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Sample records for affecting motion life

  1. How Does Force Affect Motion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Whether playing soccer at recess, walking to lunch, or sitting at their desk, children encounter forces every moment of their lives. The connection between force and motion is absolutely amazing to children, so anyone working with them better be prepared for the battery of tough questions they ask: "What made the ball move that way? Why does a…

  2. How life affects the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of life on the atmosphere is examined through a discussion of the budgets of important atmospheric constituents and the processes that control their concentrations. Life profoundly influences oxygen and a number of minor atmospheric constituents, but many important gases, including those with the greatest effect on global climate, appear to be little altered by biological processes, at least in the steady state.

  3. Monocular motion adaptation affects the perceived trajectory of stereomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Kevin R.

    2002-01-01

    Perceived stereomotion trajectory was measured before and after adaptation to lateral motion in the dominant or nondominant eye to assess the relative contributions of 2 cues: changing disparity and interocular velocity difference. Perceived speed for monocular lateral motion and perceived binocular visual direction (BVD) was also assessed. Unlike stereomotion trajectory perception, the BVD of static targets showed an ocular dominance bias, even without adaptation. Adaptation caused equivalent biases in perceived trajectory and monocular motion speed, without significantly affecting perceived BVD. Predictions from monocular motion data closely match trajectory perception data, unlike those from BVD sources. The results suggest that the interocular velocity differences make a significant contribution to stereomotion trajectory perception.

  4. How Will Cancer Affect My Sex Life?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families How will cancer affect my sex life? Sexual feelings and attitudes vary greatly among people, even ... people have little or no change in their sexual desire and energy level during cancer treatment. Others ...

  5. Aging affects postural tracking of complex visual motion cues

    PubMed Central

    Sotirakis, H.; Kyvelidou, A.; Mademli, L.; Stergiou, N.

    2017-01-01

    Postural tracking of visual motion cues improves perception–action coupling in aging, yet the nature of the visual cues to be tracked is critical for the efficacy of such a paradigm. We investigated how well healthy older (72.45 ± 4.72 years) and young (22.98 ± 2.9 years) adults can follow with their gaze and posture horizontally moving visual target cues of different degree of complexity. Participants tracked continuously for 120 s the motion of a visual target (dot) that oscillated in three different patterns: a simple periodic (simulated by a sine), a more complex (simulated by the Lorenz attractor that is deterministic displaying mathematical chaos) and an ultra-complex random (simulated by surrogating the Lorenz attractor) pattern. The degree of coupling between performance (posture and gaze) and the target motion was quantified in the spectral coherence, gain, phase and cross-approximate entropy (cross-ApEn) between signals. Sway–target coherence decreased as a function of target complexity and was lower for the older compared to the young participants when tracking the chaotic target. On the other hand, gaze–target coherence was not affected by either target complexity or age. Yet, a lower cross-ApEn value when tracking the chaotic stimulus motion revealed a more synchronous gaze–target relationship for both age groups. Results suggest limitations in online visuo-motor processing of complex motion cues and a less efficient exploitation of the body sway dynamics with age. Complex visual motion cues may provide a suitable training stimulus to improve visuo-motor integration and restore sway variability in older adults. PMID:27126061

  6. Additivity in perception of affect from limb motion.

    PubMed

    Etemad, S Ali; Arya, Ali; Parush, Avi

    2014-01-13

    In this study, the notion of additivity in perception of affect from limb motion is investigated. Specifically, we examine whether the impact of multiple limbs in perception of affect is equal to the sum of the impacts of each individual limb. Several neutral, happy, and sad walking sequences are first aligned and averaged. Four distinct body regions or limbs are defined for this study: arms and hands, legs and feet, head and neck, and torso. The three average walks are used to create the stimuli. The motion of each limb and combination of limbs from the neutral sequence are replaced with those of the happy and sad sequences. Through collecting perceptual ratings for when individual limbs contain affective features, and comparing the sums of these ratings to instances where multiple limbs of the body simultaneously contain affective features, additivity is investigated. We find that while the results are highly correlated, additivity does not hold in the classical sense. Based on the results, a mathematical model is proposed for describing the observed relationship.

  7. Personality Polygenes, Positive Affect, and Life Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Baselmans, Bart M L; Hofer, Edith; Yang, Jingyun; Okbay, Aysu; Lind, Penelope A; Miller, Mike B; Nolte, Ilja M; Zhao, Wei; Hagenaars, Saskia P; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Matteson, Lindsay K; Snieder, Harold; Faul, Jessica D; Hartman, Catharina A; Boyle, Patricia A; Tiemeier, Henning; Mosing, Miriam A; Pattie, Alison; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; Schmidt, Reinhold; De Jager, Philip L; Heath, Andrew C; Jokela, Markus; Starr, John M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Johannesson, Magnus; Cesarini, David; Hofman, Albert; Harris, Sarah E; Smith, Jennifer A; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Schmidt, Helena; Smith, Jacqui; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Bennett, David A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Deary, Ian J; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike; Luciano, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.

  8. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  9. Factors affecting postoperative range of motion after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gatha, Nehal M; Clarke, Henry D; Fuchs, Robin; Scuderi, Giles R; Insall, John N

    2004-10-01

    One hundred thirty five patients with osteoarthritis who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were evaluated to determine whether specific pre- and postoperative variables were correlated with the postoperative range of motion. Age, sex, pre- and postoperative range of motion, pre- and postoperative Knee Society scores, intraoperative patellar thickness before and after resurfacing, pre- and postoperative radiographic patellar height (as determined by the Insall-Salvati and Blackburn-Peel ratios), and preoperative radiographic alignment were recorded for each patient. Regression analysis was performed to identify whether any variables were correlated with the postoperative range of motion or Knee Society scores. The only variable that was significantly correlated with postoperative range of motion was the preoperative range of motion. This study suggests that among the variables evaluated, the preoperative range of motion was the only significant predictor of postoperative range of motion.

  10. Motion coherence affects human perception and pursuit similarly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2000-01-01

    Pursuit and perception both require accurate information about the motion of objects. Recovering the motion of objects by integrating the motion of their components is a difficult visual task. Successful integration produces coherent global object motion, while a failure to integrate leaves the incoherent local motions of the components unlinked. We compared the ability of perception and pursuit to perform motion integration by measuring direction judgments and the concomitant eye-movement responses to line-figure parallelograms moving behind stationary rectangular apertures. The apertures were constructed such that only the line segments corresponding to the parallelogram's sides were visible; thus, recovering global motion required the integration of the local segment motion. We investigated several potential motion-integration rules by using stimuli with different object, vector-average, and line-segment terminator-motion directions. We used an oculometric decision rule to directly compare direction discrimination for pursuit and perception. For visible apertures, the percept was a coherent object, and both the pursuit and perceptual performance were close to the object-motion prediction. For invisible apertures, the percept was incoherently moving segments, and both the pursuit and perceptual performance were close to the terminator-motion prediction. Furthermore, both psychometric and oculometric direction thresholds were much higher for invisible apertures than for visible apertures. We constructed a model in which both perception and pursuit are driven by a shared motion-processing stage, with perception having an additional input from an independent static-processing stage. Model simulations were consistent with our perceptual and oculomotor data. Based on these results, we propose the use of pursuit as an objective and continuous measure of perceptual coherence. Our results support the view that pursuit and perception share a common motion

  11. Stimulation of PPC Affects the Mapping between Motion and Force Signals for Stiffness Perception But Not Motion Control.

    PubMed

    Leib, Raz; Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir; Donchin, Opher; Rothwell, John; Nisky, Ilana; Davare, Marco

    2016-10-12

    How motion and sensory inputs are combined to assess an object's stiffness is still unknown. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a stiffness estimator in the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We showed previously that delaying force feedback with respect to motion when interacting with an object caused participants to underestimate its stiffness. We found that applying theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the PPC, but not the dorsal premotor cortex, enhances this effect without affecting movement control. We explain this enhancement as an additional lag in force signals. This is the first causal evidence that the PPC is not only involved in motion control, but also has an important role in perception that is disassociated from action. We provide a computational model suggesting that the PPC integrates position and force signals for perception of stiffness and that TMS alters the synchronization between the two signals causing lasting consequences on perceptual behavior.

  12. Background visual motion affects responses of an insect motion-sensitive neuron to objects deviating from a collision course.

    PubMed

    Yakubowski, Jasmine M; McMillan, Glyn A; Gray, John R

    2016-05-01

    Stimulus complexity affects the response of looming sensitive neurons in a variety of animal taxa. The Lobula Giant Movement Detector/Descending Contralateral Movement Detector (LGMD/DCMD) pathway is well-characterized in the locust visual system. It responds to simple objects approaching on a direct collision course (i.e., looming) as well as complex motion defined by changes in stimulus velocity, trajectory, and transitions, all of which are affected by the presence or absence of background visual motion. In this study, we focused on DCMD responses to objects transitioning away from a collision course, which emulates a successful locust avoidance behavior. We presented each of 20 locusts with a sequence of complex three-dimensional visual stimuli in simple, scattered, and progressive flow field backgrounds while simultaneously recording DCMD activity extracellularly. DCMD responses to looming stimuli were generally characteristic irrespective of stimulus background. However, changing background complexity affected, peak firing rates, peak time, and caused changes in peak rise and fall phases. The DCMD response to complex object motion also varied with the azimuthal approach angle and the dynamics of object edge expansion. These data fit with an existing correlational model that relates expansion properties to firing rate modulation during trajectory changes.

  13. Global life satisfaction predicts ambulatory affect, stress, and cortisol in daily life in working adults.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Joshua M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Juth, Vanessa; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-04-01

    Global life satisfaction has been linked with long-term health advantages, yet how life satisfaction impacts the trajectory of long-term health is unclear. This paper examines one such possible mechanism-that greater life satisfaction confers momentary benefits in daily life that accumulate over time. A community sample of working adults (n = 115) completed a measure of life satisfaction and then three subsequent days of ecological momentary assessment surveys (6 times/day) measuring affect (i.e., emotional valence, arousal), and perceived stress, and also provided salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel models indicated that people with higher (vs. lower) levels of life satisfaction reported better momentary affect, less stress, marginally lower momentary levels and significantly altered diurnal slopes of cortisol. Findings suggest individuals with high global life satisfaction have advantageous daily experiences, providing initial evidence for potential mechanisms through which global life satisfaction may help explain long-term health benefits.

  14. Materialism, affective states, and life satisfaction: case of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lipovčan, Ljiljana Kaliterna; Prizmić-Larsen, Zvjezdana; Brkljačić, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have used Material Values Scale (MVS) to assess beliefs about importance to own material things. The aims of this study were to validate the MVS scale and to explore the relationships between materialistic values and well-being of Croatian citizens. The study was carried out on a representative sample of N = 1129 Croatian citizens. We used the short 9-item version of the MVS, life satisfaction rating, ratings of two positive (Positive affect) and four negative emotions (Negative affect) over the past month, and demographic variables (age, gender, income). The original dimensionality of the MVS was not confirmed; confirmatory factor analyses yielded two instead of three factors, Happiness and Centrality/Success. When controlled for income, gender and age, the Happiness dimension predicted Life satisfaction and both Positive and Negative affect, indicating that people who believed that the material goods in ones life leads to happiness reported to have lower life satisfaction, lower level of positive affect and higher level of negative affect over the past month. The Centrality/Success dimension was positively related to Positive affect, indicating that the belief that possessions play a central role in enjoyment leads to more frequent experiences of happiness and satisfaction over the past month.

  15. Emotions, affects and the production of social life.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick J

    2015-06-01

    While many aspects of social life possess an emotional component, sociology needs to explore explicitly the part emotions play in producing the social world and human history. This paper turns away from individualistic and anthropocentric emphases upon the experience of feelings and emotions, attending instead to an exploration of flows of 'affect' (meaning simply a capacity to affect or be affected) between bodies, things, social institutions and abstractions. It establishes a materialist sociology of affects that acknowledges emotions as a part, but only a part, of a more generalized affective flow that produces bodies and the social world. From this perspective, emotions are not a peculiarly remarkable outcome of the confluence of biology and culture, but part of a continuum of affectivity that links human bodies to their physical and social environment. This enhances sociological understanding of the part emotions play in shaping actions and capacities in many settings of sociological concern.

  16. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  17. Does visually induced self-motion affect grip force when holding an object?

    PubMed

    Bringoux, Lionel; Lepecq, Jean-Claude; Danion, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Accurate control of grip force during object manipulation is necessary to prevent the object from slipping, especially to compensate for the action of gravitational and inertial forces resulting from hand/object motion. The goal of the current study was to assess whether the control of grip force was influenced by visually induced self-motion (i.e., vection), which would normally be accompanied by changes in object load. The main task involved holding a 400-g object between the thumb and the index finger while being seated within a virtual immersive environment that simulated the vertical motion of an elevator across floors. Different visual motions were tested, including oscillatory (0.21 Hz) and constant-speed displacements of the virtual scene. Different arm-loading conditions were also tested: with or without the hand-held object and with or without oscillatory arm motion (0.9 Hz). At the perceptual level, ratings from participants showed that both oscillatory and constant-speed motion of the elevator rapidly induced a long-lasting sensation of self-motion. At the sensorimotor level, vection compellingness altered arm movement control. Spectral analyses revealed that arm motion was entrained by the oscillatory motion of the elevator. However, we found no evidence that grip force used to hold the object was visually affected. Specifically, spectral analyses revealed no component in grip force that would mirror the virtual change in object load associated with the oscillatory motion of the elevator, thereby allowing the grip-to-load force coupling to remain unaffected. Altogether, our findings show that the neural mechanisms underlying vection interfere with arm movement control but do not interfere with the delicate modulation of grip force. More generally, those results provide evidence that the strength of the coupling between the sensorimotor system and the perceptual level can be modulated depending on the effector.

  18. Maternal warming affects early life stages of an invasive thistle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Gallagher, R S; Shea, K

    2012-09-01

    Maternal environment can influence plant offspring performance. Understanding maternal environmental effects will help to bridge a key gap in the knowledge of plant life cycles, and provide important insights for species' responses under climate change. Here we show that maternal warming significantly affected the early life stages of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Seeds produced by plants grown in warmed conditions had higher germination percentages and shorter mean germination times than those produced by plants under ambient conditions; this difference was most evident at suboptimal germination temperatures. Subsequent seedling emergence was also faster with maternal warming, with no cost to seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Our results suggest that maternal warming may accelerate the life cycle of this species via enhanced early life-history stages. These maternal effects on offspring performance, together with the positive responses of the maternal generation, may exacerbate invasions of this species under climate change.

  19. Coherent modulation of stimulus colour can affect visually induced self-motion perception.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinji; Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    The effects of dynamic colour modulation on vection were investigated to examine whether perceived variation of illumination affects self-motion perception. Participants observed expanding optic flow which simulated their forward self-motion. Onset latency, accumulated duration, and estimated magnitude of the self-motion were measured as indices of vection strength. Colour of the dots in the visual stimulus was modulated between white and red (experiment 1), white and grey (experiment 2), and grey and red (experiment 3). The results indicated that coherent colour oscillation in the visual stimulus significantly suppressed the strength of vection, whereas incoherent or static colour modulation did not affect vection. There was no effect of the types of the colour modulation; both achromatic and chromatic modulations turned out to be effective in inhibiting self-motion perception. Moreover, in a situation where the simulated direction of a spotlight was manipulated dynamically, vection strength was also suppressed (experiment 4). These results suggest that observer's perception of illumination is critical for self-motion perception, and rapid variation of perceived illumination would impair the reliabilities of visual information in determining self-motion.

  20. Stimulation of PPC Affects the Mapping between Motion and Force Signals for Stiffness Perception But Not Motion Control

    PubMed Central

    Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir; Donchin, Opher; Rothwell, John; Nisky, Ilana; Davare, Marco

    2016-01-01

    How motion and sensory inputs are combined to assess an object's stiffness is still unknown. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a stiffness estimator in the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We showed previously that delaying force feedback with respect to motion when interacting with an object caused participants to underestimate its stiffness. We found that applying theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the PPC, but not the dorsal premotor cortex, enhances this effect without affecting movement control. We explain this enhancement as an additional lag in force signals. This is the first causal evidence that the PPC is not only involved in motion control, but also has an important role in perception that is disassociated from action. We provide a computational model suggesting that the PPC integrates position and force signals for perception of stiffness and that TMS alters the synchronization between the two signals causing lasting consequences on perceptual behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT When selecting an object such as a ripe fruit or sofa, we need to assess the object's stiffness. Because we lack dedicated stiffness sensors, we rely on an as yet unknown mechanism that generates stiffness percepts by combining position and force signals. Here, we found that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) contributes to combining position and force signals for stiffness estimation. This finding challenges the classical view about the role of the PPC in regulating position signals only for motion control because we highlight a key role of the PPC in perception that is disassociated from action. Altogether this sheds light on brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between action and perception and may help in the development of better teleoperation systems and rehabilitation of patients with sensory impairments. PMID:27733607

  1. Sound-evoked vestibular stimulation affects the anticipation of gravity effects during visual self-motion.

    PubMed

    Indovina, Iole; Mazzarella, Elisabetta; Maffei, Vincenzo; Cesqui, Benedetta; Passamonti, Luca; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Humans anticipate the effects of gravity during visually simulated self-motion in the vertical direction. Here we report that an artificial vestibular stimulation consisting of short-tone bursts (STB) suppresses this anticipation. Participants pressed a button upon entering a tunnel during virtual-reality roller coaster rides in downward or forward directions. In different trials, we delivered STB, pulsed white noise (WN), or no sound (NO). In the control conditions (WN, NO), participants responded earlier during downward than forward motion irrespective of true kinematics, consistent with the a priori expectation that downward but not forward motion is accelerated by gravity. STB canceled the difference in response timing between the two directions, without affecting overall task performance. Thus, we argue that vestibular signals play a role in the anticipation of visible gravity effects during self-motion.

  2. Projectile motion in real-life situation: Kinematics of basketball shooting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changjan, A.; Mueanploy, W.

    2015-06-01

    Basketball shooting is a basic practice for players. The path of the ball from the players to the hoop is projectile motion. For undergraduate introductory physics courses student must be taught about projectile motion. Basketball shooting can be used as a case study for learning projectile motion from real-life situation. In this research, we discuss the relationship between optimal angle, minimum initial velocity and the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball for basketball shooting problem analytically. We found that the value of optimal angle and minimum initial velocity decreases with increasing the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball.

  3. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, R.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Siebers, J. V.; Chung, T. D.; Keall, P. J.

    2006-10-01

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of >=0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  4. Provocative motion causes fall in brain temperature and affects sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Flavia; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Cerri, Matteo; Luppi, Marco; Amici, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    Neural substrate of nausea is poorly understood, contrasting the wealth of knowledge about the emetic reflex. One of the reasons for this knowledge deficit is limited number and face validity of animal models of nausea. Our aim was to search for new physiological correlates of nausea in rats. Specifically, we addressed the question whether provocative motion (40-min rotation at 0.5 Hz) affects sleep architecture, brain temperature, heart rate (HR) and arterial pressure. Six adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were instrumented for recordings of EEG, nuchal electromyographic, hypothalamic temperature and arterial pressure. Provocative motion had the following effects: (1) total abolition of REM sleep during rotation and its substantial reduction during the first hour post-rotation (from 20 ± 3 to 5 ± 1.5%); (2) reduction in NREM sleep, both during rotation (from 57 ± 6 to 19 ± 5%) and during the first hour post-rotation (from 56 ± 3 to 41 ± 9%); (3) fall in the brain temperature (from 37.1 ± 0.1 to 36.0 ± 0.1 °C); and (4) reduction in HR (from 375 ± 6 to 327 ± 7 bpm); arterial pressure was not affected. Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, had no major effect on all observed parameters during both baseline and provocative motion. We conclude that in rats, provocative motion causes prolonged arousing effects, however without evidence of sympathetic activation that usually accompanies heightened arousal. Motion induced fall in the brain temperature complements and extends our previous observations in rats and suggests that similar to humans, provocative motion triggers coordinated thermoregulatory response, leading to hypothermia in this species.

  5. Motion Pictures and Real-Life Violence; What the Research Says.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur

    There is evidence that violence in motion pictures viewed by children on screen or television can contribute to violence in real life, although the movies can rarely be blamed as the sole cause of anti-social conduct. Clinical reports cite instances of the effect on "susceptible" youngsters; e.g., emotionally disturbed individuals. Long-term…

  6. How life affects the geochemical cycle of carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Developing a quantitative understanding of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon as they have worked throughout Earth history on various time scales, how they have been affected by biological evolution, and how changes in the carbon content of ocean and atmosphere may have affected climate and the evolution of life are the goals of the research. Theoretical simulations were developed that can be tuned to reproduce such data as exist and, once tuned, can be used to predict properties that have not yet been observed. This is an ongoing process, in which models and results are refined as new data and interpretations become available and as understanding of the global system improves. Results of the research are described in several papers which were published or submitted for publication. These papers are summarized. Future research plans are presented.

  7. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-09-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life.

  8. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure.

  9. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  10. Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs affects global motion perception in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-11-19

    Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs impairs motor and cognitive development; however it is currently unknown whether visual brain areas are affected. To address this question, we investigated the effect of prenatal drug exposure on global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing within the dorsal extrastriate visual cortex that is thought to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal neurodevelopment. Global motion perception was measured in one hundred and forty-five 4.5-year-old children who had been exposed to different combinations of methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine and marijuana prior to birth and 25 unexposed children. Self-reported drug use by the mothers was verified by meconium analysis. We found that global motion perception was impaired by prenatal exposure to alcohol and improved significantly by exposure to marijuana. Exposure to both drugs prenatally had no effect. Other visual functions such as habitual visual acuity and stereoacuity were not affected by drug exposure. Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine did not influence visual function. Our results demonstrate that prenatal drug exposure can influence a behavioural measure of visual development, but that the effects are dependent on the specific drugs used during pregnancy.

  11. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  12. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

    This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

  13. Tubular microjets: Fabrication, factors affecting the motion and mechanism of propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Jemish; Vilela, Diana; Sanchez, Samuel

    2016-11-01

    Artificial micro- and nano-swimmers are interesting systems for both fundamental understandings of swimming at low Reynolds numbers and for their promising applications in many fields, such as environmental and biomedical fields. Different architectures of self-propelled systems present various propulsion mechanisms. Among them, tubular microjets are widely used for different applications. Here, we briefly describe the fabrication of microjets by rolling up thin film and electrodeposition techniques and the principles behind these processes. Different parameters affecting the motion of microjets and existing theoretical models about microjet propulsion are discussed.

  14. Lumbar Facet Joint Motion in Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease at Affected and Adjacent Levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weishi; Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Kozanek, Michal; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Objective To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc diseases (DDDs) on motion of the facet joints during functional weight-bearing activities. Summary of Background Data It has been suggested that DDD adversely affects the biomechanical behavior of the facet joints. Altered facet joint motion, in turn, has been thought to associate with various types of lumbar spine pathology including facet degeneration, neural impingement, and DDD progression. However, to date, no data have been reported on the motion patterns of the lumbar facet joint in DDD patients. Methods Ten symptomatic patients of DDD at L4–S1 were studied. Each participant underwent magnetic resonance images to obtain three-dimensional models of the lumbar vertebrae (L2–S1) and dual fluoroscopic imaging during three characteristic trunk motions: left-right torsion, left-right bending, and flexion-extension. In vivo positions of the vertebrae were reproduced by matching the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae to their outlines on the fluoroscopic images. The kinematics of the facet joints and the ranges of motion (ROMs) were compared with a group of healthy participants reported in a previous study. Results In facet joints of the DDD patients, there was no predominant axis of rotation and no difference in ROMs was found between the different levels. During left-right torsion, the ROMs were similar between the DDD patients and the healthy participants. During left-right bending, the rotation around mediolateral axis at L4–L5, in the DDD patients, was significantly larger than that of the healthy participants. During flexion-extension, the rotations around anterioposterior axis at L4–L5 and around craniocaudal axis at the adjacent level (L3–L4), in the DDD patients, were also significantly larger, whereas the rotation around mediolateral axis at both L2–L3 and L3–L4 levels in the DDD patients were significantly smaller than those of the

  15. How the Relativistic Motion Affect Quantum Fisher Information and Bell Non-locality for Multipartite state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun Yu; Ma, Wenchao; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the quantum fisher information (QFI) and Bell non-locality of a multipartite fermionic system are investigated. Unlike the currently existing research of QFI, we focus our attention on the differences between quantum fisher information and Bell non-locality under the relativistic framework. The results show that although the relativistic motion affects the strength of the non-locality, it does not change the physical structure of non-locality. However, unlike the case of non-locality, the relativistic motion not only influence the precision of the QFI Fϕ but also broke the symmetry of the function Fϕ. The results also show that for a special multipartite system, , the number of particles of a initial state do not affect the Fθ. Furthermore, we also find that Fθ is completely unaffected in non-inertial frame if there are inertial observers. Finally, in view of the decay behavior of QFI and non-locality under the non-inertial frame, we proposed a effective scheme to battle against Unruh effect.

  16. How the Relativistic Motion Affect Quantum Fisher Information and Bell Non-locality for Multipartite state

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun Yu; Ma, Wenchao; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the quantum fisher information (QFI) and Bell non-locality of a multipartite fermionic system are investigated. Unlike the currently existing research of QFI, we focus our attention on the differences between quantum fisher information and Bell non-locality under the relativistic framework. The results show that although the relativistic motion affects the strength of the non-locality, it does not change the physical structure of non-locality. However, unlike the case of non-locality, the relativistic motion not only influence the precision of the QFI Fϕ but also broke the symmetry of the function Fϕ. The results also show that for a special multipartite system, , the number of particles of a initial state do not affect the Fθ. Furthermore, we also find that Fθ is completely unaffected in non-inertial frame if there are inertial observers. Finally, in view of the decay behavior of QFI and non-locality under the non-inertial frame, we proposed a effective scheme to battle against Unruh effect. PMID:28145437

  17. SU-E-J-175: Comparison of the Treatment Reproducibility of Tumors Affected by Breathing Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, M; Piotrowski, T; Adamczyk, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the dose distribution simulations was to form a global idea of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) realization, by its comparison to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) delivery for tumors affected by respiratory motion. Methods: In the group of 10patients both 3DCRT and IMRT plans were prepared.For each field the motion kernel was generated with the largest movement amplitude of 4;6 and 8mm.Additionally,the sets of reference measurements were made in no motion conditions(0 mm).The evaluation of plan delivery,using a diode array placed on moving platform,was based on the Gamma Index analysis with distance to agreement of 3mm and dose difference of 3%. Results: IMRT plans tended to spare doses delivered to lungs compared to 3DCRT.Nonetheless,analyzed volumes showed no significant difference between the static and dynamic techniques,except for the volumes of both lungs receiving 10 and 15Gy.After adding the components associated with the respiratory movement,all IMRT lung parameters evaluated for the ipsilateral,contralateral and both lungs together,revealed considerable differences between the 0vs.6, 0vs.8 and 4vs.8-mm amplitudes.Similar results were obtained for the 3DCRT lung measurements,but without significance between the 0vs.6-mm amplitude.Taking into account the CTV score parameter in 3DCRT and IMRT plans,there was no statistically significant difference between the motion patterns with the smallest amplitudes.The differences were found for the 8-mm amplitude when it was compared both with static conditions and 4-mm amplitude (for 3DCRT) and between 0vs.6, 0vs.8 and 4vs.8-mm amplitudes (for IMRT).All accepted and measured 3DCRT and IMRT doses to spinal cord,esophagus and heart were always below the QUANTEC limits. Conclusion: The application of IMRT technique in lung radiotherapy affords possibilities for reducing the lung doses.For maximal amplitudes of breathing trajectory below 4mm,the disagreement between CTV

  18. How a life-like system emerges from a simple particle motion law

    PubMed Central

    Schmickl, Thomas; Stefanec, Martin; Crailsheim, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Self-structuring patterns can be observed all over the universe, from galaxies to molecules to living matter, yet their emergence is waiting for full understanding. We discovered a simple motion law for moving and interacting self-propelled particles leading to a self-structuring, self-reproducing and self-sustaining life-like system. The patterns emerging within this system resemble patterns found in living organisms. The emergent cells we found show a distinct life cycle and even create their own ecosystem from scratch. These structures grow and reproduce on their own, show self-driven behavior and interact with each other. Here we analyze the macroscopic properties of the emerging ecology, as well as the microscopic properties of the mechanism that leads to it. Basic properties of the emerging structures (size distributions, longevity) are analyzed as well as their resilience against sensor or actuation noise. Finally, we explore parameter space for potential other candidates of life. The generality and simplicity of the motion law provokes the thought that one fundamental rule, described by one simple equation yields various structures in nature: it may work on different time- and size scales, ranging from the self-structuring universe, to emergence of living beings, down to the emergent subatomic formation of matter. PMID:27901107

  19. How a life-like system emerges from a simplistic particle motion law.

    PubMed

    Schmickl, Thomas; Stefanec, Martin; Crailsheim, Karl

    2016-11-30

    Self-structuring patterns can be observed all over the universe, from galaxies to molecules to living matter, yet their emergence is waiting for full understanding. We discovered a simple motion law for moving and interacting self-propelled particles leading to a self-structuring, self-reproducing and self-sustaining life-like system. The patterns emerging within this system resemble patterns found in living organisms. The emergent cells we found show a distinct life cycle and even create their own ecosystem from scratch. These structures grow and reproduce on their own, show self-driven behavior and interact with each other. Here we analyze the macroscopic properties of the emerging ecology, as well as the microscopic properties of the mechanism that leads to it. Basic properties of the emerging structures (size distributions, longevity) are analyzed as well as their resilience against sensor or actuation noise. Finally, we explore parameter space for potential other candidates of life. The generality and simplicity of the motion law provokes the thought that one fundamental rule, described by one simple equation yields various structures in nature: it may work on different time- and size scales, ranging from the self-structuring universe, to emergence of living beings, down to the emergent subatomic formation of matter.

  20. Study of design parameters affecting the motion of DNA for nanoinjection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Regis A.; Jensen, Brian D.; Black, Justin L.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Howell, Larry L.

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the effects of various parameters on the attraction and repulsion of DNA to and from a silicon lance. An understanding of DNA motion is crucial for a new approach to insert DNA, or other foreign microscopic matter, into a living cell. The approach, called nanoinjection, uses electrical forces to attract and repel the desired substance to a micromachined lance designed to pierce the cell membranes. We have developed mathematical models to predict the trajectory of DNA. The mathematical model allows investigation of the attraction/repulsion process by varying specific parameters. We find that the ground electrode placement, lance orientation and lance penetration significantly affect attraction or repulsion efficiency, while the gap, lance direction, lance tip width, lance tip half-angle and lance tip height do not.

  1. Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Kathryn E; Bardi, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction.

  2. Motion and Muscle Activity Are Affected by Instability Location During a Squat Exercise.

    PubMed

    Nairn, Brian C; Sutherland, Chad A; Drake, Janessa D M

    2017-03-01

    Nairn, BC, Sutherland, CA, and Drake, JDM. Motion and muscle activity are affected by instability location during a squat exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 677-685, 2017-Squat exercise training using instability devices has become increasingly popular for a multitude of reasons. Many devices generate instability at the feet and provide a bottom-up perturbation; however, the effect of a top-down instability device during a squat remains unclear. To induce instability at the upper body, a water-filled cylinder called the Attitube was used. This study analyzed the effects of instability location (top-down, bottom-up, and no instability) during a squat exercise in terms of kinematics and muscle activation. Ten male participants were instrumented with 75 reflective markers to track kinematics of the ankle, knee, hip, trunk, and the Bar/Attitube, and electromyography was recorded from 12 muscles bilaterally. Squats were performed with an Olympic bar on a stable surface, an Olympic bar on a BOSU ball (BALL, bottom-up), and the Attitube on solid ground (TUBE, top-down). The TUBE showed up to 1.5 times reduction in erector spinae activation and up to 1.5 times less trunk flexion while being performed at a slower velocity. There was also higher abdominal activation in the TUBE, with up to 2.8 times greater oblique activation compared with the stable condition. The BALL increased ankle eversion and knee flexion with higher muscle activation in gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, and quadriceps. Overall, changing the location of instability during a squat changed the motion and muscle activation patterns of the trunk and lower extremities. This provides information for future research into rehabilitation, learning proper squat technique, and for specific training scenarios.

  3. Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Affects Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Goreishi, Abolfazl; Shajari, Zahra; Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases endanger not only physical health but also psychological and social health of patient. Thus, evaluation of such patients for psychological treatment decisions is very important. Method This is a descriptive study that was performed with 50 chronic patients (ischemic heart disease) selected from Valiasr and Mousavi at cardiac wards in Zanjan Province. They were given three types of questionnaire: demographic, WHOQOL, and Zung depression and anxiety index. The information was statically analyzed by frequency chart, central indexes, dispersion, Chi-Square and t tests, Pearson’s correlation index (P < 0.05). Results The average of quality of life in all patients were calculated as was respectively 12.19, 11.98, 12.08, and 12.4 in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains respectively, 68 percent of total number of the patients had various degrees of anxiety and 78 percent of them had various degrees of depression. There was a significant relationship between the life quality average in all domains and anxiety intensity and depression intensity (P < 0.05) and there was a significant relationship between life quality average in all domains and income (P < 0.05). Conclusion As the level of depression and anxiety goes up, quality of life decreases pointing out that they have a reverse relationship. Depression and anxiety are one of the most significant factors of quality of life among other variables. Regarding specific conditions of the treatment, it is necessary to pay special attention to psychological aspects.

  4. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  5. Searching for life motion signals. Visual search asymmetry in local but not global biological-motion processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Kan; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2010-08-01

    The visual search paradigm has been widely used to study the mechanisms underlying visual attention, and search asymmetry provides a source of insight into preattentive visual features. In the current study, we tested visual search with biological-motion stimuli that were spatially scrambled or that represented feet only and found that observers were more efficient in searching for an upright target among inverted distractors than in searching for an inverted target among upright distractors. This suggests that local biological-motion signals can act as a basic preattentive feature for the human visual system. The search asymmetry disappeared when the global configuration in biological motion was kept intact, which indicates that the attentional effects arising from biological features (e.g., local motion signals) and global novelty (e.g., inverted human figure) can interact and modulate visual search. Our findings provide strong evidence that local biological motion can be processed independently of global configuration and shed new light on the mechanisms of visual search asymmetry.

  6. Mind Invasion: Situated Affectivity and the Corporate Life Hack.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In view of the philosophical problems that vex the debate on situated affectivity, it can seem wise to focus on simple cases. Accordingly, theorists often single out scenarios in which an individual employs a device in order to enhance their emotional experience, or to achieve new kinds of experience altogether, such as playing an instrument, going to the movies, or sporting a fancy handbag. I argue that this narrow focus on cases that fit a "user/resource model" tends to channel attention away from more complex and also more problematic instances of situated affectivity. Among these are scenarios in which a social domain draws individuals into certain modes of affective interaction, often by way of attunement and habituation to affective styles and interaction patterns that are normative in the domain in question. This can lead to a phenomenon that is not so much "mind extension" than "mind invasion": affectivity is dynamically framed and modulated from without, often contrary to the prior orientations of the individuals in question. As an example, I discuss affective patterns prevalent in today's corporate workplace. I claim that workplace affect sometimes contributes to what is effectively a "hack" of employees' subjectivity.

  7. Mind Invasion: Situated Affectivity and the Corporate Life Hack

    PubMed Central

    Slaby, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In view of the philosophical problems that vex the debate on situated affectivity, it can seem wise to focus on simple cases. Accordingly, theorists often single out scenarios in which an individual employs a device in order to enhance their emotional experience, or to achieve new kinds of experience altogether, such as playing an instrument, going to the movies, or sporting a fancy handbag. I argue that this narrow focus on cases that fit a “user/resource model” tends to channel attention away from more complex and also more problematic instances of situated affectivity. Among these are scenarios in which a social domain draws individuals into certain modes of affective interaction, often by way of attunement and habituation to affective styles and interaction patterns that are normative in the domain in question. This can lead to a phenomenon that is not so much “mind extension” than “mind invasion”: affectivity is dynamically framed and modulated from without, often contrary to the prior orientations of the individuals in question. As an example, I discuss affective patterns prevalent in today's corporate workplace. I claim that workplace affect sometimes contributes to what is effectively a “hack” of employees' subjectivity. PMID:26941705

  8. Does Death Anxiety Affect End-of-Life Care Discussions?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alaina J.; Shen, Megan J.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Bodurka, Diane C.; Giuntoli, Robert L.; Diaz-Montes, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if a gynecologic cancer patient's comfort level discussing end-of-life care issues with her caregivers is related to her death anxiety level. Materials/Methods Gynecologic oncology clinic patients were asked to rate their degree of agreeability with 4 statements regarding comfort level discussing end-of-life care issues. Participants also completed the Hoge's Intrinsic Religiosity Scale and Templer's Death Anxiety Scale. Results Four hundred one surveys were distributed. One hundred twenty-nine patients participated, with a response rate of 32.2%. The median age of the sample was 55 years. Most patients were white (72.9%), married (58.9%), and Christian (85.3%). Most patients had ovarian cancer (40.4%). Of the 74 patients who knew their cancer stage, 59% had been diagnosed with advanced (stage III-IV) disease. Thirty-three percent were currently in remission, and 17% had recurrent disease. Of all patients surveyed, 32.6% were currently receiving treatment. Chemotherapy was the most common treatment (62% of those being treated). Higher level of comfort discussing end-of-life care topics such as do-not-resuscitate orders with family members was significantly associated with decreased death anxiety (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001). There was no significant association between comfort level when patients discussed do-not-resuscitate orders with physicians and patients' death anxiety (P = 0.14). After controlling for age, race, marital status, education level, current treatment status, and religiosity, linear regression analysis demonstrated that the relationship between a patient's increased comfort level when discussing end-of-life care topics with family members and decreased death anxiety remained statistically significant (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001). Conclusions Conversations regarding goals of treatment are an important component of caring for cancer patients. Death anxiety may contribute to decreased communication between

  9. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    PubMed Central

    Young, Katherine S.; Parsons, Christine E.; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronized, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance) but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behavior in both an experimental and observational setting. Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviors of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND). Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1). Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries). Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2). Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest. PMID:25741255

  10. Factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Nobumasa; Shoji, Morio; Kitagawa, Takashi; Terada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased plantar pressure during walking is a risk factor for foot ulcers because of reduced range of motion at the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints. However, the range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy feet of 35 patients receiving hemodialysis therapy were examined. Measurements included the passive range of motion of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, and flexion and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. [Results] Hemodialysis duration was not associated with ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Diabetes duration was significantly associated with limited ankle joint mobility. Finally, blood hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and age were associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion. [Conclusion] The present study identified age, diabetes, and decreased physical activity, but not hemodialysis duration, to be risk factors for limited joint mobility of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27313371

  11. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-05-03

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients.

  12. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  13. The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Erica; Sailer, Uta; Al Nima, Ali; Rosenberg, Patricia; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate such differences in a sample of residents of the USA. The study also investigated differences between profiles with regard to happiness-increasing strategies. Methods. In Study I, 900 participants reported affect (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS) and happiness (Happiness-Depression Scale). In Study II, 500 participants self-reported affect (PANAS), life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale), and how often they used specific strategies to increase their own happiness (Happiness-Increasing Strategies Scales). Results. The results showed that, compared to the other profiles, self-fulfilling individuals were less depressed, happier, and more satisfied with their lives. Nevertheless, self-destructive individuals were more depressed, unhappier, and less satisfied than all other profiles. The self-fulfilling individuals tended to use strategies related to agentic (e.g., instrumental goal-pursuit), communal (e.g., social affiliation), and spiritual (e.g., religion) values when pursuing happiness. Conclusion. These differences suggest that promoting positive emotions can positively influence a depressive-to-happy state as well as increasing life satisfaction. Moreover, the present study shows that pursuing happiness through strategies guided by agency, communion, and spirituality is related to a self-fulfilling experience described as high positive affect and low negative affect.

  14. Factors affecting the spontaneous motion of condensate drops on superhydrophobic copper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Qin, Zhaoqian; Yao, Shuhuai

    2012-04-10

    The coalescence-induced condensate drop motion on some superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) has attracted increasing attention because of its potential applications in sustained dropwise condensation, water collection, anti-icing, and anticorrosion. However, an investigation of the mechanism of such self-propelled motion including the factors for designing such SHSs is still limited. In this article, we fabricated a series of superhydrophobic copper surfaces with nanoribbon structures using wet chemical oxidation followed by fluorization treatment. We then systematically studied the influence of surface roughness and the chemical properties of as-prepared surfaces on the spontaneous motion of condensate drops. We quantified the "frequency" of the condensate drop motion based on microscopic sequential images and showed that the trend of this frequency varied with the nanoribbon structure and extent of fluorination. More obvious spontaneous condensate drop motion was observed on surfaces with a higher extent of fluorization and nanostructures possessing sufficiently narrow spacing and higher perpendicularity. We attribute this enhanced drop mobility to the stable Cassie state of condensate drops in the dynamic dropwise condensation process that is determined by the nanoscale morphology and local surface energy.

  15. Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress by attachment styles in Turkish students.

    PubMed

    Deniz, M Engin; Işik, Erkan

    2010-10-01

    The purpose was to investigate positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress in relation to attachment styles. Undergraduate students (N=421) completed the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Coping with Stress Scale. Results indicated that secure attachment style was the unique predictor of positive affect while fearful and preoccupied attachment styles significantly predicted negative affect. Regarding life satisfaction, a positive correlation with secure attachment style and a negative correlation with fearful and preoccupied styles were seen. However, the unique predictor of life satisfaction was preoccupied attachment style. In terms of coping with stress, there was no significant association between attachment variables and avoidance coping style, but significant links were observed between problem-focused coping and dismissing, and fearful and preoccupied attachment styles.

  16. Mobile Diagnostics Based on Motion? A Close Look at Motility Patterns in the Schistosome Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Linder, Ewert; Varjo, Sami; Thors, Cecilia

    2016-06-17

    Imaging at high resolution and subsequent image analysis with modified mobile phones have the potential to solve problems related to microscopy-based diagnostics of parasitic infections in many endemic regions. Diagnostics using the computing power of "smartphones" is not restricted by limited expertise or limitations set by visual perception of a microscopist. Thus diagnostics currently almost exclusively dependent on recognition of morphological features of pathogenic organisms could be based on additional properties, such as motility characteristics recognizable by computer vision. Of special interest are infectious larval stages and "micro swimmers" of e.g., the schistosome life cycle, which infect the intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. The ciliated miracidium, emerges from the excreted egg upon its contact with water. This means that for diagnostics, recognition of a swimming miracidium is equivalent to recognition of an egg. The motility pattern of miracidia could be defined by computer vision and used as a diagnostic criterion. To develop motility pattern-based diagnostics of schistosomiasis using simple imaging devices, we analyzed Paramecium as a model for the schistosome miracidium. As a model for invasive nematodes, such as strongyloids and filaria, we examined a different type of motility in the apathogenic nematode Turbatrix, the "vinegar eel." The results of motion time and frequency analysis suggest that target motility may be expressed as specific spectrograms serving as "diagnostic fingerprints."

  17. Mobile Diagnostics Based on Motion? A Close Look at Motility Patterns in the Schistosome Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Ewert; Varjo, Sami; Thors, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Imaging at high resolution and subsequent image analysis with modified mobile phones have the potential to solve problems related to microscopy-based diagnostics of parasitic infections in many endemic regions. Diagnostics using the computing power of “smartphones” is not restricted by limited expertise or limitations set by visual perception of a microscopist. Thus diagnostics currently almost exclusively dependent on recognition of morphological features of pathogenic organisms could be based on additional properties, such as motility characteristics recognizable by computer vision. Of special interest are infectious larval stages and “micro swimmers” of e.g., the schistosome life cycle, which infect the intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. The ciliated miracidium, emerges from the excreted egg upon its contact with water. This means that for diagnostics, recognition of a swimming miracidium is equivalent to recognition of an egg. The motility pattern of miracidia could be defined by computer vision and used as a diagnostic criterion. To develop motility pattern-based diagnostics of schistosomiasis using simple imaging devices, we analyzed Paramecium as a model for the schistosome miracidium. As a model for invasive nematodes, such as strongyloids and filaria, we examined a different type of motility in the apathogenic nematode Turbatrix, the “vinegar eel.” The results of motion time and frequency analysis suggest that target motility may be expressed as specific spectrograms serving as “diagnostic fingerprints.” PMID:27322330

  18. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  19. Significant Life Experiences Affect Environmental Action: A Confirmation Study in Eastern Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shih-Jang

    2009-01-01

    Two field studies form the basis of this article. The major purposes of Study 1 were to examine significant life experiences affecting the cultivation of environmental activists in eastern Taiwan, and to reconstruct the life paths followed by those active people who engaged in effective environmental action. 40 usable autobiographical memories…

  20. Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Change about Projectile Motion: Refutation Text, Demonstration, Affective Factors, and Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, Cynthia; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigates changes in preservice teachers' conceptions about projectile motion brought about by a combination of reading and demonstration and appeal to usefulness. Results indicate the effectiveness of a combined Demo-Text condition on immediate posttests and effectiveness of text in producing long-term change. Analysis also indicates an…

  1. Seasickness, How It Affects Sailors and Relationships with Land and Air Motion Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    ADM201923, Habitability of Combat and Transport Vehicles: Noise, Vibration and Motion (L’habitabilite des vehicules de combat et de transport: le bruit...of autonomic nervous system balance. Detrimental effects on cognitive processes, like short-term memory, are reported with exposure to whole- body

  2. Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.

    PubMed

    Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B

    2015-06-01

    Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life.

  3. Appreciation and Life Satisfaction: Does Appreciation Uniquely Predict Life Satisfaction above Gender, Coping Skills, Self-Esteem, and Positive Affectivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Joshua Solomon

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine whether appreciation explains variance in life satisfaction after controlling for gender, positive affectivity, self-esteem, and coping skills. Two hundred ninety-eight undergraduates went to the informed consent page of the online survey composed of the Appreciation Scale, the Satisfaction With…

  4. Quality control for bone quality parameters affected by subject motion in high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pauchard, Yves; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Macdonald, Heather M; Hanley, David A; Boyd, Steven K

    2012-06-01

    Subject motion during high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) causes image artifacts that affect morphological analysis of bone quality. The aim of our study was to determine effectiveness of techniques for quality control in the presence of motion in vivo including automated and manual approaches. First, repeatability of manual grading was determined within and between laboratories. Given proper training using a standardized scale and training images (provided by the manufacturer), we found that manual grading is suitable for repeatable image quality grading within and across sites (ICC>0.7). Both a new automated technique providing motion measures based on projection moments, and traditional manual grading (1=best, 5=worst) were subsequently used to assess subject data for motion in N=137 image pairs (scan/re-scan) from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) Calgary cohort. High quality image pairs were selected and measurement precision was estimated by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). Consistent with previous data, density parameters (e.g. total bone mineral density) are more robust than structural (e.g. trabecular number) or finite element parameters (e.g. failure load). To obtain acceptable measurement precision, images should not exceed a manual grading of 3 (on a scale from 1 to 5) or an automatic (ε(T)) grading of 1.2. Automatic and manual grading provide comparable quality control, but the advantage of the automated technique is its ability to provide a motion value at scan time (providing a basis for real time decision regarding re-scan requirements), and the assessment is objective. Notably, automatic motion measurement can be performed retrospectively based on original scan data, and is therefore well suited for multi-center studies as well as any research where objective quality control is paramount.

  5. Optical and Event-Duration Variables Affecting Self-Motion Perception.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    ecological optics self-motion perception visual simulation 05 08 egomotion visual proprioception optical flow visual psychophysics 19 46STRACT... stairs was perceived relative to the observer’s leg length, while Hallford (1984) found that the perceived * graspability of tiles was a direct...Psychology Laboratory. 182 JV. VI Warren, W. H. (1984). Perceiving affordances: Visual guidance of stair c 1ir-bing. Journal of Experimental

  6. Key features of hip hop dance motions affect evaluation by judges.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The evaluation of hip hop dancers presently lacks clearly defined criteria and is often dependent on the subjective impressions of judges. Our study objective was to extract hidden motion characteristics that could potentially distinguish the skill levels of hip hop dancers and to examine the relationship between performance kinematics and judging scores. Eleven expert, six nonexpert, and nine novice dancers participated in the study, where each performed the "wave" motion as an experimental task. The movements of their upper extremities were captured by a motion capture system, and several kinematic parameters including the propagation velocity of the wave were calculated. Twelve judges evaluated the performances of the dancers, and we compared the kinematic parameters of the three groups and examined the relationship between the judging scores and the kinematic parameters. We found the coefficient of variation of the propagation velocity to be significantly different among the groups (P < .01) and highly correlated with the judging scores (r = -0.800, P < .01). This revealed that the variation of propagation velocity was the most dominant variable representing the skill level of the dancers and that the smooth propagation of the wave was most closely related to the evaluation by judges.

  7. Direction of Biological Motion Affects Early Brain Activation: A Link with Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pegna, Alan John; Gehring, Elise; Meyer, Georg; Del Zotto, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    A number of EEG studies have investigated the time course of brain activation for biological movement over this last decade, however the temporal dynamics of processing are still debated. Moreover, the role of direction of movement has not received much attention even though it is an essential component allowing us to determine the intentions of the moving agent, and thus permitting the anticipation of potential social interactions. In this study, we examined event-related responses (ERPs) in 15 healthy human participants to light point walkers and their scrambled counterparts, whose movements occurred either in the radial or in the lateral plane. Compared to scrambled motion (SM), biological motion (BM) showed an enhanced negativity between 210 and 360ms. A source localization algorithm (sLORETA) revealed that this was due to an increase in superior and middle temporal lobe activity. Regarding direction, we found that radial BM produced an enhanced P1 compared to lateral BM, lateral SM and radial SM. This heightened P1 was due to an increase in activity in extrastriate regions, as well as in superior temporal, medial parietal and medial prefrontal areas. This network is known to be involved in decoding the underlying intentionality of the movement and in the attribution of mental states. The social meaning signaled by the direction of biological motion therefore appears to trigger an early response in brain activity. PMID:26121591

  8. He throws like a girl (but only when he's sad): emotion affects sex-decoding of biological motion displays.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kerri L; McKay, Lawrie S; Pollick, Frank E

    2011-05-01

    Gender stereotypes have been implicated in sex-typed perceptions of facial emotion. Such interpretations were recently called into question because facial cues of emotion are confounded with sexually dimorphic facial cues. Here we examine the role of visual cues and gender stereotypes in perceptions of biological motion displays, thus overcoming the morphological confounding inherent in facial displays. In four studies, participants' judgments revealed gender stereotyping. Observers accurately perceived emotion from biological motion displays (Study 1), and this affected sex categorizations. Angry displays were overwhelmingly judged to be men; sad displays were judged to be women (Studies 2-4). Moreover, this pattern remained strong when stimuli were equated for velocity (Study 3). We argue that these results were obtained because perceivers applied gender stereotypes of emotion to infer sex category (Study 4). Implications for both vision sciences and social psychology are discussed.

  9. Factors affecting the quality of life of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the quality of life of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment and the factors affecting their quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 17 home-based elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment (8 males and 9 females, average age: 76.3 ± 10.5 years old). Their physical and psychological conditions, quality of life and other items were investigated. Nishimura’s Mental State Scale for the Elderly was used for the cognitive impairment assessment. The Functional Independence Measure was used to assess activities of daily living, and the Japanese Quality of Life Inventory for the Elderly with Dementia was used to assess quality of life. [Results] The subjects’ quality of life was affected by their cognitive impairment level and independence of activities of daily living. However, no correlations were observed between the quality of life of the homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment, age, gender or care-need level. [Conclusion] In order to improve the quality of life of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment, assistance helping them to maintain their cognitive abilities and on-going rehabilitation for improving activities of daily living independence are required. PMID:28174455

  10. How do macro-roughness elements affect bed-load sediment motion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radice, Alessio; Campagnol, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    Experimental results are here presented for bed-load particle motion in the presence of macro-roughness elements (MREs). Experiments were performed at the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Politecnico di Milano using plastic particles (size of 3 mm) as bed-load sediment that was fed into a rectangular-section, pressurized duct. The bottom of the duct was covered with a number of MREs, represented by concrete semi-spheres (diameter of 35 mm) that were not mobilized by the hydrodynamic conditions used. The experiments thus mimicked the transport of fine sediment in the presence of immobile boulders, that is one possible idealized representation of the granulometric variability found in natural water courses. The work is part of a project devoted to the characterization of particle kinematics for different roughness of the bed, undertaken within a long-term cooperation with the Environmental and Industrial Fluid Mechanics group at the University of Aberdeen (UK). Different flow conditions were tested. For each, MREs were placed in two different arrangements, corresponding to triangular grids with variable side length (130 mm and 100 mm). Colour of sediment was appropriately chosen (white grains over black background) to enable bed-load particles to be tracked by an image processing software (Streams, developed by the University of Canterbury, New Zealand). Particle kinematics was described using typical quantities: path length and tortuosity, path-averaged and instantaneous velocity components in the stream-wise and transverse directions, duration of motion events. The collected database was considerably wide, in terms of both measured particle paths and instantaneous velocity values. Results are discussed in terms of the measured kinematic properties and also comparing the sediment motion to that obtained for the same hydrodynamic conditions and in the absence of MREs. A discussion is made about comparability of the different scenarios, as the presence/absence of the MREs

  11. Incidental sequence learning in a motion coherence discrimination task: How response learning affects perception.

    PubMed

    Laubrock, Jochen; Kinder, Annette

    2014-10-01

    The serial reaction time task (SRTT) is a standard task used to investigate incidental sequence learning. Whereas incidental learning of motor sequences is well-established, few and disputed results support learning of perceptual sequences. Here we adapt a motion coherence discrimination task (Newsome & Paré, 1988) to the sequence learning paradigm. The new task has 2 advantages: (a) the stimulus is presented at fixation, thereby obviating overt eye movements, and (b) by varying coherence a perceptual threshold measure is available in addition to the performance measure of RT. Results from 3 experiments show that action relevance of the sequence is necessary for sequence learning to occur, that the amount of sequence knowledge varies with the ease of encoding the motor sequence, and that sequence knowledge, once acquired, has the ability to modify perceptual thresholds.

  12. Receiving a diagnosis of inoperable lung cancer: patients' perspectives of how it affects their life situation and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Berterö, Carina; Vanhanen, Maria; Appelin, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is a disease with many biomedical and psychological symptoms. The diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer induces adverse effects. Having an inoperable lung cancer there are few possibilities of being cured. Management of patients with inoperable disease is directed at relieving local or systemic symptoms. The purpose of this study is to describe how it affects the patients' life situation and quality of life. Data was collected by qualitative interviews where the patient's lived experiences were articulated. Twenty-three Swedish patients diagnosed and starting palliative treatment for inoperable lung cancer were interviewed. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were interpreted trough interpretive phenomenology. Six themes were identified that were important for the informants' experience of their life situation and quality of life. The themes were: Experience of uncertainty; including time of waiting and thoughts, experience of hope; about a prolonged life, network as support; being treated as the person they are thoughts of death; is there time to conclude their lives?, feelings of shame and guilt; they have caused the disease by themselves and next of kin reactions; sadness, guilt, worries and anger. These six themes gave a structure presenting the essence: Living as usual. Maintaining independency and integrity were important, as well as maintaining status, being treated as the person they always had been and that they experience that they had a meaning to fulfill in life. They were living as usual. The findings of this study point out the importance of improving the care of people afflicted with lung cancer, as well as promoting support for the next of kin, since they are significantly important for these patients' experiences of quality of life. This knowledge and understanding will be useful for development of interventions and guidelines for treatment.

  13. Motion coordination affects movement parameters in a joint pick-and-place task.

    PubMed

    Vesper, Cordula; Soutschek, Alexander; Schubo, Anna

    2009-12-01

    This study examined influences of social context on movement parameters in a pick-and-place task. Participants' motion trajectories were recorded while they performed sequences of natural movements either working side-by-side with a partner or alone. It was expected that movement parameters would be specifically adapted to the joint condition to overcome the difficulties arising from the requirement to coordinate with another person. To disentangle effects based on participants' effort to coordinate their movements from effects merely due to the other's presence, a condition was included where only one person performed the task while being observed by the partner. Results indicate that participants adapted their movements temporally and spatially to the joint action situation: Overall movement duration was shorter, and mean and maximum velocity was higher when actually working together than when working alone. Pick-to-place trajectories were also shifted away from the partner in spatial coordinates. The partner's presence as such did not have an impact on movement parameters. These findings are interpreted as evidence for the use of implicit strategies to facilitate movement coordination in joint action tasks.

  14. Olfactory Cues from Pathogenic Fungus Affect the Direction of Motion of Termites, Coptotermes formosanus.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Aya; Imai, Tomoya; Akino, Toshiharu; Toh, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus, tend to avoid pathogen odors when tested in Y-tube olfactometers, but approach and groom exposed nestmates to remove pathogens from their cuticle and maintain a healthy population. To better understand their differential reaction to pathogens and their odors, the relationship between odor cues and direction of motion was examined with the fungus Isaria fumosorosea K3 strain. The results indicate that nestmate odor was strongly attractive only in tests where fungal odors were present in both branches of the olfactometer. Termites generally avoid fungal odors when offered a choice without fungal odor. We also tested termite aversion to 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, major surface chemical compounds of I. fumosorosea K3, and estimated the total mass of these compounds present on the conidial surface by direct extraction method. The total quantity of these chemicals on the surface of fungal conidia was estimated to be approximately 0.01 ng per 10(7) conidia. This study demonstrates a context dependent behavioral change in termites in response to the odors of pathogenic fungi.

  15. Does fluid infiltration affect the motion of sediment grains? - A 3-D numerical modelling approach using SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Rogers, Benedict D.; Fourtakas, Georgios; Mokos, Athanasios; Huhn, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    The processes that cause the creation of a variety of sediment morphological features, e.g. laminated beds, ripples, or dunes, are based on the initial motion of individual sediment grains. However, with experimental techniques it is difficult to measure the flow characteristics, i.e., the velocity of the pore water flow in sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-intrusive way. As a result, the role of fluid infiltration at the surface and in the interior affecting the initiation of motion of a sediment bed is not yet fully understood. Consequently, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid driven sediment transport processes of complex sediment beds composed of irregular shapes. The numerical method Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) satisfies this need. As a meshless and Lagrangian technique, SPH is ideally suited to simulating flows in sediment beds composed of various grain shapes, but also flow around single grains at a high temporal and spatial resolution. The solver chosen is DualSPHysics (www.dual.sphysics.org) since this is validated for a range of flow conditions. For the present investigation a 3-D numerical flume model was generated using SPH with a length of 4.0 cm, a width of 0.05 cm and a height of 0.2 cm where mobile sediment particles were deposited in a recess. An experimental setup was designed to test sediment configurations composed of irregular grain shapes (grain diameter, D50=1000 μm). Each bed consisted of 3500 mobile objects. After the bed generation process, the entire domain was flooded with 18 million fluid particles. To drive the flow, an oscillating motion perpendicular to the bed was applied to the fluid, reaching a peak value of 0.3 cm/s, simulating 4 seconds of real time. The model results showed that flow speeds decreased logarithmically from the top of the domain towards the surface of the beds, indicating a fully developed boundary layer. Analysis of the fluid

  16. Social-Cognitive Factors Affecting Clients' Career and Life Satisfaction after Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Marijke; Sels, Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting clients' career and life satisfaction in the first 6 months after having participated in career counseling. In particular, we tested a large subset of the recent social-cognitive model of work satisfaction of Lent and Brown using a longitudinal data set of 195 former counseling clients. Our results showed that…

  17. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  18. Face Orientation and Motion Differently Affect the Deployment of Visual Attention in Newborns and 4-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bulf, Hermann; Ichikawa, Hiroko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2015-01-01

    Orienting visual attention allows us to properly select relevant visual information from a noisy environment. Despite extensive investigation of the orienting of visual attention in infancy, it is unknown whether and how stimulus characteristics modulate the deployment of attention from birth to 4 months of age, a period in which the efficiency in orienting of attention improves dramatically. The aim of the present study was to compare 4-month-old infants’ and newborns’ ability to orient attention from central to peripheral stimuli that have the same or different attributes. In Experiment 1, all the stimuli were dynamic and the only attribute of the central and peripheral stimuli to be manipulated was face orientation. In Experiment 2, both face orientation and motion of the central and peripheral stimuli were contrasted. The number of valid trials and saccadic latency were measured at both ages. Our results demonstrated that the deployment of attention is mainly influenced by motion at birth, while it is also influenced by face orientation at 4-month of age. These findings provide insight into the development of the orienting visual attention in the first few months of life and suggest that maturation may be not the only factor that determines the developmental change in orienting visual attention from birth to 4 months. PMID:26367122

  19. Life in motion, in motion!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalenko, Y. A.

    1983-01-01

    A 120 day limited mobility experiment with young male rats and its results, including retarded growth and degenerative changes in the cardiac muscle, are described. A 120 day strict bedrest experiment with 10 human volunteers and its results are described and discussed. Early subjective complaints, subsequent adaptation and eventual progressive changes in excitability and reactivity, reduction in functional capability of the cerebral cortex, and disturbances in water-salt, protein and fat metabolism, including development of precursors of atherosclerosis, as well as poor results of the orthostatic test after 4 months, are presented. These results are explained as applied to sedentary workers and recommendations are given for such persons to exercise in the morning, at work and in the evening in order to prevent hypokinesis and its physical, mental and physiological effects.

  20. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A.; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K.; Gartner, Stephanie R.; Field, Catherine J.; Chan, Catherine B.; Willing, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation. PMID:28150721

  1. Cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being in later life: Measurement equivalence over gender and life stage.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2014-05-31

    The hedonic view on well-being, consisting of both cognitive and affective aspects, assumes that through maximizing pleasurable experiences, and minimizing suffering, the highest levels of well-being can be achieved. The eudemonic approach departs from the concept of a good life that is not just about pleasure and happiness, but involves developing one-self, being autonomous and realizing one's potential. While these approaches are often positioned against each other on theoretical grounds, this paper investigates the empirical plausibility of this two dimensional view on subjective well-being. The interrelations between common measures such as the General Health Questionnaire, the CES-D inventory of depressive symptoms, the satisfaction with life scale and the eudemonic CASP scale are examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework using the third wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). A multidimensional structure of well-being, distinguishing cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being, is shown to be the best fitting empirical solution. This three dimensional second order structure is neutral to gender in its measurement. A lower influence of feeling energetic on self-actualisation, and of somatic symptoms of depression on affective well-being was noted for respondents in the fourth age in comparison to respondents in the third age. These small measurement artefacts underline that somatic symptoms of later life depression should be distinguished from mood symptoms. Two main social facts are confirmed when we compare the different forms of well-being over gender and life stage: men tend to have a higher level of well-being than women, and well-being is lower in the fourth age than in the third age. Although the three measures are very closely related, with high correlations between .74 and .88, they each have their specific meaning. While affective and cognitive well-being emphasize the use of an internal yardstick to measure well

  2. Affective Instability in Daily Life Is Predicted by Resting Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Kuppens, Peter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that being affectively unstable is an indicator of several forms of psychological maladjustment. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying affective instability. Our research aims to examine the possibility that being prone to extreme fluctuations in one’s feelings is related to maladaptive emotion regulation. We investigated this hypothesis by relating affective instability, assessed in daily life using the experience sampling method, to self-reported emotion regulation strategies and to parasympathetically mediated heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological indicator of emotion regulation capacity. Results showed that HRV was negatively related to instability of positive affect (as measured by mean square successive differences), indicating that individuals with lower parasympathetic tone are emotionally less stable, particularly for positive affect. PMID:24312315

  3. Balance between macronutrients affects life span and functional senescence in fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Gospodaryov, Dmytro V; Rovenko, Bohdana M; Glovyak, Andriy D; Yurkevych, Ihor S; Klyuba, Vira P; Shcherbij, Maria V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2012-02-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that as the ratio of protein to carbohydrate (P:C) in the diet declines, life span increases in Drosophila. Here we explored how extremely low dietary ratios of protein to carbohydrate affected longevity and a selection of variables associated with functional senescence. An increase in P:C ratio from 1:57 to 1:20 shortened life span by increasing age-dependent mortality; whereas a further decline in P:C from 1:57 to 1:95 caused a modest decrease in life span. Female flies consuming the 1:20 and 1:38 diets laid more eggs than those consuming the lower P:C diets. Flies fed diets with higher ratios were more resistant to heat stress. Flies consuming the diets with lowest P:C ratios needed more time to restore activity after paralysis. Our study has therefore extended to very low P:C ratios available data demonstrating that dietary P:C ratio affects life span, fecundity and heat stress resistance, with fecundity and heat stress responses showing the opposite trend to life span.

  4. Time-varying exposure and the impact of stressful life events on onset of affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Surtees, Paul G

    2002-07-30

    Stressful life events are now established as risk factors for the onset of affective disorder but few studies have investigated time-varying exposure effects. Discrete (grouped) time survival methods provide a flexible framework for evaluating multiple time-dependent covariates and time-varying covariate effects. Here, we use these methods to investigate the time-varying influence of life events on the onset of affective disorder. Various straightforward time-varying exposure models are compared, involving one or more (stepped) time-dependent covariates and time-dependent covariates constructed or estimated according to exponential decay. These models are applied to data from two quite different studies. The first, a small scale interviewer-based longitudinal study (n = 180) concerned with affective disorder onset following loss (or threat of loss) event experiences. The second, a questionnaire assessment as part of an ongoing population study (n = 3353), provides a history of marital loss events and of depressive disorder onset. From the first study the initial impact of loss events was found to decay with a half-life of 5 weeks. Psychological coping strategy was found to modify vulnerability to the adverse effects of these events. The second study revealed that while men had a lower immediate risk of disorder onset following loss event experience their risk period was greater than for women. Time-varying exposure effects were well described by the appropriate use of simple time-dependent covariates.

  5. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles. PMID:26388814

  6. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.

  7. Ancestry trumps experience: Transgenerational but not early life stress affects the adult physiological stress response.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Gail L; Robbins, Travis R; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Langkilde, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood. Offspring from these high- and low-stress populations were exposed weekly to either sub-lethal attack by fire ants (an ecologically relevant stressor), topical treatment with a physiologically-appropriate dose of the stress-relevant hormone, corticosterone (CORT), or a control treatment from 2 to 43weeks of age. Several months after treatments ended, we quantified plasma CORT concentrations at baseline and following restraint, exposure to fire ants, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection. Exposure to fire ants or CORT during early life did not affect lizard stress physiology in adulthood. However, offspring of lizards from populations that had experienced multiple generations of fire ant-invasion exhibited more robust adult CORT responses to restraint and ACTH-injection compared to offspring from uninvaded populations. Together, these results indicate that transgenerational stress history may be at least as important, if not more important, than early life stress in affecting adult physiological stress responses.

  8. A novel approach to simulate chest wall micro-motion for bio-radar life detection purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Qiang; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Chen, Fuming; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-10-01

    Volunteers are often recruited to serve as the detection targets during the research process of bio-radar life detection technology, in which the experiment results are highly susceptible to the physical status of different individuals (shape, posture, etc.). In order to objectively evaluate the radar system performance and life detection algorithms, a standard detection target is urgently needed. The paper first proposed a parameter quantitatively controllable system to simulate the chest wall micro-motion caused mainly by breathing and heart beating. Then, the paper continued to analyze the material and size selection of the scattering body mounted on the simulation system from the perspective of back scattering energy. The computational electromagnetic method was employed to determine the exact scattering body. Finally, on-site experiments were carried out to verify the reliability of the simulation platform utilizing an IR UWB bioradar. Experimental result shows that the proposed system can simulate a real human target from three aspects: respiration frequency, amplitude and body surface scattering energy. Thus, it can be utilized as a substitute for a human target in radar based non-contact life detection research in various scenarios.

  9. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  10. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A.; Silvia, Paul J.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life. PMID:25852613

  11. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  12. Life Experiences of People Affected by Crohn's Disease and Their Support Networks: Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    García-Sanjuán, Sofía; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Sanjuán-Quiles, Ángela; Gil-González, Diana; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    This scoping review identifies and describes relevant studies related to the evidence published on life experiences and perceived social support of people affected by Crohn's disease. Twenty-three studies were definitely selected and analyzed for the topics explored. The overall findings show patients' needs and perceptions. There is a lack of evidence about patients' perceived needs as well as the understanding of social support that has contributed to improve their life experiences with that chronic illness. Lack of energy, loss of body control, body image damaged due to different treatments and surgeries, symptoms related to fear of disease, feeling burdened loss related to independence, and so on are some of the concerns with having to live with those affected by the Crohn. To underline those experiences through this scoping review provides valuable data for health care teams, especially for the nursing profession, considered by those affected as one of the main roles along the whole pathological process. This review provides the basis for developing broader research on the relatively underexplored topics and consequently improves specific programs that could address patients' needs.

  13. Spouse health status, depressed affect, and resilience in mid and late life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-04-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on average, depressive symptoms were compared in 4 groups varying in their experience of spousal health transitions: those whose spouse remained ill at T1 and T2, those whose spouse declined in health from T1 to T2, those whose spouse's health improved from T1 to T2, and those whose spouse remained healthy at both time points. Mixed analyses of covariance showed that, as hypothesized, having a spouse who became or remained ill over time was linked to greater depressed affect by T2, whereas having a spouse improve in health was associated with a decline in depressive symptomatology. Moderated regression analyses indicated that while higher mastery and self-esteem were linked to lower depressed affect in general, these resources were especially protective against depressed affect for those whose spouse remained ill at both time points. These findings are at the intersection of life course theory and the stress process model highlighting the contextual forces in and the interconnectedness of individual development as well as the plasticity and resilience evident in adaptation to stress during mid and late life.

  14. Regional variation in seasonality affects migratory behaviour and life-history traits of two Mediterranean passerines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Tris, Javier; Tellería, José Luis

    2002-03-01

    Migratory birds may improve fecundity by moving to seasonal breeding areas, but may also suffer higher mortality rates as a cost of movement. However, the covariation among seasonality, migratoriness and life histories should change between species if their ecological features affect site-tenacity, survival or fecundity. In frugivorous birds, for instance, wandering in search of fruits may trigger broader migrations than territorial defence, and also may improve nonbreeding survival by preventing food shortages that eventually happen in discrete territories. We studied the variation in spatio-temporal distribution, life expectancy and fecundity in robins ( Erithacus rubecula) and blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) distributed in three Iberian regions with a low, mid or high degree of environmental seasonality. In the Iberian Peninsula, robins and blackcaps are the two most intensive frugivores in winter; however, robins are territorial while blackcaps track fruit abundance among habitat patches. In the most seasonal area, robins and blackcaps decreased abundance in winter and showed a lower breeding-site tenacity, a shorter life expectancy and a larger clutch size. However, blackcaps tended to be more migratory than robins in all regions. Despite their stronger migratory behaviour, blackcaps showed a longer life expectancy and a smaller clutch size than robins in all regions. In robins, winter territoriality could decrease nonbreeding survival but also improve fecundity, because survivors are dominant and hence more efficient breeders. In blackcaps, however, the use of the most profitable habitat patches could improve nonbreeding survival, thereby allowing a similar recruitment than in robins with a lower reproductive investment. These results support that regional-scale changes in seasonality may affect migratory behaviour and hence the tradeoff between reproduction and survival in birds, doing so differently depending on the idiosyncrasy of each species.

  15. Early-life serotonin dysregulation affects the migration and positioning of cortical interneuron subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, S; Otomo, K; Dayer, A

    2015-01-01

    Early-life deficiency of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gives rise to a wide range of psychiatric-relevant phenotypes; however, the molecular and cellular targets of serotonin dyregulation during neural circuit formation remain to be identified. Interestingly, migrating cortical interneurons (INs) derived from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) have been shown to be more responsive to serotonin-mediated signalling compared with INs derived from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). Here we investigated the impact of early-life SERT deficiency on the migration and positioning of CGE-derived cortical INs in SERT-ko mice and in mice exposed to the SERT inhibitor fluoxetine during the late embryonic period. Using confocal time-lapse imaging and microarray-based expression analysis we found that genetic and pharmacological SERT deficiency significantly increased the migratory speed of CGE-derived INs and affected transcriptional programmes regulating neuronal migration. Postnatal studies revealed that SERT deficiency altered the cortical laminar distribution of subtypes of CGE-derived INs but not MGE-derived INs. More specifically, we found that the distribution of vasointestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing INs in layer 2/3 was abnormal in both genetic and pharmacological SERT-deficiency models. Collectively, these data indicate that early-life SERT deficiency has an impact on the migration and molecular programmes of CGE-derived INs, thus leading to specific alterations in the positioning of VIP-expressing INs. These data add to the growing evidence that early-life serotonin dysregulation affects cortical microcircuit formation and contributes to the emergence of psychiatric-relevant phenotypes. PMID:26393490

  16. Early life trauma is associated with altered white matter integrity and affective control.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Vincent; Amick, Melissa A; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2016-08-01

    Early life trauma (ELT) has been shown to impair affective control and attention well into adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have further shown that ELT was associated with decreased white matter integrity in the prefrontal areas in children and adults. However, no study to date has looked at the relationship between white matter integrity and affective control in individuals with and without a history of ELT. To examine this, we tested 240 Veterans with (ELT N = 80) and without (NoELT N = 160) a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse or family violence. Affective control was measured with the Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) and attention was indexed with the Test of Variable Attention (TOVA). White matter integrity was measured using fractional anisotropy (FA). Results showed greater number of errors on the AGN in ELT compared to NoELT. There was no difference on the TOVA. While there were no mean differences in FA, there was an interaction between FA and reaction time to positive stimuli on the AGN where the ELT group showed a positive relationship between FA and reaction time in right frontal and prefrontal areas, whereas the NoELT group showed a negative or no association between FA and reaction time. This suggests that ELT may be associated with a distinct brain-behavior relationship that could be related to other determinants of FA than those present in healthy adults.

  17. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  18. What constitutes a good life? Cultural differences in the role of positive and negative affect in subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-08-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect-but not recalled negative affect-for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans' life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life.

  19. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  20. Myocardial performance index correlates with the BODE index and affects quality of life in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Tannus-Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz; Masson-Silva, João Batista; Ribeiro, Lays Silva; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective COPD, a systemic illness associated with the impairment of different organs, affects patient prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between right ventricle (RV) function, the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index (a multifunctional scale for the assessment of mortality risk), and quality of life in patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 107 outpatients presenting with stable COPD who underwent clinical assessment, spirometry, arterial blood gas analyses, a 6-minute walk test, electrocardiography, and echocardiogram and who responded to the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results Among the study subjects, 53% (57/107) were males, and the mean age was 65.26±8.81 years. A positive correlation was observed between RV dysfunction measured by the myocardial performance index using tissue Doppler (MPIt) and the BODE index, even after adjustment for age and partial pressure of oxygen (r2=0.47; P<0.01). Patients with alterations in the MPIt had worse quality of life, and a statistically significant difference was found for different domains of the SGRQ. Patients with a normal MPIt had a mean total score of 46.2±18.6, whereas for those with MPIt alterations, the mean total score was 61.6±14.2 (P=0.005). These patients had a 1.49-fold increased risk of exhibiting SGRQ total score above the upper limit of the 95% CI (P=0.01). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that RV dysfunction as measured by the MPIt was associated with impairment in quality of life and a worse BODE index in COPD patients, irrespective of age and hypoxemia status. PMID:27695314

  1. Remote Sensing of Marine Life and Submerged Target Motions with Ocean Waveguide Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zheng

    acoustics. This is very important for many sonar applications, such as localizing and tracking underwater vehicles and vocalizing marine mammal populations. Instantaneous passive source localization applying the (1) synthetic aperture tracking, (2) array invariant, (3) bearings-only target motion analysis in modified polar coordinates via the extended Kalman filter, and (4) bearings-migration minimum mean-square error methods using measurements made on a single towed horizontal receiver array in a random range-dependent ocean waveguide are examined. These methods are employed to localize and track a vertical source array deployed in the far-field of a towed horizontal receiver array during the Gulf of Maine 2006 Experiment. The source transmitted intermittent broadband pulses in the 300--1200 Hz frequency range. All four methods are found to be comparable with average errors of between 9% to 13% in estimating the mean source positions in a wide variety of source-receiver geometries and range separations up to 20 km. In the case of a relatively stationary source, the synthetic aperture tracking outperformed the other three methods by a factor of two with only 4% error. For a moving source, the Kalman filter method yielded the best performance with 8% error. The array invariant was the best approach for localizing sources within the endfire beam of the receiver array with less than 10% error.

  2. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Rada, D; Seco, J; Echevarría, E; Tijero, B; Abecia, L C; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain.

  3. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rada, D.; Seco, J.; Tijero, B.; Abecia, L. C.; Gómez-Esteban, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain. PMID:27239367

  4. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during an insect’s larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host–parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control. PMID:27827429

  5. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-11-09

    Exposure to stress during an insect's larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host-parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control.

  6. Advance care discussions with young people affected by life-limiting neuromuscular diseases: A systematic literature review and narrative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Andy; Kuhn, Isla; Barclay, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    End of life care policy in the UK advocates open discussions between health professionals and patients as the end of life approaches. Despite well documented understanding of the progression of life-limiting neuromuscular diseases, the majority of patients affected by such conditions die without a formal end of life plan in place. We performed a systematic review to investigate conversations regarding end of life care between healthcare professionals and younger adult patients with life-limiting neuromuscular diseases. The search strategy included terms that focused on death and dying along with other factors that could impact length of life. The review found a very limited body of literature regarding end of life care conversations between young people affected by neuromuscular diseases and health professionals. The views and preferences of patients themselves have not been investigated. There is a shared reluctance of patients, family carers and healthcare professionals to initiate end of life care discussions. There are many factors that need to be investigated further in order to develop a consensus that would allow healthcare professionals to engage patients in end of life care conversations allowing them to face the end of their lives with appropriate plans in place.

  7. Factors Affecting Quality of Life Among Spinal Cord Injury Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Woon; Jee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Joon Chul; Choi, Jong Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Complaints from spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are typically related to physical disability affecting activities of daily life. However, difficulties with voiding and defecation and/or sexual function can also be major concerns. The general population and even physicians are generally unaware of these complaints; therefore, this study focuses on surveying SCI patients regarding challenges that are faced in daily life. Methods A questionnaire was administered randomly and anonymously to SCI patients who visited the Korea Spinal Cord Injury Association and several rehabilitation hospitals in the Republic of Korea in 2013. All participants gave their consent prior to filling out the questionnaire. Results A total of 299 patients answered the questionnaire; the male to female ratio was 5.8:1 and common vectors for injury were motor vehicle accidents, industrial accidents, and falling down. Of the 169 patients who answered the ‘most troublesome’ and ‘wish would improve’ complaints questionnaire properly, urinary problems were most common, specifically incontinence and urinary tract infection. Among all patients, 67% were using clean intermittent catheterization, 63% were taking voiding-related medications, 83% had sexual desires, and among the 122 patients who did not have offspring, 27% had future plans for children. Conclusions From this questionnaire, we discovered that SCI patients in the South Korea suffer not only from physical disability but also many other quality-of-life-related problems. When managing SCI patients, physicians should show greater concern and educate patients about problems related to voiding and sexual activity, rather than just physical disability. PMID:28043106

  8. Leptin intake during lactation prevents obesity and affects food intake and food preferences in later life.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2009-02-01

    Breast milk is practically the only food ingested during the first months of life in fully breastfed infants and it is assumed to match the infant's nutritional needs. Epidemiological data suggest that breastfeeding compared with infant formula feeding confers protection against several chronic diseases later on in life and, particularly, against obesity and related medical complications. However, causality has not been related to any specific compound of breast milk. Recent data in our laboratory have identified leptin as the specific compound that is responsible for some of these beneficial effects of breastfeeding. The hormone leptin was identified as a key candidate because it is present in breast milk, but is not present in infant formula, and when ingested during the suckling period can be absorbed by the immature stomach exerting biological effects. Evidence of the beneficial effects of breast milk leptin was obtained from human studies, showing that milk-borne maternal leptin appeared to give moderate protection to infants from excess weight gain. Direct cause-effect evidence was obtained in rats, where oral leptin supplementation during the suckling period resulted in a decrease in food intake, affected food preferences in favour of carbohydrates versus fat, and protected against overweight in adulthood, with an improvement of related parameters such as leptin and insulin sensitivity. These findings open a new area of research on the use of leptin in the design of more appropriate infant formula, which is significant considering the increasing incidence of obesity and its associated medical complications.

  9. Estimating the influence of life satisfaction and positive affect on later income using sibling fixed effects.

    PubMed

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Oswald, Andrew J

    2012-12-04

    The question of whether there is a connection between income and psychological well-being is a long-studied issue across the social, psychological, and behavioral sciences. Much research has found that richer people tend to be happier. However, relatively little attention has been paid to whether happier individuals perform better financially in the first place. This possibility of reverse causality is arguably understudied. Using data from a large US representative panel, we show that adolescents and young adults who report higher life satisfaction or positive affect grow up to earn significantly higher levels of income later in life. We focus on earnings approximately one decade after the person's well-being is measured; we exploit the availability of sibling clusters to introduce family fixed effects; we account for the human capacity to imagine later socioeconomic outcomes and to anticipate the resulting feelings in current well-being. The study's results are robust to the inclusion of controls such as education, intelligence quotient, physical health, height, self-esteem, and later happiness. We consider how psychological well-being may influence income. Sobel-Goodman mediation tests reveal direct and indirect effects that carry the influence from happiness to income. Significant mediating pathways include a higher probability of obtaining a college degree, getting hired and promoted, having higher degrees of optimism and extraversion, and less neuroticism.

  10. Teaching Career/Life Planning: An In-Service Training Module for Teaching Affective Career/Life Planning Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan W.

    This workbook provides an in-service training module designed to assist community college educators and counselors in teaching effective planning skills for successful job hunting and employment. A rationale for career/life planning is followed by a discussion of the terminology and the processes involved in establishing life goals and designing…

  11. Does personality moderate reaction and adaptation to major life events? Analysis of life satisfaction and affect in an Australian national sample

    PubMed Central

    Anusic, Ivana; Yap, Stevie C. Y.; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    We used a nationally representative panel of Australian households to replicate a study by Yap et al. (2012) that evaluated how life satisfaction changed following major life events and the extent to which personality moderated those changes. We replicated the protective function of marriage but found that long-term declines that follow widowhood mostly reflect normative changes. In addition, we found that people reported slight decreases in positive affect following marriage and childbirth, an increase in positive affect following widowhood, and a slight increase in negative affect following childbirth, relative to normative trajectories. The Big Five did not moderate response to life events in a way that is consistent with past theory and research. PMID:25419012

  12. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions.

  13. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  14. Smoking affects quality of life in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Krüskemper, Gertrud; Handschel, Jörg

    2012-10-01

    Smoking is a causative factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Unfortunately, only poor data exist regarding the quality of life of smokers vs non-smokers with SCC. The purpose of this study is to show a correlation between variables for comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation and better patient quality of life (LQ). A total collective of 1,761 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (DÖSAK-REHAB-STUDIE) yielding 1,652 patients' questionnaires containing 147 items were evaluated. They refer to the periods before (t1) and immediately after surgery (t2), as well as at least 6 months later (t3). LQ was determined by the patient and ranges from 0% to 100%. Significant differences were found between smokers (80%) and non-smokers (20%) with respect to diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation. Disabilities and impairments in speech, appearance, chewing/swallowing, pain and LQ were examined. Smokers were more often and more severely affected. Differences were found in the size of the tumour, scar tissue, ingestion, functionality of the facial muscles and a numb feeling in the head and shoulder area. Smoking has a severe effect on the oral cavity. Non-smokers suffer far less from the effects of SCC and the ensuing therapy. During therapy and rehabilitation, the LQ is much higher in non-smokers. This supports the importance of enhanced efforts to inform people about the consequences of smoking so as to prevent them from smoking. Moreover, psychological support might be helpful to give up smoking.

  15. Quality of life and functional capacity are adversely affected in osteoarthritis patients with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Aşkın, Ayhan; Özkan, Ayten; Tosun, Aliye; Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; İsnaç, Fethi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the neuropathic pain component of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and to investigate the relationship between neuropathic pain, disease stage, functional state, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. This study included 60 patients with knee OA. All demographic data and radiological results were recorded. Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Timed Up and Go Test, Chair Stand Test, Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), PainDETECT questionnaire, DN4 questionnaire, Short form-36 questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale were performed for each patient. Neuropathic pain was detected in 66.7% of patients based on the PainDETECT scale and in 46.7% of patients based on DN4 scale. VAS-resting, OA grade, WOMAC scores, and SF-scores showed a significant difference in patients that detected neuropathic pain with PainDETECT (p<0.05). Based on the DN4 scale, patients with neuropathic pain had significantly higher WOMAC scores and significantly lower SF-36 scores (p<0.05). The PainDETECT questionnaire scores showed positive correlations with Timed Up-and-go Test, VAS-resting, WOMAC scores, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale scores, and a negative correlation with all SF-36 scores (p<0.05). DN4 questionnaire scores showed a negative correlation with SF-36 scores and positive correlation with WOMAC scores (p<0.05). To conclude, it should be kept in mind that patients with knee OA who describe intense pain may have a neuropathic component involved in the clinical condition. Quality of life and functional capacity are adversely affected in patients with knee OA who have neuropathic pain. This should be taken into account while planning the treatment of these patients.

  16. He Throws like a Girl (but Only when He's Sad): Emotion Affects Sex-Decoding of Biological Motion Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kerri L.; McKay, Lawrie S.; Pollick, Frank E.

    2011-01-01

    Gender stereotypes have been implicated in sex-typed perceptions of facial emotion. Such interpretations were recently called into question because facial cues of emotion are confounded with sexually dimorphic facial cues. Here we examine the role of visual cues and gender stereotypes in perceptions of biological motion displays, thus overcoming…

  17. The influence of the law on clinical decisions affecting life and death.

    PubMed

    Havard, J D

    1983-07-01

    force fed irrespective of their prospects of survival and suffering which this will cause them and their parents. Clinical decisions have been most seriously affected by recent developments in the law of negligence. 1 of the main reasons for this has been the unsatisfactory way in which the adversary system of law ldeals with expert evidence. Attempts have been made to provide courts of law in the UK an agreed statement on expert medical matters, there is a long way to go before reaching the position achieved in many civil law countries on the continent of Europe where the experts recognized by the court hammer out an agreed upon opinion through scientific discourse and without the restrictions of evidentiary rules which are aimed more at the establishment of facts than the validity of scientific opinion. Those who attack the medical profession as being paternalistic and authoritative in making clinical decisions involving life and death fail to realize that the easy way out for the medical profession is to treat every case, however hopeless, with the full technology available, disregarding the patient's and family's interests, the costs in resources, and ignoring the stark reality of the problem.

  18. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  19. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  20. A systematic review of early life factors which adversely affect subsequent lung function.

    PubMed

    Kouzouna, A; Gilchrist, F J; Ball, V; Kyriacou, T; Henderson, J; Pandyan, A D; Lenney, W

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for many years that multiple early life factors can adversely affect lung function and future respiratory health. This is the first systematic review to attempt to analyse all these factors simultaneously. We adhered to strict a priori criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies. The initial search yielded 29,351 citations of which 208 articles were reviewed in full and 25 were included in the review. This included 6 birth cohorts and 19 longitudinal population studies. The 25 studies reported the effect of 74 childhood factors (on their own or in combinations with other factors) on subsequent lung function reported as percent predicted forced expiration in one second (FEV1). The childhood factors that were associated with a significant reduction in future FEV1 could be grouped as: early infection, bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) / airway lability, a diagnosis of asthma, wheeze, family history of atopy or asthma, respiratory symptoms and prematurity / low birth weight. A complete mathematical model will only be possible if the raw data from all previous studies is made available. This highlights the need for increased cooperation between researchers and the need for international consensus about the outcome measures for future longitudinal studies.

  1. [Quality of life two years after myocardial infarction. 2. Examination of affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Arendarczyk, M; Loboz-Grudzień, K

    2000-02-01

    This study aimed at determining these factors--ventricular fibrillation (VF) in acute phase of myocardial infarction MI), thrombolytic therapy, beta-blockers after MI, cardiac rehabilitation--affect quality of life (QOL) during the follow-up. The study involved 100 patients (mean age 45.5 years), on the average 2 years after MI, MI has complicated VF in 50 patients. Questionnaire of QOL after MI developed internally, taking into account 26 features (clinical, emotional and social status), and estimating anxiety level (STAI) were used. Computer medical diagnostics "SyntMED" (Krefft's method) was used. In both groups after MI (complicated and not complicated VF) beneficial effect of: thrombolytic treatments in acute phase MI (0.65 vs conventional 0.45, p > 0.05), use of beta-blockers after MI (0.56 vs 0.41 p < 0.05), and cardiac rehabilitation (0.64 vs 0.44 p < 0.05) on value QOL were noted. Patients after MI complicated VF had higher level of anxiety. Patients who returned to work had higher index QOL (0.62 vs 0.39). Ventricular fibrillation complicated the acute phase of MI had no significant effect on follow-up QL.

  2. How is the artist role affected when artists are participating in projects in work life?

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, during the last decade, the artist has come to function as a creative resource in workplaces. There are two organisations, Skiss (Contemporary Artist in the Contemporary Society) and Airis (Artist in Residence), that organise projects for artists and coworkers. These projects are intended to have a positive effect on the well-being of organisations and their employees through artistic means, and the artist often focuses on the social interaction between the employees in their work. The artists' work involves frequent interaction with coworkers. The aim of this article was to describe how visual artists' roles as artists are affected by their engagement in artistic and social projects at workplaces in Sweden. The focus in the article is on the social interaction between artists and employees. The study is a qualitative narrative interview study with fine artists participating in different projects in work life. Since the artist's intervention is usually directed towards social relations in the workplaces, a social perspective on well-being is from a micro-sociological point of view. The categories in the interviews were how the artists worked with the projects, how the social interaction between artists and coworkers worked out, and how the artists evaluated the projects in relation to their ambitions. The results show that, many times, the artistic projects promote well-being in organisations and to some extent benefit the artist, but that the ability of the artists to actually function as artists can be problematic.

  3. How is the artist role affected when artists are participating in projects in work life?

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, during the last decade, the artist has come to function as a creative resource in workplaces. There are two organisations, Skiss (Contemporary Artist in the Contemporary Society) and Airis (Artist in Residence), that organise projects for artists and coworkers. These projects are intended to have a positive effect on the well-being of organisations and their employees through artistic means, and the artist often focuses on the social interaction between the employees in their work. The artists’ work involves frequent interaction with coworkers. The aim of this article was to describe how visual artists’ roles as artists are affected by their engagement in artistic and social projects at workplaces in Sweden. The focus in the article is on the social interaction between artists and employees. The study is a qualitative narrative interview study with fine artists participating in different projects in work life. Since the artist's intervention is usually directed towards social relations in the workplaces, a social perspective on well-being is from a micro-sociological point of view. The categories in the interviews were how the artists worked with the projects, how the social interaction between artists and coworkers worked out, and how the artists evaluated the projects in relation to their ambitions. The results show that, many times, the artistic projects promote well-being in organisations and to some extent benefit the artist, but that the ability of the artists to actually function as artists can be problematic. PMID:27167555

  4. Does personality affect health-related quality of life? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, I-Chan; Lee, Joy L.; Ketheeswaran, Pavinarmatha; Jones, Conor M.; Revicki, Dennis A.; Wu, Albert W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly measured as an outcome for clinical and health services research. However, relatively little is known about how non-health factors affect HRQOL. Personality is a potentially important factor, yet evidence regarding the effects of personality on HRQOL measures is unclear. Methods This systematic review examined the relationships among aspects of personality and HRQOL. Eligible studies were identified from Medline and PsycINFO. The review included 76 English-language studies with HRQOL as a primary outcome and that assessed personality from the psychological perspective. Individuals with various health states, including ill (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disorders), aging, and healthy, were included in this review study. Results Some personality characteristics were consistently related to psychosocial aspects more often than physical aspects of HRQOL. Personality characteristics, especially neuroticism, mastery, optimism, and sense of coherence were most likely to be associated with psychosocial HRQOL. Personality explained varying proportions of variance in different domains of HRQOL. The range of variance explained in psychosocial HRQOL was 0 to 45% and the range of explained variance in physical HRQOL was 0 to 39%. Conclusions Personality characteristics are related to HRQOL. Systematic collection and analysis of personality data alongside HRQOL measures may be helpful in medical research, clinical practice, and health policy evaluation. PMID:28355244

  5. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  6. Different immunological responses to early-life antibiotic exposure affecting autoimmune diabetes development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youjia; Jin, Ping; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-08-01

    Environmental factors clearly influence the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease. We have studied gut microbiota as important environmental agents that could affect the initiation or progression of type 1 diabetes especially in the prenatal period. We used neomycin, targeting mainly Gram negative or vancomycin, targeting mainly Gram positive bacteria, to treat pregnant NOD mothers and to study autoimmune diabetes development in their offspring. Neomycin-treated offspring were protected from diabetes, while vancomycin-treated offspring had accelerated diabetes development, and both antibiotics caused distinctly different shifts in gut microbiota composition compared with the offspring from untreated control mice. Our study demonstrated that neomycin treatment of pregnant mothers leads to generation of immune-tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the offspring and these APCs had reduced specific autoantigen-presenting function both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the protection from diabetes mediated by tolerogenic APCs was vertically transmissible to the second generation. In contrast, more diabetogenic inflammatory T cells were found in the lymphoid organs of the offspring from the vancomycin-treated pregnant mothers. This change however was not transmitted to the second generation. Our results suggested that prenatal exposure to antibiotic influenced gut bacterial composition at the earliest time point in life and is critical for consequent education of the immune system. As different bacteria can induce different immune responses, understanding these differences and how to generate self-tolerogenic APCs could be important for developing new therapy for type 1 diabetes.

  7. Factors affecting the relationship between psychological status and quality of life in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aims to (i) evaluate the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); and (ii) identify the effect modifiers of this relationship in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A total of 337 clinically stable COPD patients answered the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) (assessing HRQoL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Socio-demographic information, lung function, and other clinical data were collected. Results Most patients (93%) were male; they had a mean (SD) age of 68 (9) years and mild to very severe COPD (post-bronchodilator FEV1 52 (16)% predicted). Multivariate analyses showed that anxiety, depression, or both conditions were associated with poor HRQoL (for all SGRQ domains). The association between anxiety and total HRQoL score was 6.7 points higher (indicating a worse HRQoL) in current workers than in retired individuals. Estimates for patients with "both anxiety and depression" were 5.8 points lower in stage I-II than in stage III-IV COPD, and 10.2 points higher in patients with other comorbidities than in those with only COPD. Conclusions This study shows a significant association between anxiety, depression, or both conditions and impaired HRQoL. Clinically relevant factors affecting the magnitude of this association include work status, COPD severity, and the presence of comorbidities. PMID:20875100

  8. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict.

  9. Yes, but are they happy? Effects of trait self-control on affective well-being and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Luhmann, Maike; Fisher, Rachel R; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-08-01

    Does trait self-control (TSC) predict affective well-being and life satisfaction--positively, negatively, or not? We conducted three studies (Study 1: N = 414, 64% female, Mage = 35.0 years; Study 2: N = 208, 66% female, Mage = 25.24 years; Study 3: N = 234, 61% female, Mage = 34.53 years). The key predictor was TSC, with affective well-being and life satisfaction ratings as key outcomes. Potential explanatory constructs including goal conflict, goal balancing, and emotional distress also were investigated. TSC is positively related to affective well-being and life satisfaction, and managing goal conflict is a key as to why. All studies, moreover, showed that the effect of TSC on life satisfaction is at least partially mediated by affect. Study 1's correlational study established the effect. Study 2's experience sampling approach demonstrated that compared to those low in TSC, those high in TSC experience higher levels of momentary affect even as they experience desire, an effect partially mediated through experiencing lower conflict and emotional distress. Study 3 found evidence for the proposed mechanism--that TSC may boost well-being by helping people avoid frequent conflict and balance vice-virtue conflicts by favoring virtues. Self-control positively contributes to happiness through avoiding and dealing with motivational conflict.

  10. Factors affecting life cycle assessment of milk produced on 6 Mediterranean buffalo farms.

    PubMed

    Pirlo, G; Carè, S; Fantin, V; Falconi, F; Buttol, P; Terzano, G M; Masoni, P; Pacelli, C

    2014-10-01

    This study quantifies the environmental impact of milk production of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes and points out the farm characteristics that mainly affect their environmental performance. Life cycle assessment was applied in a sample of 6 farms. The functional unit was 1 kg of normalized buffalo milk (LBN), with a reference milk fat and protein content of 8.3 and 4.73%, respectively. The system boundaries included the agricultural phase of the buffalo milk chain from cradle to farm gate. An economic criterion was adopted to allocate the impacts on milk production. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), abiotic depletion (AD), photochemical ozone formation (PO), acidification (AC), and eutrophication (EU). The contribution to the total results of the following farm activities were investigated: (1) on-farm energy consumption, (2) manure management, (3) manure application, (4) on-farm feed production (comprising production and application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides), (5) purchased feed production, (6) enteric fermentation, and (7) transport of purchased feeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides from producers to farms. Global warming associated with 1 kg of LBN resulted in 5.07 kg of CO₂ Eq [coefficient of variation (CV)=21.9%], AD was 3.5 × 10(-3) kg of Sb Eq (CV=51.7%), PO was 6.8 × 10(-4) kg of C₂H₄ Eq (CV=28.8%), AC was 6.5 × 10(-2) kg of SO₂ Eq (CV=30.3%), and EU was 3.3 × 10(-2) kg of PO₄(3-) Eq (CV=36.5%). The contribution of enteric fermentation and manure application to GW is 37 and 20%, respectively; on-farm consumption, on-farm feed production, and purchased feed production are the main contributors to AD; about 70% of PO is due to enteric fermentation; manure management and manure application are responsible for 55 and 25% of AC and 25 and 55% of EU, respectively. Methane and N₂O are responsible for 44 and 43% of GW, respectively. Crude oil consumption is responsible for about 72% of AD; contribution of

  11. Normal aging affects movement execution but not visual motion working memory and decision-making delay during cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kikuro; Barnes, Graham R; Ito, Norie; Olley, Peter M; Warabi, Tateo

    2014-07-01

    Aging affects virtually all functions including sensory/motor and cognitive activities. While retinal image motion is the primary input for smooth-pursuit, its efficiency/accuracy depends on cognitive processes. Elderly subjects exhibit gain decrease during initial and steady-state pursuit, but reports on latencies are conflicting. Using a cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit task, we identified important extra-retinal mechanisms for initial pursuit in young adults including cue information priming and extra-retinal drive components (Ito et al. in Exp Brain Res 229:23-35, 2013). We examined aging effects on parameters for smooth-pursuit using the same tasks. Elderly subjects were tested during three task conditions as previously described: memory-based pursuit, simple ramp-pursuit just to follow motion of a single spot, and popping-out of the correct spot during memory-based pursuit to enhance retinal image motion. Simple ramp-pursuit was used as a task that did not require visual motion working memory. To clarify aging effects, we then compared the results with the previous young subject data. During memory-based pursuit, elderly subjects exhibited normal working memory of cue information. Most movement-parameters including pursuit latencies differed significantly between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit and also between young and elderly subjects. Popping-out of the correct spot motion was ineffective for enhancing initial pursuit in elderly subjects. However, the latency difference between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit in individual subjects, which includes decision-making delay in the memory task, was similar between the two groups. Our results suggest that smooth-pursuit latencies depend on task conditions and that, although the extra-retinal mechanisms were functional for initial pursuit in elderly subjects, they were less effective.

  12. Normative life events and PTSD in children: how easy stress can affect children's brain.

    PubMed

    Kousha, Maryam; Mehdizadeh Tehrani, Shervin

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children) semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth.

  13. Factors affecting toxicity test endpoints in sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species.

    PubMed

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Rand, G M; Seda, B C

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous species are less commonly used in laboratory aquatic toxicity tests compared with standard test species due to (1) limited availability lack of requisite information necessary for their acclimation and maintenance under laboratory conditions and (2) lack of information on their sensitivity and the reproducibility of toxicity test results. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment aquatic toxicity program in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil incident (2010), sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species were evaluated in laboratory toxicity tests to determine the potential effects of the spill. Fish (n = 5) and invertebrates (n = 2) selected for this program include the following: the Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and the common moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita). Initially in the program, to establish part of the background information, acute tests with reference toxicants (CdCl2, KCl, CuSO4) were performed with each species to establish data on intraspecies variability and test precision as well as identify other factors that may affect toxicity results. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated for each acute toxicity test with average LC50 values ranging from 248 to 862 mg/L for fish exposures to potassium chloride. Variability between test results was determined for each species by calculating the coefficient of variation (%CV) based on LC50 values. CVs ranged from 11.2 % for pompano (96-h LC50 value) to 74.8 % for red porgy 24-h tests. Cadmium chloride acute toxicity tests with the jellyfish A. aurita had the lowest overall CV of 3.6 %. By understanding acute toxicity to these native organisms from a compound with known toxicity ranges and the variability in test results, acute tests with nonstandard species can be better interpreted and used

  14. Do Physical Therapy Interventions Affect Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Monica; Melnick, Marsha; Allen, Diane D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) presents with many debilitating symptoms, including urinary incontinence (UI), that physical therapy (PT) may address; UI is widely prevalent, but PT management of symptoms lacks consensus. A meta-analysis of long-term nonsurgical and nonpharmaceutical treatment options may supply this deficiency. We analyzed the current evidence for effectiveness of PT to decrease UI and improve quality of life (QOL) in people with MS. Methods: An electronic search conducted through November 26, 2013, included the following search terms: incontinence, bladder dysfunction, urinary incontinence, multiple sclerosis, MS, physical therapy, physiotherapy, therapy, and rehabilitation. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: MS diagnosis, intervention involved PT for UI or bladder dysfunction, outcomes assessed QOL or UI, and at least a 4 of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale or a 2b level of evidence. Outcomes were combined across studies, and effect sizes are depicted in forest plots. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Between-group analysis revealed statistically significant differences in incontinence episodes and QOL, but did not reach significance for functional control mechanisms (eg, electromyography data on strength of contraction, relaxation, and endurance). Incontinence leakage episodes and QOL participation improved within groups. Conclusions: Meta-analysis indicates support for PT for minimizing incontinence compared with pretreatment and affecting incontinence and QOL more than control in people with MS. Protocols were heterogeneous regarding duration and type of PT intervention and were applied in different types of MS. Further research may reveal the most effective combination and variety of PT interventions for people with MS. PMID:26300703

  15. Motion of the center of mass in children with spastic hemiplegia: balance, energy transfer, and work performed by the affected leg vs. the unaffected leg.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Pierce, Rosemary; Do, K Patrick; Aiona, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry between limbs in people with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HEMI) adversely affects limb coordination and energy generation and consumption. This study compared how the affected leg and the unaffected leg of children with HEMI would differ based on which leg trails. Full-body gait analysis data and force-plate data were analyzed for 31 children (11.9 ± 3.8 years) with HEMI and 23 children (11.1 ± 3.1 years) with typical development (TD). Results showed that peak posterior center of mass-center of pressure (COM-COP) inclination angles of HEMI were smaller than TD when the affected leg trailed but not when the unaffected leg trailed. HEMI showed greater peak medial COM-COP inclination angles and wider step width than TD, no matter which leg trailed. More importantly, when the affected leg of HEMI trailed, it did not perform enough positive work during double support to propel COM motion. Consequently, the unaffected leg had to perform additional positive work during the early portion of single support, which costs more energy. When the unaffected leg trailed, the affected leg performed more negative work during double support; therefore, more positive work was still needed during early single support, but energy efficiency was closer to that of TD. Energy recovery factor was lower when the affected leg trailed than when the unaffected leg trailed; both were lower than TD. These findings suggest that the trailing leg plays a significant role in propelling COM motion during double support, and the 'unaffected' side of HEMI may not be completely unaffected. It is important to strengthen both legs.

  16. Positive and Negative Affectivity as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Optimism and Life Satisfaction in Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapikiran, Necla Acun

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediator and moderator role of positive and negative affectivity variables on the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction in university students. 397 university students, ranging in age from 18 to 27 (M = 20.98), attending different departments of the Faculty of Education, at Pamukkale…

  17. Differences in Affect, Life Satisfaction, and Depression between Successfully and Unsuccessfully Rehabilitated Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Martha H.; Holbert, Donald

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether persons with spinal cord injuries who were successfully rehabilitated differed from those who were not with regard to positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and depression. An ex post facto research design compared persons with spinal cord injuries who were previously employed with persons with spinal cord…

  18. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  19. Towards a Model for Mapping Participation: Exploring Factors Affecting Participation in a Telecollaborative Learning Scenario in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Airong; Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine factors affecting participation in telecollaborative language courses conducted in virtual world environments. From recordings of a course in sociolinguistics conducted in Second Life (SL), we determine degrees of linguistic participation (voice and chat), and triangulate these data with questionnaire…

  20. Health promotion in motion: improving quality of life for persons with neurogenic bladder and bowel using assistive technology.

    PubMed

    Kachourbos, M J; Creasey, G H

    2000-01-01

    The neurogenic bladder and bowel lead to many complications in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Management of these neurological complications is a multidimensional challenge for persons with SCI and their caregivers, and can affect the person medically, economically, socially, and personally. This may result in social isolation, poor self-image, and overall decreased quality of life (QOL). When facing this challenge, nurses working with persons with SCI must expand their practice to include more than traditional preventive care. A newly available technique for promoting health with a neurogenic bladder and bowel is the VOCARE Bladder and Bowel Control System. Sixteen persons with SCI who received this system were interviewed by telephone and asked for their recollections of health and QOL pre-operatively in relation to bladder and bowel care and to rate changes in their QOL post-implant. Post-operatively, the recipients reported improved health, a decrease in costs of management of their neurogenic bladder and bowel, increased independence leading to less social isolation, increased sense of control, increased feelings of self-worth, and overall improvement in QOL. These outcomes illustrate the global impact that can be made on the lives of persons with SCI by health services that go beyond prevention of complications and into the realm of health promotion.

  1. Psychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How Are They Affected by Infertility, Gender, and Parenthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Longitudinally examined effects of infertility on marital and global life quality with 174 infertile couples and 74 fertile couples. By third interview, 42% of infertile couples and 36% of fertile couples were parents. Psychosocial predictors of life quality were highly similar for members of infertile and fertile couples and for couples with and…

  2. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  3. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic nutritional deprivation in larval life affects adult fecal output.

    PubMed

    Urquhart-Cronish, Mackenzie; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2014-10-01

    Life history consequences of stress in early life are varied and known to have lasting impacts on the fitness of an organism. Gene-environment interactions play a large role in how phenotypic differences are mediated by stressful conditions during development. Here we use natural allelic 'rover/sitter' variants of the foraging (for) gene and chronic early life nutrient deprivation to investigate gene-environment interactions on excretion phenotypes. Excretion assay analysis and a fully factorial nutritional regimen encompassing the larval and adult life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster were used to assess the effects of larval and adult nutritional stress on adult excretion phenotypes. Natural allelic variants of for exhibited differences in the number of fecal spots when they were nutritionally deprived as larvae and well fed as adults. for mediates the excretion response to chronic early-life nutritional stress in mated female, virgin female, and male rovers and sitters. Transgenic manipulations of for in a sitter genetic background under larval but not adult food deprivation increases the number of fecal spots. Our study shows that food deprivation early in life affects adult excretion phenotypes and these excretion differences are mediated by for.

  4. Does continuous passive motion during keyboarding affect hand blood flow and wrist function? A prospective case report.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J R; Blake, J M; Douglas, T F; Kercheval, D M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective case report was to evaluate the use of a keyboard platform device that uses continuous passive motion (CPM) on vascular flow to the hand for clerical employees who perform daily keyboarding tasks. Subjects were two female volunteers, one symptomatic of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), who were employed in clerical positions and perform daily keyboarding tasks for most of their workday. Data collection consisted of baseline and follow-up measurements at 6 weeks, including: 1) screening for symptoms based on the Carpal Tunnel Function Disability Form, 2) evaluation using standard physical therapy examination and assessment techniques, including modified Semmes- Weinstein monofilament testing, 3) a typing productivity test, and 4) Doppler ultrasound examination to quantify vascular flow at the wrist. Results revealed that both subjects demonstrated an overall increase in both radial and ulnar blood flow velocity with no decrement in typing productivity. The symptomatic subject also demonstrated an overall improvement of 10 wpm in the typing tests, a decrease in her disability score and symptom severity, and improvement in function. Results suggest that use of CPM as a non-intrusive ergonomic intervention may be used to treat, as well as prevent, carpal tunnel-like symptoms in those who keyboard.

  5. Effect of Global Posture Reeducation and of Static Stretching on Pain, Range of Motion, and Quality of Life in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Ana Cláudia Violino; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Compare the effect of conventional static stretching and muscle chain stretching, as proposed by the global posture reeducation method, in the manual therapy of patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS Thirty-three female patients aged 35 to 60 years old, 31 of whom completed the program, were randomly divided into two groups: The global posture reeducation group (n=15) performed muscle chain stretching, while the conventional stretching group (n=16) performed conventional static muscle stretching. Both groups also underwent manual therapy. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment and at a six-week follow-up appointment and tested for pain intensity (by means of visual analog scale), range of motion (by goniometry), and health-related quality of life (by the SF-36 questionnaire). The treatment program consisted of two 1-hour individual sessions per week for six weeks. Data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS Significant pain relief and range of motion improvement were observed after treatment in both groups, with a slight reduction at follow-up time. Quality of life also improved after treatment, except for the global posture reeducation group in one domain; at follow-up, there was improvement in all domains, except that both groups reported increased pain. There were no significant differences between groups CONCLUSION Conventional stretching and muscle chain stretching in association with manual therapy were equally effective in reducing pain and improving the range of motion and quality of life of female patients with chronic neck pain, both immediately after treatment and at a six-week follow-up, suggesting that stretching exercises should be prescribed to chronic neck pain patients. PMID:19060998

  6. Governing the Potentials of Life Itself? Interrogating the Promises in Affective Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunaes, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    This article critically explores how educational leadership is becoming increasingly affective in order to cultivate pupil potential and thereby meet the challenge of creating the best schools in the world. It critically analyses policy and handbook approaches to affective educational leadership technologies by showing the difficulty in keeping…

  7. Alcohol Use in College Students as a Function of Reinforcement Sensitivity, Life Events, and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyoung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Mood has been commonly viewed as an important determinant of drinking, but studies of positive and negative affect and alcohol use have reported inconsistent results. It has been suggested that the relationship between negative affect and heavy drinking or drinking problems depends on individual vulnerability dimensions such as personality. Gray's…

  8. The Space Physics of Life: Searching for Biosignatures on Habitable Icy Worlds Affected by Space Weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Accessible surfaces of the most likely astrobiological habitats (Mars, Europa, Titan) in the solar system beyond Earth are exposed to various chemical and hydrologic weathering processes directly or indirectly induced by interaction with the overlying space environment. These processes can be both beneficial, through provision of chemical compounds and energy, and destructive, through chemical dissociation or burial, to detectable presence of biosignatures. Orbital, suborbital, and surface platforms carrying astrobiological instrumentation must survive, and preferably exploit, space environment interactions to reach these habitats and search for evidence of life or its precursors. Experience from Mars suggests that any detection of biosignatures must be accompanied by characterization of the local chemical environment and energy sources including irradiation by solar ultraviolet photons and energetic particles from the space environment. Orbital and suborbital surveys of surface chemistry and astrobiological potential in the context of the space environment should precede targeted in-situ measurements to maximize probability of biosignature detection through site selection. The Space Physics of Life (SPOL) investigation has recently been proposed to the NASA Astrobiology Institute and is briefly described in this presentation. SPOL is the astrobiologically relevant study of the interactions and relationships of potentially? or previously inhabited, bodies of the solar system with the surrounding environments. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in space physics, planetary science, and radiation biology. The proposed investigation addresses the search for habitable environments, chemical resources to support life, and techniques for detection of organic and inorganic signs of life in the context of the space environment.

  9. Does dietary protein in early life affect the development of adiposity in mammals?

    PubMed

    Metges, C C

    2001-07-01

    This article examines the proposition that dietary protein in pre- and early postnatal life influences the development of adiposity in later life. In rodents, low protein intake during gestation can result in low birth weight and subsequently leads to various metabolic disturbances in adulthood, such as high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The few controlled studies conducted in animals suggest that high protein or energy intake during gestation leads to low birth weights. Observational studies in humans have been inconclusive in establishing a relationship between dietary protein intake in pregnancy and effects on birth weight and adiposity of the offspring later in life. There is only weak epidemiological evidence linking high protein intake during early childhood and the development of obesity. By contrast, studies in domestic animals have found that higher levels of protein intake are often associated with lower rates of fat accretion. Additional studies are proposed to explore claims linking protein nutrition in early life to the postnatal development of obesity and disease in humans.

  10. The life span of Drosophila melanogaster is affected by melatonin and thioctic acid.

    PubMed

    Terán, Raikelin; Bonilla, Ernesto; Medina-Leendertz, Shirley; Mora, Marylú; Villalobos, Virginia; Paz, Milagros; Arcaya, José L

    2012-09-01

    Aging and reduced longevity are due in part to the action of free radicals (FR). Melatonin (Mel) and thioctic acid (TA) are effective in protecting against the damage caused by FR. In this study, the effect of Mel and TA on the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster was determined. We used a control group of flies, another group that was provided with Mel (0.43 mM) throughout their life cycle (Mel-c), a third group received Mel upon reaching adulthood (Mel-a) and two groups were fed with TA (2.15 mM) in the same manner (TA-c and TA-a). The number of eclosed, survival, phenotype changes, motor activity and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was evaluated in each group. Mel-c increased the eclosion rate and the motor activity of the flies. Mel-c and Mel-a increased the life span and decreased the concentrations of MDA. By contrast, TA-c diminished the eclosion rate, produced phenotypic changes and increased MDA levels and motor activity of the flies. TA-a extended the life span of flies, and did not alter MDA levels and motor activity when compared with the control group. In conclusion, Mel mitigated the effects caused by FR generated during aging, while TA-c increased lipid peroxidation and altered the phenotype of flies.

  11. Does Rurality Affect Quality of Life Following Treatment for Breast Cancer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.; Cox, Cathy R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present research examined the extent to which rural residence and social support seeking are associated with quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients following chemotherapy. Methods: Female breast cancer patients (n = 46) from communities of varying degrees of rurality in a Midwestern state completed psychological and QOL…

  12. Does Change in Functional Performance Affect Quality of Life in Persons with Orthopaedic Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne-Marie; Smith, Pamela M.; Smith, David; Rice, Janida L.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Examine the association between change in functional status and quality of life for individuals with orthopaedic impairments approximately 90 days after discharge from in-patient medical rehabilitation. Methods: A retrospective study from 2001 to 2002 using information from the IT HealthTrack database. The study included…

  13. Ways by Which Comparable Income Affects Life Satisfaction in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Leung, Kwan-kwok

    2008-01-01

    Proponents of social equality attribute low life satisfaction to income inequality in society, an inequality which occurs when most people have relatively low income and only a few have high income. In contrast, range-frequency theory and other social comparison theories predict that when most people have low income, they are satisfied because of…

  14. Seed and seedling traits affecting critical life stage transitions and recruitment outcomes in dryland grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Seeding native plants is a key management practice to counter land degradation across the globe, yet the majority of seeding efforts fail, limiting the ability of this tool to accelerate ecosystem recovery. 2. Seedling recruitment requires transitions through several life stages, some of which ma...

  15. Does Body Image Affect Quality of Life?: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayir, Tufan; Uskun, Ersin; Yürekli, Mustafa Volkan; Devran, Hacer; Çelik, Ayşe; Okyay, Ramazan Azim

    2016-01-01

    Body image (BI) can be described as the assessment of both positive and negative emotion for one’s own body parts and their characteristics by himself or herself. Current research has concentrated mostly on the status of negative BI as a risk factor for mental health problems rather than as a public health problem, thereby little is known about the effects of BI on quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the BI and Quality of Life (QoL) of individuals and to investigate the relationship between the two. Individuals over 15 living in Isparta city center constitute the universe of this cross-sectional analytical study, carried out in 2014. The BI of individuals was measured by the Body Image Scale and The QoL of individuals was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life Scale Short Form. The mean age of the participants was 31.9 ± 13.0 and 56.0% were female, 36.8% were married and 81.7% had education above high school. 25.7% had at least one chronic disease and 17.7% received medication regularly. Having good-very good health perception, having higher income than expenses, making regular exercises were predictors in enhancing the quality of life in certain aspects, however having a good body image came out as a predictor enhancing the quality of life in all sub-domains. BI was found closely related with QoL in all sub-domains. Our findings suggest that greater attention should be to be given to BI as a strong predictor of QoL. PMID:27649389

  16. Does Body Image Affect Quality of Life?: A Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Nayir, Tufan; Uskun, Ersin; Yürekli, Mustafa Volkan; Devran, Hacer; Çelik, Ayşe; Okyay, Ramazan Azim

    2016-01-01

    Body image (BI) can be described as the assessment of both positive and negative emotion for one's own body parts and their characteristics by himself or herself. Current research has concentrated mostly on the status of negative BI as a risk factor for mental health problems rather than as a public health problem, thereby little is known about the effects of BI on quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the BI and Quality of Life (QoL) of individuals and to investigate the relationship between the two. Individuals over 15 living in Isparta city center constitute the universe of this cross-sectional analytical study, carried out in 2014. The BI of individuals was measured by the Body Image Scale and The QoL of individuals was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life Scale Short Form. The mean age of the participants was 31.9 ± 13.0 and 56.0% were female, 36.8% were married and 81.7% had education above high school. 25.7% had at least one chronic disease and 17.7% received medication regularly. Having good-very good health perception, having higher income than expenses, making regular exercises were predictors in enhancing the quality of life in certain aspects, however having a good body image came out as a predictor enhancing the quality of life in all sub-domains. BI was found closely related with QoL in all sub-domains. Our findings suggest that greater attention should be to be given to BI as a strong predictor of QoL.

  17. Does a "continuous care model" affect the quality of life of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Razmjoee, Nasrin; Ebadi, Abbas; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Hosseini, Marziyeh

    2017-03-01

    The physical and mental needs of patients with coronary heart disease are affected by both the disease and the heart surgery in different ways. Such diverse needs require different approaches. A continuous care model, which involves orientation, sensitization, control, and evaluation, may favorably influence patient outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We were interested to ascertain whether a continuous care model might lead to improved quality of life, compared with a routine care model, in patients undergoing CABG. A total of 66 patients scheduled for CABG were identified and randomized to receive either continuous care (based on the continuous care model) or routine postoperative management for 2 months. The subjects' quality of life and its physical and mental dimensions were measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Each dimension was scored between 0 and 100, and higher scores indicated better quality of life. One and 2 months after the intervention, the scores of quality of life and its two dimensions were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P < .001). The application of the continuous care model can promote health-related quality of life in patients after CABG.

  18. Provenance, life span, and phylogeny do not affect grass species' responses to nitrogen and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Benfield, Cara D; Borer, Elizabeth T; Stanley, Amanda G; Kaye, Thomas N; Dunwiddie, Peter W

    2011-09-01

    Successful conservation management requires an understanding of how species respond to intervention. Native and exotic species may respond differently to management interventions due to differences arising directly from their origin (i.e., provenance) or indirectly due to biased representations of different life history types (e.g., annual vs. perennial life span) or phylogenetic lineages among provenance (i.e., native or exotic origin) groups. Thus, selection of a successful management regime requires knowledge of the life history and provenance-bias in the local flora and an understanding of the interplay between species characteristics across existing environmental gradients in the landscape. Here we tested whether provenance, phylogeny, and life span interact to determine species distributions along natural gradients of soil chemistry (e.g., soil nitrogen and phosphorus) in 10 upland prairie sites along a 600-km latitudinal transect running from southern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, to the Willamette Valley in Oregon, USA. We found that soil nitrate, phosphorus, and pH exerted strong control over community composition. However, species distributions along environmental gradients were unrelated to provenance, life span, or phylogenetic groupings. We then used a greenhouse experiment to more precisely measure the response of common grass species to nitrogen and phosphorus supply. As with the field data, species responses to nutrient additions did not vary as a function of provenance, life span, or phylogeny. Native and exotic species differed strongly in the relationship between greenhouse-measured tolerance of low nutrients and field abundance. Native species with the greatest ability to maintain biomass production at low nutrient supply rates were most abundant in field surveys, as predicted by resource competition theory. In contrast, there was no relationship between exotic-species biomass at low nutrient levels and field abundance. The

  19. Patients’ report on how endometriosis affects health, work, and daily life

    PubMed Central

    Fourquet, Jessica; Gao, Xin; Zavala, Diego; Orengo, Juan C.; Abac, Sonia; Ruiz, Abigail; Laboy, Joaquín; Flores, Idhaliz

    2009-01-01

    NARRATIVE ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the burden of endometriosis by obtaining Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) data describing the experience of living with this disease. Survey data from one hundred and seven women with self-reported, surgically diagnosed endometriosis showed that living with this disease may be characterized by physical limitations that disrupt health, work and daily life. PMID:19926084

  20. Association with pathogenic bacteria affects life-history traits and population growth in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Diaz, S Anaid; Mooring, Eric Q; Rens, Elisabeth G; Restif, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Determining the relationship between individual life-history traits and population dynamics is an essential step to understand and predict natural selection. Model organisms that can be conveniently studied experimentally at both levels are invaluable to test the rich body of theoretical literature in this area. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, despite being a well-established workhorse in genetics, has only recently received attention from ecologists and evolutionary biologists, especially with respect to its association with pathogenic bacteria. In order to start filling the gap between the two areas, we conducted a series of experiments aiming at measuring life-history traits as well as population growth of C. elegans in response to three different bacterial strains: Escherichia coli OP50, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Whereas previous studies had established that the latter two reduced the survival of nematodes feeding on them compared to E. coli OP50, we report for the first time an enhancement in reproductive success and population growth for worms feeding on S. enterica Typhimurium. Furthermore, we used an age-specific population dynamic model, parameterized using individual life-history assays, to successfully predict the growth of populations over three generations. This study paves the way for more detailed and quantitative experimental investigation of the ecology and evolution of C. elegans and the bacteria it interacts with, which could improve our understanding of the fate of opportunistic pathogens in the environment.

  1. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  2. Technical, economic, and institutional issues affecting the life extension of cables

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; DuCharme, A.R.; Jacobus, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    NRC regulations and industry standards provide flexibility to the nuclear industry for demonstrating cable design life goals. Allowable methods for qualifying in-containment cables include laboratory type testing, reference to operating experience, analysis, and combinations of the above. In practice most utilities have used laboratory type testing as the primary method for demonstrating cable life assurance. These tests are frequently performed prior to initial plant operation and include a laboratory accelerated test (lasting a few weeks to a few months) to demonstrate that a cable will function during accident conditions that might occur anytime during a 40-year plant life. Type test rigor and documentation depend strongly on specific utility commitments to satisfy various vintages of standards and implementing regulations. For plant operation beyond 40 years, demonstration of continued cable qualification will be necessary. This might be accomplished by reanalysis of the original qualification basis, by supplementing the original qualification basis with additional laboratory test data, by supplementing the original qualification basis with operational experience, by a combination of the above techniques, or by a cable replacement program. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Self-Management and Quality of Life in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): The Mediating Effects of Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Benzo, Roberto P.; Abascal-Bolado, Beatriz; Dulohery, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to increase our understanding of general self-management (SM) abilities in COPD by determining if SM can predict disease specific quality of life (QoL), by investigating whether specific SM domains are significant in COPD and by exploring the mediating effect of the positive/negative affect in the association between SM and QoL. Methods Cross-sectional study based on 292 patients with COPD. Measures included demographics, lung function, gait speed, health care utilization, positive/negative affect, SM abilities, breathlessness and disease specific QoL. We performed, correlation, multiple regression models and mediation analysis (positive/negative affect being mediator between SM and QoL association). Results After controlling for breathlessness, living alone, marital status, hospitalization history, age and lung function, SM related to QoL (p< 0.0001). Investment in behaviors (hobbies and social relationships) and self-efficacy are SM domains independently related to QoL in COPD. Positivity measured by the positive/negative affect ratio completely mediates the relationship of SM with QoL. Conclusion SM is independently associated with disease specific QoL in COPD after adjustment significant covariates but positive/negative affect ratio completely mediates the relationship of SM with QoL. Practice implications Measuring positive/negative affect and addressing investment behavior and self-efficacy are important in implementing COPD-SM programs. PMID:26632024

  4. Interspecies systems biology uncovers metabolites affecting C. elegans gene expression and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emma; MacNeil, Lesley T; Ritter, Ashlyn D; Yilmaz, L Safak; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2014-02-13

    Diet greatly influences gene expression and physiology. In mammals, elucidating the effects and mechanisms of individual nutrients is challenging due to the complexity of both the animal and its diet. Here, we used an interspecies systems biology approach with Caenorhabditis elegans and two of its bacterial diets, Escherichia coli and Comamonas aquatica, to identify metabolites that affect the animal's gene expression and physiology. We identify vitamin B12 as the major dilutable metabolite provided by Comamonas aq. that regulates gene expression, accelerates development, and reduces fertility but does not affect lifespan. We find that vitamin B12 has a dual role in the animal: it affects development and fertility via the methionine/S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) cycle and breaks down the short-chain fatty acid propionic acid, preventing its toxic buildup. Our interspecies systems biology approach provides a paradigm for understanding complex interactions between diet and physiology.

  5. UK Food Standards Agency Optimal Nutrition Status Workshop: environmental factors that affect bone health throughout life.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lynn; Ashwell, Margaret; Berry, Jacqueline; Bolton-Smith, Caroline; Cassidy, Aedin; Dunnigan, Matthew; Khaw, Kay Tee; Macdonald, Helen; New, Susan; Prentice, Ann; Powell, Jonathan; Reeve, Jonathan; Robins, Simon; Teucher, Birgit

    2003-06-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) convened a group of expert scientists to discuss and review UK FSA- and Department of Health-funded research on diet and bone health. This research focused on the lifestyle factors that are amenable to change and may significantly affect bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fracture. The potential benefits of fruits and vegetables, meat, Ca, vitamins D and K and phyto-oestrogens were presented and discussed. Other lifestyle factors were also discussed, particularly the effect of physical activity and possible gene-nutrient interactions affecting bone health.

  6. From Affective Experience to Motivated Action: Tracking Reward-Seeking and Punishment-Avoidant Behaviour in Real-Life

    PubMed Central

    Wichers, Marieke; Kasanova, Zuzana; Bakker, Jindra; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many of the decisions and actions in everyday life result from implicit learning processes. Important to psychopathology are, for example, implicit reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant learning processes. It is known that when specific actions get associated with a rewarding experience, such as positive emotions, that this will increase the likelihood that an organism will engage in similar actions in the future. Similarly, when actions get associated with punishing experiences, such as negative emotions, this may reduce the likelihood that the organism will engage in similar actions in the future. This study examines whether we can observe these implicit processes prospectively in the flow of daily life. If such processes take place then we expect that current behaviour can be predicted by how similar behaviour was experienced (in terms of positive and negative affect) at previous measurement moments. This was examined in a sample of 621 female individuals that had participated in an Experience Sampling data collection. Measures of affect and behaviour were collected at 10 semi-random moments of the day for 5 consecutive days. It was examined whether affective experience that was paired with certain behaviours (physical activity and social context) at previous measurements modified the likelihood to show similar behaviours at next measurement moments. Analyses were performed both at the level of observations (a time scale with units of ± 90 min) and at day level (a time scale with units of 24 h). As expected, we found that affect indeed moderated the extent to which previous behaviour predicted similar behaviour later in time, at both beep- and day-level. This study showed that it is feasible to track reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant behaviour prospectively in humans in the flow of daily life. This opens up a new toolbox to examine processes determining goal-oriented behaviour in relation to psychopathology in humans. PMID:26087323

  7. From Affective Experience to Motivated Action: Tracking Reward-Seeking and Punishment-Avoidant Behaviour in Real-Life.

    PubMed

    Wichers, Marieke; Kasanova, Zuzana; Bakker, Jindra; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many of the decisions and actions in everyday life result from implicit learning processes. Important to psychopathology are, for example, implicit reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant learning processes. It is known that when specific actions get associated with a rewarding experience, such as positive emotions, that this will increase the likelihood that an organism will engage in similar actions in the future. Similarly, when actions get associated with punishing experiences, such as negative emotions, this may reduce the likelihood that the organism will engage in similar actions in the future. This study examines whether we can observe these implicit processes prospectively in the flow of daily life. If such processes take place then we expect that current behaviour can be predicted by how similar behaviour was experienced (in terms of positive and negative affect) at previous measurement moments. This was examined in a sample of 621 female individuals that had participated in an Experience Sampling data collection. Measures of affect and behaviour were collected at 10 semi-random moments of the day for 5 consecutive days. It was examined whether affective experience that was paired with certain behaviours (physical activity and social context) at previous measurements modified the likelihood to show similar behaviours at next measurement moments. Analyses were performed both at the level of observations (a time scale with units of ± 90 min) and at day level (a time scale with units of 24 h). As expected, we found that affect indeed moderated the extent to which previous behaviour predicted similar behaviour later in time, at both beep- and day-level. This study showed that it is feasible to track reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant behaviour prospectively in humans in the flow of daily life. This opens up a new toolbox to examine processes determining goal-oriented behaviour in relation to psychopathology in humans.

  8. The "Simmie" Side of Life: Old Order Amish Youths' Affective Response to Culturally Prescribed Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiling, Denise M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed the counterintuitive affective response Old Order Amish youth make to unique cultural prescriptions for adolescent deviance (constructed by adult Amish culture). Interview data supported the basic principles of Terror Management Theory in an unexpected, indirect fashion. Rather than functioning as a specialized cultural-anxiety buffer…

  9. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Elske N; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks.

  10. Approach for Half-Life Extension of Small Antibody Fragments That Does Not Affect Tissue Uptake.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eric L; Hearn, Brian R; Pfaff, Samuel J; Fontaine, Shaun D; Reid, Ralph; Ashley, Gary W; Grabulovski, Stefanie; Strassberger, Verena; Vogt, Lorenz; Jung, Thomas; Santi, Daniel V

    2016-10-07

    The utility of antigen-binding antibody fragments is often limited by their short half-lives. Half-life extension of such fragments is usually accomplished by attachment or binding to high-molecular-weight carriers that reduce the renal elimination rate. However, the higher hydrodynamic radius results in greater confinement in the vascular compartment and, thus, lower tissue distribution. We have developed a chemically controlled drug delivery system in which the drug is covalently attached to hydrogel microspheres by a self-cleaving β-eliminative linker; upon subcutaneous injection, the t1/2,β of the released drug acquires the t1/2 of linker cleavage. In the present work, we compared the pharmacokinetics of an anti-TNFα scFv, the same scFv attached to 40 kDa PEG by a stable linker, and the scFv attached to hydrogel microspheres by a self-cleaving linker. We also developed a general approach for the selective attachment of β-eliminative linkers to the N-termini of proteins. In rats, the scFv had a t1/2,β of 4 h and a high volume of distribution at steady state (Vd,SS), suggesting extensive tissue distribution. The PEG-scFv conjugate had an increased t1/2,β of about 2 days but showed a reduced Vd,SS that was similar to the plasma volume. In contrast, the tissue-penetrable scFv released from the hydrogel system had a t1/2,β of about 2 weeks. Thus, the cleavable microsphere-scFv conjugate releases its protein cargo with a prolonged half-life comparable to that of most full-length mAbs and in a form that has the high tissue distribution characteristic of smaller mAb fragments. Other antigen-binding antibody fragments should be amenable to the half-life extension approach described here.

  11. The Acute Relationships Between Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Daily Life: A Review of Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Dunton, Genevieve F

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings in non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search yielded 14 eligible studies for review. Six studies tested the relationship between affective states and subsequent physical activity; findings from these studies suggest that positive affective states were positively associated with physical activity over the next few hours while negative affective states had no significant association. Twelve studies tested affective states after physical activity and yielded consistent evidence for physical activity predicting higher positive affect over the next few hours. Further, there was some evidence that physical activity was followed by a higher level of energetic feelings in the next few hours. The evidence for physical activity reducing negative affect in the next few hours was inconsistent and inconclusive. Future research in this area should consider recruiting more representative study participants, utilizing higher methodological standards for assessment (i.e., electronic devices combined with accelerometry), reporting patterns of missing data, and investigating pertinent moderators and mediators (e.g., social and physical context, intensity, psychological variables). Knowledge gained from this topic could offer valuable insights for promoting daily physical activity adoption and maintenance in non-clinical populations.

  12. The Acute Relationships Between Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Daily Life: A Review of Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings in non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search yielded 14 eligible studies for review. Six studies tested the relationship between affective states and subsequent physical activity; findings from these studies suggest that positive affective states were positively associated with physical activity over the next few hours while negative affective states had no significant association. Twelve studies tested affective states after physical activity and yielded consistent evidence for physical activity predicting higher positive affect over the next few hours. Further, there was some evidence that physical activity was followed by a higher level of energetic feelings in the next few hours. The evidence for physical activity reducing negative affect in the next few hours was inconsistent and inconclusive. Future research in this area should consider recruiting more representative study participants, utilizing higher methodological standards for assessment (i.e., electronic devices combined with accelerometry), reporting patterns of missing data, and investigating pertinent moderators and mediators (e.g., social and physical context, intensity, psychological variables). Knowledge gained from this topic could offer valuable insights for promoting daily physical activity adoption and maintenance in non-clinical populations. PMID:26779049

  13. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span.

  14. Maternal Fructose Intake Affects Transcriptome Changes and Programmed Hypertension in Offspring in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Chan, Julie Y. H.; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension originates from early-life insults by so-called “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Studies performed in the previous few decades indicate that fructose consumption is associated with an increase in hypertension rate. It is emerging field that tends to unfold the nutrient–gene interactions of maternal high-fructose (HF) intake on the offspring which links renal programming to programmed hypertension. Reprogramming interventions counteract disturbed nutrient–gene interactions induced by maternal HF intake and exert protective effects against developmentally programmed hypertension. Here, we review the key themes on the effect of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes and programmed hypertension. We have particularly focused on the following areas: metabolic effects of fructose on hypertension and kidney disease; effects of maternal HF consumption on hypertension development in adult offspring; effects of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes; and application of reprogramming interventions to prevent maternal HF consumption-induced programmed hypertension in animal models. Provision of personalized nutrition is still a faraway goal. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand early-life nutrient–gene interactions and to develop effective reprogramming strategies for treating hypertension and other HF consumption-related diseases. PMID:27897982

  15. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  16. Psychosocial problems of donor heart recipients adversely affecting quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, B; Wollenek, G; Grundböck, A

    1992-10-01

    Heart transplantation has become an accepted therapy for patients suffering from terminal heart disease for whom neither standard forms of medication nor the usual surgery are of any benefit. Although results regarding postoperative quantity and quality of life are encouraging, it must not be overlooked that the patient and his family face, and have to overcome, profound psychosocial problems. The main stressors were identified in interviews with 47 heart transplant patients. The main preoperative problems were: the way of being informed about the diagnosis, the waiting period for transplantation, anguishing doubts about the decision to have a transplant, being a body without heart ('zombie'), guilt and shame regarding the donor, the reactions of others. Postoperatively the patients have to cope with: re-entering social systems, reactions of friends, neighbours and colleagues, rejection episodes, death of a fellow patient, the need to redesign family life. All the problems reported by the patients interviewed are discussed regarding their psychosocial implications, and hints are given on how to minimize them.

  17. The Freedom to Pursue Happiness: Belief in Free Will Predicts Life Satisfaction and Positive Affect among Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunkai; Wang, Song; Zhao, Yajun; Kong, Feng; Li, Jingguang

    2017-01-01

    A small amount of research has examined the association between the belief in free will and subjective well-being (SWB) among Western laypersons from individualist cultures. However, no study has examined this association among participants from collectivist cultures (e.g., Eastern Asian cultures). Therefore, in this study, we explored this association among two large, independent cohorts of Chinese adolescents (N1 = 1,660; N2 = 639; high school students). The belief in free will was measured by a self-reported questionnaire (Cohorts 1 and 2) and a two-alternative forced choice question regarding the existence of free will (Cohort 2). SWB included cognitive well-being (life satisfaction) and affective well-being (positive and negative affect) in both cohorts. Data analyses indicated that a stronger belief in free will was consistently associated with higher life satisfaction and positive affect in both cohorts. Our investigation provides evidence supporting the cultural generality of the positive effects of believing in free will on SWB. PMID:28101072

  18. The Freedom to Pursue Happiness: Belief in Free Will Predicts Life Satisfaction and Positive Affect among Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunkai; Wang, Song; Zhao, Yajun; Kong, Feng; Li, Jingguang

    2016-01-01

    A small amount of research has examined the association between the belief in free will and subjective well-being (SWB) among Western laypersons from individualist cultures. However, no study has examined this association among participants from collectivist cultures (e.g., Eastern Asian cultures). Therefore, in this study, we explored this association among two large, independent cohorts of Chinese adolescents (N1 = 1,660; N2 = 639; high school students). The belief in free will was measured by a self-reported questionnaire (Cohorts 1 and 2) and a two-alternative forced choice question regarding the existence of free will (Cohort 2). SWB included cognitive well-being (life satisfaction) and affective well-being (positive and negative affect) in both cohorts. Data analyses indicated that a stronger belief in free will was consistently associated with higher life satisfaction and positive affect in both cohorts. Our investigation provides evidence supporting the cultural generality of the positive effects of believing in free will on SWB.

  19. Money and happiness: rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Christopher J; Brown, Gordon D A; Moore, Simon C

    2010-04-01

    Does money buy happiness, or does happiness come indirectly from the higher rank in society that money brings? We tested a rank-income hypothesis, according to which people gain utility from the ranked position of their income within a comparison group. The rank hypothesis contrasts with traditional reference-income hypotheses, which suggest that utility from income depends on comparison to a social reference-group norm. We found that the ranked position of an individual's income predicts general life satisfaction, whereas absolute income and reference income have no effect. Furthermore, individuals weight upward comparisons more heavily than downward comparisons. According to the rank hypothesis, income and utility are not directly linked: Increasing an individual's income will increase his or her utility only if ranked position also increases and will necessarily reduce the utility of others who will lose rank.

  20. An analysis of moral issues affecting patenting inventions in the life sciences: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Crespi, R S

    2000-04-01

    Following the 1980 US Supreme Court decision to allow a patent on a living organism, debate has continued on the moral issues involved in biotechnology patents of many kinds and remains a contentious issue for those opposed to the use of biotechnology in industry and agriculture. Attitudes to patenting in the life sciences, including those of the research scientists themselves, are analysed. The relevance of morality to patent law is discussed here in an international context with particular reference to the law of the European Patent Convention administered by the European Patent Office (EPO). The EPO has been the principal forum for opposition to such patents and the few cases under dispute in the EPO are reviewed, including patents for the onco-mouse, human relaxin gene, and the PGS herbicidally resistant plant (gmo). Morality provisions in the European Parliament and Council Directive 98/44/EC are also summarised.

  1. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  2. Does the site of anastomosis for esophagectomy affect long-term quality of life?

    PubMed

    Wormald, J C R; Bennett, J; van Leuven, M; Lewis, M P N

    2016-01-01

    Long-term survival after esophagectomy is improving, and hence, quality of life (QOL) of these patients has become a priority. There has been extensive debate regarding the optimal site of surgical anastomosis (cervical or intrathoracic). We aimed to evaluate the impact of anastomotic site on long-term QOL postesophagectomy. Quality of life questionnaires (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] C-30 and OG-25) were sent to patients surviving over 3 years following esophagectomy. The data were analyzed by site of esophagogastric anastomosis: intrathoracic or cervical. EORTC C-30 data were compared against the reference population data. Of the patients, 62 responded (82%) with a median time postsurgery of 6.1 years (range 3-12 years). Patient demographics were comparable. There was no significant difference between cervical or intrathoracic anastomosis groups for functional or symptom scores, focusing on dysphagia (cervical = 8.8 vs. intrathoracic = 17.6, P = 0.24), odynophagia (cervical = 13.4 vs. intrathoracic = 16.1, P = 0.68) and swallowing problems (cervical = 8.1 vs. intrathoracic = 13.4, P = 0.32). There was no difference in overall health score between groups (cervical = 70.5 vs. intrathoracic = 71.6, P = 0.46). Overall general health score was comparable with the reference population (esophagectomy group P = 70.9 ± 22.1 vs. reference population = 71.2 ± 22.4, P = 0.93). There is no difference in long-term QOL after esophagectomy between patients with a cervical or intrathoracic anastomosis. Scores compare favorably with EORTC reference data. Survival after esophagectomy is associated with recovery of QOL in the long term, regardless of site of anastomosis and despite worse gastrointestinal-related symptoms.

  3. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles.

  4. Larval nutrition affects life history traits in a capital breeding moth.

    PubMed

    Colasurdo, Nadia; Gélinas, Yves; Despland, Emma

    2009-06-01

    Fitness depends not only on resource uptake but also on the allocation of these resources to various life history functions. This study explores the life-history consequences of larval diet in terms not only of larval performance but also of adult body composition and reproductive traits in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner). Caterpillars were reared on their preferred tree host, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), or on one of three artificial foods: high protein:low carbohydrate, equal protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or low protein:high carbohydrate. Survivorship, larval development rate and adult body size were lowest on the carbohydrate-biased diet and similar on the protein-biased and equal-ratio diets. Fecundity increased with body size but did not otherwise differ between diets. Moths reared on the carbohydrate-biased diet allocated a lower proportion of their mass to the ovaries and more to somatic growth whereas those on equal-ratio and protein-biased diets allocated more to reproductive tissue and less to somatic tissue. These differences in allocation to reproduction arose from differences in the size of eggs, an index of offspring quality. No differences were found in lipid and protein content of female ovaries, accessory glands or somatic tissue, or of the whole body of male moths. The findings show that physiological processes regulate the composition of the different components of the adult body. Diet effects occur as differences in overall body size and in relative allocation to these components. Although lepidopterans can, to a large extent, compensate post-ingestively for nutritionally deficient diets, investment in reproduction vs somatic growth depends on the nutrients available.

  5. An Examination of Horace Wells' Life as a Manifestation of Major Depressive and Seasonal Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ramon F; Desai, Sukumar P

    2016-01-01

    Horace Wells was a Hartford, Connecticut, dentist whose practice flourished because of his clinical skills. He had an imaginative mind that propelled him to the forefront in several aspects of dentistry. Unfortunately, he suffered a recurrent "illness" that began in the winter and resolved in the spring. These symptoms were compatible with both major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder as a qualifier. Wells' introduction of nitrous oxide as an anesthetic was also associated with self-inhalation. This led to periods of hypomania, followed by depression. With the progression to ether, then chloroform, there was an episode of mania in January 1848, followed by depression and suicide.

  6. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2007-08-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.

  7. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions affect the life-cycle analysis of algal biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Edward D.; Han, Jeongwoo; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q.

    2012-03-01

    Researchers around the world are developing sustainable plant-based liquid transportation fuels (biofuels) to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Algae are attractive because they promise large yields per acre compared to grasses, grains and trees, and because they produce oils that might be converted to diesel and gasoline equivalents. It takes considerable energy to produce algal biofuels with current technology; thus, the potential benefits of algal biofuels compared to petroleum fuels must be quantified. To this end, we identified key parameters for algal biofuel production using GREET, a tool for the life-cycle analysis of energy use and emissions in transportation systems. The baseline scenario produced 55 400 g CO2 equivalent per million BTU of biodiesel compared to 101 000 g for low-sulfur petroleum diesel. The analysis considered the potential for greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic digestion processes commonly used in algal biofuel models. The work also studied alternative scenarios, e.g., catalytic hydrothermal gasification, that may reduce these emissions. The analysis of the nitrogen recovery step from lipid-extracted algae (residues) highlighted the importance of considering the fate of the unrecovered nitrogen fraction, especially that which produces N2O, a potent greenhouse gas with global warming potential 298 times that of CO2.

  8. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Amanda K.; White, Craig R.; Marshall, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects—larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed. PMID:26559952

  9. Colony pace: a life-history trait affecting social insect epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Séverine Denise; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Among colonies of social insects, the worker turnover rate (colony ‘pace’) typically shows considerable variation. This has epidemiological consequences for parasites, because in ‘fast-paced’ colonies, with short-lived workers, the time of parasite residence in a given host will be reduced, and further transmission may thus get less likely. Here, we test this idea and ask whether pace is a life-history strategy against infectious parasites. We infected bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) with the infectious gut parasite Crithidia bombi, and experimentally manipulated birth and death rates to mimic slow and fast pace. We found that fewer workers and, importantly, fewer last-generation workers that are responsible for rearing sexuals were infected in colonies with faster pace. This translates into increased fitness in fast-paced colonies, as daughter queens exposed to fewer infected workers in the nest are less likely to become infected themselves, and have a higher chance of founding their own colonies in the next year. High worker turnover rate can thus act as a strategy of defence against a spreading infection in social insect colonies. PMID:26763696

  10. Reducing endogenous estrogen during prepuberal life does not affect boar libido or sperm fertilizing potential.

    PubMed

    Berger, Trish; Conley, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Increasing sperm production per breeding male has economic significance with increasing use of artificial insemination. Manipulations to increase sperm production in livestock will only be useful if libido and sperm fertilizing capacity are not adversely affected. Reducing endogenous estrogens in the postnatal interval increases the number of Sertoli cells and hence testicular sperm production capacity. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of reducing endogenous estrogens on libido and sperm fertilizing capacity. Boars were treated with an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, to reduce testicular estrogen production between 1 and 6 weeks of age or between 11 and 16 weeks of age, and the littermates to these boars were treated with the canola oil vehicle. Letrozole treatment did not affect time to first mount at 22 weeks of age, regardless of whether the treatment occurred from 1 to 6 weeks of age (118 seconds vs. 233 seconds, SEM = 161 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively) or from 11 to 16 weeks of age (107 seconds vs. 67 seconds, SEM = 63 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively). Similarly, sperm fertilizing ability and in vivo fertility were equivalent in letrozole-treated boars and their vehicle-treated littermates. Surprisingly, the increase in Sertoli cell numbers observed in the letrozole-treated boars at 20 weeks of age (5.8 vs. 4.3 billion, SEM = 0.5; P < 0.05) was not maintained to 40 weeks of age in their letrozole-treated littermates. Reducing endogenous estrogen production neonatally or prepuberally had no detectable adverse effect on libido or sperm fertilizing capacity.

  11. Early-life adversity accelerates cellular ageing and affects adult inflammation: Experimental evidence from the European starling

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Kolenda, Claire; Parker, Craig; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period. For telomere attrition, amount of food and begging effort exerted additive effects. Only the combination of low food amount and high begging effort increased DNA damage. We then measured two markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, when the birds were adults. The experimental treatments affected both inflammatory markers, though the patterns were complex and different for each marker. The effect of the experimental treatments on adult interleukin-6 was partially mediated by increased juvenile DNA damage. Our results show that both nutritional input and begging effort in the nestling period affect cellular ageing and adult inflammation in the starling. However, the pattern of effects is different for different biomarkers measured at different time points. PMID:28094324

  12. Factors affecting microbial spoilage and shelf-life of chilled vacuum-packed lamb transported to distant markets: a review.

    PubMed

    Mills, John; Donnison, Andrea; Brightwell, Gale

    2014-09-01

    Vacuum-packaging and stringent control of storage temperatures enable the export of meat to distant markets, supplying a chilled product that can favourably compete with local fresh meats. To save fuel and reduce emissions, the speed of ships travelling to international markets has decreased resulting in requirement for the shelf-life of chilled lamb to be extended beyond the recognised time of 60-70 days. Growth of microorganisms and ability to cause spoilage of vacuum-packed lamb are dependent on many factors, including the type and initial concentration of spoilage bacteria, meat pH, water activity, availability of substrates, oxygen availability and, most importantly, storage time and temperature of the packaged product. This paper reviews the existing knowledge of the spoilage bacteria affecting vacuum-packed lamb, discusses the impact of these bacteria on product quality, shelf-life and spoilage, and concludes that under specified conditions the shelf-life of chilled lamb can be extended to beyond 70 days.

  13. Shelf life of ready to use peeled shrimps as affected by thymol essential oil and modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Danza, Alessandra; Conte, Amalia; Muratore, Giuseppe; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2010-12-15

    In this work the influence of different packaging strategies on the shelf life of ready to use peeled shrimps was investigated. First, the effectiveness of the coating (Coat) and the active coating loaded with different concentrations of thymol (Coat-500, Coat-1000, and Coat-1500) on the quality loss of the investigated food product packaged in air was addressed; afterwards, the thymol concentration that had shown the best performance was used in combination with MAP (5% O(2); 95% CO(2)). Microbial cell load of main spoilage microorganisms, pH and sensorial quality were monitored during the refrigerated storage. Results of the first step suggested that the sole coating did not affect the microbial growth. A slight antimicrobial effect was obtained when the coating was loaded with thymol and a concentration dependence was also observed. Moreover, the active coating was effective in minimizing the sensory quality loss of the investigated product, it was particularly true at the lowest thymol concentration. In the second step, the thymol concentration (1000 ppm) that showed the strike balance between microbial and sensorial quality was chosen in combination with MAP. As expected, MAP significantly affected the growth of the mesophilic bacteria. In particular, a cell load reduction of about 2 log cycle for the samples under MAP respect to that in air was obtained. Moreover, the MAP packaging inhibited the growth of the Pseudomonas spp. and hydrogen sulphide-producing bacteria. The MAP alone was not able to improve the shelf life of the uncoated samples. In fact, no significant difference between the control samples packaged in air and MAP was observed. Whilst, the use of coating under MAP condition prolonged the shelf life of about 6 days with respect to the same samples packaged in air. Moreover, when the MAP was used in combination with thymol, a further shelf life prolongation with respect to the samples packaged in air was observed. In particular, a shelf life of

  14. Disability and Quality of Life of Subjects with Bipolar Affective Disorder in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Soumya P.; Nisha, A.; Varghese, P. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies for bipolar disorder, many people continue to have less than optimal outcomes, which are associated with significant disability and poor quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the disability and QOL and factors associated with such suboptimal outcomes in subjects with bipolar disorder in remission. Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed to have bipolar disorder in remission attending the Department of Psychiatry, MOSC Medical College, Kerala, India were recruited for the study. They were assessed using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria for Research-10, Hamilton Scale for Depression, Young's Mania Rating Scale, World Health Organization-QOL (WHO QOL-BREF), WHO-Disability Assessment Scale (WHO-DAS), and Kuppuswamy's scale for socioeconomic status assessment. Results: Eighty-four patients were evaluated. The mean total WHO-DAS score was 19.2 ± 2.09, the maximum disability in domain 4 (getting along) followed by domain 2 (mobility). The mean total WHO-QOL BREF score was 54.26 ± 2.85, the lowest subscore in domain 3 (social interactions). Disability scores were significantly associated with increasing age, female gender, not being an earning member of the family, and lower QOL scores. Poorer QOL scores were significantly associated with increasing age and higher disability score. Conclusions: Many bipolar patients in remission have significant disability and poorer QOL. There is a need for longitudinal studies to explore such associations and develop interventions to reduce the disability thereby enhancing the QOL. PMID:27570346

  15. How Do Growth and Sibling Competition Affect Telomere Dynamics in the First Month of Life of Long-Lived Seabird?

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Yuichi; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Yoda, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleotide sequences located at the ends of chromosomes that promote genome stability. Changes in telomere length (dynamics) are related to fitness or life expectancy, and telomere dynamics during the development phase are likely to be affected by growth and stress factors. Here, we examined telomere dynamics of black-tailed gull chicks (Larus crassirostris) in nests with and without siblings. We found that the initial telomere lengths of singletons at hatching were longer than those of siblings, indicating that singletons are higher-quality chicks than siblings in terms of telomere length. Other factors likely affecting individual quality (i.e., sex, laying date, laying order of eggs, and clutch size) were not related to telomere lengths. Within broods, initial telomere lengths were longer in older chicks than in younger chicks, suggesting that maternal effects, which vary with laying sequence, influence the initial lengths. Additionally, telomeres of chicks with a sibling showed more attrition between hatching and fledging than those of singleton chicks, suggesting that being raised with siblings can cause a sustained competitive environment that leads to telomere loss. High growth rates were associated with a low degree of telomere shortening observed in older siblings, perhaps because slower growth reflects higher food stress and/or higher aerobic metabolism from increased begging effort. Our results show that developmental telomere attrition was an inevitable consequence in two-chick nests in the pre- and post-hatching microenvironments due to the combination of social stress within the nest and maternal effects. The results of our study shed light on telomere dynamics in early life, which may represent an important physiological undercurrent of life-history traits. PMID:27902754

  16. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella.

  17. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  18. Identifying biologically meaningful hot-weather events using threshold temperatures that affect life-history.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan J; Kruger, Andries C; Nxumalo, Mthobisi P; Hockey, Philip A R

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves are frequently evoked in climate change predictions. However, there is no universal definition of a heat wave. Recent, intense hot weather events have caused mass mortalities of birds, bats and even humans, making the definition and prediction of heat wave events that have the potential to impact populations of different species an urgent priority. One possible technique for defining biologically meaningful heat waves is to use threshold temperatures (T(thresh)) above which known fitness costs are incurred by species of interest. We set out to test the utility of this technique using T(thresh) values that, when exceeded, affect aspects of the fitness of two focal southern African bird species: the southern pied babbler Turdiodes bicolor (T(thresh) = 35.5 °C) and the common fiscal Lanius collaris (T(thresh) = 33 °C). We used these T(thresh) values to analyse trends in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves of magnitude relevant to the focal species, as well as the annual number of hot days (maximum air temperature > T(thresh)), in north-western South Africa between 1961 and 2010. Using this technique, we were able to show that, while all heat wave indices increased during the study period, most rapid increases for both species were in the annual number of hot days and in the maximum intensity (and therefore intensity variance) of biologically meaningful heat waves. Importantly, we also showed that warming trends were not uniform across the study area and that geographical patterns in warming allowed both areas of high risk and potential climate refugia to be identified. We discuss the implications of the trends we found for our focal species, and the utility of the T(thresh) technique as a conservation tool.

  19. Life history affects how species experience succession in pen shell metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Munguia, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    In nature, very few species are common and broadly distributed. Most species are rare and occupy few sites; this pattern is ubiquitous across habitats and taxa. In spatially structured communities (metacommunities), regional distribution and local abundance may change as the relative effects of within-habitat processes (e.g., species interactions) and among-habitat processes (e.g., dispersal) may vary through succession. A field experiment with the marine benthic inhabitants of pen shells (Atrina rigida) tested how common and rare species respond to succession and metacommunity size. I followed community development through time and partitioned species into sessile and motile based on their natural history. Rare species drive diversity patterns and are influenced by metacommunity size: there are strong abundance-distribution differences between common and rare species in large metacommunities, but motile species show lower rates of change than sessile species. In small metacommunities both common and rare species have similar changes through time; the dichotomous distinction of common and rare species is not present. Edge effects in metacommunities affect species' changes in distribution and abundance. In large metacommunities diversity is higher in edge habitats relative to small metacommunities during early succession. However, edge effects benefit motile species over time in small metacommunities showing a rapid increase in diversity. Individual mobility is sensitive to regional community size and allows individuals to sort among different communities. In contrast, sessile species do not show this edge effect. Metacommunity theory is a useful framework for understanding spatially structured communities, but the natural history of coexisting species cannot be ignored.

  20. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits.

    PubMed

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J; Boyce, W Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2012-10-16

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene-environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience.

  1. Inducible offences affect predator-prey interactions and life-history plasticity in both predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Costa, Zacharia; Tezuka, Ayumi; Michimae, Hirofumi

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can have strong impacts on predator-prey interactions. Although much work has examined the effects of inducible defences, less understood is how inducible offences in predators affect predator-prey interactions and predator and prey phenotypes. Here, we examine the impacts of an inducible offence on the interactions and life histories of a cohort of predatory Hynobius retardatus salamander larvae and their prey, Rana pirica tadpoles. We examined larval (duration, survival) and post-metamorphic (size) traits of both species after manipulating the presence/absence of tadpoles and salamanders with offensive (broadened gape width) or non-offensive phenotypes in pond enclosures. Offensive phenotype salamanders reduced tadpole survival and metamorph emergence by 58% compared to tadpole-only treatments, and by over 30% compared to non-offensive phenotypes. Average time to metamorphosis of frogs was delayed by 30% in the presence of salamanders, although this was independent of salamander phenotype. Thus, offensive phenotype salamanders reduced the number of tadpoles remaining in the pond over time by reducing tadpole survival, not by altering patterns of metamorph emergence. Offensive phenotypes also caused tadpoles to metamorphose 19% larger than no salamander treatments and 6% larger than non-offensive phenotype treatments. Pooled across salamander treatments, tadpoles caused salamanders to reach metamorphosis faster and larger. Moreover, in the presence of tadpoles, offensive phenotype salamanders metamorphosed 25% faster and 5% larger than non-offensive phenotype salamanders, but in their absence, neither their size nor larval period differed from non-offensive phenotype individuals. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that inducible offences in predators can have strong impacts on predator and prey phenotypes across multiple life stages. Since early metamorphosis at a larger size has potential fitness advantages, the impacts

  2. How the presence of a gas giant affects the formation of mean-motion resonances between two low-mass planets in a locally isothermal gaseous disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlewska-Gaca, E.; Szuszkiewicz, E.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of a migration-induced resonance locking in systems containing three planets, namely an Earth analogue (1 M⊕), a super-Earth (4 M⊕) and a gas giant (one Jupiter mass). The planets have been listed in order of increasing orbital periods. All three bodies are embedded in a locally isothermal gaseous disc and orbit around a solar mass star. We are interested in answering the following questions: will the low-mass planets form the same resonant structures with each other in the vicinity of the gas giant as in the case when the gas giant is absent? More in general, how will the presence of the gas giant affect the evolution of the two low-mass planets? When there is no gas giant in the system, it has been already shown that if the two low-mass planets undergo a convergent differential migration, they will capture each other in a mean-motion resonance. For the choices of disc parameters and planet masses made in this paper, the formation of the 5:4 resonance in the absence of the Jupiter has been observed in a previous investigation and confirmed here. In this work we add a gas giant on the most external orbit of the system in such a way that its differential migration is convergent with the low-mass planets. We show that the result of this set-up is the speeding up of the migration of the super-Earth and, after that, all three planets become locked in a triple mean-motion resonance. However, this resonance is not maintained due to the low-mass planet eccentricity excitation, a fact that leads to close encounters between planets and eventually to the ejection from the internal orbits of one or both low-mass planets. We have observed that the ejected low-mass planets can leave the system, fall into a star or become the external planet relative to the gas giant. In our simulations the latter situation has been observed for the super-Earth. It follows from the results presented here that the presence of a Jupiter-like planet

  3. Emotional fluctuations in Bob Dylan's lyrics measured by the dictionary of affect accompany events and phases in his life.

    PubMed

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    Lyrics for Bob Dylan's songs between 1962 and 2001 (close to 100,000 words) were scored with the help of the Dictionary of Affect in Language (Whissell, 2006). Means for Pleasantness, Activation, and Imagery are reported for 22 Blocks characterizing this time span. Significant but weak differences across Blocks were found for all three measures at the level of individual words. Emotional fluctuations in words included in Bob Dylan's lyrics accompanied events and phases in his life, although they were not entirely dictated by these events. Dylan used more highly Imaged and more Active words at times when his work was critically acclaimed. More Passive word choices characterized times of prolonged stress, and more Pleasant choices times of experimentation. Dylan's three popularity peaks were used to divide the singer's career into three stages (rhetor, poet, sage) which differed in terms of pronouns used.

  4. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adversely affects the life-cycle of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum.

    PubMed

    Bots, Jessica; De Bruyn, Luc; Snijkers, Tom; Van den Branden, Bert; Van Gossum, Hans

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated whether life-time exposure to PFOS affects egg development, hatching, larval development, survival, metamorphosis and body mass of Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Eggs and larvae were exposed to five concentrations ranging from 0 to 10000 microg/L. Our results show reduced egg hatching success, slower larval development, greater larval mortality, and decreased metamorphosis success with increasing PFOS concentration. PFOS had no effect on egg developmental time and hatching or on mass of adults. Eggs were the least sensitive stage (NOEC=10000 microg/L). Larval NOEC values were 1000 times smaller (10 microg/L). Successful metamorphosis was the most sensitive response trait studied (NOEC<10 microg/L). The NOEC value suggests that E. cyathigerum is amongst the most sensitive freshwater organisms tested. NOEC for metamorphosis is less than 10-times greater than the ordinary reported environmental concentrations in freshwater, but is more than 200-times smaller than the greatest concentrations measured after accidental releases.

  5. How does age-related macular degeneration affect real-world visual ability and quality of life? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Deanna J; Hobby, Angharad E; Binns, Alison M; Crabb, David P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review systematically the evidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affecting real-world visual ability and quality of life (QoL). To explore trends in specific topics within this body of the literature. Design Systematic review. Methods A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES and Health and Psychosocial Instruments for articles published up to January 2015 for studies including people diagnosed with AMD, assessing real-world visual ability or QoL as an outcome. Two researchers screened studies for eligibility. Details of eligible studies including study design, characteristics of study population and outcomes measured were recorded in a data extraction table. All included studies underwent quality appraisal using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool 2011 Version (MMAT). Results From 5284 studies, 123 were eligible for inclusion. A range of approaches were identified, including performance-based methods, quantitative and qualitative patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). AMD negatively affects tasks including mobility, face recognition, perception of scenes, computer use, meal preparation, shopping, cleaning, watching TV, reading, driving and, in some cases, self-care. There is evidence for higher rates of depression among people with AMD than among community dwelling elderly. A number of adaptation strategies have been associated with AMD of varying duration. Much of the research fails to report the type of AMD studied (59% of included studies) or the duration of disease in participants (74%). Of those that do report type studied, the breakdown is as follows: wet AMD 20%, dry AMD 4% and both types 17%. Conclusions There are many publications highlighting the negative effects of AMD in various domains of life. Future research should focus on delivering some of this research knowledge into patient management and clinical trials and differentiating between the types of AMD. PMID

  6. Effect of Nasal Calcitonin on the Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopause Women Affected With Low Bone Density

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Bayat, Noushin; Saburi, Amin; Abbasi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and mental health could be affected by osteoporosis and various therapeutic options such as calcitonin may influence Quality Of Life (QOL) of these patients with Low Bone Density (LBD). Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasal calcitonin on QOL in post menopause women with LBD. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on one hundred and fifteen menopause women with LBD less than 1 SD in Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2009 - 2010. They were assigned to receive 200 IU calcitonin nasal spray along with calcium (1000 mg) and vitamin D (400 IU) for 6 months. Quality of life was assessed by Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire (Persian-validated version). Results: The mean age (± SD) of the participants was 58.75 ± 8.15 years. Intranasal spray of calcitonin increased QOL scores significantly (88.05 ± 15.63 vs. 92.15 ± 13.22, P value = 0.000). Bone mineral density of spine was increased from 0.834 ± 0.11 to 0.12 ± 0.852 and this difference in BMD of lumbar spine was statistically significant (P value: 0.003) but not significant in femur’s BMD (P value = 0.061). In comparison with BMD indexes, The QOL scores especially Mental Health domain changes had only a significant correlation with the changes of total T score in BMD (P = 0.031, Coefficient Correlation = 0.248). Conclusions: It seems that nasal spray of calcitonin can effectively improve QOL of women with LBD and QOL changes were not influenced by clinical or para-clinical alteration. Mental health domain must be more considered in further studies as a predicting domain for Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QOL) changes. PMID:26421180

  7. Reciprocity in predator-prey interactions: exposure to defended prey and predation risk affects intermediate predator life history and morphology.

    PubMed

    Hammill, Edd; Beckerman, Andrew P

    2010-05-01

    A vast body of literature exists documenting the morphological, behavioural and life history changes that predators induce in prey. However, little attention has been paid to how these induced changes feed back and affect the predators' life history and morphology. Larvae of the phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans are intermediate predators in a food web with Daphnia pulex as the basal resource and planktivorous fish as the top predator. C. flavicans prey on D. pulex and are themselves prey for fish; as D. pulex induce morphological defences in the presence of C. flavicans this is an ideal system in which to evaluate the effects of defended prey and top predators on an intermediate consumer. We assessed the impact on C. flavicans life history and morphology of foraging on defended prey while also being exposed to the non-lethal presence of a top fish predator. We tested the basic hypothesis that the effects of defended prey will depend on the presence or absence of top predator predation risk. Feeding rate was significantly reduced and time to pupation was significantly increased by defended morph prey. Gut size, development time, fecundity, egg size and reproductive effort respond to fish chemical cues directly or significantly alter the relationship between a trait and body size. We found no significant interactions between prey morph and the non-lethal presence of a top predator, suggesting that the effects of these two biological factors were additive or singularly independent. Overall it appears that C. flavicans is able to substantially modify several aspects of its biology, and while some changes appear mere consequences of resource limitation others appear facultative in nature.

  8. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J. W.; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Methods Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Key Results Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. Conclusions The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant’s life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow

  9. Demography, disease and the devil: life-history changes in a disease-affected population of Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Lachish, Shelly; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna

    2009-03-01

    1. Examining the demographic responses of populations to disease epidemics and the nature of compensatory responses to perturbation from epidemics is critical to our understanding of the processes affecting population dynamics and our ability to conserve threatened species. Such knowledge is currently available for few systems. 2. We examined changes to the demography and life-history traits of a population of Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) following the arrival of a debilitating infectious disease, devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), and investigated the population's ability to compensate for the severe population perturbation caused by this epizootic. 3. There was a significant change to the age structure following the arrival of DFTD to the Freycinet Peninsula. This shift to a younger population was caused by the loss of older individuals from the population as a direct consequence of DFTD-driven declines in adult survival rates. 4. Offspring sex ratios of disease mothers were more female biased than those of healthy mothers, indicating that devils may facultatively adjust offspring sex ratios in response to disease-induced changes in maternal condition. 5. We detected evidence of reproductive compensation in response to disease impacts via a reduction in the age of sexual maturity of females (an increase in precocial breeding) over time. 6. The strength of this compensatory response appeared to be limited by factors that constrain the ability of individuals to reach a critical size for sexual maturity in their first year, because of the time limit dictated by the annual breeding season. 7. The ongoing devastating impacts of this disease for adult survival and the apparent reliance of precocial breeding on rapid early growth provide the opportunity for evolution to favour of this new life-history pattern, highlighting the potential for novel infectious diseases to be strong selective forces on life-history evolution.

  10. Life history analysis of HIV/AIDS-affected households in rice and cassava-based farming communities in Northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Midori; van Huis, Arnold; Jiggins, Janice

    2010-10-01

    The "New Variant Famine" hypothesis proposed that AIDS offers a major challenge to food security in this part of Africa by impairing the functioning of traditional support systems, leading to the collapse of "social immunity". This study explores the changing perceptions of HIV and AIDS and peoples' responses to its impact by eliciting life history narratives of 30 respondents in Northern Malawi. We classified respondents by means of gender, livelihood systems and AIDS impact levels. Respondents reported a range of critical events, recorded in the life histories, that threatened their "social immunity", including deaths, sicknesses, migration, marriages and divorces, and dropping out of school; i.e., a greater range of risks than AIDS alone, that need to be recognised in HIV and AIDS programming. For the respondents who were classified as "AIDS-affected", learning about their seropositive status was found to be an important, and in some cases a positive, turning point in their lives in terms of behavioural changes, such as joining support groups and opening up to discussion of the implications of their status. The emerging social organisations could re-create social capacity and check the downward spiral proposed by the "New Variant Famine" hypothesis. To promote this shift and to confer a higher level of "social immunity", investments in expanding access to voluntary counselling and testing and antiretroviral therapy services, and assistance to community-based organisations would be essential.

  11. Food concentration affects the life history response of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to chemicals with different mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Rose, R M; Warne, M St J; Lim, R P

    2002-02-01

    The effect of three chemicals with different mechanisms of action (3,4-dichloroaniline, fenoxycarb, and chlorpyrifos) on the life history response of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia was examined under both limited (3 x 10(4) cells/mL) and abundant (15 x 10(4) cells/mL) food conditions. Toxicity tests were conducted at both food concentrations simultaneously for each chemical, and cladocerans were examined daily from less than 24 h old until their death. A range of life history parameters were calculated, including mean brood sizes, survival, net reproductive rate, and population growth rate. The toxicity of 3,4-dichloroaniline was not significantly affected by food concentration. However, limited food significantly decreased the toxicity of fenoxycarb, and significantly increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos. The effect of food concentration on toxicity appears to depend on the mechanism by which the chemical exerts its toxicity and on food--chemical interactions. Possible mechanisms for the different effects of food concentration on toxicity are discussed.

  12. Mutations in Nonconserved Domains of Ty3 Integrase Affect Multiple Stages of the Ty3 Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Nymark-McMahon, M. Henrietta; Sandmeyer, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    Ty3, a retroviruslike element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transposes into positions immediately upstream of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes. The Ty3 integrase (IN) protein is required for integration of the replicated, extrachromosomal Ty3 DNA. In retroviral IN, a conserved core region is sufficient for strand transfer activity. In this study, charged-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to investigate the roles of the nonconserved amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of Ty3 IN. Each of the 20 IN mutants was defective for transposition, but no mutant was grossly defective for capsid maturation. All mutations affecting steady-state levels of mature IN protein resulted in reduced levels of replicated DNA, even when polymerase activity was not grossly defective as measured by exogenous reverse transcriptase activity assay. Thus, IN could contribute to nonpolymerase functions required for DNA production in vivo or to the stability of the DNA product. Several mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain resulted in relatively low levels of processed 3′ ends of the replicated DNA, suggesting that this domain may be important for binding of IN to the long terminal repeat. Another class of mutants produced wild-type amounts of DNA with correctly processed 3′ ends. This class could include mutants affected in nuclear entry and target association. Collectively, these mutations demonstrate that in vivo, within the preintegration complex, IN performs a central role in coordinating multiple late stages of the retrotransposition life cycle. PMID:9847351

  13. Is the continental life of the European eel Anguilla anguilla affected by the parasitic invader Anguillicoloides crassus?

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, François; Fazio, Géraldine; Mounaix, Béatrice; Crivelli, Alain J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the fitness cost that parasites impose on wild hosts is a challenging task, because the epidemiological history of field-sampled hosts is often unknown. In this study, we used an internal marker of the parasite pressure on individual hosts to evaluate the costs of parasitism with respect to host body condition, size increase and reproductive potential of field-collected animals for which we also determined individual age. In our investigated system, the European eel Anguilla anguilla and the parasitic invader Anguillicoloides crassus, high virulence and severe impacts are expected because the host lacks an adaptive immune response. We demonstrated a nonlinear relationship between the severity of damage to the affected organ (i.e. the swimbladder, our internal marker) and parasite abundance and biomass, thus showing that the use of classical epidemiological parameters was not relevant here. Surprisingly, we found that the most severely affected eels (with damaged swimbladder) had greater body length and mass (+11% and +41%, respectively), than unaffected eels of same age. We discuss mechanisms that could explain this finding and other counterintuitive results in this host–parasite system, and highlight the likely importance of host panmixia in generating great inter-individual variability in growth potential and infection risk. Under that scenario, the most active foragers would not only have the greatest size increase, but also the highest probability of becoming repeatedly infected—via trophic parasite transmission—during their continental life. PMID:23325776

  14. The affective profiles, psychological well-being, and harmony: environmental mastery and self-acceptance predict the sense of a harmonious life.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Al Nima, Ali; Kjell, Oscar N E

    2014-01-01

    Background. An important outcome from the debate on whether wellness equals happiness, is the need of research focusing on how psychological well-being might influence humans' ability to adapt to the changing environment and live in harmony. To get a detailed picture of the influence of positive and negative affect, the current study employed the affective profiles model in which individuals are categorised into groups based on either high positive and low negative affect (self-fulfilling); high positive and high negative affect (high affective); low positive and low negative affect (low affective); and high negative and low positive affect (self-destructive). The aims were to (1) investigate differences between affective profiles in psychological well-being and harmony and (2) how psychological well-being and its dimensions relate to harmony within the four affective profiles. Method. 500 participants (mean age = 34.14 years, SD. = ±12.75 years; 187 males and 313 females) were recruited online and required to answer three self-report measures: The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; The Scales of Psychological Well-Being (short version) and The Harmony in Life Scale. We conducted a Multivariate Analysis of Variance where the affective profiles and gender were the independent factors and psychological well-being composite score, its six dimensions as well as the harmony in life score were the dependent factors. In addition, we conducted four multi-group (i.e., the four affective profiles) moderation analyses with the psychological well-being dimensions as predictors and harmony in life as the dependent variables. Results. Individuals categorised as self-fulfilling, as compared to the other profiles, tended to score higher on the psychological well-being dimensions: positive relations, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life. In addition, 47% to 66% of the variance of the harmony in life was explained by the

  15. The affective profiles, psychological well-being, and harmony: environmental mastery and self-acceptance predict the sense of a harmonious life

    PubMed Central

    Al Nima, Ali; Kjell, Oscar N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. An important outcome from the debate on whether wellness equals happiness, is the need of research focusing on how psychological well-being might influence humans’ ability to adapt to the changing environment and live in harmony. To get a detailed picture of the influence of positive and negative affect, the current study employed the affective profiles model in which individuals are categorised into groups based on either high positive and low negative affect (self-fulfilling); high positive and high negative affect (high affective); low positive and low negative affect (low affective); and high negative and low positive affect (self-destructive). The aims were to (1) investigate differences between affective profiles in psychological well-being and harmony and (2) how psychological well-being and its dimensions relate to harmony within the four affective profiles. Method. 500 participants (mean age = 34.14 years, SD. = ±12.75 years; 187 males and 313 females) were recruited online and required to answer three self-report measures: The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; The Scales of Psychological Well-Being (short version) and The Harmony in Life Scale. We conducted a Multivariate Analysis of Variance where the affective profiles and gender were the independent factors and psychological well-being composite score, its six dimensions as well as the harmony in life score were the dependent factors. In addition, we conducted four multi-group (i.e., the four affective profiles) moderation analyses with the psychological well-being dimensions as predictors and harmony in life as the dependent variables. Results. Individuals categorised as self-fulfilling, as compared to the other profiles, tended to score higher on the psychological well-being dimensions: positive relations, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life. In addition, 47% to 66% of the variance of the harmony in life was explained by

  16. Perceived Risk of Predation Affects Reproductive Life-History Traits in Gambusia holbrooki, but Not in Heterandria formosa

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shomen; Heithaus, Michael R.; Trexler, Joel C.; Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Vaudo, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Key to predicting impacts of predation is understanding the mechanisms through which predators impact prey populations. While consumptive effects are well-known, non-consumptive predator effects (risk effects) are increasingly being recognized as important. Studies of risk effects, however, have focused largely on how trade-offs between food and safety affect fitness. Less documented, and appreciated, is the potential for predator presence to directly suppress prey reproduction and affect life-history characteristics. For the first time, we tested the effects of visual predator cues on reproduction of two prey species with different reproductive modes, lecithotrophy (i.e. embryonic development primarily fueled by yolk) and matrotrophy (i.e. energy for embryonic development directly supplied by the mother to the embryo through a vascular connection). Predation risk suppressed reproduction in the lecithotrophic prey (Gambusia holbrokii) but not the matrotroph (Heterandria formosa). Predator stress caused G. holbrooki to reduce clutch size by 43%, and to produce larger and heavier offspring compared to control females. H. formosa, however, did not show any such difference. In G. holbrooki we also found a significantly high percentage (14%) of stillbirths in predator-exposed treatments compared to controls (2%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct empirical evidence of predation stress affecting stillbirths in prey. Our results suggest that matrotrophy, superfetation (clutch overlap), or both decrease the sensitivity of mothers to environmental fluctuation in resource (food) and stress (predation risk) levels compared to lecithotrophy. These mechanisms should be considered both when modeling consequences of perceived risk of predation on prey-predator population dynamics and when seeking to understand the evolution of reproductive modes. PMID:24551171

  17. Perceived risk of predation affects reproductive life-history traits in Gambusia holbrooki, but not in Heterandria formosa.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shomen; Heithaus, Michael R; Trexler, Joel C; Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Vaudo, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Key to predicting impacts of predation is understanding the mechanisms through which predators impact prey populations. While consumptive effects are well-known, non-consumptive predator effects (risk effects) are increasingly being recognized as important. Studies of risk effects, however, have focused largely on how trade-offs between food and safety affect fitness. Less documented, and appreciated, is the potential for predator presence to directly suppress prey reproduction and affect life-history characteristics. For the first time, we tested the effects of visual predator cues on reproduction of two prey species with different reproductive modes, lecithotrophy (i.e. embryonic development primarily fueled by yolk) and matrotrophy (i.e. energy for embryonic development directly supplied by the mother to the embryo through a vascular connection). Predation risk suppressed reproduction in the lecithotrophic prey (Gambusia holbrokii) but not the matrotroph (Heterandria formosa). Predator stress caused G. holbrooki to reduce clutch size by 43%, and to produce larger and heavier offspring compared to control females. H. formosa, however, did not show any such difference. In G. holbrooki we also found a significantly high percentage (14%) of stillbirths in predator-exposed treatments compared to controls (2%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct empirical evidence of predation stress affecting stillbirths in prey. Our results suggest that matrotrophy, superfetation (clutch overlap), or both decrease the sensitivity of mothers to environmental fluctuation in resource (food) and stress (predation risk) levels compared to lecithotrophy. These mechanisms should be considered both when modeling consequences of perceived risk of predation on prey-predator population dynamics and when seeking to understand the evolution of reproductive modes.

  18. Happiness is pleasant, or is it? Implicit representations of affect valence are associated with contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in daily life.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G

    2014-10-01

    People typically want to feel good. At times, however, they seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect. The prevalence of such contrahedonic motivation has been related to simultaneous experiences of positive and negative (i.e., mixed) affect. We investigated the role that implicit mental representations of affect valence may play in this regard in a study with N = 400 participants aged 11-88 years. Results demonstrated the age-fairness and reliability of the affect-valence Implicit Association Test, a newly developed implicit measure of interindividual differences in mental representations of affect valence. The older participants were, the more distinctively they implicitly associated happiness with pleasantness and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness. Participants furthermore carried mobile phones as assessment instruments with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants on average 54 times to report their momentary affective experience and affect-regulation motivation. Contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect were most prevalent among adolescents and least prevalent among older adults, and thus showed a similar pattern of age differences as the affect-valence Implicit Association Test. Furthermore, the more distinctive participants' implicit associations of happiness with pleasantness, and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness, the less likely participants were to report contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in their daily lives. These findings contribute to a refined understanding of the mixed-affect perspective on contrahedonic motivation by demonstrating the respective role of implicit affect-valence representations.

  19. The effects of electrical stimulation combined with continuous passive motion versus isometric exercise on symptoms, functional capacity, quality of life and balance in knee osteoarthritis: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tok, Fatih; Aydemir, Koray; Peker, Fatma; Safaz, Ismail; Taşkaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Ozgül, Ahmet

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of electrical stimulation combined with continuous passive motion (CPM-ES) versus isometric exercise on symptoms, functional capacity, quality of life, muscle strength, knee and thigh circle measurements, and balance in knee osteoarthritis (OA). This is a randomized clinical trial. The study was done in Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA) Rehabilitation Center. Forty patients with knee OA were included in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: 20 patients placed in Group 1 were treated with conventional physical therapy and CPM-ES combination; 20 patients in Group 2 were treated with conventional physical therapy and isometric exercise. Therapies were applied 3 weeks, 5 days per week. The following main outcome measures were done: values of pain (VAS was used), WOMAC, SF-36, knee and thigh circle measurements, isokinetic tests, dynamic and static balance tests were determined at baseline and after the treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in the tested variables between the groups for post-treatment values. Dynamic and static balance test improved statistically strongly significantly in both groups. The findings of this study demonstrate that knee OA patients could improve their balance function in both static and dynamic conditions after CPM-ES combination or isometric exercise therapy. The improvement might prevent knee OA patients from falling down and increase their sense of security during physical activities.

  20. Functional inhibition of the human middle temporal cortex affects non-visual motion perception: a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study during tactile speed discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Basso, Demis; Sani, Lorenzo; Bonino, Daniela; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pietrini, Pietro; Miniussi, Carlo

    2011-02-01

    The visual motion-responsive middle temporal complex (hMT+) is activated during tactile and aural motion discrimination in both sighted and congenitally blind individuals, suggesting a supramodal organization of this area. Specifically, non-visual motion processing has been found to activate the more anterior portion of the hMT+. In the present study, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was used to determine whether this more anterior portion of hMT+ truly plays a functional role in tactile motion processing. Sixteen blindfolded, young, healthy volunteers were asked to detect changes in the rotation velocity of a random Braille-like dot pattern by using the index or middle finger of their right hand. rTMS was applied for 600 ms (10 Hz, 110% motor threshold), 200 ms after the stimulus onset with a figure-of-eight coil over either the anterior portion of hMT+ or a midline parieto-occipital site (as a control). Accuracy and reaction times were significantly impaired only when TMS was applied on hMT+, but not on the control area. These results indicate that the recruitment of hMT+ is necessary for tactile motion processing, and thus corroborate the hypothesis of a 'supramodal' functional organization for this sensory motion processing area.

  1. Ocean Acidification Affects Redox-Balance and Ion-Homeostasis in the Life-Cycle Stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Rokitta, Sebastian D.; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO2 partial pressures (pCO2; 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO2) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be attributed

  2. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A.

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.

  3. Do environmental barriers affect the parent-reported quality of life of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Badia, Marta; Begoña Orgaz, M; Gómez-Vela, María; Verdugo, Miguel A; Ullán, Ana M; Longo, Egmar

    2016-01-01

    Physical, social, and attitudinal environment may affect the quality of life (QoL) of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants in this study included parents of 206 children and adolescents with CP (55.8% males) aged 8-18 years (M=11.96, SD=3). Distribution according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was 24.3% level I, 18% level II, 18% level III, 12.6% level IV, and 27.2 level V. Environmental barriers were assessed with the Spanish version of the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ), and QoL was assessed with the KIDSCREEN parents' version. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that GMFCS level, IQ, and type of schooling are significantly correlated with QoL. Barriers were also associated with QoL. A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for the effect of child and parent's variables, barriers at home and at school significantly contribute to QoL. These findings underscore the importance of providing interventions to produce environmental changes that contribute to the improvement of QoL.

  4. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism affects quality of life and cardiac morphology and function in young and middle-aged patients.

    PubMed

    Biondi, B; Palmieri, E A; Fazio, S; Cosco, C; Nocera, M; Saccà, L; Filetti, S; Lombardi, G; Perticone, F

    2000-12-01

    To determine the clinical impact of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, specific symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess and quality of life were assessed in 23 patients (3 males and 20 females; mean age, 43 +/- 9 yr) and 23 age-, sex-, and lifestyle-matched normal subjects by using the Symptoms Rating Scale and the Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaires. Because the heart is one of the main target organs of the thyroid hormone, cardiac morphology and function were also investigated by means of standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), 24-h Holter ECG, and complete Doppler echocardiography. Stable endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism had been diagnosed in all patients at least 6 months before the study (TSH, 0.15 +/- 0.1 mU/L; free T(3), 6.9 +/- 1.1, pmol/L; free T(4), 17.2 +/- 2.3, pmol/L). Fifteen patients were affected by multinodular goiter, and eight patients by autonomously functioning thyroid nodule. The mean Symptoms Rating Scale score (9. 8 +/- 5.5 vs. 4.3 +/- 2.2, P: < 0.001) and both the mental (36.1 +/- 9.5 vs. 50.0 +/- 8.5, P: < 0.001) and physical (42.6 +/- 8.0 vs. 55. 6 +/- 4.1, P: < 0.001) component scores of Short Form 36 Health Survey documented a significant prevalence of specific symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess and notable impairment of quality of life in patients. Holter ECG showed a higher prevalence of atrial premature beats in endogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients than in the controls, but the difference was not statistically significant, although the average heart rate was significantly increased in the patients (P: < 0.001). An increase of left ventricular mass (162 +/- 24 vs. 132 +/- 22 g, P: < 0.001) due to the increase of septal (P: = 0.025) and posterior wall (P: = 0.004) thickness was observed in patients. Systolic function was enhanced in patients as shown by the significant increase of both fractional shortening (P: = 0.005) and mean velocity of heart rate-adjusted circumferential fiber shortening

  5. How to Investigate Within-Subject Associations between Physical Activity and Momentary Affective States in Everyday Life: A Position Statement Based on a Literature Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kanning, Martina K.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.; Schlicht, Wolfgang Michael

    2013-01-01

    Several meta-analyses have investigated the association between physical activity and affective states and have found evidence suggesting that exercise exerts a positive effect on affective state. However, in this field of research, most studies have conducted between-subject analyses. Nonetheless, there is more and more interest in the within-subject associations between physical activity and momentary affective states in everyday life. This position statement pertains to this up-and-coming field of research and provides methodological recommendations for further studies. The paper is divided into three parts: first, we summarize and evaluate three methodological requirements necessary for the proper evaluation of within-subject associations between physical activity and momentary affective states in everyday life. We propose that the following issues should be considered: (a) to address the dynamic nature of such relationships, repeated assessments are necessary; (b) as activities performed in everyday life are mostly spontaneous and unconscious, an objective assessment of physical activity is useful; (c) given that recall of affective states is often affected by systematic distortions, real-time assessment is preferable. In sum, we suggest the use of ambulatory assessment techniques, and more specifically the combination of accelerometer-assessment of physical activity with an electronic diary assessment of the momentary affective state and additional context information. Second, we summarize 22 empirical studies published between 1980 and 2012 using ambulatory assessment to investigate within-subject associations between momentary affective states and physical activity in everyday life. Generally, the literature overview detects a positive association, which appears stronger among those studies that were of high methodological quality. Third, we propose the use of ambulatory assessment intervention (AAIs) strategies to change people’s behavior and to enable

  6. The influence of childhood abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments on the well-being of the general, nonclinical adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Yoshiaki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Ichiki, Masahiko; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Ishikawa, Jun; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect) and ill-being (negative affect). We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI); Life Experiences Survey (LES); Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A); and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus). Results Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not be generalizable to psychiatric patients. Conclusion This study demonstrated that childhood abuse, particularly neglect, indirectly worsened the well-being of individuals through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable affective temperaments. An important “mediator” role of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse on well-being was suggested. PMID:27110116

  7. Nutritional status independently affects quality of life of patients with systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Palladini, Giovanni; Klersy, Catherine; Cereda, Emanuele; Bonardi, Chiara; Cameletti, Barbara; Montagna, Elisabetta; Russo, Paola; Foli, Andrea; Milani, Paolo; Lavatelli, Francesca; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2012-03-01

    Nutritional status is an independent prognostic factor in immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis (AL), but its influence on quality of life (QoL) is unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and QoL in AL patients at diagnosis. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with biopsy-proven AL were assessed for nutritional status by anthropometry [body mass index, unintentional weight loss (WL) in the previous 6 months and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC)], biochemistry (serum prealbumin), and semiquantitative food intake at referral. QoL was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form General Health Survey. The composite physical component summary (PCS) and the mental component summary (MCS) for AL outpatients were 36.2 ± 10.1 and 44.9 ± 11.3, respectively (p < 0.001 for both vs the population norms of 50). In multivariate linear regression models adjusted for gender, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, the number of organs involved, the severity of cardiac damage, C-reactive protein, energy intake, and WL, PCS was significantly lower for serum prealbumin <200 mg/L and MAMC <10th percentile (adjusted difference 3.8, 95% CI 0.18-7.5, p = 0.040 and 5.3, 95% CI 2.0-8.7, p = 0.002, respectively). MCS was decreased by 0.47 (95% CI 0.18-0.75, p = 0.002) for each kilogram of body weight lost in the previous 6 months. Nutritional status independently affects QoL in AL patients since diagnosis. Nutritional evaluation should be integral part of the clinical assessment of AL patients. Nutritional support intervention trials are warranted in such patients' population.

  8. Exposure of leopard frogs to a pesticide mixture affects life history characteristics of the lungworm Rhabdias ranae.

    PubMed

    Gendron, A D; Marcogliese, D J; Barbeau, S; Christin, M-S; Brousseau, P; Ruby, S; Cyr, D; Fournier, M

    2003-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of leopard frogs ( Rana pipiens) to agricultural pesticides can affect the infection dynamics of a common parasite of ranid frogs, the lungworm Rhabdias ranae. After a 21-day exposure to sublethal concentrations of a pesticide mixture composed of atrazine, metribuzin, aldicarb, endosulfan, lindane and dieldrin, or to control solutions (water, dimethyl sulfoxide), parasite-free juvenile frogs were challenged with 30 infective larvae of R. ranae. Approximately 75% of the larvae penetrated the skin and survived in both exposed and control animals, suggesting that pesticides did not influence host recognition or penetration components of the transmission process. Rather, we found that the migration of R. ranae was significantly accelerated in hosts exposed to the highest concentrations of pesticides, leading to the establishment of twice as many adult worms in the lungs of frogs 21 days post-infection. Pesticide treatment did not influence the growth of lungworms but our results indicate that they matured and reproduced earlier in pesticide-exposed frogs compared to control animals. Such alterations in life history characteristics that enhance parasite transmission may lead to an increase in virulence. Supporting evidence shows that certain components of the frog immune response were significantly suppressed after exposure to the pesticide mixture. This suggests that the immune system of anurans exerts a control over lungworm migration and maturation and that agricultural contaminants can interfere with these control mechanisms. Our results also contribute to the ongoing debate regarding the role that anthropogenic factors could play in the perplexing disease-related die-offs of amphibians observed in several parts of the world.

  9. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Qi, A; Lin, C; Zhou, A; Du, J; Jia, X; Sun, L; Zhang, G; Zhang, L; Liu, M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.

  10. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Qi, A.; Lin, C.; Zhou, A.; Du, J.; Jia, X.; Sun, L.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, L.; Liu, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions. PMID:26577843

  11. Affective and Motivational Factors Mediate the Relation between Math Skills and Use of Math in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Schmitz, Eva A.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life. PMID:27148122

  12. The Mediator Roles of Life Satisfaction and Self-Esteem between the Affective Components of Psychological Well-Being and the Cognitive Symptoms of Problematic Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat

    2011-01-01

    The factors associated with cognitions about problematic Internet use have been empirically tested in various studies. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediator roles of both life satisfaction and self-esteem between affective components of subjective well-being and cognitions about problematic Internet use. For this purpose, the…

  13. Subjective Well-Being and Adaptation to Life Events: A Meta-Analysis on Differences Between Cognitive and Affective Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Maike; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Eid, Michael; Lucas, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that major life events can have short- and long-term effects on subjective well-being (SWB). The present meta-analysis examines (a) whether life events have different effects on cognitive and affective well-being and (b) how the rate of adaptation varies across different life events. Longitudinal data from 188 publications (313 samples, N = 65,911) were integrated to describe the reaction and adaptation to four family events (marriage, divorce, bereavement, child birth) and four work events (unemployment, reemployment, retirement, relocation/migration). The findings show that life events have very different effects on affective and cognitive well-being, and that for most events the effects of life events on cognitive well-being are stronger and more consistent across samples. Different life events differ in their effects on SWB, but these effects are not a function of the alleged desirability of events. The results are discussed with respect to their theoretical implications, and recommendations for future studies on adaptation are given. PMID:22059843

  14. Are People Emotionally Predisposed to Experience Lower Quality of Life? The Impact of Negative Affectivity on Quality of Life in Patients Recovering from Cardiac Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony J.; Benos, Alexis; Maes, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Negative affectivity has been defined as a predisposition to experience intense states of negative emotions. As a trait concept it is a dimension that reflects stable and pervasive differences in negative mood and self-concept. There has been systematic evidence linking negative affectivity to anxiety, depression, psychosomatic complaints, pain…

  15. 76 FR 38552 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Major Life-Changing Events Affecting Income-Related Monthly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... interim final rule concerned what we consider major life-changing events for the Medicare Part B income- related monthly adjustment amount (IRMAA) and what evidence we require to support a claim of a major life....socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The interim final rule concerned what we...

  16. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  17. Head and neck cancer patients’ perceptions of quality of life and how it is affected by the disease and enteral tube feeding during treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Kay; Laurell, Göran; Langius-Eklöf, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To explore individual quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer from diagnosis up to 3 months after termination of radiotherapy. Research questions: 1) Which areas in life are important to quality of life, and which are influenced by the disease and by having oral or enteral nutrition; and 2) Which areas in life are influenced by having a nasogastric feeding tube (NGT) or a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube? Material and methods. Data were collected in 36 patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an extended version of the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL) and analysed with content analysis. Results. Negative and positive experiences of quality of life in general were about relation to family, own health, and leisure activities. Negative impacts on physical, psychological, existential and social problems, but also positive experiences are described by the patients related to the disease. More than half expressed eating-related problems. Enteral nutrition entailed negative and positive experiences, and no greater variations were described by the patients with NGT or PEG tube. Overall, there were interindividual variations. Conclusions. The patients’ perception of general or disease-related quality of life was not affected by whether they had enteral nutrition or not. From the patients’ perspective neither of the two feeding tubes (NGT or PEG) was clearly in favour. We suggest that more studies are needed on how the choice of enteral feeding tube can be evidence-based, and incorporating the patients’ perspective. PMID:26482657

  18. Backside nonconformity and locking restraints affect liner/shell load transfer mechanisms and relative motion in modular acetabular components for total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, S M; Ochoa, J A; White, C V; Srivastav, S; Cournoyer, J

    1998-05-01

    Nonconformity between the polyethylene liner and the metal shell may exist in modular acetabular components by design, due to manufacturing tolerances, or from locking mechanisms that attach the polyethylene liner to the metal shell. Relative motion at the liner/shell interface has been associated with backside wear, which may contribute to osteolysis which has been clinically observed near screw holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nonconformity and locking restraints on the liner/shell relative motion and load transfer mechanisms in a commercially available, metal-backed acetabular component with a polar fenestration. The finite element method was used to explore the hypothesis that backside nonconformity and locking restraints play important roles in long-term surface damage mechanisms that are unique to modular components, such as backside wear and liner extrusion through screw holes. The three-body quasi-static contact problem was solved using a commercially available explicit finite element code, which modeled contact between the femoral head, polyethylene liner, and the metal shell. Four sets of liner boundary conditions were investigated: no restraints, rim restraints, equatorial restraints, and both rim and equatorial restraints. The finite element model with a conforming shell predicted between 8.5 and 12.8 microm of incremental extrusion of the polyethylene through the polar fenestration, consistent with in vitro experiments of the same design under identical loading conditions. Furthermore, idealized rim and/or equatorial liner restraints were found to share up to 71% of the load across the liner/shell interface. Consequently, the results of this study demonstrate that backside nonconformity and locking restraints substantially influence backside relative motion as well as load transfer at the liner/shell interface.

  19. Modeling of conductive particle motion in viscous medium affected by an electric field considering particle-electrode interactions and microdischarge phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Ghiyam; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmaeil; Pérez, Alberto T.

    2016-10-01

    Up and down motion of a spherical conductive particle in dielectric viscous fluid driven by a DC electric field between two parallel electrodes was investigated. A nonlinear differential equation, governing the particle dynamics, was derived, based on Newton's second law of mechanics, and solved numerically. All the pertaining dimensionless groups were extracted. In contrast to similar previous works, hydrodynamic interaction between the particle and the electrodes, as well as image electric forces, has been taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of the microdischarge produced between the electrodes and the approaching particle on the particle dynamics has been included in the model. The model results were compared with experimental data available in the literature, as well as with some additional experimental data obtained through the present study showing very good agreement. The results indicate that the wall hydrodynamic effect and the dielectric liquid ionic conductivity are very dominant factors determining the particle trajectory. A lower bound is derived for the charge transferred to the particle while rebounding from an electrode. It is found that the time and length scales of the post-microdischarge motion of the particle can be as small as microsecond and micrometer, respectively. The model is able to predict the so called settling/dwelling time phenomenon for the first time.

  20. Shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages as affected by antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Incoronato, Anna Lucia; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2011-10-17

    The combined use of antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages was investigated in this study. First, a pre-screening of different antimicrobial compounds and MAP was addressed. In particular, the consumer test was used as a tool to select the most pleasant antimicrobial compounds, whereas both sausage color and cell load of main spoilage microorganisms were used to choose optimal MAP. Afterwards, antimicrobial compounds (lemon alkott and thymol) and MAP (MAP1: 20% CO(2), 5% O(2), 75% N(2)) that had shown the best performance were used to run the shelf life tests. In order to assess the influence of the variables described beforehand on the shelf life of investigated sausages, the sensorial and microbiological (mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria and coccus-shaped lactic acid bacteria) quality was monitored during storage. Results recorded in this study suggested that Pseudomonas spp. were responsible for sausage unacceptability in all samples, except for thymol and thymol-MAP samples. For these samples, the sensorial quality was the limiting factor while the microbial growth did not limit the shelf life. In particular, for thymol and thymol-MAP samples a shelf life value of more than 5 days with respect to the other samples (2 days) was obtained.

  1. Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1985-02-01

    Brownian motion, the doubly random motion of small particles suspended in a liquid due to molecular collisions, and its implications and applications in the history of modern science are discussed. Topics examined include probabilistic phenomena, the kinetic theory of gases, Einstein's atomic theory of Brownian motion, particle displacement, diffusion measurements, the determination of the mass of the atom and of Avogadro's number, the statistical mechanics of thermodynamics, nonequilibrium systems, Langevin's equation of motion, time-reversed evolution, mathematical analogies, and applications in economics and radio navigation. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

  2. The regulatory benefits of high levels of affect perception accuracy: a process analysis of reactions to stressors in daily life.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Buchholz, Maria M; Boyd, Ryan L; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-08-01

    Individuals attuned to affective signals from the environment may possess an advantage in the emotion-regulation realm. In two studies (total n = 151), individual differences in affective perception accuracy were assessed in an objective, performance-based manner. Subsequently, the same individuals completed daily diary protocols in which daily stressor levels were reported as well as problematic states shown to be stress-reactive in previous studies. In both studies, individual differences in affect perception accuracy interacted with daily stressor levels to predict the problematic outcomes. Daily stressors precipitated problematic reactions--whether depressive feelings (study 1) or somatic symptoms (study 2)--at low levels of affect perception accuracy, but did not do so at high levels of affect perception accuracy. The findings support a regulatory view of such perceptual abilities. Implications for understanding emotion regulation processes, emotional intelligence, and individual differences in reactivity are discussed.

  3. Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol: a review of key factors and methods affecting calculated GHG emissions and energy use.

    PubMed

    Gerbrandt, Kelsey; Chu, Pei Lin; Simmonds, Allison; Mullins, Kimberley A; MacLean, Heather L; Griffin, W Michael; Saville, Bradley A

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has potential for lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to gasoline and conventional grain-based ethanol. Ethanol production 'pathways' need to meet economic and environmental goals. Numerous life cycle assessments of lignocellulosic ethanol have been published over the last 15 years, but gaps remain in understanding life cycle performance due to insufficient data, and model and methodological issues. We highlight key aspects of these issues, drawing on literature and a case study of corn stover ethanol. Challenges include the complexity of feedstock/ecosystems and market-mediated aspects and the short history of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol facilities, which collectively have led to uncertainty in GHG emissions estimates, and to debates on LCA methods and the role of uncertainty in decision making.

  4. How do you feel? Self-esteem predicts affect, stress, social interaction, and symptom severity during daily life in patients with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2008-10-01

    Self-esteem has been demonstrated to predict health and well-being in a number of samples and domains using retrospective reports, but little is known about the effect of self-esteem in daily life. A community sample with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) completed a self-esteem measure and collected Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data 5x/day for one week using a palmtop computer. Low self-esteem predicted more negative affect, less positive affect, greater stress severity, and greater symptom severity in daily life. Naturalistic exploration of mechanisms relating self-esteem to physiological and/or psychological components in illness may clarify causal relationships and inform theoretical models of self-care, well-being, and disease management.

  5. Germination season and watering regime, but not seed morph, affect life history traits in a cold desert diaspore-heteromorphic annual.

    PubMed

    Lu, Juan J; Tan, Dun Y; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2014-01-01

    Seed morph, abiotic conditions and time of germination can affect plant fitness, but few studies have tested their combined effects on plasticity of plant life history traits. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that seed morph, germination season and watering regime influence phenotypic expression of post-germination life history traits in the diaspore-heteromorphic cold desert winter annual/spring ephemeral Diptychocarpus strictus. The two seed morphs were sown in watered and non-watered plots in late summer, and plants derived from them were watered or not-watered throughout the study. Seed morph did not affect phenology, growth and morphology, survival, dry mass accumulation and allocation or silique and seed production. Seeds in watered plots germinated in autumn (AW) and spring (SW) but only in spring for non-watered plots (SNW). A high percentage of AW, SW and SNW plants survived and reproduced, but flowering date and flowering period of autumn- vs. spring-germinated plants differed. Dry mass also differed with germination season/watering regime (AW > SW > SNW). Number of siliques and seeds increased with plant size (AW > SW > SNW), whereas percent dry mass allocated to reproduction was higher in small plants: SNW > SW > AW. Thus, although seed morph did not affect the expression of life history traits, germination season and watering regime significantly affected phenology, plant size and accumulation and allocation of biomass to reproduction. Flexibility throughout the life cycle of D. strictus is an adaptation to the variation in timing and amount of rainfall in its cold desert habitat.

  6. Do conditions in early life affect old-age mortality directly and indirectly? Evidence from 19th-century rural Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Tommy; Broström, Göran

    2009-05-01

    Previous research has shown that the disease load experienced during the birth year, measured as the infant mortality rate, had a significant influence on old-age mortality in nineteenth-century rural Sweden. We know that children born in years with very high rates of infant mortality, due to outbreaks of smallpox or whooping cough, and who still survived to adulthood and married, faced a life length several years shorter than others. We do not know, however, whether this is a direct effect, caused by permanent physical damage leading to fatal outcomes later in life, or an indirect effect, via its influence on accumulation of wealth and obtained socio-economic status. The Scanian Demographic Database, with information on five rural parishes in southern Sweden between 1813 and 1894, contains the data needed to distinguish between the two mechanisms. First, the effects of conditions in childhood on obtained socio-economic status as an adult are analyzed, then the effects of both early-life conditions and socio-economic status at various stages of life on old-age mortality. By including random effects, we take into account possible dependencies in the data due to kinship and marriage. We find that a high disease load during the first year of life had a strong negative impact on a person's ability to acquire wealth, never before shown for a historical setting. This means that it is indeed possible that the effects of disease load in the first year of life indirectly affect mortality in old age through obtained socio-economic status. We find, however, no effects of obtained socio-economic status on old-age mortality. While the result is interesting per se, constituting a debatable issue, it means that the argument that early-life conditions indirectly affect old-age mortality is not supported. Instead, we find support for the conclusion that the effect of the disease load in early-life is direct or, in other words, that physiological damage from severe infections at the

  7. "Electric Power for Rural Growth: How Electricity Affects Rural Life in Developing Countries," by Douglas F. Barnes. [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodwick, Dora G.; McIntosh, William A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a book assessing the effects of central grid rural electrification on the social and economic development of 192 communities in India and Colombia. The study examines the impact on agricultural productivity (through increased irrigation), the quality of life of women and children, business activities, and regional inequities. (SV)

  8. Site specific fertilization affects yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent' mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site specific fertilization (SSF) defines the type and rate of fertilizer needed for individual orchards. This study presents preliminary results (2010-2011) of a medium term project to quantify the effects of SSF on yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent’ mango. Two orchards are used f...

  9. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  10. 75 FR 41084 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Major Life-Changing Events Affecting Income-Related Monthly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... those described in 20 CFR 418.1205 to be major life-changing events. In addition, under our current... beneficiary's spouse cannot direct the loss of income-producing property. While our current regulations state...-changing event under our current regulations. To ensure that Medicare Part B beneficiaries who experience...

  11. How E-Learning with Second Life, an Online Virtual World Technology System, Affects Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sharon Kibbe

    2013-01-01

    Educators face challenges as they seek to ensure their online learning content is interactive, is engaging, and works well for remote learners. Second Life (SL), an online virtual world technology-based system built on Web 2.0 technology, is one approach designed to enrich online instruction and e-learning. This study involved a synthesis of…

  12. Affective and cognitive empathy and social quality of life in schizophrenia: a comparison between a parallel process model and an integrative meditation model.

    PubMed

    Ofir-Eyal, Shani; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kravetz, Shlomo

    2014-12-15

    Two alternative models of impaired cognitive and affective processing that may underlie reduced social quality of life (SQoL) of persons with schizophrenia, were examined. According to the parallel process model, impaired cognitive empathy and affective empathy make relatively independent contributions to the symptoms of schizophrenia and to the consequent reduction in SQoL. According to the integrative mediation model, the symptoms of schizophrenia and the reduction in SQoL associated with these symptoms are the products of a process by which impairments of cognitive empathy are contingent on impairments of affective empathy. 90 persons with schizophrenia were assessed for SQoL, symptoms and cognitive and affective empathy. Results support the integrative mediation model only for cognitive empathy and negative psychiatric symptoms. Only the negative links between cognitive empathy and negative symptoms served to mediate the positive relation between affective empathy and SQoL. Positive symptoms had a limited negative impact on SQoL and did not play a role in the paths that linked affective empathy to SQoL. Age had a statistically significant and negative indirect relationship to SQoL. Results are consistent with recent approach that distinguish between cognitive and affective empathy and specify how these two processes are integrated.

  13. Variations in gravitoinertial force level affect the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex - Implications of the etiology of space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1981-01-01

    Recordings of horizontal nystagmus were obtained on 16 male subjects exposed to repeated patterns of horizontal angular acceleration, constant velocity rotation, and sudden-stop deceleration in the laboratory and in the free-fall and high-force periods of parabolic flight. Nystagmus intensity was a clear function of gravitoinertial force level: slow phase velocity and beat frequency increased during exposure to high force levels and decreased in free-fall compared to values obtained at 1 G. These findings indicate that the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex decreases in free-fall. This fact likely accounts for the disorientation and dizziness sometimes experienced by astronauts when moving their heads in the early phases of orbital flight and again after splashdown. The implications of the present findings, both for the etiology and for the treatment of space motion sickness, are discussed.

  14. Surface-wave site characterization at 53 strong-motion recording stations affected by the Parkfield, California, M6.0 earthquake of 28 September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Eric M.; Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad; Tanaka, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    We present one-dimensional shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles at 52 strong-motion sites that recorded the 28 September 2004 Magnitude 6.0 Parkfield, Calif., earthquake. We estimate the VS profiles with the Spectral Analysis of Surface-Waves (SASW) method. The SASW method is a noninvasive method that indirectly estimates the VS at depth from variations in the Rayleigh wave phase velocity at the surface. To address the uncertainty associated with these measurements, we compare the SASW profiles to surface-source downhole-receiver (SSDR) profiles at four sites. Three of the four SSDR sites are in close agreement with the adjacent SASW site, while the SASW profile is considerably slower than the SSDR profile at one site.

  15. Variations in gravitoinertial force level affect the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex: implications for the etiology of space motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Lackner, J R; Graybiel, A

    1981-03-01

    Recordings of horizontal nystagmus were obtained on 16 male subjects exposed to repeated patterns of horizontal angular acceleration, constant velocity rotation, and sudden-stop deceleration in the laboratory and in the free-fall and high-force periods of parabolic flight. Nystagmus intensity was a clear function of gravitoinertial force level: slow phase velocity and beat frequency increased during exposure to high force levels and decreased in free-fall compared to values obtained at I G. These findings indicate that the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex decreases in free-fall. This fact likely accounts for the disorientation and dizziness sometimes experienced by astronauts when moving their heads in the early phases of orbital flight and again after splashdown. The implications of the present findings, both for the etiology and for the treatment of space motion sickness, are discussed.

  16. Asthma-Related Immune Responses in Youth With Asthma: Associations With Maternal Responsiveness and Expressions of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Erin T.; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Wildman, Derek E.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Secord, Elizabeth; Slatcher, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stressful family environments early in life have negative effects on physical health. However, less is known about the health effects of positive aspects of families. We examined the associations between maternal responsiveness and immune markers among youth with asthma and identified youth expressions of positive affect as a potential mechanism of these associations. Methods Forty-three youths with asthma (26 males; aged 10-17) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for four days to assess maternal responsiveness and youth expressions of affect from audio-recordings of daily life. Trained coders rated EAR sound files for expressions of maternal responsiveness and affect displayed by the youth. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, cultured, and assayed to determine stimulated levels of interleukin(IL)-5, IL-13, and interferon(IFN)- γ. Results Greater maternal responsiveness was associated with decreased stimulated production of IL-5 (r = −.38, p = .012) and IL-13 (r = −.33, p = .031). Greater total positive affect in youth was linked with decreased stimulated production of IL-5 (r = −.46, p = .002) and IL-13 (r = −.37, p = .014). Total negative affect among youth was unrelated to immune responses. There was a significant indirect effect of maternal responsiveness via positive affect in youth on lower levels of IL-5 (95% CI = −3.41, −.03) and IL-13 (95% CI = −2.34, −.01) when adjusting for caregiver-youth conflict and negative affect among youth. Conclusions These results indicate the importance of positive family interactions for youth and provide preliminary evidence for a mechanism through which parenting can influence immune responses in youths with asthma. PMID:26407226

  17. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    PubMed

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.

  18. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  19. Motion Alters Color Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  20. Early life exposure to artificial light at night affects the physiological condition: An experimental study on the ecophysiology of free-living nestling songbirds.

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-11-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasingly recognised to be an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife, affecting animal behaviour and physiology. Early life experiences are extremely important for the development, physiological status and health of organisms, and as such, early exposure to artificial light may have detrimental consequences for organism fitness. We experimentally manipulated the light environment of free-living great tit nestlings (Parus major), an important model species in evolutionary and environmental research. Haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx), as important indicators of immunity, health, and physiological condition, were quantified in nestlings at baseline (13 days after hatching) and after a two night exposure to ALAN. We found that ALAN increased Hp and decreased NOx. ALAN may increase stress and oxidative stress and reduce melatonin which could subsequently lead to increased Hp and decreased NOx. Haptoglobin is part of the immune response and mounting an immune response is costly in energy and resources and, trade-offs are likely to occur with other energetically demanding tasks, such as survival or reproduction. Acute inhibition of NOx may have a cascading effect as it also affects other physiological aspects and may negatively affect immunocompetence. The consequences of the observed effects on Hp and NOx remain to be examined. Our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN affects nestlings' physiology during development and early life exposure to ALAN could therefore have long lasting effects throughout adulthood.

  1. Early life factors initiate a ‘vicious circle’ of affective and gastrointestinal symptoms: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Koloski, Natasha; Tack, Jan; Talley, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) have been shown to be associated with both comorbid mood disorders and traumatic events such as abuse earlier in life. In a longitudinal study, we tested a model that hypothesized: (i) childhood abuse was associated with subsequent mood disorder and pain or interference in life by bowel symptoms both directly and indirectly via neurotic personality; and (ii) an ongoing cycle of mood disorder impacts on bowel symptoms. Design Subjects from the general population classified as irritable bowel syndrome and/or functional dyspepsia (IBS/FD, n = 207) or free of FGID (n = 100) were prospectively studied every 6 months over 18 months. In addition to bowel symptom interference and abdominal pain, measures of personality (neuroticism), childhood abuse history, depression, and anxiety were obtained. The hypothesized model was tested via Path Modelling. Results Childhood abuse was found to be directly associated with neuroticism but only indirectly associated with baseline interference and mood disorders (via neuroticism). The data further supported an ongoing cycle of elevations in mood disorders and pain/interference by bowel symptoms. The data supported direct effects of interference at one time point on interference at the subsequent time point in addition to indirect effects of prior anxiety and depression. Repeating the model with pain frequency as the outcome yielded almost identical findings which suggests the findings are generalized across domains of symptoms and quality-of-life. Conclusion Our data provide support for a model characterized by a ‘vicious circle’ between mood disorders and FGID symptoms in adulthood, with initial input from early life factors. PMID:24917988

  2. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.

  3. Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

    2014-04-01

    Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p < 0.001) preventing LP mink from attaining their growth potential (p < 0.02). LP mink had a lower liver, pancreas and kidney weight (p < 0.05) as well as lower plasma IGF-1 concentrations at 8 and 25 (p < 0.05) weeks, and a higher incidence of hepatic lipidosis at 25 weeks (p < 0.05). Furthermore, LP mink had a higher body fat (p < 0.05) and lower body CP content (p < 0.05) at 50 weeks of age. It is concluded that some effects of low protein provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition.

  4. Shear Wave Velocity and Site Amplification Factors for 25 Strong-Motion Instrument Stations Affected by the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Carkin, Bradley; Corbett, Skye; Zangwill, Aliza; Estevez, Ivan; Lai, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles are presented for 25 strong-motion instrument sites along the Mid-Atlantic eastern seaboard, Piedmont region, and Appalachian region, which surround the epicenter of the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011. Testing was performed at sites in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, the District of Columbia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS,30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VS,Z), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The Vs profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. A large trailer-mounted active source was used to shake the ground during the testing and produce the surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  5. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  6. Life satisfaction and self-efficacy in patients affected by a first stroke living in Kuwait: a two-phase study.

    PubMed

    Omu, Onutobor; Reynolds, Frances

    2013-08-01

    Life satisfaction and self-efficacy are important aspects of stroke rehabilitation. Previous research focuses on Western stroke survivors, neglecting the stroke experience in the Middle East. This research was conducted in Kuwait and entailed both quantitative and qualitative phases to obtain a more comprehensive, clinically relevant understanding of self-efficacy and life satisfaction during stroke rehabilitation in this culture. The aims were to: 1) investigate the relationships between self-efficacy and life satisfaction in female patients affected by stroke (Phase 1); and 2) explore health professionals' views regarding the importance of self-efficacy and possible strategies for enhancing self-efficacy during rehabilitation, through semi-structured interviews (Phase 2). Significant correlations were found between patients' general self-efficacy, and psychosocial adaptation self-efficacy following stroke. Self-efficacy (both general and psychosocial adaptation) showed significant correlations with life satisfaction post-stroke. Health professionals (more than half of whom were physiotherapists) recognised the importance of self-efficacy within stroke rehabilitation and identified five main ways to increase self-efficacy during stroke rehabilitation. These were to: 1) motivate and encourage patients; 2) provide more education about stroke and rehabilitation; 3) identify change; 4) offer a high-quality environment and therapy; and 5) set goals. In conclusion, psychosocial self-efficacy was identified as having a stronger relationship to life satisfaction compared with general self-efficacy within this sample of Kuwaiti female patients. Health professionals suggested various strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and thereby life satisfaction post-stroke during the rehabilitation process in Kuwait. Despite the collectivist culture of Kuwait, the findings indicate that the patient's own confidence and sense of responsibility for progress may be relevant to

  7. How government policy decisions affect seniors' quality of life: findings from a participatory policy study carried out in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Raphael, D; Brown, I; Bryant, T; Wheeler, J; Herman, R; Houston, J; Hussain, M; Lanphier, C; Lightfoot, B; McClelland, B; McIntosh, B; Stevens, I; Weisbeck, F

    2001-01-01

    Toronto seniors explored how government policy decisions were influencing their health and well-being. In this participatory policy study, emphasis was upon the lay and critical knowledge of highly informed seniors. Focus groups and interviews revealed that all three levels of governments were seen as not listening to seniors' voices. In nine key policy areas identified as influencing seniors' quality of life--hearing seniors' voices, housing, acute illness care, long-term care, income supports, transportation and mobility, promoting healthy lifestyles, access to information, and hearing voices from cultural communities--many concerns were raised. The gap between government rhetoric and government action on seniors' issues merits public health attention.

  8. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  9. Quality changes of pomegranate arils throughout shelf life affected by deficit irrigation and pre-processing storage.

    PubMed

    Peña-Estévez, María E; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Galindo, Alejandro; Gómez, Perla A

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the influence of sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 78% less water supply than the reference evapotranspiration, ET0) compared to a control (100% ET0) on the physicochemical and sensory qualities and health-promoting compounds of pomegranate arils stored for 14days at 5°C. Prior to processing, the fruits were stored for 0, 30, 60 or 90days at 5°C. The effect of the pre-processing storage duration was also examined. Physicochemical and sensory qualities were kept during the storage period. Arils from SDI fruit had lower punicalagin-α and ellagic acid losses than the control (13% vs 50%). However, the anthocyanin content decreased during the shelf-life (72%) regardless of the treatment. The ascorbic acid slight decreased. Arils from SDI experienced glucose/fructose ratio loss (19%) lower than that of the control (35%). In general, arils from SDI showed better quality and health attributes during the shelf-life than did the control samples.

  10. Development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Louis A; Trainor, Laurel J; Santesso, Diane L

    2003-06-01

    We examined the development of infants' regional electrocortical (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life. Separate groups of infants were seen at 3 (n=33), 6 (n=42), 9 (n=52), and 12 (n=40) months of age at which time regional EEG and ECG responses were continuously recorded during a baseline condition and during the presentation of three orchestral pieces that were known to vary in affective valence and intensity (happy, sad, fear). Overall, there were two important findings. First, we found that although the overall amount of EEG 4-8 Hz power increased between 3 and 12 months, the distribution of EEG power changed across age, with the younger infants (3- and 6-month-olds) showing no difference between frontal and parietal regions, but the older infants (9- and 12-month-olds) showing relatively more activation at frontal than at parietal sites. This development likely reflects the maturation of frontal lobe function. Second, we found that the presentation of affective music significantly increased brain activity at 3 months of age, had seemingly little effect at 6 and 9 months, and significantly attenuated brain activity at 12 months. Findings suggest that there is a clear developmental change in the effect of music on brain activity in the first year, with music having a "calming" influence on infants by the end of the first year of life.

  11. Inconstant sun: how solar evolution has affected cosmic and ultraviolet radiation exposure over the history of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Karam, P Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Four billion years ago, sea-level UV exposure was more than 400 times as intense as today, the dose from solar cosmic rays was five times present levels, and galactic cosmic rays accounted for only about 10% their current contribution to sea-level radiation doses. Exposure to cosmic radiation accounts for about 10% of natural background radiation exposure today and includes dose from galactic cosmic rays and solar charged particles. There is little exposure to ionizing wavelengths of UV due to absorption by ozone. The sun has evolved significantly over its life; in the past there were higher levels of particulate radiation and lower UV emissions from the sun, and a stronger solar wind reduced radiation dose in the inner solar system from galactic cosmic rays. Finally, since the early atmosphere contained little to no oxygen, surface levels of UV radiation were far higher in the past.

  12. Evaluation the quality characteristics of wheat flour and shelf-life of fresh noodles as affected by ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Wang, Bi-Wen; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2012-12-15

    In this study, the effects of ozone treatment on the microorganism mortality in wheat flour and shelf-life of fresh noodles were investigated, as well as the physicochemical properties of wheat flour and textural qualities of cooked noodles. Results showed that the total plate count (TPC) can be largely reduced in wheat flour exposed to ozone gas for 30 min and 60 min. Whiteness of flour and noodle sheet, dough stability, and peak viscosity of wheat starch were all increased by ozone treatment. Free cysteine content in wheat flour was shown to decrease significantly (P<0.05) as the treatment time increased and remarkable protein aggregates were observed in both reduced and non-reduced SDS-PAGE patterns. In addition, ozone treated noodles were generally higher in firmness, springiness, and chewiness, while lower in adhesiveness. Microbial growth and darkening rate of fresh noodles made from ozone treated flour were delayed significantly.

  13. Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100

  14. Disturbance of the gut microbiota in early-life selectively affects visceral pain in adulthood without impacting cognitive or anxiety-related behaviors in male rats.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, S M; Felice, V D; Nally, K; Savignac, H M; Claesson, M J; Scully, P; Woznicki, J; Hyland, N P; Shanahan, F; Quigley, E M; Marchesi, J R; O'Toole, P W; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2014-09-26

    Disruption of bacterial colonization during the early postnatal period is increasingly being linked to adverse health outcomes. Indeed, there is a growing appreciation that the gut microbiota plays a role in neurodevelopment. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of early-life manipulations of the gut microbiota on behavior. To this end we administered an antibiotic (vancomycin) from postnatal days 4-13 to male rat pups and assessed behavioral and physiological measures across all aspects of the brain-gut axis. In addition, we sought to confirm and expand the effects of early-life antibiotic treatment using a different antibiotic strategy (a cocktail of pimaricin, bacitracin, neomycin; orally) during the same time period in both female and male rat pups. Vancomycin significantly altered the microbiota, which was restored to control levels by 8 weeks of age. Notably, vancomycin-treated animals displayed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood without any significant effect on anxiety responses as assessed in the elevated plus maze or open field tests. Moreover, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze was not affected by early-life dysbiosis. Immune and stress-related physiological responses were equally unaffected. The early-life antibiotic-induced visceral hypersensitivity was also observed in male rats given the antibiotic cocktail. Both treatments did not alter visceral pain perception in female rats. Changes in visceral pain perception in males were paralleled by distinct decreases in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, the α-2A adrenergic receptor and cholecystokinin B receptor. In conclusion, a temporary disruption of the gut microbiota in early-life results in very specific and long-lasting changes in visceral sensitivity in male rats, a hallmark of stress-related functional disorders of the brain-gut axis such as irritable bowel disorder.

  15. Human cellular CYBA UTR sequences increase mRNA translation without affecting the half-life of recombinant RNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Ferizi, Mehrije; Aneja, Manish K; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Badieyan, Zohreh Sadat; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Rudolph, Carsten; Plank, Christian

    2016-12-15

    Modified nucleotide chemistries that increase the half-life (T1/2) of transfected recombinant mRNA and the use of non-native 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences that enhance protein translation are advancing the prospects of transcript therapy. To this end, a set of UTR sequences that are present in mRNAs with long cellular T1/2 were synthesized and cloned as five different recombinant sequence set combinations as upstream 5'-UTR and/or downstream 3'-UTR regions flanking a reporter gene. Initial screening in two different cell systems in vitro revealed that cytochrome b-245 alpha chain (CYBA) combinations performed the best among all other UTR combinations and were characterized in detail. The presence or absence of CYBA UTRs had no impact on the mRNA stability of transfected mRNAs, but appeared to enhance the productivity of transfected transcripts based on the measurement of mRNA and protein levels in cells. When CYBA UTRs were fused to human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) coding sequence, the recombinant mRNA transcripts upon transfection produced higher levels of protein as compared to control transcripts. Moreover, transfection of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells with recombinant hBMP2-CYBA UTR transcripts induced bone differentiation demonstrating the osteogenic and therapeutic potential for transcript therapy based on hybrid UTR designs.

  16. Human cellular CYBA UTR sequences increase mRNA translation without affecting the half-life of recombinant RNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Ferizi, Mehrije; Aneja, Manish K.; Balmayor, Elizabeth R.; Badieyan, Zohreh Sadat; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Rudolph, Carsten; Plank, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Modified nucleotide chemistries that increase the half-life (T1/2) of transfected recombinant mRNA and the use of non-native 5′- and 3′-untranslated region (UTR) sequences that enhance protein translation are advancing the prospects of transcript therapy. To this end, a set of UTR sequences that are present in mRNAs with long cellular T1/2 were synthesized and cloned as five different recombinant sequence set combinations as upstream 5′-UTR and/or downstream 3′-UTR regions flanking a reporter gene. Initial screening in two different cell systems in vitro revealed that cytochrome b-245 alpha chain (CYBA) combinations performed the best among all other UTR combinations and were characterized in detail. The presence or absence of CYBA UTRs had no impact on the mRNA stability of transfected mRNAs, but appeared to enhance the productivity of transfected transcripts based on the measurement of mRNA and protein levels in cells. When CYBA UTRs were fused to human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) coding sequence, the recombinant mRNA transcripts upon transfection produced higher levels of protein as compared to control transcripts. Moreover, transfection of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells with recombinant hBMP2-CYBA UTR transcripts induced bone differentiation demonstrating the osteogenic and therapeutic potential for transcript therapy based on hybrid UTR designs. PMID:27974853

  17. Does Wartime Captivity Affect Late-life Mental Health? A Study of Vietnam-era Repatriated Prisoners of War.

    PubMed

    Park, Crystal L; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A

    2012-01-01

    Our earlier study of U.S. prisoners of war in Vietnam (King et al., 2011) examined personal and military demographics and aspects of the stressful experience of wartime imprisonment as they related to psychological well-being shortly after homecoming in 1973. Research with repatriated prisoners of war (RPWs) from other military eras suggests that the severity of captivity stressors might predict long-term distress. However, the extent to which effects of the captivity experience persisted for Vietnam-era RPWs is unknown. The present study extended our previous analyses by examining the associations of demographic factors, captivity stressors, and repatriation mental health with subsequent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depressive symptoms (measured nearly 30 years later) in a sample of 292 Vietnam-era RPWs. Results indicated that although most of the men in our sample were within normal limits on anxiety and depressive symptoms, a substantial minority reported experiencing clinically significant levels. Levels of PTSD symptoms were generally low, with only a modest proportion demonstrating elevations. Multiple regression analyses showed that age at capture and posttraumatic stress symptoms at repatriation predicted all three long-term mental health outcomes. In addition, physical torture predicted long-term PTSD symptoms. Findings highlight the potential long-term effects of wartime captivity, and also suggest that most Vietnam-era RPWs demonstrate remarkable resilience to extraordinarily stressful life experiences.

  18. Stereotypes as stumbling-blocks: how coping with stereotype threat affects life outcomes for people with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Arielle M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, the concern about being judged in light of negative stereotypes, causes underperformance in evaluative situations. However, less is known about how coping with stereotypes can aggravate underperformance over time. We propose a model in which ongoing stereotype threat experiences threaten a person's sense of self-integrity, which in turn prompts defensive avoidance of stereotype-relevant situations, impeding growth, achievement, and well-being. We test this model in an important but understudied population: the physically disabled. In Study 1, blind adults reporting higher levels of stereotype threat reported lower self-integrity and well-being and were more likely to be unemployed and to report avoiding stereotype-threatening situations. In Study 2's field experiment, blind students in a compensatory skill-training program made more progress if they had completed a values-affirmation, an exercise that bolsters self-integrity. The findings suggest that stereotype threat poses a chronic threat to self-integrity and undermines life outcomes for people with disabilities.

  19. Storage of parbaked bread affects shelf life of fully baked end product: a ¹H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Ooms, Nand; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-12-15

    Full baking of earlier partially baked (parbaked) bread can supply fresh bread to the consumer at any time of the day. When parbaked bread loaves were stored at -25, 4 or 23°C, the extent of crumb to crust moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation differed with storage temperature, and the firming rate was evidently lowest during frozen storage. The extent of crumb to crust moisture migration during parbaked bread storage largely determined the mass of the fresh finished bread, and its crumb and crust moisture contents. Initial NMR proton mobility, initial resilience, the extent of amylopectin retrogradation and changes in firmness and resilience during storage of fully baked bread were affected by its crumb moisture content. The lowest firming rate was observed for finished bread resulting from parbaked bread stored at -25°C, while the highest firming rate was observed for finished bread from parbaked bread stored at 23°C.

  20. Development and validation of the positive affect and well-being scale for the neurology quality of life (Neuro-QOL) measurement system

    PubMed Central

    Salsman, John M.; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Peterman, Amy H.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Nowinski, Cindy; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate an item-response theory-based patient-reported outcomes assessment tool of positive affect and well-being (PAW). This is part of a larger NINDS-funded study to develop a health-related quality of life measurement system across major neurological disorders, called Neuro-QOL. Methods Informed by a literature review and qualitative input from clinicians and patients, item pools were created to assess PAW concepts. Items were administered to a general population sample (N = 513) and a group of individuals with a variety of neurologic conditions (N = 581) for calibration and validation purposes, respectively. Results A 23-item calibrated bank and a 9-item short form of PAW was developed, reflecting components of positive affect, life satisfaction, or an overall sense of purpose and meaning. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure demonstrated sufficient unidimensionality and displayed good internal consistency, test–retest reliability, model fit, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Conclusion The Neuro-QOL PAW measure was designed to aid clinicians and researchers to better evaluate and understand the potential role of positive health processes for individuals with chronic neurological conditions. Further psychometric testing within and between neurological conditions, as well as testing in non-neurologic chronic diseases, will help evaluate the generalizability of this new tool. PMID:23526093

  1. Interaction between BDNF Val66Met and childhood stressful life events is associated to affective memory bias in men but not women.

    PubMed

    van Oostrom, Iris; Franke, Barbara; Rijpkema, Mark; Gerritsen, Lotte; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Fernández, Guillèn; Tendolkar, Indira

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses point towards a pathogenic role of the Val66Met variant of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in major depressive disorder, specifically in males. We investigated whether BDNF Val66Met shows a male-specific interaction with childhood stressful life events on affective memory bias, a cognitive susceptibility factor for depression. Healthy volunteers (n=430; 272 females and 158 males) were genotyped for BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) and completed the self-referent encoding task and a childhood stressful life events scale. BDNF Met carriers reporting childhood events tended to recall a lower proportion of positive words compared to Val/Val homozygotes reporting childhood events. Sex-specific analyses revealed that the BDNF genotype×childhood events interaction was significant in male participants and not in female participants. The results suggest that in males, BDNF Val66Met interacts with childhood life events, increasing the cognitive susceptibility markers of depression. In females, this effect may be independent of BDNF Val66Met.

  2. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  3. Development on drought-stressed host plants affects life history, flight morphology and reproductive output relative to landscape structure.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Melanie; Van Dyck, Hans; Breuker, Casper J

    2012-01-01

    With global climate change, rainfall is becoming more variable. Predicting the responses of species to changing rainfall levels is difficult because, for example in herbivorous species, these effects may be mediated indirectly through changes in host plant quality. Furthermore, species responses may result from a simultaneous interaction between rainfall levels and other environmental variables such as anthropogenic land use or habitat quality. In this eco-evolutionary study, we examined how male and female Pararge aegeria (L.) from woodland and agricultural landscape populations were affected by the development on drought-stressed host plants. Compared with individuals from woodland landscapes, when reared on drought-stressed plants agricultural individuals had longer development times, reduced survival rates and lower adult body masses. Across both landscape types, growth on drought-stressed plants resulted in males and females with low forewing aspect ratios and in females with lower wing loading and reduced fecundity. Development on drought-stressed plants also had a landscape-specific effect on reproductive output; agricultural females laid eggs that had a significantly lower hatching success. Overall, our results highlight several potential mechanisms by which low water availability, via changes in host plant quality, may differentially influence P. aegeria populations relative to landscape structure.

  4. Brownian Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenda, Bernard H.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

  5. Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... but it is more common in children, pregnant women, and people taking certain medicines. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy feeling and cold sweats. It can then lead to dizziness and nausea and vomiting. Your brain senses movement by getting signals from your inner ears, eyes, ...

  6. Autoadaptive motion modelling for MR-based respiratory motion estimation.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christian F; Kolbitsch, Christoph; McClelland, Jamie R; Rueckert, Daniel; King, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory motion poses significant challenges in image-guided interventions. In emerging treatments such as MR-guided HIFU or MR-guided radiotherapy, it may cause significant misalignments between interventional road maps obtained pre-procedure and the anatomy during the treatment, and may affect intra-procedural imaging such as MR-thermometry. Patient specific respiratory motion models provide a solution to this problem. They establish a correspondence between the patient motion and simpler surrogate data which can be acquired easily during the treatment. Patient motion can then be estimated during the treatment by acquiring only the simpler surrogate data. In the majority of classical motion modelling approaches once the correspondence between the surrogate data and the patient motion is established it cannot be changed unless the model is recalibrated. However, breathing patterns are known to significantly change in the time frame of MR-guided interventions. Thus, the classical motion modelling approach may yield inaccurate motion estimations when the relation between the motion and the surrogate data changes over the duration of the treatment and frequent recalibration may not be feasible. We propose a novel methodology for motion modelling which has the ability to automatically adapt to new breathing patterns. This is achieved by choosing the surrogate data in such a way that it can be used to estimate the current motion in 3D as well as to update the motion model. In particular, in this work, we use 2D MR slices from different slice positions to build as well as to apply the motion model. We implemented such an autoadaptive motion model by extending our previous work on manifold alignment. We demonstrate a proof-of-principle of the proposed technique on cardiac gated data of the thorax and evaluate its adaptive behaviour on realistic synthetic data containing two breathing types generated from 6 volunteers, and real data from 4 volunteers. On synthetic data

  7. Symbiodinium community composition in scleractinian corals is not affected by life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Sam H C; Fabricius, Katharina E; Humphrey, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to negatively affect coral reefs, however little is known about how OA will change the coral-algal symbiosis on which reefs ultimately depend. This study investigated whether there would be differences in coral Symbiodinium types in response to OA, potentially improving coral performance. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA to investigate the dominant types of Symbiodinium associating with six species of scleractinian coral that were exposed to elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in situ from settlement and throughout their lives. The study was conducted at three naturally occurring volcanic CO2 seeps (pCO2 ∼500 to 900 ppm, pHTotal 7.8 - 7.9) and adjacent control areas (pCO2 ∼390 ppm, pHTotal ∼8.0 - 8.05) in Papua New Guinea. The Symbiodinium associated with corals living in an extreme seep site (pCO2 >1000 ppm) were also examined. Ten clade C types and three clade D types dominated the 443 coral samples. Symbiodinium types strongly contrasted between coral species, however, no differences were observed due to CO2 exposure. Within five species, 85 - 95% of samples exhibited the same Symbiodinium type across all sites, with remaining rare types having no patterns attributable to CO2 exposure. The sixth species of coral displayed site specific differences in Symbiodinium types, unrelated to CO2 exposure. Symbiodinium types from the coral inhabiting the extreme CO2 seep site were found commonly throughout the moderate seeps and control areas. Our finding that symbiotic associations did not change in response to CO2 exposure suggest that, within the six coral hosts, none of the investigated 13 clade C and D Symbiodinium types had a selective advantage at high pCO2. Acclimatisation through changing symbiotic association therefore does not seem to be an option for Indo-Pacific corals to deal with future OA.

  8. The diatom-derived aldehyde decadienal affects life cycle transition in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis through nitric oxide/ERK signalling.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Immacolata; Ercolesi, Elena; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are fatty-acid-derived metabolites produced by some microalgae, including different diatom species. PUAs are mainly produced as a wound-activated defence mechanism against microalgal predators or released from senescent cells at the end of a bloom. PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms. Here, we report on the effects of DD on larval development and metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ciona larval development is regulated by the cross-talking of different molecular events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, ERK activation and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We report that treatment with DD at the competence larval stage results in a delay in metamorphosis. DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels. By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes. Overall, these results give new insights into the molecular pathways induced in marine organisms after exposure to PUAs during larval development, demonstrating that this aldehyde affects key checkpoints of larval transition from the vegetative to the reproductive life stage.

  9. The diatom-derived aldehyde decadienal affects life cycle transition in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis through nitric oxide/ERK signalling

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Immacolata; Ercolesi, Elena; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are fatty-acid-derived metabolites produced by some microalgae, including different diatom species. PUAs are mainly produced as a wound-activated defence mechanism against microalgal predators or released from senescent cells at the end of a bloom. PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms. Here, we report on the effects of DD on larval development and metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ciona larval development is regulated by the cross-talking of different molecular events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, ERK activation and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We report that treatment with DD at the competence larval stage results in a delay in metamorphosis. DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels. By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes. Overall, these results give new insights into the molecular pathways induced in marine organisms after exposure to PUAs during larval development, demonstrating that this aldehyde affects key checkpoints of larval transition from the vegetative to the reproductive life stage. PMID:25788553

  10. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  11. [Motion sickness].

    PubMed

    Taillemite, J P; Devaulx, P; Bousquet, F

    1997-01-01

    Motion sickness is a general term covering sea-sickness, car-sickness, air-sickness, and space-sickness. Symptoms can occur when a person is exposed to unfamiliar movement whether real or simulated. Despite progress in the technology and comfort of modern transportation (planes, boats, and overland vehicles), a great number of travelers still experience motion sickness. Bouts are characterized by an initial phase of mild discomfort followed by neurologic and gastro-intestinal manifestations. The delay in onset depends on specific circumstances and individual susceptibility. Attacks are precipitated by conflicting sensory, visual, and vestibular signals but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Most medications used for prevention and treatment (e.g. anticholinergics and antihistamines) induce unwanted sedation. Furthermore no one drug is completely effective or preventive under all conditions.

  12. Decisions in motion: passive body acceleration modulates hand choice.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Romy S; Weijer, Roel H A; van Beers, Robert J; Selen, Luc P J; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2017-03-01

    In everyday life, we frequently have to decide which hand to use for a certain action. It has been suggested that for this decision the brain calculates expected costs based on action values, such as expected biomechanical costs, expected success rate, handedness and skillfulness. While these conclusions were based on experiments in stationary subjects, we often act while the body is in motion. We investigated how hand choice is affected by passive body motion, which directly affects the biomechanical costs of the arm movement due to its inertia. Using a linear motion platform, twelve right-handed subjects were sinusoidally translated (0.625Hz and 0.5Hz). At eight possible motion phases, they had to reach using either their left or right hand to a target presented at one of eleven possible locations. We predicted hand choice by calculating the expected biomechanical costs under different assumptions about the future acceleration involved in these computations, being the forthcoming acceleration during the reach, the instantaneous acceleration at target onset or zero acceleration as if the body is stationary. While hand choice was generally biased to using the dominant hand, it also modulated sinusoidally with the motion, with the amplitude of the bias depending on the motion's peak acceleration. The phase of hand choice modulation was consistent with the cost model that took the instantaneous acceleration signal at target onset. This suggest that the brain relies on the bottom-up acceleration signals, and not on predictions about future accelerations, when deciding on hand choice during passive whole-body motion.

  13. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    van der Doelen, Rick H A; Arnoldussen, Ilse A; Ghareh, Hussein; van Och, Liselot; Homberg, Judith R; Kozicz, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene × Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid release upon exposure to stress. Both endophenotypes are regulated by the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or hormone, which is expressed by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the central amygdala (CeA). Therefore, we hypothesized that altered regulation of the expression of CRF in these areas represents a major neurobiological mechanism underlying the interaction of early life stress and 5-HTT gene variation. The programming of gene transcription by Gene × Environment interactions has been proposed to involve epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. In this study, we report that early life stress and 5-HTT genotype interact to affect DNA methylation of the Crf gene promoter in the CeA of adult male rats. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation of a specific site in the Crf promoter significantly correlated with CRF mRNA levels in the CeA. Moreover, CeA CRF mRNA levels correlated with stress coping behavior in a learned helplessness paradigm. Together, our findings warrant further investigation of the link of Crf promoter methylation and CRF expression in the CeA with behavioral changes that are relevant for psychopathology.

  14. Factors affecting the quality of life of patients after gastrectomy as assessed using the newly developed PGSAS-45 scale: A nationwide multi-institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Koji; Takahashi, Masazumi; Ikeda, Masami; Kinami, Shinichi; Yoshida, Masashi; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Nakao, Sayumi; Oshio, Atsushi; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Terashima, Masanori; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify certain clinical factors other than the type of gastrectomy which affect the postoperative quality of life (QOL) of patients after gastrectomy. METHODS The postgastrectomy syndrome assessment scale (PGSAS)-45 was designed to assess the severity of symptoms, the living status and the QOL of gastrectomized patients. It consists of 45 items, of which 22 are original items while 23 were retrieved from the SF-8 and Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale questionnaires with permission. A nationwide surveillance study to validate PGSAS was conducted and 2368 gastric cancer patients who underwent various types of gastrectomy at 52 medical institutions were enrolled. Of these, 1777 patients who underwent total gastrectomy (TG) reconstructed with Roux-Y (n = 393), distal gastrectomy (DG) reconstructed with Billroth-I (n = 909), or DG reconstructed with Roux-Y (n = 475) were evaluated in the current study. The influence of the type of gastrectomy and other clinical factors such as age, sex, duration after surgery, the symptom severity, the degree of weight loss, dietary intake, and the ability for working on the postoperative QOL (i.e., dissatisfaction for daily life subscale, physical component summary and mental component summary of the SF-8) were examined by multiple regression analysis (MRA). In addition, importance of various symptoms such as esophageal reflux, abdominal pain, meal-related distress, indigestion, diarrhea, constipation and dumping on the postoperative living status and QOL were also appraised by MRA. RESULTS The postoperative QOL were significantly deteriorated in patients who underwent TG compared to those after DG. However, the extent of gastrectomy was not an influential factor on patients’ QOL when adjusted by the MRA. Among various clinical factors, the symptom severity, ability for working, and necessity for additional meals were the most influential factors to the postoperative QOL. As for the individual symptoms, meal

  15. Perpetual Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Lucy Beckham, the 2010 MetLife/NASSP National High School Principal of the Year, and principal of Wando High School, one of South Carolina's largest and highest-performing schools. Wando High School in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, has 3,250 in enrollment and has 209 staff members. Beckham shares her story…

  16. Early social instability affects plasma testosterone during adolescence but does not alter reproductive capacity or measures of stress later in life.

    PubMed

    Siegeler, Katja; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2013-08-15

    The social environment plays an important role in modulating processes of the hormonal and behavioural profile of an animal in a variety of group-living species. In wild cavies for instance, unstable social environmental conditions during pregnancy and lactation lead to an infantilised biobehavioural profile of the male offspring. In the present study, the influence of the social environment during pregnancy and lactation on the male wild cavy offsprings' plasma testosterone development, reproductive capacity and stress system activity was investigated. To this purpose, 12 sons whose mothers had lived in an unstable social environment during pregnancy and lactation were compared with 12 sons whose mothers had lived in a stable social environment during the same time. Plasma testosterone (T) and plasma cortisol (C) concentrations were determined from days 20 to 107 of age. Adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and different parameters of reproductive capacity (weights of testes, epididymides and accessory sex glands, cellular composition of the testes, DNA fragmentation indices and sperm motility parameters) were analysed at day 107 of age. TH activity and plasma C were unaffected by different social environmental conditions early in life. The developmental time course of T concentrations, however, was significantly different: Sons whose mothers had lived in an unstable social environment during pregnancy and lactation showed a delayed increase in T concentrations around adolescence compared to controls. In contrast, no reproduction-related parameters measured within this study differed significantly between the two groups. Thus, early social instability affects plasma testosterone development during adolescence in a significant way but does not alter reproductive capacity or measures of stress later in life.

  17. Life Among the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  18. Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  19. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact at the level of the adrenal gland to affect the adult hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    van der Doelen, R H A; Deschamps, W; D'Annibale, C; Peeters, D; Wevers, R A; Zelena, D; Homberg, J R; Kozicz, T

    2014-07-08

    The short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with the etiology of major depression by interaction with early life stress (ELS). Furthermore, 5-HTTLPR has been associated with abnormal functioning of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examined if, and at what level, the HPA-axis is affected in an animal model for ELS × 5-HTTLPR interactions. Heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type littermates were exposed daily at postnatal days 2-14 to 3 h of maternal separation. When grown to adulthood, plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and the major rat glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), were measured. Furthermore, the gene expression of key HPA-axis players at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands was assessed. No 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects on gene expression were observed at the level of the hypothalamus or pituitary. However, we found significant 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects for plasma CORT levels and adrenal mRNA levels of the ACTH receptor, such that 5-HTT deficiency was associated under control conditions with increased, but after ELS with decreased basal HPA-axis activity. With the use of an in vitro adrenal assay, naïve 5-HTT knockout rats were furthermore shown to display increased adrenal ACTH sensitivity. Therefore, we conclude that basal HPA-axis activity is affected by the interaction of 5-HTT genotype and ELS, and is programmed, within the axis itself, predominantly at the level of the adrenal gland. This study therefore emphasizes the importance of the adrenal gland for HPA-related psychiatric disorders.

  20. Psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life in youth affected by violence: the burden of the multiply victimised.

    PubMed

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent victimisation and violence perpetration were contrasted with non-involved comparisons. The results show that even low levels of violence involvement were associated with more problems, fewer protective factors and impaired HRQOL. Multiply victimised youth - not perpetrating victims - stood out with internalising, peer and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Discriminant function analysis separated non-involved from violence-affected youth, and multiply victimised from not multiply victimised youth. Externalising behaviours, family issues, male sex and school functioning predicted group separation on the first function (proportion variance explained 80.0%), while internalising and peer issues were predictive for the second function (PVE 14.2%). Implications for prevention, intervention and research are discussed.

  1. Genetic and environmental causes of individual differences in daily life positive affect and reward experience and its overlap with stress-sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2012-09-01

    Momentary positive affect (PA) and reward experience may underlie subjective wellbeing, and index mental health resilience. This study examines their underlying sources of variation and the covariation with stress-sensitivity. The experience sampling method was used to collect multiple appraisals of mood and daily life events in 520 female twins. Structural equation model fitting was employed to determine sources of variation of PA, reward experience, and the association between reward experience and stress-sensitivity. PA was best explained by shared and non-shared environmental factors, and reward experience by non-shared environmental factors only, although the evidence was also suggestive of a small genetic contribution. Reward experience and stress-sensitivity showed no association. PA was not heritable. Most-if not all-variance of reward experience was explained by environmental influences. Stress-sensitivity, indexing depression vulnerability, and reward experience were non-overlapping, suggesting that resilience traits are independent from stress-sensitivity levels in a general population sample.

  2. Motion words selectively modulate direction discrimination sensitivity for threshold motion

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Andrea; Skujevskis, Māris; Baggio, Giosuè

    2013-01-01

    Can speech selectively modulate the sensitivity of a sensory system so that, in the presence of a suitable linguistic context, the discrimination of certain perceptual features becomes more or less likely? In this study, participants heard upward or downward motion words followed by a single visual field of random dots moving upwards or downwards. The time interval between the onsets of the auditory and the visual stimuli was varied parametrically. Motion direction could be either discriminable (suprathreshold motion) or non-discriminable (threshold motion). Participants had to judge whether the dots were moving upward or downward. Results show a double dissociation between discrimination sensitivity (d′) and reaction times depending on whether vertical motion was above or at threshold. With suprathreshold motion, responses were faster for congruent directions of words and dots, but sensitivity was equal across conditions. With threshold motion, sensitivity was higher for congruent directions of words and dots, but responses were equally fast across conditions. The observed differences in sensitivity and response times were largest when the dots appeared 450 ms after word onset, that is, consistently with electrophysiology, at the time the up/down semantics of the word had become available. These data suggest that word meanings can alter the balance between signal and noise within the visual system and affect the perception of low-level sensory features. PMID:23596407

  3. The street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life periodontal infection: description of a treatment modality: sea salt.

    PubMed

    Michel, J F; Michel, M G; Nadan, J; Nowzari, H

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life oral infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a sea-salt mouthrinse solution in street children of Manila affected by mild to severe forms of periodontal disease. These children were all in need of special protection: abandoned, abused, exploited, neglected, orphaned, poor. During 3 oral-health missions in 2003, 2004 and 2005, 617 abandoned children (5 to 13 year-old), received oral examination at a non-sectarian child-caring institution in Metro Manila (Virlanie Foundation) by calibrated examiners. A treatment based on what could be done was proposed: 1. Teaching of a precise tooth brushing technique with sea-salt, controlled and reinforced every two days for one week by calibrated health educators, 2. The application of sea-salt water mouthrinse (2.5 gram in 20 ml). Periodontal measurements were repeated at the end of each mission. All children returned to child-caring institution for the followup examinations. In 2003, 10 male and 11 female (n=21) were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis. In 2009 and 2010, none was affected by aggressive periodontitis. For all patients, the gingival index decreased from 1.08 at the first mission to 1.04 at the end of the second mission and 0.98 at the end of the third mission. The periodontal index decreased from 1.33 at the first mission to 0.98 at the second mission and 0.92 at the last mission. The present investigation confirms that prevention and early diagnosis can result in success with minimum cost. The provided oral health program empowered street children in the most desperate circumstances to be educated and become self-reliant, independent, and responsible. We propose here an antimicrobial approach which has a high degree of efficacy and tolerability, and can be implemented in virtually all parts of the world using low-cost resources.

  4. Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

  5. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Christopher C.; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates. PMID:27994538

  6. Collective motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicsek, Tamás; Zafeiris, Anna

    2012-08-01

    We review the observations and the basic laws describing the essential aspects of collective motion - being one of the most common and spectacular manifestation of coordinated behavior. Our aim is to provide a balanced discussion of the various facets of this highly multidisciplinary field, including experiments, mathematical methods and models for simulations, so that readers with a variety of background could get both the basics and a broader, more detailed picture of the field. The observations we report on include systems consisting of units ranging from macromolecules through metallic rods and robots to groups of animals and people. Some emphasis is put on models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the numerous related observations and are useful for developing concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many simultaneously moving entities. As such, these models allow the establishing of a few fundamental principles of flocking. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in spite of considerable differences, a number of deep analogies exist between equilibrium statistical physics systems and those made of self-propelled (in most cases living) units. In both cases only a few well defined macroscopic/collective states occur and the transitions between these states follow a similar scenario, involving discontinuity and algebraic divergences.

  7. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  8. Slow motion increases perceived intent

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Burns, Zachary C.; Converse, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor’s intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in “slow motion.” Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  9. Factors Affecting Health-Related Quality of Life and Physical Activity after Liver Transplantation for Autoimmune and Nonautoimmune Liver Diseases: A Prospective, Single Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    Kotarska, Katarzyna; Kempińska-Podhorodecka, Agnieszka; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Wójcicki, Maciej; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. With the improvement of the outcomes after liver transplantation (LTx), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity are becoming significant outcome parameters. We prospectively assessed these parameters in patients with autoimmune and nonautoimmune liver disorders undergoing LTx. Materials and Methods. Patients (n = 107) were subdivided into 3 groups depending on the time after LTx: group-A (n = 21): 6–12 months; group-B (n = 48): 13–36 months; and group-C (n = 38): >37 months. SF-36 and IPAQ were applied in HRQoL and physical activity assessment. Results. Females had impaired HRQoL in most SF-36 domains. Younger patients showed higher scores at SF-36 physical functioning domain but IPAQ was not influenced by age. Group-B had higher general health and physical component summary than group-A (P = 0.037, P = 0.04, resp.) and total IPAQ than group-C (P = 0.047). The sitting time domain was longer in group-A than in group-B and group-C (P = 0.0157;  P = 0.042, resp.). Employed patients had better HRQoL and higher physical activity than those not working. SF-36 and IPAQ were unrelated to the autoimmune etiology of liver disease. Conclusions. These findings show that female and unemployed patients have worse HRQoL, while gender and age at LTx time do not affect IPAQ's physical activity. The autoimmune etiology of liver disease does not influence HRQoL and physical activity after LTx. PMID:24741621

  10. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  11. Does long-term fungicide exposure affect the reproductive performance of leaf-shredders? A partial life-cycle study using Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Baudy, Patrick; Zubrod, Jochen P; Konschak, Marco; Weil, Mirco; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2017-03-01

    Leaf-shredding amphipods play a critical role in the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, a key process in many low order streams. Fungicides, however, may adversely influence shredders' behavior and the functions they provide, while there is only limited knowledge concerning effects on their reproductive performance. To assess the latter, a semi-static 56-day partial life-cycle bioassay using the model shredder Hyalella azteca (n = 30) was performed applying two environmentally relevant concentrations of a model fungicide mixture (i.e., 5 and 25 μg/L) composed of five fungicides with different modes of toxic action. Variables related to the food processing (leaf consumption and feces production), growth (body length and dry weight), energy reserves (lipid content), and reproduction (amplexus pairs, number and length of offspring) were determined to understand potential implications in the organisms' energy budget. While the fungicides did not affect leaf consumption, both fungicide treatments significantly reduced amphipods' feces production (∼20%) compared to the control. This observation suggests an increased food utilization to counteract the elevated and stress-related energy demand: although growth as well as energy reserves were unaffected, amplexus pairs were less frequently observed in both fungicide treatments (∼50-100%) suggesting a tradeoff regarding energy allocation favoring the maintenance of fundamental functions at the organism level over reproduction. As a result, the time to release of first offspring was delayed in both fungicide treatments (7 and 14 days) and the median number of offspring was significantly lower in the 25-μg/L treatment (100%), whereas offspring length remained unaffected. The results of this study thus indicate that chronic fungicide exposures can negatively impact shredders' reproductive performance. This may translate into lower abundances and thus a reduced contribution to leaf litter breakdown in

  12. Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  13. Objective Motion Cueing Criteria Investigation Based on Three Flight Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaal, Petrus M. T.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Chung, William W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to help establish fidelity criteria to accompany the simulator motion system diagnostic test specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Twelve air- line transport pilots flew three tasks in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator under four different motion conditions. The experiment used three different hexapod motion configurations, each with a different tradeoff between motion filter gain and break frequency, and one large motion configuration that utilized as much of the simulator's motion space as possible. The motion condition significantly affected: 1) pilot motion fidelity ratings, and sink rate and lateral deviation at touchdown for the approach and landing task, 2) pilot motion fidelity ratings, roll deviations, maximum pitch rate, and number of stick shaker activations in the stall task, and 3) heading deviation after an engine failure in the takeoff task. Significant differences in pilot-vehicle performance were used to define initial objective motion cueing criteria boundaries. These initial fidelity boundaries show promise but need refinement.

  14. Measurement, characterization, and prediction of strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, William; Boore, David M.

    1988-01-01

    A number of predictive relationships derived from regression analysis of strong-motion data are available for horizontal peak acceleration, velocity, and response spectral values. Theoretical prediction of ground motion calls for stochastic source models because source heterogeneities control the amplitude of ground motion at most, if not all, frequencies of engineering interest. Theoretical methods have been developed for estimation of ground-motion parameters and simulation of ground-motion time series. These methods are particularly helpful for regions such, as eastern North America where strong-motion data are sparse. The authors survey the field, first reviewing developments in ground-motion measurement and data processing. The authors then consider the choice of parameters for characterizing strong ground motion and describe the wave-types involved in strong ground motion and the factors affecting ground-motion amplitudes. They conclude by describing methods for predicting ground motion.

  15. Self-Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Motion sickness typically is considered a bothersome artifact of exposure to passive motion in vehicles of conveyance. This condition seldom has significant impact on the health of individuals because it is of brief duration, it usually can be prevented by simply avoiding the eliciting condition and, when the conditions that produce it are unavoidable, sickness dissipates with continued exposure. The studies conducted examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  16. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  17. Yaw Motion Cues in Helicopter Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Walter W.

    1996-01-01

    A piloted simulation that examined the effects of yaw motion cues on pilot-vehicle performance, pilot workload, and pilot motion perception was conducted on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. The vehicle model that was used represented an AH-64 helicopter. Three tasks were performed in which only combinations of vehicle yaw and vertical displacement were allowed. The commands issued to the motion platform were modified to present the following four motion configurations for a pilot located forward of the center of rotation: (1) only the linear translations, (2) only the angular rotation, (3) both the linear translations and the angular rotation, and (4) no motion. The objective data indicated that pilot-vehicle performance was reduced and the necessary control activity increased when linear motion was removed; however, the lack of angular rotation did not result in a measured degradation for almost all cases. Also, pilots provided subjective assessments of their compensation required, the motion fidelity, and their judgment of whether or not linear or rotational cockpit motion was present. Ratings of compensation and fidelity were affected only by linear acceleration, and the rotational motion had no significant impact. Also, when only linear motion was present, pilots typically reported the presence of rotation. Thus, linear acceleration cues, not yaw rotational cues, appear necessary to simulate hovering flight.

  18. Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M; Carey, James R; Zwaan, Bas J

    2008-08-01

    1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild.2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments.3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost.

  19. Motion artifacts of pulse inversion-based tissue harmonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Shen, Che-Chou; Li, Pai-Chi

    2002-09-01

    Motion artifacts of the pulse inversion technique were studied for finite amplitude distortion-based harmonic imaging. Motion in both the axial and the lateral directions was considered. Two performance issues were investigated. One is the harmonic signal intensity relative to the fundamental intensity and the other is the potential image quality degradation resulting from spectral leakage. A one-dimensional (1-D) correlation-based correction scheme also was used to compensate for motion artifacts. Results indicated that the tissue harmonic signal is significantly affected by tissue motion. For axial motion, the tissue harmonic intensity decreases much more rapidly than with lateral motion. The fundamental signal increases for both axial and lateral motion. Thus, filtering is still required to remove the fundamental signal, even if the pulse inversion technique is applied. The motion also potentially decreases contrast resolution because of the uncancelled spectral leakage. Also, it was indicated that 1-D motion correction is not adequate if nonaxial motion is present.

  20. Biological Motion Primes the Animate/Inanimate Distinction in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Crivello, Cristina; Wright, Kristyn

    2015-01-01

    Given that biological motion is both detected and preferred early in life, we tested the hypothesis that biological motion might be instrumental to infants’ differentiation of animate and inanimate categories. Infants were primed with either point-light displays of realistic biological motion, random motion, or schematic biological motion of an unfamiliar shape. After being habituated to these displays, 12-month-old infants categorized animals and vehicles as well as furniture and vehicles with the sequential touching task. The findings indicated that infants primed with point-light displays of realistic biological motion showed better categorization of animates than those exposed to random or schematic biological motion. These results suggest that human biological motion might be one of the motion cues that provide the building blocks for infants’ concept of animacy. PMID:25659077

  1. Motion-sensitive cortex and motion semantics in American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Stephen; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Korpics, Franco; Emmorey, Karen

    2012-10-15

    Previous research indicates that motion-sensitive brain regions are engaged when comprehending motion semantics expressed by words or sentences. Using fMRI, we investigated whether such neural modulation can occur when the linguistic signal itself is visually dynamic and motion semantics is expressed by movements of the hands. Deaf and hearing users of American Sign Language (ASL) were presented with signed sentences that conveyed motion semantics ("The deer walked along the hillside.") or were static, conveying little or no motion ("The deer slept along the hillside."); sentences were matched for the amount of visual motion. Motion-sensitive visual areas (MT+) were localized individually in each participant. As a control, the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) was also localized for the deaf participants. The whole-brain analysis revealed static (locative) sentences engaged regions in left parietal cortex more than motion sentences, replicating previous results implicating these regions in comprehending spatial language for sign languages. Greater activation was observed in the functionally defined MT+ ROI for motion than static sentences for both deaf and hearing signers. No modulation of neural activity by sentence type was observed in the FFA. Deafness did not affect modulation of MT+ by motion semantics, but hearing signers exhibited stronger neural activity in MT+ for both sentence types, perhaps due to differences in exposure and/or use of ASL. We conclude that top down modulation of motion-sensitive cortex by linguistic semantics is not disrupted by the visual motion that is present in sign language sentences.

  2. Modeling late-life adaptation in affective well-being under a severe chronic health condition: the case of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2006-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was used as a case model to longitudinally study adaptation in affective well-being under a prevalent chronic health condition. Measures of positive and negative affect, obtained at 5 subsequent measurement occasions with 3-month intervals in between, were analyzed in 90 older adults diagnosed with AMD. The authors proposed a pattern of adaptation that shows initial decline in affective well-being after disease outbreak, followed by a turnaround into a restorative phase of increase, implying nonlinear intraindividual trajectories, with changes substantially related to disease duration. Analysis was conducted by means of a nonlinear mixed models approach. Results confirmed the hypothesized adaptation pattern for positive affect but not for negative affect, which was found more stable across measurement occasions.

  3. Fast diastolic swinging motion of the mitral valve as a clinical marker of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in genetically affected young children without left ventricular hypertrophy: a new role for noninvasive imaging?

    PubMed

    Udink ten Cate, Floris E A; Junghaenel, Shino; Brockmeier, Konrad; Sreeram, Narayanswami

    2013-08-01

    Structural mitral valve (MV) abnormalities are common in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This is the first report demonstrating MV abnormalities in very young children as the sole overt clinical feature of a known HCM-causing sarcomere protein gene mutation. Due to MV leaflet elongation, we also noticed a typical fast diastolic swinging motion of the MV in our patients. This novel echocardiographic feature may be used as a clinical marker of HCM disease in the absence of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  4. Assessing Motion Induced Interruptions Using a Motion Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    same way that cars have shock absorbers to decrease jolt from potholes and bumps in the road, ships may have the potential to be designed to better...Integration (HSI) seeks to assure human performance to reduce operating costs. This thesis seeks to develop a model for ship design in relation to Motion...Induced Interruptions (MII). The model is based on the premise that MIIs affect specific domains of HSI in an adverse way. Future ship design

  5. SinoCor: motion correction in SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Debasis; Eiland, Daniel; Abdallah, Mahmoud; Bouthcko, Rostyslav; Gullberg, Grant T.; Schechtmann, Norberto

    2012-02-01

    Motion is a serious artifact in Cardiac nuclear imaging because the scanning operation takes a long time. Since reconstruction algorithms assume consistent or stationary data the quality of resulting image is affected by motion, sometimes significantly. Even after adoption of the gold standard MoCo(R) algorithm from Cedars-Sinai by most vendors, heart motion remains a significant challenge. Also, any serious study in quantitative analysis necessitates correction for motion artifacts. It is generally recognized that human eye is a very sensitive tool for detecting motion. However, two reasons prevent such manual correction: (1) it is costly in terms of specialist's time, and (2) no such tool for manual correction is available currently. Previously, at SPIE-MIC'11, we presented a simple tool (SinoCor) that allows sinograms to be corrected manually or automatically. SinoCor performs correction of sinograms containing inter-frame patient or respiratory motions using rigid-body dynamics. The software is capable of detecting the patient motion and estimating the body-motion vector using scanning geometry parameters. SinoCor applies appropriate geometrical correction to all the frames subsequent to the frame when the movement has occurred in a manual or automated mode. For respiratory motion, it is capable of automatically smoothing small oscillatory (frame-wise local) movements. Lower order image moments are used to represent a frame and the required rigid body movement compensation is computed accordingly. Our current focus is on enhancement of SinoCor with the capability to automatically detect and compensate for intra-frame motion that causes motion blur on the respective frame. Intra-frame movements are expected in both patient and respiratory motions. For a controlled study we also have developed a motion simulator. A stable version of SinoCor is available under license from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  6. Helicopter flight simulation motion platform requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn

    Flight simulators attempt to reproduce in-flight pilot-vehicle behavior on the ground. This reproduction is challenging for helicopter simulators, as the pilot is often inextricably dependent on external cues for pilot-vehicle stabilization. One important simulator cue is platform motion; however, its required fidelity is unknown. To determine the required motion fidelity, several unique experiments were performed. A large displacement motion platform was used that allowed pilots to fly tasks with matched motion and visual cues. Then, the platform motion was modified to give cues varying from full motion to no motion. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositionings. This refutes the view that pilots estimate altitude and altitude rate in simulation solely from visual cues. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.

  7. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  8. The Factors Affecting End-of-Life Decision-Making by Physicians of Patients with Intellectual Disabilities in the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemans, A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.; Proot, I.; Metsemakers, J.; Tuffrey-Wijne, I.; Curfs, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the process of end-of-life decision-making regarding people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Netherlands, from the perspective of physicians. Methods: This qualitative study involved nine semi-structured interviews with ID physicians in the Netherlands after the deaths of patients with…

  9. Factors Affecting Study-Related Burnout among Finnish University Students: Teaching-Learning Environment, Achievement Motivation and the Meaning of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study of a large sample (n = 3035) examined relationships between study-related burnout and components of the teaching-learning environment, achievement motivation and the perceived meaning of life. The overall model, tested with structural equation modelling, revealed that the factor of the teaching-learning environment correlated with both…

  10. Did past economic prosperity affect the health related quality of life predictors? A longitudinal study on a representative sample of Slovenian family medicine patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) as an important measure of medical outcomes has been shown to be associated with demographic factors and the most common mental and chronic somatic diseases. This study’s aim was to identify factors predicting changes in HRQOL over a follow-up period in a representative sample of Slovenian family medicine patients. Methods In a longitudinal multi-centred study between 2003 and 2005, data were collected from 1118 consecutive attendees from 60 family medicine practices in Slovenia on quality of life, socio-demographic factors and the presence of mental disorders, with follow-up after 6 and 24 months. Retrospective information on chronic diseases was obtained from patients` health records. In three time-sequential multiple linear regression models, data on 601 patients (53.8%) was analysed to determine factors associated with each component score of quality of life. Results At baseline the patients were 48.58 (SE = 0.58) years of age, over half were women (386 (64.2%)) and most were Slovenian (548 (91.2%)). Quality of life was seen to improve over the two-year period. Factors significantly and consistently associated with a better mental component score of quality of life were social support, satisfactory circumstances in patients` household and absence of anxiety. Major life events in the past year and depression were shown to be risk factors for mental and physical components, while level of education, absence of long-term disability and chronic pain were identified as predictors of the physical component. Conclusions Detection and successful treatment of depression and anxiety has a potential to lead to improved quality of life in family medicine attendees; family physicians should be alert for the early onset of these conditions, knowing that symptoms of chronic pain, depression and anxiety often overlap in patients. Poorly educated patients and those lacking social support and/or satisfactory household

  11. Visual/motion cue mismatch in a coordinated roll maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirachi, D. K.; Shirley, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of bandwidth differences between visual and motion cueing systems on pilot performance for a coordinated roll task were investigated. Visual and motion cue configurations which were acceptable and the effects of reduced motion cue scaling on pilot performance were studied to determine the scale reduction threshold for which pilot performance was significantly different from full scale pilot performance. It is concluded that: (1) the presence or absence of high frequency error information in the visual and/or motion display systems significantly affects pilot performance; and (2) the attenuation of motion scaling while maintaining other display dynamic characteristics constant, affects pilot performance.

  12. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  13. Aboveground pipeline response to random ground motion

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, P.; Ghosh, A.

    1995-12-31

    Response of two types of aboveground pipelines--rigid, segmented pipelines, and flexible, continuous pipelines--to random ground motion are studied in this paper. The emphasis is on studying the effect of pipeline system parameters on its response. It is seen that pipe parameters, except for the pipe span, affect system response negligibly. Pier height and flexibility, and foundation-soil flexibility, however, affect response significantly. Furthermore, for practical situations, pipe and pier responses are decoupled, and the pier, therefore, behaves essentially as a point structure that is not affected by spatial variation of ground motion.

  14. Dual motion valve with single motion input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, Robert (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A dual motion valve includes two dual motion valve assemblies with a rotary input which allows the benefits of applying both rotary and axial motion to a rotary sealing element with a plurality of ports. The motion of the rotary sealing element during actuation provides axial engagement of the rotary sealing element with a stationary valve plate which also has ports. Fluid passages are created through the valve when the ports of the rotary sealing element are aligned with the ports of the stationary valve plate. Alignment is achieved through rotation of the rotary sealing element with respect to the stationary valve plate. The fluid passages provide direct paths which minimize fluid turbulence created in the fluid as it passes through the valve.

  15. Conflicting motion information impairs multiple object tracking.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Rebecca; Huff, Markus; Seiffert, Adriane E

    2010-04-28

    People can keep track of target objects as they move among identical distractors using only spatiotemporal information. We investigated whether or not participants use motion information during the moment-to-moment tracking of objects by adding motion to the texture of moving objects. The texture either remained static or moved relative to the object's direction of motion, either in the same direction, the opposite direction, or orthogonal to each object's trajectory. Results showed that, compared to the static texture condition, tracking performance was worse when the texture moved in the opposite direction of the object and better when the texture moved in the same direction as the object. Our results support the conclusion that motion information is used during the moment-to-moment tracking of objects. Motion information may either affect a representation of position or be used to periodically predict the future location of targets.

  16. Which tinnitus-related characteristics affect current health-related quality of life and depression? A cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Delsignore, Aba; Meyer, Martin; Rufer, Michael; Peter, Nicole; Drabe, Natalie; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2016-03-30

    Tinnitus is sometimes associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms. However, only limited evidence exists identifying which tinnitus characteristics are responsible for these associations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between tinnitus, HRQoL, depressive symptoms, subjective tinnitus loudness and audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics (e.g., hearing threshold). Two hundred and eight outpatients reporting tinnitus completed questionnaires on tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), HRQoL (World-Health-Organisation Quality of Life Short Form Survey, WHOQOL-BREF), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and underwent audiometry. Patients with higher THI scores exhibited significantly lower HRQoL, and higher depression scores. THI total-score, THI subscales, and subjective tinnitus loudness explained significant variance of WHOQOL-BREF and BDI. Audiometrically measured features were not associated with WHOQOL-BREF or BDI. Overall, we confirmed findings that different features of tinnitus are associated with HRQoL and depressive symptoms but not with audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics. Consequently, physicians should evaluate THI total score, its sub-scores, and subjective tinnitus loudness to reliably and quickly identify patients who potentially suffer from depressive symptoms or significantly lower HRQoL. Supporting these patients early might help to prevent the development of reactive depressive symptoms and impairment of HRQoL.

  17. Health-related quality of life and affective status in liver transplant recipients and patients on the waiting list with low MELD scores

    PubMed Central

    Benzing, Christian; Krezdorn, Nicco; Förster, Julia; Hinz, Andreas; Krenzien, Felix; Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background This study seeks to examine the impact of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and mental health in patients with different MELD scores. Methods Patients who has undergone orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) or were on the waiting list for OLT were submitted to HRQoL and depression/anxiety assessment by questionnaire: Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ-M), Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4). Data were analysed following division of patients into three groups: pretransplant patients with a MELD score <10, ≥10, and OLT recipients. Results The surveys were sent to 940 consecutive patients within one week in June 2013. Of these 940 patients, 869 (92.4%) met the inclusion criteria. In total, 291 (33.5%) eligible questionnaires (OLT group: 235, MELD <10: 25; MELD _10: 31) were suitable for analysis. General health (GH), vitality (VIT), and mental health (MH) were lower in both pretransplant groups compared to the OLT group (all p < 0.05). Anxiety and depression were higher in the MELD <10 group than in the OLT group (anxiety: p < 0.05; depression: p < 0.01). Discussion Patients with low MELD scores seem to benefit from OLT with regards to HRQoL and mental health. PMID:27154809

  18. Low-Dose-Rate Irradiation for 1 Hour Induces Protection Against Lethal Radiation Doses but Does Not Affect Life Span of DBA/2 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altaner, Čestmír; Altanerova, Veronika; Ebbesen, Peter; Pettersen, Erik O.

    2016-01-01

    Prior findings showed that serum from DBA/2 mice that had been given whole-body irradiation for 1 hour at a low dose rate (LDR) of 30 cGy/h induced protection against radiation in reporter cells by a mechanism depending on transforming growth factor β3 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity. In the present study, the effect of the 1 hour of LDR irradiation on the response of the preirradiated mice to a subsequent lethal dose and on the life span is examined. These DBA/2 mice were prime irradiated for 1 hour at 30 cGy/h. Two experiments with 9 and 9.5 Gy challenge doses given 6 weeks after priming showed increased survival in primed mice compared to unprimed mice followed up to 225 and 81 days after challenge irradiation, respectively. There was no overall significant difference in life span between primed and unprimed mice when no challenge irradiation was given. The males seemed to have a slight increase in lifespan after priming while the opposite was seen for the females. PMID:27867323

  19. Motion aftereffect of combined first-order and second-order motion.

    PubMed

    van der Smagt, M J; Verstraten, F A; Vaessen, E B; van Londen, T; van de Grind, W A

    1999-01-01

    When, after prolonged viewing of a moving stimulus, a stationary (test) pattern is presented to an observer, this results in an illusory movement in the direction opposite to the adapting motion. Typically, this motion aftereffect (MAE) does not occur after adaptation to a second-order motion stimulus (i.e. an equiluminous stimulus where the movement is defined by a contrast or texture border, not by a luminance border). However, a MAE of second-order motion is perceived when, instead of a static test pattern, a dynamic test pattern is used. Here, we investigate whether a second-order motion stimulus does affect the MAE on a static test pattern (sMAE), when second-order motion is presented in combination with first-order motion during adaptation. The results show that this is indeed the case. Although the second-order motion stimulus is too weak to produce a convincing sMAE on its own, its influence on the sMAE is of equal strength to that of the first-order motion component, when they are adapted to simultaneously. The results suggest that the perceptual appearance of the sMAE originates from the site where first-order and second-order motion are integrated.

  20. Affects of Anxiety and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients with Benign Breast Lumps Diagnosed via Ultrasonography in China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zhe; Li, Yinyan; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie; Yang, Jun

    2015-08-28

    There is a high incidence of benign breast lumps among women, and these lumps may lead to physical and psychological problems. This study aims to evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography and investigate their impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from January to November 2013. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires, including the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), together with demographic characteristics, from patients of the Department of Breast Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the effects of anxiety and depression on HRQOL. The overall prevalences of anxiety (SAS score ≥ 40) and depression (CES-D scores ≥ 16) were 40.2% and 62.0%, respectively, and 37.5% of the participants had both of these psychological symptoms. The means and standard deviations of PCS and MCS were 75.42 (15.22) and 68.70 (17.71), respectively. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were significantly negatively associated with the HRQOL of patients with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography. Women with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography in China experienced relatively high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depressive symptoms had significant negative impacts on both the mental and physical quality of life (QOL) of women with benign breast lumps. Beyond the necessary clinical treatment procedures, psychological guidance and detailed explanations of the disease should be offered to alleviate the anxiety and depressive symptoms and enhance the HRQOL of patients with benign breast lumps.

  1. Toxicities Affecting Quality of Life After Chemo-IMRT of Oropharyngeal Cancer: Prospective Study of Patient-Reported, Observer-Rated, and Objective Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Schipper, Matthew; Feng, Felix Y.; Lyden, Teresa; Haxer, Mark; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Cornwall, Benjamin; Lee, Connie S.Y.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) aiming to spare the salivary glands and swallowing structures would reduce or eliminate the effects of xerostomia and dysphagia on quality of life (QOL). Methods and Materials: In this prospective, longitudinal study, 72 patients with stage III-IV oropharyngeal cancer were treated uniformly with definitive chemo-IMRT sparing the salivary glands and swallowing structures. Overall QOL was assessed by summary scores of the Head Neck QOL (HNQOL) and University of Washington QOL (UWQOL) questionnaires, as well as the HNQOL “Overall Bother” question. Quality of life, observer-rated toxicities (Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Effects scale, version 2), and objective evaluations (videofluoroscopy assessing dysphagia and saliva flow rates assessing xerostomia) were recorded from before therapy through 2 years after therapy. Correlations between toxicities/objective evaluations and overall QOL were assessed using longitudinal repeated measures of analysis and Pearson correlations. Results: All observer-rated toxicities and QOL scores worsened 1-3 months after therapy and improved through 12 months, with minor further improvements through 24 months. At 12 months, dysphagia grades 0-1, 2, and 3, were observed in 95%, 4%, and 1% of patients, respectively. Using all posttherapy observations, observer-rated dysphagia was highly correlated with all overall QOL measures (P<.0001), whereas xerostomia and mucosal and voice toxicities were significantly correlated with some, but not all, overall QOL measures, with lower correlation coefficients than dysphagia. Late overall QOL (≥6 or ≥12 months after therapy) was primarily associated with observer-rated dysphagia, and to a lesser extent with xerostomia. Videofluoroscopy scores, but not salivary flows, were significantly correlated with some of the overall QOL measures. Conclusion: After chemo-IMRT, although late dysphagia was on average mild

  2. Unity of measurement and motion.

    PubMed

    Conrad, M

    2001-01-01

    Issues addressed in H.H. Pattee's origin of life laboratory in the 1960s and their connection to the physics-evolution-language problematic are indicated. The problem of quantum measurement played a central role. The problem is herein examined in the light of the fluctuon model; in particular, as the model applies to gravity. The main conclusion is that measurement and motion are a unitary process. All accelerations are accompanied by a cycle involving the annihilation and creation of superpositions. Gravitational collapse is also a cyclic process in the fluctuon model. By a suitable transformation, it can be seen that interactions underlying superpositional collapse are the same as those operative in gravitational collapse. Implications for the origin of cellular life and the development of symbolic systems are considered.

  3. Motion through syntactic frames.

    PubMed

    Feist, Michele I

    2010-04-01

    The introduction of Talmy's (1985, 2000) typology sparked significant interest in linguistic relativity in the arena of motion language. Through careful analysis of the conflation patterns evident in the language of motion events, Talmy noted that one class of languages, V-languages, tends to encode path along with the fact of motion in motion verbs, while a second class, S-languages, tends to encode manner. In the experimental literature, it was reasoned that speakers may be expected to extend novel verbs in accordance with the lexicalization patterns of their native languages. However, the results regarding this prediction are mixed. In this paper, I examine the interplay between the meaning encoded in the motion verb itself and the meaning encoded in the motion description construction, offering a Gricean explanation for co-occurrence patterns and, by extension, for the mixed results. I then explore the implications of this argument for research on possible language effects on thought in this domain.

  4. Motion Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

  5. Perpetual Motion with Maxwell's Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Lyndsay G. M.

    2002-11-01

    A method for producing a temperature gradient by Brownian motion in an equilibrated isolated system composed of two fluid compartments and a separating adiabatic membrane is discussed. This method requires globular protein molecules, partially embedded in the membrane, to alternate between two conformations which lie on opposite sides of the membrane. The greater part of each conformer is bathed by one of the fluids and rotates in Brownian motion around its axis, perpendicular to the membrane. Rotational energy is transferred through the membrane during conformational changes. Angular momentum is conserved during the transitions. The energy flow becomes asymmetrical when the conformational changes of the protein are sterically hindered by two of its side-chains, the positions of which are affected by the angular velocity of the rotor. The heat flow increases the temperature gradient in contravention of the Second Law. A second hypothetical model which illustrates solute transfer at variance with the Second Law is also discussed.

  6. Undernutrition of ewe lambs in utero and in early post-natal life does not affect hypothalamic-pituitary function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Borwick, S C; Rae, M T; Brooks, J; McNeilly, A S; Racey, P A; Rhind, S M

    2003-05-15

    The effect of undernutrition in utero, during late gestation (from day 100), and early neonatal life on hypothalamic-pituitary function was investigated in female lambs born to ewes fed rations calculated to provide either 100% (high; H) or 70% (low; L) of the energy requirements to sustain a twin pregnancy. Following parturition in early spring, ewes and lambs were maintained on pasture with sward heights of 6 cm (H) or 4 cm (L) until week 8 of lactation and then sward heights of 5 cm (H) or 3 cm (L) until weaning at week 14. Mean lamb birth weights were 18% lower in L than H animals (P<0.05) and mean liveweights were 23% lower in the L animals (P<0.001) at weaning at 14 weeks of age. Liveweight differences were not significant at, or after, 26 weeks of age. There were no significant differences between pre-pubertal H and L animals, either before (26 weeks) or after ovariectomy (31 weeks), with respect to hypothalamic or pituitary activity, as measured by LH pulse frequency, pulse amplitude or mean plasma LH and FSH concentrations and the responses to GnRH injection as measured by LH peak amplitude, respectively. Similarly there were no differences in any of these variables in pubertal animals at 18 months of age. At 31 weeks of age, H animals had significantly lower pituitary GnRH receptor binding (P<0.01) and lower ERalpha mRNA content (P<0.05) than L lambs. There were no differences with treatment in the abundance of mRNA for LHbeta, FSHbeta or GnRH-receptor at 31 weeks of age or in pubertal animals aged 18 months, when there were no significant differences with treatment in GnRH receptor binding or ERalpha mRNA expression. It is concluded that effects on lifetime reproductive function of female sheep of undernutrition during late gestation and early neonatal life are unlikely to be expressed through permanent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function and are therefore attributable to effects exerted directly on the ovary.

  7. The Personal Motion Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian Vandellyn

    1993-01-01

    The Neutral Body Posture experienced in microgravity creates a biomechanical equilibrium by enabling the internal forces within the body to find their own balance. A patented reclining chair based on this posture provides a minimal stress environment for interfacing with computer systems for extended periods. When the chair is mounted on a 3 or 6 axis motion platform, a generic motion simulator for simulated digital environments is created. The Personal Motion Platform provides motional feedback to the occupant in synchronization with their movements inside the digital world which enhances the simulation experience. Existing HMD based simulation systems can be integrated to the turnkey system. Future developments are discussed.

  8. Measurement of visual motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hildreth, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the measurement of visual motion and the use of relative movement to locate the boundaries of physical objects in the environment. It investigates the nature of the computations that are necessary to perform this analysis by any vision system, biological or artificial. Contents: Introduction. Background. Computation of the Velocity Field. An Algorithm to Compute the Velocity Field. The Computation of Motion Discontinuities. Perceptual Studies of Motion Measurement. The Psychophysics of Discontinuity Detection. Neurophysiological Studies of Motion. Summary and Conclusions. References. Author and Subject Indexes.

  9. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  10. Nutritional quality changes throughout shelf-life of fresh-cut kailan-hybrid and 'Parthenon' broccoli as affected by temperature and atmosphere composition.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Gómez, Perla A; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional quality changes of the fresh-cut kailan-hybrid broccoli were compared with those of the 'Parthenon' cv. throughout 15 days at 2 ℃, 5 ℃ and 8 ℃ under air and modified atmosphere packaging. Florets showed higher dietary fiber content than stems. The total protein content of kailan-hybrid florets was 2.2-fold higher than that of 'Parthenon' cv. and higher amounts of S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Sr, Mn, Zn and Cu were found. However, 'Parthenon' florets registered higher initial total phenolics content than the kailan-hybrid edible part, followed by an increase throughout shelf-life favored at 5 ℃ and 8 ℃ under modified atmosphere packaging (5-7 kPa O2 + 14-15 kPa CO2). Modified atmosphere packaging stored samples at 8 ℃ showed higher individual phenolics content than modified atmosphere packaging stored samples at 2 ℃. The initial total antioxidant capacity of the kailan-hybrid edible part was higher than that of 'Parthenon' cv. florets. In conclusion, the kailan-hybrid florets generally showed healthier properties on the analyzed bioactive compounds, except total phenolic content, compared to the conventional 'Parthenon' cv.

  11. Expressions of Different-Trajectory Caused Motion Events in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Jing Z.

    2013-01-01

    We perform motion events in all aspects of our daily life, from walking home to jumping into a pool, from throwing a frisbee to pushing a shopping cart. The fact that languages may encode such motion events in different fashions has raised intriguing questions regarding the typological classifications of natural languages in relation to…

  12. Towards a Complete Commonsense Theory of Motion: The interaction of dimensions in children's predictions of natural object motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Michael; Howe, Christine

    2013-07-01

    Events involving motion in fall are differentiated psychologically from events involving horizontal motion. Do children associate motion down inclines more with motion along horizontals or more with motion in fall, or do they even treat it as an integration of the two? The question was raised over 20 years ago but never satisfactorily answered, so the principal aim of the reported research was to take matters forward. Children (n = 144) aged 5-11 years were assessed while predicting natural dynamic events along a horizontal, in fall and down an incline. They were required to make predictions of speed with heavy and light balls and under changes in incline heights. The results show that, consistent with previous work, faster horizontal motion was associated with the light ball across all ages, whereas faster fall was associated with the heavy ball. However, while the younger children predicted faster incline motion for the lighter ball, there was a shift in this conception towards older children predicting faster motion for the heavier ball. Understanding of how changes in incline height affect speed was generally good, with this aspect of the study helping to establish how children perceive diagonal dimensions. How supported horizontal motion and unsupported fall motion may affect children's changing understanding of incline motion is discussed, thus providing more complete insight into children's understanding of natural object motion than has been established so far.

  13. Honey and honey-based sugars partially affect reproductive trade-offs in parasitoids exhibiting different life-history and reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Essens, Tijl A; Las, Rutger A; van Veen, Cindy; Visser, Bertanne; Ellers, Jacintha; Heinen, Robin; Gols, Rieta

    2016-12-23

    Adult dietary regimes in insects may affect egg production, fecundity and ultimately fitness. This is especially relevant in parasitoid wasps where many species serve as important biological control agents of agricultural pests. Here, we tested the effect of honey and sugar diets on daily fecundity schedules, lifetime reproductive success and longevity in four species of parasitoid wasps when reared on their respective hosts. The parasitoid species were selected based on dichotomies in host usage strategies and reproductive traits. Gelis agilis and G. areator are idiobiont ecto-parasitoids that develop in non-growing hosts, feed on protein-rich host fluids to maximize reproduction as adults and produce small numbers of large eggs. Meteorus pulchricornis and Microplitis mediator are koinobiont endoparasitoids that develop inside the bodies of growing hosts, do not host-feed, and produce greater numbers of small eggs. Parasitoids were reared on diets of either pure honey (containing trace amounts of proteins), heated honey (with denatured proteins) and a honey-mimic containing sugars only. We hypothesized that the benefits of proteins in honey would enhance reproduction in the ectoparasitoids due to their high metabolic investment per egg, but not in the koinobionts. Pure honey diet resulted in higher lifetime fecundity in G. agilis compared with the honey-mimic, whereas in both koinobionts, reproductive success did not vary significantly with diet. Longevity was less affected by diet in all of the parasitoids, although there were variable trade-offs between host access and longevity in the four species. We argue that there are both trait-based and association-specific effects of supplementary nutrients in honey on reproductive investment and success in parasitoid wasps.

  14. Investigating motion sickness using the conditioned taste aversion paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to study motion sickness is reviewed. The use of CTA to measure motion sickness is supported by studies showing that an intact vestibular system is essential for the production of CTA when motion is the unconditioned stimulus. The magnitude of CTA is assessed at a time removed from exposure to motion, and therefore is not affected by residual effects of motion. Since the magnitude of CTA is assessed as volume or weight of flood or fluid, the degree of sickness is reflected in a continuous measure rather than in the discrete, all-or-none fashion characteristic of vomiting.

  15. Does an Open Recirculation Line Affect the Flow Rate and Pressure in a Neonatal Extracorporeal Life Support Circuit With a Centrifugal or Roller Pump?

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Spencer, Shannon B; Woitas, Karl; Glass, Kristen; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of an open or closed recirculation line on flow rate, circuit pressure, and hemodynamic energy transmission in simulated neonatal extracorporeal life support (ECLS) systems. The two neonatal ECLS circuits consisted of a Maquet HL20 roller pump (RP group) or a RotaFlow centrifugal pump (CP group), Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator, and Biomedicus arterial and venous cannulae (8 Fr and 10 Fr) primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (hematocrit 35%). Trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 200 to 600 mL/min (200 mL/min increments) with a closed or open recirculation line at 36°C. Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a custom-based data acquisition system. In the RP group, the preoxygenator flow did not change when the recirculation line was open while the prearterial cannula flow decreased by 15.7-20.0% (P < 0.01). Circuit pressure, total circuit pressure drop, and hemodynamic energy delivered to patients also decreased (P < 0.01). In the CP group, the prearterial cannula flow did not change while preoxygenator flow increased by 13.6-18.8% (P < 0.01). Circuit pressure drop and hemodynamic energy transmission remained the same. The results showed that the shunt of an open recirculation line could decrease perfusion flow in patients in the ECLS circuit using a roller pump, but did not change perfusion flow in the circuit using a centrifugal pump. An additional flow sensor is needed to monitor perfusion flow in patients if any shunts exist in the ECLS circuit.

  16. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Rigassio-Radler, Diane; Denmark, Robert; Haley, Timothy; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2013-06-01

    College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI. The present study recruited apparently healthy college students and assessed the effect of probiotics on HRQL outcomes (i.e. self-reported duration, symptom severity and functional impairment of URI) in those who developed URI. Missed school and work days due to URI were also considered. Subjects (n 231) were apparently healthy college students living on campus in residence halls at the Framingham State University (Framingham, MA, USA), and were randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks. Subjects completed The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess HRQL during URI. The final analyses included 198 subjects (placebo, n 97 and probiotics, n 101). The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34% with probiotics v. placebo (P,0·001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P=0·429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0·2 d) compared to the placebo group (P=0·002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL. More research is warranted regarding mechanisms of action associated with these findings and the cost-benefit of prophylactic supplementation.

  17. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  18. Therapygenetics in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: do genes have an impact on therapy-induced change in real-life positive affective experiences?

    PubMed

    Bakker, J M; Lieverse, R; Menne-Lothmann, C; Viechtbauer, W; Pishva, E; Kenis, G; Geschwind, N; Peeters, F; van Os, J; Wichers, M

    2014-04-22

    Positive affect (PA) has an important role in resilience against depression and has been shown to increase with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of change in PA as well as develop insights that may benefit personalized medicine, the current study examined the contribution of genetic variation to individual differences in change in PA in response to MBCT. Individuals (n=126) with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an MBCT group or treatment as usual. PA was assessed using experience sampling methodology (ESM). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to be involved in reward functioning were selected. SNPs in the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2), the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and the μ1 opioid receptor (OPRM1) significantly moderated the impact of treatment condition over time on PA. Genetic variation in the genes for CHRM2 and OPRM1 specifically had an impact on the level of PA following MBCT. The current study shows that variation in response to MBCT may be contingent on genetic factors associated with the regulation of PA. These findings contribute to our understanding of the processes moderating response to treatment and prediction of treatment outcome.

  19. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Objects in motion attract children. The following activity helps children explore the motion of bodies riding in a vehicle and safely demonstrates the answer to their questions, "Why do I need a seatbelt?" Children will enjoy moving the cup around, even if all they "see" is a cup rather than understanding it represents a car. They will understand…

  20. Teaching Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a novel approach to the teaching of projectile motion of sixth form level. Students are asked to use an analogue circuit to observe projectile motion and to graph the experimental results. Using knowledge of basic dynamics, students are asked to explain the shape of the curves theoretically. (Author/MA)

  1. Making Sense of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    When watching a small child with a toy car, it is seen that interest in motion comes early. Children often suggest speed through sounds such as "RRRrrrRRRooooommMMMmmmm" as the toy car is made to speed up, slow down, or accelerate through a turn. Older children start to consider force and motion studies in more detail, and experiences in school…

  2. Body Motion and Graphing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Tierney, Cornelia; Wright, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed two children's use of a computer-based motion detector to make sense of symbolic expressions (Cartesian graphs). Found three themes: (1) tool perspectives, efforts to understand graphical responses to body motion; (2) fusion, emergent ways of talking and behaving that merge symbols and referents; and (3) graphical spaces, when changing…

  3. Naive Conceptions of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Michael

    Two experiments were conducted to characterize the system of beliefs that make up the naive impetus theory of motion and to determine what effects physics instruction has on students' conceptions of motion. Thirteen college students were asked to solve several quantitative problems and were interviewed about their answers in the first experiment.…

  4. Measuring mandibular motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

  5. Object motion analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of optical data processing (ODP) techniques for motion analysis in two-dimensional imagery was studied. The basic feasibility of this approach was demonstrated, but inconsistent performance of the photoplastic used for recording spatial filters prevented totally automatic operation. Promising solutions to the problems encountered are discussed, and it is concluded that ODP techniques could be quite useful for motion analysis.

  6. People can understand descriptions of motion without activating visual motion brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2013-01-01

    What is the relationship between our perceptual and linguistic neural representations of the same event? We approached this question by asking whether visual perception of motion and understanding linguistic depictions of motion rely on the same neural architecture. The same group of participants took part in two language tasks and one visual task. In task 1, participants made semantic similarity judgments with high motion (e.g., “to bounce”) and low motion (e.g., “to look”) words. In task 2, participants made plausibility judgments for passages describing movement (“A centaur hurled a spear … ”) or cognitive events (“A gentleman loved cheese …”). Task 3 was a visual motion localizer in which participants viewed animations of point-light walkers, randomly moving dots, and stationary dots changing in luminance. Based on the visual motion localizer we identified classic visual motion areas of the temporal (MT/MST and STS) and parietal cortex (inferior and superior parietal lobules). We find that these visual cortical areas are largely distinct from neural responses to linguistic depictions of motion. Motion words did not activate any part of the visual motion system. Motion passages produced a small response in the right superior parietal lobule, but none of the temporal motion regions. These results suggest that (1) as compared to words, rich language stimuli such as passages are more likely to evoke mental imagery and more likely to affect perceptual circuits and (2) effects of language on the visual system are more likely in secondary perceptual areas as compared to early sensory areas. We conclude that language and visual perception constitute distinct but interacting systems. PMID:24009592

  7. Motion-sensitive cortex and motion semantics in American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Stephen; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Korpics, Franco; Emmorey, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that motion-sensitive brain regions are engaged when comprehending motion semantics expressed by words or sentences. Using fMRI, we investigated whether such neural modulation can occur when the linguistic signal itself is visually dynamic and motion semantics is expressed by movements of the hands. Deaf and hearing users of American Sign Language (ASL) were presented with signed sentences that conveyed motion semantics (“The deer walked along the hillside.”) or were static, conveying little or no motion (“The deer slept along the hillside.”); sentences were matched for amount of visual motion. Motion-sensitive visual areas (MT+) were localized individually in each participant. As a control, the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) was also localized for the deaf participants. The whole-brain analysis revealed static (locative) sentences engaged regions in left parietal cortex more than motion sentences, replicating previous results implicating these regions in comprehending spatial language for sign languages. Greater activation was observed in the functionally defined MT+ ROI for motion than static sentences for both deaf and hearing signers. No modulation of neural activity by sentence type was observed in the FFA. Deafness did not affect modulation of MT+ by motion semantics, but hearing signers exhibited stronger neural activity in MT+ for both sentence types, perhaps due to differences in exposure and/or use of ASL. We conclude that top down modulation of motion-sensitive cortex by linguistic semantics is not disrupted by the visual motion that is present in sign language sentences. PMID:22750056

  8. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  9. Helicopter Flight Simulation Motion Platform Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn

    1999-01-01

    To determine motion fidelity requirements, a series of piloted simulations was performed. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositioning. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.

  10. The controversy of cranial bone motion.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J S; Witt, P L

    1997-08-01

    Cranial bone motion continues to stimulate controversy. This controversy affects the general acceptance of some intervention methods used by physical therapists, namely, cranial osteopathic and craniosacral therapy techniques. Core to these intervention techniques is the belief that cranial bone mobility provides a compliant system where somatic dysfunction can occur and therapeutic techniques can be applied. Diversity of opinion over the truth of this concept characterizes differing viewpoints on the anatomy and physiology of the cranial complex. Literature on cranial bone motion was reviewed for the purpose of better understanding this topic. Published research overall was scant and inconclusive. Animal and human studies demonstrate a potential for small magnitude motion. Physical therapists should carefully scrutinize the literature presented as evidence for cranial bone motion. Further research is needed to resolve this controversy. Outcomes research, however, is needed to validate cranial bone mobilization as an effective treatment.

  11. Collective motion of microswimmers in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of suspension of self-propelled microorganisms show fascinating hydrodynamic phenomena, such as, large scale swarming motion, locally correlated motion, enhanced particle diffusion, and enhanced fluid mixing. Even though many studies have been conducted in a Newtonian fluid, the collective motion of microorganisms in non-Newtonian fluids is less understood. The non-Newtonian fluid rheological properties, such as viscoelasticity and shear-dependent viscosity in saliva, mucus and biofilm, significantly affect the swimming properties and hydrodynamic interaction of microorganisms. In this work, we use direct numerical simulation to investigate the collective motion of rod-like swimmers in viscoelastic fluids. Two swimming types, pusher and puller, are investigated. The background viscoelastic fluid is modeled using an Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1445955 and Indiana CTSI TR001108.

  12. Fractional Brownian motion and motion governed by the fractional Langevin equation in confined geometries.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Motivated by subdiffusive motion of biomolecules observed in living cells, we study the stochastic properties of a non-Brownian particle whose motion is governed by either fractional Brownian motion or the fractional Langevin equation and restricted to a finite domain. We investigate by analytic calculations and simulations how time-averaged observables (e.g., the time-averaged mean-squared displacement and displacement correlation) are affected by spatial confinement and dimensionality. In particular, we study the degree of weak ergodicity breaking and scatter between different single trajectories for this confined motion in the subdiffusive domain. The general trend is that deviations from ergodicity are decreased with decreasing size of the movement volume and with increasing dimensionality. We define the displacement correlation function and find that this quantity shows distinct features for fractional Brownian motion, fractional Langevin equation, and continuous time subdiffusion, such that it appears an efficient measure to distinguish these different processes based on single-particle trajectory data.

  13. Motion sickness in migraine sufferers.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Dawn A; Furman, Joseph M; Balaban, Carey D

    2005-12-01

    Motion sickness commonly occurs after exposure to actual motion, such as car or amusement park rides, or virtual motion, such as panoramic movies. Motion sickness symptoms may be disabling, significantly limiting business, travel and leisure activities. Motion sickness occurs in approximately 50% of migraine sufferers. Understanding motion sickness in migraine patients may improve understanding of the physiology of both conditions. Recent literature suggests important relationships between the trigeminal system and vestibular nuclei that may have implications for both motion sickness and migraine. Studies demonstrating an important relationship between serotonin receptors and motion sickness susceptibility in both rodents and humans suggest possible new motion sickness prevention therapies.

  14. Visualizing motion in video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Lisa M.; Crayne, Susan

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, we present a visualization system and method for measuring, inspecting and analyzing motion in video. Starting from a simple motion video, the system creates a still image representation which we call a digital strobe photograph. Similar to visualization techniques used in conventional film photography to capture high-speed motion using strobe lamps or very fast shutters, and to capture time-lapse motion where the shutter is left open, this methodology creates a single image showing the motion of one or a small number of objects over time. Based on digital background subtraction, we assume that the background is stationary or at most slowing changing and that the camera position is fixed. The method is capable of displaying the motion based on a parameter indicating the time step between successive movements. It can also overcome problems of visualizing movement that is obscured by previous movements. The method is used in an educational software tool for children to measure and analyze various motions. Examples are given using simple physical objects such as balls and pendulums, astronomical events such as the path of the stars around the north pole at night, or the different types of locomotion used by snakes.

  15. Typical object velocity influences motion extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Makin, Alexis D J; Stewart, Andrew J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2009-02-01

    Previous work indicates that extrapolation of object motion during occlusion is affected by the velocity of the immediately preceding trial. Here we ask whether longer-term velocity representations can also influence motion extrapolation. Red, blue or green targets disappeared behind an occluder. Participants pressed a button when they thought the target had reached the other side. Red targets were slower (10-20 deg/s), blue targets moved at medium velocities (14-26 deg/s) and green targets were faster (20-30 deg/s). We compared responses on a subset of red and green trials which always travelled at 20 deg/s. Although trial velocities were identical, participants responded as if the green targets moved faster (M = 22.64 deg/s) then the red targets (M = 19.72 deg/s). This indicates that motion extrapolation is affected by longer-term information about the typical velocity of different categories of stimuli.

  16. Motion Recognition and Modifying Motion Generation for Imitation Robot Based on Motion Knowledge Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuzawa, Yuki; Kato, Shohei; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Itoh, Hidenori

    A knowledge-based approach to imitation learning of motion generation for humanoid robots and an imitative motion generation system based on motion knowledge learning and modification are described. The system has three parts: recognizing, learning, and modifying parts. The first part recognizes an instructed motion distinguishing it from the motion knowledge database by the continuous hidden markov model. When the motion is recognized as being unfamiliar, the second part learns it using locally weighted regression and acquires a knowledge of the motion. When a robot recognizes the instructed motion as familiar or judges that its acquired knowledge is applicable to the motion generation, the third part imitates the instructed motion by modifying a learned motion. This paper reports some performance results: the motion imitation of several radio gymnastics motions.

  17. Inflation and cyclotron motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greensite, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the Universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that slow roll conditions on the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field satisfying unconventional dispersion relations.

  18. Generalized compliant motion primitive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-08-01

    This invention relates to a general primitive for controlling a telerobot with a set of input parameters. The primitive includes a trajectory generator; a teleoperation sensor; a joint limit generator; a force setpoint generator; a dither function generator, which produces telerobot motion inputs in a common coordinate frame for simultaneous combination in sensor summers. Virtual return spring motion input is provided by a restoration spring subsystem. The novel features of this invention include use of a single general motion primitive at a remote site to permit the shared and supervisory control of the robot manipulator to perform tasks via a remotely transferred input parameter set.

  19. Vertigo and dizziness from environmental motion: visual vertigo, motion sickness, and drivers' disorientation.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Adolfo M; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    The normal vestibular system may be adversely affected by environmental challenges which have characteristics that are unfamiliar or ambiguous in the patterns of sensory stimulation they provide. A disordered vestibular system lends susceptibility even to quotidian environmental experiences as the sufferer becomes dependent on potentially misleading, nonvestibular sensory stimuli. In both cases, the sequelae may be vertigo, incoordination, imbalance, and unpleasant autonomic responses. Common environmental motion conditions include visual vertigo, motion sickness, and motorists' disorientation. The core therapy for visual vertigo, motion sickness, and drivers' disorientation is progressive desensitization within a cognitive framework of reassurance and explanation, plus anxiolytic tactics and autogenic control of autonomic symptoms.

  20. NEW LIFE FOR OLD SCHOOLS--AN INTERIM REPORT. A 16MM MOTION PICTURE PRODUCED AS PART OF A CONTINUING STUDY ON THE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS OF SCHOOL MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAVES, BEN E.

    THIS BROCHURE DISCUSSES A FILM PRODUCED UNDER A GRANT FROM EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES LABORATORIES ENTITLED "NEW LIFE FOR OLD SCHOOLS--AN INTERIM REPORT." EARLY IN 1965 THE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE GREAT CITIES PROGRAM FOR SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT ANNOUNCED THE FUNDING FOR A STUDY OF THE PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH THE MODERNIZATION OF OUTMODED SCHOOL PLANTS. AS…

  1. 38 CFR 4.59 - Painful motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manipulation, should be carefully noted and definitely related to affected joints. Muscle spasm will greatly... intent of the schedule is to recognize painful motion with joint or periarticular pathology as productive of disability. It is the intention to recognize actually painful, unstable, or malaligned joints,...

  2. 38 CFR 4.59 - Painful motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manipulation, should be carefully noted and definitely related to affected joints. Muscle spasm will greatly... intent of the schedule is to recognize painful motion with joint or periarticular pathology as productive of disability. It is the intention to recognize actually painful, unstable, or malaligned joints,...

  3. 38 CFR 4.59 - Painful motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manipulation, should be carefully noted and definitely related to affected joints. Muscle spasm will greatly... intent of the schedule is to recognize painful motion with joint or periarticular pathology as productive of disability. It is the intention to recognize actually painful, unstable, or malaligned joints,...

  4. Projectile Motion with Mathematica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Alwis, Tilak

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use the computer algebra system (CAS) Mathematica to analyze projectile motion with and without air resistance. These experiments result in several conjectures leading to theorems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ASK)

  5. Projectile Motion Details.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnick, Jeffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an exercise that attempts to correct for the common discrepancies between theoretical and experimental predictions concerning projectile motion using a spring-loaded projectile ball launcher. Includes common correction factors for student use. (MVL)

  6. Toying with Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  7. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  8. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... soon as the motion stops. The more you travel, the more easily you'll adjust to being ... at least 30 to 60 minutes before you travel. Expect drowsiness as a side effect. Consider scopolamine ( ...

  9. A Projectile Motion Bullseye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1985-01-01

    Explains a projectile motion experiment involving a bow and arrow. Procedures to measure "muzzle" velocity, bow elastic potential energy, range, flight time, wind resistance, and masses are considered. (DH)

  10. Explanations of Superluminal Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuer, P. A. G.

    Recent developments in models of core-jet sources with apparent superluminal motions are reviewed. Emphasis is given to new versions of the so-called "Christmas tree" model and the relativistic beaming model.

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of motion sensor step-counting error.

    PubMed

    Abel, Mark G; Peritore, Nicole; Shapiro, Robert; Mullineaux, David R; Rodriguez, Kelly; Hannon, James C

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the effect that walking speed, gender, leg length, motion sensor tilt angle, brand, and placement have on motion sensor step-counting error. Fifty-nine participants performed treadmill walking trials at 6 speeds while wearing 5 motion sensor brands placed on the anterior (Digiwalker, DW; Walk4Life, WFL; New Lifestyles, NL; Omron, OM), midaxillary (DW; WFL; NL; ActiGraph, AG), and posterior (DW, WFL, NL) aspects of the waistline. The anterior-placed NL and midaxillary-placed AG were the most accurate motion sensors. Motion sensor step-count error tended to decrease at faster walking speeds, with lesser tilt angles, and with an anterior waistline placement. Gender and leg length had no effect on motion sensor step-count error. We conclude that the NL and AG yielded the most accurate step counts at a range of walking speeds in individuals with different physical characteristics.

  12. Action induction due to visual perception of linear motion in depth.

    PubMed

    Classen, Claudia; Kibele, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Visually perceived motion can affect observers' motor control in such a way that an intended action can be activated automatically when it contains similar spatial features. So far, effects have been mostly demonstrated with simple displays where objects were moving in a two-dimensional plane. However, almost all actions we perform and visually perceive in everyday life are much more complex and take place in three-dimensional space. The purpose of this study was to examine action inductions due to visual perception of motion in depth. Therefore, we conducted two Simon experiments where subjects were presented with video displays of a sphere (simple displays, experiment 1) and a real person (complex displays, experiment 2) moving in depth. In both experiments, motion direction towards and away from the observer served as task irrelevant information whereas a color change in the video served as relevant information to choose the correct response (close or far positioned response key). The results show that subjects reacted faster when motion direction of the dynamic stimulus was corresponding to the spatial position of the demanded response. In conclusion, this direction-based Simon effect is modulated by spatial position information, higher sensitivity of our visual system for looming objects, and a high salience of objects being on a collision course.

  13. Effect of herbivore damage on broad leaf motion in wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Nicholas; Kothari, Adit

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial plants regularly experience wind that imposes aerodynamic forces on the plants' leaves. Passive leaf motion (e.g. fluttering) and reconfiguration (e.g. rolling into a cone shape) in wind can affect the drag on the leaf. In the study of passive leaf motion in wind, little attention has been given to the effect of herbivory. Herbivores may alter leaf motion in wind by making holes in the leaf. Also, a small herbivore (e.g. snail) on a leaf can act as a point mass, thereby affecting the leaf's motion in wind. Conversely, accelerations imposed on an herbivore sitting on a leaf by the moving leaf may serve as a defense by dislodging the herbivore. In the present study, we investigated how point masses (>1 g) and holes in leaves of the tuliptree affected passive leaf motion in turbulent winds of 1 and 5 m s-1. Leaf motion was unaffected by holes in the leaf surface (about 10% of leaf area), but an herbivore's mass significantly damped the accelerations of fluttering leaves. These results suggest that an herbivore's mass, but not the damage it inflicts, can affect leaf motion in the wind. Furthermore, the damping of leaf fluttering from an herbivore's mass may prevent passive leaf motions from being an effective herbivore defense.

  14. Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.; Martínez-Pagan, J.; Santana-Torres, E. X.; Torres-O, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network is currently in charge of the operation of: (i) free-field (ff) strong motion stations, (ii) instrumented structures (STR) (Dams, Bridges, Buildings), and (iii) the data acquisition/monitoring and analysis of earthquakes considered strong from the point of view of their intensity and magnitude. All these instruments are deployed in the Puerto Rico Island (PRI), US-, and British-Virgin Islands (BVI), and Dominican Republic (DR). The Puerto Rico Island and the Caribbean region have high potential to be affected by earthquakes that could be catastrophic for the area. The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network (actually Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program, PRSMP) has grown since 1970's from 7 ff strong motion stations and one instrumented building with analog accelerographs to 111 ff strong motion stations and 16 instrumented buildings with digital accelerographs: PRI: 88 ff, 16 STR., DR: 13 ff, BVI: 5 ff, 2 STR collecting data via IP (internet), DU (telephone), and stand alone stations The current stage of the PRSMP seismic network, the analysis of moderate earthquakes that were recorded and/or occurred on the island, results of the intensity distribution of selected earthquakes, as well as results of dynamic parameter identification of some of the instrumented structures are here presented.

  15. How loads affect coiled tubing life

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.J. Inc., AK )

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue testing was performed on 1-3/4-in OD, 0.125 in. wall thickness (WT) coiled tubing using a standard coiled tubing unit (CTU) as shown in this paper. Testing was conducted under Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil well, conditions to determine the effects of axial load, internal pressure and bending stress on the longevity, or usable running footage, that can be expected with larger diameter tubing. The CTU was rigged up in a standard configuration with injector head 50 ft off the ground, the worst case for bending on most currently available North Slope units. Internal pressure was supplied by a small triplex pump and the end of tubing was closed off with a fishing neck and bull plug. Weight, for the first four tests, was suspended from the coiled tubing by a special clamp. The tubing was cycled up and over the guide arch until a loss of internal coiled tubing pressure (CTP) occurred, or until the tubing became stuck in the stripper brass.

  16. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  17. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  18. Gastrointestinal motility in space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1987-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms in space motion sickness (SMS) are significantly different from those in ordinary motion sickness (MS). Recording and tabulation of sounds was the only technique that could be used as a measure of motility during spaceflight operations. There were 17 subjects, six unaffected by SMS, who made ambulatory recordings preflight and inflight. With one exception, all those affected had sharply reduced sounds, while those unaffected had increases or moderate reductions. The mechanism of vomiting in SMS appears to be secondary to this ileus, in contrast to vomiting in ordinary MS, where the emesis center is thought to be directly triggered by the vestibular system.

  19. Yugoslav strong motion network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailov, Vladimir

    1985-04-01

    Data concerning ground motion and the response of structures during strong earthquakes are necessary for seismic hazard evaluation and the definition of design criteria for structures to be constructed in seismically active zones. The only way to obtain such data is the installation of a strong-motion instrument network. The Yugoslav strong-motion programme was created in 1972 to recover strong-motion response data used by the structural engineering community in developing earthquake resistant design. Instruments, accelerographs SMA-1 and seismoscopes WM-1, were installed in free-field stations and on structures (high-rise buildings, dams, bridges, etc.). A total number of 176 accelerographs and 137 seismoscopes have been installed and are operating in Yugoslavia. The strong-motion programme in Yugoslavia consists of five subactivities: network design, network operation, data processing, network management and research as well as application. All these activities are under the responsibility of IZIIS in cooperation with the Yugoslav Association of Seismology. By 1975 in the realisation of this project participated the CALTECH as cooperative institution in the joint American-Yugoslav cooperative project. The results obtained which are presented in this paper, and their application in the aseismic design justify the necessity for the existence of such a network in Yugoslavia.

  20. Space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homick, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the etiology, prediction, treatment and prevention of space motion sickness, designed to minimize the impact of this syndrome which was experienced frequently and with severity by individuals on the Skylab missions, on Space Shuttle crews is reviewed. Theories of the cause of space motion sickness currently under investigation by NASA include sensory conflict, which argues that motion sickness symptoms result from a mismatch between the total pattern of information from the spatial senses and that stored from previous experiences, and fluid shift, based upon the redistribution of bodily fluids that occurs upon continued exposure to weightlessness. Attempts are underway to correlate space motion sickness susceptibility to different provocative environments, vestibular and nonvestibular responses, and the rate of acquisition and length of retention of sensory adaptation. Space motion sickness countermeasures under investigation include various drug combinations, of which the equal combination of promethazine and ephedrine has been found to be as effective as the scopolomine and dexedrine combination, and vestibular adaptation and biofeedback training and autogenic therapy.

  1. The Particle--Motion Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses solutions to real-world linear particle-motion problems using graphing calculators to simulate the motion and traditional analytic methods of calculus. Applications include (1) changing circular or curvilinear motion into linear motion and (2) linear particle accelerators in physics. (MDH)

  2. Brownian motion of graphene.

    PubMed

    Maragó, Onofrio M; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Saija, Rosalba; Privitera, Giulia; Gucciardi, Pietro G; Iatì, Maria Antonia; Calogero, Giuseppe; Jones, Philip H; Borghese, Ferdinando; Denti, Paolo; Nicolosi, Valeria; Ferrari, Andrea C

    2010-12-28

    Brownian motion is a manifestation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem of statistical mechanics. It regulates systems in physics, biology, chemistry, and finance. We use graphene as prototype material to unravel the consequences of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in two dimensions, by studying the Brownian motion of optically trapped graphene flakes. These orient orthogonal to the light polarization, due to the optical constants anisotropy. We explain the flake dynamics in the optical trap and measure force and torque constants from the correlation functions of the tracking signals, as well as comparing experiments with a full electromagnetic theory of optical trapping. The understanding of optical trapping of two-dimensional nanostructures gained through our Brownian motion analysis paves the way to light-controlled manipulation and all-optical sorting of biological membranes and anisotropic macromolecules.

  3. Motion detector and analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Unruh, W.P.

    1987-03-23

    Method and apparatus are provided for deriving positive and negative Doppler spectrum to enable analysis of objects in motion, and particularly, objects having rotary motion. First and second returned radar signals are mixed with internal signals to obtain an in-phase process signal and a quadrature process signal. A broad-band phase shifter shifts the quadrature signal through 90/degree/ relative to the in-phase signal over a predetermined frequency range. A pair of signals is output from the broad-band phase shifter which are then combined to provide a first side band signal which is functionally related to a negative Doppler shift spectrum. The distinct positive and negative Doppler spectra may then be analyzed for the motion characteristics of the object being examined.

  4. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  5. Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine for Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2007-01-01

    In the post-World War II era, the major technology drivers for improving the life, reliability, and performance of rolling-element bearings and gears have been the jet engine and the helicopter. By the late 1950s, most of the materials used for bearings and gears in the aerospace industry had been introduced into use. By the early 1960s, the life of most steels was increased over that experienced in the early 1940s, primarily by the introduction of vacuum degassing and vacuum melting processes in the late 1950s. The development of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory showed that most rolling bearings and gears have a thin film separating the contacting bodies during motion and it is that film which affects their lives. Computer programs modeling bearing and gear dynamics that incorporate probabilistic life prediction methods and EHD theory enable optimization of rotating machinery based on life and reliability. With improved manufacturing and processing, the potential improvement in bearing and gear life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the early 1950s. The work presented summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox. The resulting predictions are compared with field data.

  6. Diversity of Life Possible

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planets are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustaining atmosphere. The orbit affects the surface temperature and...

  7. Dislocation motion and instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yichao; Chapman, Stephen Jonathan; Acharya, Amit

    2013-08-01

    The Peach-Koehler expression for the stress generated by a single (non-planar) curvilinear dislocation is evaluated to calculate the dislocation self stress. This is combined with a law of motion to give the self-induced motion of a general dislocation curve. A stability analysis of a rectilinear, uniformly translating dislocation is then performed. The dislocation is found to be susceptible to a helical instability, with the maximum growth rate occurring when the dislocation is almost, but not exactly, pure screw. The non-linear evolution of the instability is determined numerically, and implications for slip band formation and non-Schmid behavior in yielding are discussed.

  8. Motion in microfluidic ratchets.

    PubMed

    Caballero, D; Katuri, J; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2016-11-15

    The ubiquitous random motion of mesoscopic active particles, such as cells, can be "rectified" or directed by embedding the particles in systems containing local and periodic asymmetric cues. Incorporated on lab-on-a-chip devices, these microratchet-like structures can be used to self-propel fluids, transport particles, and direct cell motion in the absence of external power sources. In this Focus article we discuss recent advances in the use of ratchet-like geometries in microfluidics which could open new avenues in biomedicine for applications in diagnosis, cancer biology, and bioengineering.

  9. Analysis of swimming motions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallenstein, J.; Huston, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of swimming motion with specific attention given to the flutter kick, the breast-stroke kick, and the breast stroke. The analysis is completely theoretical. It employs a mathematical model of the human body consisting of frustrums of elliptical cones. Dynamical equations are written for this model including both viscous and inertia forces. These equations are then applied with approximated swimming strokes and solved numerically using a digital computer. The procedure is to specify the input of the swimming motion. The computer solution then provides the output displacement, velocity, and rotation or body roll of the swimmer.

  10. Protrusion Fluctuations Direct Cell Motion

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, David; Voituriez, Raphaël; Riveline, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many physiological phenomena involve directional cell migration. It is usually attributed to chemical gradients in vivo. Recently, other cues have been shown to guide cells in vitro, including stiffness/adhesion gradients or micropatterned adhesive motifs. However, the cellular mechanism leading to these biased migrations remains unknown, and, often, even the direction of motion is unpredictable. In this study, we show the key role of fluctuating protrusions on ratchet-like structures in driving NIH3T3 cell migration. We identified the concept of efficient protrusion and an associated direction index. Our analysis of the protrusion statistics facilitated the quantitative prediction of cell trajectories in all investigated conditions. We varied the external cues by changing the adhesive patterns. We also modified the internal cues using drug treatments, which modified the protrusion activity. Stochasticity affects the short- and long-term steps. We developed a theoretical model showing that an asymmetry in the protrusion fluctuations is sufficient for predicting all measures associated with the long-term motion, which can be described as a biased persistent random walk. PMID:24988339

  11. Induced motion at texture-defined motion boundaries.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, A; Benton, C P; McOwan, P W

    1999-01-01

    When a static textured background is covered and uncovered by a moving bar of the same mean luminance we can clearly see the motion of the bar. Texture-defined motion provides an example of a naturally occurring second-order motion. Second-order motion sequences defeat standard spatio-temporal energy models of motion perception. It has been proposed that second-order stimuli are analysed by separate systems, operating in parallel with luminance-defined motion processing, which incorporate identifiable pre-processing stages that make second-order patterns visible to standard techniques. However, the proposal of multiple paths to motion analysis remains controversial. Here we describe the behaviour of a model that recovers both luminance-defined and an important class of texture-defined motion. The model also accounts for the induced motion that is seen in some texture-defined motion sequences. We measured the perceived direction and speed of both the contrast envelope and induced motion in the case of a contrast modulation of static noise textures. Significantly, the model predicts the perceived speed of the induced motion seen at second-order texture boundaries. The induced motion investigated here appears distinct from classical induced effects resulting from motion contrast or the movement of a reference frame. PMID:10643088

  12. The impact of vehicle motion during transport on animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Santurtun, Eduardo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-06-01

    Motion sickness is a common response in humans and some species of farm livestock during transport, but research on the impact of motion has been primarily focused on the use of animal models for humans. During livestock transportation, animals seek to minimise uncontrolled movements to reduce energy consumption and maintain posture. Road and sea transport of livestock can produce motion sickness and stress responses. Clinical signs are the result of autonomous nervous system activation. Studies conducted on road transportation effects in domestic animals showed several motion sickness behaviours including vomiting and, in ruminants, a reduction in rumination. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of sea transport motion. Despite the paucity of data on livestock, there is sufficient evidence to believe that motion might affect animal welfare when animals are transported by road or sea.

  13. Simulation of ground motion using the stochastic method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and powerful method for simulating ground motions is to combine parametric or functional descriptions of the ground motion's amplitude spectrum with a random phase spectrum modified such that the motion is distributed over a duration related to the earthquake magnitude and to the distance from the source. This method of simulating ground motions often goes by the name "the stochastic method." It is particularly useful for simulating the higher-frequency ground motions of most interest to engineers (generally, f>0.1 Hz), and it is widely used to predict ground motions for regions of the world in which recordings of motion from potentially damaging earthquakes are not available. This simple method has been successful in matching a variety of ground-motion measures for earthquakes with seismic moments spanning more than 12 orders of magnitude and in diverse tectonic environments. One of the essential characteristics of the method is that it distills what is known about the various factors affecting ground motions (source, path, and site) into simple functional forms. This provides a means by which the results of the rigorous studies reported in other papers in this volume can be incorporated into practical predictions of ground motion.

  14. A frequency domain based rigid motion artifact reduction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hai; Huang, Xiaojie; Pan, Wenyu; Zhou, Heqin; Feng, Huanqing

    2009-10-01

    During a CT scan, patients' conscious or unconscious motions would result in motion artifacts which undermine the image quality and hamper doctors' accurate diagnosis and therapy. It is desirable to develop a precise motion estimation and artifact reduction method in order to produce high-resolution images. Rigid motion can be decomposed into two components: translational motion and rotational motion. Since considering the rotation and translation simultaneously is very difficult, most former studies on motion artifact reduction ignore rotation. The extended HLCC based method considering the rotation and translation simultaneously relies on a searching algorithm which leads to expensive computing cost. Therefore, a novel method which does not rely on searching is desirable. In this paper, we focus on parallel-beam CT. We first propose a frequency domain based method to estimate rotational motion, which is not affected by translational motion. It realizes the separation of rotation estimation and translation estimation. Then we combine this method with the HLCC based method to construct a new method for general rigid motion called separative estimation and collective correction method. Furthermore, we present numerical simulation results to show the accuracy and robustness of our approach.

  15. A world in motion

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A World in Motion is a physical science curriculum supplement for grades four, five, and six which responds to the need to promote and teach sound science and mathematics concepts. Using the A World in Motion kits, teachers work in partnership with practicing engineer or scientists volunteers to provide students with fun, exciting, and relevant hands-on science and math experiences. During the A World in Motion experience, students work together in {open_quotes}Engineering Design Teams{close_quotes} exploring physics concepts through a series of activities. Each student is assigned a role as either a facilities engineer, development engineer, test engineer, or project engineer and is given responsibilities paralleling those of engineers in industry. The program culminates in a {open_quotes}Design Review{close_quotes} where students can communicate their results, demonstrate their designs, and receive recognition for their efforts. They are given a chance to take on responsibility and build self-esteem. Since January 1991, over 12,000 volunteers engineers have been involved with the program, with a distribution of 20,000 A World in Motion kit throughout the U.S. and Canada.

  16. Superluminal motion (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  17. Linear motion valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The linear motion valve is described. The valve spool employs magnetically permeable rings, spaced apart axially, which engage a sealing assembly having magnetically permeable pole pieces in magnetic relationship with a magnet. The gap between the ring and the pole pieces is sealed with a ferrofluid. Depletion of the ferrofluid is minimized.

  18. Planets in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

  19. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... review the actual safety data or call the patient’s obstetric provider for suggestions. Web-based information may be found at the websites www.Motherisk.org and www.Reprotox.org . PREVENTION Nonpharmacologic interventions to prevent or treat motion sickness include the ...

  20. Introducing Simple Harmonic Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, John

    2002-01-01

    Explains the origin and significance of harmonic motion which is an important topic that has wide application in the world. Describes the phenomenon by using an auxiliary circle to help illustrate the key relationships between acceleration, displacement, time, velocity, and phase. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. Theory of orthodontic motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepe, S.; Pepe, W. D.; Strauss, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A general theory of orthodontic motion is developed that can be applied to determine the forces necessary to induce a given tooth to move to the predetermined desirable position. It is assumed that the natural (nonorthodontic) forces may be represented by a periodic function and the orthodontic forces may be superimposed upon the natural forces. A simple expression is derived for the applied stress.

  2. Solar Motion from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treschman, Keith

    2009-01-01

    At noon throughout the year the Sun has a north-south and east-west motion around the meridian. Earliest/latest sunrises and sunsets do not occur at the solstices and the effect is more pronounced with decreasing latitude. This phenomenon is calculated for 25 Australian cities and the following observations are recorded: (1) The latest sunrise…

  3. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  4. Projectile Motion Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucie, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes projectile motion using symmetry and simple geometry. Deduces the direction of velocity at any point, range, time of flight, maximum height, safety parabola, and maximum range for a projectile launched upon a plane inclined at any angle with respect to the horizontal. (Author/GA)

  5. Marbles in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Meyers, Bernice; Schmidt, William

    1999-01-01

    Marbles were successfully used to help primary students develop concepts of motion. Marble-unit activities began with shaking and rattling inference bags and predicting by listening just how many marbles were in each bag. Students made qualitative and quantitative observations of the marbles, manipulated marbles with a partner, and observed…

  6. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-03-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a bicycle wheel.

  7. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  8. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  9. Plate motion and deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, B.; Prescott, W.; Royden, L.

    1991-02-01

    Our goal is to understand the motions of the plates, the deformation along their boundaries and within their interiors, and the processes that control these tectonic phenomena. In the broadest terms, we must strive to understand the relationships of regional and local deformation to flow in the upper mantle and the rheological, thermal and density structure of the lithosphere. The essential data sets which we require to reach our goal consist of maps of current strain rates at the earth's surface and the distribution of integrated deformation through time as recorded in the geologic record. Our success will depend on the effective synthesis of crustal kinematics with a variety of other geological and geophysical data, within a quantitative theoretical framework describing processes in the earth's interior. Only in this way can we relate the snapshot of current motions and earth structure provided by geodetic and geophysical data with long-term processes operating on the time scales relevant to most geological processes. The wide-spread use of space-based techniques, coupled with traditional geological and geophysical data, promises a revolution in our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of plate motions over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales and in a variety of geologic settings. The space-based techniques that best address problems in plate motion and deformation are precise space-geodetic positioning -- on land and on the seafloor -- and satellite acquisition of detailed altimetric and remote sensing data in oceanic and continental areas. The overall science objectives for the NASA Solid Earth Science plan for the 1990's, are to Understand the motion and deformation of the lithosphere within and across plate boundaries'', and to understand the dynamics of the mantle, the structure and evolution of the lithosphere, and the landforms that result from local and regional deformation. 57 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Anomalous Motion Illusion Contributes to Visual Preference

    PubMed Central

    Stevanov, Jasmina; Spehar, Branka; Ashida, Hiroshi; Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the magnitude of illusory motion in the variants of the “Rotating Snakes” pattern and the visual preference among such patterns. In Experiment 1 we manipulated the outer contour and the internal geometrical structure of the figure to test for corresponding modulations in the perceived illusion magnitude. The strength of illusory motion was estimated by the method of adjustment where the speed of a standard moving figure was matched to the speed of the perceived illusory motion in test figures. We observed modulation of the perceived strength of illusory motion congruent with our geometrical manipulations. In Experiment 2, we directly compared the magnitude of the perceived illusory motion and the preference for these patterns by a method of paired comparison. Images differing in illusion magnitude showed corresponding differences in the reported preference for these patterns. In addition, further analysis revealed that the geometry and lower level image characteristics also substantially contributed to the observed preference ratings. Together these results support the idea that presence of illusory effect and geometrical characteristics determine affective preference for images, as they may be regarded as more interesting, surprising, or fascinating. PMID:23226138

  11. Directional motion of liquid under mechanical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costalonga, Maxime; Brunet, Philippe; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    When a liquid is submitted to mechanical vibrations, steady flows or motion can be generated by non-linear effects. One example is the steady acoustic streaming one can observe when an acoustic wave propagates in a fluid. At the scale of a droplet, steady motion of the whole amount of liquid can arise from zero-mean periodic forcing. As It has been observed by Brunet et al. (PRL 2007), a drop can climb an inclined surface when submitted to vertical vibrations above a threshold in acceleration. Later, Noblin et al. (PRL 2009) showed the velocity and the direction of motion of a sessile drop submitted to both horizontal and vertical vibrations can be tuned by the phase shift between these two excitations. Here we present an experimental study of the mean motion of a sessile drop under slanted vibrations, focusing on the effects of drop properties, as well as the inclination angle of the axis of vibrations. It is shown that the volume and viscosity strongly affect the drop mean velocity, and can even change the direction of its motion. In the case of a low viscous drop, gravity can become significant and be modulated by the inclination of the axis of vibrations. Contact line dynamic during the drop oscillations is also investigated.

  12. Effect of vertical motion on current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallio, Nicholas A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of vertical motion on the performance of current meters at various stream velocities was evaluated to determine whether accurate discharge measurements can be made from a bobbing boat. Three types of current meters--Ott, Price, and vane types--were tested under conditions simulating a bobbing boat. A known frequency and amplitude of vertical motion were imparted to the current meter, and the related effect on the measured stream velocity was determined. One test of the Price meter was made under actual conditions, using a boat and standard measuring gear. The results of the test under actual conditions verified those obtained by simulating the vertical movements of a boat. The tests show that for stream velocities below 2.5 feet per second the accuracy of all three meters is significantly affected when the meters are subjected to certain conditions of vertical motion that can occur during actual field operations. Both the rate of vertical motion and the frequency of vertical oscillation affect the registration of the meter. The results of these tests, presented in the form of graphs and tables, can be used as a guide to determine whether wind and stream flow are within an acceptable range for a reliable discharge measurement from a boat.

  13. Martian Landscapes in Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Sarah; McEwen, Alfred; Kirk, Randolph; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha; Chojnacki, Matthew; Runyon, Kirby; Cremonese, Gabriele; Re, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Stereo images from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's HiRISE camera with ~30 cm pixel scale are used to create high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs), and orthorectified images. HiRISE DTMs have also been used for mapping structural geology (Okubo, 2010, Icarus), sedimentary structures (Metz et al., 2010, JGR), stratigraphy (Weitz et al., 2012, JGR), fluvial deposits (Lefort et al., 2012, JGR), volcanic terrains (Jaeger et al., 2010, Icarus), landing sites (Kirk et al., 2008, JGR), and other static landforms. But the surface of Mars is active today, and orthorectified images are being used to visualize and measure temporal changes. The HiRISE team has produced over 200 DTMs, most at 1 m grid spacing and vertical precision of 10s of cm (Kirk et al. 2008, JGR). To date, 169 DTMs and 400 orthoimages have been made publicly available, with more being added each month (http://uahirise.org/dtm). Three-band color (blue-green, red, and near infrared) orthoimages are also available in many cases. A stereo pair consists of two images with similar lighting angles (to minimize surface differences) but different look angles with a convergence angle in the range of ~10-30º, depending on topography. Additional images to be orthorectified have no such lighting or geometric constraints - they must only have coverage over the area of the original stereo pair. A highly trained human operator works in an interactive digital system to tie surface features in each image to features in the original stereo pair. Orthorectification reprojects each controlled image to the high resolution DTM allowing from near pixel-to-pixel to sub-pixel matching of surface features, without topographic distortions. The main issue affecting the accuracy of HiRISE orthoimages is spacecraft jitter, which causes small-scale distortions. The HiRISE image processing pipeline employs a jitter correction routine that minimizes this problem (Mattson et al. 2009, EPSC) when necessary. The availability of Hi

  14. A motion phantom study on helical tomotherapy: the dosimetric impacts of delivery technique and motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagaki, Brian; Read, Paul W.; Molloy, Janelle A.; Larner, James M.; Sheng, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy (HT) can potentially be used for lung cancer treatment including stereotactic radiosurgery because of its advanced image guidance and its ability to deliver highly conformal dose distributions. However, previous theoretical and simulation studies reported that the effect of respiratory motion on statically planned tomotherapy treatments may cause substantial differences between the calculated and actual delivered radiation isodose distribution, particularly when the treatment is hypofractionated. In order to determine the dosimetric effects of motion upon actual HT treatment delivery, phantom film dosimetry measurements were performed under static and moving conditions using a clinical HT treatment unit. The motion phantom system was constructed using a programmable motor, a base, a moving platform and a life size lung heterogeneity phantom with wood inserts representing lung tissue with a 3.0 cm diameter spherical tumour density equivalent insert. In order to determine the effects of different motion and tomotherapy delivery parameters, treatment plans were created using jaw sizes of 1.04 cm and 2.47 cm, with incremental gantry rotation periods between the minimum allowed (10 s) and the maximum allowed (60 s). The couch speed varied from 0.009 cm s-1 to 0.049 cm s-1, and delivered to a phantom under static and dynamic conditions with peak-to-peak motion amplitudes of 1.2 cm and 2 cm and periods of 3 and 5 s to simulate human respiratory motion of lung tumours. A cylindrical clinical target volume (CTV) was contoured to tightly enclose the tumour insert. 2.0 Gy was prescribed to 95% of the CTV. Two-dimensional dose was measured by a Kodak EDR2 film. Dynamic phantom doses were then quantitatively compared to static phantom doses in terms of axial dose profiles, cumulative dose volume histograms (DVH), percentage of CTV receiving the prescription dose and the minimum dose received by 95% of the CTV. The larger motion amplitude resulted in more

  15. MR-Based Cardiac and Respiratory Motion-Compensation Techniques for PET-MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Camila; Kolbitsch, Christoph; Reader, Andrew J; Marsden, Paul; Schaeffter, Tobias; Prieto, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac and respiratory motion cause image quality degradation in PET imaging, affecting diagnostic accuracy of the images. Whole-body simultaneous PET-MR scanners allow for using motion information estimated from MR images to correct PET data and produce motion-compensated PET images. This article reviews methods that have been proposed to estimate motion from MR images and different techniques to include this information in PET reconstruction, in order to overcome the problem of cardiac and respiratory motion in PET-MR imaging. MR-based motion correction techniques significantly increase lesion detectability and contrast, and also improve accuracy of uptake values in PET images.

  16. Adaptation-Induced Compression of Event Time Occurs Only for Translational Motion.

    PubMed

    Fornaciai, Michele; Arrighi, Roberto; Burr, David C

    2016-03-22

    Adaptation to fast motion reduces the perceived duration of stimuli displayed at the same location as the adapting stimuli. Here we show that the adaptation-induced compression of time is specific for translational motion. Adaptation to complex motion, either circular or radial, did not affect perceived duration of subsequently viewed stimuli. Adaptation with multiple patches of translating motion caused compression of duration only when the motion of all patches was in the same direction. These results show that adaptation-induced compression of event-time occurs only for uni-directional translational motion, ruling out the possibility that the neural mechanisms of the adaptation occur at early levels of visual processing.

  17. Effects of motion and configural complexity on color transparency perception.

    PubMed

    Gerardin, Peggy; Roud, Philippe; Süsstrunk, Sabine; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    We tested whether motion and configural complexity affect perceived transparency. A series of five coherent chromatic transformations in color space was applied across a figure: translation, convergence, shear, divergence and rotation. The stimuli consisted of a bipartite or a checkerboard configuration (10 x 10 degrees), with a central static or moving overlay (5 x 5 degrees). Three different luminance conditions (the plane of chromatic transformation oriented toward higher, lower, or equal luminances) were also tested for each of three modulation depths. For each stimulus, the observer judged whether the overlay appeared transparent or not. The main results indicated an interaction between the type of chromatic transformation and stimulus motion and complexity. For example, convergences are judged to appear transparent significantly more often when motion is added for bipartite configurations, or when they are generated in a checkerboard configuration. Surprisingly, shears that have been reported to appear opaque, are more frequently reported to appear transparent with short vector lengths and when combined with motion. Other transformations are also affected by motion, although the effectiveness of figural complexity on transparency seems to depend on both the type of color shifts and the presence of motion. The results indicate that adding motion and stimulus complexity are not necessarily neutral with respect to the chromatic shifts evoking transparency. Thus, studies that have used motion to enhance transparency may yield different results about the color shifts supporting transparency perception from those that did not. The same might be supposed for stimulus complexity under some conditions.

  18. Motor-induced visual motion: hand movements driving visual motion perception.

    PubMed

    Keetels, Mirjam; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J

    2014-09-01

    Visual perception can be changed by co-occurring input from other sensory modalities. Here, we explored how self-generated finger movements (left-right or up-down key presses) affect visual motion perception. In Experiment 1, motion perception of a blinking bar was shifted in the direction of co-occurring hand motor movements, indicative of motor-induced visual motion (MIVM). In Experiment 2, moving and static blinking bars were combined with either directional moving or stationary hand motor movements. Results showed that the directional component in the hand movement was crucial for MIVM as stationary motor movements even declined visual motion perception. In Experiment 3, the role of response bias was excluded in a two-alternative forced-choice task that ruled out the effect of response strategies. All three experiments demonstrated that alternating key presses (either horizontally or vertically aligned) induce illusory visual motion and that stationary motor movements (without a vertical or horizontal direction) induce the opposite effect, namely a decline in visual motion (more static) perception.

  19. Visible Motion Blur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of measuring motion blur is disclosed comprising obtaining a moving edge temporal profile r(sub 1)(k) of an image of a high-contrast moving edge, calculating the masked local contrast m(sub1)(k) for r(sub 1)(k) and the masked local contrast m(sub 2)(k) for an ideal step edge waveform r(sub 2)(k) with the same amplitude as r(sub 1)(k), and calculating the measure or motion blur Psi as a difference function, The masked local contrasts are calculated using a set of convolution kernels scaled to simulate the performance of the human visual system, and Psi is measured in units of just-noticeable differences.

  20. Dynamics of Oceanic Motions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-31

    Sciences, Harvard University This project researched the dynamics of oceanic motions: aspects of the theory and mod- eling of fundamental dynamical and...84-C-0461 Published 1. Pinardi, N. (1985) Quasigeostrophic Energetics and Oceanic Mesoscale Dynamics, Harvard University , Cambridge, MA (Ph.D. Thesis...Layer Model to the Harvard Quasigeostrophic Model, Harvard University , Cam- bridge, MA (Ph.D. thesis). 15. Robinson, A.R., M.A. Spell and N. Pinardi

  1. Pit disassembly motion control

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.; Pittman, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    A Department of Energy (DOE) Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed for the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The facility will recover plutonium from excess nuclear weapon pits defined in START II and START III treaties. The plutonium will be stored and used to produce mixed oxide reactor fuel at another new DOE facility. Because of radiation dose issues, much of the pit disassembly work and material transfer will be automated. Automated material handling systems will interface with disassembly lathes, conversion reactors that produce oxide for storage, robotic container welding stations, vault retrieval systems, and nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation. The goal is to use common motion control hardware for material transfer and possibly common motion controllers for the unique PDCF systems. The latter is complicated by the different directions manufactures are considering for distributed control, such as Firewire, SERCOS, etc., and by the unique control requirements of machines such as lathes compared to controls for an integrated NDA system. The current design approach is to standardize where possible, use network cables to replace wire bundles where possible, but to first select hardware and motion controllers that meet specific machine or process requirements.

  2. Differential effect of visual motion adaption upon visual cortical excitability.

    PubMed

    Lubeck, Astrid J A; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Ahmad, Hena; Bos, Jelte E; Wuyts, Floris L; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Arshad, Qadeer

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to probe the effects of visual motion adaptation on early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) to investigate whether changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e., an overreliance on visual cues compared with vestibular or proprioceptive cues. Participants were exposed to a roll motion visual stimulus before, during, and after visual motion adaptation. At these stages, 20 transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses at phosphene threshold values were applied over early visual and V5/MT cortical areas from which the probability of eliciting a phosphene was calculated. Before and after adaptation, participants aligned the subjective visual vertical in front of the roll motion stimulus as a marker of visual dependency. During adaptation, early visual cortex excitability decreased whereas V5/MT excitability increased. After adaptation, both early visual and V5/MT excitability were increased. The roll motion-induced tilt of the subjective visual vertical (visual dependence) was not influenced by visual motion adaptation and did not correlate with phosphene threshold or visual cortex excitability. We conclude that early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability is differentially affected by visual motion adaptation. Furthermore, excitability in the early or late visual cortex is not associated with an increase in visual reliance during spatial orientation. Our findings complement earlier studies that have probed visual cortical excitability following motion adaptation and highlight the differential role of the early visual cortex and V5/MT in visual motion processing.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the influence of visual motion adaptation on visual cortex excitability and found a differential effect in V1/V2 compared with V5/MT. Changes in visual excitability following motion adaptation were not related to the degree of an individual's visual dependency.

  3. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    , Toshio Ando from the University of Kanazawa provides an overview of developments that have allowed atomic force microscopy to move from rates of the order of one frame a minute to over a thousand frames per second in constant height mode, as reported by Mervyn Miles and colleagues at Bristol University and University College London [8]. Among the pioneers in the field, Ando's group demonstrated the ability to record the Brownian motion of myosin V molecules on mica with image capture rates of 100 x 100 pixels in 80 ms over a decade ago [9]. The developments unleash the potential of atomic force microscopy to observe the dynamics of biological and materials systems. If seeing is believing, the ability to present real motion pictures of the nanoworld cannot fail to capture the public imagination and stimulate burgeoning new avenues of scientific endeavour. Nearly 350 years on from the publication Micrographia, images in microscopy have moved from the page to the movies. References [1] Binnig G, Quate C F, and Gerber Ch 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [2] Ando T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 062001 [3] J G 1934 Nature 134 635-6 [4] Bharadwaj P, Anger P and Novotny L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044017 [5] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobelprize.org [6] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [7] Phillips D B, Grieve J A, Olof S N, Kocher S J, Bowman R, Padgett M J, Miles M J and Carberry D M 2011 Nanotechnology 22 285503 [8] Picco L M, Bozec L, Ulcinas A, Engledew D J, Antognozzi M, Horton M A and Miles M J 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044030 [9] Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K and Toda A 2001 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 12468

  4. Hearing to Provide an Experience of Life in the United States for Children from Areas Affected by Civil Strife in Ireland. Hearing on H.R. 1019 before the Subcommitee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document presents the text of a Congressional hearing called to discuss H.R. 1019, To Provide an Experience of Life in the United States for Children from Areas Affected by Civil Strife in Ireland. Congressman Pat Williams, sponsor of the bill, describes the bill as allowing local education agencies to offer an opportunity for children from…

  5. Motion and gravity effects in the precision of quantum clocks

    PubMed Central

    Lindkvist, Joel; Sabín, Carlos; Johansson, Göran; Fuentes, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    We show that motion and gravity affect the precision of quantum clocks. We consider a localised quantum field as a fundamental model of a quantum clock moving in spacetime and show that its state is modified due to changes in acceleration. By computing the quantum Fisher information we determine how relativistic motion modifies the ultimate bound in the precision of the measurement of time. While in the absence of motion the squeezed vacuum is the ideal state for time estimation, we find that it is highly sensitive to the motion-induced degradation of the quantum Fisher information. We show that coherent states are generally more resilient to this degradation and that in the case of very low initial number of photons, the optimal precision can be even increased by motion. These results can be tested with current technology by using superconducting resonators with tunable boundary conditions. PMID:25988238

  6. Motion and gravity effects in the precision of quantum clocks.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Joel; Sabín, Carlos; Johansson, Göran; Fuentes, Ivette

    2015-05-19

    We show that motion and gravity affect the precision of quantum clocks. We consider a localised quantum field as a fundamental model of a quantum clock moving in spacetime and show that its state is modified due to changes in acceleration. By computing the quantum Fisher information we determine how relativistic motion modifies the ultimate bound in the precision of the measurement of time. While in the absence of motion the squeezed vacuum is the ideal state for time estimation, we find that it is highly sensitive to the motion-induced degradation of the quantum Fisher information. We show that coherent states are generally more resilient to this degradation and that in the case of very low initial number of photons, the optimal precision can be even increased by motion. These results can be tested with current technology by using superconducting resonators with tunable boundary conditions.

  7. Human motion analysis and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prussing, Keith; Cathcart, J. Michael; Kocher, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Georgia Tech has investigated methods for the detection and tracking of personnel in a variety of acquisition environments. This research effort focused on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. As a fundamental part of this research effort, Georgia Tech collected motion capture data on an individual for a variety of walking speeds, carrying loads, and load distributions. These data formed the basis for deriving fundamental properties of the individual's motion and supported the development of a physiologically-based human motion model. Subsequently this model aided the derivation and analysis of motion-based observables, particularly changes in the motion of various body components resulting from load variations. This paper will describe the data acquisition process, development of the human motion model, and use of the model in the observable analysis. Video sequences illustrating the motion data and modeling results will also be presented.

  8. GROUND MOTION ASSESSMENT BASED ON WEAK MOTION DATA IN TAIWAN Ground Motion Assessment Based on Weak Motion Data in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, A.; D'Amico, S.; Malagnini, L.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we characterize the scaling of the ground motions for frequencies ranging between 0.25 and 5 Hz, obtaining results for seismic attenuation, geometrical spreading, and source parameters in Taiwan. We regressed this large number of weak-motion data in order to characterize the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling. Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the obtained parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration and velocity for several magnitude and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. The predictions are then compared with recorded strong motion data and empirical ground motion prediction equation obtained for the study region. We showed that our regional parameters, obtained from independent weak-motion database, may be applied for evaluation of ground motion parameters for earthquakes of magnitude up to 7.6.

  9. Rotational motion of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaux, N.; Asmar, S. W.; Konopliv, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    Vesta is the second most massive body of the asteroid belt and contains a giant impact and a differentiated interior. Constraints on internal structure can be inferred from various observations such as gravity field measurements [1]. Especially, detailed knowledge of the rotational motion can help constrain the mass distribution inside the body, which in turn can lead to information on its history. Here, we compute the polar motion, precession-nutation, and length-of-day variations of Vesta. The Vesta's Pole position in space has been obtained by Dawn mission [1] and the orbital pole of Vesta at J2000 can be obtained from the Horizons ephemerides [2]. The obliquity, defined as the angle between the normal to the orbital plane and the figure axis, brings information on the moment of inertia if it has reached its equilibrium position [3], the present value from observations is around 27 degrees. That is far from the ˜ 0.03 deg expected for the equilibrium position. In addition, the required timescale to fully damped the obliquity appears to be very long following the same approach developed in [4]. Thus, it appears that the obliquity of Vesta has not yet relaxed in its Cassini state. The figure of Vesta appears to be triaxial and the Sun exerts a non-zero torque. By following the approach developed for the Earth [e.g. 5] and Ceres [4], we compute the nutation of Vesta. The nutational motion of Vesta is dominated by the semi-annual nutation (996 milli-arcseconds or 1.26 m surface displacement) related to the large obliquity of Vesta, and then terms related to harmonics and also to the planet's mean longitude. The detection of such small displacement requires tracking of Vesta's surface with high precision. The precession time of the axis of Vesta is very long, about 179,000 years.

  10. Motion analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.

    1985-01-01

    Human motion analysis is the task of converting actual human movements into computer readable data. Such movement information may be obtained though active or passive sensing methods. Active methods include physical measuring devices such as goniometers on joints of the body, force plates, and manually operated sensors such as a Cybex dynamometer. Passive sensing de-couples the position measuring device from actual human contact. Passive sensors include Selspot scanning systems (since there is no mechanical connection between the subject's attached LEDs and the infrared sensing cameras), sonic (spark-based) three-dimensional digitizers, Polhemus six-dimensional tracking systems, and image processing systems based on multiple views and photogrammetric calculations.

  11. Space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.; Stewart, D. F.; Davis, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Space motion sickness clinical characteristics, time course, prediction of susceptibility, and effectiveness of countermeasures were evaluated. Although there is wide individual variability, there appear to be typical patterns of symptom development. The duration of symptoms ranges from several hours to four days with the majority of individuals being symptom free by the end of third day. The etiology of this malady remains uncertain but evidence points to reinterpretation of otolith inputs as being a key factor in the response of the neurovestibular system. Prediction of susceptibility and severity remains unsatisfactory. Countermeasures tried include medications, preflight adaptation, and autogenic feedback training. No countermeasure is entirely successful in eliminating or alleviating symptoms.

  12. Motion dynamics of submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalske, Seppo

    1991-04-01

    A literature survey of motion dynamics of subsea vehicles of a general shape was performed. Hydrodynamic tests were carried out with an existing tethered remotely operated vehicle and with its full scale model. The experiments give data of maneuvering capabilities, and of hydrodynamic characteristics of small subsea vehicles. A simulation method was developed on this basis to compute the vehicle trajectory in the time domain as a function of different control commands. The method can be applied to any subsea vehicle controlled by thruster units.

  13. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  14. The influence of ship motion of manual control skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, P.; Poulton, C.; Duross, H.; Lewis, W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ship motion on a range of typical manual control skills were examined on the Warren Spring ship motion simulator driven in heave, pitch, and roll by signals taken from the frigate HMS Avenger at 13 m/s (25 knots) into a force 4 wind. The motion produced a vertical r.m.s. acceleration of 0.024g, mostly between 0.1 and 0.3 Hz, with comparatively little pitch or roll. A task involving unsupported arm movements was seriously affected by the motion; a pursuit tracking task showed a reliable decrement although it was still performed reasonably well (pressure and free moving tracking controls were affected equally by the motion); a digit keying task requiring ballistic hand movements was unaffected. There was no evidence that these effects were caused by sea sickness. The differing response to motion of the different tasks, from virtual destruction to no effect, suggests that a major benefit could come from an attempt to design the man/control interface onboard ship around motion resistant tasks.

  15. Long period nodal motion of sun synchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, K. I.

    1975-01-01

    An approximative model is formulated for assessing these perturbations that significantly affect long term modal motion of sun synchronous orbits. Computer simulations with several independent computer programs consider zonal and tesseral gravitational harmonics, third body gravitational disturbances induced by the sun and the moon, and atmospheric drag. A pendulum model consisting of evenzonal harmonics through order 4 and solar gravity dominated nodal motion approximation. This pendulum motion results from solar gravity inducing an inclination oscillation which couples into the nodal precession induced by the earth's oblateness. The pendulum model correlated well with simulations observed flight data.

  16. Algebraic Nonlinear Collective Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, J.; Rosensteel, G.

    1998-11-01

    Finite-dimensional Lie algebras of vector fields determine geometrical collective models in quantum and classical physics. Every set of vector fields on Euclidean space that generates the Lie algebra sl(3, R) and contains the angular momentum algebra so(3) is determined. The subset of divergence-free sl(3, R) vector fields is proven to be indexed by a real numberΛ. TheΛ=0 solution is the linear representation that corresponds to the Riemann ellipsoidal model. The nonlinear group action on Euclidean space transforms a certain family of deformed droplets among themselves. For positiveΛ, the droplets have a neck that becomes more pronounced asΛincreases; for negativeΛ, the droplets contain a spherical bubble of radius |Λ|1/3. The nonlinear vector field algebra is extended to the nonlinear general collective motion algebra gcm(3) which includes the inertia tensor. The quantum algebraic models of nonlinear nuclear collective motion are given by irreducible unitary representations of the nonlinear gcm(3) Lie algebra. These representations model fissioning isotopes (Λ>0) and bubble and two-fluid nuclei (Λ<0).

  17. Waves in Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGourty, L.; Rideout, K.

    2005-12-01

    "Waves in Motion" This teaching unit was created by Leslie McGourty and Ken Rideout under the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program at MIT Haystack Observatory during the summer of 2005. The RET program is funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. The goals of this teaching unit are to deepen students' understanding about waves, wave motion, and the electromagnetic spectrum as a whole. Specifically students will comprehend the role radio waves play in our daily lives and in the investigation of the universe. The lessons can be used in a high school physics, earth science or astronomy curriculum. The unit consists of a series of interlocking lectures, activities, and investigations that can be used as stand alone units to supplement a teacher's existing curriculum, as an independent investigation for a student, or as a long exploration into radio astronomy with a theme of waves in space: how and where they carry their information. Special emphasis is given to the Relativity theories in honor of the "World Year of Physics" to celebrate Einstein's 1905 contributions. The lessons are currently being implemented at the high school level, the preliminary results of which will be presented. At the end of the academic year, the units will be evaluated and updated, reflecting student input and peer review after which they will be posted on the internet for teachers to use in their classrooms.

  18. The effects of aging on the perception of depth from motion parallax.

    PubMed

    Holmin, Jessica; Nawrot, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Successful navigation in the world requires effective visuospatial processing. Unfortunately, older adults have many visuospatial deficits, which can have severe real-world consequences. Although some of these age effects are well documented, some others, such as the perception of depth from motion parallax, are poorly understood. Depth perception from motion parallax requires intact retinal image motion and pursuit eye movement processing. Decades of research have shown that both motion processing and pursuit eye movements are affected by age; it follows that older adults may also be less sensitive to depth from motion parallax. The goals of the present study were to characterize motion parallax depth thresholds in older adults, and to explain older adults' sensitivity to depth from motion parallax in terms of motion and pursuit deficits. Younger and older adults' motion thresholds and pursuit accuracy were measured. Observers' depth thresholds across several different stimulus conditions were measured, as well. Older adults had higher motion thresholds and less accurate pursuit than younger adults. They were also less sensitive to depth from motion parallax at slow and moderate pursuit speeds. Although older adults had higher motion thresholds than younger adults, they used the available motion signals optimally, and age differences in motion processing could not account for the older adults' increased depth thresholds. Rather, these age effects can be explained by changes in older adults' pursuit signals.

  19. Categorizing identity from facial motion.

    PubMed

    Girges, Christine; Spencer, Janine; O'Brien, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Advances in marker-less motion capture technology now allow the accurate replication of facial motion and deformation in computer-generated imagery (CGI). A forced-choice discrimination paradigm using such CGI facial animations showed that human observers can categorize identity solely from facial motion cues. Animations were generated from motion captures acquired during natural speech, thus eliciting both rigid (head rotations and translations) and nonrigid (expressional changes) motion. To limit interferences from individual differences in facial form, all animations shared the same appearance. Observers were required to discriminate between different videos of facial motion and between the facial motions of different people. Performance was compared to the control condition of orientation-inverted facial motion. The results show that observers are able to make accurate discriminations of identity in the absence of all cues except facial motion. A clear inversion effect in both tasks provided consistency with previous studies, supporting the configural view of human face perception. The accuracy of this motion capture technology thus allowed stimuli to be generated that closely resembled real moving faces. Future studies may wish to implement such methodology when studying human face perception.

  20. New motion illusion caused by pictorial motion lines.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Miura, Kayo

    2008-01-01

    Motion lines (MLs) are a pictorial technique used to represent object movement in a still picture. This study explored how MLs contribute to motion perception. In Experiment 1, we reported the creation of a motion illusion caused by MLs: random displacements of objects with MLs on each frame were perceived as unidirectional global motion along the pictorial motion direction implied by MLs. In Experiment 2, we showed that the illusory global motion in the peripheral visual field captured the perceived motion direction of random displacement of objects without MLs in the central visual field, and confirmed that the results in Experiment 1 did not stem simply from response bias, but resulted from perceptual processing. In Experiment 3, we showed that the spatial arrangement of orientation information rather than ML length is important for the illusory global motion. Our results indicate that the ML effect is based on perceptual processing rather than response bias, and that comparison of neighboring orientation components may underlie the determination of pictorial motion direction with MLs.

  1. Music in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2008-01-01

    Travel of any sort--to performances, competitions, or other events--can be a bonding, life-broadening experience for students and teachers alike. For students, travel offers unparalleled learning opportunities. However, for teachers, travel can sometimes be a logistical nightmare. Gearing up for trips requires plenty of advance planning, precise…

  2. Hope in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeasting, Kevin; Jung, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Hope has been described by many as a basic, fundamental, and essential part of life. This article introduces a new approach to incorporate hope with clients experiencing a range of difficulties in the general counseling setting. In this framework, three stages are proposed to enable clients to strengthen and solidify their hope. In the first…

  3. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics…

  4. Advancing Adventure Education Using Digital Motion-Sensing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ju-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Jen

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Xbox Kinect and Unity 3D game engine to develop two motion-sensing games in which the participants, in simulated scenarios, could experience activities that are unattainable in real life, become immersed in collaborative activities, and explore the value of adventure education. Adventure Education involves courses that…

  5. 8 CFR 245a.20 - Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... aliens previously in proceedings—(1) Upon the granting of an application. If the application for LIFE... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications. 245a.20 Section 245a.20 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  6. 8 CFR 245a.20 - Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... aliens previously in proceedings—(1) Upon the granting of an application. If the application for LIFE... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications. 245a.20 Section 245a.20 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  7. 8 CFR 245a.20 - Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... aliens previously in proceedings—(1) Upon the granting of an application. If the application for LIFE... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications. 245a.20 Section 245a.20 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  8. 8 CFR 245a.20 - Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... aliens previously in proceedings—(1) Upon the granting of an application. If the application for LIFE... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications. 245a.20 Section 245a.20 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  9. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  10. Effects of Autonomic Conditioning on Motion Sickness Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents case-studies of 9 shuttle crewmembers (prime and alternates) and one U.S. Navy F-18 pilot, as they participated in all preflight training and testing activities in support of a life sciences flight experiment aboard Spacelab-J, and Spacelab-3. The primary objective of the flight experiment was to determine if Autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological self-regulation training technique would be an effective treatment for motion sickness and space motion sickness in these crewmembers. Additional objectives of this study involved the examining human Physiological- responses to motion sickness on Earth and in space, as well as developing predictive criteria for susceptibility to space motion sickness based on ground-based data. Comparisons of these crewmembers are made to a larger set of subjects from previous experiments (treatment and test-only controls subjects). This paper describes all preflight methods, results and proposed changes for future tests.

  11. Effects of Crowding and Attention on High-Levels of Motion Processing and Motion Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Andrea; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The motion after-effect (MAE) persists in crowding conditions, i.e., when the adaptation direction cannot be reliably perceived. The MAE originating from complex moving patterns spreads into non-adapted sectors of a multi-sector adapting display (i.e., phantom MAE). In the present study we used global rotating patterns to measure the strength of the conventional and phantom MAEs in crowded and non-crowded conditions, and when attention was directed to the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted away from the adapting stimulus. The results show that: (i) the phantom MAE is weaker than the conventional MAE, for both non-crowded and crowded conditions, and when attention was focused on the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted from it, (ii) conventional and phantom MAEs in the crowded condition are weaker than in the non-crowded condition. Analysis conducted to assess the effect of crowding on high-level of motion adaptation suggests that crowding is likely to affect the awareness of the adapting stimulus rather than degrading its sensory representation, (iii) for high-level of motion processing the attentional manipulation does not affect the strength of either conventional or phantom MAEs, neither in the non-crowded nor in the crowded conditions. These results suggest that high-level MAEs do not depend on attention and that at high-level of motion adaptation the effects of crowding are not modulated by attention. PMID:25615577

  12. Tvashtar in Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This five-frame sequence of New Horizons images captures the giant plume from Io's Tvashtar volcano. Snapped by the probe's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter earlier this year, this first-ever 'movie' of an Io plume clearly shows motion in the cloud of volcanic debris, which extends 330 kilometers (200 miles) above the moon's surface. Only the upper part of the plume is visible from this vantage point -- the plume's source is 130 kilometers (80 miles) below the edge of Io's disk, on the far side of the moon.

    The appearance and motion of the plume is remarkably similar to an ornamental fountain on Earth, replicated on a gigantic scale. The knots and filaments that allow us to track the plume's motion are still mysterious, but this movie is likely to help scientists understand their origin, as well as provide unique information on the plume dynamics.

    Io's hyperactive nature is emphasized by the fact that two other volcanic plumes are also visible off the edge of Io's disk: Masubi at the 7 o'clock position, and a very faint plume, possibly from the volcano Zal, at the 10 o'clock position. Jupiter illuminates the night side of Io, and the most prominent feature visible on the disk is the dark horseshoe shape of the volcano Loki, likely an enormous lava lake. Boosaule Mons, which at 18 kilometers (11 miles) is the highest mountain on Io and one of the highest mountains in the solar system, pokes above the edge of the disk on the right side.

    The five images were obtained over an 8-minute span, with two minutes between frames, from 23:50 to 23:58 Universal Time on March 1, 2007. Io was 3.8 million kilometers (2.4 million miles) from New Horizons; the image is centered at Io coordinates 0 degrees north, 342 degrees west.

    The pictures were part of a sequence designed to look at Jupiter's rings, but planners included Io in the sequence because the moon was passing behind Jupiter's rings at the time.

  13. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L H; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-03-09

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  14. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L J; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-02-14

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  15. Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients’ respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction. Methods: An AV biofeedback system combined with real-time respiratory data acquisition and MR images were implemented in this project. One-dimensional respiratory data from (1) the abdominal wall (30 Hz) and (2) the thoracic diaphragm (5 Hz) were obtained from 15 healthy human subjects across 30 studies. The subjects were required to breathe with and without the guidance of AV biofeedback during each study. The obtained respiratory signals were then implemented in a kernel density estimation prediction algorithm. For each of the 30 studies, five different prediction times ranging from 50 to 1400 ms were tested (150 predictions performed). Prediction error was quantified as the root mean square error (RMSE); the RMSE was calculated from the difference between the real and predicted respiratory data. The statistical significance of the prediction results was determined by the Student's t-test. Results: Prediction accuracy was considerably improved by the implementation of AV biofeedback. Of the 150 respiratory predictions performed, prediction accuracy was improved 69% (103/150) of the time for abdominal wall data, and 78% (117/150) of the time for diaphragm data. The average reduction in RMSE due to AV biofeedback over unguided respiration was 26% (p < 0.001) and 29% (p < 0.001) for abdominal wall and diaphragm respiratory motion, respectively. Conclusions: This study was the first to demonstrate that the reduction of respiratory irregularities due to the implementation of AV biofeedback improves prediction accuracy. This would result in increased efficiency of motion

  16. Thermocapillary motion of deformable drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Shi, Qingping; Borhan, Ali

    1994-08-01

    The thermocapillary motion of initially spherical drops/bubbles driven by a constant temperature gradient in an unbounded liquid medium is simulated numerically. Effects of convection of momentum and energy, as well as shape deformations, are addressed. The method used is based on interface tracking on a base cartesian grid, and uses a smeared color or indicator function for the determination of the surface topology. Quad-tree adaptive refinement of the cartesian grid is implemented to enhance the fidelity of the surface tracking. It is shown that convection of energy results in a slowing of the drop, as the isotherms get wrapped around the front of the drop. Shape deformation resulting from inertial effects affect the migration velocity. The physical results obtained are in agreement with the existing literature. Furthermore, remarks are made on the sensitivity of the calculated solutions to the smearing of the fluid properties. Analysis and simulations show that the migration velocity depends very strongly on the smearing of the interfacial force whereas it is rather insensitive to the smearing of other properties, hence the adaptive grid.

  17. Cervical Spinal Motion During Intubation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Ten fresh human cadavers were intubated while recording cervical motion using a cinefluoroscopic technique. Segmental cervical motion from the...performed using no external stabilization, Gardner-Wells traction and manual in-line cervical immobilization. The data are currently being analyzed. A...paper entitled Segmental cervical spine motion during orotracheal intubation of the intact and injured spine with and without external stabilization was published in the Journal of Neurosurgery.

  18. Collective motion of dimers.

    PubMed

    Penington, Catherine J; Korvasová, Karolína; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

    2012-11-01

    We consider a discrete agent-based model on a one-dimensional lattice and a two-dimensional square lattice, where each agent is a dimer occupying two sites. Agents move by vacating one occupied site in favor of a nearest-neighbor site and obey either a strict simple exclusion rule or a weaker constraint that permits partial overlaps between dimers. Using indicator variables and careful probability arguments, a discrete-time master equation for these processes is derived systematically within a mean-field approximation. In the continuum limit, nonlinear diffusion equations that describe the average agent occupancy of the dimer population are obtained. In addition, we show that multiple species of interacting subpopulations give rise to advection-diffusion equations. Averaged discrete simulation data compares very well with the solution to the continuum partial differential equation models. Since many cell types are elongated rather than circular, this work offers insight into population-level behavior of collective cellular motion.

  19. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  20. Relativistic Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Over the past one hundred years, Brownian motion theory has contributed substantially to our understanding of various microscopic phenomena. Originally proposed as a phenomenological paradigm for atomistic matter interactions, the theory has since evolved into a broad and vivid research area, with an ever increasing number of applications in biology, chemistry, finance, and physics. The mathematical description of stochastic processes has led to new approaches in other fields, culminating in the path integral formulation of modern quantum theory. Stimulated by experimental progress in high energy physics and astrophysics, the unification of relativistic and stochastic concepts has re-attracted considerable interest during the past decade. Focusing on the framework of special relativity, we review, here, recent progress in the phenomenological description of relativistic diffusion processes. After a brief historical overview, we will summarize basic concepts from the Langevin theory of nonrelativistic Brownian motions and discuss relevant aspects of relativistic equilibrium thermostatistics. The introductory parts are followed by a detailed discussion of relativistic Langevin equations in phase space. We address the choice of time parameters, discretization rules, relativistic fluctuation-dissipation theorems, and Lorentz transformations of stochastic differential equations. The general theory is illustrated through analytical and numerical results for the diffusion of free relativistic Brownian particles. Subsequently, we discuss how Langevin-type equations can be obtained as approximations to microscopic models. The final part of the article is dedicated to relativistic diffusion processes in Minkowski spacetime. Since the velocities of relativistic particles are bounded by the speed of light, nontrivial relativistic Markov processes in spacetime do not exist; i.e., relativistic generalizations of the nonrelativistic diffusion equation and its Gaussian solutions

  1. Earthquake ground motion: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luco, Nicolas; Valley, Michael; Crouse, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the effort in seismic design of buildings and other structures is focused on structural design. This chapter addresses another key aspect of the design process—characterization of earthquake ground motion. Section 3.1 describes the basis of the earthquake ground motion maps in the Provisions and in ASCE 7. Section 3.2 has examples for the determination of ground motion parameters and spectra for use in design. Section 3.3 discusses and provides an example for the selection and scaling of ground motion records for use in response history analysis.

  2. The Reproduction of Scientific Understanding about Pendulum Motion in the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manabu, Sumida

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes life-span development of understanding about pendulum motion and effects of school science. The subjects were 2,766 people ranging from kindergartners up to 88 years senior citizens. The conflict and consensus between children and their parent's understanding of pendulum motion were also analyzed. The kindergartner's…

  3. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  4. Motion-Matching: A Challenge Game to Generate Motion Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, David; Adams, Betty; Brookes, David; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Undreiu, Adriana

    2009-10-01

    Motion is a topic that is taught from elementary grades through to university at various levels of sophistication. It is an area that can be challenging for learning in a conceptually meaningful way, and formal kinematics instruction can sometimes seem dry and boring. Thus, the nature of students' initial introduction to motion is important in sparking their interest, shaping their perspective, and developing conceptual understanding of motion. The kinematic concepts we want students to acquire for basic motions are: position, time, speed, direction, velocity, velocity change, change rate, and acceleration, all with respect to a frame of reference. In this article we describe a challenge game used as an "opener" to motion, in which students themselves essentially generate these concepts, in everyday language, from a perceived need for them.

  5. Motion Predicts Clinical Callus Formation

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Jacob; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Lujan, Trevor; Peindl, Richard; Kellam, James; Anderson, Donald D.; Lack, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mechanotransduction is theorized to influence fracture-healing, but optimal fracture-site motion is poorly defined. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3-D) fracture-site motion as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis would influence callus formation for a clinical series of supracondylar femoral fractures treated with locking-plate fixation. Methods: Construct-specific FE modeling simulated 3-D fracture-site motion for sixty-six supracondylar femoral fractures (OTA/AO classification of 33A or 33C) treated at a single institution. Construct stiffness and directional motion through the fracture were investigated to assess the validity of construct stiffness as a surrogate measure of 3-D motion at the fracture site. Callus formation was assessed radiographically for all patients at six, twelve, and twenty-four weeks postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses examined the effects of longitudinal motion, shear (transverse motion), open fracture, smoking, and diabetes on callus formation. Construct types were compared to determine whether their 3-D motion profile was associated with callus formation. Results: Shear disproportionately increased relative to longitudinal motion with increasing bridge span, which was not predicted by our assessment of construct stiffness alone. Callus formation was not associated with open fracture, smoking, or diabetes at six, twelve, or twenty-four weeks. However, callus formation was associated with 3-D fracture-site motion at twelve and twenty-four weeks. Longitudinal motion promoted callus formation at twelve and twenty-four weeks (p = 0.017 for both). Shear inhibited callus formation at twelve and twenty-four weeks (p = 0.017 and p = 0.022, respectively). Titanium constructs with a short bridge span demonstrated greater longitudinal motion with less shear than did the other constructs, and this was associated with greater callus formation (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this study of

  6. A substantial and unexpected enhancement of motion perception in autism.

    PubMed

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Tadin, Duje; Schauder, Kimberly B; Cascio, Carissa J

    2013-05-08

    Atypical perceptual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well documented. In addition, growing evidence supports the hypothesis that an excitatory/inhibitory neurochemical imbalance might underlie ASD. Here we investigated putative behavioral consequences of the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in the context of visual motion perception. As stimulus size increases, typical observers exhibit marked impairments in perceiving motion of high-contrast stimuli. This result, termed "spatial suppression," is believed to reflect inhibitory motion-processing mechanisms. Motion processing is also affected by gain control, an inhibitory mechanism that underlies saturation of neural responses at high contrast. Motivated by these behavioral correlates of inhibitory function, we investigated motion perception in human children with ASD (n = 20) and typical development (n = 26). At high contrast, both groups exhibited similar impairments in motion perception with increasing stimulus size, revealing no apparent differences in spatial suppression. However, there was a substantial enhancement of motion perception in ASD: children with ASD exhibited a consistent twofold improvement in perceiving motion. Hypothesizing that this enhancement might indicate abnormal weakening of response gain control, we repeated our measurements at low contrast, where the effects of gain control should be negligible. At low contrast, we indeed found no group differences in motion discrimination thresholds. These low-contrast results, however, revealed weaker spatial suppression in ASD, suggesting the possibility that gain control abnormalities in ASD might have masked spatial suppression differences at high contrast. Overall, we report a pattern of motion perception abnormalities in ASD that includes substantial enhancements at high contrast and is consistent with an underlying excitatory/inhibitory imbalance.

  7. Topographic Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonstad, M. A.; Dietrich, J. T.; Courville, B. C.; Jensen, J.; Carbonneau, P.

    2011-12-01

    The production of high-resolution topographic datasets is of increasing concern and application throughout the geomorphic sciences, and river science is no exception. Consequently, a wide range of topographic measurement methods have evolved. Despite the range of available methods, the production of high resolution, high quality digital elevation models (DEMs) generally requires a significant investment in personnel time, hardware and/or software. However, image-based methods such as digital photogrammetry have steadily been decreasing in costs. Initially developed for the purpose of rapid, inexpensive and easy three dimensional surveys of buildings or small objects, the "structure from motion" photogrammetric approach (SfM) is a purely image based method which could deliver a step-change if transferred to river remote sensing, and requires very little training and is extremely inexpensive. Using the online SfM program Microsoft Photosynth, we have created high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM) of rivers from ordinary photographs produced from a multi-step workflow that takes advantage of free and open source software. This process reconstructs real world scenes from SfM algorithms based on the derived positions of the photographs in three-dimensional space. One of the products of the SfM process is a three-dimensional point cloud of features present in the input photographs. This point cloud can be georeferenced from a small number of ground control points collected via GPS in the field. The georeferenced point cloud can then be used to create a variety of digital elevation model products. Among several study sites, we examine the applicability of SfM in the Pedernales River in Texas (USA), where several hundred images taken from a hand-held helikite are used to produce DEMs of the fluvial topographic environment. This test shows that SfM and low-altitude platforms can produce point clouds with point densities considerably better than airborne LiDAR, with

  8. The Man Who Mastered Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radetsky, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explains the principles of the science of motion and examines Thomas Kane's deductive approach to the study of dynamics. Also recounts Kane's advances in explaining classic mechanics and discusses the advantages of his methods in the formulation of equations of motion and in applications to space technology. (ML)

  9. Statistical description of tectonic motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes investigations regarding tectonic motions. The topics discussed include statistics of crustal deformation, Earth rotation studies, using multitaper spectrum analysis techniques applied to both space-geodetic data and conventional astrometric estimates of the Earth's polar motion, and the development, design, and installation of high-stability geodetic monuments for use with the global positioning system.

  10. An open architecture motion controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossol, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    Nomad, an open architecture motion controller, is described. It is formed by a combination of TMOS, C-WORKS, and other utilities. Nomad software runs in a UNIX environment and provides for sensor-controlled robotic motions, with user replaceable kinematics. It can also be tailored for highly specialized applications. Open controllers such as Nomad should have a major impact on the robotics industry.

  11. Motion Tracker: Camera-Based Monitoring of Bodily Movements Using Motion Silhouettes

    PubMed Central

    Westlund, Jacqueline Kory; D’Mello, Sidney K.; Olney, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in the cognitive and affective sciences investigate how thoughts and feelings are reflected in the bodily response systems including peripheral physiology, facial features, and body movements. One specific question along this line of research is how cognition and affect are manifested in the dynamics of general body movements. Progress in this area can be accelerated by inexpensive, non-intrusive, portable, scalable, and easy to calibrate movement tracking systems. Towards this end, this paper presents and validates Motion Tracker, a simple yet effective software program that uses established computer vision techniques to estimate the amount a person moves from a video of the person engaged in a task (available for download from http://jakory.com/motion-tracker/). The system works with any commercially available camera and with existing videos, thereby affording inexpensive, non-intrusive, and potentially portable and scalable estimation of body movement. Strong between-subject correlations were obtained between Motion Tracker’s estimates of movement and body movements recorded from the seat (r =.720) and back (r = .695 for participants with higher back movement) of a chair affixed with pressure-sensors while completing a 32-minute computerized task (Study 1). Within-subject cross-correlations were also strong for both the seat (r =.606) and back (r = .507). In Study 2, between-subject correlations between Motion Tracker’s movement estimates and movements recorded from an accelerometer worn on the wrist were also strong (rs = .801, .679, and .681) while people performed three brief actions (e.g., waving). Finally, in Study 3 the within-subject cross-correlation was high (r = .855) when Motion Tracker’s estimates were correlated with the movement of a person’s head as tracked with a Kinect while the person was seated at a desk (Study 3). Best-practice recommendations, limitations, and planned extensions of the system are discussed. PMID:26086771

  12. The Equations of Oceanic Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Modeling and prediction of oceanographic phenomena and climate is based on the integration of dynamic equations. The Equations of Oceanic Motions derives and systematically classifies the most common dynamic equations used in physical oceanography, from large scale thermohaline circulations to those governing small scale motions and turbulence. After establishing the basic dynamical equations that describe all oceanic motions, M|ller then derives approximate equations, emphasizing the assumptions made and physical processes eliminated. He distinguishes between geometric, thermodynamic and dynamic approximations and between the acoustic, gravity, vortical and temperature-salinity modes of motion. Basic concepts and formulae of equilibrium thermodynamics, vector and tensor calculus, curvilinear coordinate systems, and the kinematics of fluid motion and wave propagation are covered in appendices. Providing the basic theoretical background for graduate students and researchers of physical oceanography and climate science, this book will serve as both a comprehensive text and an essential reference.

  13. Crowding of biological motion stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hanako; Watanabe, Katsumi; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2013-03-26

    It is difficult to identify a target in the peripheral visual field when it is flanked by distractors. In the present study, we investigated this "crowding" effect for biological motion stimuli. Three walking biological motion stimuli were presented horizontally in the periphery with various distances between them, and observers reported the walking direction of the central figure. When the inter-walker distance was small, discriminating the direction became difficult. Moreover, the reported direction for the central target was not simply noisier, but reflected a degree of pooling of the three directions from the target and two flankers. However, when the two flanking distractors were scrambled walking biological motion stimuli, crowding was not seen. This result suggests that the crowding of biological motion stimuli occurs at a high-level of motion perception.

  14. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  15. A motion artifact generation and assessment system for the rapid testing of surface biopotential electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cömert, Alper; Hyttinen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Dry electrodes can reduce cost while increasing the usability and comfort of wearable monitoring systems. They are, however, susceptible to motion artifacts. The present electrode testing methods lack reliability and do not separate the factors that affect the motion artifact. In this paper, we introduce a first generation motion artifact generation and assessment system that generates the speed, amplitude, and pattern-wise programmable movement of the electrode. The system simultaneously measures electrode-skin impedance, the motion artifact, and one channel of an electrocardiogram that contains the motion artifact and monitors the mounting force applied to the electrode. We demonstrate the system by comparing the applied movement and the measured signals for electrode movements up to 6 mm and movement frequencies from 0.4 Hz to 4 Hz. Results show that the impedance change and surface potential are visually clearly related to the applied motion, with average correlations of 0.89 and 0.64, respectively. The applied force, electrode location, and electrode structure all affect the motion artifact. The setup enables the motion of the electrode to be accurately controlled. The system can be used as a precursor to the testing of integrated systems because it enables thorough, repeatable, and robust motion artifact studies. The system allows a deeper insight into motion artifacts and the interplay of the various factors that affect them.

  16. SITE AMPLIFICATION OF EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, Walter W.

    1986-01-01

    When analyzing the patterns of damage in an earthquake, physical parameters of the total earthquake-site-structure system are correlated with the damage. Soil-structure interaction, the cause of damage in many earthquakes, involves the frequency-dependent response of both the soil-rock column and the structure. The response of the soil-rock column (called site amplification) is controversial because soil has strain-dependent properties that affect the way the soil column filters the input body and surface seismic waves, modifying the amplitude and phase spectra and the duration of the surface ground motion.

  17. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the over powering effects of gravity. During his 6-month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R. Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and then the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles was recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS). Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  18. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovar, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. During his six month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles were recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System. Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on Shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  19. Video-based early cerebral palsy prediction using motion segmentation.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Hodjat; Aamo, Ole Morten; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Dragon, Ralf; Adde, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Analysing distinct motion patterns that occur during infancy can be a way through early prediction of cerebral palsy. This analysis can only be performed by well-trained expert clinicians, and hence can not be widespread, specially in poor countries. In order to decrease the need for experts, computer-based methods can be applied. If individual motions of different body parts are available, these methods could achieve more accurate results with better clinical insight. Thus far, motion capture systems or the like were needed in order to provide such data. However, these systems not only need laboratory and experts to set up the experiment, but they could be intrusive for the infant's motions. In this paper we build up our prediction method on a solution based on a single video camera, that is far less intrusive and a lot cheaper. First, the motions of different body parts are separated, then, motion features are extracted and used to classify infants to healthy or affected. Our experimental results show that visually obtained motion data allows cerebral palsy detection as accurate as state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensor data.

  20. Neuronal mechanisms and the treatment of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Schmäl, F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the physiological basis, clinical picture and treatment options for motion sickness. Motion sickness is a well-known nausea and vomiting syndrome in otherwise healthy people. The physical signs of motion sickness occur in both humans and animals during travel by sea, automobile or airplane and in space. Furthermore, some other special situations, such as simulators, the cinema and video games, have been described as causing pseudomotion sickness. Children between 2 and 12 years old are most susceptible to motion sickness, and women are more frequently affected than men. Predisposing factors include menstruation, pregnancy, migraines and possibly a side difference in the mass of otoconia in the vestibular organs. Therapy is directed towards decreasing conflicting sensory input, accelerating the process of adaptation and controlling nausea and vomiting. To control these vegetative symptoms, scopolamine and antihistamines are the most effective drugs.