Science.gov

Sample records for affecting navigable waters

  1. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.36 Navigable waters of the United States, navigable...

  2. Navigation: Traveling the Water Highways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marion; Lane, Jack

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important yet often overlooked uses of water is as a method of transportation or, navigation. Presents an activity to help students understand the importance of water as a critical, renewable, and natural resource for navigational use. Lists the learning objective, materials, and procedure for the activity. Also includes a foldout.…

  3. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (b) of this section, navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters mean, except where Congress has designated them not to be navigable waters of the United States: (1) Territorial seas of the United States; (2) Internal waters of the United States that are......

  4. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (b) of this section, navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters mean, except where Congress has designated them not to be navigable waters of the United States: (1) Territorial seas of the United States; (2) Internal waters of the United States that are......

  5. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (b) of this section, navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters mean, except where Congress has designated them not to be navigable waters of the United States: (1) Territorial seas of the United States; (2) Internal waters of the United States that are......

  6. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (b) of this section, navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters mean, except where Congress has designated them not to be navigable waters of the United States: (1) Territorial seas of the United States; (2) Internal waters of the United States that are......

  7. Navigation: traveling the water highways!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Marion; Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    NAVIGATION is travel or transportation over water. Many different kinds of boats and ships are used on rivers and oceans to move people and products from one place to another. Navigation was extremely important for foreign and domestic trade and travel in the early days of our country before cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes were invented. In those days, rivers were used as "roads" to connect inland settlements to river and coastal ports. Communities established at these commercial ports became important economic, cultural, and social hubs in the development of our Nation.

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  9. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  10. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  11. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  12. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  13. 33 CFR 209.200 - Regulations governing navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulations governing navigable... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.200 Regulations governing navigable waters... of the Army to govern navigation and navigable waters, are contained in the Code of...

  14. 33 CFR 209.200 - Regulations governing navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulations governing navigable... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.200 Regulations governing navigable waters... of the Army to govern navigation and navigable waters, are contained in the Code of...

  15. 33 CFR 209.200 - Regulations governing navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulations governing navigable... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.200 Regulations governing navigable waters... of the Army to govern navigation and navigable waters, are contained in the Code of...

  16. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    PubMed

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation.

  17. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    PubMed

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. PMID:26990572

  18. 77 FR 42637 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... 21, 2012 (77 FR 37305), the Coast Guard published a final rule entitled ``Navigation and Navigable... Register of Thursday, June 21, 2012 (77 FR 37305). The regulations related to technical, organizational and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 84 and 115 RIN 1625-AB86 Navigation and Navigable Waters;...

  19. 33 CFR 165.100 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 2.36, within the geographic boundaries of the First Coast Guard District, as defined in 33 CFR...: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District. 165.100 Section 165.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  20. 33 CFR 165.100 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 2.36, within the geographic boundaries of the First Coast Guard District, as defined in 33 CFR...: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District. 165.100 Section 165.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  1. 33 CFR 165.100 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 2.36, within the geographic boundaries of the First Coast Guard District, as defined in 33 CFR...: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District. 165.100 Section 165.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  2. 33 CFR 165.100 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 2.36, within the geographic boundaries of the First Coast Guard District, as defined in 33 CFR...: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District. 165.100 Section 165.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  3. 75 FR 50884 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... INFORMATION: In FR doc 2010-19754 appearing on page 48564 in the issue of Wednesday, August 11, 2010, the..., Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Columbia River; Correction AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... read ``Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments,...

  4. 76 FR 31831 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... conforming amendments and technical corrections to Coast Guard navigation and navigable water regulations. This rule will have no substantive effect on the regulated public. These changes are provided to..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. You may also find this...

  5. 22 CFR 401.25 - Government brief regarding navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government brief regarding navigable waters. 401.25 Section 401.25 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.25 Government brief regarding navigable waters. When in the opinion of...

  6. Biomimetic MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futterknecht, Oliver; Macqueen, Mark O.; Karman, Salmah; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2013-05-01

    The focus of this study is biomimetic concept development for a MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection. The MEMS sensor array is inspired by abstractions of the respective biological functions: polarized skylight-based navigation sensors in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and the ability of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to detect water. The focus lies on how to navigate to and how to detect water sources in desert-like or remote areas. The goal is to develop a sensor that can provide both, navigation clues and help in detecting nearby water sources. We basically use the information provided by the natural polarization pattern produced by the sunbeams scattered within the atmosphere combined with the capability of the honeybee's compound eye to extrapolate the navigation information. The detection device uses light beam reactive MEMS, which are capable to detect the skylight polarization based on the Rayleigh sky model. For water detection we present various possible approaches to realize the sensor. In the first approach, polarization is used: moisture saturated areas near ground have a small but distinctively different effect on scattering and polarizing light than less moist ones. Modified skylight polarization sensors (Karman, Diah and Gebeshuber, 2012) are used to visualize this small change in scattering. The second approach is inspired by the ability of elephants to detect infrasound produced by underground water reservoirs, and shall be used to determine the location of underground rivers and visualize their exact routes.

  7. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  8. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  9. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  10. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  11. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  12. Learning and Exposure Affect Environmental Perception Less than Evolutionary Navigation Costs

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Russell E.; Willey, Chéla R.; Cormack, Lawrence K.

    2013-01-01

    Most behaviors are conditional upon successful navigation of the environment, which depends upon distance perception learned over repeated trials. Unfortunately, we understand little about how learning affects distance perception–especially in the most common human navigational scenario, that of adult navigation in familiar environments. Further, dominant theories predict mutually exclusive effects of learning on distance perception, especially when the risks or costs of navigation differ. We tested these competing predictions in four experiments in which we also presented evolutionarily relevant navigation costs. Methods included within- and between-subjects comparisons and longitudinal designs in laboratory and real-world settings. Data suggested that adult distance estimation rapidly reflects evolutionarily relevant navigation costs and repeated exposure does little to change this. Human distance perception may have evolved to reflect navigation costs quickly and reliably in order to provide a stable signal to other behaviors and with little regard for objective accuracy. PMID:23577070

  13. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  14. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  15. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  16. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  17. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  18. Navigating the Waters of Unconventional Crystalline Hydrates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the crystal structures, transformations, and thermodynamics of the two zwitterionic hydrates (Hy2 and HyA) of 3-(4-dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxepin-11-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid (DB7) rationalizes the complex interplay of temperature, water activity, and pH on the solid form stability and transformation pathways to three neutral anhydrate polymorphs (Forms I, II°, and III). HyA contains 1.29 to 1.95 molecules of water per DB7 zwitterion (DB7z). Removal of the essential water stabilizing HyA causes it to collapse to an amorphous phase, frequently concomitantly nucleating the stable anhydrate Forms I and II°. Hy2 is a stoichiometric dihydrate and the only known precursor to Form III, a high energy disordered anhydrate, with the level of disorder depending on the drying conditions. X-ray crystallography, solid state NMR, and H/D exchange experiments on highly crystalline phase pure samples obtained by exquisite control over crystallization, filtration, and drying conditions, along with computational modeling, provided a molecular level understanding of this system. The slow rates of many transformations and sensitivity of equilibria to exact conditions, arising from its varying static and dynamic disorder and water mobility in different phases, meant that characterizing DB7 hydration in terms of simplified hydrate classifications was inappropriate for developing this pharmaceutical. PMID:26075319

  19. Seas the Day: Learning to Navigate Uncharted Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubchenco, J.

    2002-05-01

    In the 52 years since publication of "The Sea Around Us," and 40 years since "Silent Spring", ocean ecosystems have undergone substantial changes. A wide variety of human activities are inadvertently, rapidly and radically modifying the chemistry, biology and physical structure of oceans. These changes alter the functioning of marine ecosystems, impair the delivery of ecosystem goods and services, and affect human health, prosperity and well-being. There is an urgent need to identify and implement effective mechanisms to protect and restore marine ecosystems. Doing so will require contributions from the full breadth of ocean sciences and the active engagement of the best scientists. New interdisciplinary areas (for example, the interfaces needed to design networks of marine reserves) afford opportunities to push intellectual frontiers and deliver relevant, useful knowledge. Were Rachel Carson alive today, I suspect she would be championing visionary efforts to utilize scientific knowledge to help effect a transition to sustainability. In her absence, we must seas the day and figure out how to navigate uncharted waters.

  20. Biosonar navigation above water I: estimating flight height.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Susanne; Genzel, Daria; Prosch, Selina; Baier, Leonie; Weser, Sabrina; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Firzlaff, Uwe

    2015-02-15

    Locomotion and foraging on the wing require precise navigation in more than just the horizontal plane. Navigation in three dimensions and, specifically, precise adjustment of flight height are essential for flying animals. Echolocating bats drink from water surfaces in flight, which requires an exceptionally precise vertical navigation. Here, we exploit this behavior in the bat, Phyllostomus discolor, to understand the biophysical and neural mechanisms that allow for sonar-guided navigation in the vertical plane. In a set of behavioral experiments, we show that for echolocating bats, adjustment of flight height depends on the tragus in their outer ears. Specifically, the tragus imposes elevation-specific spectral interference patterns on the echoes of the bats' sonar emissions. Head-related transfer functions of our bats show that these interference patterns are most conspicuous in the frequency range ∼55 kHz. This conspicuousness is faithfully preserved in the frequency tuning and spatial receptive fields of cortical single and multiunits recorded from anesthetized animals. In addition, we recorded vertical spatiotemporal response maps that describe neural tuning in elevation over time. One class of units that were very sharply tuned to frequencies ∼55 kHz showed unusual spatiotemporal response characteristics with a preference for paired echoes where especially the first echo originates from very low elevations. These behavioral and neural data provide the first insight into biosonar-based processing and perception of acoustic elevation cues that are essential for bats to navigate in three-dimensional space.

  1. Biosonar navigation above water I: estimating flight height.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Susanne; Genzel, Daria; Prosch, Selina; Baier, Leonie; Weser, Sabrina; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Firzlaff, Uwe

    2015-02-15

    Locomotion and foraging on the wing require precise navigation in more than just the horizontal plane. Navigation in three dimensions and, specifically, precise adjustment of flight height are essential for flying animals. Echolocating bats drink from water surfaces in flight, which requires an exceptionally precise vertical navigation. Here, we exploit this behavior in the bat, Phyllostomus discolor, to understand the biophysical and neural mechanisms that allow for sonar-guided navigation in the vertical plane. In a set of behavioral experiments, we show that for echolocating bats, adjustment of flight height depends on the tragus in their outer ears. Specifically, the tragus imposes elevation-specific spectral interference patterns on the echoes of the bats' sonar emissions. Head-related transfer functions of our bats show that these interference patterns are most conspicuous in the frequency range ∼55 kHz. This conspicuousness is faithfully preserved in the frequency tuning and spatial receptive fields of cortical single and multiunits recorded from anesthetized animals. In addition, we recorded vertical spatiotemporal response maps that describe neural tuning in elevation over time. One class of units that were very sharply tuned to frequencies ∼55 kHz showed unusual spatiotemporal response characteristics with a preference for paired echoes where especially the first echo originates from very low elevations. These behavioral and neural data provide the first insight into biosonar-based processing and perception of acoustic elevation cues that are essential for bats to navigate in three-dimensional space. PMID:25411456

  2. Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Erlick, Carynelisa; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Certain terrestrial animals use sky polarization for navigation. Certain aquatic species have also been shown to orient according to a polarization stimulus, but the correlation between underwater polarization and Sun position and hence the ability to use underwater polarization as a compass for navigation is still under debate. To examine this issue, we use theoretical equations for per cent polarization and electric vector (e-vector) orientation that account for the position of the Sun, refraction at the air–water interface and Rayleigh single scattering. The polarization patterns predicted by these theoretical equations are compared with measurements conducted in clear and semi-turbid coastal sea waters at 2 m and 5 m depth over sea floors of 6 m and 28 m depth. We find that the per cent polarization is correlated with the Sun's elevation only in clear waters. We furthermore find that the maximum value of the e-vector orientation angle equals the angle of refraction only in clear waters, in the horizontal viewing direction, over the deeper sea floor. We conclude that navigation by use of underwater polarization is possible under restricted conditions, i.e. in clear waters, primarily near the horizontal viewing direction, and in locations where the sea floor has limited effects on the light's polarization. PMID:21282170

  3. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-water operations is equipped with at least two-approved independent navigation systems suitable for.... (b) Use of a single independent navigation system for IFR operations. The aircraft may be equipped with a single independent navigation system suitable for navigating the aircraft along the route to...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  5. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  6. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  7. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  8. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  9. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 162.240, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. Biosonar navigation above water II: exploiting mirror images.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Hoffmann, Susanne; Prosch, Selina; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2015-02-15

    As in vision, acoustic signals can be reflected by a smooth surface creating an acoustic mirror image. Water bodies represent the only naturally occurring horizontal and acoustically smooth surfaces. Echolocating bats flying over smooth water bodies encounter echo-acoustic mirror images of objects above the surface. Here, we combined an electrophysiological approach with a behavioral experimental paradigm to investigate whether bats can exploit echo-acoustic mirror images for navigation and how these mirrorlike echo-acoustic cues are encoded in their auditory cortex. In an obstacle-avoidance task where the obstacles could only be detected via their echo-acoustic mirror images, most bats spontaneously exploited these cues for navigation. Sonar ensonifications along the bats' flight path revealed conspicuous changes of the reflection patterns with slightly increased target strengths at relatively long echo delays corresponding to the longer acoustic paths from the mirrored obstacles. Recordings of cortical spatiotemporal response maps (STRMs) describe the tuning of a unit across the dimensions of elevation and time. The majority of cortical single and multiunits showed a special spatiotemporal pattern of excitatory areas in their STRM indicating a preference for echoes with (relative to the setup dimensions) long delays and, interestingly, from low elevations. This neural preference could effectively encode a reflection pattern as it would be perceived by an echolocating bat detecting an object mirrored from below. The current study provides both behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that echo-acoustic mirror images can be exploited by bats for obstacle avoidance. This capability effectively supports echo-acoustic navigation in highly cluttered natural habitats. PMID:25411457

  11. Biosonar navigation above water II: exploiting mirror images.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Hoffmann, Susanne; Prosch, Selina; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2015-02-15

    As in vision, acoustic signals can be reflected by a smooth surface creating an acoustic mirror image. Water bodies represent the only naturally occurring horizontal and acoustically smooth surfaces. Echolocating bats flying over smooth water bodies encounter echo-acoustic mirror images of objects above the surface. Here, we combined an electrophysiological approach with a behavioral experimental paradigm to investigate whether bats can exploit echo-acoustic mirror images for navigation and how these mirrorlike echo-acoustic cues are encoded in their auditory cortex. In an obstacle-avoidance task where the obstacles could only be detected via their echo-acoustic mirror images, most bats spontaneously exploited these cues for navigation. Sonar ensonifications along the bats' flight path revealed conspicuous changes of the reflection patterns with slightly increased target strengths at relatively long echo delays corresponding to the longer acoustic paths from the mirrored obstacles. Recordings of cortical spatiotemporal response maps (STRMs) describe the tuning of a unit across the dimensions of elevation and time. The majority of cortical single and multiunits showed a special spatiotemporal pattern of excitatory areas in their STRM indicating a preference for echoes with (relative to the setup dimensions) long delays and, interestingly, from low elevations. This neural preference could effectively encode a reflection pattern as it would be perceived by an echolocating bat detecting an object mirrored from below. The current study provides both behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that echo-acoustic mirror images can be exploited by bats for obstacle avoidance. This capability effectively supports echo-acoustic navigation in highly cluttered natural habitats.

  12. A magnetic pulse does not affect homing pigeon navigation: a GPS tracking experiment.

    PubMed

    Holland, Richard; Filannino, Caterina; Gagliardo, Anna

    2013-06-15

    The cues by which homing pigeons are able to return to a home loft after displacement to unfamiliar release sites remain debated. A number of experiments in which migratory birds have been treated with a magnetic pulse have produced a disruption in their orientation, which argues that a ferrimagnetic sense is used for navigation in birds. One previous experiment has also indicated an effect of magnetic pulses on homing pigeon navigation, although with inconsistent results. Previous studies have shown that some magnetic-related information is transmitted by the trigeminal nerve to the brain in some bird species, including the homing pigeon. The function of this information is still unclear. It has been suggested that this information is important for navigation. Previous studies with trigeminal nerve lesioned homing pigeons have clearly shown that the lack of trigeminally mediated information, even if magnetic, is not crucial for homing performance. However, this result does not completely exclude the possibility that other ferrimagnetic receptors in the homing pigeon play a role in navigation. Additionally, recent studies on homing pigeons suggested the existence of a ferrimagnetic sense in a novel location presumably located in the inner ear (lagena). In the present study, we tested whether any ferrimagnetic magnetoreceptors, irrespective of their location in the bird's head, are involved in pigeons' homing. To do this, we treated homing pigeons with a strong magnetic pulse before release, tracked birds with GPS loggers and analyzed whether this treatment affected homing performance. In the single previous magnetic pulse experiment on homing pigeons, only initial orientation at a release site was considered and the results were inconsistent. We observed no effect of the magnetic pulse at any of the sites used on initial orientation, homing performance, tortuosity or track efficiency, which does not support a role for the ferrimagnetic sense in homing pigeon

  13. 49 CFR 195.412 - Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under... Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters. (a) Each operator shall, at intervals not... intervals not exceeding 5 years, inspect each crossing under a navigable waterway to determine the...

  14. 49 CFR 195.412 - Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under... Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters. (a) Each operator shall, at intervals not... intervals not exceeding 5 years, inspect each crossing under a navigable waterway to determine the...

  15. 49 CFR 195.412 - Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under... Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters. (a) Each operator shall, at intervals not... intervals not exceeding 5 years, inspect each crossing under a navigable waterway to determine the...

  16. 49 CFR 195.412 - Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under... Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters. (a) Each operator shall, at intervals not... intervals not exceeding 5 years, inspect each crossing under a navigable waterway to determine the...

  17. 49 CFR 195.412 - Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under... Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters. (a) Each operator shall, at intervals not... intervals not exceeding 5 years, inspect each crossing under a navigable waterway to determine the...

  18. 33 CFR 125.53 - Requirements for credentials; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes and Western... navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes and Western Rivers). (a) Every person... in the navigable waters of the continental United States other than the Great Lakes and...

  19. 33 CFR 125.53 - Requirements for credentials; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes and Western... navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes and Western Rivers). (a) Every person... in the navigable waters of the continental United States other than the Great Lakes and...

  20. 33 CFR 125.53 - Requirements for credentials; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes and Western... navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes and Western Rivers). (a) Every person... in the navigable waters of the continental United States other than the Great Lakes and...

  1. 33 CFR 125.53 - Requirements for credentials; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes and Western... navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes and Western Rivers). (a) Every person... in the navigable waters of the continental United States other than the Great Lakes and...

  2. How variation in head pitch could affect image matching algorithms for ant navigation.

    PubMed

    Ardin, Paul; Mangan, Michael; Wystrach, Antoine; Webb, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Desert ants are a model system for animal navigation, using visual memory to follow long routes across both sparse and cluttered environments. Most accounts of this behaviour assume retinotopic image matching, e.g. recovering heading direction by finding a minimum in the image difference function as the viewpoint rotates. But most models neglect the potential image distortion that could result from unstable head motion. We report that for ants running across a short section of natural substrate, the head pitch varies substantially: by over 20 degrees with no load; and 60 degrees when carrying a large food item. There is no evidence of head stabilisation. Using a realistic simulation of the ant's visual world, we demonstrate that this range of head pitch significantly degrades image matching. The effect of pitch variation can be ameliorated by a memory bank of densely sampled along a route so that an image sufficiently similar in pitch and location is available for comparison. However, with large pitch disturbance, inappropriate memories sampled at distant locations are often recalled and navigation along a route can be adversely affected. Ignoring images obtained at extreme pitches, or averaging images over several pitches, does not significantly improve performance.

  3. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  4. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  5. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  6. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  7. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  8. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular.

  9. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. PMID:27174311

  10. 75 FR 49408 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... this rule is to make conforming amendments and technical corrections to Coast Guard bridge and... regarding bridge matters, nor will it change the substance of the public's involvement in the process....

  11. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  14. Water hardness affects catfish susceptibility to columnaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease can cause tremendous losses of freshwater fish. While it has been studied exhaustively, little is known about its affinity to specific water chemistries that affects attachment. Recent studies in our labs have illuminated this subject. In the first experiment, two waters were ...

  15. Water chemistry affects catfish susceptibility to columnaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While columnaris disease has been well-studied, little is known about how specific water chemistries can affect attachment. Recent studies in our labs offer new insight on this subject. Well waters from the USDA/ARS Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center (SNARC; Stuttgart, Arkansas) and fr...

  16. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except...

  17. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except...

  18. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except...

  19. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except...

  20. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify,...

  1. The geomagnetic environment in which sea turtle eggs incubate affects subsequent magnetic navigation behaviour of hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Davidoff, Kyla R; Mangiamele, Lisa A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2014-09-22

    Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings (Caretta caretta) use regional magnetic fields as open-ocean navigational markers during trans-oceanic migrations. Little is known, however, about the ontogeny of this behaviour. As a first step towards investigating whether the magnetic environment in which hatchlings develop affects subsequent magnetic orientation behaviour, eggs deposited by nesting female loggerheads were permitted to develop in situ either in the natural ambient magnetic field or in a magnetic field distorted by magnets placed around the nest. In orientation experiments, hatchlings that developed in the normal ambient field oriented approximately south when exposed to a field that exists near the northern coast of Portugal, a direction consistent with their migratory route in the northeastern Atlantic. By contrast, hatchlings that developed in a distorted magnetic field had orientation indistinguishable from random when tested in the same north Portugal field. No differences existed between the two groups in orientation assays involving responses to orbital movements of waves or sea-finding, neither of which involves magnetic field perception. These findings, to our knowledge, demonstrate for the first time that the magnetic environment present during early development can influence the magnetic orientation behaviour of a neonatal migratory animal.

  2. The geomagnetic environment in which sea turtle eggs incubate affects subsequent magnetic navigation behaviour of hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Davidoff, Kyla R.; Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings (Caretta caretta) use regional magnetic fields as open-ocean navigational markers during trans-oceanic migrations. Little is known, however, about the ontogeny of this behaviour. As a first step towards investigating whether the magnetic environment in which hatchlings develop affects subsequent magnetic orientation behaviour, eggs deposited by nesting female loggerheads were permitted to develop in situ either in the natural ambient magnetic field or in a magnetic field distorted by magnets placed around the nest. In orientation experiments, hatchlings that developed in the normal ambient field oriented approximately south when exposed to a field that exists near the northern coast of Portugal, a direction consistent with their migratory route in the northeastern Atlantic. By contrast, hatchlings that developed in a distorted magnetic field had orientation indistinguishable from random when tested in the same north Portugal field. No differences existed between the two groups in orientation assays involving responses to orbital movements of waves or sea-finding, neither of which involves magnetic field perception. These findings, to our knowledge, demonstrate for the first time that the magnetic environment present during early development can influence the magnetic orientation behaviour of a neonatal migratory animal. PMID:25100699

  3. 46 CFR 24.15-5 - Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable waters of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... waters of the United States. 24.15-5 Section 24.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... using navigable waters of the United States. Uninspected Canadian pleasure craft (uninspected vessels) temporarily using navigable waters of the United States may carry in lieu of the......

  4. 46 CFR 24.15-5 - Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable waters of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... waters of the United States. 24.15-5 Section 24.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... using navigable waters of the United States. Uninspected Canadian pleasure craft (uninspected vessels) temporarily using navigable waters of the United States may carry in lieu of the......

  5. 46 CFR 24.15-5 - Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable waters of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... waters of the United States. 24.15-5 Section 24.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... using navigable waters of the United States. Uninspected Canadian pleasure craft (uninspected vessels) temporarily using navigable waters of the United States may carry in lieu of the......

  6. 46 CFR 24.15-5 - Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable waters of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... waters of the United States. 24.15-5 Section 24.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... using navigable waters of the United States. Uninspected Canadian pleasure craft (uninspected vessels) temporarily using navigable waters of the United States may carry in lieu of the......

  7. 46 CFR 24.15-5 - Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable waters of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... waters of the United States. 24.15-5 Section 24.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... using navigable waters of the United States. Uninspected Canadian pleasure craft (uninspected vessels) temporarily using navigable waters of the United States may carry in lieu of the......

  8. Daytime Water Detection by Fusing Multiple Cues for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, A. L.; Matthies, L. H.; Huertas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Detecting water hazards is a significant challenge to unmanned ground vehicle autonomous off-road navigation. This paper focuses on detecting the presence of water during the daytime using color cameras. A multi-cue approach is taken. Evidence of the presence of water is generated from color, texture, and the detection of reflections in stereo range data. A rule base for fusing water cues was developed by evaluating detection results from an extensive archive of data collection imagery containing water. This software has been implemented into a run-time passive perception subsystem and tested thus far under Linux on a Pentium based processor.

  9. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.66 Operating requirements: Discharge...

  10. Pharmacogenetics of erectile dysfunction: navigating into uncharted waters.

    PubMed

    Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2014-08-01

    Sildenafil and other PDE-5 inhibitors have revolutionized erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment. However, a significant number of patients do not respond or present adverse reactions to these drugs. While genetic polymorphisms may underlie this phenomenon, very little research has been undertaken in this research field. Most of the current knowledge is based on sildenafil, thus almost completely ignoring other important pharmacological therapies. Currently, the most promising genes with pharmacogenetic implications in ED are related to the nitric oxide and cGMP pathway, although other genes are likely to affect the responsiveness to treatment of ED. Nevertheless, the small number of studies available opens the possibility of further exploring other genes and phenotypes related to ED. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the genes being tested for their pharmacogenetic relevance in the therapy of ED.

  11. Pharmacogenetics of erectile dysfunction: navigating into uncharted waters.

    PubMed

    Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2014-08-01

    Sildenafil and other PDE-5 inhibitors have revolutionized erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment. However, a significant number of patients do not respond or present adverse reactions to these drugs. While genetic polymorphisms may underlie this phenomenon, very little research has been undertaken in this research field. Most of the current knowledge is based on sildenafil, thus almost completely ignoring other important pharmacological therapies. Currently, the most promising genes with pharmacogenetic implications in ED are related to the nitric oxide and cGMP pathway, although other genes are likely to affect the responsiveness to treatment of ED. Nevertheless, the small number of studies available opens the possibility of further exploring other genes and phenotypes related to ED. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the genes being tested for their pharmacogenetic relevance in the therapy of ED. PMID:25303302

  12. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation.

  13. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  14. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  15. 33 CFR 150.810 - Reporting a problem with an aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting a problem with an aid....810 Reporting a problem with an aid to navigation. (a) Any problem affecting the operation or characteristics of a navigation aid at the deepwater port must be reported to the District Commander by...

  16. Water Temperature Affects Susceptibility to Ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Brand, Mabre D; Hill, Rachel D; Brenes, Roberto; Chaney, Jordan C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Grayfer, Leon; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife populations is increasing, and changes in environmental conditions have been hypothesized as a potential driver. For example, warmer ambient temperatures might favor pathogens by providing more ideal conditions for propagation or by stressing hosts. Our objective was to determine if water temperature played a role in the pathogenicity of an emerging pathogen (ranavirus) that infects ectothermic vertebrate species. We exposed larvae of four amphibian species to a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus at two temperatures (10 and 25°C). We found that FV3 copies in tissues and mortality due to ranaviral disease were greater at 25°C than at 10°C for all species. In a second experiment with wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we found that a 2°C change (10 vs. 12°C) affected ranaviral disease outcomes, with greater infection and mortality at 12°C. There was evidence that 10°C stressed Cope's gray tree frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, which is a species that breeds during summer-all individuals died at this temperature, but only 10% tested positive for FV3 infection. The greater pathogenicity of FV3 at 25°C might be related to faster viral replication, which in vitro studies have reported previously. Colder temperatures also may decrease systemic infection by reducing blood circulation and the proportion of phagocytes, which are known to disseminate FV3 through the body. Collectively, our results indicate that water temperature during larval development may play a role in the emergence of ranaviruses.

  17. Water Temperature Affects Susceptibility to Ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Brand, Mabre D; Hill, Rachel D; Brenes, Roberto; Chaney, Jordan C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Grayfer, Leon; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife populations is increasing, and changes in environmental conditions have been hypothesized as a potential driver. For example, warmer ambient temperatures might favor pathogens by providing more ideal conditions for propagation or by stressing hosts. Our objective was to determine if water temperature played a role in the pathogenicity of an emerging pathogen (ranavirus) that infects ectothermic vertebrate species. We exposed larvae of four amphibian species to a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus at two temperatures (10 and 25°C). We found that FV3 copies in tissues and mortality due to ranaviral disease were greater at 25°C than at 10°C for all species. In a second experiment with wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we found that a 2°C change (10 vs. 12°C) affected ranaviral disease outcomes, with greater infection and mortality at 12°C. There was evidence that 10°C stressed Cope's gray tree frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, which is a species that breeds during summer-all individuals died at this temperature, but only 10% tested positive for FV3 infection. The greater pathogenicity of FV3 at 25°C might be related to faster viral replication, which in vitro studies have reported previously. Colder temperatures also may decrease systemic infection by reducing blood circulation and the proportion of phagocytes, which are known to disseminate FV3 through the body. Collectively, our results indicate that water temperature during larval development may play a role in the emergence of ranaviruses. PMID:27283058

  18. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.66 Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage...

  19. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.66 Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage...

  20. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.66 Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage...

  1. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.66 Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage...

  2. Can surfactants affect management of non-water repellent soils?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surfactants affect the water relations of water repellent soils but may or may not affect those of wettable soils. We studied the effects of three surfactants, Aquatrols IrrigAid Gold®, an ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer, and an alkyl polyglycoside, along with untreated tap water as ...

  3. Use of global navigation satellite systems for monitoring deformations of water-development works

    SciTech Connect

    Kaftan, V. I.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2013-05-15

    The feasibility of using global radio-navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to improve functional safety of high-liability water-development works - dams at hydroelectric power plants, and, consequently, the safety of the population in the surrounding areas is examined on the basis of analysis of modern publications. Characteristics for determination of displacements and deformations with use of GNSS, and also in a complex with other types of measurements, are compared. It is demonstrated that combined monitoring of deformations of the ground surface of the region, and engineering and technical structures is required to ensure the functional safety of HPP, and reliable metrologic assurance of measurements is also required to obtain actual characteristics of the accuracy and effectiveness of GNSS observations.

  4. The lower body muscle activation of intermediate to experienced kayakers when navigating white water.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Misha; Brooks, Darrell; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    In white-water kayaking, the legs play a vital part in turning, stabilising and bracing actions. To date, there has been no reported information on neuromuscular activation of the legs in an authentic white-water environment. The aim of the current study was to identify lower body muscle activation, using 'in-boat' electromyography (EMG), whilst navigating a white-water run. Ten experienced male kayakers (age 31.5 ± 12.5 yr, intermediate to advanced experience) completed three successful runs of an international standard white-water course (grade 3 rapids), targeting right and left sides of the course, in a zigzag formation. Surface EMG (sEMG) outputs were generated, bilaterally, for the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius, expressed as a percentage of a dynamic maximal voluntary contraction (dMVC). Only RF showed significantly higher activation than any muscle on the left side of the body, and only on the left side of the course (P = .004; ETA(2) = 0.56). Other results showed no significant difference between muscle activation in the right and left legs during each run, nor when assessed at either the right or left side of the course (P > .05). These findings indicate that contralateral symmetry in lower limb muscle activation is evident during white-water kayaking. This symmetry may provide a stable base to allow more asymmetrical upper body and trunk movements to be fully optimised. Lower body symmetry development should be considered useful in targeted training programmes for white-water kayakers.

  5. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Magdy G.

    2013-01-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated. PMID:25685482

  6. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  7. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  8. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  9. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  10. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  11. Orientation and navigation relative to water flow, prey, conspecifics, and predators by the nudibranch mollusc Tritonia diomedea.

    PubMed

    Wyeth, Russell C; Woodward, Owen M; Willows, A O Dennis

    2006-04-01

    Progress in understanding sensory and locomotory systems in Tritonia diomedea has created the potential for the neuroethological study of animal navigation in this species. Our goal is to describe the navigational behaviors to guide further work on how the nervous system integrates information from multiple senses to produce oriented locomotion. Observation of T. diomedea in its habitat has suggested that it uses water flow to navigate relative to prey, predators, and conspecifics. We test these hypotheses in the field by comparing slug orientation in time-lapse videos to flow direction in circumstances with and without prey, predators, or conspecifics upstream. T. diomedea oriented upstream both while crawling and after turning. This trend was strongest before feeding or mating; after feeding or mating, the slugs did not orient significantly to flow. Slugs turned downstream away from an upstream predator but did not react in control situations without an upstream predator. These data support the hypothesis that T. diomedea uses a combination of odors (or some other cue transported downstream) and water flow to navigate relative to prey, predators, and conspecifics. Understanding the context-dependent choice between upstream and downstream crawling in T. diomedea provides an opportunity for further work on the sensory integration underlying navigation behavior. PMID:16641515

  12. Impaired water maze navigation of Wistar rats with retrosplenial cortex lesions: effect of nonspatial pretraining.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, Nikolai V; Lukoyanova, Elena A; Andrade, José P; Paula-Barbosa, Manuel M

    2005-03-01

    Damage to the retrosplenial cortex (RC) impairs the performance of rodents on spatial learning and memory tasks, but the extent of these deficits was previously reported to be influenced by the lesion type, rat strain, and behavioral task used. The present study addressed the issue of whether or not cytotoxic damage to RC impairs place navigation of Wistar rats in the Morris water maze and, if so, whether this is merely attributable to spatial learning deficits or to impaired learning of general (nonspatial) behavioral strategies required to correctly perform this task or both. Behaviorally naive rats with bilateral lesions to RC were significantly impaired relative to sham-lesioned rats both during the period of initial learning of the task and during the later phases of training. In addition, these animals showed enhanced thigmotaxis, indicating that the lesion was associated with considerable abnormalities in nonspatial learning. In contrast, RC-lesioned animals that have been previously familiarized with general task rules in a series of shaping trials did not show more thigmotaxis than did their respective controls. Furthermore, although these rats were still impaired in the middle of the training process, their performance during the period of initial learning as well as by the end of training was found to now be normal. Our results confirm those of earlier studies indicating that RC is important for spatial navigation. The findings herein reported are also consistent with the notion that, in addition to spatial information processing, RC is involved in cognitive processes underlying the ability of subjects to properly respond to general task demands.

  13. The 2009 NCTE Presidential Address: Sailing over the Edge--Navigating the Uncharted Waters of a World Gone Flat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Kylene

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's presidential address, delivered at the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Annual Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 22, 2009. For the author, the title of this president's address, "Sailing over the Edge: Navigating the Uncharted Waters of a World Gone Flat," calls to…

  14. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  15. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  16. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  17. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  18. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  19. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  20. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  1. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  2. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  3. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  4. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  5. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  6. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  7. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  8. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  9. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  10. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  11. Overexpression of alpha2C-adrenoceptors impairs water maze navigation.

    PubMed

    Björklund, M; Sirviö, J; Riekkinen, M; Sallinen, J; Scheinin, M; Riekkinen, P

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of overexpression of alpha2C-adrenoceptors in water maze navigation in mice transgenically manipulated to have a threefold overexpression of the alpha2C-adrenoreceptors. Alpha2C-adrenoreceptors overexpressing mice swam more in the peripheral annulus of the pool and did not find the hidden escape platform as well as the wild type control mice. A subtype-nonselective alpha2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, atipamezole (ATI, 1000 microg/kg, s.c.), fully reversed the deficit in platform finding and search strategy in overexpressing mice. Noradrenaline depletion (-95%) induced by N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) did not impair platform finding of wild type or overexpressing mice. The DSP-4 lesion slightly increased swimming in the peripheral annulus in wild type mice, but not in overexpressing mice. The DSP-4 lesion produced a dissociable effect on the action of atipamezole to improve platform finding and search strategy in overexpressing mice: atipamezole did not alleviate the platform finding deficit in DSP-4 lesioned overexpressing mice, but normalized their abnormal search strategy. These results suggest that the abnormal search pattern and deficit in the accuracy of platform finding are mediated by constitutive activity of overexpressed alpha2C-adrenoreceptors.

  12. Water Bouncing Balls: how material stiffness affects water entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, Tadd

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that one can skip a stone across the water surface, but less well known that a ball can also be skipped on water. Even though 17th century ship gunners were aware that cannonballs could be skipped on the water surface, they did not know that using elastic spheres rather than rigid ones could greatly improve skipping performance (yet would have made for more peaceful volleys). The water bouncing ball (Waboba®) is an elastic ball used in a game of aquatic keep away in which players pass the ball by skipping it along the water surface. The ball skips easily along the surface creating a sense that breaking the world record for number of skips could easily be achieved (51 rock skips Russell Byers 2007). We investigate the physics of skipping elastic balls to elucidate the mechanisms by which they bounce off of the water. High-speed video reveals that, upon impact with the water, the balls create a cavity and deform significantly due to the extreme elasticity; the flattened spheres resemble skipping stones. With an increased wetted surface area, a large hydrodynamic lift force is generated causing the ball to launch back into the air. Unlike stone skipping, the elasticity of the ball plays an important roll in determining the success of the skip. Through experimentation, we demonstrate that the deformation timescale during impact must be longer than the collision time in order to achieve a successful skip. Further, several material deformation modes can be excited upon free surface impact. The effect of impact velocity and angle on the two governing timescales and material wave modes are also experimentally investigated. Scaling for the deformation and collision times are derived and used to establish criteria for skipping in terms of relevant physical parameters.

  13. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  14. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  15. How Climate Change Affects Water Resources in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädler, B.

    2009-04-01

    Water resources in the Alps are abundant, but long term observed climatological, glaciological and hydrological time series clearly show ongoing climate changes. And regional climate change scenarios indicate even more changes. Will we experience more severe natural disasters in the Alps and will water scarcity affect alpine agriculture and tourism? Or might the importance of the Alps as «Water Tower of Europe» even grow?

  16. Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

  17. How do field of view and resolution affect the information content of panoramic scenes for visual navigation? A computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Wystrach, Antoine; Dewar, Alex; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The visual systems of animals have to provide information to guide behaviour and the informational requirements of an animal's behavioural repertoire are often reflected in its sensory system. For insects, this is often evident in the optical array of the compound eye. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation. As ants are expert visual navigators it may be that their vision is optimised for navigation. Here we take a computational approach in asking how the details of the optical array influence the informational content of scenes used in simple view matching strategies for orientation. We find that robust orientation is best achieved with low-resolution visual information and a large field of view, similar to the optical properties seen for many ant species. A lower resolution allows for a trade-off between specificity and generalisation for stored views. Additionally, our simulations show that orientation performance increases if different portions of the visual field are considered as discrete visual sensors, each giving an independent directional estimate. This suggests that ants might benefit by processing information from their two eyes independently. PMID:26582183

  18. How do field of view and resolution affect the information content of panoramic scenes for visual navigation? A computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Wystrach, Antoine; Dewar, Alex; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The visual systems of animals have to provide information to guide behaviour and the informational requirements of an animal's behavioural repertoire are often reflected in its sensory system. For insects, this is often evident in the optical array of the compound eye. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation. As ants are expert visual navigators it may be that their vision is optimised for navigation. Here we take a computational approach in asking how the details of the optical array influence the informational content of scenes used in simple view matching strategies for orientation. We find that robust orientation is best achieved with low-resolution visual information and a large field of view, similar to the optical properties seen for many ant species. A lower resolution allows for a trade-off between specificity and generalisation for stored views. Additionally, our simulations show that orientation performance increases if different portions of the visual field are considered as discrete visual sensors, each giving an independent directional estimate. This suggests that ants might benefit by processing information from their two eyes independently.

  19. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  20. 33 CFR 263.21 - Small navigation project authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small navigation project authority. 263.21 Section 263.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Navigation Policy § 263.21 Small navigation...

  1. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under...

  2. 33 CFR 263.21 - Small navigation project authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small navigation project authority. 263.21 Section 263.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Navigation Policy § 263.21 Small navigation...

  3. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

  4. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under...

  5. 33 CFR 263.21 - Small navigation project authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small navigation project authority. 263.21 Section 263.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Navigation Policy § 263.21 Small navigation...

  6. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under...

  7. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

  8. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

  9. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

  10. 33 CFR 263.21 - Small navigation project authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small navigation project authority. 263.21 Section 263.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Navigation Policy § 263.21 Small navigation...

  11. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

  12. 33 CFR 263.21 - Small navigation project authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small navigation project authority. 263.21 Section 263.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Navigation Policy § 263.21 Small navigation...

  13. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  14. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  15. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  16. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  17. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  18. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  19. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  20. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  1. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  2. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  3. Navigating Difficult Waters: Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions. Research Paper No 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…

  4. The chemistry of salt-affected soils and waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the chemistry of salt affected soils and waters is necessary for management of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. In this chapter we review the origin of salts in the landscape, the major chemical reactions necessary for prediction of the soil solution composition, and the use of...

  5. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    PubMed Central

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

  6. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change.

    PubMed

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-03-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future.

  7. 33 CFR 329.14 - Determination of navigability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of navigability. 329.14 Section 329.14 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DEFINITION OF NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES § 329.14 Determination...

  8. 33 CFR 329.14 - Determination of navigability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of navigability. 329.14 Section 329.14 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DEFINITION OF NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES § 329.14 Determination...

  9. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  10. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, E.L.; Lowery, M.A.; Campbell, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  11. 33 CFR 207.306 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 207.306 Section 207.306 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.306 Missouri River;...

  12. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The...

  13. 33 CFR 207.306 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 207.306 Section 207.306 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.306 Missouri River;...

  14. 33 CFR 162.105 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 162.105 Section 162.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  15. 33 CFR 162.105 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 162.105 Section 162.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  16. 33 CFR 207.306 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 207.306 Section 207.306 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.306 Missouri River;...

  17. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  18. 33 CFR 162.105 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 162.105 Section 162.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  19. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  20. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The...

  1. 33 CFR 64.31 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 64.31 Section 64.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARKING OF STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS...

  2. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  3. 33 CFR 207.306 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 207.306 Section 207.306 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.306 Missouri River;...

  4. 33 CFR 207.306 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 207.306 Section 207.306 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.306 Missouri River;...

  5. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  6. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401.97 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Navigation...

  7. 33 CFR 162.105 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 162.105 Section 162.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  8. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401.97 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Navigation...

  9. 33 CFR 209.315 - Public access to navigation works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public access to navigation works. 209.315 Section 209.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.315 Public access to navigation works. While...

  10. 33 CFR 64.31 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 64.31 Section 64.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARKING OF STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS...

  11. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401.97 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Navigation...

  12. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401.97 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Navigation...

  13. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The...

  14. 33 CFR 209.315 - Public access to navigation works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public access to navigation works. 209.315 Section 209.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.315 Public access to navigation works. While...

  15. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  16. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  17. 33 CFR 209.315 - Public access to navigation works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public access to navigation works. 209.315 Section 209.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.315 Public access to navigation works. While...

  18. 33 CFR 162.105 - Missouri River; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Missouri River; administration and navigation. 162.105 Section 162.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  19. 33 CFR 209.315 - Public access to navigation works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public access to navigation works. 209.315 Section 209.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.315 Public access to navigation works. While...

  20. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The...

  1. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  2. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401.97 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Navigation...

  3. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  4. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  5. 33 CFR 401.9 - Radio telephone and navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radio telephone and navigation equipment. 401.9 Section 401.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... telephone and navigation equipment. (a) Self-propelled vessels, other than pleasure craft of less than...

  6. Navigating the Clean Water Act: Connectivity and Legal Protection of Aquatic Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, D. M.; Raanan Kiperwas, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Clean Water Act is the principal federal law protecting the integrity of waters in the United States (e.g., rivers, streams, wetlands, lakes). Clean Water Act protection after U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) (2001) and Rapanos (2006) is determined based on case-by-case analyses of connections among waters. Determining a water's status as a "water of the US" protected by the Act typically requires data and analysis of characteristics such as its flow, and biological and chemical relationships with downstream waters. When such data is not available, the Clean Water Act might not protect the quality and integrity of the water in question. This raises a number of legal and technical challenges for implementation, as well as questions regarding underlying aquatic sciences. In addition, many of the terms used by the court are not fully consistent with similar scientific terms, potentially causing confusion among policymakers and scientists alike. This presentation will discuss the Clean Water Act, and how currently its protections for aquatic resources are dependent on connectivity with larger downstream waters, particularly for those that do not flow perennially. The presentation will focus on the role science has played in forming and informing policy making, areas where science and policy may not be fully consistent, areas where research is still needed, and provide a policy "dictionary" for scientists interested in working on this evolving issue.

  7. Does consideration of water routing affect simulated water and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Schneiderman, E. M.; Band, L. E.; Hwang, T.; Pierson, D. C.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Zion, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    The cycling of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is closely coupled with the cycling of water. An important mechanism connecting ecological and hydrological processes in terrestrial ecosystems is lateral flow of water along landscapes. Few studies, however, have examined explicitly how consideration of water routing affects simulated water and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study is to explore how consideration of water routing in a process-based hydroecological model affects simulated water and carbon dynamics. To achieve that end, we rasterized the regional hydroecological simulation systems (RHESSys) and employed the rasterized RHESSys (R-RHESSys) in a forested watershed. We performed and compared two contrasting simulations, one with and another without water routing. We found that R-RHESSys is able to correctly simulate major hydrological and ecological variables regardless of whether water routing is considered. When water routing was neglected, however, soil water table depth and saturation deficit were simulated to be smaller and spatially more homogeneous. As a result, evaporation, forest productivity and soil heterotrophic respiration also were simulated to be spatially more homogeneous compared to simulation with water routing. When averaged for the entire watershed, however, differences in simulated water and carbon fluxes are not significant between the two simulations. Overall, the study demonstrated that consideration of water routing enabled R-RHESSys to better capture our preconception of the spatial patterns of water table depth and saturation deficit across the watershed. Because the spatial pattern of soil moisture is fundamental to water efflux from land to the atmosphere, forest productivity and soil microbial activity, ecosystem and carbon cycle models, therefore, need to explicitly represent water routing in order to accurately quantify the magnitudes and patterns of water and carbon fluxes in terrestrial

  8. Recovery from water stress affects grape leaf petiole transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Irene; Pagliarani, Chiara; Lovisolo, Claudio; Chitarra, Walter; Roman, Federica; Schubert, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Fast and efficient recovery from water stress is a key determinant of plant adaptation to changing meteorological conditions modulating transpiration, i.e. air temperature and humidity. We analysed transcriptomic responses during rehydration after water stress in grapevine leaf petioles, where embolism formation and repair commonly take place, and where metabolic changes related to embolism recovery are expected to be particularly important. We compared gene expression of recovering plants with irrigated controls, upon high and low transpiration conditions, using cDNA microarrays. In parallel, we assessed the daily dynamics of water relations, embolism formation and repair, and leaf abscisic acid concentration. In recovering plants, the most affected gene categories were secondary metabolism, including genes linked to flavonoid biosynthesis; sugar metabolism and transport, and several aquaporin genes. The physiological dynamics of recovery were lower and the number of differentially expressed probes was much lower upon low transpiration than found in actively transpiring grapevines, suggesting the existence of a more intense metabolic reorganization upon high transpiration conditions and of a signal eliciting these responses. In plants recovering under high transpiration, abscisic acid concentrations significantly increased, and, in parallel, transcripts linked to abscisic acid metabolism and signalling (ABA-8'-hydroxylase, serine-threonine kinases, RD22 proteins) were upregulated; a trend that was not observed upon low transpiration. Our results show that recovery from water stress elicits complex transcriptomic responses in grapevine. The increase observed in abscisic acid cellular levels could represent a signal triggering the activation of responses to rehydration after stress. PMID:22241135

  9. Network global navigation satellite system survey to harmonize water-surface elevation data for the Rainy River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Silliker, R. Jason; Densmore, Brenda K.; Krahulik, Justin

    2016-08-15

    Continuously recording water-level streamgages in Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir are used to regulate water levels according to rule curves established in 2000 by the International Joint Commission; however, water levels at streamgages were referenced to a variety of vertical datums, confounding efforts to model the flow of water through the system, regulate water levels during periods of high inflow, and evaluate the effectiveness of the rule curves. In October 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada, International Joint Commission, and National Park Service began a joint field study with the goal of obtaining precise elevations referenced to a uniform vertical datum for all reference marks used to set water levels at streamgages throughout Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir. This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, International Joint Commission, and National Park Service.Three field crews deployed Global Navigation Satellite System receivers statically over 16 reference marks colocated with active and discontinued water-level streamgages throughout Rainy River, Rainy Lake, Namakan Reservoir, and select tributaries of Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir. A Global Navigation Satellite System receiver also was deployed statically over a National Geodetic Survey cooperative base network control station for use as a quality-control reference mark. Satellite data were collected simultaneously during a 5-day period and processed independently by the U.S. Geological Survey and Natural Resources Canada to obtain accurate positioning and elevations for the 17 surveyed reference marks. Processed satellite data were used to convert published water levels to elevations above sea level referenced to the Canadian Geodetic Vertical Datum of 2013 in order to compare water-surface elevations referenced to a uniform vertical datum throughout the study area. In this report, an “offset” refers to the

  10. Model tests of living brush mattresses made of shrub and tree willows as bank protection at navigable waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokopp, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The embankment stability at navigable waters suffers from hydraulic loads, like strong ship induced waves, resulting hydropeaking and strong water-level fluctuations. Willow brush mattresses can reduce erosion at the embankments of rivers and increase bank stability. Due to experiences gained in the project "Alternative Technical-Biological Bank Protection on Inland Water-ways" the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute commissioned a more detailed investigation of protective functions of willow brush mattresses respectively the differences between brush mattresses made of pure shrub (Salix viminalis) or tree willows (Salix alba) at water ways with high ship-induced hydraulic loads. This paper shows the upcoming research methods of the years 2014 to 2016. The protective functions of two different willow brush mattresses and the congruence between soil, hydraulics and willow sprouts movement will be investigated in a wave basin by measuring flow velocity with ADVs (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters) installed near the soil surface and in different embankment areas, the pore water pressure with probes in different soil layers, the wave height with ultrasound probes and the willow movements with permanently installed cameras while flooding the basin as well as measuring the erosion afterwards. These flooding test series will be conducted two times during the vegetation period. The shear strength of the tree willow rooted soil will be examined in different soil layers with a shear load frame. The results will be compared with the data of shear strength tests of same aged brush mattresses made of shrub willows, which have already been carried out by the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute. The filtering capability of the soil covering branches and the near surface willow roots will be investigated by growing willow brush mattresses in sample boxes. Those can be repeatedly moved up and down into a diving pool while measuring pore water pressure

  11. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or affects state water law or any interstate compact governing water. Reclamation will comply with state water...

  12. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or affects state water law or any interstate compact governing water. Reclamation will comply with state water...

  13. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or affects state water law or any interstate compact governing water. Reclamation will comply with state water...

  14. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or affects state water law or any interstate compact governing water. Reclamation will comply with state water...

  15. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or affects state water law or any interstate compact governing water. Reclamation will comply with state water...

  16. Navigating in Unknown Waters: Proposing, Collecting Data, and Writing a Qualitative Dissertation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencich, Carole; Graber, Elizabeth; Staben, Jenny; Sohn, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Shares insights and experiences of three students that might smooth the way for other graduate students who may be struggling to chart their own courses to the "PhD shore." Suggests that it is ultimately the student who must take ownership and chart a course through the "choppy dissertation waters." (SG)

  17. Inland Waters Night Lighting Configurations: A Navigation Rules Course for Coast Guard Auxiliarists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gregory Peter

    A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…

  18. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron, MI. 401.407 Section 401.407 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and...

  19. Biosolids applications affect runoff water quality following forest fire.

    PubMed

    Meyer, V F; Redente, E F; Barbarick, K A; Brobst, R

    2001-01-01

    Soil erosion and nutrient losses are great concerns following forest wildfires. Biosolids application might enhance revegetation efforts while reducing soil erodibility. Consequently, we applied Denver Metro Wastewater District composted biosolids at rates of 0, 40, and 80 Mg ha(-1) to a severely burned, previously forested site near Buffalo Creek, CO to increase plant cover and growth. Soils were classified as Ustorthents, Ustochrepts, and Haploborols. Simulated rainfall was applied for 30 min at a rate of 100 mm h(-1) to 3- x 10-m paired plots. Biosolids application rates did not significantly affect mean total runoff (p < 0.05). Sediment concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05) from the control plots compared with the plots that had received the 80 Mg biosolids ha(-1) rate. Biosolids application rate had mixed effects on water-quality constituents; however, concentrations of all runoff constituents for all treatment rates were below levels recommended for drinking water standards, except Pb. Biosolids application to this site increased plant cover, which should provide erosion control.

  20. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a...

  1. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a...

  2. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a...

  3. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a solid... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation lights....

  4. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a solid... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights....

  5. Verification and Validation of Numerical Models for Air/Water Flow on Coastal and Navigation Fluid-Structure Interaction Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M.; Dimakopoulos, A.; DeLataillade, T.

    2015-12-01

    Performance analysis and optimization of coastal and navigation structures is becoming feasible due to recent improvements in numerical methods for multiphase flows and the steady increase in capacity and availability of high performance computing resources. Now that the concept of fully three-dimensional air/water flow modelling for real world engineering analysis is achieving acceptance by the wider engineering community, it is critical to expand careful comparative studies on verification,validation, benchmarking, and uncertainty quantification for the variety of competing numerical methods that are continuing to evolve. Furthermore, uncertainty still remains about the relevance of secondary processes such as surface tension, air compressibility, air entrainment, and solid phase (structure) modelling so that questions about continuum mechanical theory and mathematical analysis of multiphase flow are still required. Two of the most popular and practical numerical approaches for large-scale engineering analysis are the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) approaches. In this work we will present a publically available verification and validation test set for air-water-structure interaction problems as well as computational and physical model results including a hybrid VOF-LS method, traditional VOF methods, and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) results. The test set repository and test problem formats will also be presented in order to facilitate future comparative studies and reproduction of scientific results.

  6. Search Strategies Used by "APP" Transgenic Mice during Navigation in the Morris Water Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janus, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    TgCRND8 mice represent a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, with onset of cognitive impairment and increasing amyloid-[beta] plaques in their brains at 12 weeks of age. In this study, the spatial memory in 25- to 30-week-old TgCRND8 mice was analyzed in two reference and one working memory Morris water maze (MWM) tests. In reference…

  7. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  8. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  9. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  10. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  11. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  12. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  13. Lesions of the dorsal tegmental nuclei disrupt control of navigation by distal landmarks in cued, directional, and place variants of the Morris water task

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Benjamin; Rice, James P.; Akers, Katherine G.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Taube, Jeffrey S.; Hamilton, Derek A.

    2014-01-01

    Navigation depends on a network of neural systems that accurately monitor an animal’s directional heading and location in an environment. Within this navigation system are head direction (HD) cells, which discharge as a function of an animal’s directional heading, providing an animal with a neural compass to guide ongoing spatial behavior. Experiments were designed to test this hypothesis by damaging the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN), a mid-brain structure that plays a critical role in the generation of the rodent HD cell signal, and evaluating landmark based navigation using variants of the Morris water task. In Experiments 1 and 2, shams and DTN lesioned rats were trained to navigate toward a cued platform in the presence of a constellation of distal landmarks located outside the pool. After reaching a training criteria, rats were tested in three probe trials in which 1) the cued platform was completely removed from the pool, 2) the pool was repositioned and the cued platform remained in the same absolute location with respect to distal landmarks, or 3) the pool was repositioned and the cued platform remained in the same relative location in the pool. In general, DTN-lesioned rats required more training trials to reach performance criterion, were less accurate to navigate to the platform position when it was removed, and navigated directly to the cued platform regardless of its position in the pool, indicating a general absence of control over navigation by distal landmarks. In Experiment 3, DTN and control rats were trained in directional and place navigation variants of the water task where the pool was repositioned for each training trial and a hidden platform was placed either in the same relative location (direction) in the pool or in the same absolute location (place) in the distal room reference frame. DTN-lesioned rats were initially impaired in the direction task, but ultimately performed as well as controls. In the place task, DTN-lesioned rats

  14. 33 CFR 245.20 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 245.20 Section 245.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.20 Determination of hazard to...

  15. 33 CFR 245.20 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 245.20 Section 245.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.20 Determination of hazard to...

  16. 33 CFR 245.20 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 245.20 Section 245.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.20 Determination of hazard to...

  17. 33 CFR 245.20 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 245.20 Section 245.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.20 Determination of hazard to...

  18. 33 CFR 245.20 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 245.20 Section 245.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.20 Determination of hazard to...

  19. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  20. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  1. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  2. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  3. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  4. 33 CFR 207.50 - Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation. 207.50 Section 207.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.50 Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation....

  5. Navigating the Murky Waters of Conflict of Interest: Searching for the Middle Path.

    PubMed

    Zonia, Susan C

    2016-02-01

    On August 23, 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued the Final Rule on conflict of interest. The purpose of the rule was to provide a clear framework for federally funded studies to identify, reduce, avoid, and/or manage researchers' external commercial relationships that could appear to impact the design, conduct, or reporting of research. Since the issuance of the final rule, colleges and universities have been tasked with closely monitoring external commercial relations of faculty to ensure that potential biases in research are minimized. The monitoring has become an even greater challenge as federal dollars for research decline, along with colleges and universities' ability to internally fund research. External commercial relations, including faculty start-up companies, are often an easy go-to source for funding to continue research and development. In such cases, sources of funding vary from crowdfunding to commercial incubator or innovation project start-up funds. There have been many lessons learned since implementation. This article will site some common examples encountered at one university of commercial relationships that have the potential to affect human subject research. Every industry tie to academically based research must be closely reviewed to ensure appropriate interactions between researchers and sponsors. Equally imperative is to build a collaborative relationship with faculty and conflict of interest administrators. Transparency and partnership are key to developing workable management plans. Even when there is the presence of a significant financial interest, much can be done to protect human subjects as well as the integrity of the research. Independent oversight, prohibiting the principal investigator (PI) from recruiting patients, limiting access to data, replication of results, review of annual progress reports, informing patients of potential financial gain, and so forth, are just a few of the safeguards we can put

  6. Navigating the Murky Waters of Conflict of Interest: Searching for the Middle Path.

    PubMed

    Zonia, Susan C

    2016-02-01

    On August 23, 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued the Final Rule on conflict of interest. The purpose of the rule was to provide a clear framework for federally funded studies to identify, reduce, avoid, and/or manage researchers' external commercial relationships that could appear to impact the design, conduct, or reporting of research. Since the issuance of the final rule, colleges and universities have been tasked with closely monitoring external commercial relations of faculty to ensure that potential biases in research are minimized. The monitoring has become an even greater challenge as federal dollars for research decline, along with colleges and universities' ability to internally fund research. External commercial relations, including faculty start-up companies, are often an easy go-to source for funding to continue research and development. In such cases, sources of funding vary from crowdfunding to commercial incubator or innovation project start-up funds. There have been many lessons learned since implementation. This article will site some common examples encountered at one university of commercial relationships that have the potential to affect human subject research. Every industry tie to academically based research must be closely reviewed to ensure appropriate interactions between researchers and sponsors. Equally imperative is to build a collaborative relationship with faculty and conflict of interest administrators. Transparency and partnership are key to developing workable management plans. Even when there is the presence of a significant financial interest, much can be done to protect human subjects as well as the integrity of the research. Independent oversight, prohibiting the principal investigator (PI) from recruiting patients, limiting access to data, replication of results, review of annual progress reports, informing patients of potential financial gain, and so forth, are just a few of the safeguards we can put

  7. Lesions of the dorsomedial striatum delay spatial learning and render cue-based navigation inflexible in a water maze task in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anni S; André, Jessica M; Pittenger, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The dorsal striatum is involved in cue-based navigation strategies and in the development of habits. It has been proposed that striatum-dependent cued navigation competes with hippocampus-dependent spatial navigation in some circumstances. We have previously shown that large lesions of the dorsal striatum, as well as impairment of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in transgenic mice, can enhance spatial learning in a water maze task, presumably by the disruption of competitive interference. However, the dorsal striatum is not a homogeneous structure; both anatomical considerations and experimental studies in various paradigms show that dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum are functionally distinct, although there is no precise anatomical or neurochemical boundary between them. Here we investigated the effect of restricted excitotoxic lesions of dorsomedial striatum (DMS) on cued and spatial water maze learning. We find that dorsomedial striatal lesions delay spatial learning but permit cued learning. After cued learning, lesioned animals showed inflexible search, resulting in repeated visits to the escape platform-associated cue. These results support a role for the DMS in behavioral flexibility rather than in cue-based navigation.

  8. Geomorphic and biophysical factors affecting water tracks in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    A better understanding of water movement on hillslopes in Arctic environments is necessary for evaluating the effects of climate variability. Drainage networks include a range of features that vary in transport capacity from rills to water tracks to rivers. This research focuses on describing and classifying water tracks, which are saturated linear-curvilinear stripes that act as first-order pathways for transporting water off of hillslopes into valley bottoms and streams. Multiple factor analysis was used to develop five water tracks classes based on their geomorphic, soil, and vegetation characteristics. The water track classes were then validated using conditional inference trees, to verify that the classes were repeatable. Analysis of the classes and their characteristics indicate that water tracks cover a broad spectrum of patterns and processes primarily driven by surficial geology. This research demonstrates an improved approach to quantifying water track characteristics for specific areas, which is a major step toward understanding hydrological processes and feedbacks within a region.

  9. Factors Affecting Atrazine Concentration and Quantitative Determination in Chlorinated Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the herbicide atrazine has been reported to not react measurably with free chlorine during drinking water treatment, this work demonstrates that at contact times consistent with drinking water distribution system residence times, a transformation of atrazine can be obser...

  10. Factors affecting ground-water quality in Oakland County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is water stored in pores within soil and rock beneath the land surface. When these pores are connected so that water can be transmitted to wells or springs, these bodies of soil and rock are termed aquifers, from two Greek words meaning “water” and “to bear.” 

  11. Navigating in Stormy Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Ann E.; Button, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines the tensions of social justice and culturally relevant leadership. It also examines the challenges of school administration and building cohesive teams. This case engages readers in theorizing about social justice and culturally relevant school leadership as well as thinking about practical ways to make the endeavour…

  12. Navigating Autism's Swirling Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Juliet E.

    2012-01-01

    The unique challenges presented by children with autism can quickly overwhelm unprepared teachers. Educators need direction on how to begin to understand and address the behavioral problems and social communication needs of children with autism. They require practical techniques that can be incorporated during naturally occurring instructional…

  13. What affects public acceptance of recycled and desalinated water?

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that are associated with higher levels of public acceptance for recycled and desalinated water. For the first time, a wide range of hypothesized factors, both of socio-demographic and psychographic nature, are included simultaneously. The key results, based on a survey study of about 3000 respondents are that: (1) drivers of the stated likelihood of using desalinated water differ somewhat from drivers of the stated likelihood of using recycled water; (2) positive perceptions of, and knowledge about, the respective water source are key drivers for the stated likelihood of usage; and (3) awareness of water scarcity, as well as prior experience with using water from alternative sources, increases the stated likelihood of use. Practical recommendations for public policy makers, such as key messages to be communicated to the public, are derived. PMID:20950834

  14. Factors which affect shivering in man during cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Cooper, K E

    1981-07-01

    Six subjects were immersed in cold water (15.15 +/- 0.42 degrees C) and were asked to perform two tasks. Shivering elicited by the cold water immersion was attenuated and/or abolished by the mental arithmetic task and in some instances by a voluntary isometric contraction of forearm muscles. Some reasons for these results are discussed. Key words: Cold water immersion, mental arithmetic forearm isometric contraction, attenuation of shivering.

  15. 33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Engineers; the International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico; and those under the jurisdiction of the International Joint Commission, United States, and Canada, and the Columbia River Treaty... affecting the navigable capacity of any navigable waters of the United States, prior to issuance of...

  16. 33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Engineers; the International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico; and those under the jurisdiction of the International Joint Commission, United States, and Canada, and the Columbia River Treaty... affecting the navigable capacity of any navigable waters of the United States, prior to issuance of...

  17. 33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Engineers; the International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico; and those under the jurisdiction of the International Joint Commission, United States, and Canada, and the Columbia River Treaty... affecting the navigable capacity of any navigable waters of the United States, prior to issuance of...

  18. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  19. DO AUTOCHTHONOUS BACTERIA AFFECT GIARDIA CYST SURVIVAL IN NATURAL WATERS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia lamblia survives in and is transmitted to susceptible human and animal populations via water, where it is present in an environmentally resistant cyst form. Previous research has highlighted the importance of water temperature in cyst survival, and has also suggested the ...

  20. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  1. 33 CFR 209.315 - Public access to navigation works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public access to navigation works..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.315 Public access to navigation works. While the... navigation works of general public interest subject to the following criteria: (a) The public will not...

  2. Does Robotic-Assisted Computer Navigation Affect Acetabular Cup Positioning in Total Hip Arthroplasty in the Obese Patient? A Comparison Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Asheesh; Redmond, John M; Hammarstedt, Jon E; Petrakos, Alexandra E; Vemula, S Pavan; Domb, Benjamin G

    2015-12-01

    Obese populations present challenges for acetabular cup placement during total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study examines the accuracy of acetabular cup inclination and version in the obese patient with robotic-assisted computer navigation. A total of 105 patients underwent robotic-assisted computer navigation THA with a posterior approach. Groups were divided on body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) of <30, 30-35, and >35. There was no statistical difference between the BMI <30 (n=59), BMI 30-35 (n=34) and BMI >35 (n=12) groups for acetabular inclination (P=0.43) or version (P=0.95). Robotic-assisted computer navigation provided accurate and reproducible placement of the acetabular cup within safe zones for inclination and version in the obese patient.

  3. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  4. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  5. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  6. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  7. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  9. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  10. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  11. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  12. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  13. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  14. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  15. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  16. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  17. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  18. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  19. Velocity, water-quality, and bathymetric surveys of the Grays Landing and Maxwell Navigation Pools, and Selected Tributaries to the Monongahela River, Pennsylvania, 2010–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Scott A.; Roland, Mark A.; Schalk, Luther F.; Fulton, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted velocity, water-quality, and bathymetric surveys from spring 2010 to summer 2011 in the Grays Landing and Maxwell navigation pools of the Monongahela River, Pennsylvania, and selected tributaries in response to elevated levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) recorded in early September 2009. Velocity data were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Water-quality surveys included the in-situ collection of specific-conductance, water-temperature, and turbidity data using a water-quality sonde. Additionally, discrete water samples were collected and analyzed for TDS, chloride, and sulfate. Bathymetric data were collected using an echo sounder, and the shoreline was delineated using a laser range finder and electronic compass. The data were geo-referenced using a differential global positioning system and navigational software. Horizontal (x, y) coordinates were referenced to the North American Datum of 1983. Depth (z) elevations were referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The data are provided in electronic format (appendix 1) and may be downloaded and can be used in a geographic information system for cartographic display and data analysis.

  20. How Temperature and Water levels affect Polar Mesospheric Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. L.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V.

    2012-12-01

    Using the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument data, which is part of the Aeronomy in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission, we compare the albedo and ice water content measurements of CIPS with the Navy Operation Global Atmospheric Prediction System - Advanced Level Phyiscs and High Altitude (NOGAPS-ALPHA) temperature and water vapor data in order to derive a greater understanding of cloud formation and physics. We particularly focus on data from June 2007 and July 2007 in this case study because of particular cloud structures and formations during this time period for future studies.

  1. 14 CFR 121.351 - Communication and navigation equipment for extended over-water operations and for certain other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipped with at least two independent long-range navigation systems and at least two independent long... meteorological information from any point on the route by either of two independent communication systems. One of... OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG,...

  2. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  3. 33 CFR 117.458 - Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. 117.458 Section 117.458 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. (a) The draws of the SR 46 (St. Claude Avenue) bridge, mile...

  4. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  5. 33 CFR 207.600 - Rochester (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rochester (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.600 Section 207.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF... (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a)-(b) (c) No vessel shall moor or anchor...

  6. 33 CFR 162.255 - Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation. 162.255 Section 162.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION...

  7. 33 CFR 209.180 - Temporary closure of waterway to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary closure of waterway to navigation. 209.180 Section 209.180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... navigation. (a) When an application is received for the temporary closure of a waterway for the...

  8. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX. 165.827 Section 165.827 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  9. 33 CFR 209.180 - Temporary closure of waterway to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary closure of waterway to navigation. 209.180 Section 209.180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... navigation. (a) When an application is received for the temporary closure of a waterway for the...

  10. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  11. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  12. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  13. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  14. 33 CFR 209.180 - Temporary closure of waterway to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary closure of waterway to navigation. 209.180 Section 209.180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... navigation. (a) When an application is received for the temporary closure of a waterway for the...

  15. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  16. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  17. 33 CFR 162.30 - Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation. 162.30 Section 162.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.30 Channel...

  18. 33 CFR 207.560 - Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.560 Section 207.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.560 Sandusky Harbor, Ohio;...

  19. 33 CFR 117.458 - Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. 117.458 Section 117.458 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. (a) The draws of the SR 46 (St. Claude Avenue) bridge, mile...

  20. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  1. 33 CFR 162.30 - Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation. 162.30 Section 162.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.30 Channel...

  2. 33 CFR 162.255 - Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation. 162.255 Section 162.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION...

  3. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX. 165.827 Section 165.827 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  4. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  5. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area. 165.806 Section 165.806 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  6. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  7. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  8. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  9. 33 CFR 207.560 - Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.560 Section 207.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.560 Sandusky Harbor, Ohio;...

  10. 33 CFR 207.565 - Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.565 Section 207.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.565 Vermilion Harbor, Ohio;...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area. 165.1402 Section 165.1402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  12. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  13. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  14. 33 CFR 207.565 - Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.565 Section 207.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.565 Vermilion Harbor, Ohio;...

  15. 33 CFR 207.565 - Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.565 Section 207.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.565 Vermilion Harbor, Ohio;...

  16. 33 CFR 207.560 - Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.560 Section 207.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.560 Sandusky Harbor, Ohio;...

  17. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area. 165.806 Section 165.806 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  18. 33 CFR 117.458 - Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. 117.458 Section 117.458 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. (a) The draws of the SR 46 (St. Claude Avenue) bridge, mile...

  19. 33 CFR 207.565 - Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.565 Section 207.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.565 Vermilion Harbor, Ohio;...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area. 165.1402 Section 165.1402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  1. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  2. 33 CFR 162.255 - Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation. 162.255 Section 162.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION...

  3. 33 CFR 207.565 - Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vermilion Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.565 Section 207.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.565 Vermilion Harbor, Ohio;...

  4. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  5. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  6. 33 CFR 162.30 - Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation. 162.30 Section 162.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.30 Channel...

  7. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  8. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  9. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  10. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area. 165.806 Section 165.806 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  11. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  12. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  13. 33 CFR 117.458 - Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. 117.458 Section 117.458 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. (a) The draws of the SR 46 (St. Claude Avenue) bridge, mile...

  14. 33 CFR 207.560 - Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.560 Section 207.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.560 Sandusky Harbor, Ohio;...

  15. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  16. 33 CFR 117.458 - Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. 117.458 Section 117.458 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. (a) The draws of the SR 46 (St. Claude Avenue) bridge, mile...

  17. 33 CFR 162.255 - Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation. 162.255 Section 162.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION...

  18. 33 CFR 162.255 - Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation. 162.255 Section 162.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION...

  19. 33 CFR 162.30 - Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation. 162.30 Section 162.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.30 Channel...

  20. 33 CFR 209.180 - Temporary closure of waterway to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary closure of waterway to navigation. 209.180 Section 209.180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... navigation. (a) When an application is received for the temporary closure of a waterway for the...

  1. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area. 165.806 Section 165.806 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  2. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  3. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  4. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  5. 33 CFR 209.180 - Temporary closure of waterway to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary closure of waterway to navigation. 209.180 Section 209.180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... navigation. (a) When an application is received for the temporary closure of a waterway for the...

  6. 33 CFR 207.560 - Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sandusky Harbor, Ohio; use, administration, and navigation. 207.560 Section 207.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.560 Sandusky Harbor, Ohio;...

  7. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  8. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  9. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  10. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  11. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  12. 33 CFR 162.30 - Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation. 162.30 Section 162.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation. (a) Power boats or other vessels propelled by machinery shall not...

  13. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  14. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  15. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  16. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  17. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  18. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. 165.811 Section 165.811 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated...

  19. Viking navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, W. J.; Rudd, R. P.; Farless, D. L.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Mitchell, R. T.; Rourke, K. H.; Euler, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the navigation of the Viking spacecraft throughout their flight from Earth launch to Mars landing is given. The flight path design, actual inflight control, and postflight reconstruction are discussed in detail. The preflight analyses upon which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based are discussed. The inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions and, finally, the results of any postflight analyses are presented.

  20. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  1. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  2. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  3. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  5. Soil salinity as affected by high-sulfate water

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, I.

    1985-11-01

    In a laboratory experiment, the author investigated both salt buildup in three soils irrigated with various amounts of water high in sulfates and also the good-quality water needed for reclaiming such soils. Salt buildup followed in two distinct stages. The first stage was marked by a sharp increase in soil salinity as ions of both high and low solubility contributed to it. Salt buildup in the second stage was substantially slower and linearly related to the concentration of highly soluble ions. The SAR measured in soils taken from the pots at the end of salinization increased with every volume of sulfate water applied. There was initially also an increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed thereafter by a sharp decrease. As with salt buildup the rate of leaching of salts followed two stages. First soluble salts were readily leached. Sharp decrease of both soil solution EC and SAR occurred at this stage. Thereafter, a steady state was reached, and decrease in soil solution EC was gradual and strongly dependent on gypsum dissolution.

  6. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  7. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  8. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  9. Factors affecting the suspensibility of DDT water-dispersible powders.

    PubMed

    MILES, J W; GOETTE, M B; GRIMM, L; PEARCE, G W

    1959-01-01

    The authors describe some experiments carried out to determine the effect of moisture, temperature, and pressure on the suspensibility of DDT water-dispersible powders.It was found that the removal of moisture brought about a slight increase in suspensibility; that heating for one hour at temperatures below 70 degrees C resulted in an increase in suspensibility, due probably to the drying effect of the heat, whereas heating for the same period at temperatures above 70 degrees C resulted in a decrease; that on prolonged heating at 70 degrees C and 75 degrees C the suspensibility decreased sharply in the first four hours but thereafter showed little change up to 20 hours; and, finally, that low pressures-for example, 25 g per cm(2)-had little effect on the suspensibility, but that at pressures of 100 pounds per square inch (7 atm.) and over, it varied in inverse proportion to the logarithm of the pressure.

  10. Study of how hydrological conditions affect the propagation of pseudorandom signals from the shelf in deep water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgunov, Yu. N.; Bezotvetnykh, V. V.; Burenin, A. V.; Voitenko, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    The paper examines how hydrological conditions affect manifestation of the acoustic "landslide" effect, which consists in focusing of acoustic energy in the near-bottom layer on the shelf and its transition to the axis of an underwater sound channel in deep water. We compare the results of experiments performed in the Sea of Japan in April 2014 and August 2006 on the same acoustic track, where the distance between corresponding points was more than 100 km. In April, the hydrological conditions in the shelf region of the track and in the upper layer of the deep-water part of the sea were characterized by the presence of a relatively weak (~0.35 s-1) negative vertical sound velocity gradient, whereas in August 2006, it was ~1.5 s-1. Experimental and numerical studies showed that the acoustic landslide effect also manifests itself under conditions of a weak negative sound velocity gradient, but the structure of the acoustic field trapped by the underwater sound channel has a more complex character with a time-expanded pulse characteristic. Nevertheless, its ordered, stable, and well-identified structure at all track points chosen for measurements make it possible to reliably create an efficient (with accuracies to hundredths of a percent) underwater navigation systems like GLONASS and GPS for the spring hydrology season.

  11. Interaction Effects of Hypervideo Navigation Variables in College Students' Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azmy, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the question of whether the interaction effects of hypervideo navigation variables (navigation control and navigation links) would affect college students' self-regulated learning just after their learning from instructional hypervideo programs. Navigation control (free navigation or free navigation with…

  12. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  13. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  14. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  15. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  16. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  17. Water content and apparent stiffness of non-caries versus caries-affected human dentin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shuichi; Saito, Takashi; Tay, Franklin R; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Pashley, David H

    2005-01-15

    Caries-affected dentin contains less mineral and more water than surrounding normal dentin. Such dentin should be less stiff and should shrink more than normal dentin when dried. The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between the stiffness, shrinkage, and water content of caries-affected versus normal dentin. Extracted human carious third molars were stained with caries-detector dye and the occlusal surfaces ground down until only caries-affected dentin remained, surrounded by normal dentin. Dentin disks were prepared from these crowns placed in a aluminum well positioned under a modified thermal mechanical analyzer. Changes in specimen height and stiffness were measured following drying or static loading in both caries-affected and surrounding normal dentin. Core samples of these two types of dentin were used to gravimetrically measure water content. Two-way ANOVA and regression analysis was used to test the relationship between shrinkage versus water content, stiffness versus water content, and stiffness versus shrinkage. Caries-affected dentin was found to be less stiff and contained more water than normal dentin (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed highly significant inverse relationships between stiffness and water content, and stiffness and shrinkage (p < 0.0005).

  18. Salinity and Alkaline pH in Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: II. Mineral Ion Relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scarcity of water of good quality for landscape irrigation is of outmost importance in arid and semiarid regions due to the competition with urban population. This is forcing the use of degraded waters with high levels of salinity and high pH, which may affect plant establishment and growth. The o...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... displayed from at least three feet above the surface of the water. (3) Vessels engaged in fishing, including... precautionary area shall tend nets or other gear placed in the water so as to facilitate the movement of the... 11 knots through the water. (3) Vessels engaged in fishing, including gillnet and purse seine...

  20. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... without removing or disassembling the light and that states the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810...

  1. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... without removing or disassembling the light and that states the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810...

  2. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma, shall open on signal; except that, the...

  3. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... without removing or disassembling the light and that states the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810...

  4. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... without removing or disassembling the light and that states the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810...

  5. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... without removing or disassembling the light and that states the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810...

  6. The inequality of water scarcity events: who is actually being affected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increased regional and global water scarcity problems. In the near future, projected changes in human water use and population growth - in combination with climate change - are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions and its associated impacts on our society. Whilst a wide range of studies have modelled past and future regional and global patterns of change in population or land area impacted by water scarcity conditions, less attention is paid on who is actually affected and how vulnerable this share of the population is to water scarcity conditions. The actual impact of water scarcity events, however, not only depends on the numbers being affected, but merely on how sensitive this population is to water scarcity conditions, how quick and efficient governments can deal with the problems induced by water scarcity, and how many (financial and infrastructural) resources are available to cope with water scarce conditions. Only few studies have investigated the above mentioned interactions between societal composition and water scarcity conditions (e.g. by means of the social water scarcity index and the water poverty index) and, up to our knowledge, a comprehensive global analysis including different water scarcity indicators and multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios is missing. To address this issue, we assess in this contribution the adaptive capacity of a society to water scarcity conditions, evaluate how this may be driven by different societal factors, and discuss how enhanced knowledge on this topic could be of interest for water managers in their design of adaptation strategies coping with water scarcity events. For that purpose, we couple spatial information on water scarcity conditions with different components from, among others, the Human Development Index and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, such as: the share of the population with an income below the poverty

  7. Soil water repellency affects production and transport of CO2 and CH4 in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is known to be vital in controlling both the production and transport of C gases in soil. Water availability regulates the decomposition rates of soil organic matter by the microorganisms, while the proportion of water/air filled pores controls the transport of gases within the soil and at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many experimental studies and process models looking at soil C gas fluxes assume that soil water is uniformly distributed and soil is easily wettable. Most soils, however, exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity) and do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist. They have restricted infiltration and conductivity of water, which also results in extremely heterogeneous soil water distribution. This is a world-wide occurring phenomenon which is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. This study investigates the effect of soil water repellency on microbial respiration, CO2 transport within the soil and C gas fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. The results from the field monitoring and laboratory experiments show that soil water repellency results in non-uniform water distribution in the soil which affects the CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects the water relations in the soil, but has also a great impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  8. 33 CFR 207.175a - Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.175a Section 207.175a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  9. 33 CFR 207.170c - Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170c Section 207.170c Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 33 CFR 207.170c - Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170c Section 207.170c Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 33 CFR 207.175a - Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.175a Section 207.175a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  12. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  13. 33 CFR 207.170c - Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170c Section 207.170c Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 33 CFR 207.170c - Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170c Section 207.170c Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 33 CFR 207.170c - Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170c Section 207.170c Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 33 CFR 207.175a - Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.175a Section 207.175a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  17. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  18. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  19. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  20. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of...

  1. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of...

  2. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of...

  3. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of...

  4. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of...

  5. Microbiology of broiler carcasses and chemistry of chiller water as affected by water reuse.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, J K; Smith, D; Huezo, R I; Ingram, K D

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of treating and reusing poultry chiller water in a commercial poultry processing facility. Broiler carcasses and chiller water were obtained from a commercial processing facility which had recently installed a TOMCO Pathogen Management System to recycle water in sections 2 and 3 of two 3-compartment chillers. In this system, reused water is blended with fresh water to maintain the chiller volume. Carcasses were sampled prechill and postchill (final exit), and chiller water was sampled from the beginning and end of each of the 3 sections. Carcasses were subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 0.1% peptone. Numbers of Escherichia coli (EC), coliforms (CF), and Campylobacter (CPY) were determined from the WCR and chiller water samples. Prevalence of Salmonella (SAL) was also determined on the WCR and chiller water samples. On average, prechill levels of bacteria recovered from rinses were 2.6, 2.9, and 2.6 log10 cfu/mL for EC, CF, and CPY, respectively. Ten out of 40 (25%) prechill carcasses were positive for SAL. After chilling, numbers of EC, CF, and CPY recovered from carcass rinses decreased by 1.5, 1.5, and 2.0 log10 cfu/mL, respectively. However, 9 out of 40 (22%) postchill carcasses were positive for SAL. When the chiller water samples were tested, counts of EC, CF, and CPY were found only in water collected from the first section of the chiller (inlet and outlet). Two of 4 water samples collected from the inlet of the first section tested positive for SAL. This study shows that fresh and reused water can be used to cool poultry in chiller systems to achieve a reduction in numbers of bacteria (EC, CF, and CPY) or equivalent prevalence (SAL) of bacteria recovered from broiler carcasses.

  6. Factors affecting water prices in a rural water market: A South Australian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjornlund, Henning; McKay, Jennifer

    Government agencies and water managers have showed an increasing interest for tradeable water entitlements (TWE) as a tool to alleviate the influence of raising water prices and to facilitate a reallocation of water resources to more efficient and sustainable uses from economic, social, and environmental perspectives. An understanding of how the water market works and which factors determine water right prices has become important to establish whether TWE policies facilitate this process. This research shows that the objectives largely have been achieved and that the more efficient irrigators are willing to pay a higher price for water, whereas the least efficient farmers are willing to sell at a lower price, showing that the buyers with high value of marginal product are willing to pay a price in excess of the value of the income generated by the sellers with low value of marginal product. Within the present legislative framework TWE does not, however, always direct water to the most sustainable users in an equitable manner.

  7. COSMOS soil water sensing affected by crop biomass and water status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water sensing methods are widely used to characterize water content in the root zone and below, but only a few are capable of sensing soil volumes larger than a few hundred liters. Scientists with the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, evaluated: a) the Cos...

  8. Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S

    2008-11-01

    Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing.

  9. Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Amir; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Bimol; Dey, Shankar; Maity, Debasish; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2013-10-01

    A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from three arsenic (As) affected villages of West Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person and per unit body weight was found to be 3.12±1.17 L/day and 78.07±47.08 mL/kg/day (± SD), respectively. Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age <15 years) were 3.95, 3.03 and 2.14 L/day, respectively. Significant sex differentials were observed between ages 16-55 years. For all participants, a sharp increase in water intake up to 15 years of age was observed followed by a plateau at a higher intake level. Significant monthly, seasonal, regional, and occupational variability was also observed. Another study involving 413 subjects determined the amount of indirect water intake. Average indirect water intake per person was 1.80±0.64 L/day; for adult males, adult females and children, intake was 2.15, 1.81, and 1.10 L/day, respectively. Average total (direct + indirect) water intake was 4.92 L/person/day; for adult males, adult females and children, total intake was 6.10, 4.84, and 3.24 L/person/day, respectively. The overall contribution of indirect water intake to total water consumption was 36.6% for all participants. This study additionally elucidated several factors that contribute to variable water intake, which can lead to better risk characterization of subpopulations and water contaminant ingestion. The study reveals that the water intake rates in the three studied populations in West Bengal are greater than the assumed water intake rates utilized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the establishment of drinking water quality guidelines; therefore, these assumed intake values may be inappropriate for the study population as well as similar ones.

  10. Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Amir; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Bimol; Dey, Shankar; Maity, Debasish; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-01-01

    A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from arsenic (As) affected villages of West-Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person was found to be 3.12±1.17 L/day and 78.07±47.08 mL/kg/day (±SD). Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age <15 years) were 3.95, 3.03 and 2.14 L/day, respectively. Significant sex differentials were observed between ages 16–55 years. For all participants, a sharp increase in water intake up to age 15 years was observed followed by a plateau at a higher intake level. Significant monthly, seasonal, regional, and occupational variability was also observed. Another study involving 413 subjects determined the amount of indirect water intake. Average indirect water intake per person was 1.80±0.64 L/day; for adult males, females and children, intake was 2.15, 1.81, and 1.10 L/day, respectively. Average total (direct + indirect) water intake was 4.92 L/person/day; for adult males, females and children total intake was 6.10, 4.84, and 3.24 L/person/day, respectively. The overall contribution of indirect water intake to total water consumption is 36.6% for all participants. This study additionally elucidated several factors that contribute to variable water intake, which can lead to better risk characterization of subpopulations and water contaminant ingestion. The study reveals that the water intake rates in the three studied populations in West Bengal are greater than the assumed water intake rates utilized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the establishment of drinking water quality guidelines; therefore, these assumed intake values may be inappropriate for the study population as well as similar ones. PMID:22858413

  11. WATER QUALITY IN THE NEAR COASTAL WATERS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AFFECTED BY HURRICANE KATRINA: BEFORE AND AFTER THE STORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality was assessed following Hurricane Katrina in the affected waters of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Post-landfall water quality was compared to pre-hurricane conditions using indicators assessed by EPA's National Coastal Assessment program and additional indicat...

  12. Experimenting with Water. Factors Affecting the Solubility of Substances in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Simone P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents a module that focuses on the solvent property of water. Indicates the knowledge items, skills, processes, and attitudes that are developed in the unit. Includes background information as well as student directions for an experiment on solubility. (ML)

  13. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  14. A water-budget approach to restoring a sedge fen affected by diking and ditching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Sweat, Michael J.; Carlson, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2006-01-01

    A vast, ground-water-supported sedge fen in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA was ditched in the early 1900s in a failed attempt to promote agriculture. Dikes were later constructed to impound seasonal sheet surface flows for waterfowl management. The US Fish and Wildlife Service, which now manages the wetland as part of Seney National Wildlife Refuge, sought to redirect water flows from impounded C-3 Pool to reduce erosion in downstream Walsh Ditch, reduce ground-water losses into the ditch, and restore sheet flows of surface water to the peatland. A water budget was developed for C-3 Pool, which serves as the central receiving and distribution body for water in the affected wetland. Surface-water inflows and outflows were measured in associated ditches and natural creeks, ground-water flows were estimated using a network of wells and piezometers, and precipitation and evaporation/evapotranspiration components were estimated using local meteorological data. Water budgets for the 1999 springtime peak flow period and the 1999 water year were used to estimate required releases of water from C-3 Pool via outlets other than Walsh Ditch and to guide other restoration activities. Refuge managers subsequently used these results to guide restoration efforts, including construction of earthen dams in Walsh Ditch upslope from the pool to stop surface flow, installation of new water-control structures to redirect surface water to sheet flow and natural creek channels, planning seasonal releases from C-3 Pool to avoid erosion in natural channels, stopping flow in downslope Walsh Ditch to reduce erosion, and using constructed earthen dams and natural beaver dams to flood the ditch channel below C-3 Pool. Interactions between ground water and surface water are critical for maintaining ecosystem processes in many wetlands, and management actions directed at restoring either ground- or surface-water flow patterns often affect both of these components of the water budget. This

  15. Sink or Swim: Navigating the Perilous Waters of Promotion and Tenure--What's Diversity Got to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Wanda B.

    2010-01-01

    The "sink-or-swim" ideology is pervasive in the United States society. At research universities, for example, promotion and tenure are institutional waters in which faculty are forced to sink or swim with respect to publishing. Either they publish ("swim") or they perish ("sink"). In throwing faculty overboard, institutions assume that those who…

  16. Water Collective Dynamics in Whole Photosynthetic Green Algae as Affected by Protein Single Mutation.

    PubMed

    Russo, Daniela; Rea, Giuseppina; Lambreva, Maya D; Haertlein, Michael; Moulin, Martine; De Francesco, Alessio; Campi, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    In the context of the importance of water molecules for protein function/dynamics relationship, the role of water collective dynamics in Chlamydomonas green algae carrying both native and mutated photosynthetic proteins has been investigated by neutron Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. Results show that single point genetic mutation may notably affect collective density fluctuations in hydrating water providing important insight on the transmission of information possibly correlated to biological functionality. In particular, we highlight that the damping factor of the excitations is larger in the native compared to the mutant algae as a signature of a different plasticity and structure of the hydrogen bond network. PMID:27300078

  17. Water chemistry of surface waters affected by the Fourmile Canyon wildfire, Colorado, 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon fire burned about 23 percent of the Fourmile Creek watershed in Boulder County, Colo. Water-quality sampling of Fourmile Creek began within a month after the wildfire to assess its effects on surface-water chemistry. Water samples were collected from five sites along Fourmile Creek (above, within, and below the burned area) monthly during base flow, twice weekly during snowmelt runoff, and at higher frequencies during storm events. Stream discharge was also monitored. Water-quality samples were collected less frequently from an additional 6 sites on Fourmile Creek, from 11 tributaries or other inputs, and from 3 sites along Boulder Creek. The pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, specific ultraviolet absorbance, total suspended solids, and concentrations (dissolved and total) of major cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium), anions (chloride, sulfate, alkalinity, fluoride, and bromide), nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and phosphorus), trace metals (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, rubidium, antimony, selenium, strontium, vanadium, and zinc), and dissolved organic carbon are here reported for 436 samples collected during 2010 and 2011.

  18. Evolved Navigation Theory and Horizontal Visual Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Russell E.; Willey, Chela R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental perception is prerequisite to most vertebrate behavior and its modern investigation initiated the founding of experimental psychology. Navigation costs may affect environmental perception, such as overestimating distances while encumbered (Solomon, 1949). However, little is known about how this occurs in real-world navigation or how…

  19. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  20. Simulating soybean canopy temperature as affected by weather variables and soil water potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Hourly weather data for several clear sky days during summer at Phoenix and Baltimore which covered a wide range of variables were used with a plant atmosphere model to simulate soybean (Glycine max L.) leaf water potential, stomatal resistance and canopy temperature at various soil water potentials. The air and dew point temperatures were found to be the significant weather variables affecting the canopy temperatures. Under identical weather conditions, the model gives a lower canopy temperature for a soybean crop with a higher rooting density. A knowledge of crop rooting density, in addition to air and dew point temperatures is needed in interpreting infrared radiometric observations for soil water status. The observed dependence of stomatal resistance on the vapor pressure deficit and soil water potential is fairly well represented. Analysis of the simulated leaf water potentials indicates overestimation, possibly due to differences in the cultivars.

  1. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  2. SMALL CRAFT OPERATION AND NAVIGATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    THIS REFERENCE TEXTBOOK WAS PREPARED FOR USE IN THE FIRST PART OF A TWO-PART COURSE IN MARINE NAVIGATION AND SMALL CRAFT OPERATION ON INLAND AND INTERNATIONAL WATERS. THE MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INDIVIDUAL AUTHOR FOR USE IN TRADE SCHOOL PREPARATORY AND EXTENSION CLASSES FOR MALE ADULTS WHO PLAN TO OPERATE BOATS. IT IS MAINLY CONCERNED WITH…

  3. Optical navigation during the Voyager Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, J. E.; Owen, W. M., Jr.; Stuve, J. A.; Synnott, S. P.; Vaughan, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Optical navigation techniques were required to successfully complete the planetary exploration phase of the NASA deep-space Voyager mission. The last of Voyager's planetary encounters, with Neptune, posed unique problems from an optical navigation standpoint. In this paper we briefly review general aspects of the optical navigation process as practiced during the Voyager mission, and discuss in detail particular features of the Neptune encounter which affected optical navigation. New approaches to the centerfinding problem were developed for both stars and extended bodies, and these are described. Results of the optical navigation data analysis are presented, as well as a description of the optical orbit determination system and results of its use during encounter. Partially as a result of the optical navigation processing, results of scientific significance were obtained. These results include the discovery and orbit determination of several new satellites of Neptune and the determination of the size of Triton, Neptune's largest moon.

  4. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  5. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  6. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  7. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  8. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the...

  11. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  12. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  13. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Selected Carbonate Aquifers in the United States,1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water in the United States; however, these aquifers can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program collected samples from wells and springs in 12 carbonate aquifers across the country during 1993-2005; water-quality results for 1,042 samples were available to assess the factors affecting ground-water quality. These aquifers represent a wide range of climate, land-use types, degrees of confinement, and other characteristics that were compared and evaluated to assess the effect of those factors on water quality. Differences and similarities among the aquifers were also identified. Samples were analyzed for major ions, radon, nutrients, 47 pesticides, and 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Geochemical analysis helped to identify dominant processes that may contribute to the differences in aquifer susceptibility to anthropogenic contamination. Differences in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon and in ground-water age were directly related to the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Other geochemical indicators, such as mineral saturation indexes and calcium-magnesium molar ratio, were used to infer residence time, an indirect indicator of potential for anthropogenic contamination. Radon exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 300 picocuries per liter in 423 of 735 wells sampled, of which 309 were drinking-water wells. In general, land use, oxidation-reduction (redox) status, and degree of aquifer confinement were the most important factors affecting the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Although none of these factors individually accounts for all the variation in water quality among the aquifers, a combination of these characteristics accounts for the majority of the variation. Unconfined carbonate aquifers that had high

  14. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh...

  17. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh...

  19. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...

  20. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  1. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  2. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  4. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  5. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  6. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  8. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  10. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  11. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  12. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  14. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  15. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District §...

  16. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District §...

  17. Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Ewing

    2005-08-29

    Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

  18. The Ecohydrological Consequences of Woody Plant Encroachment: How Accessibility to Deep Soil Water Resources Affects Ecosystem Carbon and Water Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R. L.; Huxman, T. E.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Jenerette, D.; Young, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grassland systems, a process that has increased rapidly over the last century, has potentially broad ecohydrological consequences by affecting the way ecosystems use water and cycle carbon. This study examines the influence of precipitation- and groundwater-derived water availability by comparing eddy covariance measurements of water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes over a riparian grassland, shrubland, and woodland, and an upland grassland site in southeastern Arizona USA. Compared to the upland grassland, the riparian sites exhibited greater net carbon uptake (NEP) and higher evapotranspiration (ET) across a longer portion of the year. Among the riparian sites, however, the grassland was less able to take advantage of the stable groundwater supply. Increasing woody plant density facilitated greater water and carbon exchange that became increasingly decoupled from incident precipitation (P). How groundwater accessibility affected NEP was more complex than ET. Respiration (Reco) costs were higher for the riparian grassland so, while it had a similar ET and gross carbon uptake (GEP) to the shrubland, its NEP was substantially less. Also, riparian grassland fluxes were much more variable due to flooding that occurred at the site, which could stimulate or inhibit NEP. Woodland NEP was largest but surprisingly similar to the less mature and dense shrubland even while having much greater GEP. Woodland NEP responded negatively to P, due to the stimulation of Reco likely due to greater amounts of aboveground and soil carbon. With many areas of the world experiencing woody plants encroachment, encroachment into areas where there are additional deep soil water sources, such as in riparian settings or in areas of deep soil moisture recharge, will likely increase carbon sequestration but at the expense of higher water use.

  19. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  20. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  1. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  2. 33 CFR 62.27 - Safe water marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe water marks. 62.27 Section 62.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.27 Safe water marks....

  3. 33 CFR 62.27 - Safe water marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safe water marks. 62.27 Section 62.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.27 Safe water marks....

  4. Microcomputers and astronomical navigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin-Jouan, Y.

    1996-04-01

    Experienced navigators remember ancient astronomical navigation and its limitations. Using microcomputers in small packages and selecting up-to-date efficient methods will overcome many of these limitations. Both features lead to focus on observations, and encourage an increase in their numbers. With no intention of competing with satellite navigation, sextant navigation in the open sea can then be accessed again by anybody. It can be considered for demonstrative use or as a complement to the GPS.

  5. Microbial H2 cycling does not affect δ2H values of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Stable hydrogen-isotope values of ground water (δ2H) and dissolved hydrogen concentrations (H(2(aq)) were quantified in a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer to determine whether the production/consumption of H2 by subsurface microorganisms affects ground water &delta2H values. The range of &delta2H observed in monitoring wells sampled (-27.8 ‰c to -15.5 ‰c) was best explained, however, by seasonal differences in recharge temperature as indicated using ground water δ18O values, rather than isotopic exchange reactions involving the microbial cycling of H2 during anaerobic petroleum-hydrocarbon biodegradation. The absence of a measurable hydrogen-isotope exchange between microbially cycled H2 and ground water reflects the fact that the amount of H2 available from the anaerobic decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons is small relative to the amount of hydrogen present in water, even though milligram per liter concentrations of readily biodegradable contaminants are present at the study site. Additionally, isotopic fractionation calculations indicate that in order for H2 cycling processes to affect δ2H values of ground water, relatively high concentrations of H2 (>0.080 M) would have to be maintained, considerably higher than the 0.2 to 26 nM present at this site and characteristic of anaerobic conditions in general. These observations suggest that the conventional approach of using δ2H and δ18O values to determine recharge history is appropriate even for those ground water systems characterized by anaerobic conditions and extensive microbial H2 cycling.

  6. Water management history affects GHG kinetics and microbial communities composition of an Italian rice paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Agnelli, Allessandroelio; Pastorelli, Roberta; Pallara, Grazia; Rasse, Daniel; Silvennoinen, Hanna

    2015-04-01

    The water management system of cultivated soils is one of the most important factors affecting the respective magnitudes of CH4 and N2O emissions. We hypothesized an effect of past management on soil microbial communities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production potential The objective of this study were to i) assess the influence of water management history on GHG production potential and microbial community structure, ii) relate GHGs fluxes to the microbial communities involved in CH4 and N2O production inhabiting the different soils. Moreover, the influence of different soil conditioning procedures on GHG potential fluxes was determined. To reach this aim, four soils with different history of water management were compared, using dried and sieved, pre-incubated and fresh soils. Soil conditioning procedures strongly affected GHG emissions potential: drying and sieving determined the highest emission rates and the largest differences among soil types, probably through the release of labile substrates. Conversely, soil pre-incubation tended to homogenize and level out the differences among soils. Microbial communities composition drove GHG emissions potential and was affected by past management. The water management history strongly affected microbial communities structure and the specific microbial pattern of each soil was strictly linked to the gas (CH4 or N2O) emitted. Aerobic soil stimulated N2O peaks, given a possible major contribution of coupled nitrification/denitrification process. As expected, CH4 was lower in aerobic soil, which showed a less abundant archeal community. This work added evidences to support the hypothesis of an adaptation of microbial communities to past land management that reflected in the potential GHG fluxes.

  7. Assessment of well water quality in Tsunami affected regions of south-west coast of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nair, G Achuthan; Chandran, R Pratap; Sukumar, B; Santhosh, S; Vijayamohanan; Sobha, V

    2013-07-01

    The quality of well waters, based on 23 parameters of water, at 12 stations of south-west coast of Kerala, India, was assessed during monsoon, 2009 and summer, 2010, to determine their suitability for drinking and other domestic purposes. The stations selected were grouped into four regions viz. least, slightly, moderately and severely affected ones based on the severity of 2004 Asian Tsunami at each station. The depths of wells showed variations depending on the seasons and on their distance from the seacoast. The average water temperatures during monsoon and summer seasons were 28.5 degrees C and 30.2 degrees C respectively. The pH of well waters were below 6.5 in least and slightly affected regions and above this value in moderately and severely affected regions. In all the four regions, the well water parameters of electrical conductivity, hardness, fluoride, free chlorine, copper, zinc, calcium and nickel were below, and phosphorus, lead, iron cadmium and manganese were above the standard permissible levels set for them in drinking water. The values of salinity, sodium and potassium in the well waters of moderately and severely affected regions, and the values of nitrate-nitrogen, nitrate and magnesium in the well waters of severely affected regions were above the permissible limits set for them in drinking water. Water quality index calculated on the basis of drinking water standards revealed that the well waters of least and slightly affected regions were moderately polluted in both monsoon and summer seasons and the same of moderately affected region were excessively polluted during monsoon and severely polluted during summer seasons, whereas the well waters of severely affected regions were severely polluted in both seasons. Suitable recommendations were made to improve the quality of well waters of least and slightly affected regions.

  8. Lesions of the hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum disrupt distinct aspects of spatial navigation strategies based on proximal and distal information in a cued variant of the Morris water task

    PubMed Central

    Rice, James P.; Wallace, Douglas G.; Hamilton, Derek A.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus and dorsolateral striatum are critically involved in spatial navigation based on extra-maze and intra-maze cues, respectively. Previous reports from our laboratory suggest that behavior in the Morris water task may be guided by both cue types, and rats appear to switch from extra-pool to intra-pool cues to guide navigation in a sequential manner within a given trial. In two experiments, rats with hippocampal or dorsolateral striatal lesions were trained and tested in water task paradigms that involved translation and removal of a cued platform within the pool and translations of the pool itself with respect to the extra-pool cue reference frame. In the first experiment, moment-to-moment analyses of swim behavior indicate that hippocampal lesions disrupt initial trajectories based on extra-pool cues at the beginning of the trial, while dorsolateral striatal lesions disrupt subsequent swim trajectories based on the location of the cued platform at the end of the trial. In the second experiment lesions of the hippocampus, but not the dorsolateral striatum, impaired directional responding in situations where the pool was shifted within the extra-pool cue array. These results are important for understanding the cooperative interactions between the hippocampus and dorsolateral striatum in spatial learning and memory, and establish that these brain areas are continuously involved in goal-directed spatial navigation. These results also highlight the importance of the hippocampus in directional responding in addition to place navigation. PMID:25907746

  9. Lesions of the hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum disrupt distinct aspects of spatial navigation strategies based on proximal and distal information in a cued variant of the Morris water task.

    PubMed

    Rice, James P; Wallace, Douglas G; Hamilton, Derek A

    2015-08-01

    The hippocampus and dorsolateral striatum are critically involved in spatial navigation based on extra-maze and intra-maze cues, respectively. Previous reports from our laboratory suggest that behavior in the Morris water task may be guided by both cue types, and rats appear to switch from extra-pool to intra-pool cues to guide navigation in a sequential manner within a given trial. In two experiments, rats with hippocampal or dorsolateral striatal lesions were trained and tested in water task paradigms that involved translation and removal of a cued platform within the pool and translations of the pool itself with respect to the extra-pool cue reference frame. In the first experiment, moment-to-moment analyses of swim behavior indicate that hippocampal lesions disrupt initial trajectories based on extra-pool cues at the beginning of the trial, while dorsolateral striatal lesions disrupt subsequent swim trajectories based on the location of the cued platform at the end of the trial. In the second experiment, lesions of the hippocampus, but not the dorsolateral striatum, impaired directional responding in situations where the pool was shifted within the extra-pool cue array. These results are important for understanding the cooperative interactions between the hippocampus and dorsolateral striatum in spatial learning and memory and establish that these brain areas are continuously involved in goal-directed spatial navigation. These results also highlight the importance of the hippocampus in directional responding in addition to place navigation.

  10. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  11. 33 CFR 207.170b - Apopka-Beauclair Navigation Lock in Apopka-Beauclair Canal in Lake County, Fla.; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Apopka-Beauclair Navigation Lock in Apopka-Beauclair Canal in Lake County, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170b Section 207.170b Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 33 CFR 207.170b - Apopka-Beauclair Navigation Lock in Apopka-Beauclair Canal in Lake County, Fla.; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apopka-Beauclair Navigation Lock in Apopka-Beauclair Canal in Lake County, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170b Section 207.170b Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT...

  13. 33 CFR 207.170b - Apopka-Beauclair Navigation Lock in Apopka-Beauclair Canal in Lake County, Fla.; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Apopka-Beauclair Navigation Lock in Apopka-Beauclair Canal in Lake County, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170b Section 207.170b Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 33 CFR 207.170b - Apopka-Beauclair Navigation Lock in Apopka-Beauclair Canal in Lake County, Fla.; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apopka-Beauclair Navigation Lock in Apopka-Beauclair Canal in Lake County, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170b Section 207.170b Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT...

  15. Reproductive period affects water intake in heat-stressed dehydrated goats.

    PubMed

    Olsson, K; Josäter-Hermelin, M; Hossaini-Hilali, J; Cvek, K; Hydbring, E; Dahlborn, K

    1996-04-01

    Water intake following dehydration was studied in pregnant (N = 5), lactating (N = 4) and nonpregnant, nonlactating (N = 5) Swedish domestic goats (Capra hircus) to investigate if reproductive period affected drinking. Plasma cortisol concentration and the hematocrit value were measured to evaluate stress. The goats were water deprived from 9.00 h until 15.05 h the next day. They were fed at 7.00 and 15.20 h. On the second day, ambient temperature was increased from 20 degrees C to 38-39.5 degrees C for 5.15 h to accelerate water losses. Water temperature during rehydration was 35 +/- 1 degree C. Plasma Na concentration and osmolality increased most in dehydrated and heat-stressed pregnant and lactating goats. Pregnant goats lost 2.2 kg of their body weight. They drank 3.5 l immediately, followed by 2.5 l during afternoon eating. Lactating goats lost 4.9 kg and drank 6.3 l at once, and 3.9 l during feeding. Nonpregnant, nonlactating goats lost 1.7 kg and drank 2.6 l followed by 0.6 l. The large water consumption in pregnant and lactating goats caused hyponatremia and hemodilution, but they continued to drink during the night (0.5 +/- 0.2 l and 0.8 +/- 0.5 l, respectively). Renal free water clearance increased in all periods, with a long-lasting water diuresis during pregnancy. Plasma cortisol concentrations and the hematocrit values rose in connection with water intake. These results imply that the thirst center became less sensitive to inhibitory signals from the oropharyngeal tract and the diluted blood plasma during pregnancy and lactation. Catching sight of water was the most exciting procedure during these experiments.

  16. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  17. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:26560705

  18. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community.

  19. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing.

  20. Nitrogen and water availability interact to affect leaf stoichiometry in a semi-arid grassland.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Kong, De-Liang; Pan, Qing-Min; Simmons, Matthew E; Han, Xing-Guo

    2012-02-01

    The effects of global change factors on the stoichiometric composition of green and senesced plant tissues are critical determinants of ecosystem feedbacks to anthropogenic-driven global change. So far, little is known about species stoichiometric responses to these changes. We conducted a manipulative field experiment with nitrogen (N; 17.5 g m(-2) year(-1)) and water addition (180 mm per growing season) in a temperate steppe of northern China that is potentially highly vulnerable to global change. A unique and important outcome of our study is that water availability modulated plant nutritional and stoichiometric responses to increased N availability. N addition significantly reduced C:N ratios and increased N:P ratios but only under ambient water conditions. Under increased water supply, N addition had no effect on C:N ratios in green and senesced leaves and N:P ratios in senesced leaves, and significantly decreased C:P ratios in both green and senesced leaves and N:P ratios in green leaves. Stoichiometric ratios varied greatly among species. Our results suggest that N and water addition and species identity can affect stoichiometric ratios of both green and senesced tissues through direct and interactive means. Our findings highlight the importance of water availability in modulating stoichiometric responses of plants to potentially increased N availability in semi-arid grasslands.

  1. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing. PMID:27120634

  2. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:26560705

  3. Near-surface physics during convection affecting air-water gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    The gas flux at the water surface is affected by physical processes including turbulence from wind shear, microscale wave breaking, large-scale breaking, and convection due to heat loss at the surface. The main route in the parameterizations of the gas flux has been to use the wind speed as a proxy for the gas flux velocity, indirectly taking into account the dependency of the wind shear and the wave processes. The interest in the contributions from convection processes has increased as the gas flux from inland waters (with typically lower wind and sheltered conditions) now is believed to play a substantial role in the air-water gas flux budget. The gas flux is enhanced by convection through the mixing of the mixed layer as well as by decreasing the diffusive boundary layer thickness. The direct numerical simulations performed in this study are shown to be a valuable tool to enhance the understanding of this flow configuration often present in nature.

  4. Apamin improves spatial navigation in medial septal-lesioned mice.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, S; Schmidt, B; Riekkinen, P

    1998-04-17

    We investigated the effects of acute i.p. injections of the Ca2+-dependent K+ channel blocker, apamin, on water maze spatial navigation, Y-maze and passive avoidance behavior in intact and medial septal-lesioned mice. Apamin 0.02, 0.06 or 0.2 mg/kg (i.p.) administered 30 min before or immediately after the training did not affect the performance of intact mice. Apamin 0.02 or 0.06 mg/kg (i.p.) administered immediately after the daily training did not affect the performance of medial septal-lesioned mice. Apamin 0.02 and 0.06 mg/kg (i.p.) administered 30 min before daily training reversed the navigation failure present in medial septal-lesioned mice during the initial and reversal learning stages of the water maze task. Apamin had no effect on the cognitive performance in Y-maze or passive avoidance tests. The results indicate that blockade of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels may facilitate acquisition of spatial navigation performance, but has no effect on consolidation, inhibitory avoidance and spontaneous alternation behavior in mice.

  5. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake...

  7. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay... § 165.811 Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: the waters of the Atchafalaya River in Berwick Bay bounded on the northside from 2,000...

  8. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay... § 165.811 Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: the waters of the Atchafalaya River in Berwick Bay bounded on the northside from 2,000...

  9. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay... § 165.811 Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: the waters of the Atchafalaya River in Berwick Bay bounded on the northside from 2,000...

  10. 33 CFR 165.779 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. 165.779 Section 165.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.779 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated navigation area encompasses all waters in Biscayne Bay...

  11. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas... § 165.806 Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The Sabine Neches Waterway which includes the following waters: Sabine Pass Channel,...

  12. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  13. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  14. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  15. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  16. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  17. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  18. Reprint of "How do components of real cloud water affect aqueous pyruvate oxidation?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, Alexandra J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical oxidation of dissolved volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds within fog and cloud droplets in the atmosphere could be a major pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This proposed pathway consists of: (1) dissolution of organic chemicals from the gas phase into a droplet; (2) reaction with an aqueous phase oxidant to yield low volatility products; and (3) formation of particle phase organic matter as the droplet evaporates. The common approach to simulating aqueous SOA (aqSOA) reactions is photo-oxidation of laboratory standards in pure water. Reactions leading to aqSOA formation should be studied within real cloud and fog water to determine whether additional competing processes might alter apparent rates of reaction as indicated by rates of reactant loss or product formation. To evaluate and identify the origin of any cloud water matrix effects on one example of observed aqSOA production, pyruvate oxidation experiments simulating aqSOA formation were monitored within pure water, real cloud water samples, and an aqueous solution of inorganic salts. Two analysis methods were used: online electrospray ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-ToF-MS), and offline anion exchange chromatography (IC) with quantitative conductivity and qualitative ESI-HR-ToF-MS detection. The apparent rate of oxidation of pyruvate was slowed in cloud water matrices: overall measured degradation rates of pyruvate were lower than in pure water. This can be at least partially accounted for by the observed formation of pyruvate from reactions of other cloud water components. Organic constituents of cloud water also compete for oxidants and/or UV light, contributing to the observed slowed degradation rates of pyruvate. The oxidation of pyruvate was not significantly affected by the presence of inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate) at cloud-relevant concentrations. Future bulk studies of aqSOA formation reactions using simplified

  19. How do components of real cloud water affect aqueous pyruvate oxidation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, Alexandra J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2014-06-01

    Chemical oxidation of dissolved volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds within fog and cloud droplets in the atmosphere could be a major pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This proposed pathway consists of: (1) dissolution of organic chemicals from the gas phase into a droplet; (2) reaction with an aqueous phase oxidant to yield low volatility products; and (3) formation of particle phase organic matter as the droplet evaporates. The common approach to simulating aqueous SOA (aqSOA) reactions is photo-oxidation of laboratory standards in pure water. Reactions leading to aqSOA formation should be studied within real cloud and fog water to determine whether additional competing processes might alter apparent rates of reaction as indicated by rates of reactant loss or product formation. To evaluate and identify the origin of any cloud water matrix effects on one example of observed aqSOA production, pyruvate oxidation experiments simulating aqSOA formation were monitored within pure water, real cloud water samples, and an aqueous solution of inorganic salts. Two analysis methods were used: online electrospray ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-ToF-MS), and offline anion exchange chromatography (IC) with quantitative conductivity and qualitative ESI-HR-ToF-MS detection. The apparent rate of oxidation of pyruvate was slowed in cloud water matrices: overall measured degradation rates of pyruvate were lower than in pure water. This can be at least partially accounted for by the observed formation of pyruvate from reactions of other cloud water components. Organic constituents of cloud water also compete for oxidants and/or UV light, contributing to the observed slowed degradation rates of pyruvate. The oxidation of pyruvate was not significantly affected by the presence of inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate) at cloud-relevant concentrations. Future bulk studies of aqSOA formation reactions using simplified

  20. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction