees, local adaptation and development of materials, participatory training approaches, and techniques to develop and sustain skills as well as knowledge. Demonstration and mentorship in the field together with quality assurance procedures, pre-and post-assessment to evaluate training, processes to transfer learning into subsequent practice, as well as certification, are all fundamental steps to ensure that training plays a supportive role in the behavior changes necessary to support young children affected by HIV and AIDS and their families. PMID:26430466

  7. Psychosocial support for trauma-affected students after school shootings in Finland.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Tuija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2014-01-01

    In Finland, as many as 20 people have lost their lives in two school shootings within one year. This article describes trauma-theoretical rationale, planning, and implementation of acute and long-term psychosocial aftercare that was organized in Kauhajoki where one of the school shootings happened. The aftercare was embedded in the school community's everyday life to enhance easy access. The aftercare proceeded in 6 phases, involving the immediate support phase at the first 24 hr, the acute phase for the first 2 weeks, followed by a 5-month period of empowerment, normalization, and creating "a safe place." The habituation phase coincided with the completion of the renovation of the damaged school building and students returning to the scene. The first anniversary was marked by shared rituals and remembrance, and the follow-up phase lasted until the end of the aftercare in 2 years. The aftercare contained, for example, psychoeducation, screening, and services at community, group, and individual levels. PMID:25069151

  8. Identifying and tracking plumes affected by an ocean breeze in support of emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    To better support emergency preparedness, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear has investigated the frequency of occurrence of the mesoscale ocean breeze at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS). Through the analysis of the horizontal wind direction and temperature patterns, simple identification of the ocean breeze along with a plume tracking procedure has been developed and incorporated into the site's emergency plant to better safeguard the public with sophisticated protective action measures in case of a nonroutine release. The ocean breeze will frequently produce wind trajectory fields within the plant's emergency planning zone that are different from the normal gradient wind flow. This could greatly alter proper protective action measures since most utilities employ straight-line trajectory air dispersion models. Knowledge of the existence of the ocean breeze and the location of the ocean breeze front become important in the results generated from the straight-line Gaussian dose calculation methodology and in the further development of a more complex dose assessment model. This paper describes the verification and existence of the sea breeze phenomenon and the incorporation of its effects into the OCNGS emergency plan.

  9. Public support for river restoration funding in relation to local river ecomorphology, population density, and mean income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SchläPfer, Felix; Witzig, Pieter-Jan

    2006-12-01

    In 1997, about 140,000 citizens in 388 voting districts in the Swiss canton of Bern passed a ballot initiative to allocate about 3 million Swiss Francs annually to a canton-wide river restoration program. Using the municipal voting returns and a detailed georeferenced data set on the ecomorphological status of the rivers, we estimate models of voter support in relation to local river ecomorphology, population density, mean income, cultural background, and recent flood damage. Support of the initiative increased with increasing population density and tended to increase with increasing mean income, in spite of progressive taxation. Furthermore, we found evidence that public support increased with decreasing "naturalness" of local rivers. The model estimates may be cautiously used to predict the public acceptance of similar restoration programs in comparable regions. Moreover, the voting-based insights into the distribution of river restoration benefits provide a useful starting point for debates about appropriate financing schemes.

  10. Meteorological considerations and satellite retrievals in supporting to the assessment of local hydrologic homogeneity over Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, Salvatore; Laviola, Sante; Chiaravalloti, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Regional frequency analysis is a useful tool for estimating precipitation quantiles more accurately than at-site frequency analysis, especially in the case of regions with a brief history of short-time rainfall records. Since the rainfalls with short duration are mainly due to convective phenomena, usually affecting areas of few square kilometers, the description of these events with traditional tools such as in-situ rain gauges is often incomplete and not exhaustive. Thus, the application of these datasets to the regional analysis typically provides unrealistic description of the event and large miscalculations of the return time, usually higher than observation. Therefore, in order to evaluate the possible regional homogeneity and improve the performance of hydrologic models the inference analysis of the regional climatic regimes is revealed a useful tool. Starting from the intense rainfall of 19 November 2013 over Southern Italy, we demonstrate that the synoptic meteorological situation well-matched with results of Gabriele & Chiaravalloti (2013a, 2013b) where the regional homogeneity has been calculated on the basis of different climate indexes such as Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and the Q-vector Divergence (QD). In support to that analysis two different methodologies based on satellite microwave information have been applied: the Water vapor Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) (Laviola and Levizzani, 2011) algorithm provides to define the precipitation patterns while the MicroWave Cloud Classification (MWCC) (Miglietta et al., 2013) characterizes the cloud type in terms of stratiform and convective. Although, this study is still in progress the current results clearly demonstrate that the Mediterranean storms move on a sort of 'preferential trajectories' especially during the months September-November where the most intense convections have been found. Laviola, S., and V. Levizzani, 2011: The 183-WSL fast rainrate retrieval algorithm. Part I

  11. Modeling of Local BEAM Structure for Evaluation of MMOD Impacts to Support Development of a Health Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes initial modeling of the local response of the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) to micrometeorite and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts using a structural, non-linear, transient dynamic finite element code. Complementary test results for a local BEAM structure are presented for both hammer and projectile impacts. Review of these data provided guidance for the transient dynamic model development. The local model is intended to support predictions using the global BEAM model, described in a companion report. Two types of local models were developed. One mimics the simplified Soft-Goods (fabric envelop) part of the BEAM NASTRAN model delivered by the project. The second investigates through-the-thickness modeling challenges for MMOD-type impacts. Both the testing and the analysis summaries contain lessons learned and areas for future efforts.

  12. Chemolithoautotrophy supports macroinvertebrate food webs and affects diversity and stability in groundwater communities.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Benjamin T; Engel, Annette Summers; Nowlin, Weston H; Schwartz, Benjamin F

    2016-06-01

    compared to the other two sites. Our results suggest that diverse OM sources and in situ, chemolithoautotrophic OM production can support complex groundwater food webs and increase species richness. Chemolithoautotrophy has been fundamental for the long-term maintenance of species diversity, trophic complexity, and community stability in this subterranean ecosystem, especially during periods of decreased photosynthetic production and groundwater recharge that have occurred over geologic time scales.

  13. Chemolithoautotrophy supports macroinvertebrate food webs and affects diversity and stability in groundwater communities.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Benjamin T; Engel, Annette Summers; Nowlin, Weston H; Schwartz, Benjamin F

    2016-06-01

    compared to the other two sites. Our results suggest that diverse OM sources and in situ, chemolithoautotrophic OM production can support complex groundwater food webs and increase species richness. Chemolithoautotrophy has been fundamental for the long-term maintenance of species diversity, trophic complexity, and community stability in this subterranean ecosystem, especially during periods of decreased photosynthetic production and groundwater recharge that have occurred over geologic time scales. PMID:27459783

  14. Local Release of Highly Loaded Antibodies from Functionalized Nanoporous Support for Cancer Immunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Chenghong; Liu, P.; Chen, Baowei; Mao, Yumeng; Engelmann, Heather E.; Shin, Yongsoon; Jaffar, Jade; Hellstrom, Ingegerd; Liu, Jun; Hellstrom, Karl E.

    2010-05-26

    We report that antibodies can be loaded in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) with super-high density to provide long-lasting local release at a given site. Preliminary data indicate that FMS-antibody injected directly into a mouse melanoma induces a greater inhibition of tumor growth than seen in various controls, including the antibody injected intraperitoneally. Our findings introduce a novel approach for local delivery of therapeutically active proteins to tumors and potentially, other diseases.

  15. How To Build Local Support for Comprehensive School Reform. Getting Better by Design, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Monica; Ferguson, Maria Voles

    This guide is designed to help school district leaders build public understanding and support for comprehensive school reform (CSR) by introducing the concept to schools, parents, and the community. Without broad-based public understanding and support, it will be difficult for the district to meet its central goal of improving student achievement.…

  16. Directive and supportive behaviors used by families of hospitalized older adults to affect the process of hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Jacelon, Cynthia S

    2006-08-01

    As part of a grounded-theory study exploring the social processes of hospitalized older adults, family members were asked about their roles in relation to their hospitalized relative. Participants included five hospitalized older adults (aged > or = 75 years), a family member, and a nurse for each older adult. Data saturation determined the number of participants. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method to develop the substantive theory of managing personal integrity during hospitalization. Personal integrity is a concept encompassing the properties of health, dignity, and autonomy. Siblings, spouses, children, and grandchildren used a combination of supportive and directive behaviors to affect personal integrity and the hospitalization for their older relatives. In prior research, the entire family was viewed as the patient. This research is unique in that the family is viewed as a modifier of hospitalization affecting the older adult's hospital experience and not as the focus of care. PMID:16837693

  17. Affected-sib-pair analyses reveal support of prior evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder, on 21q

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Badner, J.A.; Goldin, L.R.

    1996-06-01

    In 22 multiplex pedigrees screened for linkage to bipolar disorder, by use of 18 markers on chromosome 21q, single-locus affected-sib-pair (ASP) analysis detected a high proportion (57%-62%) of alleles shared identical by descent (IBD), with P values of .049-.0008 on nine marker loci. Multilocus ASP analyses revealed locus trios in the distal region between D21S270 and D21S171, with excess allele sharing (nominal P values <.01) under two affection-status models, ASM I (bipolars and schizoaffectives) and ASM II (ASM I plus recurrent unipolars). In addition, under ASM I, the proximal interval spanned by D21S1436 and D21S65 showed locus trios with excess allele sharing (nominal P values of .03-.0003). These findings support prior evidence that a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder is on 21q. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Can Schools Support HIV/AIDS-Affected Children? Exploring the 'Ethic of Care' amongst Rural Zimbabwean Teachers.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    How realistic is the international policy emphasis on schools 'substituting for families' of HIV/AIDS-affected children? We explore the ethic of care in Zimbabwean schools to highlight the poor fit between the western caring schools literature and daily realities of schools in different material and cultural contexts. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 44 teachers and 55 community members, analysed in light of a companion study of HIV/AIDS-affected pupils' own accounts of their care-related experiences. We conceptualise schools as spaces of engagement between groups with diverse needs and interests (teachers, pupils and surrounding community members), with attention to the pathways through which extreme adversity impacts on those institutional contexts and social identifications central to giving and receiving care. Whilst teachers were aware of how they might support children, they seldom put these ideas into action. Multiple factors undermined caring teacher-pupil relationships in wider contexts of poverty and political uncertainty: loss of morale from low salaries and falling professional status; the inability of teachers to solve HIV/AIDS-related problems in their own lives; the role of stigma in deterring HIV/AIDS-affected children from disclosing their situations to teachers; authoritarian teacher-learner relations and harsh punishments fuelling pupil fear of teachers; and lack of trust in the wider community. These factors undermined: teacher confidence in their skills and capacity to support affected pupils and motivation to help children with complex problems; solidarity and common purpose amongst teachers, and between teachers and affected children; and effective bridging alliances between schools and their surrounding communities-all hallmarks of HIV-competent communities. We caution against ambitious policy expansions of teachers' roles without recognition of the personal and social costs of emotional labour, and the need for significant

  19. Can Schools Support HIV/AIDS-Affected Children? Exploring the ‘Ethic of Care’ amongst Rural Zimbabwean Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    How realistic is the international policy emphasis on schools ‘substituting for families’ of HIV/AIDS-affected children? We explore the ethic of care in Zimbabwean schools to highlight the poor fit between the western caring schools literature and daily realities of schools in different material and cultural contexts. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 44 teachers and 55 community members, analysed in light of a companion study of HIV/AIDS-affected pupils’ own accounts of their care-related experiences. We conceptualise schools as spaces of engagement between groups with diverse needs and interests (teachers, pupils and surrounding community members), with attention to the pathways through which extreme adversity impacts on those institutional contexts and social identifications central to giving and receiving care. Whilst teachers were aware of how they might support children, they seldom put these ideas into action. Multiple factors undermined caring teacher-pupil relationships in wider contexts of poverty and political uncertainty: loss of morale from low salaries and falling professional status; the inability of teachers to solve HIV/AIDS-related problems in their own lives; the role of stigma in deterring HIV/AIDS-affected children from disclosing their situations to teachers; authoritarian teacher-learner relations and harsh punishments fuelling pupil fear of teachers; and lack of trust in the wider community. These factors undermined: teacher confidence in their skills and capacity to support affected pupils and motivation to help children with complex problems; solidarity and common purpose amongst teachers, and between teachers and affected children; and effective bridging alliances between schools and their surrounding communities–all hallmarks of HIV-competent communities. We caution against ambitious policy expansions of teachers' roles without recognition of the personal and social costs of emotional labour, and the need for

  20. Can Schools Support HIV/AIDS-Affected Children? Exploring the 'Ethic of Care' amongst Rural Zimbabwean Teachers.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    How realistic is the international policy emphasis on schools 'substituting for families' of HIV/AIDS-affected children? We explore the ethic of care in Zimbabwean schools to highlight the poor fit between the western caring schools literature and daily realities of schools in different material and cultural contexts. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 44 teachers and 55 community members, analysed in light of a companion study of HIV/AIDS-affected pupils' own accounts of their care-related experiences. We conceptualise schools as spaces of engagement between groups with diverse needs and interests (teachers, pupils and surrounding community members), with attention to the pathways through which extreme adversity impacts on those institutional contexts and social identifications central to giving and receiving care. Whilst teachers were aware of how they might support children, they seldom put these ideas into action. Multiple factors undermined caring teacher-pupil relationships in wider contexts of poverty and political uncertainty: loss of morale from low salaries and falling professional status; the inability of teachers to solve HIV/AIDS-related problems in their own lives; the role of stigma in deterring HIV/AIDS-affected children from disclosing their situations to teachers; authoritarian teacher-learner relations and harsh punishments fuelling pupil fear of teachers; and lack of trust in the wider community. These factors undermined: teacher confidence in their skills and capacity to support affected pupils and motivation to help children with complex problems; solidarity and common purpose amongst teachers, and between teachers and affected children; and effective bridging alliances between schools and their surrounding communities-all hallmarks of HIV-competent communities. We caution against ambitious policy expansions of teachers' roles without recognition of the personal and social costs of emotional labour, and the need for significant

  1. [Caring for a person affected by Alzheimer's disease: specific aspects of grief in family caregivers and their social support].

    PubMed

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne; Pierrot, Marylène

    2007-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (DTA) leads to some behavioural, physical and psychic modifications in the patient that the natural helper (family-spouse-child) will have to face throughout the course of the disease. The authors have tried to identify the nature of losses experienced by helpers so as to bring out some preventive and curative support tracks. This preparatory research-action was conducted with 27 families through semi-directive conversations which enabled to reveal their difficulties (somatic-emotional-affective-organizational), their reactions of adaptation in echo with the losses of the patient along the course of the DTA as well as the elements enabling to maintain or not the ill person's family/close relation link. The analysis of obtained results is proposed according to the concepts of adaptation, affection and separation, systemic approach and coping. The comments and behaviours of helpers are put in relation with the symptoms of mourning as well as with the medical interactions, helper or not. Five chronological times were identified (before diagnosis-moment of the diagnosis-keeping at home-admission in institution-life in institution). The period of white mourning (connected to the loss of the recognition of his/her close relations by the patient) is mainly felt as a vector of suffering. As part of the dynamics of social support, the proposed tracks of nursing interventions mainly target the admission and life in institution; their aim is to offer an adapted support to natural helpers, whether they make the choice or not to support their close patients throughout the institutionalization. In appendices, all the key ideas helping to track down the elements contributing to maintain the ill person's helper/close relation link or accelerating his/her breaking down.

  2. Development of a decision support system for the introduction of alternative methods into local irritancy/corrosivity testing strategies. Creation of fundamental rules for a decision support system.

    PubMed

    Gerner, I; Zinke, S; Graetschel, G; Schlede, E

    2000-01-01

    The notification procedure of the European Union (EU) for new chemicals requires the application of protocols on physicochemical and toxicological tests for the evaluation of physicochemical properties and probable toxic effects of each notified substance. A computerised database was developed from data sets and toxicological test protocols relating to substance properties responsible for skin and eye irritation/corrosion. To develop specific structure-activity relationship (SAR) models and to find rules for a decision support system (DSS) to predict local irritation/corrosion, physical property data, chemical structure data and toxicological data for approximately 1300 chemicals, each having a purity of 95% or more, were evaluated. The evaluation demonstrated that the lipid solubility and aqueous solubility of a chemical are relevant to, or - in some cases - responsible for, the observed local effects of a substance on the skins and eyes of rabbits. The octanol/water partition coefficient and the measured value of the surface tension of a saturated aqueous solution of the substance give additional information that permits the definition of detailed SAR algorithms that use measured solubility values. Data on melting points and vapour pressure can be used to assess the intensity and duration of local contact with a chemical. Considerations relating to the reactivity of a pure chemical can be based on molecular weight and the nature of the heteroatoms present. With respect to local lesions produced following contact with the skin and eyes of rabbits, the data evaluation revealed that no general "local irritation/corrosion potential" of a chemical can be defined. A variety of mechanisms are responsible for the formation of local lesions on the skin or in the eyes: serious lesions are produced by mechanisms different from those that cause moderate irritation in these organs. In order to develop a DSS that uses the information extracted from the database, chemical main

  3. NMDA-dependent mechanisms only affect the BOLD response in the rat dentate gyrus by modifying local signal processing.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Regina; Krautwald, Karla; Fincke, Anja; Angenstein, Frank

    2012-03-01

    The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated mechanisms in the formation of a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was studied using electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway. Stimulation of this fiber bundle triggered BOLD responses in the right hippocampal formation and in the left entorhinal cortex. The perforant pathway projects to and activates the dentate gyrus monosynaptically, activation in the contralateral entorhinal cortex is multisynaptic and requires forwarding and processing of signals. Application of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 during stimulation had no effect on BOLD responses in the right dentate gyrus, but reduced the BOLD responses in the left entorhinal cortex. In contrast, application of MK801 before the first stimulation train reduced the BOLD response in both regions. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the initial stimulation trains changed the local processing of the incoming signals in the dentate gyrus. This altered electrophysiological response was not further changed by a subsequent application of MK801, which is in agreement with an unchanged BOLD response. When MK801 was present during the first stimulation train, a dissimilar electrophysiological response pattern was observed and corresponds to an altered BOLD response, indicating that NMDA-dependent mechanisms indirectly affect the BOLD response, mainly via modifying local signal processing and subsequent propagation. PMID:22167232

  4. Localization and density of phoretic deutonymphs of the mite Uropoda orbicularis (Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) on Aphodius beetles (Aphodiidae) affect pedicel length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajerlein, Daria; Witaliński, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    The phoretic stage of Uropodina mites is a deutonymph with developed morphological adaptations for dispersal by insects. Phoretic deutonymphs are able to produce a pedicel, a stalk-like temporary attachment structure that connects the mite with the carrier. The aim of our study was to determine whether localization and density of phoretic deutonymphs on the carrier affect pedicel length. The study was conducted on a common phoretic mite— Uropoda orbicularis (Uropodina) and two aphodiid beetles— Aphodius prodromus and Aphodius distinctus. Our results show that pedicel length is influenced by the localization of deutonymphs on the body of the carrier. The longest pedicels are produced by deutonymphs attached to the upper part of elytra, whereas deutonymphs attached to femora and trochanters of the third pair of legs and the apex of elytra construct the shortest pedicels. In general, deutonymphs attached to more exposed parts of the carrier produce longer pedicels, whereas shorter pedicels are produced when deutonymphs are fixed to non-exposed parts of the carrier. A second factor influencing pedicel length is the density of attached deutonymphs. Mean pedicel length and deutonymph densities were highly correlated: higher deutonymph density leads to the formation of longer pedicels. The cause for this correlation is discussed, and we conclude that pedicel length variability can increase successful dispersal.

  5. NMDA-dependent mechanisms only affect the BOLD response in the rat dentate gyrus by modifying local signal processing

    PubMed Central

    Tiede, Regina; Krautwald, Karla; Fincke, Anja; Angenstein, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The role of N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated mechanisms in the formation of a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was studied using electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway. Stimulation of this fiber bundle triggered BOLD responses in the right hippocampal formation and in the left entorhinal cortex. The perforant pathway projects to and activates the dentate gyrus monosynaptically, activation in the contralateral entorhinal cortex is multisynaptic and requires forwarding and processing of signals. Application of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 during stimulation had no effect on BOLD responses in the right dentate gyrus, but reduced the BOLD responses in the left entorhinal cortex. In contrast, application of MK801 before the first stimulation train reduced the BOLD response in both regions. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the initial stimulation trains changed the local processing of the incoming signals in the dentate gyrus. This altered electrophysiological response was not further changed by a subsequent application of MK801, which is in agreement with an unchanged BOLD response. When MK801 was present during the first stimulation train, a dissimilar electrophysiological response pattern was observed and corresponds to an altered BOLD response, indicating that NMDA-dependent mechanisms indirectly affect the BOLD response, mainly via modifying local signal processing and subsequent propagation. PMID:22167232

  6. Nuclear β-catenin localization supports homology of feathers, avian scutate scales, and alligator scales in early development.

    PubMed

    Musser, Jacob M; Wagner, Günter P; Prum, Richard O

    2015-01-01

    Feathers are an evolutionary novelty found in all extant birds. Despite recent progress investigating feather development and a revolution in dinosaur paleontology, the relationship of feathers to other amniote skin appendages, particularly reptile scales, remains unclear. Disagreement arises primarily from the observation that feathers and avian scutate scales exhibit an anatomical placode-defined as an epidermal thickening-in early development, whereas alligator and other avian scales do not. To investigate the homology of feathers and archosaur scales we examined patterns of nuclear β-catenin localization during early development of feathers and different bird and alligator scales. In birds, nuclear β-catenin is first localized to the feather placode, and then exhibits a dynamic pattern of localization in both epidermis and dermis of the feather bud. We found that asymmetric avian scutate scales and alligator scales share similar patterns of nuclear β-catenin localization with feathers. This supports the hypothesis that feathers, scutate scales, and alligator scales are homologous during early developmental stages, and are derived from early developmental stages of an asymmetric scale present in the archosaur ancestor. Furthermore, given that the earliest stage of β-catenin localization in feathers and archosaur scales is also found in placodes of several mammalian skin appendages, including hair and mammary glands, we hypothesize that a common skin appendage placode originated in the common ancestor of all amniotes. We suggest a skin placode should not be defined by anatomical features, but as a local, organized molecular signaling center from which an epidermal appendage develops.

  7. Volunteers supporting older people in formal care settings in England: personal and local factors influencing prevalence and type of participation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill

    2014-12-01

    In the UK context of financial austerity and the promotion of the social responsibility through the concept of the "Big Society," volunteers are becoming a more important part of the labor workforce. This is particularly so in the long-term care (LTC) sector, where both shortages of staff and demands for support are particularly high. This article investigate the levels and profile of contribution of volunteers in the LTC sector using a large national data set, National Minimum Data Set for Social Care, linked to local area levels of rurality and socio-economic status. The analysis shows that volunteer activity in formal care services varies between sectors and service types, with no strong relationship between local area deprivation, unemployment levels, and levels of volunteering. However, some significant association was found with level of rurality. The contribution of volunteers is most evident in provision of counseling, support, advocacy, and advice.

  8. Does Support for VET Reduce Employee Churn? A Case Study in Local Government. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kath

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do local governments use vocational education and training as a staff retention strategy? Human resources personnel from a selection of councils around Australia believed that a lack of career development or training opportunities might cause an employee to leave their organisation. They had some reservations about the quality and…

  9. Learning English Internationally While Engaging Communities Locally: Online EFL Supporting Community Learning for Young Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Beverly; Shin, Joan Kang; Taylor, Joby; Faust, Heidi; Penniston, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The clichés "it's a small world" and "the world is our classroom" are becoming practical realities for many educators. Increasingly accessible transnational contexts for English language teaching and learning offer new opportunities for local-global learning. This article reflects on a content-based online English course…

  10. Out-of-School Learning: The Uneven Distribution of School Provision and Local Authority Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Chris; Power, Sally; Rees, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    A significant volume of research demonstrates that out-of-school learning activities enhance student development in terms of cognitive, affective and social outcomes. However, there is also evidence that the opportunity to engage in these activities has been severely reduced in recent years. This paper explores the extent to which the provision of…

  11. Characterization of microstructure, local deformation and microchemistry in Alloy 690 heat-affected zone and stress corrosion cracking in high temperature water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi; Yamazaki, Seiya

    2015-10-01

    With increasing the distance from the weld fusion line in an Alloy 690 heat-affected zone, micro-hardness decreases, kernel average misorientation decreases and the fraction of Σ3 boundaries increases. Chromium depletion at grain boundaries in the Alloy 690 heat-affected zone is less significant than that in an Alloy 600 heat-affected zone. Alloy 690 heat-affected zone exhibits much higher IGSCC resistance than Alloy 600 heat-affected zone in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water. Heavily cold worked Alloy 690 exhibits localized intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The effects of metallurgical and mechanical properties on stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 690 are discussed.

  12. Local point sources that affect ground-water quality in the East Meadow area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    The extent and chemical characteristics of ground water affected by three local point sources--a stormwater basin, uncovered road-salt-storage piles, and an abandoned sewage-treatment plant--were delineated during a 3-year study of the chemical characteristics and migration of a body of reclaimed wastewater that was applied to the watertable aquifer during recharge experiments from October 1982 through January 1984 in East Meadow. The timing, magnitude, and chemical quality of recharge from these point sources is highly variable, and all sources have the potential to skew determinations of the quality of ambient ground-water and of the reclaimed-wastewater plume if they are not taken into account. Ground water affected by recharge from the stormwater basin is characterized by low concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (less than 5 mg/L [milligrams per liter] as N) and sulfate (less than 40 mg/L) and is almost entirely within the upper glacial aquifer. The plume derived from road-salt piles is narrow, has high concentrations of chloride (greater than 50 mg/L) and sodium (greater than 75 mg/L), and also is limited to the upper glacial aquifer. The sodium, in high concentrations, could react with aquifer material and exchange for sorbed cations such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Water affected by secondary-treated sewage from the abandoned treatment plant extends 152 feet below land surface into the upper part of the Magothy aquifer and longitudinally beyond the southern edge of the study area, 7,750 feet south of the recharge site. Ground water affected by secondary-treated sewage within the study area typically contains elevated concentrations of reactive chemical constituents, such as potassium and ammonium, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Conservative or minimally reactive constituents such as chloride and sodium have been transported out of the study area in the upper glacial aquifer and the intermediate (transitional) zone but remain in the less

  13. How to Maximally Support Local and Regional Biodiversity in Applied Conservation? Insights from Pond Management

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe. PMID:23951328

  14. A support system for assessing local vulnerability to weather and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coletti, Alex; Howe, Peter D.; Yarnal, Brent; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The changing number and nature of weather- and climate-related natural hazards is causing more communities to need to assess their vulnerabilities. Vulnerability assessments, however, often require considerable expertise and resources that are not available or too expensive for many communities. To meet the need for an easy-to-use, cost-effective vulnerability assessment tool for communities, a prototype online vulnerability assessment support system was built and tested. This prototype tool guides users through a stakeholder-based vulnerability assessment that breaks the process into four easy-to-implement steps. Data sources are integrated in the online environment so that perceived risks—defined and prioritized qualitatively by users—can be compared and discussed against the impacts that past events have had on the community. The support system is limited in scope, and the locations of the case studies do not provide a sufficiently broad range of sample cases. The addition of more publically available hazard databases combined with future improvements in the support system architecture and software will expand opportunities for testing and fully implementing the support system.

  15. Foot and mouth disease risk assessment in Mongolia--local expertise to support national policy.

    PubMed

    Wieland, B; Batsukh, B; Enktuvshin, S; Odontsetseg, N; Schuppers, M

    2015-06-01

    To address weaknesses in the current foot and mouth disease (FMD) control system and to inform the formulation of a national control strategy, Mongolia conducted two separate risk assessments, one for the Eastern region which in the past has seen re-current introductions of infection, and one for the Western region, where freedom from disease had been demonstrated over several years until FMD was re-introduced in 2013. The risk assessment was conducted in three stages: first local experts developed entry, exposure and consequence pathways during separate workshops in both regions, then data was collected, compiled and analysed, and finally, during a second workshop local experts provided risk estimations for both regions and identified recommendations for risk management. Risk estimates for each pathway were individually recorded, which ensured that views of all experts were equally represented in the risk estimation and which allowed assessing possible impact of different factors related to the background of participating local experts on risk estimates. Entry risk pathways with highest risk estimates were related to livestock movements and in the consequence assessment due to direct contacts. Uncertainty, for which disagreement between participants acted as a proxy, was high in entry pathways and in the assessment of effectiveness of control measures. The risk assessment was conducted with local experts who had no previous risk assessment experience. Through their involvement in the whole process however, they assumed a high level of ownership and despite lively discussions for some risk pathways, a high level of agreement was achieved and credible results were communicated to decision makers. Especially valuable were the derived recommendations. Through the risk assessment the local experts gained a thorough understanding of the FMD risk which resulted in sensible and realistic recommendations, which, if implemented, can lead to a sustainable strengthening of

  16. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients’ Affected Side Lower Extremity’s Walking Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity’s walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. PMID:25540499

  17. Eukaryotic-Type Ser/Thr Protein Kinase Mediated Phosphorylation of Mycobacterial Phosphodiesterase Affects its Localization to the Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neha; Chakraborti, Pradip K

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase enzymes, involved in cAMP hydrolysis reaction, are present throughout phylogeny and their phosphorylation mediated regulation remains elusive in prokaryotes. In this context, we focused on this enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gene encoded by Rv0805 was PCR amplified and expressed as a histidine-tagged protein (mPDE) utilizing Escherichia coli based expression system. In kinase assays, upon incubation with mycobacterial Clade I eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinases (PknA, PknB, and PknL), Ni-NTA purified mPDE protein exhibited transphosphorylation ability albeit with varying degree. When mPDE was co-expressed one at a time with these kinases in E. coli, it was also recognized by an anti-phosphothreonine antibody, which further indicates its phosphorylating ability. Mass spectrometric analysis identified Thr-309 of mPDE as a phosphosite. In concordance with this observation, anti-phosphothreonine antibody marginally recognized mPDE-T309A mutant protein; however, such alteration did not affect the enzymatic activity. Interestingly, mPDE expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis yielded a phosphorylated protein that preferentially localized to cell wall. In contrast, mPDE-T309A, the phosphoablative variant of mPDE, did not show such behavior. On the other hand, phosphomimics of mPDE (T309D or T309E), exhibited similar cell wall anchorage as was observed with the wild-type. Thus, our results provide credence to the fact that eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinase mediated phosphorylation of mPDE renders negative charge to the protein, promoting its localization on cell wall. Furthermore, multiple sequence alignment revealed that Thr-309 is conserved among mPDE orthologs of M. tuberculosis complex, which presumably emphasizes evolutionary significance of phosphorylation at this residue.

  18. Eukaryotic-Type Ser/Thr Protein Kinase Mediated Phosphorylation of Mycobacterial Phosphodiesterase Affects its Localization to the Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Neha; Chakraborti, Pradip K.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase enzymes, involved in cAMP hydrolysis reaction, are present throughout phylogeny and their phosphorylation mediated regulation remains elusive in prokaryotes. In this context, we focused on this enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gene encoded by Rv0805 was PCR amplified and expressed as a histidine-tagged protein (mPDE) utilizing Escherichia coli based expression system. In kinase assays, upon incubation with mycobacterial Clade I eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinases (PknA, PknB, and PknL), Ni-NTA purified mPDE protein exhibited transphosphorylation ability albeit with varying degree. When mPDE was co-expressed one at a time with these kinases in E. coli, it was also recognized by an anti-phosphothreonine antibody, which further indicates its phosphorylating ability. Mass spectrometric analysis identified Thr-309 of mPDE as a phosphosite. In concordance with this observation, anti-phosphothreonine antibody marginally recognized mPDE-T309A mutant protein; however, such alteration did not affect the enzymatic activity. Interestingly, mPDE expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis yielded a phosphorylated protein that preferentially localized to cell wall. In contrast, mPDE-T309A, the phosphoablative variant of mPDE, did not show such behavior. On the other hand, phosphomimics of mPDE (T309D or T309E), exhibited similar cell wall anchorage as was observed with the wild-type. Thus, our results provide credence to the fact that eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinase mediated phosphorylation of mPDE renders negative charge to the protein, promoting its localization on cell wall. Furthermore, multiple sequence alignment revealed that Thr-309 is conserved among mPDE orthologs of M. tuberculosis complex, which presumably emphasizes evolutionary significance of phosphorylation at this residue. PMID:26904001

  19. Learn locally, think globally: Exemplar variability supports higher-order generalization and word learning

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Lynn K.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Malloy, Lisa M.; Schiffer, Ryan N.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests variability supports successful categorization, however, the scope of variability’s support at the level of higher-order generalization remains unexplored. A longitudinal study examined the role of exemplar variability in first- and second-order generalization in the context of early nominal-category learning. Sixteen eighteen-month-old children were taught twelve categories. Half were taught with sets of highly similar exemplars; half with sets of more variable exemplars. Participants’ learning and generalization of trained labels and their development of more general word-learning biases were tested. All children learned labels for trained exemplars, but children trained with variable exemplars generalized to novel exemplars of these categories, developed a discriminating word-learning bias generalizing labels of novel solid objects by shape and nonsolids by material, and accelerated in vocabulary acquisition. These data demonstrate that variability leads to better abstraction of individual and global category organization, increasing learning outside the laboratory. PMID:21106892

  20. Localization of Southern Resident Killer Whales Using Two Star Arrays to Support Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Huiying; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Sun, Yannan; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J.; Matzner, Shari; Myers, Joshua R.

    2012-10-19

    Tidal power has been identified as one of the most potential commercial-scale renewable energy sources. Puget Sound, Washington, is a potential site to deploy tidal power generating devices. The risk of injury for killer whales needs to be managed before the deployment of these types of devices can be approved by regulating authorities. A passive acoustic system consisting of two star arrays, each with four hydrophones, was designed and implemented for the detection and localization of Southern Resident killer whales. Deployment of the passive acoustic system was conducted at Sequim Bay, Washington. A total of nine test locations were chosen, within a radius of 250 m around the star arrays, to test our localization approach. For the localization algorithm, a least square solver was applied to obtain a bearing location from each star array. The final source location was determined by the intersection of the bearings given by each of the two star arrays. Bearing and distance errors were obtained to conduct comparison between the calculated and true (from Global Positioning System) locations. The results indicated that bearing errors were within 1.04º for eight of the test locations; one location had bearing errors slightly larger than expected due to the strong background noise at that position. For the distance errors, six of the test locations were within the range of 1.91 to 32.36 m. The other two test locations were near the intersection line between the centers of the two star arrays, which were expected to have large errors from the theoretical sensitivity analysis performed.

  1. Efficient support of best-effort traffic in passive tree local loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, John D.; Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.; Protonotarios, E. N.

    1995-11-01

    For an expeditious and successful penetration of broadband services to residential and other small traffic subscribers, cost-efficiency by means of investment sharing and partial re-use of existing infrastructure are imperative. Employment of passive optical technology to feed subscriber clusters while maintaining the copper in the last drop is a promising strategy. To achieve traffic concentration and high utilization, a MAC protocol designed for low CDV is essential. A TDMA protocol based on ATM cells suitable for upgrading both twisted pair and coaxial based access networks creating hybrid solutions is presented. This protocol offers a dynamic response at cell level to the bursty traffic expected in B-ISDN using the reservation method to sample by periodic requests the arrival rate. No resort to signalling related information is required. Differentiating the handling between delay tolerant and non-tolerant traffic can offer significantly higher exploitation and a cost effective solution for the local loop.

  2. Learn locally, think globally. Exemplar variability supports higher-order generalization and word learning.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lynn K; Samuelson, Larissa K; Malloy, Lisa M; Schiffer, Ryan N

    2010-12-01

    Research suggests that variability of exemplars supports successful object categorization; however, the scope of variability's support at the level of higher-order generalization remains unexplored. Using a longitudinal study, we examined the role of exemplar variability in first- and second-order generalization in the context of nominal-category learning at an early age. Sixteen 18-month-old children were taught 12 categories. Half of the children were taught with sets of highly similar exemplars; the other half were taught with sets of dissimilar, variable exemplars. Participants' learning and generalization of trained labels and their development of more general word-learning biases were tested. All children were found to have learned labels for trained exemplars, but children trained with variable exemplars generalized to novel exemplars of these categories, developed a discriminating word-learning bias generalizing labels of novel solid objects by shape and labels of nonsolid objects by material, and accelerated in vocabulary acquisition. These findings demonstrate that object variability leads to better abstraction of individual and global category organization, which increases learning outside the laboratory. PMID:21106892

  3. Meeting the needs of people with AIDS: local initiatives and Federal support.

    PubMed Central

    Sundwall, D N; Bailey, D

    1988-01-01

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), one of the seven agencies of the Public Health Service, is working to meet some of the resource and patient service needs engendered by the epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Those actions derived from, and support the continuation, expansion, and replication of, initiatives at the community and State levels. HRSA is carrying out many of the recommendations of the Intragovernmental Task Force on AIDS Health Care Delivery by enhancing the AIDS training of health care personnel in prevention, diagnosis, and care and by counseling and encouraging the expansion of facilities outside hospitals to care for AIDS patients. The agency, through its pediatric AIDS demonstration projects, is working on models for the care of children with HIV infections. The needs of AIDS patients are being addressed through a drug therapy reimbursement program; demonstration grants to 13 projects to promote coordinated, integrated systems of care in the community; and grants for the development of intermediate and long-term care facilities for patients. Ten regional education and training centers, funded in 1987 and 1988, will increase the supply of health care providers prepared to diagnose and treat persons with HIV infections. Programs will be conducted for several thousand providers over the next 3 years, using such modalities as televised programs and train-the-trainer courses. The centers will also offer support and referral services for providers. PMID:3131821

  4. Nuclear β-catenin localization supports homology of feathers, avian scutate scales, and alligator scales in early development.

    PubMed

    Musser, Jacob M; Wagner, Günter P; Prum, Richard O

    2015-01-01

    Feathers are an evolutionary novelty found in all extant birds. Despite recent progress investigating feather development and a revolution in dinosaur paleontology, the relationship of feathers to other amniote skin appendages, particularly reptile scales, remains unclear. Disagreement arises primarily from the observation that feathers and avian scutate scales exhibit an anatomical placode-defined as an epidermal thickening-in early development, whereas alligator and other avian scales do not. To investigate the homology of feathers and archosaur scales we examined patterns of nuclear β-catenin localization during early development of feathers and different bird and alligator scales. In birds, nuclear β-catenin is first localized to the feather placode, and then exhibits a dynamic pattern of localization in both epidermis and dermis of the feather bud. We found that asymmetric avian scutate scales and alligator scales share similar patterns of nuclear β-catenin localization with feathers. This supports the hypothesis that feathers, scutate scales, and alligator scales are homologous during early developmental stages, and are derived from early developmental stages of an asymmetric scale present in the archosaur ancestor. Furthermore, given that the earliest stage of β-catenin localization in feathers and archosaur scales is also found in placodes of several mammalian skin appendages, including hair and mammary glands, we hypothesize that a common skin appendage placode originated in the common ancestor of all amniotes. We suggest a skin placode should not be defined by anatomical features, but as a local, organized molecular signaling center from which an epidermal appendage develops. PMID:25963196

  5. Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sobieski, Courtney; Jiang, Xiaoping; Crawford, Devon C.

    2015-01-01

    Neuron–astrocyte interactions are critical for proper CNS development and function. Astrocytes secrete factors that are pivotal for synaptic development and function, neuronal metabolism, and neuronal survival. Our understanding of this relationship, however, remains incomplete due to technical hurdles that have prevented the removal of astrocytes from neuronal circuits without changing other important conditions. Here we overcame this obstacle by growing solitary rat hippocampal neurons on microcultures that were comprised of either an astrocyte bed (+astrocyte) or a collagen bed (−astrocyte) within the same culture dish. −Astrocyte autaptic evoked EPSCs, but not IPSCs, displayed an altered temporal profile, which included increased synaptic delay, increased time to peak, and severe glutamate release asynchrony, distinct from previously described quantal asynchrony. Although we observed minimal alteration of the somatically recorded action potential waveform, action potential propagation was altered. We observed a longer latency between somatic initiation and arrival at distal locations, which likely explains asynchronous EPSC peaks, and we observed broadening of the axonal spike, which likely underlies changes to evoked EPSC onset. No apparent changes in axon structure were observed, suggesting altered axonal excitability. In conclusion, we propose that local astrocyte support has an unappreciated role in maintaining glutamate release synchrony by disturbing axonal signal propagation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Certain glial cell types (oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) facilitate the propagation of neuronal electrical signals, but a role for astrocytes has not been identified despite many other functions of astrocytes in supporting and modulating neuronal signaling. Under identical global conditions, we cultured neurons with or without local astrocyte support. Without local astrocytes, glutamate transmission was desynchronized by an alteration of the waveform

  6. Salinity Impacts of the Indian Ocean Tsunami on Groundwater and Local Water Supply - Lessons Learned from Integrated Research and Support to Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villholth, K. G.; Vithanage, M.; Goswami, R. R.; Jeyakumar, P.; Manamperi, S.

    2008-05-01

    Huge devastation and human tragedy followed the Dec. 26, 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Sri Lanka was one of the hardest hit, with an estimated death toll of 31,000 people. Of immediate concern after the catastrophic event was the destruction of the traditional water supply system based on private shallow open wells in the rural and semi-urban areas of the coastal belt. Practically all wells within the reach of the flooding waves (up to a couple of km's inland) were inundated and filled with saltwater and contaminated with solid matter, pathogens, and other unknown chemicals, leaving the water unfit for drinking. It was estimated early on that the tsunami waves contaminated more than 50,000 wells in coastal Sri Lanka. This initial figure is highly underestimated, however, as the present research found that the total number of affected wells was more in the range of half a million. The total number of people affected by disruption in well water supply could have been in the range of 2.5 million. The present paper summarizes the outcomes and experiences gained from comprehensive research, collaboration and support work in eastern Sri Lanka related to the impact of the tsunami on groundwater, particularly with respect to salinity, and the destruction and rehabilitation of the local water supply systems. The area in focus was characterized by sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifers bounded by seawater and inland brackish lagoons and representative of the hydro-geological, climatic, demographic and land use setting on the east coast of Sri Lanka. Field monitoring investigations in shallow domestic wells showed that the salinity imprint of the tsunami on groundwater and water supply were detectable up to 1.5 years after the event. Field results also indicated that the well cleaning efforts which were quickly resorted to as part of the emergency and remediation activities were not efficient in terms of reducing salinity impacts. Rainfall was the most significant and

  7. Adaptation of a Published Risk Model to Point-of-care Clinical Decision Support Tailored to Local Workflow.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Jeffrey L; Baker, Craig C; Levy, David; Cain, Carol H

    2015-01-01

    Electronic clinical decision support can bring newly published knowledge to the point of care. However, local organizational buy-in, support for team workflows, IT system ease of use and other sociotechnical factors are needed to promote adoption. We successfully implemented a multi-variate cardiac risk stratification model from another institution into ours. We recreated the model and integrated it into our workflow, accessing it from our EHR with patient-specific data and facilitating clinical documentation if the user accepts the model results. Our clinical leaders championed the change and led educational dissemination efforts. We describe the ad-hoc social and technical collaboration needed to build and deploy the tool. The tool complements a clinical initiative within a community of practice, and is correlated with appropriate use of nuclear imaging. PMID:26958255

  8. Causal Factors Affecting Local Fiscal Stress in U.S. Northeast Counties. Cornell Rural Sociology Series. Bulletin No. 149.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberts, Paul; Khawaja, Marwan

    Conceptualizing high local fiscal stress as a variable which includes low fiscal capacity, high local tax effort and high local need requires building a typology reflecting this conceptualization. This study builds such a typology for 166 counties in the northeastern United States and examines the effects of variables taken from a series of…

  9. Runtime and Programming Support for Memory Adaptation in Scientific Applications via Local Disk and Remote Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Richard T; Yue, Chuan; Andreas, Stathopoulos; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S

    2007-01-01

    The ever increasing memory demands of many scientific applications and the complexity of today's shared computational resources still require the occasional use of virtual memory, network memory, or even out-of-core implementations, with well known drawbacks in performance and usability. In Mills et al. (Adapting to memory pressure from within scientific applications on multiprogrammed COWS. In: International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS, Santa Fe, NM, 2004), we introduced a basic framework for a runtime, user-level library, MMlib, in which DRAM is treated as a dynamic size cache for large memory objects residing on local disk. Application developers can specify and access these objects through MMlib, enabling their application to execute optimally under variable memory availability, using as much DRAM as fluctuating memory levels will allow. In this paper, we first extend our earlier MMlib prototype from a proof of concept to a usable, robust, and flexible library. We present a general framework that enables fully customizable memory malleability in a wide variety of scientific applications. We provide several necessary enhancements to the environment sensing capabilities of MMlib, and introduce a remote memory capability, based on MPI communication of cached memory blocks between 'compute nodes' and designated memory servers. The increasing speed of interconnection networks makes a remote memory approach attractive, especially at the large granularity present in large scientific applications. We show experimental results from three important scientific applications that require the general MMlib framework. The memory-adaptive versions perform nearly optimally under constant memory pressure and execute harmoniously with other applications competing for memory, without thrashing the memory system. Under constant memory pressure, we observe execution time improvements of factors between three and

  10. Fine-grained, local maps and coarse, global representations support human spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    While sensory processes are tuned to particular features, such as an object's specific location, color or orientation, visual working memory (vWM) is assumed to store information using representations, which generalize over a feature dimension. Additionally, current vWM models presume that different features or objects are stored independently. On the other hand, configurational effects, when observed, are supposed to mainly reflect encoding strategies. We show that the location of the target, relative to the display center and boundaries, and overall memory load influenced recall precision, indicating that, like sensory processes, capacity limited vWM resources are spatially tuned. When recalling one of three memory items the target distance from the display center was overestimated, similar to the error when only one item was memorized, but its distance from the memory items' average position was underestimated, showing that not only individual memory items' position, but also the global configuration of the memory array may be stored. Finally, presenting the non-target items at recall, consequently providing landmarks and configurational information, improved precision and accuracy of target recall. Similarly, when the non-target items were translated at recall, relative to their position in the initial display, a parallel displacement of the recalled target was observed. These findings suggest that fine-grained spatial information in vWM is represented in local maps whose resolution varies with distance from landmarks, such as the display center, while coarse representations are used to store the memory array configuration. Both these representations are updated at the time of recall.

  11. Fine-grained, local maps and coarse, global representations support human spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    While sensory processes are tuned to particular features, such as an object's specific location, color or orientation, visual working memory (vWM) is assumed to store information using representations, which generalize over a feature dimension. Additionally, current vWM models presume that different features or objects are stored independently. On the other hand, configurational effects, when observed, are supposed to mainly reflect encoding strategies. We show that the location of the target, relative to the display center and boundaries, and overall memory load influenced recall precision, indicating that, like sensory processes, capacity limited vWM resources are spatially tuned. When recalling one of three memory items the target distance from the display center was overestimated, similar to the error when only one item was memorized, but its distance from the memory items' average position was underestimated, showing that not only individual memory items' position, but also the global configuration of the memory array may be stored. Finally, presenting the non-target items at recall, consequently providing landmarks and configurational information, improved precision and accuracy of target recall. Similarly, when the non-target items were translated at recall, relative to their position in the initial display, a parallel displacement of the recalled target was observed. These findings suggest that fine-grained spatial information in vWM is represented in local maps whose resolution varies with distance from landmarks, such as the display center, while coarse representations are used to store the memory array configuration. Both these representations are updated at the time of recall. PMID:25259601

  12. Detection and localization of damage using empirical mode decomposition and multilevel support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushyanth, N. D.; Suma, M. N.; Latte, Mrityanjaya V.

    2016-03-01

    Damage in the structure may raise a significant amount of maintenance cost and serious safety problems. Hence detection of the damage at its early stage is of prime importance. The main contribution pursued in this investigation is to propose a generic optimal methodology to improve the accuracy of positioning of the flaw in a structure. This novel approach involves a two-step process. The first step essentially aims at extracting the damage-sensitive features from the received signal, and these extracted features are often termed the damage index or damage indices, serving as an indicator to know whether the damage is present or not. In particular, a multilevel SVM (support vector machine) plays a vital role in the distinction of faulty and healthy structures. Formerly, when a structure is unveiled as a damaged structure, in the subsequent step, the position of the damage is identified using Hilbert-Huang transform. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated in both simulation and experimental tests on a 6061 aluminum plate with dimensions 300 mm × 300 mm × 5 mm which accordingly yield considerable improvement in the accuracy of estimating the position of the flaw.

  13. Healing invisible wounds and rebuilding livelihoods: Emerging lessons for combining livelihood and psychosocial support in fragile and conflict-affected settings.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Samhita; Willman, Alys

    2016-09-01

    Populations living in fragile and conflict-affected settings (FCS) endure serious hardship, often including witnessing or having direct exposure to violence. These experiences adversely affect the mind, body, and spirit, and diminish the capacity of individuals and communities to take full advantage of economic empowerment opportunities. A small but growing number of programs have begun to combine psychosocial support with livelihood support in FCS, with some promising indication that this combination can enhance project outcomes. This paper assesses evidence to generate a 'hypothesis of change' that combining psychosocial with livelihood support can improve development outcomes in FCS. We reviewed evaluations of three categories of programs: (i) those that provide psychosocial support and assess impact on economic empowerment, (ii) those that provide livelihood support and assess impact on psychosocial well-being, and (iii) those that combine both types of support and assess impact on one or both outcomes. PMID:27638241

  14. Strongly-motivated positive affects induce faster responses to local than global information of visual stimuli: an approach using large-size Navon letters.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Yasuki; Tomoike, Kouta

    2016-01-12

    Recent studies argue that strongly-motivated positive emotions (e.g. desire) narrow a scope of attention. This argument is mainly based on an observation that, while humans normally respond faster to global than local information of a visual stimulus (global advantage), positive affects eliminated the global advantage by selectively speeding responses to local (but not global) information. In other words, narrowing of attentional scope was indirectly evidenced by the elimination of global advantage (the same speed of processing between global and local information). No study has directly shown that strongly-motivated positive affects induce faster responses to local than global information while excluding a bias for global information (global advantage) in a baseline (emotionally-neutral) condition. In the present study, we addressed this issue by eliminating the global advantage in a baseline (neutral) state. Induction of positive affects under this state resulted in faster responses to local than global information. Our results provided direct evidence that positive affects in high motivational intensity narrow a scope of attention.

  15. Public support for river restoration. A mixed-method study into local residents' support for and framing of river management and ecological restoration in the Dutch floodplains.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Arjen E

    2009-06-01

    In many European countries, accommodating water has become the dominant paradigm in river management. In the Netherlands, extensive river restoration projects are being implemented, many of which draw serious opposition from the public. To investigate the causes of such opposition, a comprehensive study of public attitudes towards river restoration was conducted in three floodplains, both before and after river restoration. The study combined quantitative questionnaires (N=562) with open interviews (N=29). This paper describes how local residents perceive the effects of river restoration on landscape quality and how residents and protest groups use landscape quality in combination with other arguments to strategically frame river management policies. Results show that measurement of the perceived outcomes of nature restoration needs to be complemented by a more dynamic type of research, focusing on the social processes of the framing of restoration plans. Theoretically, the paper aims to contribute to the development of a rigorous research strategy to study framing processes in environmental management, using a mixed-methods approach. In general, local residents are supportive of river restoration projects. Although restoration may diminish feelings of attachment to an area, for most people this negative effect is compensated by the positive effects on scenic beauty and perceived protection from flooding. However, these positive effects may become contested because of the active framing of river restoration by protest groups. Residents use three distinct frames to give meaning to river restoration projects: (i) an attachment frame, focusing on cultural heritage and place attachment (ii) an attractive nature frame, focusing on nature as attractive living space and the intrinsic value of nature (iii) a rurality frame, focusing on rural values, agriculture and cultural heritage. Resistance to river restoration plans stems from the attachment and rurality frames

  16. Public support for river restoration. A mixed-method study into local residents' support for and framing of river management and ecological restoration in the Dutch floodplains.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Arjen E

    2009-06-01

    In many European countries, accommodating water has become the dominant paradigm in river management. In the Netherlands, extensive river restoration projects are being implemented, many of which draw serious opposition from the public. To investigate the causes of such opposition, a comprehensive study of public attitudes towards river restoration was conducted in three floodplains, both before and after river restoration. The study combined quantitative questionnaires (N=562) with open interviews (N=29). This paper describes how local residents perceive the effects of river restoration on landscape quality and how residents and protest groups use landscape quality in combination with other arguments to strategically frame river management policies. Results show that measurement of the perceived outcomes of nature restoration needs to be complemented by a more dynamic type of research, focusing on the social processes of the framing of restoration plans. Theoretically, the paper aims to contribute to the development of a rigorous research strategy to study framing processes in environmental management, using a mixed-methods approach. In general, local residents are supportive of river restoration projects. Although restoration may diminish feelings of attachment to an area, for most people this negative effect is compensated by the positive effects on scenic beauty and perceived protection from flooding. However, these positive effects may become contested because of the active framing of river restoration by protest groups. Residents use three distinct frames to give meaning to river restoration projects: (i) an attachment frame, focusing on cultural heritage and place attachment (ii) an attractive nature frame, focusing on nature as attractive living space and the intrinsic value of nature (iii) a rurality frame, focusing on rural values, agriculture and cultural heritage. Resistance to river restoration plans stems from the attachment and rurality frames

  17. From Provider to Enabler of Care? Reconfiguring Local Authority Support for Older People and Carers in Leeds, 2008 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Yeandle, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article explores developments in the support available to older people and carers (i.e., caregivers) in the city of Leeds, United Kingdom, and examines provision changes during a period characterized by unprecedented resource constraint and new developments in national-local governance. Using documentary evidence, official statistics, and findings from recent studies led by the author, the effects of these changes on service planning and delivery and the approach taken by local actors to mitigate their impact are highlighted. The statistical data show a marked decline in some types of services for older people during a 5-year period during which the city council took steps to mobilize citizens and develop new services and system improvements. The analysis focuses on theories of social quality as a framework for analysis of the complex picture of change related to service provision. It concludes that although citizen involvement and consultations exerted a positive influence in delivering support to some older people and carers, research over a longer timescale is needed to show if these changes are adequate to protect older people and carers from the effects of ongoing budgetary constraints. PMID:27019540

  18. Conifer Encroachment into Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite National Park: How Anthropogenic Impacts to Local Hydrology Affect Meadow Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, J. W.; Lundquist, J. L.; Cooper, D. J.; King, J. C.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Tuolumne Meadows, at 2600 m in Yosemite National Park, is one of the most popular sub-alpine destinations in the Sierra Nevada of California and, as such, one of the most impacted by current and historic use. Conifer (lodgepole pine) encroachment into the meadow has been managed for over 70 years to maintain vistas and to protect potentially impacted meadow vegetation. This study seeks to characterize hydrologic, soil, and vegetation assemblages throughout the affected area, document departures from expected relationships, and identify causative disruptive mechanisms. The snowmelt-dominated Tuolumne River, an integral part of the meadow system, drains 200 km{2} of the Sierra Nevada crest above the meadows. Much of the meadow area consists of recently glaciated granitic bedrock overlain by 1-2 meters of alluvial sand and gravel topped with 30-40 cm of organic-rich meadow soil. Almost all areas examined to date reveal plant assemblages and hydrologic regimes that are inconsistent with the formation of these meadow soils. In upland sites, this is characterized by groundwater conditions that are incapable of supporting meadow forming vegetation and soils. In lower areas, where groundwater levels remain close to the surface throughout the summer, the vegetation present lacks plant species with high below ground biomass production, and could not have formed the existing meadow soils. Potential mechanisms for these disruptions include ditching associated with road construction and drainage, changes in river morphology due to loss of willow riparian vegetation, and lingering impacts of intensive grazing more than a century ago. Patterns of conifer invasion as well as tree-ring and fire scar chronologies were also documented and appear to reflect similar responses to the impacts mentioned above. Results of this study are intended to inform future management and possible restoration of the area.

  19. Persuading, protesting and exchanging favours: strategies used by Indian sex workers to win local support for their HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Flora; Shukla, Anuprita; Banerji, Riddhi

    2010-01-01

    Given that the communities which are most vulnerable to HIV often have little control over their own lives and their health-related behaviour, HIV prevention policies increasingly recommend that HIV prevention projects work to build relationships with powerful external groups (i.e., build "bridging social capital"). To aid conceptualisation of how community organisations may build such social capital, this paper outlines a typology of strategies for influencing local stakeholders. We present a study of two successful Indian sex workers' organisations, VAMP and DMSC, focusing on how the organisations have influenced three groups of stakeholders, namely police, politicians and local social organisations. Interviews with project employees (45), with representatives of the three groups of stakeholders (12) and fieldwork diaries recording 6 months of observation in each site provide the data. Three approaches emerged. "Persuading" refers to the practice of holding information-giving meetings with stakeholders and requesting their support. It appears to build "weak social ties". "Protesting" entails a collective confrontation with stakeholders, and appears to be useful when the stakeholder has a public image to protect that would be tarnished by protest, and when the protestors can stake a legitimate claim that their rights are being denied. In "exchanging favours", the sex workers' organisations find creative ways to position themselves as offering valued resources to their stakeholders (such as useful information on criminal activities for the police, a stage and audience for politicians or a celebration for local social organisations) as incentives for their support. In conclusion, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, the implications for social capital theorising and implications for community HIV prevention. PMID:21161773

  20. Persuading, protesting and exchanging favours: strategies used by Indian sex workers to win local support for their HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Flora; Shukla, Anuprita; Banerji, Riddhi

    2010-01-01

    Given that the communities which are most vulnerable to HIV often have little control over their own lives and their health-related behaviour, HIV prevention policies increasingly recommend that HIV prevention projects work to build relationships with powerful external groups (i.e., build "bridging social capital"). To aid conceptualisation of how community organisations may build such social capital, this paper outlines a typology of strategies for influencing local stakeholders. We present a study of two successful Indian sex workers' organisations, VAMP and DMSC, focusing on how the organisations have influenced three groups of stakeholders, namely police, politicians and local social organisations. Interviews with project employees (45), with representatives of the three groups of stakeholders (12) and fieldwork diaries recording 6 months of observation in each site provide the data. Three approaches emerged. "Persuading" refers to the practice of holding information-giving meetings with stakeholders and requesting their support. It appears to build "weak social ties". "Protesting" entails a collective confrontation with stakeholders, and appears to be useful when the stakeholder has a public image to protect that would be tarnished by protest, and when the protestors can stake a legitimate claim that their rights are being denied. In "exchanging favours", the sex workers' organisations find creative ways to position themselves as offering valued resources to their stakeholders (such as useful information on criminal activities for the police, a stage and audience for politicians or a celebration for local social organisations) as incentives for their support. In conclusion, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, the implications for social capital theorising and implications for community HIV prevention.

  1. Single DNA molecules on freestanding and supported cationic lipid bilayers: diverse conformational dynamics controlled by the local bilayer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Christoph; Schwille, Petra; Petrov, Eugene P.

    2016-02-01

    We present experimental results on the interaction of DNA macromolecules with cationic lipid membranes with different properties, including freestanding membranes in the fluid and gel state, and supported lipid membranes in the fluid state and under conditions of fluid-gel phase coexistence. We observe diverse conformational dynamics of membrane-bound DNA molecules controlled by the local properties of the lipid bilayer. In case of fluid-state freestanding lipid membranes, the behaviour of DNA on the membrane is controlled by the membrane charge density: whereas DNA bound to weakly charged membranes predominantly behaves as a 2D random coil, an increase in the membrane charge density leads to membrane-driven irreversible DNA collapse and formation of subresolution-sized DNA globules. On the other hand, electrostatic binding of DNA macromolecules to gel-state freestanding membranes leads to completely arrested diffusion and conformational dynamics of membrane-adsorbed DNA. A drastically different picture is observed in case of DNA interaction with supported cationic lipid bilayers: When the supported bilayer is in the fluid state, membrane-bound DNA molecules undergo 2D translational Brownian motion and conformational fluctuations, irrespectively of the charge density of the supported bilayer. At the same time, when the supported cationic membrane shows fluid-gel phase coexistence, membrane-bound DNA molecules are strongly attracted to micrometre-sized gel-phase domains enriched with the cationic lipid, which results in 2D compaction of the membrane-bound macromolecules. This DNA compaction, however, is fully reversible, and disappears as soon as the membrane is heated above the fluid-gel coexistence. We also discuss possible biological implications of our experimental findings.

  2. An Examination of Work-Environment Support Factors Affecting Transfer of Supervisory Skills Training to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell, Susan E.; Kolb, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Organizations invest a significant amount of time and money on management and supervisory training programs. The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between four specific work-environment factors (organization support, supervisor support, peer support, and participation in a peer support network) and transfer of training at…

  3. Primary and Secondary Analysis of Local Elected Officials’ Decisions to Support or Oppose Pharmacy Sale of Syringes in California

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Valerie J.

    2010-01-01

    Under California law, local governments may authorize pharmacies within their jurisdictions to sell ten or fewer syringes to an adult without prescription, proof of identity, or proof of medical need. Local governments may simultaneously exempt adults from prosecution for violation of state drug paraphernalia codes for possession of ten or fewer syringes for personal use. Both of these provisions are temporary and sunset on December 31, 2010, unless subsequent state legislation amends that date. The objective of our study was to ascertain how and why local policymakers made their decisions regarding non-prescription syringe sale (NPSS). We examined influences on their decisions, including specific messengers and the arguments that were most salient to their decision making. We selected jurisdictions that were geographically representative of California counties; those with and without syringe exchange programs, and those that had passed or rejected NPSS. We conducted nine semi-structured interviews in five jurisdictions. To enrich primary data collection, we analyzed secondary data by reviewing audio, video, and written transcripts of public hearings and newspaper coverage in five jurisdictions, including three jurisdictions without primary interview data. Among proponents of NPSS, we identified common themes, including: (1) public health research provided conclusive evidence for reduction in HIV and hepatitis transmission without problems of crime, drug use, or unsafe discard of syringes; (2) the local health officer was the key to influencing local policymakers; (3) recall of prior debates over syringe exchange served to inform their decision making; and (4) a lack of local opposition or controversy. Common concerns among opponents of NPSS included: (1) that there would be an increase in unsafe discard of syringes; (2) loss of an important law enforcement tool; (3) that drug users were incapable of desired behavior change; and (4) that research was inconclusive

  4. The Affect of Realistic Geologic Heterogeneity on Local and Regional P/S Amplitude Ratios Based on Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Wagoner, J L; Preston, L; Smith, K; Larsen, S C

    2005-07-11

    Regional seismic discriminants based on high-frequency P/S ratios reliably distinguish between earthquakes and explosions. However, P/S discriminants in the 0.5 to 3 Hz band (where SNR can be highest) rarely perform well, with similar ratios for earthquake and explosion populations. Variability in discriminant performance has spawned numerous investigations into the generation of S-waves from explosions. Several viable mechanisms for the generation of S-waves from explosions have been forwarded, but most of these mechanisms do not explain observations of frequency-dependant S-wave generation. Recent studies have focused on the affect of near-source scattering to explain the frequency-dependence of both S-wave generation and P/S discriminant performance. In this study we investigate near-source scatter through numerical simulation with a realistic geological model We have constructed a realistic, 3-dimensional earth model of the southern Basin and Range. This regional model includes detailed constraints at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) based on extensive geologic and geophysical studies. Gross structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. Upper-crustal constraints are derived from geologic maps and detailed studies of sedimentary basin geometry throughout the study area. The free surface is based on a 10-meter digital elevation model (DEM) at NTS, and a 60-meter DEM elsewhere. The model extends to a depth of 150km, making it suitable for simulations at local and regional distances. Our simulation source is based on the 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment explosion at the NTS. This shot was well recorded, offering ample validation data. Our validation tests include measures of long-period waveform fit and relative amplitude measurements for P and S phases. Our primary conclusion is that near-source topography

  5. Age-related hearing loss and ear morphology affect vertical but not horizontal sound-localization performance.

    PubMed

    Otte, Rik J; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Snik, Ad F M; Van Opstal, A John

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have attributed deterioration of sound localization in the horizontal (azimuth) and vertical (elevation) planes to an age-related decline in binaural processing and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). The latter might underlie decreased elevation performance of older adults. However, as the pinnae keep growing throughout life, we hypothesized that larger ears might enable older adults to localize sounds in elevation on the basis of lower frequencies, thus (partially) compensating their HFHL. In addition, it is not clear whether sound localization has already matured at a very young age, when the body is still growing, and the binaural and monaural sound-localization cues change accordingly. The present study investigated sound-localization performance of children (7-11 years), young adults (20-34 years), and older adults (63-80 years) under open-loop conditions in the two-dimensional frontal hemifield. We studied the effect of age-related hearing loss and ear size on localization responses to brief broadband sound bursts with different bandwidths. We found similar localization abilities in azimuth for all listeners, including the older adults with HFHL. Sound localization in elevation for the children and young adult listeners with smaller ears improved when stimuli contained frequencies above 7 kHz. Subjects with larger ears could also judge the elevation of sound sources restricted to lower frequency content. Despite increasing ear size, sound localization in elevation deteriorated in older adults with HFHL. We conclude that the binaural localization cues are successfully used well into later stages of life, but that pinna growth cannot compensate the more profound HFHL with age.

  6. Adaptive and Speculative Memory Consistency Support for Multi-core Architectures with On-Chip Local Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujic, Nikola; Alvarez, Lluc; Tallada, Marc Gonzalez; Martorell, Xavier; Ayguadé, Eduard

    Software cache has been showed as a robust approach in multi-core systems with no hardware support for transparent data transfers between local and global memories. Software cache provides the user with a transparent view of the memory architecture and considerably improves the programmability of such systems. But this software approach can suffer from poor performance due to considerable overheads related to software mechanisms to maintain the memory consistency. This paper presents a set of alternatives to smooth their impact. A specific write-back mechanism is introduced based on some degree of speculation regarding the number of threads actually modifying the same cache lines. A case study based on the Cell BE processor is described. Performance evaluation indicates that improvements due to the optimized software-cache structures combined with the proposed code-optimizations translate into 20% up to 40% speedup factors, compared to a traditional software cache approach.

  7. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F.

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  8. Policy change to create supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating: which options are the most realistic for local government?

    PubMed

    Allender, Steven; Gleeson, Erin; Crammond, Brad; Sacks, Gary; Lawrence, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Loff, Bebe; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The objective is to identify and test regulatory options for creating supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating among local governments in Victoria, Australia. A literature review identified nine potential areas for policy intervention at local government level, including the walking environment and food policy. Discussion documents were drafted which summarized the public health evidence and legal framework for change in each area. Levels of support for particular interventions were identified through semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants from local government. We conducted 11 key informant interviews and found support for policy intervention to create environments supportive of physical activity but little support for policy changes to promote healthy eating. Participants reported lack of relevance and competing priorities as reasons for not supporting particular interventions. Promoting healthy eating environments was not considered a priority for local government above food safety. There is a real opportunity for action to prevent obesity at local government level (e.g. mandate the promotion of healthy eating environments). For local government to have a role in the promotion of healthy food environments, regulatory change and suitable funding are required.

  9. Local mobility in lipid domains of supported bilayers characterized by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, Daniel J.; Buranda, T.; Burns, Alan Richard

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is used to examine mobility of labeled probes at specific sites in supported bilayers consisting of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid domains in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). Those sites are mapped beforehand with simultaneous atomic force microscopy and submicron confocal fluorescence imaging, allowing characterization of probe partitioning between gel DPPC and disordered liquid DOPC domains with corresponding topography of domain structure. We thus examine the relative partitioning and mobility in gel and disordered liquid phases for headgroup- and tailgroup-labeled GM1 ganglioside probes and for headgroup- and tailgroup-labeled phospholipid probes. For the GM1 probes, large differences in mobility between fluid and gel domains are observed; whereas unexpected mobility is observed in submicron gel domains for the phospholipid probes. We attribute the latter to domain heterogeneities that could be induced by the probe. Furthermore, fits to the FCS data for the phospholipid probes in the DOPC fluid phase require two components (fast and slow). Although proximity to the glass substrate may be a factor, local distortion of the probe by the fluorophore could also be important. Overall, we observe nonideal aspects of phospholipid probe mobility and partitioning that may not be restricted to supported bilayers.

  10. On the Consideration of Adoption and Implementation of The Next Generation Science Standards in a Local-Control Context: Supporting the Epistemology of Science through Education Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, Christopher C.

    On the Consideration of Adoption and Implementation of The Next Generation Science Standards in a Local-Control Context: Supporting the Epistemology of Science through Education Policy. Christopher C Lazzaro. The primary purpose of this research is to understand how and why members at each of the three levels of the education system within a local-control state made the decisions they did in supporting or hindering the adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards. This research concentrates on three levels of the education system in a local-control state; 1) the state level, 2) the district level, and 3) the school/teacher level, while investigating the following questions: 1. To what extent, and in what ways, do members in each of the three levels of the state education system advocate for adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards? 2. Are the members in each of the three levels motivated or compelled to consider adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards, why or why not? 3. To what extent, and in what ways, do the members in each of the three levels take into account science epistemology in their overall consideration of adoption/implementation of the NGSS? The data drew from a series of interviews from a prior study, "Challenges of Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards in Local-Control States in the U.S." (Sevian, Foster, & Scheff, 2012). After these data were coded and analyzed around the three research questions, this phenomenographic research study identified four key findings: Key Finding 1 - As the District Coordinators are uniquely situated within the state education system to be able to see both the on-the-ground practical implications and the high-level policy pressures of adopting and implementing the NGSS, they reflect the deepest level of awareness of how to best advocate for adoption and implementation of the NGSS. Key Finding 2 - Motivation to adopt and

  11. The Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Affect on the Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Stress in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çivitci, Asim

    2015-01-01

    During college years, which are known as a stressful time, students may often face stress personally, socially, academically, economically, and so forth in various areas of life. One of the important sources that students use to cope with stress is social support. Students can cope with stress easier via the support they receive from their friends…

  12. CRM1 and its ribosome export adaptor NMD3 localize to the nucleolus and affect rRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Baoyan; Moore, Henna M; Laiho, Marikki

    2013-01-01

    CRM1 is an export factor that together with its adaptor NMD3 transports numerous cargo molecules from the nucleus to cytoplasm through the nuclear pore. Previous studies have suggested that CRM1 and NMD3 are detected in the nucleolus. However, their localization with subnucleolar domains or participation in the activities of the nucleolus are unclear. We demonstrate here biochemically and using imaging analyses that CRM1 and NMD3 co-localize with nucleolar marker proteins in the nucleolus. In particular, their nucleolar localization is markedly increased by inhibition of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription by actinomycin D or by silencing Pol I catalytic subunit, RPA194. We show that CRM1 nucleolar localization is dependent on its activity and the expression of NMD3, whereas NMD3 nucleolar localization is independent of CRM1. This suggests that NMD3 provides nucleolar tethering of CRM1. While inhibition of CRM1 by leptomycin B inhibited processing of 28S ribosomal (r) RNA, depletion of NMD3 did not, suggesting that their effects on 28S rRNA processing are distinct. Markedly, depletion of NMD3 and inhibition of CRM1 reduced the rate of pre-47S rRNA synthesis. However, their inactivation did not lead to nucleolar disintegration, a hallmark of Pol I transcription stress, suggesting that they do not directly regulate transcription. These results indicate that CRM1 and NMD3 have complex functions in pathways that couple rRNA synthetic and processing engines and that the rRNA synthesis rate may be adjusted according to proficiency in rRNA processing and export.

  13. Factors Affecting Student Success in Distance Learning Courses at a Local California Community College: Joint Governance Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of staff and faculty regarding factors affecting student success in distance learning at a California community college (CCC). Participants were members of the leadership group known as the distance learning committee. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using open-ended…

  14. Career Guidance, Counseling, Placement, and Follow-Through Program for Rural Schools. Career Guidance Program Support Functions. Rural Community Perspectives toward Career Development: A Handbook for the Assessment, Communication and Expansion of Rural Adult Career Attitudes and Values Affecting Youth. Research and Development Series Number 118 D3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Walter M.

    Materials contained in the 16 volumes that make up the Rural America Series suggest practices through which rural schools can meet local community needs and realize their potential for career program delivery. This handbook is one of a subset of three program support function guides. Activities listed are designed to affect the indicators of…

  15. Implications for Social Support on Prolonged Sleep Difficulties among a Disaster-Affected Population: Second Report from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Ishinomaki, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Inoue, Machiko; Inoue, Mariko; Muto, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives This study aimed to investigate the role of social factors, especially social support for sleep, among victims living at home around 1–2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. Design A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between May and December 2012 (14–21 months after the disaster) in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between social factors, including social support, and prolonged sleep difficulties (persisting over 1 month). Social support was divided into three functions: emotional, informational, and instrumental support. Participants Data were obtained on 2,593 individuals who were living at home after the disaster. Results The prevalence of prolonged sleep difficulties was 6.9% (5.8% male, 7.7% female). This study showed that lack of social support has a stronger association with prolonged sleep difficulties than non-modifiable or hardly modifiable consequences caused directly by the disaster, i.e., severity of home damage, change in family structure and income. Among the three dimensions of social support, lack of emotional support showed the strongest association with prolonged sleep difficulties. Conclusions Social support, especially emotional support, may positively affect sleep among victims living at home around 1–2 years after a disaster. PMID:26087305

  16. Mutation of the rice XA21 predicted nuclear localization sequence does not affect resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yuen Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background The rice receptor kinase XA21 confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae(Xoo). We previously reported that XA21 is cleaved in transgenic plants overexpressing XA21 with a GFP tag (Ubi-XA21-GFP) and that the released C-terminal domain is localized to the nucleus. XA21 carries a predicted nuclear localization sequence (NLS) that directs the C-terminal domain to the nucleus in transient assays, whereas alanine substitutions in the NLS disrupt the nuclear localization. Methods To determine if the predicted NLS is required for XA21-mediated immunity in planta, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing an XA21 variant carrying the NLS with the same alanine substitutions (Ubi-XA21nls-GFP). Results Ubi-XA21nls-GFP plants displayed slightly longer lesion lengths, higher Xoobacterial populations after inoculation and lower levels of reactive oxygen species production compared with the Ubi-XA21-GFP control plants. However, the Ubi-XA21nls-GFP plants express lower levels of protein than that observed in Ubi-XA21-GFP. Discussion These results demonstrate that the predicted NLS is not required for XA21-mediated immunity. PMID:27761320

  17. Coilin is rapidly recruited to UVA-induced DNA lesions and γ-radiation affects localized movement of Cajal bodies

    PubMed Central

    Bártová, Eva; Foltánková, Veronika; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Cajal bodies are important nuclear structures containing proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related metabolism. We investigated the cell-type specific nuclear distribution of Cajal bodies and the level of coilin, a protein of Cajal bodies, in non-irradiated and irradiated human tumor cell lines and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Cajal bodies were localized in different nuclear compartments, including DAPI-poor regions, in the proximity of chromocenters, and adjacent to nucleoli. The number of Cajal bodies per nucleus was cell cycle-dependent, with higher numbers occurring during G2 phase. Human ES cells contained a high coilin level in the nucleoplasm, but coilin-positive Cajal bodies were also identified in nuclei of mouse and human ES cells. Coilin, but not SMN, recognized UVA-induced DNA lesions, which was cell cycle-independent. Treatment with γ-radiation reduced the localized movement of Cajal bodies in many cell types and GFP-coilin fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was very fast in nucleoplasm in comparison with GFP-coilin recovery in DNA lesions. By contrast, nucleolus-localized coilin displayed very slow fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, which indicates very slow rates of protein diffusion, especially in nucleoli of mouse ES cells. PMID:24859326

  18. Safety assessment of allergic contact dermatitis hazards: an analysis supporting reduced animal use for the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Haseman, Joseph K; Strickland, Judy; Allen, David; Salicru, Eleni; Paris, Michael; Tice, Raymond R; Stokes, William S

    2011-02-01

    The original Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 429 (OECD TG 429) for the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) required five mice/group if mice were processed individually. We used data from 83 LLNA tests (275 treated groups) to determine the impact on the LLNA outcome of reducing the group size from five to four. From DPM measurements, we formed all possible four- and five-mice combinations for the treated and control groups. Stimulation index (SI) values from each four-mice combination were compared with those from five-mice combinations, and agreement (both SI<3 or both SI ≥ 3) determined. Average agreement between group sizes was 97.5% for the 275 treated groups. Compared test-by-test, 90% (75/83) of the tests had 100% agreement; agreement was 83% for the remaining eight tests. Disagreement was due primarily to variability in animal responses and closeness of the SI to three (positive response threshold) rather than to group size reduction. We conclude that using four rather than five mice per group would reduce animal use by 20% without adversely impacting LLNA performance. This analysis supported the recent update to OECD TG 429 allowing a minimum of four mice/group when each mouse is processed individually.

  19. Evaluation of genetic isolation within an island flora reveals unusually widespread local adaptation and supports sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Kaye, Maria; Devaux, Céline; Hipperson, Helen; Lighten, Jackie; Dunning, Luke T; Hutton, Ian; Baker, William J; Butlin, Roger K; Savolainen, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    It is now recognized that speciation can proceed even when divergent natural selection is opposed by gene flow. Understanding the extent to which environmental gradients and geographical distance can limit gene flow within species can shed light on the relative roles of selection and dispersal limitation during the early stages of population divergence and speciation. On the remote Lord Howe Island (Australia), ecological speciation with gene flow is thought to have taken place in several plant genera. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by community (IBC) to the genetic structure of 19 plant species, from a number of distantly related families, which have been subjected to similar environmental pressures over comparable time scales. We applied an individual-based, multivariate, model averaging approach to quantify IBE and IBC, while controlling for isolation by distance (IBD). Our analyses demonstrated that all species experienced some degree of ecologically driven isolation, whereas only 12 of 19 species were subjected to IBD. The prevalence of IBE within these plant species indicates that divergent selection in plants frequently produces local adaptation and supports hypotheses that ecological divergence can drive speciation in sympatry.

  20. Evaluation of genetic isolation within an island flora reveals unusually widespread local adaptation and supports sympatric speciation

    PubMed Central

    Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Kaye, Maria; Devaux, Céline; Hipperson, Helen; Lighten, Jackie; Dunning, Luke T.; Hutton, Ian; Baker, William J.; Butlin, Roger K.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    It is now recognized that speciation can proceed even when divergent natural selection is opposed by gene flow. Understanding the extent to which environmental gradients and geographical distance can limit gene flow within species can shed light on the relative roles of selection and dispersal limitation during the early stages of population divergence and speciation. On the remote Lord Howe Island (Australia), ecological speciation with gene flow is thought to have taken place in several plant genera. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by community (IBC) to the genetic structure of 19 plant species, from a number of distantly related families, which have been subjected to similar environmental pressures over comparable time scales. We applied an individual-based, multivariate, model averaging approach to quantify IBE and IBC, while controlling for isolation by distance (IBD). Our analyses demonstrated that all species experienced some degree of ecologically driven isolation, whereas only 12 of 19 species were subjected to IBD. The prevalence of IBE within these plant species indicates that divergent selection in plants frequently produces local adaptation and supports hypotheses that ecological divergence can drive speciation in sympatry. PMID:24958917

  1. Community-wide validation of geospace model local K-index predictions to support model transition to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Rastätter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Singer, H. J.; Balch, C.; Weimer, D.; Welling, D.; Wiltberger, M.; Raeder, J.; Weigel, R. S.; McCollough, J.; Wing, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the latest result of a community-wide space weather model validation effort coordinated among the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), model developers, and the broader science community. Validation of geospace models is a critical activity for both building confidence in the science results produced by the models and in assessing the suitability of the models for transition to operations. Indeed, a primary motivation of this work is supporting NOAA/SWPC's effort to select a model or models to be transitioned into operations. Our validation efforts focus on the ability of the models to reproduce a regional index of geomagnetic disturbance, the local K-index. Our analysis includes six events representing a range of geomagnetic activity conditions and six geomagnetic observatories representing midlatitude and high-latitude locations. Contingency tables, skill scores, and distribution metrics are used for the quantitative analysis of model performance. We consider model performance on an event-by-event basis, aggregated over events, at specific station locations, and separated into high-latitude and midlatitude domains. A summary of results is presented in this report, and an online tool for detailed analysis is available at the CCMC.

  2. Nonlinear support vector machine visualization for risk factor analysis using nomograms and localized radial basis function kernels.

    PubMed

    Cho, Baek Hwan; Yu, Hwanjo; Lee, Jongshill; Chee, Young Joon; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

    2008-03-01

    Nonlinear classifiers, e.g., support vector machines (SVMs) with radial basis function (RBF) kernels, have been used widely for automatic diagnosis of diseases because of their high accuracies. However, it is difficult to visualize the classifiers, and thus difficult to provide intuitive interpretation of results to physicians. We developed a new nonlinear kernel, the localized radial basis function (LRBF) kernel, and new visualization system visualization for risk factor analysis (VRIFA) that applies a nomogram and LRBF kernel to visualize the results of nonlinear SVMs and improve the interpretability of results while maintaining high prediction accuracy. Three representative medical datasets from the University of California, Irvine repository and Statlog dataset-breast cancer, diabetes, and heart disease datasets-were used to evaluate the system. The results showed that the classification performance of the LRBF is comparable with that of the RBF, and the LRBF is easy to visualize via a nomogram. Our study also showed that the LRBF kernel is less sensitive to noise features than the RBF kernel, whereas the LRBF kernel degrades the prediction accuracy more when important features are eliminated. We demonstrated the VRIFA system, which visualizes the results of linear and nonlinear SVMs with LRBF kernels, on the three datasets. PMID:18348954

  3. Supporting mental health in South African HIV-affected communities: primary health care professionals’ understandings and responses

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Rochelle Ann

    2015-01-01

    How do practitioners respond to the mental distress of HIV-affected women and communities? And do their understandings of patients’ distress matter? The World Health Organization (WHO) along with advocates from the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) champion a primary mental health care model to address burgeoning mental health needs in resource-poor HIV-affected settings. Whilst a minority of studies have begun to explore interventions to target this group of women, there is a dearth of studies that explore the broader contexts that will likely shape service outcomes, such as health sector dynamics and competing definitions of mental ill-health. This study reports on an in-depth case study of primary mental health services in a rural HIV-affected community in Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Health professionals identified as the frontline staff working within the primary mental health care model (n = 14) were interviewed. Grounded thematic analysis of interview data highlighted that practitioners employed a critical and socially anchored framework for understanding their patients’ needs. Poverty, gender and family relationships were identified as intersecting factors driving HIV-affected patients’ mental distress. In a divergence from existing evidence, practitioner efforts to act on their understandings of patient needs prioritized social responses over biomedical ones. To achieve this whilst working within a primary mental health care model, practitioners employed a series of modifications to services to increase their ability to target the sociostructural realities facing HIV-affected women with mental health issues. This article suggests that beyond attention to the crucial issues of funding and human resources that face primary mental health care, attention must also be paid to promoting the development of policies that provide practitioners with increased and more consistent opportunities to address the complex social realities that frame the mental

  4. Genotype-by-environment interactions and adaptation to local temperature affect immunity and fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Brian P; Flores, Heather A; Lorigan, James G; Yourth, Christopher P

    2008-03-01

    Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history "balance" between immunity and other fitness traits in a constant environment. However, both local adaptation to heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions can maintain genetic variation in a species. In this study, we test Drosophila melanogaster genotypes sampled from tropical Africa, temperate northeastern North America, and semi-tropical southeastern North America for resistance to bacterial infection and fecundity at three different environmental temperatures. Environmental temperature had absolute effects on all traits, but there were also marked genotype-by-environment interactions that may limit the global efficiency of natural selection on both traits. African flies performed more poorly than North American flies in both immunity and fecundity at the lowest temperature, but not at the higher temperatures, suggesting that the African population is maladapted to low temperature. In contrast, there was no evidence for clinal variation driven by thermal adaptation within North America for either trait. Resistance to infection and reproductive success were generally uncorrelated across genotypes, so this study finds no evidence for a fitness tradeoff between immunity and fecundity under the conditions tested. Both local adaptation to geographically heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions may explain the persistence of genetic variation for resistance to infection in natural populations.

  5. Local variations in 14C - How is bomb-pulse dating of human tissues and cells affected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenström, Kristina; Skog, Göran; Nilsson, Carl Magnus; Hellborg, Ragnar; Svegborn, Sigrid Leide; Georgiadou, Elisavet; Mattsson, Sören

    2010-04-01

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s and early 1960s almost doubled the amount of 14C in the atmosphere. The resulting 14C "bomb-pulse" has been shown to provide useful age information in e.g. forensic and environmental sciences, biology and the geosciences. The technique is also currently being used for retrospective cell dating in man, in order to provide insight into the rate of formation of new cells in the human body. Bomb-pulse dating relies on precise measurements of the declining 14C concentration in atmospheric CO 2 collected at clean-air sites. However, it is not always recognized that the calculations can be complicated in some cases by significant local variations in the specific activity of 14C in carbon in the air and foodstuff. This paper presents investigations of local 14C variations in the vicinities of nuclear installations and laboratories using 14C. Levels of 14C in workers using this radioisotope are also discussed.

  6. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Adaptation to Local Temperature Affect Immunity and Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Brian P.; Flores, Heather A.; Lorigan, James G.; Yourth, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history “balance” between immunity and other fitness traits in a constant environment. However, both local adaptation to heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions can maintain genetic variation in a species. In this study, we test Drosophila melanogaster genotypes sampled from tropical Africa, temperate northeastern North America, and semi-tropical southeastern North America for resistance to bacterial infection and fecundity at three different environmental temperatures. Environmental temperature had absolute effects on all traits, but there were also marked genotype-by-environment interactions that may limit the global efficiency of natural selection on both traits. African flies performed more poorly than North American flies in both immunity and fecundity at the lowest temperature, but not at the higher temperatures, suggesting that the African population is maladapted to low temperature. In contrast, there was no evidence for clinal variation driven by thermal adaptation within North America for either trait. Resistance to infection and reproductive success were generally uncorrelated across genotypes, so this study finds no evidence for a fitness tradeoff between immunity and fecundity under the conditions tested. Both local adaptation to geographically heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions may explain the persistence of genetic variation for resistance to infection in natural populations. PMID:18369474

  7. Cell surface localization of importin α1/KPNA2 affects cancer cell proliferation by regulating FGF1 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kohji; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Tsujii, Akira; Moriyama, Tetsuji; Ikuno, Yudai; Shiromizu, Takashi; Serada, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Minoru; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Naka, Tetsuji; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Oka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Importin α1 is involved in nuclear import as a receptor for proteins with a classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS). Here, we report that importin α1 is localized to the cell surface in several cancer cell lines and detected in their cultured medium. We also found that exogenously added importin α1 is associated with the cell membrane via interaction with heparan sulfate. Furthermore, we revealed that the cell surface importin α1 recognizes cNLS-containing substrates. More particularly, importin α1 bound directly to FGF1 and FGF2, secreted cNLS-containing growth factors, and addition of exogenous importin α1 enhanced the activation of ERK1/2, downstream targets of FGF1 signalling, in FGF1-stimulated cancer cells. Additionally, anti-importin α1 antibody treatment suppressed the importin α1−FGF1 complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, resulting in decreased cell growth. This study provides novel evidence that functional importin α1 is located at the cell surface, where it accelerates the proliferation of cancer cells. PMID:26887791

  8. The Characteristics of Local Support Systems, and the Roles of Professionals, in Supporting Families Where a Mother Has an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiber, Ingrid; Eklund, Mona; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: There might be a need for support for families where the mother has an intellectual disability, in order to counteract the effects of potential parental inadequacy and other detrimental aspects of the family situation. The purpose of this study was to describe how professionals characterized such support and the collaboration required.…

  9. College Students' Comfort Level Discussing Death with Faculty and Perceptions of Faculty Support for Grief-Affected Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedman, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Students' comfort discussing death with faculty, views regarding faculty's likelihood to provide accommodations to grief-affected students, and perceived empathy of faculty were assessed. Undergraduate students (n = 371) attending a Midwestern university completed the Student Survey on Grief Issues. Twenty-six percent reported the death of at…

  10. Elementary Students' Affective Variables in a Networked Learning Environment Supported by a Blog: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Stéphane; Thériault, Pascale; Gagnon, Vincent; Lalancette, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a networked learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students' writing. The framework is grounded more specifically in theory of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985), relationship to writing (Chartrand & Prince, 2009) and the…

  11. Affective Issues in Learning Technologies: Emotional Responses to Technology and Technology's Role in Supporting Socio-Emotional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on some of the author's research studies over the past thirty years and places these in a wider context to reflect on research into affective issues in learning technologies over this period, and to consider whether and how the issues uncovered by research have changed as technologies have developed over time. Three issues are…

  12. Transforming Schools and Strengthening Leadership to Support the Educational and Psychosocial Needs of War-Affected Children Living in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research study that examined the educational experiences of refugee students who have immigrated to Canada. Many children from war-affected countries have been denied basic human entitlements, and their immigration to Canada represents hope for their futures. Evidence suggests that these students are further…

  13. Supporting Affect Regulation in Children with Multiple Disabilities during Psychotherapy: A Multiple Case Design Study of Therapeutic Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuengel, C.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Jeczynski, P.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Jongbloed, G.

    2009-01-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children had sessions with an experimental therapist…

  14. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions. PMID:25035801

  15. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments.

    PubMed

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-03-01

    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions.

  16. The role of social support and negative affect in medication adherence for HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Eva N; Pantalone, David W

    2012-01-01

    Combinations of medications that control HIV viral replication are called antiretroviral therapy (ART). Regimens can be complex, so medication adherence is often suboptimal, although high rates of adherence are necessary for ART to be effective. Social support, which has been directly and indirectly associated with better treatment adherence in HIV-infected individuals, influences negative affect, including depression and anxiety. Our study assessed whether current anxious and depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between general social support and recent self-reported medication adherence in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (N= 136; 65% White, 15% Black/African American). Results revealed no direct effect, but an indirect effect of depressive (95% CI [-.011, -.0011]) and anxious symptoms (95% CI [-.0097, -.0009]), between social support and medication adherence. Greater levels of social support were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety, which in turn were associated with lower ART adherence.

  17. The functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: support for cognitive-affective regulation and opponent processes from a novel psychophysiological paradigm.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Joseph C; Hessel, Elenda T; Aaron, Rachel V; Arthur, Michael S; Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2010-11-01

    Although research on the reasons for engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has increased dramatically in the last few years, there are still many aspects of this pernicious behavior that are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature, with a particular focus on investigating whether NSSI (a) regulates affective valence in addition to affective arousal and (b) serves a cognitive regulation function in addition to an affect regulation function. To elucidate these issues, the present study utilized a sample of 112 participants (33 controls, 39 no pain controls, 16 NSSI individuals, and 24 controls matching the affect dysregulation levels of the NSSI group), employed psychophysiological measures of affective valence (startle-alone reactivity) and quality of information processing (prepulse inhibition), and used experimental methods involving an NSSI-proxy to model the NSSI process. Results largely were consistent with predictions, supporting the hypotheses that NSSI serves to regulate cognitive processing and affective valence. On this latter point, however, the control groups also showed a decrease in negative affective valence after the NSSI-proxy. This unexpected finding is consistent with the hypothesis that opponent processes may contribute to the development of self-injurious behaviors (Joiner, 2005). Overall, the present study represents an important extension of previous laboratory NSSI studies and provides a fertile foundation for future studies aimed at understanding why people engage in NSSI. PMID:20939652

  18. Lead contamination of an old shooting range affecting the local ecosystem--A case study with a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Minna-Liisa; Torkkeli, Minna; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this case study was to uncover the consequences of lead pellet-derived heavy lead contamination at a cast-off shooting range in southern Finland, covering aspects from soil chemistry and biology up to ecosystem level. The observed changes in the soil properties of the most contaminated areas suggest that the contamination may be disturbing processes of decomposition and nutrient mineralisation. Also two functionally important groups of soil organisms, microbes (as analysed using the PLFA analysis) and enchytraeid worms, were negatively affected by the contamination. Furthermore, there was an indication of reduced pine litter production at the contaminated areas. On the other hand, lead contamination appears not to have affected pine growth or soil-dwelling nematodes and microarthropods, and the general outlook of the whole ecosystem is that of a healthy forest. Thus, the boreal forest ecosystem studied as a whole appears to bear strong resistance to contamination, despite negative effects of lead on many of its components. This resistance may result from e.g. low bioavailability of lead, avoidance of the most contaminated soil horizons and microsites by the organisms, and functional redundancy and development of lead-tolerant populations amongst the organisms. The relative importance of these factors and the mechanisms behind them will be investigated in forthcoming studies.

  19. How Does Functional Disability Affect Depressive Symptoms in Late Life? The Role of Perceived Social Support and Psychological Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the process whereby functional disability amplifies depressive symptoms through decreasing perceived social support and psychological resources. The study analyzed two waves of panel data (1986 to 1992) of a large sample of older adults from the National Institutes of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of…

  20. Inclusive Education in Spain: How Do Skills, Resources, and Supports Affect Regular Education Teachers' Perceptions of Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiner, Esther; Cardona, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined regular education teachers' perceptions of inclusion in elementary and secondary schools in Spain and how these perceptions may differ depending on teaching experience, skills, and the availability of resources and supports. Stratified random sampling procedures were used to draw a representative sample of 336 general…

  1. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…

  2. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2009-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project" 2005, this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…

  3. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  4. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  5. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  6. The Role of Social Support in Negative and Positive Affect of Parents of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arm, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research on parents of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) people is significantly dated and has tended to focus on the experiences of parents as they learn they have a GLB child. This study sought to update and extend the research literature on parents of GLB people, by exploring associations between stress, social support, GLB related social…

  7. How water molecules affect the catalytic activity of hydrolases--a XANES study of the local structures of peptide deformylase.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peixin; Wang, Yu; Chu, Wangsheng; Guo, Xiaoyun; Yang, Feifei; Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Yuhui; Xie, Yaning; Gong, Weimin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-12-12

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a prokaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deformylation of nascent peptides generated during protein synthesis and water molecules play a key role in these hydrolases. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and ab initio calculations we accurately probe the local atomic environment of the metal ion binding in the active site of PDF at different pH values and with different metal ions. This new approach is an effective way to monitor existing correlations among functions and structural changes. We show for the first time that the enzymatic activity depends on pH values and metal ions via the bond length of the nearest coordinating water (Wat1) to the metal ion. Combining experimental and theoretical data we may claim that PDF exhibits an enhanced enzymatic activity only when the distance of the Wat1 molecule with the metal ion falls in the limited range from 2.15 to 2.55 Å.

  8. The forkhead transcription factor Foxl2 is sumoylated in both human and mouse: sumoylation affects its stability, localization, and activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Mara; Deiana, Manila; Meloni, Alessandra; Marcia, Loredana; Puddu, Alessandro; Cao, Antonio; Schlessinger, David; Crisponi, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The FOXL2 forkhead transcription factor is expressed in ovarian granulosa cells, and mutated FOXL2 causes the blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) and predisposes to premature ovarian failure. Inactivation of Foxl2 in mice demonstrated its indispensability for female gonadal sex determination and ovary development and revealed its antagonism of Sox9, the effector of male testis development. To help to define the regulatory activities of FOXL2, we looked for interacting proteins. Based on yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that FOXL2 interacts with PIAS1 and UBC9, both parts of the sumoylation machinery. We showed that human FOXL2 is sumoylated in transfected cell lines, and that endogenous mouse Foxl2 is comparably sumoylated. This modification changes its cellular localization, stability and transcriptional activity. It is intriguing that similar sumoylation and regulatory consequences have also been reported for SOX9, the male counterpart of FOXL2 in somatic gonadal tissues. PMID:20209145

  9. Adaptation to local thermal regimes by crustose coralline algae does not affect rates of recruitment in coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Evenhuis, Christian; Logan, Murray; Motti, Cherie A.

    2015-12-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are well known for their ability to induce settlement in coral larvae. While their wide distribution spans reefs that differ substantially in temperature regimes, the extent of local adaptation to these regimes and the impact they have on CCA inductive ability are unknown. CCA Porolithon onkodes from Heron (southern) and Lizard (northern) islands on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (separated by 1181 km) were experimentally exposed to acute or prolonged thermal stress events and their thermal tolerance and recruitment capacity determined. A sudden onset bleaching model was developed to determine the health status of CCA based on the rate of change in the CCA live surface area (LSA). The interaction between location and temperature was significant ( F (2,119) = 6.74, p = 0.0017), indicating that thermally driven local adaptation had occurred. The southern population remained healthy after prolonged exposure to 28 °C and exhibited growth compared to the northern population ( p = 0.022), with its optimum temperature determined to be slightly below 28 °C. As expected, at the higher temperatures (30 and 32 °C) the Lizard Island population performed better that those from Heron Island, with an optimum temperature of 30 °C. Lizard Island CCA displayed the lowest bleaching rates at 30 °C, while levels consistently increased with temperature in their southern counterparts. The ability of those CCA deemed thermally tolerant (based on LSA) to induce Acropora millepora larval settlement was then assessed. While spatial differences influenced the health and bleaching levels of P. onkodes during prolonged and acute thermal exposure, thermally tolerant fragments, regardless of location, induced similar rates of coral larval settlement. This confirmed that recent thermal history does not influence the ability of CCA to induce settlement of A. millepora larvae.

  10. Distance to health services affects local-level vaccine efficacy for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) among rural Filipino children

    PubMed Central

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Anthamatten, Peter; Thomas, Deborah S. K.; Tallo, Veronica; Tanskanen, Antti; Quiambao, Beatriz P.; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Ruutu, Petri; Ladesma, Erma; Williams, Gail M.; Riley, Ian; Simões, Eric A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood pneumococcal disease in several regions globally. We demonstrate how spatial epidemiological analysis of a PCV trial can assist in developing vaccination strategies that target specific geographic subpopulations at greater risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent PCV among children less than 2 y of age in Bohol, Philippines. Trial data were linked to the residential location of each participant using a geographic information system. We use spatial interpolation methods to create smoothed surface maps of vaccination rates and local-level vaccine efficacy across the study area. We then measure the relationship between distance to the main study hospital and local-level vaccine efficacy, controlling for ecological factors, using spatial autoregressive models with spatial autoregressive disturbances. We find a significant amount of spatial variation in vaccination rates across the study area. For the primary study endpoint vaccine efficacy increased with distance from the main study hospital from −14% for children living less than 1.5 km from Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) to 55% for children living greater than 8.5 km from BRH. Spatial regression models indicated that after adjustment for ecological factors, distance to the main study hospital was positively related to vaccine efficacy, increasing at a rate of 4.5% per kilometer distance. Because areas with poor access to care have significantly higher VE, targeted vaccination of children in these areas might allow for a more effective implementation of global programs. PMID:24550454

  11. Distance to health services affects local-level vaccine efficacy for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) among rural Filipino children.

    PubMed

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Anthamatten, Peter; Thomas, Deborah S K; Tallo, Veronica; Tanskanen, Antti; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lupisan, Socorro P; Ruutu, Petri; Ladesma, Erma; Williams, Gail M; Riley, Ian; Simões, Eric A F

    2014-03-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood pneumococcal disease in several regions globally. We demonstrate how spatial epidemiological analysis of a PCV trial can assist in developing vaccination strategies that target specific geographic subpopulations at greater risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent PCV among children less than 2 y of age in Bohol, Philippines. Trial data were linked to the residential location of each participant using a geographic information system. We use spatial interpolation methods to create smoothed surface maps of vaccination rates and local-level vaccine efficacy across the study area. We then measure the relationship between distance to the main study hospital and local-level vaccine efficacy, controlling for ecological factors, using spatial autoregressive models with spatial autoregressive disturbances. We find a significant amount of spatial variation in vaccination rates across the study area. For the primary study endpoint vaccine efficacy increased with distance from the main study hospital from -14% for children living less than 1.5 km from Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) to 55% for children living greater than 8.5 km from BRH. Spatial regression models indicated that after adjustment for ecological factors, distance to the main study hospital was positively related to vaccine efficacy, increasing at a rate of 4.5% per kilometer distance. Because areas with poor access to care have significantly higher VE, targeted vaccination of children in these areas might allow for a more effective implementation of global programs. PMID:24550454

  12. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Auer, Jasmin S; Nagel, Anja C; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-12-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) and a phospho-mimetic Su(H) (MAPK-ac) isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vg (BE) -lacZ). In general, Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H) (MAPK-ac) was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vg (BE) -lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DER (act) ) or the MAPK (rl (SEM) ) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones.

  13. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  14. North Atlantic Oscillation affecting aerosols ground levels over Europe through local processes: asymmetries in time and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerez, Sonia; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montávez, Juan Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental and health problem. Hence, understanding when and why episodes of air pollution arise becomes essential. Besides emissions, air pollution levels depend on the atmospheric conditions handling and transforming them through processes related to chemistry, transport and removal. In this sense, this contribution assesses the variation in ground-level aerosols concentrations over Europe associated to changes in the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) motivated by the well-known strong impact of the NAO on the European climate variability. For that we used a high-resolution (25 km) air quality simulation spanning the period 1970-1999 and covering western Europe and most of the Mediterranean basin. Additionally, we used observed aerosol data from the EMEP database whose observational periods range between 1993 and 2010. The simulation was performed by using climatological boundary conditions for the aerosols concentrations, hence allowing to isolate the influence of the local atmospheric processes, as they are governed by the NAO, on the levels of the various aerosol species analyzed (namely sea salt, wind-blown and resuspended dust, secondary inorganic aerosols, organic matter and elemental carbon) from the influence of large-scale mechanisms. The results highlight that positive NAO phases favor increased aerosols levels in southern (northern) regions in winter (summer), while negative NAO phases enhance them in northern (southern) regions in winter (summer), being generally in good agreement with the analysis based on the observational database. Variations are up to and over 100% for most aerosols, being clearly related to the NAO-impact on local precipitation and wind, as they act to clean the atmosphere through removal and dispersion processes, but equally resulting from the NAO-impact on the radiation balance (i.e. cloudiness) as it rebounds on the biogenic emitting activity and on the oxidative capacity of the

  15. Do local adaptation and the reproductive tactic of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affect offspring metabolic capacities?

    PubMed

    Rossignol, O; Dodson, J J; Marquilly, C; Guderley, H

    2010-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is an iteroparous, anadromous species that exhibits some of the greatest within-population variability in size and age at maturity of all vertebrates. In the conditional reproductive strategy of salmonids, the male reproductive tactic expressed is believed to depend on an individual male's status relative to others in the population and therefore depends on his capacity to attain a physiological threshold, the exact nature of which is unknown. Although the threshold is influenced by local biotic and abiotic conditions, it is likely to be under genetic control. Our study examined whether the early growth, muscle metabolic capacities, routine metabolic rate, and spontaneous swimming of salmon alevins reared in laboratory conditions varied with the population of origin, maternal investment, and the paternal reproductive tactic. Our experimental design allowed us to establish that neither the population of origin nor the paternal reproductive tactic influenced the physiological capacities of alevins. The strong influence of the mother on alevin metabolic capacities suggests that the bioenergetic differences in metabolic capacities, realized metabolic rates, and activity levels that could eventually dictate the reproductive tactic of male offspring may originate in maternal effects. PMID:20350165

  16. Diversity and Composition of the Leaf Mycobiome of Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Are Affected by Local Habitat Conditions and Leaf Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Unterseher, Martin; Siddique, Abu Bakar; Brachmann, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Comparative investigations of plant-associated fungal communities (mycobiomes) in distinct habitats and under distinct climate regimes have been rarely conducted in the past. Nowadays, high-throughput sequencing allows routine examination of mycobiome responses to environmental changes and results at an unprecedented level of detail. In the present study, we analysed Illumina-generated fungal ITS1 sequences from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) originating from natural habitats at two different altitudes in the German Alps and from a managed tree nursery in northern Germany. In general, leaf-inhabiting mycobiome diversity and composition correlated significantly with the origin of the trees. Under natural condition the mycobiome was more diverse at lower than at higher elevation, whereas fungal diversity was lowest in the artificial habitat of the tree nursery. We further identified significant correlation of leaf chlorophylls and flavonoids with both habitat parameters and mycobiome biodiversity. The present results clearly point towards a pronounced importance of local stand conditions for the structure of beech leaf mycobiomes and for a close interrelation of phyllosphere fungi and leaf physiology. PMID:27078859

  17. Diversity and Composition of the Leaf Mycobiome of Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Are Affected by Local Habitat Conditions and Leaf Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Unterseher, Martin; Siddique, Abu Bakar; Brachmann, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Comparative investigations of plant-associated fungal communities (mycobiomes) in distinct habitats and under distinct climate regimes have been rarely conducted in the past. Nowadays, high-throughput sequencing allows routine examination of mycobiome responses to environmental changes and results at an unprecedented level of detail. In the present study, we analysed Illumina-generated fungal ITS1 sequences from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) originating from natural habitats at two different altitudes in the German Alps and from a managed tree nursery in northern Germany. In general, leaf-inhabiting mycobiome diversity and composition correlated significantly with the origin of the trees. Under natural condition the mycobiome was more diverse at lower than at higher elevation, whereas fungal diversity was lowest in the artificial habitat of the tree nursery. We further identified significant correlation of leaf chlorophylls and flavonoids with both habitat parameters and mycobiome biodiversity. The present results clearly point towards a pronounced importance of local stand conditions for the structure of beech leaf mycobiomes and for a close interrelation of phyllosphere fungi and leaf physiology. PMID:27078859

  18. How User Characteristics Affect Use Patterns in Web-Based Illness Management Support for Patients with Breast and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cvancarova, Milada; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Moore, Shirley M; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequently eHealth applications are not used as intended and they have high attrition rates; therefore, a better understanding of patients’ need for support is warranted. Specifically, more research is needed to identify which system components target different patient groups and under what conditions. Objective To explore user characteristics associated with the use of different system components of a Web-based illness management support system for cancer patients (WebChoice). Methods For this secondary post hoc analysis of a large randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which WebChoice was tested among 325 breast cancer and prostate cancer patients who were followed with repeated measures for 1 year, usage patterns of 162 cancer patients in the intervention arm with access to WebChoice were extracted from the user log. Logistic regression was performed to identify patterns of associations between system use and patient characteristics. Latent class analyses (LCA) were performed to identify associations among the use of different system components and levels of social support, symptom distress, depression, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results Approximately two-thirds (103/162, 63.6%) of the patients logged on to WebChoice more than once, and were defined as users. A high level of computer experience (odds ratio [OR] 3.77, 95% CI 1.20-11.91) and not having other illnesses in addition to cancer (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.02-4.34) increased the overall probability of using WebChoice. LCA showed that both men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer who had low scores on social support accompanied with high levels of symptom distress and high levels of depression were more likely to use the e-message component. For men with prostate cancer, these variables were also associated with high use of the self-management advice component. We found important differences between men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer when

  19. GRP-3 and KAPP, encoding interactors of WAK1, negatively affect defense responses induced by oligogalacturonides and local response to wounding

    PubMed Central

    Gramegna, Giovanna; Modesti, Vanessa; Savatin, Daniel V.; Sicilia, Francesca; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) act as danger signals to activate the plant immune response. These molecules are recognized by surface receptors that are referred to as pattern recognition receptors. Oligogalacturonides (OGs), DAMPs released from the plant cell wall homogalacturonan, have also been proposed to act as local signals in the response to wounding. The Arabidopsis Wall-Associated Kinase 1 (WAK1), a receptor of OGs, has been described to form a complex with a cytoplasmic plasma membrane-localized kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) and a glycine-rich protein (GRP-3) that we find localized mainly in the cell wall and, in a small part, on the plasma membrane. By using Arabidopsis plants overexpressing WAK1, and both grp-3 and kapp null insertional mutant and overexpressing plants, we demonstrate a positive function of WAK1 and a negative function of GRP-3 and KAPP in the OG-triggered expression of defence genes and the production of an oxidative burst. The three proteins also affect the local response to wounding and the basal resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. GRP-3 and KAPP are likely to function in the phasing out of the plant immune response. PMID:26748394

  20. A multi-centre retrospective study of mandibular fractures: do occlusal support and the mandibular third molar affect mandibular angle and condylar fractures?

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, T; Sadakane, H; Kobayashi, M; Tachibana, A; Oko, T; Ishida, Y; Fujita, T; Takenono, I; Komatsubara, H; Takeuchi, J; Ichiki, K; Miyai, D; Komori, T

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study was performed to investigate the influence of occlusal support and the presence, state, and position of mandibular third molars on the incidence of mandibular angle and condylar fractures. The following variables were investigated: age, sex, cause of fracture, presence and state (impaction, angulation, and the number of roots) of the mandibular third molars, site of the mandibular fracture, presence of occlusal support, duration of intermaxillary fixation, and postoperative complications. Various risk factors for mandibular angle and condylar fractures were investigated by univariate analysis. The risk of mandibular angle fracture was significantly higher in patients with occlusal support and mandibular third molars. The risk of condylar fracture was significantly higher in patients without occlusal support or mandibular third molars. The position and angulation of the mandibular third molars were not significant risk factors in mandibular angle and condylar fractures. This study demonstrated the influence of occlusal support and the presence of mandibular third molars on the incidence of mandibular angle and condylar fractures. The presence of occlusal support may be a more important factor affecting mandibular angle or condylar fractures than the position of the mandibular third molars.

  1. Early Warning Implementation Guide: "Using the Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) and Local Data to Identify, Diagnose, Support, and Monitor Students in Grades 1-12"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide information on how to use early warning data, including the Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS), to identify, diagnose, support and monitor students in grades 1-12. It offers educators an overview of EWIS and how to effectively use these data in conjunction with local data by following a…

  2. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Petra A; Carlson, Bradley A; Anderson, Christine B; Seifried, Harold E; Hatfield, Dolph L; Howard, Michael T

    2015-08-06

    Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake.

  3. Cigarette smoke affects keratinocytes SRB1 expression and localization via H2O2 production and HNE protein adducts formation.

    PubMed

    Sticozzi, Claudia; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Arezzini, Beatrice; Gardi, Concetta; Maioli, Emanuela; Miracco, Clelia; Toscano, Marzia; Forman, Henry Jay; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Scavenger Receptor B1 (SR-B1), also known as HDL receptor, is involved in cellular cholesterol uptake. Stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, is composed of more than 25% cholesterol. Several reports support the view that alteration of SC lipid composition may be the cause of impaired barrier function which gives rise to several skin diseases. For this reason the regulation of the genes involved in cholesterol uptake is of extreme significance for skin health. Being the first shield against external insults, the skin is exposed to several noxious substances and among these is cigarette smoke (CS), which has been recently associated with various skin pathologies. In this study we first have shown the presence of SR-B1 in murine and human skin tissue and then by using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, RT-PCR, and confocal microscopy we have demonstrated the translocation and the subsequent lost of SR-B1 in human keratinocytes (cell culture model) after CS exposure is driven by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) that derives not only from the CS gas phase but mainly from the activation of cellular NADPH oxidase (NOX). This effect was reversed when the cells were pretreated with NOX inhibitors or catalase. Furthermore, CS caused the formation of SR-B1-aldheydes adducts (acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) and the increase of its ubiquitination, which could be one of the causes of SR-B1 loss. In conclusion, exposure to CS, through the production of H(2)O(2), induced post-translational modifications of SR-B1 with the consequence lost of the receptor and this may contribute to the skin physiology alteration as a consequence of the variation of cholesterol uptake.

  4. Dorsolateral prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression locally affects alpha power of REM sleep

    PubMed Central

    Pellicciari, Maria Concetta; Cordone, Susanna; Marzano, Cristina; Bignotti, Stefano; Gazzoli, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Sleep alterations are among the most important disabling manifestation symptoms of Major Depression Disorder (MDD). A critical role of sleep importance is also underlined by the fact that its adjustment has been proposed as an objective marker of clinical remission in MDD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) represents a relatively novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of drug-resistant depression. Nevertheless, besides clinical evaluation of the mood improvement after rTMS, we have no clear understanding of what are the neurophysiological correlates of such treatment. One possible marker underlying the clinical outcome of rTMS in MDD could be cortical changes on wakefulness and sleep activity. The aim of this open-label study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sequential bilateral rTMS treatment over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to improve the mood in MDD patients, and to determine if rTMS can induce changes on the sleep structure, and if those changes can be used as a surrogate marker of the clinical state of the patient. Ten drug-resistant depressed patients participated to ten daily sessions of sequential bilateral rTMS with a low-frequency TMS (1 Hz) over right-DLPFC and a subsequent high-frequency (10 Hz) TMS over left-DLPFC. The clinical and neurophysiological effects induced by rTMS were evaluated, respectively by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and by comparing the sleep pattern modulations and the spatial changes of EEG frequency bands during both NREM and REM sleep, before and after the real rTMS treatment. The sequential bilateral rTMS treatment over the DLPFC induced topographical-specific decrease of the alpha activity during REM sleep over left-DLPFC, which is significantly associated to the clinical outcome. In line with the notion of a left frontal hypoactivation in MDD patients, the observed local decrease of alpha activity after rTMS treatment during the REM sleep suggests that alpha frequency

  5. Non-supportive Parenting Affects Telomere Length in Young Adulthood Among African Americans: Mediation through Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of age related changes at the cellular level associated with heightened mortality risk. The effect of non-supportive parenting (NSP) during late adolescence and young adulthood on TL 5 years later was examined in a sample of N = 183 young adult African Americans to determine if effects of NSP on TL were mediated by substance use. Results indicated that the effect of caregiver reported NSP on diminished TL was mediated by escalation of drinking and smoking in young adulthood, even after controlling effects of socioeconomic status risk, gender, BMI, young adult stress, and intervention status. Results suggest that prevention of NSP may influence later physical health consequences by influencing substance use trajectory. PMID:25485673

  6. A decision support tool for simulating the effects of alternative policies affecting water resources: an application at the European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassio, A.; Giupponi, C.; Hiederer, R.; Simota, C.

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the methodology applied and results obtained from testing the Decision Support System 'mDSS' developed by the MULINO Project (Multi-sectoral, integrated and operational decision support system for the sustainable use of water resources at the catchment scale), for assessing alternative measures for the reduction of nitrogen pressure from agriculture on water resources at European level. The European policy background is set by the EU Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) and the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The nature of the research is exploratory. It is aimed in particular at testing the usefulness of available official statistics for ex ante evaluations of alternative policy measures at the European scale, and the feasibility of such operations within the newly released mDSS software. Alternative measures for reducing N-pressure and spatial targets were designed and simulated in a GIS environment based on raster maps of 1 km resolution. The geographic extent of the present work is defined as the agricultural land of EU15. Data deriving from official statistics were used to calculate a simplified nitrogen balance, in which the sources of nitrogen are separated into organic (livestock manure) and mineral fertilisers, to distinguish the potential contribution of livestock and crop productions to water pollution at the river basin scale. Spatial indicators and evaluation indices were defined within a conceptual framework. For the study the DPSIR approach (Driving force, Pressure, State, Impact, Response), proposed by the European Environmental Agency, was adopted. The approach was subsequently elaborated by means of the multi-criteria functionality provided by mDSS. The results of this application test at the regional scale highlight the potential of the tool for evaluating the effects of policy measures targeted at different spatial implementation strategies through the application of simple screening models and using available data

  7. What is below the support layer affects carbon nanotube growth: an iron catalyst reservoir yields taller nanotube carpets.

    PubMed

    Shawat, E; Mor, V; Oakes, L; Fleger, Y; Pint, C L; Nessim, G D

    2014-01-01

    Here we demonstrate an approach to enhance the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by including a catalyst reservoir underneath the thin-film alumina catalyst underlayer. This reservoir led to enhanced CNT growth due to the migration of catalytic material from below the underlayer up to the surface through alumina pinholes during processing. This led to the formation of large Fe particles, which in turn influenced the morphology evolution of the catalytic iron surface layer through Ostwald ripening. With inclusion of this catalyst reservoir, we observed CNT growth up to 100% taller than that observed without the catalyst reservoir consistently across a wide range of annealing and growth durations. Imaging studies of catalyst layers both for different annealing times and for different alumina support layer thicknesses demonstrate that the surface exposure of metal from the reservoir leads to an active population of smaller catalyst particles upon annealing as opposed to a bimodal catalyst size distribution that appears without inclusion of a reservoir. Overall, the mechanism for growth enhancement we present here demonstrates a new route to engineering efficient catalyst structures to overcome the limitations of CNT growth processes. PMID:24323364

  8. Application of an environmental decision support system to a water quality trading program affected by surface water diversions.

    PubMed

    Obropta, Christopher C; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon's (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions. PMID:18592303

  9. Student reactions to the shootings at Virginia Tech and Northern Illinois University: Does sharing grief and support over the internet affect recovery?

    PubMed

    Vicary, Amanda M; Fraley, R Chris

    2010-11-01

    After the shootings at Virginia Tech and Northern Illinois University, many students gravitated to the Internet for support. Despite the fact that the Internet plays a major role in how people live their lives in contemporary society, little is known about how people use the Internet in times of tragedy and whether this use affects well-being. To address these issues, the current study assessed the types of online activities more than 200 Virginia Tech and Northern Illinois University students participated in 2 weeks after the shootings and again 6 weeks later, as well as their depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Results showed that 2 weeks after the shootings, nearly 75% of students were suffering from significant psychological distress. Additionally, students participated in numerous online activities related to the shootings. Importantly, students perceived their Internet activities as being beneficial, although there was no evidence that Internet use affected their well-being.

  10. Development and Implementation of Dynamic Scripts to Support Local Model Verification at National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan L.; Gotway, John H.; White, Kristopher; Medlin, Jeffrey; Wood, Lance; Radell, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Local modeling with a customized configuration is conducted at National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to produce high-resolution numerical forecasts that can better simulate local weather phenomena and complement larger scale global and regional models. The advent of the Environmental Modeling System (EMS), which provides a pre-compiled version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and wrapper Perl scripts, has enabled forecasters to easily configure and execute the WRF model on local workstations. NWS WFOs often use EMS output to help in forecasting highly localized, mesoscale features such as convective initiation, the timing and inland extent of lake effect snow bands, lake and sea breezes, and topographically-modified winds. However, quantitatively evaluating model performance to determine errors and biases still proves to be one of the challenges in running a local model. Developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification software makes performing these types of quantitative analyses easier, but operational forecasters do not generally have time to familiarize themselves with navigating the sometimes complex configurations associated with the MET tools. To assist forecasters in running a subset of MET programs and capabilities, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed and transitioned a set of dynamic, easily configurable Perl scripts to collaborating NWS WFOs. The objective of these scripts is to provide SPoRT collaborating partners in the NWS with the ability to evaluate the skill of their local EMS model runs in near real time with little prior knowledge of the MET package. The ultimate goal is to make these verification scripts available to the broader NWS community in a future version of the EMS software. This paper provides an overview of the SPoRT MET scripts, instructions for how the scripts are run, and example use

  11. How Unwavering Is Support for the Local Property Tax?: Voting on School District Budgets in New York, 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Robert Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article examines voting results for school district budgets in New York from 2003-2010. Despite annual local property tax increases, 91.9% of proposed school district budgets were approved by voters during the period examined. Using data from the New York State Education Department (NYSED) and the American Community Survey (ACS), several…

  12. Brief Report: Suboptimal Auditory Localization in Autism Spectrum Disorder--Support for the Bayesian Account of Sensory Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Joshua C.; Gebauer, Line

    2016-01-01

    Convergent research suggests that people with ASD have difficulties localizing sounds in space. These difficulties have implications for communication, the development of social behavior, and quality of life. Recently, a theory has emerged which treats perceptual symptoms in ASD as the product of impairments in implicit Bayesian inference; as…

  13. A Study of Community Leaders in a Nuclear Host Community: Local Issues, Expectations and Support and Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfman, B. H.

    As part of a continuing effort to assess the social impacts on communities of energy facility planning, construction, operation, and decommissioning, a May 1977 survey of 37 community leaders in Hartsville, Tennessee (site of a nuclear power plant) establishes major local issues (past, present, and future) which leaders feel are important to…

  14. Forum Guide to Supporting Data Access for Researchers: A Local Education Agency Perspective. NFES 2014-801

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document recommends a set of core practices, operations, and templates that can be adopted and adapted by local education agencies (LEAs) as they consider how to respond to requests for both new and existing data about the education enterprise. These recommendations reflect core best practices for: (1) managing the flow of requests; (2)…

  15. Jury panel member perceptions of interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy predict support for execution in a capital murder trial simulation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennifer; Clark, John C; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Magyar, Melissa S

    2013-01-01

    Recent research with college undergraduate mock jurors suggests that how psychopathic they perceive a criminal defendant to be is a powerful predictor of whether they will support a death verdict in simulated capital murder trials. Perceived affective and interpersonal traits of psychopathy are especially predictive of support for capital punishment, with perceived remorselessness explaining a disproportionate amount of variance in these attitudes. The present study attempted to extend these findings with a more representative sample of community members called for jury duty (N = 304). Jurors reviewed a case vignette based on an actual capital murder trial, provided sentencing verdicts, and rated the defendant on several characteristics historically associated with the construct of psychopathy. Consistent with prior findings, remorselessness predicted death verdicts, as did the affective and interpersonal features of psychopathy - though the latter effect was more pronounced among jurors who were Caucasian and/or who described their political beliefs as moderate rather than conservative or liberal. Results are discussed in terms of the potentially stigmatizing effects of psychopathy evidence in capital cases.

  16. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: how the use of gender-fair language affects support for social initiatives in Austria and Poland.

    PubMed

    Formanowicz, Magdalena M; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Horvath, Lisa K; Sczesny, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers' support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives (Study 1: quotas for women on election lists; Study 2: support for women students or students from countries troubled by war) is affected by how female proponents (lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and academics) are referred to, with masculine forms (traditional) or with feminine forms (modern, gender-fair). Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our results indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts. Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language. PMID:26582996

  17. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: how the use of gender-fair language affects support for social initiatives in Austria and Poland

    PubMed Central

    Formanowicz, Magdalena M.; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Horvath, Lisa K.; Sczesny, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers' support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives (Study 1: quotas for women on election lists; Study 2: support for women students or students from countries troubled by war) is affected by how female proponents (lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and academics) are referred to, with masculine forms (traditional) or with feminine forms (modern, gender-fair). Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our results indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts. Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language. PMID:26582996

  18. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: how the use of gender-fair language affects support for social initiatives in Austria and Poland.

    PubMed

    Formanowicz, Magdalena M; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Horvath, Lisa K; Sczesny, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers' support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives (Study 1: quotas for women on election lists; Study 2: support for women students or students from countries troubled by war) is affected by how female proponents (lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and academics) are referred to, with masculine forms (traditional) or with feminine forms (modern, gender-fair). Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our results indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts. Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language.

  19. Jury panel member perceptions of interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy predict support for execution in a capital murder trial simulation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennifer; Clark, John C; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Magyar, Melissa S

    2013-01-01

    Recent research with college undergraduate mock jurors suggests that how psychopathic they perceive a criminal defendant to be is a powerful predictor of whether they will support a death verdict in simulated capital murder trials. Perceived affective and interpersonal traits of psychopathy are especially predictive of support for capital punishment, with perceived remorselessness explaining a disproportionate amount of variance in these attitudes. The present study attempted to extend these findings with a more representative sample of community members called for jury duty (N = 304). Jurors reviewed a case vignette based on an actual capital murder trial, provided sentencing verdicts, and rated the defendant on several characteristics historically associated with the construct of psychopathy. Consistent with prior findings, remorselessness predicted death verdicts, as did the affective and interpersonal features of psychopathy - though the latter effect was more pronounced among jurors who were Caucasian and/or who described their political beliefs as moderate rather than conservative or liberal. Results are discussed in terms of the potentially stigmatizing effects of psychopathy evidence in capital cases. PMID:23754472

  20. Mutation of light-dependent phosphorylation sites of the Drosophila transient receptor potential-like (TRPL) ion channel affects its subcellular localization and stability.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Alexander C; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-05-31

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation.

  1. Population imaging at subcellular resolution supports specific and local inhibition by granule cells in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Wienisch, Martin; Murthy, Venkatesh N.

    2016-01-01

    Information processing in early sensory regions is modulated by a diverse range of inhibitory interneurons. We sought to elucidate the role of olfactory bulb interneurons called granule cells (GCs) in odor processing by imaging the activity of hundreds of these cells simultaneously in mice. Odor responses in GCs were temporally diverse and spatially disperse, with some degree of non-random, modular organization. The overall sparseness of activation of GCs was highly correlated with the extent of glomerular activation by odor stimuli. Increasing concentrations of single odorants led to proportionately larger population activity, but some individual GCs had non-monotonic relations to concentration due to local inhibitory interactions. Individual dendritic segments could sometimes respond independently to odors, revealing their capacity for compartmentalized signaling in vivo. Collectively, the response properties of GCs point to their role in specific and local processing, rather than global operations such as response normalization proposed for other interneurons. PMID:27388949

  2. A Semi-Structured MODFLOW-USG Model to Evaluate Local Water Sources to Wells for Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Daniel T; Fienen, Michael N; Reeves, Howard W; Langevin, Christian D

    2016-07-01

    In order to better represent the configuration of the stream network and simulate local groundwater-surface water interactions, a version of MODFLOW with refined spacing in the topmost layer was applied to a Lake Michigan Basin (LMB) regional groundwater-flow model developed by the U.S. Geological. Regional MODFLOW models commonly use coarse grids over large areas; this coarse spacing precludes model application to local management issues (e.g., surface-water depletion by wells) without recourse to labor-intensive inset models. Implementation of an unstructured formulation within the MODFLOW framework (MODFLOW-USG) allows application of regional models to address local problems. A "semi-structured" approach (uniform lateral spacing within layers, different lateral spacing among layers) was tested using the LMB regional model. The parent 20-layer model with uniform 5000-foot (1524-m) lateral spacing was converted to 4 layers with 500-foot (152-m) spacing in the top glacial (Quaternary) layer, where surface water features are located, overlying coarser resolution layers representing deeper deposits. This semi-structured version of the LMB model reproduces regional flow conditions, whereas the finer resolution in the top layer improves the accuracy of the simulated response of surface water to shallow wells. One application of the semi-structured LMB model is to provide statistical measures of the correlation between modeled inputs and the simulated amount of water that wells derive from local surface water. The relations identified in this paper serve as the basis for metamodels to predict (with uncertainty) surface-water depletion in response to shallow pumping within and potentially beyond the modeled area, see Fienen et al. (2015a).

  3. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory: Building partnerships and developing tools to support local Tribal community response to climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. D.; Wee, B.; Kuslikis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Response of Tribal nations and Tribal communities to current and emerging climate change challenges requires active participation of stakeholders who have effective access to relevant data, information and analytical tools. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory (TLC), currently under development, is a joint effort between the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri), and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). The vision of the TLC is to create an integrative platform that enables coordination between multiple stakeholders (e.g. Tribal resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, farmers, ranchers, and other local community members) to collaborate on locally relevant climate change issues. The TLC is intended to facilitate the transformation of data into actionable information that can inform local climate response planning. The TLC will provide the technical mechanisms to access, collect and analyze data from both internal and external sources (e.g. NASA's Giovanni climate data portal, Ameriflux or USA National Phenology Network) while also providing the social scaffolds to enable collaboration across Tribal communities and with members of the national climate change research community. The prototype project focuses on phenology, a branch of science focused on relationships between climate and the seasonal timing of biological phenomena. Monitoring changes in the timing and duration of phenological stages in plant and animal co­­­­mmunities on Tribal lands can provide insight to the direct impacts of climate change on culturally and economically significant Tribal resources . The project will leverage existing phenological observation protocols created by the USA-National Phenology Network and NEON to direct data collection efforts and will be tailored to the specific needs and concerns of the community. Phenology observations will be captured and managed within the Collaboratory

  4. A semi-structured MODFLOW-USG model to evaluate local water sources to wells for decision support

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Reeves, Howard W.; Langevin, Christian D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better represent the configuration of the stream network and simulate local groundwater-surface water interactions, a version of MODFLOW with refined spacing in the topmost layer was applied to a Lake Michigan Basin (LMB) regional groundwater-flow model developed by the U.S. Geological. Regional MODFLOW models commonly use coarse grids over large areas; this coarse spacing precludes model application to local management issues (e.g., surface-water depletion by wells) without recourse to labor-intensive inset models. Implementation of an unstructured formulation within the MODFLOW framework (MODFLOW-USG) allows application of regional models to address local problems. A “semi-structured” approach (uniform lateral spacing within layers, different lateral spacing among layers) was tested using the LMB regional model. The parent 20-layer model with uniform 5000-foot (1524-m) lateral spacing was converted to 4 layers with 500-foot (152-m) spacing in the top glacial (Quaternary) layer, where surface water features are located, overlying coarser resolution layers representing deeper deposits. This semi-structured version of the LMB model reproduces regional flow conditions, whereas the finer resolution in the top layer improves the accuracy of the simulated response of surface water to shallow wells. One application of the semi-structured LMB model is to provide statistical measures of the correlation between modeled inputs and the simulated amount of water that wells derive from local surface water. The relations identified in this paper serve as the basis for metamodels to predict (with uncertainty) surface-water depletion in response to shallow pumping within and potentially beyond the modeled area, see Fienen et al. (2015a).

  5. Localization of cholesteryl sulfate in human spermatozoa in support of a hypothesis for the mechanism of capacitation.

    PubMed Central

    Langlais, J; Zollinger, M; Plante, L; Chapdelaine, A; Bleau, G; Roberts, K D

    1981-01-01

    Cholesteryl sulfate is a normal constituent of human spermatozoa. The in vitro uptake of tritiated cholesteryl sulfate resulted in the labeling of all spermatozoa as demonstrated by light-microscope radioautography. The binding of the sterol sulfate was localized mainly in the head and midpiece. Radioautography at the level of the electron microscope revealed that the sterol sulfate is localized on the plasma membrane, mostly in the region of the acrosome. Further proof of this localization was obtained by selective dissolution of the plasma membrane and acrosome of the spermatozoa with low concentrations of Triton X-100. This treatment resulted in the simultaneous removal of tritiated cholesteryl sulfate bound to the spermatozoa. A hypothesis is presented concerning the role of cholesteryl sulfate as a membrane stabilizer and enzyme inhibitor during the maturation of spermatozoa in the epididymis. According to this hypothesis, the cleavage of the sulfate moiety within the female reproductive tract triggers a cascade of events leading to sperm capacitation and fertilization. Images PMID:6950375

  6. How family support affects physical activity (PA) among middle-aged and elderly people before and after they suffer from chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Su-Chuan; Weng, Shuo-Chun; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tang, Yih-Jing; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Chen, Der-Yuan; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Chia-Hui; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The more support elderly people have from their family, the less likely they are to suffer from chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate how family support affects the PA middle-aged and elderly people engage in before and after they suffer from chronic diseases. We interviewed 428 middle-aged and elderly people using a structured questionnaire to measure their aerobic PA. Eighteen percent of middle-aged and elderly people did participate in PA after suffering from chronic diseases. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found that middle-aged and elderly people who rely on family members when they are sick (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.08-3.25) and who are accompanied by family members (OR=2.09, 95%CI=1.20-3.62) when they are healthy are more likely to exercise. The more middle-aged and elderly people are supported by their family, the more likely they are to exercise. Strengthening family relationships should help reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases among middle-aged and elderly people.

  7. Care for the most vulnerable children in Tanzania: a faith-based model of care and support for children affected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Mmbando, Paul; Hartwig, Kari A; Hofgren, Berit; Disorbo, Phil; Smith, Shelley; Hartwig, Kristopher N

    2009-01-01

    In the fight against HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, the plight of orphaned and vulnerable children was long overlooked. The first United Nations report on orphans and vulnerable children did not emerge until 2002 after more than two generations of children and youth had struggled to survive with limited family, institutional, or government support. The major social determinants of health for infants and children with one or more parents dying or dead from HIV include pervasive poverty, weak community social support systems, lack of policy commitment by governments or foreign donors, lack of access to anti-retroviral drugs, limited access to schools, and gender. In this paper, we present a model of care and support to the most vulnerable children (MVC) affected by HIV that brings together faith-based institutions in partnership with the government and community volunteers in 13 rural districts of Tanzania. Although still being implemented, the project has a number of valuable lessons learned for program managers, donors, and researchers working with faith-based organizations in the development and delivery of services to the most vulnerable children in a resource-limited setting. PMID:20168028

  8. Uncertainty Analysis of Coupled Socioeconomic-Cropping Models: Building Confidence in Climate Change Decision-Support Tools for Local Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Rojas, M.; Adamowski, J. F.; Gálvez, J.; Tuy, H. A.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.

    2015-12-01

    While cropping models represent the biophysical aspects of agricultural systems, system dynamics modelling offers the possibility of representing the socioeconomic (including social and cultural) aspects of these systems. The two types of models can then be coupled in order to include the socioeconomic dimensions of climate change adaptation in the predictions of cropping models.We develop a dynamically coupled socioeconomic-biophysical model of agricultural production and its repercussions on food security in two case studies from Guatemala (a market-based, intensive agricultural system and a low-input, subsistence crop-based system). Through the specification of the climate inputs to the cropping model, the impacts of climate change on the entire system can be analysed, and the participatory nature of the system dynamics model-building process, in which stakeholders from NGOs to local governmental extension workers were included, helps ensure local trust in and use of the model.However, the analysis of climate variability's impacts on agroecosystems includes uncertainty, especially in the case of joint physical-socioeconomic modelling, and the explicit representation of this uncertainty in the participatory development of the models is important to ensure appropriate use of the models by the end users. In addition, standard model calibration, validation, and uncertainty interval estimation techniques used for physically-based models are impractical in the case of socioeconomic modelling. We present a methodology for the calibration and uncertainty analysis of coupled biophysical (cropping) and system dynamics (socioeconomic) agricultural models, using survey data and expert input to calibrate and evaluate the uncertainty of the system dynamics as well as of the overall coupled model. This approach offers an important tool for local decision makers to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change and their feedbacks through the associated socioeconomic system.

  9. The association of family social support, depression, anxiety and self-efficacy with specific hypertension self-care behaviours in Chinese local community.

    PubMed

    Hu, H H; Li, G; Arao, T

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to test the role of family social support, depression, anxiety and self-efficacy on specific self-care behaviours. In a local community health center, 318 patients with hypertension completed a questionnaire assessing self-care, family social support, depression, anxiety and self-efficacy in 2012. Each self-care behaviour was separately analyzed with logistic regression models. The mean score of perceived family social support for hypertension treatment was 20.91 (maximum=60). Adult children were identified as the primary support source. Approximately 22.3% and 15.4% of participants reported symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Participants had moderately positive levels of confidence performing self-care (42.1±13.3 out of 60). After adjusting for demographic and health variables, a 10-unit increase in family social support increased the odds ratio (OR) of taking medication by 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.87) and increased the OR for measuring blood pressure (BP) regularly by 1.33 (95% CI 1.02-1.74). Depression and anxiety were not associated with any self-care behaviours. A10-unit increase in self-efficacy increased the adjusted OR for performing physical exercise to 1.25 (95% CI 1.04-1.49). In conclusion, family social support was positively associated with medication adherence and regular BP measurement. Strategies to improve family social support should be developed for hypertension control, yet further prospective studies are needed to understand the effects of family social support, depression, anxiety and self-efficacy on self-care behaviours.

  10. Implementation of a Computerized Decision Support System to Improve the Appropriateness of Antibiotic Therapy Using Local Microbiologic Data

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Maresca, Manuel; Sorlozano, Antonio; Grau, Magnolia; Rodriguez-Castaño, Rocio; Ruiz-Valverde, Andres; Gutierrez-Fernandez, Jose

    2014-01-01

    A prospective quasi-experimental study was undertaken in 218 patients with suspicion of nosocomial infection hospitalized in a polyvalent ICU where a new electronic device (GERB) has been designed for antibiotic prescriptions. Two GERB-based applications were developed to provide local resistance maps (LRMs) and preliminary microbiological reports with therapeutic recommendation (PMRTRs). Both applications used the data in the Laboratory Information System of the Microbiology Department to report on the optimal empiric therapeutic option, based on the most likely susceptibility profile of the microorganisms potentially responsible for infection in patients and taking into account the local epidemiology of the hospital department/unit. LRMs were used for antibiotic prescription in 20.2% of the patients and PMRTRs in 78.2%, and active antibiotics against the finally identified bacteria were prescribed in 80.0% of the former group and 82.4% of the latter. When neither LMRs nor PMRTRs were considered for empiric treatment prescription, only around 40% of the antibiotics prescribed were active. Hence, the percentage appropriateness of the empiric antibiotic treatments was significantly higher when LRM or PMRTR guidelines were followed rather than other criteria. LRMs and PMRTRs applications are dynamic, highly accessible, and readily interpreted instruments that contribute to the appropriateness of empiric antibiotic treatments. PMID:25197643

  11. [Comparison of cryogenic support systems of surgical instruments for the local destruction of large biological tissue lesions].

    PubMed

    Boiarskiĭ, M Iu; Filippov, Iu P

    1978-01-01

    Of two types of systems for cryogenic support (SCS) of surgical instruments made with open and closed contours those of the discharge type meet to a greater extent basic requirements on the SCS as concerns destruction of extensive areas of the biological tissue. These SCS permit it more readily to withstand optimal conditions of cooling, can secure better reliability in performing operations, offer greater possibilities for unification of parts in packing up the set and for covering a wider range of operations. In cases when it is important to provide for self-containment and a longer period of continuous operation the application of the SCS with a closed contour is more advisable.

  12. Innovations in Primary Health Care: the use of communications technology and information tools to support local management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luiz Felipe; Rocha, Cristianne Maria Famer

    2016-05-01

    Social media has been used in different contexts as a way to streamline the flow of data and information for decision making. This has contributed to the issue of knowledge production in networks and the expansion of communication channels so that there is greater access to health services. This article describes the results of research done on 16 Information Technology and Communications Observatories in Health Care - OTICS Network in Rio - covering the Municipal Health Secretariat in Rio de Janeiro which supported the integration of primary health care and promoted the monitoring of health. It is a descriptive case study. The results relate to the support given to employees in training covering the dissemination of information, communication, training and information management in primary health care. This innovative means of communication in public health, with very little cost to the Unified Health System (SUS), allowed for a weekly registering of work processes for teams that worked in 193 primary health care units (APS) using blogs, whose total accesses reached the seven million mark in mid-2015. In the future there is a possibility that distance learning tools could be used to assist in training processes and in the continuing education of professionals in family health teams.

  13. Innovations in Primary Health Care: the use of communications technology and information tools to support local management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luiz Felipe; Rocha, Cristianne Maria Famer

    2016-05-01

    Social media has been used in different contexts as a way to streamline the flow of data and information for decision making. This has contributed to the issue of knowledge production in networks and the expansion of communication channels so that there is greater access to health services. This article describes the results of research done on 16 Information Technology and Communications Observatories in Health Care - OTICS Network in Rio - covering the Municipal Health Secretariat in Rio de Janeiro which supported the integration of primary health care and promoted the monitoring of health. It is a descriptive case study. The results relate to the support given to employees in training covering the dissemination of information, communication, training and information management in primary health care. This innovative means of communication in public health, with very little cost to the Unified Health System (SUS), allowed for a weekly registering of work processes for teams that worked in 193 primary health care units (APS) using blogs, whose total accesses reached the seven million mark in mid-2015. In the future there is a possibility that distance learning tools could be used to assist in training processes and in the continuing education of professionals in family health teams. PMID:27166893

  14. Developing a Forest Health Index for public engagement and decision support using local climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Cundiff, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest health is an oft-used term without a generally accepted definition. Nonetheless, the concept of forest health continues to permeate scientific, resource management, and public discourse, and it is viewed as a helpful communication device for engagement on issues of concern to forests and their surrounding communities. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with defining the concept of 'forest health,' we present a model for assessing forest health at a watershed scale. Utilizing the Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado--a mountain watershed of 640,000 forested acres--as a case study, we have created a Forest Health Index that integrates a range of climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data into an assessment organized along a series of public goals including, 1) Ecosystem Services, 2) Public Health & Safety, 3) Sustainable Use & Management, and 4) Ecological Integrity. Methods for this index were adopted from an earlier effort called the Ocean Health Index by Halpern et al, 2012. Indicators that represent drivers of change, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as effects of change, such as primary productivity and phenology, were selected. Each indicator is assessed by comparing a current status of that indicator to a reference scenario obtained through one of the following methods: a) statistical analysis of baseline data from the indicator record, b) commonly accepted normals, thresholds, limits, concentrations, etc., and c) subjective expert judgment. The result of this assessment is a presentation of graphical data and accompanying ratings that combine to form an index of health for the watershed forest ecosystem. We find this product to have potential merit for communities working to assess the range of conditions affecting forest health as well as making sense of the outcomes of those affects. Here, we present a description of the index methodology, data results from engagement with forest watershed stakeholders, example results of data

  15. Interventions for Children Affected by Armed Conflict: a Systematic Review of Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Jordans, Mark J D; Pigott, Hugo; Tol, Wietse A

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion children under the age of 18 live in countries affected by armed conflict. This systematic review replicates an earlier study, aiming to provide a comprehensive update of the most current developments in interventions for children affected by armed conflict. For the period 2009-2015, a total of 1538 records were collected from PubMed, PsycINFO, and PILOTS. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and the included interventions involve data from 4858 children. Although the number of publications and level of evidence has improved since the previous review, there is still a general lack of rigor and clarity in study design and reported results. Overall, interventions appeared to show promising results demonstrating mostly moderate effect sizes on mental health and psychosocial well-being. However, these positive intervention benefits are often limited to specific subgroups. There is a need for increased diversification in research focus, with more attention to interventions that focus at strengthening community and family support, and to young children, and improvements in targeting and conceptualizing of interventions.

  16. Interventions for Children Affected by Armed Conflict: a Systematic Review of Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Jordans, Mark J D; Pigott, Hugo; Tol, Wietse A

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion children under the age of 18 live in countries affected by armed conflict. This systematic review replicates an earlier study, aiming to provide a comprehensive update of the most current developments in interventions for children affected by armed conflict. For the period 2009-2015, a total of 1538 records were collected from PubMed, PsycINFO, and PILOTS. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and the included interventions involve data from 4858 children. Although the number of publications and level of evidence has improved since the previous review, there is still a general lack of rigor and clarity in study design and reported results. Overall, interventions appeared to show promising results demonstrating mostly moderate effect sizes on mental health and psychosocial well-being. However, these positive intervention benefits are often limited to specific subgroups. There is a need for increased diversification in research focus, with more attention to interventions that focus at strengthening community and family support, and to young children, and improvements in targeting and conceptualizing of interventions. PMID:26769198

  17. Meta-analysis reveals an association of PTPN22 C1858T with autoimmune diseases, which depends on the localization of the affected tissue.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Ibrahim, S; Petersen, F; Yu, X

    2012-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is a strong susceptibility gene shared by many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying this relationship. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the association between PTPN22 polymorphism C1858T and autoimmune diseases. The results showed a remarkable pattern; PTPN22 C1858T was strongly associated with type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, immune thrombocytopenia, generalized vitiligo with concomitant autoimmune diseases, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, Graves' disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Addison's disease. By contrast, PTPN22 C1858T showed a negligible association with systemic sclerosis, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, pemphigus vulgaris, ulcerative colitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, Crohn's disease and acute anterior uveitis. Further analysis revealed a clear distinction between the two groups of diseases with regard to their targeted tissues: most autoimmune diseases showing an insignificant association with PTPN22 C1858T manifest in skin, the gastrointestinal tract or in immune privileged sites. These results showed that the association of PTPN22 polymorphism with autoimmune diseases depends on the localization of the affected tissue, suggesting a role of targeted organ variation in the disease manifestations. PMID:23076337

  18. Local T/B cooperation in inflamed tissues is supported by T follicular helper-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Vu Van, Dana; Beier, Katja C.; Pietzke, Lea-Jean; Al Baz, Maysun S.; Feist, Randi K.; Gurka, Stephanie; Hamelmann, Eckard; Kroczek, Richard A.; Hutloff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases and other inflammatory conditions are characterized by large lymphocytic tissue infiltrates in which T and B cells can be found in close contact. Here, using a murine airway inflammation model, we compare antigen-specific T and B cells in lung tissue versus lung-draining lymph node. In the lung we identify a B-cell population exhibiting a classical germinal centre phenotype without being organized into ectopic lymphoid tissue. By contrast, classical CXCR5+ Bcl-6+ T follicular helper cells are not present. Nevertheless, lung-infiltrating T cells exhibit follicular helper-like properties including the potential to provide help to naive B cells. The lung tissue is also a survival niche for memory T and B cells remaining in residual peribronchial infiltrates after resolution of inflammation. Collectively, this study shows the importance of T/B cooperation not only in lymph nodes but also in inflamed peripheral tissues for local antibody responses to infection and autoimmunity. PMID:26915335

  19. Clinical Data Systems to Support Public Health Practice: A National Survey of Software and Storage Systems Among Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Context: Numerous software and data storage systems are employed by local health departments (LHDs) to manage clinical and nonclinical data needs. Leveraging electronic systems may yield improvements in public health practice. However, information is lacking regarding current usage patterns among LHDs. Objective: To analyze clinical and nonclinical data storage and software types by LHDs. Design: Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County and City Health Officials. Participants: A total of 324 LHDs from all 50 states completed the survey (response rate: 50%). Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included LHD's primary clinical service data system, nonclinical data system(s) used, and plans to adopt electronic clinical data system (if not already in use). Predictors of interest included jurisdiction size and governance type, and other informatics capacities within the LHD. Bivariate analyses were performed using χ2 and t tests. Results: Up to 38.4% of LHDs reported using an electronic health record (EHR). Usage was common especially among LHDs that provide primary care and/or dental services. LHDs serving smaller populations and those with state-level governance were both less likely to use an EHR. Paper records were a common data storage approach for both clinical data (28.9%) and nonclinical data (59.4%). Among LHDs without an EHR, 84.7% reported implementation plans. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that LHDs are increasingly using EHRs as a clinical data storage solution and that more LHDs are likely to adopt EHRs in the foreseeable future. Yet use of paper records remains common. Correlates of electronic system usage emerged across a range of factors. Program- or system-specific needs may be barriers or facilitators to EHR adoption. Policy makers can tailor resources to address barriers specific to LHD size, governance, service

  20. The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Manuel; Seehausen, Ole; Güntert, Marcel; Hertwig, Stefan T

    2010-03-01

    Vicariance is thought to have played a major role in the evolution of modern parrots. However, as the relationships especially of the African taxa remained mostly unresolved, it has been difficult to draw firm conclusions about the roles of dispersal and vicariance. Our analyses using the broadest taxon sampling of old world parrots ever based on 3219bp of three nuclear genes revealed well-resolved and congruent phylogenetic hypotheses. Agapornis of Africa and Madagascar was found to be the sister group to Loriculus of Australasia and Indo-Malayasia and together they clustered with the Australasian Loriinae, Cyclopsittacini and Melopsittacus. Poicephalus and Psittacus from mainland Africa formed the sister group of the Neotropical Arini and Coracopsis from Madagascar and adjacent islands may be the closest relative of Psittrichas from New Guinea. These biogeographic relationships are best explained by independent colonization of the African continent via trans-oceanic dispersal from Australasia and Antarctica in the Paleogene following what may have been vicariance events in the late Cretaceous and/or early Paleogene. Our data support a taxon pulse model for the diversification of parrots whereby trans-oceanic dispersal played a more important role than previously thought and was the prerequisite for range expansion into new continents.

  1. Temperature-dependent local structural properties of redox Pt nanoparticles on TiO2 and ZrO2 supports

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Eun -Suk; Park, Chang -In; Jin, Zhenlan; Hwang, In -Hui; Son, Jae -Kwan; Kim, Mi -Young; Choi, Jae -Soon; Han, Sang -Wook

    2015-01-21

    This paper examined the local structural properties of Pt nanoparticles on SiO2, TiO2–SiO2, and ZrO2–SiO2 supports to better understand the impact of oxide-support type on the performance of Pt-based catalysts. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements were taken for the Pt L3-edge in a temperature range from 300 to 700 K in He, H2, and O2 gas environments. The XAFS measurements demonstrated that Pt atoms were highly dispersed on TiO2–SiO2 and ZrO2–SiO2 forming pancake-shaped nanoparticles, whereas Pt atoms formed larger particles of hemispherical shapes on SiO2 supports. Contrary to the SiO2 case, the coordination numbers for Pt, Ti, and Zr around Pt atoms on the TiO2–SiO2 and ZrO2–SiO2 supports were nearly constant from 300 to 700 K under the different gas environments. These results are consistent with the improvements in thermal stability of Pt nanoparticles achieved by incorporating TiO2 or ZrO2 on the surface of SiO2 supports. XAFS analysis further indicated that the enhanced dispersion and stability of Pt were a consequence of the strong metal support interaction via Pt–Ti and Pt–Zr bonds.

  2. Temperature-dependent local structural properties of redox Pt nanoparticles on TiO2 and ZrO2 supports

    DOE PAGES

    Jeong, Eun -Suk; Park, Chang -In; Jin, Zhenlan; Hwang, In -Hui; Son, Jae -Kwan; Kim, Mi -Young; Choi, Jae -Soon; Han, Sang -Wook

    2015-01-21

    This paper examined the local structural properties of Pt nanoparticles on SiO2, TiO2–SiO2, and ZrO2–SiO2 supports to better understand the impact of oxide-support type on the performance of Pt-based catalysts. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements were taken for the Pt L3-edge in a temperature range from 300 to 700 K in He, H2, and O2 gas environments. The XAFS measurements demonstrated that Pt atoms were highly dispersed on TiO2–SiO2 and ZrO2–SiO2 forming pancake-shaped nanoparticles, whereas Pt atoms formed larger particles of hemispherical shapes on SiO2 supports. Contrary to the SiO2 case, the coordination numbers for Pt, Ti,more » and Zr around Pt atoms on the TiO2–SiO2 and ZrO2–SiO2 supports were nearly constant from 300 to 700 K under the different gas environments. These results are consistent with the improvements in thermal stability of Pt nanoparticles achieved by incorporating TiO2 or ZrO2 on the surface of SiO2 supports. XAFS analysis further indicated that the enhanced dispersion and stability of Pt were a consequence of the strong metal support interaction via Pt–Ti and Pt–Zr bonds.« less

  3. A Local, Interactive Network of 3′ RNA Elements Supports Translation and Replication of Turnip Crinkle Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xuefeng; Shi, Kerong

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) was previously identified as forming a highly interactive structure with a ribosome-binding tRNA-shaped structure (TSS) acting as a scaffold and undergoing a widespread conformational shift upon binding to RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Tertiary interactions in the region were explored by identifying two highly detrimental mutations within and adjacent to a hairpin H4 upstream of the TSS that reduce translation in vivo and cause identical structural changes in the loop of the 3′ terminal hairpin Pr. Second-site changes that compensate for defects in translation/accumulation and reverse the structural differences in the Pr loop were found in the Pr stem, as well as in a specific stem within the TSS and within the capsid protein (CP) coding region, suggesting that the second-site changes were correcting a conformational defect and not restoring specific base pairing. The RdRp-mediated conformational shift extended upstream through this CP open reading frame (ORF) region after bypassing much of an intervening, largely unstructured region, supporting a connection between 3′ elements and coding region elements. These data suggest that the Pr loop, TSS, and H4 are central elements in the regulation of translation and replication in TCV and allow for development of an RNA interactome that maps the higher-order structure of a postulated RNA domain within the 3′ region of a plus-strand RNA virus. PMID:22345459

  4. Effects of closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Kihyun; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jinsik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of closed chain exercises performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 64 healthy university students who were randomly assigned to a bridge exercise with sling and vibration group (BESVG, n=30) and a bridge exercise with sling group (BESG, n=34). [Methods] The bridge exercise was repeated four times per set and a total of 18 sets were performed: 9 sets in a supine position and 9 sets in a prone position. In both the BESVG and the BESG groups, the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using ultrasonography with the abdomen “drawn-in” and the pressure of a biofeedback unit maintained at 40 mmHg, both before and after the intervention. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA. The BESG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA. The BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA compared to BESG. [Conclusion] Closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to slings, which are unstable support surfaces, are an effective intervention for altering the thickness and length of the TrA. PMID:25642048

  5. Effects of closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kihyun; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jinsik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of closed chain exercises performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 64 healthy university students who were randomly assigned to a bridge exercise with sling and vibration group (BESVG, n=30) and a bridge exercise with sling group (BESG, n=34). [Methods] The bridge exercise was repeated four times per set and a total of 18 sets were performed: 9 sets in a supine position and 9 sets in a prone position. In both the BESVG and the BESG groups, the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using ultrasonography with the abdomen "drawn-in" and the pressure of a biofeedback unit maintained at 40 mmHg, both before and after the intervention. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA. The BESG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA. The BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA compared to BESG. [Conclusion] Closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to slings, which are unstable support surfaces, are an effective intervention for altering the thickness and length of the TrA. PMID:25642048

  6. Effects of closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kihyun; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jinsik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of closed chain exercises performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 64 healthy university students who were randomly assigned to a bridge exercise with sling and vibration group (BESVG, n=30) and a bridge exercise with sling group (BESG, n=34). [Methods] The bridge exercise was repeated four times per set and a total of 18 sets were performed: 9 sets in a supine position and 9 sets in a prone position. In both the BESVG and the BESG groups, the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using ultrasonography with the abdomen "drawn-in" and the pressure of a biofeedback unit maintained at 40 mmHg, both before and after the intervention. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA. The BESG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA. The BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA compared to BESG. [Conclusion] Closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to slings, which are unstable support surfaces, are an effective intervention for altering the thickness and length of the TrA.

  7. Implementation effects of GFATM-supported HIV/AIDS projects on the health sector, civil society and affected communities in Peru 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C F; Girón, J Maziel; Sandoval, C; López, R; Valverde, R; Pajuelo, J; Vásquez, P; Rosasco, A M; Chirinos, A; Silva-Santisteban, A

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of opportunities for support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for HIV-related projects has so far generated funding of over US$75 million for three proposals in Peru. The size of this investment creates the need for close monitoring to ensure a reasonable impact. This paper describes the effects of collaboration with the GFATM on key actors involved in HIV-related activities and on decision-making processes; on health sector divisions; on policies and sources of financing; on equity of access; and on stigma and discrimination of vulnerable and affected populations. Data analysed included primary data collected through interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews and group discussions with vulnerable and affected populations, as well as several public documents. Multisectorality, encouraged by the GFATM, is incipient; centralist proposals with limited consultation, a lack of consensus and short preparation times prevail. No accountability mechanisms operate at the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) level regarding CCM members or society as a whole. GFATM-funded activities have required significant input from the public sector, sometimes beyond the capacity of its human resources. A significant increase in HIV funding, in absolute amounts and in fractions of the total budget, has been observed from several sources including the National Treasury, and it is unclear whether this has implied reductions in the budget for other priorities. Patterns of social exclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS are diverse: children and women are more valued; while transgender persons and sex workers are often excluded. PMID:20390630

  8. Implementation effects of GFATM-supported HIV/AIDS projects on the health sector, civil society and affected communities in Peru 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C F; Girón, J Maziel; Sandoval, C; López, R; Valverde, R; Pajuelo, J; Vásquez, P; Rosasco, A M; Chirinos, A; Silva-Santisteban, A

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of opportunities for support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for HIV-related projects has so far generated funding of over US$75 million for three proposals in Peru. The size of this investment creates the need for close monitoring to ensure a reasonable impact. This paper describes the effects of collaboration with the GFATM on key actors involved in HIV-related activities and on decision-making processes; on health sector divisions; on policies and sources of financing; on equity of access; and on stigma and discrimination of vulnerable and affected populations. Data analysed included primary data collected through interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews and group discussions with vulnerable and affected populations, as well as several public documents. Multisectorality, encouraged by the GFATM, is incipient; centralist proposals with limited consultation, a lack of consensus and short preparation times prevail. No accountability mechanisms operate at the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) level regarding CCM members or society as a whole. GFATM-funded activities have required significant input from the public sector, sometimes beyond the capacity of its human resources. A significant increase in HIV funding, in absolute amounts and in fractions of the total budget, has been observed from several sources including the National Treasury, and it is unclear whether this has implied reductions in the budget for other priorities. Patterns of social exclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS are diverse: children and women are more valued; while transgender persons and sex workers are often excluded.

  9. One motif to bind them: A small-XXX-small motif affects transmembrane domain 1 oligomerization, function, localization, and cross-talk between two yeast GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Lock, Antonia; Forfar, Rachel; Weston, Cathryn; Bowsher, Leo; Upton, Graham J G; Reynolds, Christopher A; Ladds, Graham; Dixon, Ann M

    2014-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell-surface receptors in mammals and facilitate a range of physiological responses triggered by a variety of ligands. GPCRs were thought to function as monomers, however it is now accepted that GPCR homo- and hetero-oligomers also exist and influence receptor properties. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe GPCR Mam2 is a pheromone-sensing receptor involved in mating and has previously been shown to form oligomers in vivo. The first transmembrane domain (TMD) of Mam2 contains a small-XXX-small motif, overrepresented in membrane proteins and well-known for promoting helix-helix interactions. An ortholog of Mam2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste2, contains an analogous small-XXX-small motif which has been shown to contribute to receptor homo-oligomerization, localization and function. Here we have used experimental and computational techniques to characterize the role of the small-XXX-small motif in function and assembly of Mam2 for the first time. We find that disruption of the motif via mutagenesis leads to reduction of Mam2 TMD1 homo-oligomerization and pheromone-responsive cellular signaling of the full-length protein. It also impairs correct targeting to the plasma membrane. Mutation of the analogous motif in Ste2 yielded similar results, suggesting a conserved mechanism for assembly. Using co-expression of the two fungal receptors in conjunction with computational models, we demonstrate a functional change in G protein specificity and propose that this is brought about through hetero-dimeric interactions of Mam2 with Ste2 via the complementary small-XXX-small motifs. This highlights the potential of these motifs to affect a range of properties that can be investigated in other GPCRs.

  10. Development of mental health first aid guidelines on how a member of the public can support a person affected by a traumatic event: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background People who experience traumatic events have an increased risk of developing a range of mental disorders. Appropriate early support from a member of the public, whether a friend, family member, co-worker or volunteer, may help to prevent the onset of a mental disorder or may minimise its severity. However, few people have the knowledge and skills required to assist. Simple guidelines may help members of the public to offer appropriate support when it is needed. Methods Guidelines were developed using the Delphi method to reach consensus in a panel of experts. Experts recruited to the panels included 37 professionals writing, planning or working clinically in the trauma area, and 17 consumer or carer advocates who had been affected by traumatic events. As input for the panels to consider, statements about how to assist someone who has experienced a traumatic event were sourced through a systematic search of both professional and lay literature. These statements were used to develop separate questionnaires about possible ways to assist adults and to assist children, and panel members answered either one questionnaire or both, depending on experience and expertise. The guidelines were written using the items most consistently endorsed by the panels across the three Delphi rounds. Results There were 180 items relating to helping adults, of which 65 were accepted, and 155 items relating to helping children, of which 71 were accepted. These statements were used to develop the two sets of guidelines appended to this paper. Conclusions There are a number of actions which may be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who has experienced a traumatic event, and it is possible that these actions may help prevent the development of some mental health problems in the future. Positive social support, a strong theme in these guidelines, has some evidence for effectiveness in developing mental health problems in people who have experienced traumatic

  11. Subcellular co-localization of Arabidopsis RTE1 and ETR1 supports a regulatory role for RTE1 in ETR1 ethylene signaling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Rivarola, Maximo; Resnick, Josephine S; Maggin, Benjamin D; Chang, Caren

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene is an important plant growth regulator perceived by membrane-bound ethylene receptors. The ETR1 ethylene receptor is positively regulated by a predicted membrane protein, RTE1, based on genetic studies in Arabidopsis. RTE1 homologs exist in plants, animals and protists, but the molecular function of RTE1 is unknown. Here, we examine RTE1 expression and subcellular protein localization in order to gain a better understanding of RTE1 and its function in relation to ETR1. Arabidopsis plants transformed with the RTE1 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene revealed that RTE1 expression partly correlates with previously described sites of ETR1 expression or sites of ethylene response, such as the seedling root, root hairs and apical hook. RTE1 transcript levels are also enhanced by ethylene treatment, and reduced by the inhibition of ethylene signaling. For subcellular localization of RTE1, a functional RTE1 fusion to red fluorescent protein (RFP) was expressed under the control of the native RTE1 promoter. Using fluorescence microscopy, RTE1 was observed primarily at the Golgi apparatus and partially at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in stably transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts, roots and root hairs. Next, a functional ETR1 fusion to a 5xMyc epitope tag was expressed under the control of the native ETR1 promoter. Immunohistochemistry of root hairs not only showed ETR1 residing at the ER as previously reported, but revealed substantial localization of ETR1 at the Golgi apparatus. Lastly, we demonstrated the subcellular co-localization of RTE1 and ETR1. These findings support and enhance the genetic model that RTE1 plays a role in regulating ETR1.

  12. Thinking globally and acting locally in Mindanao: Supporting the delicate balance of future sustainability in South-East Asian wilderness as well as rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, C.

    2014-02-01

    Although models of future sustainability often talk about effectively balancing economic, social and environmental imperatives or factors, in practice this typically remains an elusive ideal. This paper explores the exemplary possibilities but also dilemmas of a proposed initiative in the resource-rich but under-developed Filippino island province of Mindanao to achieve such a delicate balance in practice. This initiative by Raintrust Sustainable Ventures' proposes to link foreign investment in agricultural development to both the social advancement of local tribal peoples and the protection of large amounts of remaining wilderness areas. Such a case study provides an exemplary basis for discussing the challenge of achieving social and environmental as well as economic domains of 'future sustainability'. The crucial supporting role of information and geospatial technologies in the Raintrust plan will also be discussed.

  13. How the presence of a gas giant affects the formation of mean-motion resonances between two low-mass planets in a locally isothermal gaseous disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlewska-Gaca, E.; Szuszkiewicz, E.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of a migration-induced resonance locking in systems containing three planets, namely an Earth analogue (1 M⊕), a super-Earth (4 M⊕) and a gas giant (one Jupiter mass). The planets have been listed in order of increasing orbital periods. All three bodies are embedded in a locally isothermal gaseous disc and orbit around a solar mass star. We are interested in answering the following questions: will the low-mass planets form the same resonant structures with each other in the vicinity of the gas giant as in the case when the gas giant is absent? More in general, how will the presence of the gas giant affect the evolution of the two low-mass planets? When there is no gas giant in the system, it has been already shown that if the two low-mass planets undergo a convergent differential migration, they will capture each other in a mean-motion resonance. For the choices of disc parameters and planet masses made in this paper, the formation of the 5:4 resonance in the absence of the Jupiter has been observed in a previous investigation and confirmed here. In this work we add a gas giant on the most external orbit of the system in such a way that its differential migration is convergent with the low-mass planets. We show that the result of this set-up is the speeding up of the migration of the super-Earth and, after that, all three planets become locked in a triple mean-motion resonance. However, this resonance is not maintained due to the low-mass planet eccentricity excitation, a fact that leads to close encounters between planets and eventually to the ejection from the internal orbits of one or both low-mass planets. We have observed that the ejected low-mass planets can leave the system, fall into a star or become the external planet relative to the gas giant. In our simulations the latter situation has been observed for the super-Earth. It follows from the results presented here that the presence of a Jupiter-like planet

  14. mRNAs and Protein Synthetic Machinery Localize into Regenerating Spinal Cord Axons When They Are Provided a Substrate That Supports Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kalinski, Ashley L.; Sachdeva, Rahul; Gomes, Cynthia; Lee, Seung Joon; Shah, Zalak; Houle, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Although intra-axonal protein synthesis is well recognized in cultured neurons and during development in vivo, there have been few reports of mRNA localization and/or intra-axonal translation in mature CNS axons. Indeed, previous work indicated that mature CNS axons contain much lower quantities of translational machinery than PNS axons, leading to the conclusion that the capacity for intra-axonal protein synthesis is linked to the intrinsic capacity of a neuron for regeneration, with mature CNS neurons showing much less growth after injury than PNS neurons. However, when regeneration by CNS axons is facilitated, it is not known whether the intra-axonal content of translational machinery changes or whether mRNAs localize into these axons. Here, we have used a peripheral nerve segment grafted into the transected spinal cord of adult rats as a supportive environment for regeneration by ascending spinal axons. By quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with immunofluorescence to unambiguously distinguish intra-axonal mRNAs, we show that regenerating spinal cord axons contain β-actin, GAP-43, Neuritin, Reg3a, Hamp, and Importin β1 mRNAs. These axons also contain 5S rRNA, phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein, eIF2α translation factor, and 4EBP1 translation factor inhibitory protein. Different levels of these mRNAs in CNS axons from regenerating PNS axons may relate to differences in the growth capacity of these neurons, although the presence of mRNA transport and likely local translation in both CNS and PNS neurons suggests an active role in the regenerative process. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although peripheral nerve axons retain the capacity to locally synthesize proteins into adulthood, previous studies have argued that mature brain and spinal cord axons cannot synthesize proteins. Protein synthesis in peripheral nerve axons is increased during regeneration, and intra-axonally synthesized proteins have been shown to contribute to nerve regeneration

  15. Creating locally-resolved mobile-source emissions inputs for air quality modeling in support of an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-12-09

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants.

  16. Underwater gas pipeline leakage source localization by distributed fiber-optic sensing based on particle swarm optimization tuning of the support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Shi, Lilian; Yang, Qihua

    2016-01-10

    Accurate underwater gas pipeline leak localization requires particular attention due to the sensitivity of environmental conditions. Experiments were performed to analyze the localization performance of a distributed optical fiber sensing system based on the hybrid Sagnac and Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The traditional null frequency location method does not easily allow accurate location of the leakage points. To improve the positioning accuracy, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) tuning of the support vector machine (SVM) was used to predict the leakage points based on gathered leakage data. The PSO is able to optimize the SVM parameters. For the 10 km range chosen, the results show the PSO-SVM average absolute error of the leakage points predicted is 66 m. The prediction accuracy of leakage points is 98.25% by PSO tuning of the SVM processing. For 20 leakage test data points, the average absolute error of leakage point location is 124.8 m. The leakage position predicted by the PSO algorithm after optimization of the parameters is more accurate.

  17. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  18. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system.

    PubMed

    Massa, Gioia D; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B; Mitchell, Cary A

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  19. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system.

    PubMed

    Massa, Gioia D; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B; Mitchell, Cary A

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  20. A unified statistical model to support local sequence order independent similarity searching for ligand-binding sites and its application to genome-based drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lei; Xie, Li; Bourne, Philip E.

    2009-01-01

    Functional relationships between proteins that do not share global structure similarity can be established by detecting their ligand-binding-site similarity. For a large-scale comparison, it is critical to accurately and efficiently assess the statistical significance of this similarity. Here, we report an efficient statistical model that supports local sequence order independent ligand–binding-site similarity searching. Most existing statistical models only take into account the matching vertices between two sites that are defined by a fixed number of points. In reality, the boundary of the binding site is not known or is dependent on the bound ligand making these approaches limited. To address these shortcomings and to perform binding-site mapping on a genome-wide scale, we developed a sequence-order independent profile–profile alignment (SOIPPA) algorithm that is able to detect local similarity between unknown binding sites a priori. The SOIPPA scoring integrates geometric, evolutionary and physical information into a unified framework. However, this imposes a significant challenge in assessing the statistical significance of the similarity because the conventional probability model that is based on fixed-point matching cannot be applied. Here we find that scores for binding-site matching by SOIPPA follow an extreme value distribution (EVD). Benchmark studies show that the EVD model performs at least two-orders faster and is more accurate than the non-parametric statistical method in the previous SOIPPA version. Efficient statistical analysis makes it possible to apply SOIPPA to genome-based drug discovery. Consequently, we have applied the approach to the structural genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to construct a protein–ligand interaction network. The network reveals highly connected proteins, which represent suitable targets for promiscuous drugs. Contact: lxie@sdsc.edu PMID:19478004

  1. Improving estimates of surface carbon fluxes to support emissions monitoring, reporting and verification at local and regional scales: quantifying uncertainty and the effects of spatial scaling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.; Wofsy, S.; Nehrkorn, T.; Sue Wing, I.

    2015-12-01

    Current approaches to quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes of carbon often combine inventories of fossil fuel carbon emissions (ffCO2) and biosphere flux estimates with atmospheric measurements to drive forward and inverse-atmospheric modeling at high spatial and temporal resolutions (1km grids, hourly time steps have become common). Given that over 70% of total ffCO2 emissions are attributable to urban areas, accurate estimates of ffCO2 at urban scales are critical to support emissions mitigation policies at state and local levels. A successful regional or national carbon monitoring system requires a careful quantification of the uncertainties associated with estimates of both ffCO2 and biogenic carbon fluxes. Errors in the spatial distribution of ffCO2 priors used to inform atmospheric transport models can bias posterior flux estimates, and potentially provide misleading information to decision makers on the impact of policies. Most current ffCO2 priors are either too coarsely resolved in time and space, or suffer from poorly quantified errors in spatial distributions at local scales. Accurately downscaling aggregate activity data requires a careful understanding of the potentially non-linear relationships between source processes and spatial proxies. We report on ongoing work to develop an integrated, high-resolution carbon monitoring system for the Northeastern U.S., and discuss insights into the impact of spatial scaling on model uncertainty. We use a newly developed dataset of hourly surface carbon fluxes for all human and biogenic sources at 1km grid resolution for the years 2013 and 2014. To attain these spatial and temporal resolutions, ffCO2 flux estimates were subject to varying degrees of aggregation and/or downscaling depending on the native source data for each sector. We will discuss several important examples of how the choice of scaling variables and priors influences the spatial distribution CO2 and CH4 retrievals.

  2. A content analysis of cognitive and affective uses of patient support groups for rare and uncommon vascular diseases: comparisons of may thurner, thoracic outlet, and superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2015-01-01

    Rare disease patients are the predominant group of patients who are now connecting online to patient support groups, yet research on their uses of support groups has received little attention. This is a content analysis of three vascular diseases of differing degrees of rarity. Wall posts from Facebook patient support groups for May Thurner syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, and superior mesenteric artery syndrome were analyzed over a period of two years. Using Uses and Gratifications as the theoretical framework, the study purpose was to assess how variations in health condition and rarity of condition affect online support group user needs. Results indicated common main cognitive and affective uses across conditions, indicating a consistent pattern of needs communicated by all patients. However, there were nuanced differences in subcategories of cognitive and affective uses between the most and least rare disorders, which inform areas for tailored support mechanisms. Additionally, these vascular patients used their respective support groups primarily for cognitive reasons, especially for the rarest conditions, which informs of basic medical informational needs these patients face related to tests, treatment, surgery, and diagnoses.

  3. A content analysis of cognitive and affective uses of patient support groups for rare and uncommon vascular diseases: comparisons of may thurner, thoracic outlet, and superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2015-01-01

    Rare disease patients are the predominant group of patients who are now connecting online to patient support groups, yet research on their uses of support groups has received little attention. This is a content analysis of three vascular diseases of differing degrees of rarity. Wall posts from Facebook patient support groups for May Thurner syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, and superior mesenteric artery syndrome were analyzed over a period of two years. Using Uses and Gratifications as the theoretical framework, the study purpose was to assess how variations in health condition and rarity of condition affect online support group user needs. Results indicated common main cognitive and affective uses across conditions, indicating a consistent pattern of needs communicated by all patients. However, there were nuanced differences in subcategories of cognitive and affective uses between the most and least rare disorders, which inform areas for tailored support mechanisms. Additionally, these vascular patients used their respective support groups primarily for cognitive reasons, especially for the rarest conditions, which informs of basic medical informational needs these patients face related to tests, treatment, surgery, and diagnoses. PMID:24877701

  4. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. 1: The origin of typical 1 AU velocity distribution functions: Steady state theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed first principle kinetic theory for electrons which is neither a classical fluid treatment nor an exospheric calculation is presented. This theory illustrates the global and local properties of the solar wind expansion that shape the observed features of the electron distribution function, such as its bifurcation, its skewness and the differential temperatures of the thermal and suprathermal subpopulations. Coulomb collisions are substantial mediators of the interplanetary electron velocity distribution function and they place a zone for a bifurcation of the electron distribution function deep in the corona. The local cause and effect precept which permeates the physics of denser media is modified for electrons in the solar wind. The local form of transport laws and equations of state which apply to collision dominated plasmas are replaced with global relations that explicitly depend on the relative position of the observer to the boundaries of the system.

  5. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. I - The origin of typical 1 AU velocity distribution functions - Steady state theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic theory for the velocity distribution of solar wind electrons which illustrates the global and local properties of the solar wind expansion is proposed. By means of the Boltzmann equation with the Krook collision operator accounting for Coulomb collisions, it is found that Coulomb collisions determine the population and shape of the electron distribution function in both the thermal and suprathermal energy regimes. For suprathermal electrons, the cumulative effects of Coulomb interactions are shown to take place on the scale of the heliosphere itself, whereas the Coulomb interactions of thermal electrons occur on a local scale near the point of observation (1 AU). The bifurcation of the electron distribution between thermal and suprathermal electrons is localized to the deep solar corona (1 to 10 solar radii).

  6. Support Vector Machine-Based Prediction of Local Tumor Control After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klement, Rainer J.; Allgäuer, Michael; Appold, Steffen; Dieckmann, Karin; Ernst, Iris; Ganswindt, Ute; Holy, Richard; Nestle, Ursula; Nevinny-Stickel, Meinhard; Semrau, Sabine; Sterzing, Florian; Wittig, Andrea; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Background: Several prognostic factors for local tumor control probability (TCP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been described, but no attempts have been undertaken to explore whether a nonlinear combination of potential factors might synergistically improve the prediction of local control. Methods and Materials: We investigated a support vector machine (SVM) for predicting TCP in a cohort of 399 patients treated at 13 German and Austrian institutions. Among 7 potential input features for the SVM we selected those most important on the basis of forward feature selection, thereby evaluating classifier performance by using 10-fold cross-validation and computing the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The final SVM classifier was built by repeating the feature selection 10 times with different splitting of the data for cross-validation and finally choosing only those features that were selected at least 5 out of 10 times. It was compared with a multivariate logistic model that was built by forward feature selection. Results: Local failure occurred in 12% of patients. Biologically effective dose (BED) at the isocenter (BED{sub ISO}) was the strongest predictor of TCP in the logistic model and also the most frequently selected input feature for the SVM. A bivariate logistic function of BED{sub ISO} and the pulmonary function indicator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) yielded the best description of the data but resulted in a significantly smaller AUC than the final SVM classifier with the input features BED{sub ISO}, age, baseline Karnofsky index, and FEV1 (0.696 ± 0.040 vs 0.789 ± 0.001, P<.03). The final SVM resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 67.0% ± 0.5% and 78.7% ± 0.3%, respectively. Conclusions: These results confirm that machine learning techniques like SVMs can be successfully applied to predict treatment outcome after SBRT. Improvements over traditional TCP

  7. Lyman-alpha observations of the interplanetary hydrogen: support of a NASA sounding rocket program and study of the local interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    Our proposal is to use the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph {HST /STIS} over a single orbit to make Lyman-alpha observations of the interplanetary hydrogen {IPH} during the April period of this year {2014}.These measurements will provide wavelength and flux calibration, in order to support the HYPE instrument {Hydrogen Polarimetric Explorer} that is planned to make spectro-polarimetric observations in April during a suborbital flight of a NASA sounding rocket {grant NNX08AI98G}. Cross-calibration will also be made with the SWAN instrument {Solar Wind Anisotropies} on the SOHO satellite {Solar and Heliospheric Observatory}. SWAN can provide flux calibration but without any spectral information, so only HST/STIS can provide the wavelength calibration.Moreover the scientific controversy on the physical properties of the local interstellar medium {LISM} is still going on. The recent observations of interstellar helium atoms by IBEX {Interstellar Boundaries Explorer} suggest that the LISM velocity vector may vary over time. Such a change should impact the bulk velocity of interplanetary hydrogen and should be detected by HST /STIS.

  8. An Examination of Cultural Values and Employees' Perceptions of Support on Affective Reaction and the Desire to Participate in a Formal Mentoring Program in an Oilfield Services Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Hanna Bea

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have examined the effect of formal mentoring on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. However, there has been little or no focus on an employee's intent to participate in a formal mentoring program based upon an employee's perceived organizational support, and/or affective reaction (job satisfaction and…

  9. Two-locus admixture linkage analysis of bipolar and unipolar affective disorder supports the presence of susceptibility loci on chromosomes 11p15 and 21q22

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, C.; Kalsi, G.; O`Neill, J.

    1997-02-01

    Following a report of a linkage study that yielded evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar affective disorder on the long arm of chromosome 21, we studied 23 multiply affected pedigrees collected from Iceland and the UK, using the markers PFKL, D21S171, and D21S49. Counting only bipolar cases as affected, a two-point LOD of 1.28 was obtained using D21S171 ({theta} = 0.01, {alpha} = 0.35), with three Icelandic families producing LODs of 0.63, 0.62, and 1.74 (all at {theta} = 0.0). Affected sib pair analysis demonstrated increased allele sharing at D21S171 (P = 0.001) when unipolar cases were also considered affected. The same set of pedigrees had previously been typed for a tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH) polymorphism at 11p15 and had shown some moderate evidence for linkage. When information from TH and the 21q markers was combined in a two-locus admixture analysis, an overall admixture LOD of 3.87 was obtained using the bipolar affection model. Thus the data are compatible with the hypothesis that a locus at or near TH influences susceptibility in some pedigrees, while a locus near D21S171 is active in others. Similar analyses in other datasets should be carried out to confirm or refute our tentative finding. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. A Corporate Responsibility? The Constitution of Fly-in, Fly-out Mining Companies as Governance Partners in Remote, Mine-Affected Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In some remote parts of Australia, mining companies have positioned themselves as central actors in governing nearby affected communities by espousing notions of "voluntary partnerships for sustainability" between business, government and community. It is argued in this paper that the nature and extent of mining company interventions in nearby…

  11. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  12. How much do tides affect the circulation of the Mediterranean Sea? From local processes in the Strait of Gibraltar to basin-scale effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, C.; Garcia-Lafuente, J.; Sannino, G.; Sanchez-Garrido, J. C.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of tidal forcing on the exchange flow through the Strait of Gibraltar and the circulation in the near-field region are revisited with a regional numerical model. Also a basin-scale model run is conducted in a first attempt to assess the impact of these local processes on the Western Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. In the Strait of Gibraltar, tides are found to (1) increase the exchange flow volume transport, (2) modify the hydrological properties of Atlantic inflowing waters through the enhancement of mixing, and (3) facilitate the drainage of Mediterranean deep water. In the far-field, the model reveals that these local processes can favor deep convection in the Gulf of Lion. Some thoughts are provided offering possible explanations.

  13. Factors affecting initial disability allowance rates for the Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs: the role of the demographic and diagnostic composition of applicants and local labor market conditions.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    Various factors outside the control of decision makers may affect the rate at which disability applications are allowed or denied during the initial step of eligibility determination in the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. In this article, using individual-level data on applications, I estimate the role of three important factors--the demographic characteristics of applicants, the diagnostic mix of applicants, and the local unemployment rate--in affecting the probability of an initial allowance and state allowance rates. I use a random sample of initial determinations from 1993 through 2008 and a fixed-effects multiple regression framework. The empirical results show that the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of applicants and the local unemployment rate substantially affect the initial allowance rate. An increase in the local unemployment rate tends to be associated with a decrease in the initial allowance rate. This negative relationship holds for adult DI and SSI applicants and for SSI childhood applicants. PMID:23397743

  14. Sequencing of Local Therapy Affects the Pattern of Treatment Failure and Survival in Children With Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    SciTech Connect

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Beltran, Chris; Wu, Shengjie; Sharma, Shelly; Boop, Frederick A.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Wright, Karen D.; Broniscer, Alberto; Kun, Larry E.; Gajjar, Amar

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the pattern of treatment failure associated with current therapeutic paradigms for childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with AT/RT of the central nervous system treated at our institution between 1987 and 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and cumulative incidence of local failure were correlated with age, sex, tumor location, extent of disease, and extent of surgical resection. Radiotherapy (RT) sequencing, chemotherapy, dose, timing, and volume administered after resection were also evaluated. Results: Thirty-one patients at a median age of 2.3 years at diagnosis (range, 0.45-16.87 years) were enrolled into protocols that included risk- and age-stratified RT. Craniospinal irradiation with focal tumor bed boost (median dose, 54 Gy) was administered to 18 patients. Gross total resection was achieved in 16. Ten patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. RT was delayed more than 3 months in 20 patients and between 1 and 3 months in 4; 7 patients received immediate postoperative irradiation preceding high-dose alkylator-based chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 48 months, the cumulative incidence of local treatment failure was 37.5% {+-} 9%; progression-free survival was 33.2% {+-} 10%; and OS was 53.5% {+-} 10%. Children receiving delayed RT ({>=}1 month postoperatively) were more likely to experience local failure (hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, p = 0.007); the development of distant metastases before RT increased the risk of progression (HR 3.49, p = 0.006); and any evidence of disease progressionbefore RT decreased OS (HR 20.78, p = 0.004). Disease progression occurred in 52% (11/21) of children with initially localized tumors who underwent gross total resection, and the progression rate increased proportionally with increasing delay from surgery to RT. Conclusions: Delayed RT is associated with a higher rate of local and metastatic

  15. [For a coordination of the supportive care for people affected by severe illnesses: proposition of organization in the public and private health care centres].

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Ivan; Boureau, François; Bugat, Roland; Chassignol, Laurent; Colombat, Philippe; Copel, Laure; d'Hérouville, Daniel; Filbet, Marylène; Laurent, Bernard; Memran, Nadine; Meynadier, Jacques; Parmentier, Gérard; Poulain, Philippe; Saltel, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Wagner, Jean-Philippe

    2004-05-01

    The concept of continuous and global care is acknowledged today by all as inherent to modern medicine. A working group gathered to propose models for the coordination of supportive care for all severe illnesses in the various private and public health care centres. The supportive care are defined as: "all care and supports necessary for ill people, at the same time as specific treatments, along all severe illnesses". This definition is inspired by that of "supportive care" given in 1990 by the MASCC (Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer): "The total medical, nursing and psychosocial help which the patients need besides the specific treatment". It integrates as much the field of cure with possible after-effects as that of palliative care, the definition of which is clarified (initial and terminal palliative phases). Such a coordination is justified by the pluridisciplinarity and hyperspecialisation of the professionals, by a poor communication between the teams, by the administrative difficulties encountered by the teams participating in the supportive care. The working group insists on the fact that the supportive care is not a new speciality. He proposes the creation of units. departments or pole of responsibility of supportive care with a "basic coordination" involving the activities of chronic pain, palliative care, psycho-oncology, and social care. This coordination can be extended, according to the "history" and missions of health care centres. Service done with the implementation of a "unique counter" for the patients and the teams is an important point. The structure has to comply with the terms and conditions of contract (Consultation, Unit or Centre of chronic pain, structures of palliative care, of psycho-oncology, of nutrition, of social care). A common technical organization is one of the interests. The structure has to set up strong links with the private practitioners, the networks, the home medical care (HAD) and the nurses

  16. [For a coordination of the supportive care for people affected by severe illnesses: proposition of organization in the public and private health care centres].

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Ivan; Boureau, François; Bugat, Roland; Chassignol, Laurent; Colombat, Philippe; Copel, Laure; d'Hérouville, Daniel; Filbet, Marylène; Laurent, Bernard; Memran, Nadine; Meynadier, Jacques; Parmentier, Gérard; Poulain, Philippe; Saltel, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Wagner, Jean-Philippe

    2004-05-01

    The concept of continuous and global care is acknowledged today by all as inherent to modern medicine. A working group gathered to propose models for the coordination of supportive care for all severe illnesses in the various private and public health care centres. The supportive care are defined as: "all care and supports necessary for ill people, at the same time as specific treatments, along all severe illnesses". This definition is inspired by that of "supportive care" given in 1990 by the MASCC (Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer): "The total medical, nursing and psychosocial help which the patients need besides the specific treatment". It integrates as much the field of cure with possible after-effects as that of palliative care, the definition of which is clarified (initial and terminal palliative phases). Such a coordination is justified by the pluridisciplinarity and hyperspecialisation of the professionals, by a poor communication between the teams, by the administrative difficulties encountered by the teams participating in the supportive care. The working group insists on the fact that the supportive care is not a new speciality. He proposes the creation of units. departments or pole of responsibility of supportive care with a "basic coordination" involving the activities of chronic pain, palliative care, psycho-oncology, and social care. This coordination can be extended, according to the "history" and missions of health care centres. Service done with the implementation of a "unique counter" for the patients and the teams is an important point. The structure has to comply with the terms and conditions of contract (Consultation, Unit or Centre of chronic pain, structures of palliative care, of psycho-oncology, of nutrition, of social care). A common technical organization is one of the interests. The structure has to set up strong links with the private practitioners, the networks, the home medical care (HAD) and the nurses

  17. Fostering Teachers' Design Expertise in Teacher Design Teams: Conducive Design and Support Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizinga, Tjark; Handelzalts, Adam; Nieveen, Nienke; Voogt, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Supporting Teacher Design Teams (TDTs) during local curriculum development efforts is essential. To be able to provide high-quality support, insights are needed about how TDTs carry out design activities and how support is valued by the members of TDTs and how it affects their design expertise. In this study, the design and support processes of…

  18. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding. PMID:16553471

  19. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding.

  20. How gender affects patterns of social relations and their impact on health: a comparison of one or multiple sources of support from "close persons".

    PubMed

    Fuhrer, R; Stansfeld, S A

    2002-03-01

    Numerous studies have reported gender differences in the effects of social relations on morbidity and mortality. When studying health and associated factors, one cannot ignore that sex differences exist and methods that are not "gender-fair" may lead to erroneous conclusions. This paper presents a critical analysis of the health/social relations association from a measurement perspective, including the definitions of people's networks and how they differ by gender. Findings from the Whitehall II Study of Civil Servants illustrate that women report more close persons in their primary networks, and are less likely to nominate their spouse as the closest person, but both men and women report the same proportion of women among their four closest persons. Women have a wider range of sources of emotional support. To date, most epidemiological studies have habitually analysed support provided by the closest person or confidant(e). We compared the health effects of social support when measured for the closest person only and when information from up to four close persons was incorporated into a weighted index. Information from up to four close persons offered a more accurate portrayal of support exchanged, and gender differences were attenuated, if not eliminated, when this support index was used to predict physical and psychological health.

  1. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Masumi; Kirkbride, Jason A.; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi; Kim, Jee In

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Non-canonical roles of the myosin phosphatase inhibitor (CPI-17) were studied. •CPI-17 is localized in the nucleus of hyperplastic cancer and smooth muscle cells. •CPI-17 Ser12 phosphorylation may regulate the nuclear import. •CPI-17 regulates histone H3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. •The nuclear CPI-17-PP1 axis plays a proliferative role in cells. -- Abstract: CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17 kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.

  2. Adherence to Guidelines for the Management of Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity Is Improved by an Electronic Decision Support Tool and Designated ‘Reader’

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Matthew D.; Hand, William R.; Stoll, W. David; Furse, Cory M.; Nietert, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives A hardcopy or paper cognitive aid has been shown to improve performance during the management of simulated local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) when given to the team leader. However, there remains room for improvement in order to ensure a system that can achieve perfect adherence to the published guidelines for LAST management. Recent research has shown that implementing a checklist via a designated reader may be of benefit. Accordingly, we sought to investigate the effect of an electronic decision support tool (DST) and designated ‘Reader’ role on team performance during an in-situ simulation of LAST. Methods Participants were randomized to Reader+DST (N = 16, rDST) and Control (N = 15, memory alone). The rDST group received the assistance of a dedicated Reader on the response team who was equipped with an electronic DST. The primary outcome measure was adherence to guidelines. Results For overall and critical percent correct scores, the rDST group scored higher than Control (99.3% vs 72.2%, P < 0.0001; 99.5% vs 70%, P < 0.0001, respectively). In the LAST scenario, 0 of 15 (0%) in the control group performed 100% of critical management steps, while 15 of 16 (93.8%) in the rDST group did so (P < 0.0001). Conclusions In a prospective, randomized single-blinded study, a designated Reader with an electronic DST improved adherence to guidelines in the management of an in-situ simulation of LAST. Such tools are promising in the future of medicine, but further research is needed to ensure the best methods for implementing them in the clinical arena. PMID:24956454

  3. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6-17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors.

  4. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6–17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors. PMID:26899475

  5. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Masumi; Kirkbride, Jason A; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi; Kim, Jee In

    2013-01-01

    CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation. PMID:23541585

  6. Effect of long-term aging on microstructure and local behavior in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ming-Liang Wang, De-Qiang; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2014-01-15

    Evolution of microstructure, micro-hardness and micro-tensile strength behavior was investigated in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint after the artificial aging at 350 °C for 3000 h. After detailed characterization of microstructures in optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it is revealed that the change of martensite–bainite constituent promotes more homogeneous microstructure distribution. The aging treatment facilitates redistribution of carbon and chromium elements along the welded joint, and the micro-hardness is increased slightly through the welds due to enrichment of carbon. The types of precipitates in the weldment mainly include M{sub 3}C, MC, M{sub 2}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. The carbides in base metal, weld metal and coarse-grained heat-affected zone are prone to change from ellipsoidal to platelet form whereas more uniform spherical carbides are observed in the fine-grained zone. Precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} near the fusion line, and formation of MC and M{sub 2}C, are responsible for the tensile strength decrease and its smooth distribution in the aged heat-affected zone. This implies that the thermal aging can relieve strength mismatch in the weldments. - Highlights: • Microstructure homogeneity improved in HAZ after long-term aging. • Tensile strength decreased in HAZ due to precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Strength mismatch in NiCrMoV steel welds was relieved after aging at 350 °C × 3000 h.

  7. Factors Affecting Examination Attrition: Does Academic Support Help? A Survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) Students at Unisa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tladi, Lerato Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the attributing and contributing factors to examination absence as well as whether the academic and social support available to students had a role to play in discouraging or reducing absence from examinations using results from a quantitative survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) students who were admitted…

  8. Grana-Localized Proteins, RIQ1 and RIQ2, Affect the Organization of Light-Harvesting Complex II and Grana Stacking in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Ryo; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kondo, Maki; Takeda, Satomi; Ifuku, Kentaro; Fukao, Yoichiro; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Mikio; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Grana are stacked thylakoid membrane structures in land plants that contain PSII and light-harvesting complex II proteins (LHCIIs). We isolated two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, reduced induction of non-photochemical quenching1 (riq1) and riq2, in which stacking of grana was enhanced. The curvature thylakoid 1a (curt1a) mutant was previously shown to lack grana structure. In riq1 curt1a, the grana were enlarged with more stacking, and in riq2 curt1a, the thylakoids were abnormally stacked and aggregated. Despite having different phenotypes in thylakoid structure, riq1, riq2, and curt1a showed a similar defect in the level of nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ). In riq curt1a double mutants, NPQ induction was more severely affected than in either single mutant. In riq mutants, state transitions were inhibited and the PSII antennae were smaller than in wild-type plants. The riq defects did not affect NPQ induction in the chlorophyll b-less mutant. RIQ1 and RIQ2 are paralogous and encode uncharacterized grana thylakoid proteins, but despite the high level of identity of the sequence, the functions of RIQ1 and RIQ2 were not redundant. RIQ1 is required for RIQ2 accumulation, and the wild-type level of RIQ2 did not complement the NPQ and thylakoid phenotypes in riq1. We propose that RIQ proteins link the grana structure and organization of LHCIIs. PMID:27600538

  9. Remote Sensing of Urban Thermal Landscape Characteristics and Their Affects on Local and Regional Meteorology and Air Quality: An Overview of NASA EOS-IDS Project Atlanta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    As an entity, the city is a manifestation of human "management" of the land. The act of city-building, however, drastically alters the biophysical environment, which ultimately, impacts local and regional land-atmosphere energy exchange processes. Because of the complexity of both the urban landscape and the attendant energy fluxes that result from urbanization, remote sensing offers the only real way to synoptically quantify these processes. One of the more important land-atmosphere fluxes that occurs over cities relates to the way that thermal energy is partitioned across the heterogeneous urban landscape. The individual land cover and surface material types that comprise the city, such as pavements and buildings, each have their own thermal energy regimes. As the collective urban landscape, the individual thermal energy responses from specific surfaces come together to form the urban heat island phenomena, which prevails as a dome of elevated air temperatures over cities. Although the urban heat island has been known to exist for well over 150 years, it is not understood how differences in thermal energy responses for land covers across the city interact to produce this phenomenon, or how the variability in thermal energy responses from different surface types drive its development. Additionally, it can be hypothesized that as cities grow in size through time, so do their urban heat islands. The interrelationships between urban sprawl and the respective growth of the urban heat island, however, have not been investigated. Moreover, little is known of the consequential effects of urban growth, land cover change, and the urban heat island as they impact local and regional meteorology and air quality.

  10. Predicting the Effect of New Jersey's New Educational Funding Law on Local Support for Education. New Jersey Urban Education Research Reports No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    Under the provisions of New Jersey Public Law 212, the amount of state equalizing aid for public education received by each local school district depends on how much revenue each district chooses to raise from local taxes. In order to predict the pattern of total school expenditures across New Jersey's school districts, it is necessary to predict…

  11. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding proteins ACBP4 and ACBP5 are subcellularly localized to the cytosol and ACBP4 depletion affects membrane lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Jiao-Ping; Chan, Suk-Wah; Chye, Mee-Len

    2008-12-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are encoded by six genes, and they display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters. Recombinant ACBP4 and ACBP5 have been shown to bind oleoyl-CoA esters in vitro. In this study, the subcellular localizations of ACBP4 and ACBP5 were determined by biochemical fractionation followed by western blot analyses using anti-ACBP4 and anti-ACBP5 antibodies and immuno-electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy of autofluorescence-tagged ACBP4 and ACBP5, expressed transiently in onion epidermal cells and in transgenic Arabidopsis, confirmed their expression in the cytosol. Taken together, ACBP4 and ACBP5 are available in the cytosol to bind and transfer cytosolic oleoyl-CoA esters. Lipid profile analysis further revealed that an acbp4 knockout mutant showed decreases in membrane lipids (digalactosyldiacylglycerol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol) while acbp4-complemented lines attained levels similar to wild type, suggesting that ACBP4 plays a role in the biosynthesis of membrane lipids including galactolipids and phospholipids.

  12. High-resolution genetic localization of a modifying locus affecting disease severity in the juvenile cystic kidneys (jck) mouse model of polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Beier, David R.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a locus on proximal Chr 4 modifies disease severity in the juvenile cystic kidney (jck) mouse, a model of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) that carries a mutation of the Nek8 serine-threonine kinase. In this study we used QTL analysis of independently constructed B6.D2 congenic lines to confirm this and showed that this locus has a highly significant effect. We constructed sub-congenic lines to more specifically localize the modifier and have determined it resides in a 3.2 Mb interval containing 28 genes. These include Invs and Anks6, which are both excellent candidates for the modifier as mutations in these genes result in PKD and both genes are known to genetically and physically interact with Nek8. However, examination of strain-specific DNA sequence and kidney expression did not reveal clear differences that might implicate either gene as a modifier of PKD severity. The fact that our high-resolution analysis did not yield an unambiguous result highlights the challenge of establishing the causality of strain-specific variants as genetic modifiers, and suggests that alternative strategies be considered. PMID:27114383

  13. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-08-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive 'mentalizing' functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people's non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas.

  14. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive ‘mentalizing’ functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people’s non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas. PMID:23770622

  15. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-08-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive 'mentalizing' functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people's non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas. PMID:23770622

  16. A combined analysis of D22S278 marker alleles in affected sib-pairs: Support for a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at chromosome 22q12

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, M.; Vallada, H.; Collier, D.

    1996-02-16

    Several groups have reported weak evidence for linkage between schizophrenia and genetic markers located on chromosome 22q using the lod score method of analysis. However these findings involved different genetic markers and methods of analysis, and so were not directly comparable. To resolve this issue we have performed a combined analysis of genotypic data from the marker D22S278 in multiply affected schizophrenic families derived from 11 independent research groups worldwide. This marker was chosen because it showed maximum evidence for linkage in three independent datasets. Using the affected sib-pair method as implemented by the program ESPA, the combined dataset showed 252 alleles shared compared with 188 alleles not shared (chi-square 9.31, 1df, P = 0.001) where parental genotype data was completely known. When sib-pairs for whom parental data was assigned according to probability were included the number of alleles shared was 514.1 compared with 437.8 not shared (chi-square 6.12, 1df, P = 0.006). Similar results were obtained when a likelihood ratio method for sib-pair analysis was used. These results indicate that there may be a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at 22q12. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Mycobiome of the Bat White Nose Syndrome Affected Caves and Mines Reveals Diversity of Fungi and Local Adaptation by the Fungal Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Sunanda S.; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C.; Hicks, Alan C.; Davis, April D.; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010–2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi (‘mycobiome’). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  18. Mycobiome of the bat white nose syndrome affected caves and mines reveals diversity of fungi and local adaptation by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Victor, Tanya R; Rajkumar, Sunanda S; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Hicks, Alan C; Davis, April D; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010-2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi ('mycobiome'). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  19. Local forest environment largely affects below-ground growth, clonal diversity and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the temperate deciduous forest herb Paris quadrifolia.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Honnay, Olivier; Hermy, Martin; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel

    2005-12-01

    Paris quadrifolia (herb Paris) is a long-lived, clonal woodland herb that shows strong differences in local population size and shoot density along an environmental gradient of soil and light conditions. This environmentally based structuring may be mediated by differences in clonal growth and seedling recruitment through sexual reproduction. To study the interrelationship between environmental conditions and spatial patterns of clonal growth, the spatial genetic structure of four P. quadrifolia populations growing in strongly contrasting sites was determined. In the first place, plant excavations were performed in order to (i) determine differences in below-ground growth of genets, (ii) investigate connectedness of ramets and (iii) determine total genet size. Although no differences in internode length were found among sites, clones in moist sites were much smaller (genets usually consisted of 1-3 interconnected shoots, most of them flowering) than genets in dry sites, which consisted of up to 15 interconnected shoots, the majority of which were vegetative. Further, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used. Clonal diversity was higher in populations located in moist and productive ash-poplar forests compared to those found in drier and less productive mixed forest sites (G/N: 0.27 and 0.14 and Simpson's D: 0.84 and 0.75, respectively). Patterns of spatial population genetic structure under dry conditions revealed several large clones dominating the entire population, whereas in moist sites many small genets were observed. Nevertheless, strong spatial genetic structure of the genet population was observed. Our results clearly demonstrate that patterns of clonal diversity and growth form of P. quadrifolia differ among environments. Limited seedling recruitment and large clone sizes due to higher connectedness of ramets explain the low clonal diversity in dry sites. In moist sites, higher levels of clonal diversity and small clone sizes

  20. Modeling the cathode in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell using density functional theory How the carbon support can affect durability and activity of a platinum catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Michael Nelson

    The current global energy and environmental challenges need to be addressed by developing a new portfolio of clean power producing devices. The proton exchange membrane fuel cell has the potential to be included and can fit into a variety of niches ranging from portable electronics to stationary residential applications. One of the many barriers to commercial viability is the cost of the cathode layer which requires too much platinum metal to achieve a comparable power output as well as would need to be replaced more frequently when compared to conventional sources for most applications. Using density functional theory, an ab initio modeling technique, these durability and activity issues are examined for platinum catalysts on graphene and carbon nanotube supports. The carbon supports were also doped by replacing individual carbon atoms with other second row elements (beryllium, boron, nitrogen, and oxygen) and the effect on the platinum-surface interaction along with the interaction between the platinum and the oxygen reduction reaction intermediates are discussed. Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cell, density functional theory, platinum catalyst, oxygen reduction reaction, doped carbon surfaces

  1. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier Arturo; Caballero, Ignacio; Montazeri, Mehrnaz; Maslehat, Nasim; Elliott, Sarah; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Calle, Alexandra; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH). TLR 2/6 ligation reduced the endometrial myometrial and glandular indexes and increased the luminal index. Furthermore, TLR 2/6 activation increased the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in UH lavages in the preimplantation day and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the implantation day. The engagement of TLR 2/6 with its ligand in the UH during embryo transfer severely affected the rate of embryonic implantation (45.00% ± 6.49% vs. 16.69% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05, control vs. test, respectively). Furthermore, this interference with the embryo implantation process was verified using an in vitro model of human embryo implantation where trophoblast spheroids failed to adhere to a monolayer of TLR 2- and TLR 2/6-activated endometrial cells. The inhibition of TLR receptors 2 and 6 in the presence of their specific ligands restored the ability of the spheroids to bind to the endometrial cells. In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success.

  2. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier Arturo; Caballero, Ignacio; Montazeri, Mehrnaz; Maslehat, Nasim; Elliott, Sarah; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Calle, Alexandra; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH). TLR 2/6 ligation reduced the endometrial myometrial and glandular indexes and increased the luminal index. Furthermore, TLR 2/6 activation increased the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in UH lavages in the preimplantation day and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the implantation day. The engagement of TLR 2/6 with its ligand in the UH during embryo transfer severely affected the rate of embryonic implantation (45.00% ± 6.49% vs. 16.69% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05, control vs. test, respectively). Furthermore, this interference with the embryo implantation process was verified using an in vitro model of human embryo implantation where trophoblast spheroids failed to adhere to a monolayer of TLR 2- and TLR 2/6-activated endometrial cells. The inhibition of TLR receptors 2 and 6 in the presence of their specific ligands restored the ability of the spheroids to bind to the endometrial cells. In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success. PMID:24621922

  3. Localized shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Daniel A.; Stanford, Douglas; Susskind, Leonard

    2015-03-01

    We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, , where W x ( t) = e - iHt W x e iHt . Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in t. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

  4. Enhancing Decision Support For Climate Adaptation At Sub-Regional To Local Scales Through Collaborative And Interdisciplinary Global Change Research And Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.

    2012-12-01

    The science needed to inform society's response to global environmental change is increasingly demanded at sub-regional to local scales, placing a greater burden on the science community to respond to a wide variety of information needs. Oftentimes, communication barriers prevent even the basic articulation of information needs between the user and science research communities, and furthermore there is frequently a mismatch between available scientific talent within a sub region and the scientific resources demanded to respond appropriately to user inquiries. As a result, innovative approaches to the delivery of scientific information in response to user interests and needs at sub-regional to local levels is required. Here, the authors highlight lessons of three examples of delivering usable scientific information within a mountain watershed on questions relating to 1) local biomass energy production; 2) stream and forest health; and 3) watershed scale climate impacts assessment. We report that common elements to the success of these efforts include a) building relationships with both a broad range of disciplines within the science community as well as a wide range of stakeholder groups locally, b) collecting and translating existing monitoring data and filling monitoring gaps, c) gathering interdisciplinary teams to help answer difficult local scale questions not previously treated in literature, and d) communicating results through mechanisms such as stakeholder collaboratives, community forums, and innovative education and outreach products. We find that these components help communities at local to sub-regional scales identify vulnerabilities and adapative strategies.

  5. Different intervals of ovum pick-up affect the competence of oocytes to support the preimplantation development of cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li-Jun; Tian, Hai-Bin; Wang, Jing-Jun; Chen, Juan; Sha, Hong-Ying; Chen, Jian-Quan; Cheng, Guo-Xiang

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different frequencies of transvaginal ovum pick-up (OPU) on the quantity of recovered cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and subsequently the competence of matured oocytes to support the preimplantation development of cloned bovine embryos. The COCs were aspirated from the ovaries of 6 Chinese Holstein cows by transvaginal follicle aspiration twice a week (every 3 or 4 days) (Group I), every 5 days (Group II), once a week (every 7 days) (Group III), every 10 days (Group IV), and once every 2 weeks (every 14 days) (Group V). The developmental stages of the follicles were confirmed by the diameter of the dominant follicle (DF) and harvested COCs, and the dynamics of the follicular wave were clarified. In addition, extrusions of the first polar body (PB I) from the oocytes were observed at different time intervals after the initiation of in vitro maturation (IVM) to identify the appropriate culture time window for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Matured oocytes were used to produce cloned bovine embryos that were subsequently cultured in the goat oviduct. After 7 days, the embryos were flushed out, and the developmental rates of the blastocysts were compared among the five groups. The results showed that the aspirations of all follicles >or=3 mm in diameter (D1) induced and synchronized the dynamics of the follicular wave, and the subordinate follicles became atretic after 4 days (D5). Another follicular wave started between D7 and D10, and atresia in the subordinate follicles in the second follicular wave began on D14. The timing of meiotic progression (from the initiation of IVM to the extrusion of PB I) in the oocytes obtained by OPU was later than that of the oocytes obtained from the abattoir. Between 20 and 24 hr after the initiation of IVM, 20% of the oocytes extruded their PB I. Further, 80% (520/650) of the harvested COCs were arrested at metaphase II (MII) by 22 hr of the initiation of IVM and were used

  6. The PIP training programme: building of ACP experts capacities in crop protection and food safety to support local companies to comply with EU regulations on pesticides residues.

    PubMed

    Schiffers, B C; Schubert, A; Schiffers, C; Fontaine, S; Gumusboga, N; Werner, B; Webb, M; Lugros, H; Stinglhamber, G

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory requirements, and in particular phytosanitary quality standards change rapidly. As ACP producers/exporters race to become more competitive, to keep their market share and to satisfay their customers' commercial demands (e.g. EUREP-GAP certification), the need for competent staff who are aware of the company's quality objectives and trained to follow instructions is crucial. Mastering sanitary quality is only possible if matched with a programme to build the skills of companies' human resources. The Pesticide Initiative Programme (PIP), mindful of the importance of making operators autonomous and of training them to monitor EU food safety regulations and technology on their own, has successfully developed a training programme while building a quality network of local/ACP service providers. By building the capacities of ACP experts and then securing their services as trainers, PIP also guarantees companies' access to expertise and the sustainability of their efforts to comply with new EU regulations. The training strategy developed by PIP rests on two pilars: instructor training and collective training. Instructor training consists in reinforcing the technical knowledge of local experts (agronomists, hygienists, etc.) by providing them with active teaching methods. Once the ACP experts have gained enough technical knowledge of the key areas of crop protection--mainly pesticides management--and food safety, and have demonstrated their capacity to train the technical staff of local companies, the PIP has carried out a collective training programme in 2004, 2005 and 2006. To date, more than 130 consultants covering about 15 ACP countries have received instructor training, and more than 700 people have participated in collective and in-company training sessions.

  7. Support for a link between the local processing bias and social deficits in autism: an investigation of embedded figures test performance in non-clinical individuals.

    PubMed

    Russell-Smith, Suzanna N; Maybery, Murray T; Bayliss, Donna M; Sng, Adelln A H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the degree to which specific subsets of autistic-like traits relate to performance on the Embedded Figures Test (Witkin et al. in A manual for the embedded figures test. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1971). In the first group-based investigation with this focus, students were selected for their extreme scores (either high or low) on each of the 'Social Skills' and 'Details/Patterns' factors of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Austim Dev Disord 31:5-17, 2001). The resulting 2 × 2 factorial design permitted examination of the degree to which the social and non-social autistic-like traits separately relate to EFT performance. Surprisingly, in two studies, superior EFT performance was found to relate only to greater social difficulty, suggesting that the local processing bias in autism may be linked specifically to the social deficits.

  8. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  9. Management of localized advance loss of periodontal support associated Grade II furcation and intrabony defect in chronic periodontitis patient through amalgamation of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules

    PubMed Central

    Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Ghuman, Simrat Kaur; Kumar, Saurabh; Sharma, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is infectious, complex, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disease of supporting periodontal tissues that not only alters the bone morphology but also leads to the reduction in bone height. Different types of bony deformities such as horizontal, vertical, craters, and furcation result from periodontal disease, but vertical and Grade II furcation defects are more amenable to regenerative periodontal therapy. The present case report describes the current concept of periodontal diagnosis and the clinical radiographical efficiency of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules graft combination in the management of localized advance osseous defects with respect to tooth number 36 in chronic periodontitis patient at 1 year postoperatively. PMID:27630511

  10. Management of localized advance loss of periodontal support associated Grade II furcation and intrabony defect in chronic periodontitis patient through amalgamation of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules

    PubMed Central

    Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Ghuman, Simrat Kaur; Kumar, Saurabh; Sharma, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is infectious, complex, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disease of supporting periodontal tissues that not only alters the bone morphology but also leads to the reduction in bone height. Different types of bony deformities such as horizontal, vertical, craters, and furcation result from periodontal disease, but vertical and Grade II furcation defects are more amenable to regenerative periodontal therapy. The present case report describes the current concept of periodontal diagnosis and the clinical radiographical efficiency of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules graft combination in the management of localized advance osseous defects with respect to tooth number 36 in chronic periodontitis patient at 1 year postoperatively.

  11. Management of localized advance loss of periodontal support associated Grade II furcation and intrabony defect in chronic periodontitis patient through amalgamation of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules.

    PubMed

    Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Ghuman, Simrat Kaur; Kumar, Saurabh; Sharma, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is infectious, complex, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disease of supporting periodontal tissues that not only alters the bone morphology but also leads to the reduction in bone height. Different types of bony deformities such as horizontal, vertical, craters, and furcation result from periodontal disease, but vertical and Grade II furcation defects are more amenable to regenerative periodontal therapy. The present case report describes the current concept of periodontal diagnosis and the clinical radiographical efficiency of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules graft combination in the management of localized advance osseous defects with respect to tooth number 36 in chronic periodontitis patient at 1 year postoperatively. PMID:27630511

  12. Variation in photosynthetic performance and hydraulic architecture across European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations supports the case for local adaptation to water stress.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Ismael; Cano, Francisco Javier; Gascó, Antonio; Cochard, Hervé; Nardini, Andrea; Mancha, Jose Antonio; López, Rosana; Sánchez-Gómez, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide new insights into how intraspecific variability in the response of key functional traits to drought dictates the interplay between gas-exchange parameters and the hydraulic architecture of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Considering the relationships between hydraulic and leaf functional traits, we tested whether local adaptation to water stress occurs in this species. To address these objectives, we conducted a glasshouse experiment in which 2-year-old saplings from six beech populations were subjected to different watering treatments. These populations encompassed central and marginal areas of the range, with variation in macro- and microclimatic water availability. The results highlight subtle but significant differences among populations in their functional response to drought. Interpopulation differences in hydraulic traits suggest that vulnerability to cavitation is higher in populations with higher sensitivity to drought. However, there was no clear relationship between variables related to hydraulic efficiency, such as xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity or stomatal conductance, and those that reflect resistance to xylem cavitation (i.e., Ψ(12), the water potential corresponding to a 12% loss of stem hydraulic conductivity). The results suggest that while a trade-off between photosynthetic capacity at the leaf level and hydraulic function of xylem could be established across populations, it functions independently of the compromise between safety and efficiency of the hydraulic system with regard to water use at the interpopulation level.

  13. Support for a 'Center of Origin' in the Coral Triangle: cryptic diversity, recent speciation, and local endemism in a diverse lineage of reef fishes (Gobiidae: Eviota).

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Valdez, Samantha; Erdmann, Mark; Pezold, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Coral Triangle is widely regarded as the richest marine biodiversity hot-spot in the world. One factor that has been proposed to explain elevated species-richness within the Coral Triangle is a high rate of in situ speciation within the region itself. Dwarfgobies (Gobiidae: Eviota) are a diverse genus of diminutive cryptobenthic reef fishes with limited dispersal ability, and life histories and ecologies that increase potential for speciation. We use molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic data from two clades of Eviota species to examine patterns, processes and timing associated with species origination within the Coral Triangle. Sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA were used to generate molecular phylogenies and median-joining haplotype networks for the genus Eviota, with emphasis on the E. nigriventris and E. bifasciata complexes - two species groups with distributions centered in the Coral Triangle. The E. nigriventris and E. bifasciata complexes both contain multiple genetically distinct, geographically restricted color morphs indicative of recently-diverged species originating within the Coral Triangle. Relaxed molecular-clock dating estimates indicate that most speciation events occurred within the Pleistocene, and the geographic pattern of genetic breaks between species corresponds well with similar breaks in other marine fishes and sessile invertebrates. Regional isolation due to sea-level fluctuations may explain some speciation events in these species groups, yet other species formed with no evidence of physical isolation. The timing of diversification events and present day distributions of Eviota species within the Coral Triangle suggest that both allopatric speciation (driven by ephemeral and/or 'soft' physical barriers to gene flow) and sympatric speciation (driven by niche partitioning and assortative mating) may be driving diversification at local scales within the Coral Triangle. The presence of multiple young, highly

  14. Hotspots of human-induced biomass productivity decline and their social-ecological types toward supporting national policy and local studies on combating land degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Quyet Manh; Le, Quang Bao; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2014-10-01

    Identification and social-ecological characterization of areas that experience high levels of persistent productivity decline are essential for planning appropriate management measures. Although land degradation is mainly induced by human actions, the phenomenon is concurrently influenced by global climate changes that need to be taken into account in land degradation assessments. This study aims to delineate the geographic hotspots of human-induced land degradation in the country and classify the social-ecological characterizations of each specific degradation hotspot type. The research entailed a long-term time-series (1982-2006) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index to specify the extents of areas with significant biomass decline or increase in Vietnam. Annual rainfall and temperature time-series were then used to separate areas of human-induced biomass productivity decline from those driven by climate dynamics. Next, spatial cluster analyses identified social-ecological types of degradation for guiding further investigations at regional and local scales. The results show that about 19% of the national land mass experienced persistent declines in biomass productivity over the last 25 years. Most of the degraded areas are found in the Southeast and Mekong River Delta (17,984 km2), Northwest Mountains (14,336 km2), and Central Highlands (13,504 km2). We identified six and five social-ecological types of degradation hotspots in agricultural and forested zones, respectively. Constraints in soil nutrient availability and nutrient retention capability are widely spreading in all degradation hotspot types. These hotspot types are different from each other in social and ecological conditions, suggesting that region-specific strategies are needed for the formulation of land degradation combating policy.

  15. 75 FR 76757 - Licensing Support System Advisory Review Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ..., affected units of local governments in Nevada, the Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, and a ] coalition of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Licensing Support System Advisory Review Panel AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  16. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: local regional and global effects: Chapter 6 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton

    2013-01-01

    Species conservation has traditionally been based on individual species within the context of their requisite habitat, which is generally defined as the communities and ecosystems deemed necessary for their presence. Conservation decisions are hampered by the fact that environmental stressors that poetically threaten the persistence of species can operate at organizational levels larger than the habitat or home range of a focal species. Resource managers must therefore simultaneously consider local, regional, and/or global scale stressors for effective conservation and management of species of concern. The wide ranging effects associated with global stressors such as climate change may exceed or exacerbate the effects of local or regional stressors, they still need to understand the direct and interactive effects of global stressors and ultimately how they affect the lands they manage. Conservation of species in southern Nevada is further complication by the fact that the region includes one of the largest and fastest growing urban centers in North America. To accomplish the goal of species conservation, resource managers must identify actionable management options that mitigate the effects of local and regional stressor in the context of the effects of global stressors that are beyond their control. Species conservation is typically focused on a subset often referred to as species of conservation concern that have either demonstrated considerable decline or are naturally rare or have limited distributions. Stressors can directly and indirectly impact species in a variety of ways and through a diversity of mechanisms. Some stressors have been more intense in the past (e.g., livestock grazing) whereas other are now only emerging as new stressors (e.g., solar energy development, climate change). The primary stressors affecting southern Nevada ecosystems are listed in table 2.1 and reviewed in detail in Chapter 2. This chapter addresses Dub-goal 1.4 in the SNAP

  17. Supporting IAAOC Members: Potential Localized Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Simone F.

    2010-01-01

    For the past 37 years, the International Association of Addictions and Offender Counselors (IAAOC), a division of the American Counseling Association (ACA), has provided a home for offender counselors and eventually addictions counselors. Throughout that time, the organization's structure has mirrored that of ACA. For instance, the IAAOC (2004)…

  18. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  19. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  20. Anderson Localization of Solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Mueller, Cord A.; Delande, Dominique

    2009-11-20

    At low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with an attractive interaction forms a bright soliton. When exposed to a weak and smooth external potential, the shape of the soliton is hardly modified, but its center-of-mass motion is affected. We show that in a spatially correlated disordered potential, the quantum motion of a bright soliton displays Anderson localization. The localization length can be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  1. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially-locally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roeck, W.; Schütz, M.

    2015-06-01

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, "local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate]." This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835-871 (2012)], relying on the "spectral flow technique" or "quasi-adiabatic continuation" [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique "bulk ground state" or "topological quantum order." We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  2. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  3. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  4. Localized vibrations of graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, A. V.; Kivshar, Yu. S.

    2016-08-01

    Vibrational modes of graphene nanoribbons are studied. It is demonstrated that in an unstretched graphene nanoribbon, localized vibrations (in the form of breathers) can occur only at the edges. The largest number of localized edge oscillations is expected for the nanoribbons with the armchair structure. Stretching of a nanoribbon can lead to the appearance of new types of strongly localized oscillations. When a nanoribbon is stretched, in its oscillatory spectrum a frequency gap appears in which the frequencies of the localized modes are located. An armchair nanoribbon can support localized modes only at its edges, while a highly stretched zigzag nanoribbon can support them both at the edges and inside the nanoribbon.

  5. Identification of support conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Simmermacher, T.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.G.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper, a support and preload system is presented in which the frequencies and damping of the test article are affected by the stiffness and damping of the supporting structure. A dynamic model is derived for the support system that includes the damping as well as the mass and stiffness of the supports. The frequencies, damping, and mode shapes are compared with the experimentally determined parameters. It is shown that for a seemingly simple support system, deriving a predictive model is not a trival task.

  6. Quality user support: Supporting quality users

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    During the past decade, fundamental changes have occurred in technical computing in the oil industry. Technical computing systems have moved from local, fragmented quantity, to global, integrated, quality. The compute power available to the average geoscientist at his desktop has grown exponentially. Technical computing applications have increased in integration and complexity. At the same time, there has been a significant change in the work force due to the pressures of restructuring, and the increased focus on international opportunities. The profile of the user of technical computing resources has changed. Users are generally more mature, knowledgeable, and team oriented than their predecessors. In the 1990s, computer literacy is a requirement. This paper describes the steps taken by Oryx Energy Company to address the problems and opportunities created by the explosive growth in computing power and needs, coupled with the contraction of the business. A successful user support strategy will be described. Characteristics of the program include: (1) Client driven support; (2) Empowerment of highly skilled professionals to fill the support role; (3) Routine and ongoing modification to the support plan; (4) Utilization of the support assignment to create highly trained advocates on the line; (5) Integration of the support role to the reservoir management team. Results of the plan include a highly trained work force, stakeholder teams that include support personnel, and global support from a centralized support organization.

  7. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  8. Nitrogen starvation and TorC1 inhibition differentially affect nuclear localization of the Gln3 and Gat1 transcription factors through the rare glutamine tRNACUG in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jennifer J; Rai, Rajendra; Cooper, Terrance G

    2015-02-01

    A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase-dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, is not subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down-regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA-binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3 and Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treatment of cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation; growth in a poor, derepressive medium; Msx or rapamycin treatment; or ure2Δ mutation is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUG requirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation or growth in proline medium or a ure2Δ mutation, does not require tRNACUG for its response to rapamycin. Also, in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3 and Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors. This

  9. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  10. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  11. Tech Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2002-01-01

    Discusses technology-support issues, including staff training, cost, and outsourcing. Describes how various school districts manage technology-support services. Features the Technology Support Index, developed by the International Society for Technology in Education, to gauge the operation of school district technology-support programs. (PKP)

  12. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research. PMID:23833883

  13. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  14. Scaling Up Family Therapy in Fragile, Conflict-Affected States.

    PubMed

    Charlés, Laurie L

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the design and delivery of two international family therapy-focused mental health and psychosocial support training projects, one in a fragile state and one in a post-conflict state. The training projects took place in Southeast Asia and the Middle East/North Africa. Each was funded, supported, and implemented by local, regional, and international stakeholders, and delivered as part of a broader humanitarian agenda to develop human resource capacity to work with families affected by atrocities. The two examples illustrate how task-shifting/task-sharing and transitional justice approaches were used to inform the scaling-up of professionals involved in each project. They also exemplify how state-citizen phenomena in each location affected the project design and delivery.

  15. Spin Alignment in Analogues of The Local Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conidis, George J.

    2016-10-01

    Tidal torque theory and simulations of large scale structure predict spin vectors of massive galaxies should be coplanar with sheets in the cosmic web. Recently demonstrated, the giants (K s <= -22.5 mag) in the Local Volume beyond the Local Sheet have spin vectors directed close to the plane of the Local Supercluster, supporting the predictions of Tidal Torque Theory. However, the giants in the Local Sheet encircling the Local Group display a distinctly different arrangement, suggesting that the mass asymmetry of the Local Group or its progenitor torqued them from their primordial spin directions. To investigate the origin of the spin alignment of giants locally, analogues of the Local Sheet were identified in the SDSS DR9. Similar to the Local Sheet, analogues have an interacting pair of disk galaxies isolated from the remaining sheet members. Modified sheets in which there is no interacting pair of disk galaxies were identified as a control sample. Galaxies in face-on control sheets do not display axis ratios predominantly weighted toward low values, contrary to the expectation of tidal torque theory. For face-on and edge-on sheets, the distribution of axis ratios for galaxies in analogues is distinct from that in controls with a confidence of 97.6% & 96.9%, respectively. This corroborates the hypothesis that an interacting pair can affect spin directions of neighbouring galaxies.

  16. Mutations of amino acids in the DNA-recognition domain of Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein alter its sub-nuclear localization and affect formation of replication compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Richard; Heston, Lee; Shedd, Duane; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2008-12-20

    ZEBRA, a transcription factor and DNA replication protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene, plays indispensable roles in the EBV lytic cycle. We recently described the phenotypes of 46 single amino acid substitutions introduced into the DNA-recognition region of ZEBRA [Heston, L., El-Guindy, A., Countryman, J., Dela Cruz, C., Delecluse, H.J., and Miller, G. 2006]. The 27 DNA-binding-proficient mutants exhibited distinct defects in their ability to activate expression of the kinetic classes of viral genes. Four phenotypic variants could be discerned: wild-type, defective at activating Rta, defective at activating early genes, and defective at activating late genes. Here we analyze the distribution of ZEBRA within the nucleus and the localization of EA-D (the viral DNA polymerase processivity factor), an indicator of the development of replication compartments, in representatives of each phenotypic group. Plasmids encoding wild-type (WT) and mutant ZEBRA were transfected into 293 cells containing EBV-bacmids. WT ZEBRA protein was diffusely and smoothly distributed throughout the nucleus, sparing nucleoli, and partially recruited to globular replication compartments. EA-D induced by WT ZEBRA was present diffusely in some cells and concentrated in globular replication compartments in other cells. The distribution of ZEBRA and EA-D proteins was identical to WT following transfection of K188R, a mutant with a conservative change. The distribution of S186A mutant ZEBRA protein, defective for activation of Rta and EA-D, was identical to WT, except that the mutant ZEBRA was never found in globular compartments. Co-expression of Rta with S186A mutant rescued diffuse EA-D but not globular replication compartments. The most striking observation was that several mutant ZEBRA proteins defective in activating EA-D (R179A, K181A and A185V) and defective in activating lytic viral DNA replication and late genes (Y180E and K188A) were localized to numerous punctate

  17. Local Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P.; Yoon, S. E.; Isenburg, M.

    2007-05-31

    The LOCAL Toolkit contains tools and libraries developed under the LLNL LOCAL LDRD project for managing and processing large unstructured data sets primrily from parallel numerical simulations, such as triangular, tetrahedral, and hexahedral meshes, point sets, and graphs. The tools have three main functionalities: cache-coherent, linear ordering of multidimensional data; lossy and lossless data compression optimized for different data types; and an out-of-core streaming I/O library with simple processing modules for unstructed data.

  18. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support. PMID:25351362

  19. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support.

  20. Does income affect fertility or does fertility affect income?

    PubMed

    Bonitsis, T H; Geithman, D T

    1987-01-01

    "This paper tests for the dynamic causal connection between real income per capita and the birth rate for a subset of developing countries. These countries are Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay. Our empirical findings show that, for the historical period under review, in several countries real income per capita affected the birth rate. Virtually no evidence is found to support the hypothesis that the birth rate affected real income per capita."

  1. Alternative polyadenylation can regulate post-translational membrane localization

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Mithun; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    For many genomic loci, there are more than one potential cleavage and polyadenylation site, resulting in the generation of multiple distinct transcripts. When the proximal polyadenylation site is present within the coding region of the transcript, alternative polyadenylation can result in proteins with distinct amino acid sequences and potentially distinct functions. In most cases, the different possible polyadenylation sites are all present within the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), and the amino acid sequence of the encoded proteins are not affected by polyadenylation site selection. In individual instances, the selection of the proximal versus distal polyadenylation site in the 3′UTR can dramatically affect transcript stability and translatability. In some instances, UTR alternative polyadenylation generates RNA isoforms that have distinct subcellular localization patterns, and that can regulate the location of the encoded protein in an RNA-guided manner. In a recent paper, the laboratory of Christine Mayr demonstrated that alternative polyadenylation of the transmembrane protein CD47 results in transcripts with the same localization pattern, but the encoded protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum when it is encoded by the transcript generated by using the proximal polyadenylation site in 3′UTR, and the identical protein localizes to the plasma membrane when the transcript is encoded by the distal polyadenylation site, also in the 3′ UTR. Unlike previous studies, the mechanism of localization does not rely on differential trafficking of the mRNA and is instead, based on RNA-mediated recruitment of proteins to the cytoplasmic side of CD47 that support its plasma membrane localization. Other transmembrane proteins were discovered to be regulated similarly. The results demonstrate that the choice of polyadenylation site can affect protein localization and function, even when the sequence of the protein is unaffected. Further, the transcript encoding

  2. Engaging local businesses in HIV prevention efforts: the consumer perspective.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Guzman, Christina M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Rovniak, Liza S; Kelley, Norma J

    2011-07-01

    Participation of different community sectors, including the private business sector, is necessary to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local businesses may be reluctant to participate in HIV prevention because of fear of negative customer reactions and loss of revenue. This study examines the extent to which residents of two communities in San Diego, California, would support HIV prevention initiatives in local businesses. A population-based household survey (N = 200) is conducted in two communities with higher versus lower risk for HIV. The survey includes questions regarding the acceptability of HIV prevention activities, such as condom and brochure distribution in businesses, and history of exposure to HIV prevention activities in local businesses. Most residents agree that (a) business involvement in prevention activities would reduce HIV (92%), (b) free or low-cost condoms available in businesses could prevent the spread of HIV (90.9%) and increase condom accessibility (87%), and (c) they would prefer to shop at businesses that supported HIV prevention versus those that did not (87.4%). These findings suggest that HIV prevention in local businesses would be supported by residents and would be unlikely to adversely affect business profits. This information could be used to design interventions to engage local businesses in HIV-prevention efforts.

  3. Building Community Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Lori; And Others

    This handbook is intended to help local programs build a broad base of support for young children and their families. The strategies described are designed to help early childhood practitioners develop relationships with the community that will establish long-term commitments to early childhood programs and build a foundation for additional…

  4. Arts Inspire Community Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dan W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Southeastern Community College's efforts to focus on the arts, which included a campus visit by the artist Kenneth Larson and events centered on his Heroic Individual prints; a performing arts series supported by local corporations; an Associate in Fine Arts degree; regular art exhibits; and an artist-in-residence program. (DMM)

  5. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

  6. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (LR) inhibitor, NSC47924, affects 37/67kDa LR cell surface localization and interaction with the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sarnataro, Daniela; Pepe, Anna; Altamura, Gennaro; De Simone, Imma; Pesapane, Ada; Nitsch, Lucio; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR) is a non-integrin protein, which binds both laminin-1 of the extracellular matrix and prion proteins, that hold a central role in prion diseases. The 37/67 kDa LR has been identified as interactor for the prion protein (PrPC) and to be required for pathological PrP (PrPSc) propagation in scrapie-infected neuronal cells, leading to the possibility that 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction is related to the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A relationship between 37/67 kDa LR and PrPC in the presence of specific LR inhibitor compounds has not been investigated yet. We have characterized the trafficking of 37/67 kDa LR in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, finding the receptor on the cell surface and nuclei, and identified the 67 kDa LR as the almost exclusive isoform interacting with PrPC. Here, we show that the treatment with the 37/67 kDa LR inhibitor, NSC47924, affects both the direct 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction in vitro and the formation of the immunocomplex in live cells, inducing a progressive internalization of 37/67 kDa LR and stabilization of PrPC on the cell surface. These data reveal NSC47924 as a useful tool to regulate PrPC and 37/67 kDa LR trafficking and degradation, representing a novel small molecule to be tested against prion diseases. PMID:27071549

  7. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

  8. Supporting Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Burkhauser, Mary A.; Kelley, Joan G.

    2013-01-01

    Material resources, personalized support, time to collaborate, and strong principal leadership are necessary for making curricular and instructional shifts. The authors of this article share the lessons they learned about supporting implementation of the Common Core State Standards. They draw on interviews with teachers, as well as field notes…

  9. Thermal support for scale support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal design work completed for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Space Shuttle System (TPS) of the space shuttle vehicle was documented. This work was divided into three phases, the first two of which reported in previous documents. About 22 separate tasks were completed in phase III, such as: hot gas facility (HGF) support, guarded tank support, shuttle external tank (ET) thermal design handbook support, etc.

  10. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  11. Affective modulation of attentional switching.

    PubMed

    Heerebout, Bram T; Todorović, Ana; Smedinga, Hilde E; Phaf, R Hans

    2013-01-01

    Affective modulation of attentional switching may have developed early in evolution and may therefore have primacy over other affective influences. This behavioral study investigated the influence of affect on attentional switching between emotionally neutral stimuli, whether limited-capacity control processes are involved, and whether attentional flexibility should be distinguished from attentional broadening. Experiment 1 showed that suboptimally presented happy faces facilitated switching from an automatized response routine, whereas angry faces had the opposite effect. In Experiment 2, participants with a dominant global (i.e., broad) or local (i.e., narrow) spatial bias switched more easily to the opposite bias after suboptimal happy faces than after neutral primes but less easily after angry faces. Affective modulation of attentional switching was probably incorporated during evolution in many more complex forms of information processing.

  12. Report of the Task Force to Implement Senate Bill 1346 on Funding Support for Community College Education in Michigan and Their Mission and Roles and State-Local Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board for Public Community and Junior Colleges, Lansing.

    This document presents the final recommendations and background papers of a task force empowered by the Michigan legislature to consider the mission and roles of the state community colleges, alternative funding modes, and the responsibilities and interrelationships of the state and local governing boards. Following an overview of recommendations…

  13. Structural investigation of Au catalysts on TiO2-SiO2 supports - on the nature of the local structure of Ti and Au atoms by EXAFS and XANES

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Viviane; Mullins, David R; Yan, Wenfu; Zhu, Haoguo; Dai, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was utilized to investigate both the Au particle size on several supports composed by silica and titanium oxide, and the coordination of TiO2 in the support phase. Particularly, we wanted to utilize the technique to probe mixing in the support phase, by using different synthetic methods such as by functionalizing silica or by ALD (atomic layer deposition) techniques as prepared in our laboratories, and the growth and stability of Au nanoparticles deposited on these supports. The study using cosynthesis techniques to dope bulk mesoporous SiO2 with TiO2 resulted in TiO2 being dispersed in the SiO2 matrix; however, a second phase starts forming as the TiO2 content increases as indicated by the EXAFS Ti-O shell shift in position and increase of coordination number. On the supports prepared by cosynthesis, Au particles were smaller and more stable. The study using the surface sol-gel technique for deposition of single monolayers of an oxide such as TiO2 produced Ti environments in which the Ti-O shell and the next two Ti-Ti shells lie on the same position as expected for an anatase structure. Although undercoordinated, the presence of the Ti-Ti shells indicate that the titania species are not molecularly dispersed on the SiO2 surface as hypothesized, but there is indeed a cross-linking of the titania moieties.

  14. Structural Investigation of Au Catalysts on TiO2-SiO2 Supports: Nature of the Local Structure of Ti and Au Atoms by EXAFS and XANES

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz,V.; Mullins, D.; Yan, W.; Zhu, H.; Dai, S.; Overbury, S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was utilized to investigate both the Au particle size on several supports composed by silica and titanium oxide, and the coordination of TiO2 in the support phase. Particularly, we wanted to utilize the technique to probe mixing in the support phase, by using different synthetic methods such as by functionalizing silica or by ALD (atomic layer deposition) techniques as prepared in our laboratories, and the growth and stability of Au nanoparticles deposited on these supports. The study using cosynthesis techniques to dope bulk mesoporous SiO2 with TiO2 resulted in TiO2 being dispersed in the SiO2 matrix; however, a second phase starts forming as the TiO2 content increases as indicated by the EXAFS Ti-O shell shift in position and increase of coordination number. On the supports prepared by cosynthesis, Au particles were smaller and more stable. The study using the surface sol-gel technique for deposition of single monolayers of an oxide such as TiO2 produced Ti environments in which the Ti-O shell and the next two Ti-Ti shells lie on the same position as expected for an anatase structure. Although undercoordinated, the presence of the Ti-Ti shells indicate that the titania species are not molecularly dispersed on the SiO2 surface as hypothesized, but there is indeed a cross-linking of the titania moieties.

  15. Pipe support

    DOEpatents

    Pollono, Louis P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

  16. Representing properties locally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K O; Barsalou, L W

    2001-09-01

    Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts. Thus, different local forms of mane exist for HORSE, PONY, and LION, each capturing the specific form that mane takes in its respective concept. Three experiments used the property verification task to assess whether properties are represented globally or locally (e.g., Does a PONY have mane?). If a single global form represents a property, then verifying it in any concept should increase its accessibility and speed its verification later in any other concept. Verifying mane for PONY should benefit as much from having verified mane for LION earlier as from verifying mane for HORSE. If properties are represented locally, however, verifying a property should only benefit from verifying a similar form earlier. Verifying mane for PONY should only benefit from verifying mane for HORSE, not from verifying mane for LION. Findings from three experiments strongly supported local property representation and ruled out the interpretation that object similarity was responsible (e.g., the greater overall similarity between HORSE and PONY than between LION and PONY). The findings further suggest that property representation and verification are complicated phenomena, grounded in sensory-motor simulations.

  17. German guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Alexander; Krieg, Thomas; Worm, Margitta; Wenzel, Jörg; Moinzadeh, Pia; Kuhn, Annegret; Aberer, Elisabeth; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Horneff, Gerd; Reil, Emma; Weberschock, Tobias; Hunzelmann, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Localized scleroderma designates a heterogeneous group of sclerotic skin disorders. Depending on the subtype, severity, and site affected, adjacent structures such as adipose tissue, muscles, joints, and bones may be involved. This is an update of the existing German AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany) guidelines (classification: S2k). These guidelines provide an overview of the definition, epidemiology, classification, pathogenesis, laboratory workup, histopathology, clinical scoring systems, as well as imaging and device-based workup of localized scleroderma. Moreover, consensus-based recommendations are given on the management of localized scleroderma depending on its clinical subtype. Treatment recommendations are presented in a therapeutic algorithm. No financial support was given by any pharmaceutical company. The guidelines are valid until July 2019.

  18. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation.

  19. Empowering disaster-affected communities for long-term reconstruction: intervening in Sri Lanka after the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, Lena

    2013-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the importance of interdependencies between nations, delivery of humanitarian aid in an empowering manner, and long-term reconstruction. I examine relationships between overseas actors and local residents in tsunami-affected villages in Sri Lanka in a project initiated by the International Association of Schools of Social Work through its Rebuilding People's Lives After Disasters Network and another based on an institutional endeavour supported by Durham University because these sought to empower local communities through local, egalitarian partnerships. Lacking sufficient educational resources, capacity building in social work education has become a long-term objective.

  20. What School You Went? Local Culture, Local Identity, and Local Language: Stories of Schooling in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Darrell H. Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author explores local culture and local cultural practices in an attempt to understand the forces and influences that have affected the development of a local identity as well as the persistence of Pidgin (Hawai'i Creole) as its language. The author begins with an introductory discussion of themes that emerge in two short…