Science.gov

Sample records for affecting ocean shipping

  1. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  2. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  3. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  4. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  5. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  6. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  7. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  8. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  9. Ocean Clutter Modeling for Ship Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ding; Anfinsen, Stian Normann; Brekke, Camilla

    2013-03-01

    This work addresses the problem of covariance matrix estimation for ocean clutter modeling. For ship detection based on polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (Pol-SAR) imagery and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors, accurate ocean clutter modeling is essential. The covariance matrix provides all the polarimetric information of the ocean clutter and its estimate is always involved in PolSAR detection [1]. The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the behavior of different covariance matrix estimators, i.e., the sample mean, fixedpoint, and maximum likelihood estimators. An approximate maximum likelihood covariance matrix estimator is also proposed and discussed for better computational efficiency. Their performances are evaluated in terms of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) matrix distance, and computational efficiency. Various textured ocean clutter conditions are considered, ranging from high texture to the non-textured case with Gaussian clutter. Experiments are performed on simulated ocean clutter data.

  10. The Volunteer Observing Ship and Future Ocean Monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossby, Thomas; Siedler, Gerold; Zenk, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Widespread and sustained in situ ocean measurements are essential to an improved understanding of the state of the ocean and its role in global change. Merchant marine vessels can play a major role in ocean monitoring, yet apart from routine weather observations and upper-ocean temperature measurements, they constitute a vastly underutilized resource due to lack of suitable instrumentation. Examples of ways in which vessels can assist include profiling techniques of physical properties, chemical sampling via automated water samplers, optical techniques to measure various biological parameters, and ground truth measurements for remote sensing from orbiting and geostationary satellites. Further, ships can act as relays between subsurface instrumentation and satellite communication services.To take advantage of the opportunities that the maritime industry can provide, two steps must be taken. The first is to initiate an instrumentation development program with emphasis on techniques optimized for highly automated use onboard ships at 15-20-kt speeds. The second is to forge partnerships or links between academic and government laboratories and the maritime industry for the institution and maintenance of such monitoring programs. No doubt significant resources will be required, but in the long run the improved ability to monitor the state of ocean in situ will make the effort more than worthwhile.

  11. Pirate attacks affect Indian Ocean climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shawn R.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Long, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Pirate attacks in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia nearly doubled from 111 in 2008 to 217 in 2009 [International Maritime Bureau, 2009, International Maritime Bureau, 2010]. Consequently, merchant vessel traffic in the area around Somalia significantly decreased. Many of these merchant vessels carry instruments that record wind and other weather conditions near the ocean surface, and alterations in ship tracks have resulted in a hole sized at about 2.5 million square kilometers in the marine weather-observing network off the coast of Somalia. The data void exists in the formation region of the Somali low-level jet, a wind pattern that is one of the main drivers of the Indian summer monsoon. Further, a stable, multidecadal record has been interrupted, and consequently, long-term analyses of the jet derived from surface wind data are now showing artificial anomalies that will affect efforts by scientists to identify interannual to decadal variations in the climate of the northwestern Indian Ocean.

  12. Modeling deep ocean shipping noise in varying acidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Udovydchenkov, Ilya A; Duda, Timothy F; Doney, Scott C; Lima, Ivan D

    2010-09-01

    Possible future changes of ambient shipping noise at 0.1-1 kHz in the North Pacific caused by changing seawater chemistry conditions are analyzed with a simplified propagation model. Probable decreases of pH would cause meaningful reduction of the sound absorption coefficient in near-surface ocean water for these frequencies. The results show that a few decibels of increase may occur in 100 years in some very quiet areas very far from noise sources, with small effects closer to noise sources. The use of ray physics allows sound energy attenuated via volume absorption and by the seafloor to be compared.

  13. Journeys on the Rivers and Oceans: Ship Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.; Carper, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Ship transportation includes various forms of technology. Ships have special designs to meet technological needs. They are used to transport people and cargoes and have been a major part of history throughout civilization. Products are available from around the world because they can be economically moved from producers to consumers. Not only are…

  14. Emissions of Trace Gases and Particles from Two Ships in the Southern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Christian, Ted J.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Bruintjes, Roelof

    2003-01-01

    Measurements were made of the emissions of particles and gases from two diesel-powered ships in the southern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Namibia. The measurements are used to derive emission factors from ships of three species not reported previously, namely, black carbon, accumulation-mode particles, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), as well as for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and condensation nuclei. The effects of fuel grade and engine power on ship emissions are discussed. The emission factors are combined with fuel usage data to obtain estimates of global annual emissions of various particles and gases from ocean-going ships. Global emissions of black carbon, accumulation- mode particles, and CCN from ocean-going ships are estimated to be 19-26 Gg yr(sup -1), (4.4-6.1) x 10(exp 26) particles yr(sup -1), and (1.0-1.5) x l0(exp 26) particles yr(sup -1), respectively. Black carbon emissions from ocean-going ships are approximately 0.2% of total anthropogenic emissions. Emissions of NOx and SO2 from ocean-going ships are approximately 10-14% and approximately 3-4%, respectively, of the total emissions of these species from the burning of fossil fuels, and approximately 40% and approximately 70%, respectively, of the total emissions of these species from the burning of biomass. Global annual emissions of CO and CH4 from ocean-going ships are approximately 2% and approximately 2-5%, respectively, of natural oceanic emissions of these species.

  15. The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Education Materials Collection: Bringing Ocean Exploration Alive for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, S.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, America's first Federal ship dedicated to ocean exploration, is envisioned as the ship upon which learners of all ages embark together on scientific voyages of exploration to poorly-known or unexplored areas of the global ocean. Through a combination of lessons, web pages, a ship tracker and dynamic imagery and video, learners participate as ocean explorers in breakthrough discoveries leading to increased scientific understanding and enhanced literacy about our ocean world. The Okeanos Explorer Education Materials Collection was developed to encourage educators and students to become personally involved with the ship's voyages and discoveries. This collection is presented in two volumes: Volume 1: Why Do We Explore? (modern reasons for ocean exploration - specifically, climate change, energy, human health and ocean health) and Volume 2: How Do We Explore? (21st Century strategies and tools for ocean exploration, including telepresence, sonar mapping, water column exploration and remotely operated vehicles). These volumes have been developed into full-day professional development opportunities provided at NOAA OER Alliance Partner sites nationwide and include lessons for grades 5-12 designed to support the evolving science education needs currently articulated in the K-12 Framework for Science Education. Together, the lessons, web pages, ship tracker and videos provide a dynamic education package for teachers to share modern ocean exploration in the classroom and inspire the next generation of explorers. This presentation will share these two Volumes, highlights from current explorations of the Okeanos Explorer and how they are used in ocean explorer lessons, and methods for accessing ocean explorer resources and following along with expeditions.;

  16. The Ocean? No Sweat! How the Oceans Affect Temperatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents an activity which helps students investigate how the ocean affects air temperature. Includes temperature data and a map for students to use in plotting and analyzing the temperature ranges of selected cities in Oregon. A supplementary laboratory activity is also offered. (ML)

  17. Transit factors affecting shrink, shipping fever and subsequent performance of feeder calves.

    PubMed

    Camp, T H; Stevens, D G; Stermer, R A; Anthony, J P

    1981-06-01

    Five shipments of feeder calves (965 head hauled in 11 drop-center trailers) were shipped 1,600 km by tractor trailer from Algood, Tennessee, to Bushland, Texas, during the fall seasons of 1976, 1977 and 1978. Shrink, incidence of shipping fever and subsequent feedlot performance of these feeder calves were analyzed. There were significant differences in shrink and subsequent feedlot performance between calves shipped on different dates. In only one instance was there a significant difference in shrink between trucks of steers shipped on the same date, and this was due to a difference of in-transit time between trucks. There were no significant differences in shrink, incidence of shipping fever of feedlot performance between calves shipped in different trailer compartments, nor were there any interactions between shipping dates and trailer compartments for shrink, incidence of shipping fever and feedlot performance. The number of calves treated for shipping fever did not differ significantly among trailer compartments, but did differ among shipment dates. Significant differences in morbidity between shipping dates indicate that the incidence of shipping fever is apparently affected by environmental conditions before, during and immediately after transit. The results indicate that multiple truckloads of calves, if traveling together, can be treated as a single unit for the statistical analysis of shrink, incidence of shipping fever and feedlot performance.

  18. Bridge-based sensing of NOx and SO2 emissions from ocean-going ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgard, Daniel A.; Bria, Carmen R. M.

    2016-07-01

    As emissions from nonroad mobile sources face increased regulatory scrutiny, a surprisingly few number of real-world, in-use measurements exist for these sources. This paper reports the first use of an open-path Remote Sensing Device (RSD) to measure emissions from ocean-going ships, including cruise ships. This noninvasive technique measured NOx and SO2 emission factors from 16 individually identified ocean-going ships as they passed under the Lions Gate Bridge in Vancouver, B.C. and their exhaust plumes passed through the sensing beam of the RSD on a bridge directly above. Ship NOx emissions generally agreed with previous studies showing no emissions trends across vessel type. Ship SO2 emissions were reasonable based on expected Environmental Control Area fuel sulfur requirements and corresponded to 0.4-2.4% sulfur in the fuels. This method's specificity of individual vessel SO2 measurements suggests that this technique could be used as a tool to detect high sulfur fuel use in vessels.

  19. 76 FR 38177 - Falcon Shipping Inc., Abdiel Falcon-Application for a License as an Ocean Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Falcon Shipping Inc., Abdiel Falcon--Application for a License as an Ocean Transportation Intermediary... application to operate as both a non-vessel-operating common carrier (NVOCC) and as a freight forwarder (FF... Falcon Shipping, as well as the qualifying individual identified in the license application. In...

  20. Ship-based detection of glyoxal over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinreich, R.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first detection of glyoxal (CHOCHO) over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL). The measurements were conducted by means of the University of Colorado Ship Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU SMAX-DOAS) instrument aboard the research vessel Ronald H. Brown. The research vessel was on a cruise in the framework of the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study - Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) projects lasting from October 2008 through January 2009 (74 days at sea). The CU SMAX-DOAS instrument features a motion compensation system to characterize the pitch and roll of the ship and to compensate for ship movements in real time. We found elevated mixing ratios of up to 140 ppt CHOCHO located inside the MBL up to 3000 km from the continental coast over biologically active upwelling regions of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. This is surprising since CHOCHO is very short lived (atmospheric life time ~2 h) and highly water soluble (Henry's Law constant H = 4.2 × 105 M/atm). This CHOCHO cannot be explained by transport of it or its precursors from continental sources. Rather, the open ocean must be a source for CHOCHO to the atmosphere. Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) photochemistry in surface waters is a source for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere, e.g. acetaldehyde. The extension of this mechanism to very soluble gases, like CHOCHO, is not straightforward since the air-sea flux is directed from the atmosphere into the ocean. For CHOCHO, the dissolved concentrations would need to be extremely high in order to explain our gas-phase observations by this mechanism (40-70 μM CHOCHO, compared to ~0.01 μM acetaldehyde and 60-70 μM DOM). Further, while there is as yet no direct measurement of VOCs in our study area, measurements of the CHOCHO precursors isoprene, and/or acetylene over phytoplankton bloom areas in other parts of the oceans are too

  1. Ship-based detection of glyoxal over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinreich, R.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-06-01

    We present the first detection of glyoxal (CHOCHO) over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL). The measurements were conducted by means of the University of Colorado Ship Multi-Axis Differential Optical Spectroscopy (CU SMAX-DOAS) instrument aboard the research vessel Ronald H. Brown. The research vessel was on a cruise in the framework of the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study - Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) projects lasting from October 2008 through January 2009 (74 days at sea). The CU SMAX-DOAS instrument features a motion compensation system to characterize the pitch and roll of the ship and to compensate for ship movements in real time. We found elevated mixing ratios of up to 170 ppt CHOCHO located inside the MBL up to 3000 km from the continental coast over biologically active upwelling regions of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. This is surprising since CHOCHO is very short lived (atmospheric life time ~2 h) and highly water soluble (Henry's Law constant H=4.2×105 M/atm). This CHOCHO cannot be explained by transport of it or its precursors from continental sources. Rather, the open ocean is a source for CHOCHO to the atmosphere. Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) photochemistry in surface waters is a source for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere, e.g. acetaldehyde. The extension of this mechanism to very soluble gases, like CHOCHO, is not straightforward since the air-sea flux is directed from the atmosphere into the ocean. For CHOCHO, the dissolved concentrations would need to be extremely high in order to explain our gas-phase observations by this mechanism (40-70 μM CHOCHO, compared to ~0.01 μM acetaldehyde and 60-70 μM DOM). Further, while there is as yet no direct measurement of VOCs in our study area, measurements of the CHOCHO precursors isoprene, and/or acetylene over phytoplankton bloom areas in other parts of the oceans are too low (by a factor of

  2. Ship-based remote sensing observations of clouds and aerosol over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospichal, Bernhard; Wolf, Veronika; Pietsch, Alexandra; Engelmann, Ronny; Macke, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Within the framework of the OCEANET project, ship-based remote sensing observations of the atmosphere above the Atlantic Ocean have been performed on board of the German research vessels Polarstern and Meteor. Since 2007, twelve cruises took place, mostly between Bremerhaven (Germany) and Cape Town (South Africa) or Punta Arenas (Chile), respectively. In 2014 and 2015, two additional cruises will be performed. The goal of these ship-based measurements is a better understanding of water vapor, cloud and aerosol interaction over the open sea where data are scarce. The project was designed to measure the full atmospheric energy budget in different climate zones, including exchange processes at the sea surface. The main instrumentation on all cruises consisted of a passive microwave radiometer, a full sky imager, sun photometer, lidar ceilometer and broadband solar and infrared radiation measurements. In addition a multi wavelength Raman lidar (PollyXT) was on board of six cruises. Spectral solar radiance and irradiance observations have been performed on four cruises. With this dataset, a variety of topics can be addressed. This presentation will focus on marine stratocumulus clouds which are widespread over oceans and still pose a large uncertainty for determining the Earth's energy budget. Detailed studies for the northern trade wind zone off the West African coast will be presented. The emphasis lies on stratocumulus cloud properties, such as frequency, size, variability, liquid water content as well as their impact on surface radiation. Additionally, the influence of Saharan dust on the cloud occurrence will be addressed. Dust outbreaks over the ship could be observed in several years, including also at a cruise from the Caribbean Sea to Cape Verde in 2013. Furthermore, we will give a statistical overview of the meridional distribution of atmospheric water vapour and clouds over the Atlantic Ocean. With six years of measurements, always at the same time of the

  3. Will ocean acidification affect marine microbes?

    PubMed

    Joint, Ian; Doney, Scott C; Karl, David M

    2011-01-01

    The pH of the surface ocean is changing as a result of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and there are concerns about potential impacts of lower pH and associated alterations in seawater carbonate chemistry on the biogeochemical processes in the ocean. However, it is important to place these changes within the context of pH in the present-day ocean, which is not constant; it varies systematically with season, depth and along productivity gradients. Yet this natural variability in pH has rarely been considered in assessments of the effect of ocean acidification on marine microbes. Surface pH can change as a consequence of microbial utilization and production of carbon dioxide, and to a lesser extent other microbially mediated processes such as nitrification. Useful comparisons can be made with microbes in other aquatic environments that readily accommodate very large and rapid pH change. For example, in many freshwater lakes, pH changes that are orders of magnitude greater than those projected for the twenty second century oceans can occur over periods of hours. Marine and freshwater assemblages have always experienced variable pH conditions. Therefore, an appropriate null hypothesis may be, until evidence is obtained to the contrary, that major biogeochemical processes in the oceans other than calcification will not be fundamentally different under future higher CO(2)/lower pH conditions.

  4. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  5. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  6. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  7. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  8. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  9. Satellite Ocean-Color Validation Using Ships of Opportunity. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert; Cutchin, David L.; Gross-Colzy, Lydwine; Poteau, Antoine; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves

    2003-01-01

    The investigation s main objective is to collect from platforms of opportunity (merchant ships, research vessels) concomitant normalized water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness data over the world s oceans. A global, long-term data set of these variables is needed to verify whether satellite retrievals of normalized water-leaving radiance are within acceptable error limits and, eventually, to adjust atmospheric correction schemes. To achieve this objective, volunteer officers, technicians, and scientists onboard the selected ships collect data from portable SIMBAD and Advanced SIMBAD (SIMBADA) radiometers. These instruments are specifically designed for evaluation of satellite-derived ocean color. They measure radiance in spectral bands typical of ocean-color sensors. The SIMBAD version measures in 5 spectral bands centered at 443, 490, 560, 670, and 870 nm, and the Advanced SIMBAD version in 11 spectral bands centered at 350, 380, 412, 443, 490, 510, 565, 620, 670, 750, and 870 nm. Aerosol optical thickness is obtained by viewing the sun disk like a classic sun photometer. Normalized water-leaving radiance, or marine reflectance, is obtained by viewing the ocean surface through a vertical polarizer in a specific geometry (nadir angle of 45o and relative azimuth angle of 135deg) to minimize direct sun glint and reflected sky radiation. The SIMBAD and SIMBADA data, after proper quality control and processing, are delivered to the SIMBIOS project office for inclusion in the SeaBASS archive. They complement data collected in a similar way by the Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique of the University of Lille, France. The SIMBAD and SIMBADA data are used to check the radiometric calibration of satellite ocean-color sensors after launch and to evaluate derived ocean-color variables (i.e., normalized water-leaving radiance, aerosol optical thickness, and aerosol type). Analysis of the SIMBAD and SIMBADA data provides information on the accuracy of satellite

  10. Monitoring Anthropogenic Ocean Sound from Shipping Using an Acoustic Sensor Network and a Compressive Sensing Approach.

    PubMed

    Harris, Peter; Philip, Rachel; Robinson, Stephen; Wang, Lian

    2016-03-22

    Monitoring ocean acoustic noise has been the subject of considerable recent study, motivated by the desire to assess the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine life. A combination of measuring ocean sound using an acoustic sensor network and modelling sources of sound and sound propagation has been proposed as an approach to estimating the acoustic noise map within a region of interest. However, strategies for developing a monitoring network are not well established. In this paper, considerations for designing a network are investigated using a simulated scenario based on the measurement of sound from ships in a shipping lane. Using models for the sources of the sound and for sound propagation, a noise map is calculated and measurements of the noise map by a sensor network within the region of interest are simulated. A compressive sensing algorithm, which exploits the sparsity of the representation of the noise map in terms of the sources, is used to estimate the locations and levels of the sources and thence the entire noise map within the region of interest. It is shown that although the spatial resolution to which the sound sources can be identified is generally limited, estimates of aggregated measures of the noise map can be obtained that are more reliable compared with those provided by other approaches.

  11. Net community production in the North Atlantic Ocean derived from Volunteer Observing Ship data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostle, Clare; Johnson, Martin; Landschützer, Peter; Schuster, Ute; Hartman, Susan; Hull, Tom; Robinson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of marine plankton net community production (NCP) is indicative of both the biologically driven exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the surface ocean and the export of organic carbon from the surface ocean to the ocean interior. In this study the seasonal variability in the NCP of five biogeochemical regions in the North Atlantic was determined from measurements of surface water dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) sampled from a Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS). The magnitude of NCP derived from dissolved oxygen measurements (NCPO2) was consistent with previous geochemical estimates of NCP in the North Atlantic, with an average annual NCPO2 of 9.5 ± 6.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. Annual NCPO2 did not vary significantly over 35° of latitude and was not significantly different from NCP derived from DIC measurements (NCPDIC). The relatively simple method described here is applicable to any VOS route on which surface water dissolved oxygen concentrations can be accurately measured, thus providing estimates of NCP at higher spatial and temporal resolution than currently achieved.

  12. Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalli, Nicholas R.; Clemente-Colón, Pablo; Minnett, Peter J.; Szczodrak, Malgorzata; Morris, Vernon; Joseph, Everette; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Barnet, Christopher D.; Wolf, Walter W.; Jessup, Andy; Branch, Ruth; Knuteson, Robert O.; Feltz, Wayne F.

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a unique validation data set acquired from a marine intensive observing period (IOP) conducted on board the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown (RHB) during the 2004 Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean from 29 February to 26 March 2004. The radiometric and in situ data complement includes marine observations of the Saharan air layer (SAL), including two significant Saharan dust outbreaks over the Atlantic Ocean. Because the impact of tropospheric dust aerosols on satellite infrared (IR) radiometric observations has not yet been fully characterized, the AEROSE data are particularly valuable for IR sensor validation. Shipboard radiometric data germane to satellite validation include observations from a Marine Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI), a Calibrated Infrared In situ Measurement System (CIRIMS), and Microtops handheld sunphotometers. Among other things, these data provide, for the first time, coincident IR spectra of the dry, dusty SAL from both the uplooking M-AERI and the downlooking Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite. In situ data collected throughout the cruise include Vaisala RS80/90 radiosondes, launched ≃3-hourly to include Aqua overpass times. The Aqua matchup profiles provide data for validation of AIRS in the presence of high dust loading, along with temperature and water vapor profile retrievals of the SAL. The frequency of sonde launches also enables validation of coincident uplooking M-AERI boundary layer profile retrievals. Preliminary analyses of the AEROSE data are presented here. Focused AEROSE validation studies are the subjects of separate papers.

  13. How does ice sheet loading affect ocean flow around Antarctica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, H. A.; Rugenstein, M. A.; Stocchi, P.; von der Heydt, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Interactions and dynamical feedbacks between ocean circulation, heat and atmospheric moisture transport, ice sheet evolution, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) are overlooked issues in paleoclimatology. Here we will present first results on how ocean flows were possibly affected by the glaciation of Antarctica across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (~ 34 Ma) through GIA and bathymetry variations. GIA-induced gravitationally self-consistent bathymetry variations are determined by solving the Sea Level Equation (SLE), which describes the time dependent shape of (i) the solid Earth and (ii) the equipotential surface of gravity. Since the ocean circulation equations are defined relative to the equipotential surface of gravity, only bathymetry variations can influence ocean flows, although the sea surface slope will also change through time due to gravitational attraction. We use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model under late Eocene conditions to calculate equilibrium ocean flows in a domain in which the bathymetry evolves under ice loading according to the SLE. The bathymetric effects of the glaciation of Antarctica lead to substantial spatial changes in ocean flows, and close to the coast, the flow even reverses direction. Volume transports through the Drake Passage and Tasman Seaway adjust to the new bathymetry. The results indicate that GIA-induced ocean flow variations alone may have had an impact on sedimentation and erosion patterns, the repositioning of fronts, ocean heat transport and grounding line and ice sheet stability.

  14. A Potential Impact on the Chemical Composition in the Marine Boundary Layer in the Arctic Ocean by Ship Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z.; Wang, X.; Blum, J. D.; Sun, L.

    2005-12-01

    Samples of aerosols in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Arctic Ocean were collected aboard R/V ()Xuelong during the summer on the Second Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (July-September, 2003). Chemical compositions including major and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aerosol particles were analyzed. Results showed that significant amounts of S, Fe, V and Ni are emitted from ship diesel engines and contaminate the ambient air. The total amount of Fe, which plays a significant role in the ocean ()biological pump, emitted from ships in the Arctic is estimated at 4.33-A106 kg yr-1. Sulfur emitted into the atmosphere may be transformed to sulfur acid and result in a chlorine depletion in sea-salt. Because the global inventory of sulfur from ship exhausts is large and halogens may have important consequences in possible tropospheric ozone destruction, the role of ships in effecting halogen depression in sea-salt should be evaluated. For organic compounds, 17 PAHs including Fluoranthene, Phenanthrene, Chrysene, Indeno[123-cd]pyrene, Pyrene, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[ghi]pyrene, Naphthalene, Benzo[a]anthracene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Coronene, Fluorene, Benzo[a]pyrene, Acenaphthene, Anthracene, Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and Acenaphthylene were detected. The average levels of subspecies of PAHs in ambient air ranged from 0.003 to 0.089 ng/m3. Among the 17 PAHs, fluoranthene had a relative high level, while the level of acenaphthylene was relative low. The aerosols contaminated by the ship, which were commonly excluded in previous investigations, thus provide an opportunity to investigate and understand the role of ship emissions in the atmospheric chemistry of the marine boundary layer, especially in the Arctic Ocean.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of a ship accident at a deep-ocean site in the northwest Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1985-04-01

    This report presents the results of a sensitivity analysis for an HLW ship accident occurring in the Nares Abyssal Plain in the northwestern Atlantic. Waste form release rate, canister lifetime and sorption in the water column (partition coefficients) were varied. Also investigated were the relative importance of the dose from the food chain and from seaweed in the diet. Peak individual doses and integrated collective doses for populations were the units of comparison. In accordance with international guidelines on radiological protection, the comparisons of different options were carried out over ''all time''; the study uses a million-year time frame. Partition coefficients have the most pronounced effect on collective dose of the parameters studied. Variations in partition coefficients affect the shape of the collective dose curve over the entire time frame. Peak individual doses decrease markedly when the value for the sorption of americium is increased, but show no increase when less sorption is assumed. Waste form release rates and canister lifetimes affect collective doses only in periods prior to 20,000 years. Hence, comparisons of these options need not be carried out beyond 20,000 years. Waste from release rates below 10/sup -3//yr (nominal value) affect individual doses in a linear manner, i.e., an order-of-magnitude reduction in release rate leads to an order-of-magnitude reduction in peak individual dose. Little reduction in peak individual doses is seen with canister lifetimes extended beyond the nominal 100 years. 32 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Ships and Seaways. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 105. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    This unit for elementary school students (grade 5) provides materials for about five class periods. Emphasized are language arts and social studies activities related to ships and seaways. Activities include topics on common vessels, shipping routes, navigational guides, and art and writing related to field experiences. A number of transparency…

  17. Processes affecting the oceanic distributions of dissolved calcium and alkalinity

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, A.M.; Gieskes, J.M.

    1980-05-20

    Recent studies of the CO/sub 2/ system have suggested that chemical processes in addition to the dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate affect the oceanic calcium and alkalinity distributions. Calcium and alkalinity data from the North Pacific have been examined both by using the simple physical-chemical model of previous workers and by a study involving the broader oceanographic context of these data. The simple model is shown to be an inadequate basis for these studies. Although a proton flux associated with organic decomposition may affect the alkalinity, previously reported deviations of calcium-alkalinity correlations from expected trends appear to be related to boundary processes that have been neglected rather than to this proton flux. The distribution of calcium in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean is examined.

  18. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5–10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  19. Monitoring Anthropogenic Ocean Sound from Shipping Using an Acoustic Sensor Network and a Compressive Sensing Approach †

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Peter; Philip, Rachel; Robinson, Stephen; Wang, Lian

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring ocean acoustic noise has been the subject of considerable recent study, motivated by the desire to assess the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine life. A combination of measuring ocean sound using an acoustic sensor network and modelling sources of sound and sound propagation has been proposed as an approach to estimating the acoustic noise map within a region of interest. However, strategies for developing a monitoring network are not well established. In this paper, considerations for designing a network are investigated using a simulated scenario based on the measurement of sound from ships in a shipping lane. Using models for the sources of the sound and for sound propagation, a noise map is calculated and measurements of the noise map by a sensor network within the region of interest are simulated. A compressive sensing algorithm, which exploits the sparsity of the representation of the noise map in terms of the sources, is used to estimate the locations and levels of the sources and thence the entire noise map within the region of interest. It is shown that although the spatial resolution to which the sound sources can be identified is generally limited, estimates of aggregated measures of the noise map can be obtained that are more reliable compared with those provided by other approaches. PMID:27011187

  20. 77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... ability to proceed in a single file behind numerous other spectator craft viewing the moored Tall Ships... Homeland Security FR Federal Register LLNR Light List Number NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NPRM... Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 16974). We received no comments on...

  1. Positive matrix factorization and trajectory modelling for source identification: A new look at Indian Ocean Experiment ship observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanuprasad, S. G.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Bhushan, Mani

    The sources of aerosols on a regional scale over India have only recently received attention in studies using back trajectory analysis and chemical transport modelling. Receptor modelling approaches such as positive matrix factorization (PMF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) are effective tools in source identification of urban and regional-scale pollution. In this work, PMF and PSCF analysis is applied to identify categories and locations of sources that influenced surface concentrations of aerosols in the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) domain measured on-board the research vessel Ron Brown [Quinn, P.K., Coffman, D.J., Bates, T.S., Miller, T.L., Johnson, J.E., Welton, E.J., et al., 2002. Aerosol optical properties during INDOEX 1999: means, variability, and controlling factors. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 8020, doi:10.1029/2000JD000037]. Emissions inventory information is used to identify sources co-located with probable source regions from PSCF. PMF analysis identified six factors influencing PM concentrations during the INDOEX cruise of the Ron Brown including a biomass combustion factor (35-40%), three industrial emissions factors (35-40%), primarily secondary sulphate-nitrate, balance trace elements and Zn, and two dust factors (20-30%) of Si- and Ca-dust. The identified factors effectively predict the measured submicron PM concentrations (slope of regression line=0.90±0.20; R2=0.76). Probable source regions shifted based on changes in surface and elevated flows during different times in the ship cruise. They were in India in the early part of the cruise, but in west Asia, south-east Asia and Africa, during later parts of the cruise. Co-located sources include coal-fired electric utilities, cement, metals and petroleum production in India and west Asia, biofuel combustion for energy and crop residue burning in India, woodland/forest burning in north sub-Saharan Africa and forest burning in south-east Asia. Significant findings

  2. Uncertainties in global ocean surface flux climatologies derived from ship observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Weare, B.C.

    1997-11-01

    A methodology to define uncertainties associated with ocean surface heat flux calculations has been developed and applied to a global climatology that utilizes a summary of the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set surface observations. Systematic and random uncertainties in the net oceanic heat flux and each of its four components at individual grid points and for zonal averages have been estimated for each calendar month and for the annual mean. The most important uncertainties of the 2{degrees} x 2{degrees} grid cell values of each of the heat fluxes are described. 61 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Beyond bathymetry: probing the ocean subsurface using ship-based lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trees, Charles C.

    2014-05-01

    This document outlines a `proof-of-concept' for the maritime application of a ship-based LIDAR system for measuring the optical and physical properties in the water column. It is divided up into sections, documenting that there exists today the engineering, modeling and optical expertise to accomplish this task as well as a discussion of the reasons that LIDAR has not become the powerful observational platform that it should have been for horizontally and vertically monitoring optical and physical water column properties. Previous research on this approach has been limited because LIDAR systems have for most cases not been thoroughly calibrated, if at all, nor have LIDARs been focused on above-water, ship-based measurements. Efforts at developing derived product algorithms with uncertainties have been limited. This review concludes that there is a huge potential for the successful application of LIDAR measurements in the marine environment to estimate the vertical distribution of optical and physical properties and that measurement costs can be minimized by deployment of these automated systems on `ships-of-opportunity' and military vessels on a non-interfering basis. Although LIDAR measurements and research have been around since the 1960's, this approach has not really been investigated by any civilian or military agencies or laboratories even though providing `through-sensor performance matrixes' for existing bathymetry, target detection, underwater communication and imaging should be high on their list.

  4. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  5. Changes in Ocean Heat, Carbon Content, and Ventilation: A Review of the First Decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, L. D.; Feely, R. A.; Sloyan, B. M.; Wanninkhof, R.; Baringer, M. O.; Bullister, J. L.; Carlson, C. A.; Doney, S. C.; Fine, R. A.; Firing, E.; Gruber, N.; Hansell, D. A.; Ishii, M.; Johnson, G. C.; Katsumata, K.; Key, R. M.; Kramp, M.; Langdon, C.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mathis, J. T.; McDonagh, E. L.; Mecking, S.; Millero, F. J.; Mordy, C. W.; Nakano, T.; Sabine, C. L.; Smethie, W. M.; Swift, J. H.; Tanhua, T.; Thurnherr, A. M.; Warner, M. J.; Zhang, J.-Z.

    2016-01-01

    Global ship-based programs, with highly accurate, full water column physical and biogeochemical observations repeated decadally since the 1970s, provide a crucial resource for documenting ocean change. The ocean, a central component of Earth's climate system, is taking up most of Earth's excess anthropogenic heat, with about 19% of this excess in the abyssal ocean beneath 2,000 m, dominated by Southern Ocean warming. The ocean also has taken up about 27% of anthropogenic carbon, resulting in acidification of the upper ocean. Increased stratification has resulted in a decline in oxygen and increase in nutrients in the Northern Hemisphere thermocline and an expansion of tropical oxygen minimum zones. Southern Hemisphere thermocline oxygen increased in the 2000s owing to stronger wind forcing and ventilation. The most recent decade of global hydrography has mapped dissolved organic carbon, a large, bioactive reservoir, for the first time and quantified its contribution to export production (˜20%) and deep-ocean oxygen utilization. Ship-based measurements also show that vertical diffusivity increases from a minimum in the thermocline to a maximum within the bottom 1,500 m, shifting our physical paradigm of the ocean's overturning circulation.

  6. Changes in Ocean Heat, Carbon Content, and Ventilation: A Review of the First Decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography.

    PubMed

    Talley, L D; Feely, R A; Sloyan, B M; Wanninkhof, R; Baringer, M O; Bullister, J L; Carlson, C A; Doney, S C; Fine, R A; Firing, E; Gruber, N; Hansell, D A; Ishii, M; Johnson, G C; Katsumata, K; Key, R M; Kramp, M; Langdon, C; Macdonald, A M; Mathis, J T; McDonagh, E L; Mecking, S; Millero, F J; Mordy, C W; Nakano, T; Sabine, C L; Smethie, W M; Swift, J H; Tanhua, T; Thurnherr, A M; Warner, M J; Zhang, J-Z

    2016-01-01

    Global ship-based programs, with highly accurate, full water column physical and biogeochemical observations repeated decadally since the 1970s, provide a crucial resource for documenting ocean change. The ocean, a central component of Earth's climate system, is taking up most of Earth's excess anthropogenic heat, with about 19% of this excess in the abyssal ocean beneath 2,000 m, dominated by Southern Ocean warming. The ocean also has taken up about 27% of anthropogenic carbon, resulting in acidification of the upper ocean. Increased stratification has resulted in a decline in oxygen and increase in nutrients in the Northern Hemisphere thermocline and an expansion of tropical oxygen minimum zones. Southern Hemisphere thermocline oxygen increased in the 2000s owing to stronger wind forcing and ventilation. The most recent decade of global hydrography has mapped dissolved organic carbon, a large, bioactive reservoir, for the first time and quantified its contribution to export production (∼20%) and deep-ocean oxygen utilization. Ship-based measurements also show that vertical diffusivity increases from a minimum in the thermocline to a maximum within the bottom 1,500 m, shifting our physical paradigm of the ocean's overturning circulation.

  7. Changes in Ocean Heat, Carbon Content, and Ventilation: A Review of the First Decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography.

    PubMed

    Talley, L D; Feely, R A; Sloyan, B M; Wanninkhof, R; Baringer, M O; Bullister, J L; Carlson, C A; Doney, S C; Fine, R A; Firing, E; Gruber, N; Hansell, D A; Ishii, M; Johnson, G C; Katsumata, K; Key, R M; Kramp, M; Langdon, C; Macdonald, A M; Mathis, J T; McDonagh, E L; Mecking, S; Millero, F J; Mordy, C W; Nakano, T; Sabine, C L; Smethie, W M; Swift, J H; Tanhua, T; Thurnherr, A M; Warner, M J; Zhang, J-Z

    2016-01-01

    Global ship-based programs, with highly accurate, full water column physical and biogeochemical observations repeated decadally since the 1970s, provide a crucial resource for documenting ocean change. The ocean, a central component of Earth's climate system, is taking up most of Earth's excess anthropogenic heat, with about 19% of this excess in the abyssal ocean beneath 2,000 m, dominated by Southern Ocean warming. The ocean also has taken up about 27% of anthropogenic carbon, resulting in acidification of the upper ocean. Increased stratification has resulted in a decline in oxygen and increase in nutrients in the Northern Hemisphere thermocline and an expansion of tropical oxygen minimum zones. Southern Hemisphere thermocline oxygen increased in the 2000s owing to stronger wind forcing and ventilation. The most recent decade of global hydrography has mapped dissolved organic carbon, a large, bioactive reservoir, for the first time and quantified its contribution to export production (∼20%) and deep-ocean oxygen utilization. Ship-based measurements also show that vertical diffusivity increases from a minimum in the thermocline to a maximum within the bottom 1,500 m, shifting our physical paradigm of the ocean's overturning circulation. PMID:26515811

  8. Live Ship-to-shore Video Events from the JOIDES Resolution during International Ocean Discovery Program Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhanek, D. K.; Cooper, S. K.; Dadd, K. A.; Colwell, F. S.; Mote, A. S.; Christiansen, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) cores sediment and rock below the seafloor during two-month expeditions to study Earth's history and dynamics. Most IODP expeditions sail dedicated education officers to lead outreach efforts, including live ship-to-shore video events. Expeditions conduct 30-90 events through close collaboration between the educators and science party members. In 2014, Expedition 349 collected cores in the South China Sea. Even though no educator sailed, the staff scientist filled this role, allowing the expedition to carry out an extensive program of 58 live events (led by scientists) with institutions in 13 countries, demonstrating that outreach is deeply engrained in IODP culture. Expedition 349 spoke to ~3700 people, including ~375 primary school students in China and the USA, ~1150 secondary school students in six countries, and ~1300 undergraduate and graduate students in seven countries. The scientists also conducted events with museums, science centers, and science conferences. Over the last six years of operations, we have gained significant insights that help us to capitalize on best practices and utilize the newest and most effective technology for live events from sea given bandwidth constraints. We currently conduct video events with an iPad using Zoom software. Educators and scientists work together to provide ship tours and educate audiences about expedition science, lab work, and life at sea, and also answer audience questions. One feature we use extensively is the ability to screen share with Zoom, which allows us to show images stored on the iPad. These images show the location of drill sites and provide background information about the expedition scientific objectives, the drilling and coring process, and more. Shipboard scientists are usually enthusiastic about outreach events and many contact friends and colleagues to schedule additional events. The audiences we connect with ask many great questions and often

  9. 46 CFR 515.23 - Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary. 515.23 Section 515.23 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR...

  10. 46 CFR 515.23 - Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary. 515.23 Section 515.23 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR...

  11. 46 CFR 515.23 - Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary. 515.23 Section 515.23 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR...

  12. 46 CFR 515.23 - Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary. 515.23 Section 515.23 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR...

  13. 46 CFR 515.23 - Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Claims against an ocean transportation intermediary. 515.23 Section 515.23 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR...

  14. Uncertainties in global ocean surface heat flux climatologies derived from ship observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Weare, B.C.

    1995-08-01

    A methodology to define uncertainties associated with ocean surface heat flux calculations has been developed and applied to a revised version of the Oberhuber global climatology, which utilizes a summary of the COADS surface observations. Systematic and random uncertainties in the net oceanic heat flux and each of its four components at individual grid points and for zonal averages have been estimated for each calendar month and the annual mean. The most important uncertainties of the 2{degree} x 2{degree} grid cell values of each of the heat fluxes are described. Annual mean net shortwave flux random uncertainties associated with errors in estimating cloud cover in the tropics yield total uncertainties which are greater than 25 W m{sup {minus}2}. In the northern latitudes, where the large number of observations substantially reduce the influence of these random errors, the systematic uncertainties in the utilized parameterization are largely responsible for total uncertainties in the shortwave fluxes which usually remain greater than 10 W m{sup {minus}2}. Systematic uncertainties dominate in the zonal means because spatial averaging has led to a further reduction of the random errors. The situation for the annual mean latent heat flux is somewhat different in that even for grid point values the contributions of the systematic uncertainties tend to be larger than those of the random uncertainties at most all latitudes. Latent heat flux uncertainties are greater than 20 W m{sup {minus}2} nearly everywhere south of 40{degree}N, and in excess of 30 W m{sup {minus}2} over broad areas of the subtropics, even those with large numbers of observations. Resulting zonal mean latent heat flux uncertainties are largest ({approximately}30 W m{sup {minus}2}) in the middle latitudes and subtropics and smallest ({approximately}10--25 W m{sup {minus}2}) near the equator and over the northernmost regions.

  15. Triple seismic source, double research ship, single ambitious goal: integrated imaging of young oceanic crust in the Panama Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dean; Peirce, Christine; Hobbs, Richard; Gregory, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Understanding geothermal heat and mass fluxes through the seafloor is fundamental to the study of the Earth's energy budget. Using geophysical, geological and physical oceanography data we are exploring the interaction between the young oceanic crust and the ocean in the Panama Basin. We acquired a unique geophysical dataset that will allow us to build a comprehensive model of young oceanic crust from the Costa Rica Ridge axis to ODP borehole 504B. Data were collected over two 35 x 35 km2 3D grid areas, one each at the ridge axis and the borehole, and along three 330 km long 2D profiles orientated in the spreading direction, connecting the two grids. In addition to the 4.5 km long multichannel streamer and 75 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBS), we also deployed 12 magnetotelluric (MT) stations and collected underway swath bathymetry, gravity and magnetic data. For the long 2D profiles we used two research vessels operating synchronously. The RRS James Cook towed a high frequency GI-gun array (120 Hz) to image the sediments, and a medium frequency Bolt-gun array (50 Hz) for shallow-to-mid-crustal imaging. The R/V Sonne followed the Cook, 9 km astern and towed a third seismic source; a low frequency, large volume G-gun array (30 Hz) for whole crustal and upper mantle imaging at large offsets. Two bespoke vertical hydrophone arrays recorded real far field signatures that have enabled us to develop inverse source filters and match filters. Here we present the seismic reflection image, forward and inverse velocity-depth models and a density model along the primary 330 km north-south profile, from ridge axis to 6 Ma crust. By incorporating wide-angle streamer data from our two-ship, synthetic aperture acquisition together with traditional wide-angle OBS data we are able to constrain the structure of the upper oceanic crust. The results show a long-wavelength trend of increasing seismic velocity and density with age, and a correlation between velocity structure and basement

  16. Assimilation of the seabird and ship drift data in the north-eastern sea of Japan into an operational ocean nowcast/forecast system

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Guo, Xinyu; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Miyama, Toru; Yoda, Ken; Sato, Katsufumi; Kano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, ocean current is being operationally monitored mainly by combined use of numerical ocean nowcast/forecast models and satellite remote sensing data. Improvement in the accuracy of the ocean current nowcast/forecast requires additional measurements with higher spatial and temporal resolution as expected from the current observation network. Here we show feasibility of assimilating high-resolution seabird and ship drift data into an operational ocean forecast system. Data assimilation of geostrophic current contained in the observed drift leads to refinement in the gyre mode events of the Tsugaru warm current in the north-eastern sea of Japan represented by the model. Fitting the observed drift to the model depends on ability of the drift representing geostrophic current compared to that representing directly wind driven components. A preferable horizontal scale of 50 km indicated for the seabird drift data assimilation implies their capability of capturing eddies with smaller horizontal scale than the minimum scale of 100 km resolved by the satellite altimetry. The present study actually demonstrates that transdisciplinary approaches combining bio-/ship- logging and numerical modeling could be effective for enhancement in monitoring the ocean current. PMID:26633309

  17. Assimilation of the seabird and ship drift data in the north-eastern sea of Japan into an operational ocean nowcast/forecast system.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Guo, Xinyu; Varlamov, Sergey M; Miyama, Toru; Yoda, Ken; Sato, Katsufumi; Kano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Keiji

    2015-12-03

    At the present time, ocean current is being operationally monitored mainly by combined use of numerical ocean nowcast/forecast models and satellite remote sensing data. Improvement in the accuracy of the ocean current nowcast/forecast requires additional measurements with higher spatial and temporal resolution as expected from the current observation network. Here we show feasibility of assimilating high-resolution seabird and ship drift data into an operational ocean forecast system. Data assimilation of geostrophic current contained in the observed drift leads to refinement in the gyre mode events of the Tsugaru warm current in the north-eastern sea of Japan represented by the model. Fitting the observed drift to the model depends on ability of the drift representing geostrophic current compared to that representing directly wind driven components. A preferable horizontal scale of 50 km indicated for the seabird drift data assimilation implies their capability of capturing eddies with smaller horizontal scale than the minimum scale of 100 km resolved by the satellite altimetry. The present study actually demonstrates that transdisciplinary approaches combining bio-/ship- logging and numerical modeling could be effective for enhancement in monitoring the ocean current.

  18. How the Ocean personality model affects the perception of crowds.

    PubMed

    Durupinar, F; Pelechano, N; Allbeck, J M; Gudukbay, Ugur; Badler, N I

    2011-01-01

    This approach extends the HiDAC (High-Density Autonomous Crowds) system by providing each agent with a personality model based on the Ocean (openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) personality model. Each personality trait has an associated nominal behavior. Specifying an agent's personality leads to an automation of low-level parameter tuning.

  19. Factors affecting stranding of juvenile salmonids by wakes from ship passage in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, John R.

    2011-09-01

    The effects of deep-draft vessel traffic in confined riverine channels on shorelines and fish are of widespread concern. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, wakes and subsequent beach run-up from ships transiting the Lower Columbia River have been observed to strand juvenile salmon and other fish. As part of a before-and-after study to assess stranding effects that may be associated with channel deepening, we measured 19 co-variables from observations of 126 vessel passages at three low-slope beaches and used multiple logistic regression to discern the significant factors influencing the frequency of stranding. Subyearling Chinook salmon were 82% of the fish stranded over all sites and seasons. Given a low-slope beach, stranding frequencies for juvenile salmon were significantly related to river location, salmon density in the shallows, a proxy for ship kinetic energy, tidal height, and two interactions. The beach types selected for our study do not include all the beach types along the Lower Columbia River so that the stranding probabilities described here cannot be extrapolated river-wide. A more sophisticated modeling effort, informed by additional field data, is needed to assess salmon losses by stranding for the entire lower river. Such modeling needs to include river-scale factors such as beach type, berms, proximity to navigation channel, and perhaps, proximity to tributaries that act as sources of out-migrating juvenile salmon. At both river and beach scales, no one factor produces stranding; rather interactions among several conditions produce a stranding event and give stranding its episodic nature.

  20. Evidence that biological activity affects Ocean Bottom Seismograph recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskirk, Ruth E.; Frohlich, Cliff; Latham, Gary V.; Chen, Allen T.; Lawton, Jeff

    1981-06-01

    Brief and impulsive signals of uncertain origin appear regularly on records from Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBS) of several institutions. These signals have been recorded on nearly all deployments of the Texas OBS, including sites at depths greater than 7000 m. At some sites, they account for over 90% of the events recorded. They are of short duration (usually 0.5 4.0 s) and have a characteristic frequency (usually in the range of 4 18 Hz) that differs from site to site. When networks of OBS instruments are deployed, the signals are not recorded simultaneously by different instruments. Neither the frequency content nor the distribution of durations of these signals is similar to what is observed for known earthquake events. We present evidence suggesting that the signals are of biological origin, perhaps caused by animals touching the OBS units. (1) The distribution of these signals on instruments deployed at depths shallower than 1000 m shows a 24 h periodicity, while there is a 24 h periodic pattern on instruments deployed at sites deeper than 1000 m (where there is no visible light). (2) The frequency of occurrence of signals is similar to the vertical distribution of biomass in the oceans, i.e., they appear most frequently on OBS instruments deployed at very shallow depths. (3) Biological material has been found attached to several OBS units upon recovery.

  1. FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... Platform:  SHEBA Ship Instrument:  Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, ... IDL SSFR Additional Info:  Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Ship SCAR-B Block:  ...

  2. 46 CFR 545.3 - Interpretation of § 515.23(b) of this chapter-Payment pursuant to a claim against an ocean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of § 515.23(b) of this chapter-Payment pursuant to a claim against an ocean transportation intermediary. 545.3 Section 545.3 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE INTERPRETATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 545.3 Interpretation of...

  3. Biogeography of the Oceans: a Review of Development of Knowledge of Currents, Fronts and Regional Boundaries from Sailing Ships in the Sixteenth Century to Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priede, Imants G.

    2014-06-01

    The development of knowledge of global biogeography of the oceans from sixteenthcentury European voyages of exploration to present-day use of satellite remote sensing is reviewed in three parts; the pre-satellite era (1513-1977), the satellite era leading to a first global synthesis (1978-1998), and more recent studies since 1998. The Gulf Stream was first identified as a strong open-ocean feature in 1513 and by the eighteenth century, regular transatlantic voyages by sailing ships had established the general patterns of winds and circulation, enabling optimisation of passage times. Differences in water temperature, water colour and species of animals were recognised as important cues for navigation. Systematic collection of information from ships' logs enabled Maury (The Physical Geography of the Sea Harper and Bros. New York 1855) to produce a chart of prevailing winds across the entire world's oceans, and by the early twentieth century the global surface ocean circulation that defines the major biogeographic regions was well-known. This information was further supplemented by data from large-scale plankton surveys. The launch of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, specifically designed to study living marine resources on board the Nimbus 7 polar orbiting satellite in 1978, marked the advent of the satellite era. Over subsequent decades, correlation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll data with in situ measurements enabled Longhurst (Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press, New York 1998) to divide the global ocean into 51 ecological provinces with Polar, Westerly Wind, Trade Wind and Coastal Biomes clearly recognisable from earlier subdivisions of the oceans. Satellite imagery with semi-synoptic images of large areas of the oceans greatly aided definition of boundaries between provinces. However, ocean boundaries are dynamic, varying from season to season and year to year

  4. Impact of emissions from shipping, land, and the ocean on stratocumulus cloud water elemental composition during the 2011 E-PEACE field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Sorooshian, A.; Prabhakar, G.; Coggon, M. M.; Jonsson, H. H.

    2014-06-01

    This study reports on cloud water chemical and pH measurements off the California coast during the July-August 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE). Eighty two cloud water samples were collected by a slotted-rod cloud water collector protruding above the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter in boundary layer stratocumulus clouds impacted to varying degrees by ocean-derived emissions, ship exhaust, and land emissions. Cloud water pH ranged between 2.92 and 7.58, with an average of 4.46. Peak pH values were observed north of San Francisco, simultaneous with the highest concentrations of Si, B, and Cs, and air masses originating over land. The lowest pH values were observed south of San Francisco due to ship emissions resulting in the highest concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, V, Fe, Al, P, Cd, Ti, Sb, P, and Mn. Many of these species act as important agents in aqueous-phase reactions in cloud drops and are critical ocean micronutrients after subsequent wet deposition in an ocean system that can be nutrient-limited. E-PEACE measurements suggest that conditions in the California coastal zone region can promote the conversion of micronutrients to more soluble forms, if they are not already, due to acidic cloud water conditions, the ubiquity of important organic agents such as oxalic acid, and the persistence of stratocumulus clouds to allow for continuous cloud processing.

  5. Ocean and atmosphere feedbacks affecting AMOC hysteresis in a GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. C.; Smith, R. S.; Wood, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    Theories suggest that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) can exhibit a hysteresis where, for a given input of fresh water into the north Atlantic, there are two possible states: one with a strong overturning in the north Atlantic (on) and the other with a reverse Atlantic cell (off). A previous study showed hysteresis of the AMOC for the first time in a coupled general circulation model (Hawkins et al. in Geophys Res Lett. doi: 10.1029/2011GL047208, 2011). In this study we show that the hysteresis found by Hawkins et al. (2011) is sensitive to the method with which the fresh water input is compensated. If this compensation is applied throughout the volume of the global ocean, rather than at the surface, the region of hysteresis is narrower and the off states are very different: when the compensation is applied at the surface, a strong Pacific overturning cell and a strong Atlantic reverse cell develops; when the compensation is applied throughout the volume there is little change in the Pacific and only a weak Atlantic reverse cell develops. We investigate the mechanisms behind the transitions between the on and off states in the two experiments, and find that the difference in hysteresis is due to the different off states. We find that the development of the Pacific overturning cell results in greater atmospheric moisture transport into the North Atlantic, and also is likely responsible for a stronger Atlantic reverse cell. These both act to stabilize the off state of the Atlantic overturning.

  6. Estimation of sea surface solar radiation at 400-700 nm using satellite ocean color data, and its validation by ship data.

    PubMed

    Vazyulya, S V; Kopelevich, O V; Sheberstov, S V; Artemiev, V A

    2016-03-21

    We present results of validating the algorithms used to estimate sea surface solar radiation at 400-700 nm, photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), from satellite ocean color data and an appropriate validation procedure when data are collected using a moving ship. The validation was performed using field measurements of PAR during a transit cruise from the Baltic to the White Sea during the summer of 2014. The PAR was measured at 10-minute intervals using a deck radiometer throughout the daylight hours. The satellite estimate of daily surface PAR with an acceptable error, on the scale of 1 day-102 km, is shown. PMID:27136880

  7. Can ocean acidification affect population dynamics of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides at its southern range edge?

    PubMed

    Findlay, Helen S; Burrows, Michael T; Kendall, Michael A; Spicer, John I; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The global ocean and atmosphere are warming. There is increasing evidence suggesting that, in addition to other environmental factors, climate change is affecting species distributions and local population dynamics. Additionally, as a consequence of the growing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the oceans are taking up increasing amounts of this CO2, causing ocean pH to decrease (ocean acidification). The relative impacts of ocean acidification on population dynamics have yet to be investigated, despite many studies indicating that there will be at least a sublethal impact on many marine organisms, particularly key calcifying organisms. Using empirical data, we forced a barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) population model to investigate the relative influence of sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification on a population nearing the southern limit of its geographic distribution. Hindcast models were compared to observational data from Cellar Beach (southwestern United Kingdom). Results indicate that a declining pH trend (-0.0017 unit/yr), indicative of ocean acidification over the past 50 years, does not cause an observable impact on the population abundance relative to changes caused by fluctuations in temperature. Below the critical temperature (here T(crit) = 13.1 degrees C), pH has a more significant affect on population dynamics at this southern range edge. However, above this value, SST has the overriding influence. At lower SST, a decrease in pH (according to the National Bureau of Standards, pHNBs) from 8.2 to 7.8 can significantly decrease the population abundance. The lethal impacts of ocean acidification observed in experiments on early life stages reduce cumulative survival by approximately 25%, which again will significantly alter the population level at this southern limit. Furthermore, forecast predictions from this model suggest that combined acidification and warming cause this local population to die out 10 years earlier than

  8. Ship-borne Observations of Atmospheric Black Carbon Aerosol Particles over the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and North Pacific Ocean during September 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, F.; Miyakawa, T.; Takashima, H.; Komazaki, Y.; Kanaya, Y.; PAN, X.; Inoue, J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosol particles using a highly sensitive online single particle soot photometer were performed on-board the R/V Mirai during a cruise across the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and the North Pacific Ocean (31 August-9 October 2014). The measured rBC mass concentrations over the Arctic Ocean in the latitudinal region > 70°N were in the range 0-66 ng/m3 for 1-min averages, with an overall mean value of 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3. Single-particle-based observations enabled the measurement of such low rBC mass concentrations. The effects of long-range transport from continents to the Arctic Ocean were limited during the observed period, suggesting that such low rBC concentration levels would prevail over the Arctic Ocean. An analysis of rBC mixing states showed that particles with a non-shell/core structure made a significant contribution to the rBC particles detected over the Arctic Ocean.

  9. Disciplinary reporting affects the interpretation of climate change impacts in global oceans.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Donna D W; Tobin, Elizabeth D; Feifel, Kirsten M; Shah, Vega; Pietri, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is affecting marine ecosystems, but different investigative approaches in physical, chemical, and biological disciplines may influence interpretations of climate-driven changes in the ocean. Here, we review the ocean change literature from 2007 to 2012 based on 461 of the most highly cited studies in physical and chemical oceanography and three biological subdisciplines. Using highly cited studies, we focus on research that has shaped recent discourse on climate-driven ocean change. Our review identified significant differences in spatial and temporal scales of investigation among disciplines. Physical/chemical studies had a median duration of 29 years (n = 150) and covered the greatest study areas (median 1.41 × 10(7) km(2) , n = 148). Few biological studies were conducted over similar spatial and temporal scales (median 8 years, n = 215; median 302 km(2) , n = 196), suggesting a more limited ability to separate climate-related responses from natural variability. We linked physical/chemical and biological disciplines by tracking studies examining biological responses to changing ocean conditions. Of the 545 biological responses recorded, a single physical or chemical stressor was usually implicated as the cause (59%), with temperature as the most common primary stressor (44%). The most frequently studied biological responses were changes in physiology (31%) and population abundance (30%). Differences in disciplinary studies, as identified in this review, can ultimately influence how researchers interpret climate-related impacts in marine systems. We identified research gaps and the need for more discourse in (1) the Indian and other Southern Hemisphere ocean basins; (2) research themes such as archaea, bacteria, viruses, mangroves, turtles, and ocean acidification; (3) physical and chemical stressors such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, and upwelling; and (4) adaptive responses of marine organisms to climate-driven ocean change. Our findings reveal

  10. Integration of NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Seafloor Mapping, Little Hercules ROV, and Sentry AUV Data into Ocean Exploration Operations and Public Data Holdings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; Skarke, A. D.; VerPlanck, N.

    2012-12-01

    ", the mapping team collects data not only during focused mapping operations, but also during all transits. Okeanos Explorer data are collected with regard to the Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Center's concept to "map once use many times", which aims to encourage and enable the multidisciplinary use of seafloor mapping data, including by the fields of marine archaeology, hydrographic mapping, extended continental shelf, biology, geology, geophysics, biopharmaceutical, ocean energy and resources, marine managed areas, fisheries, corals, oceanography, hazards modeling and assessments, education and outreach. To this end, all mapping, CTD and meteorology data sets collected by the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer are monitored and evaluated in the field for quality control purposes, and are made available through NOAA's public archives within 60 to 90 days of data collection, in useable formats and with associated metadata records. Additionally, all data sets collected by vehicles onboard the ship, including ROVs and AUVs, are made available directly following each cruise via NOAA's public archives.

  11. Anthropogenic processing of dust affects the oxygen content of the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Ito, Taka; Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Valett, Jackie; Deutsch, Curtis

    2015-04-01

    Observations from the last several decades show a significant expansion of the tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, the underlying causes remain elusive, as the currently accepted effects of ocean warming and associated solubility decease cannot fully explain the observed oxygen trend. Here we show that anthropogenic pollution can change the pattern of biological productivity and oxygen trends consistent with observations in the tropics and extratropics. These effects are caused by the mobilization of iron in mineral dust by pollutants, where it is transported and deposited to the HNLC regions of the tropical pacific affecting primary productivity and oxygen consumption by bacterial respiration. In this study, it is shown that pollution-mobilized iron deposited to high latitude oceanic environments can profoundly impact subsurface oxygen and the extent of the OMZ through long-range oceanic transport. Together with the intensification of tropical upwelling since the 1990s associated with natural climate variability, our results can explain the expansion of the OMZ in the tropical Pacific in the late twentieth century. Unlike climate variability, however, anthropogenic pollution likely influences the long-term trends in marine biogeochemistry and further alters regional productivity and subsurface oxygen distributions with profound implications for marine habitats and nitrate inventory of the oceans.

  12. Anthropogenic processing of dust affects the oxygen content of the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, A.; Ito, T.; Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Valett, J.; Deutsch, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the last several decades show a significant expansion of the tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, the underlying causes remain elusive, as the currently accepted effects of ocean warming and associated solubility decease cannot fully explain the observed oxygen trend. Here we show that anthropogenic pollution can change the pattern of biological productivity and oxygen trends consistent with observations in the tropics and extratropics. These effects are caused by the mobilization of iron in mineral dust by pollutants, where it is transported and deposited to the HNLC regions of the tropical pacific affecting primary productivity and oxygen consumption by bacterial respiration. In this study, it is shown that pollution-mobilized iron deposited to high latitude oceanic environments can profoundly impact subsurface oxygen and the extent of the OMZ through long-range oceanic transport. Together with the intensification of tropical upwelling since the 1990s associated with natural climate variability, our results can explain the expansion of the OMZ in the tropical Pacific in the late twentieth century. Unlike climate variability, however, anthropogenic pollution likely influences the long-term trends in marine biogeochemistry and further alters regional productivity and subsurface oxygen distributions with profound implications for marine habitats and nitrate inventory of the oceans.

  13. Study on the killing of oceanic harmful micro-organisms in ship's ballast water using oxygen active particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Meng, X. Y.; Bai, M. D.; Tian, Y. P.; Jing, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Global Environment Facility has identified that the spread of marine invasive alien species is one of the four major risk factors threatening the safety of global marine environments. Ballast water discharge is the main cause of biological invasion. With physical methods of strong electric field ionization discharge at atmospheric pressure, O2 and sea water (gaseous) were ionized, and then dissociated to a number of oxygen active particles (ROS) such as ·OH, O2+, H2O+, etc. ROS was injected into 0.6 t h-1 ballast water treatment system to form high concentration ROS solution in order to kill the harmful micro-organisms in ballast water. According to the land-based test standard of International Maritime Organization (IMO) Guidelines for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems (G8), this paper concludes that single-cell algae of 3.0 × 104 cell ml-1 and bacteria of 2.0 × 104 cfu ml-1 were killed by ROS solution of 2.0 ppm. Death rate could reach almost 100%. The results meet the requirements of Regulation D-2 of International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments completely.

  14. Eddy Covariance Measurements of Turbulent Fluxes of Atmospheric Aerosols From a Moving Ship From the Sea of Okhotsk to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griessbaum, F.; Narita, Y.; Held, A.; Klemm, O.; Uematsu, M.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies of emission and deposition of atmospheric aerosols employing the eddy covariance technique (EC) have been conducted in the terrestrial and marine boundary layer, the latter mainly limited to fixed platforms in the coastal domain. The captioned approach enables us to study the sinks and sources of atmospheric aerosols and their impact on the sea/air exchange of materials and on the direct and indirect radiation effect in the marine boundary layer from moving platforms, such as vessels. Measurements of atmospheric parameters from a ship are challenging especially due to the flow distortion caused by the ship's superstructure and the vessel's motions. It is known from recent work employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on the geometry of vessels, that the most suitable place for undistorted measurements is at the very bow and the most elevated location, commonly the foremast. For this reason, the entire eddy covariance instrumentation was fixed at the very top of the foremast, consisting of: sonic anemometer, condensation particle counter (CPC, from 5 nm particle diameter), fog droplet spectrometer (2 to 50 μm droplet diameter), CO{_2}/H{_2}O Analyser and an inertial sensing system. In order to operate the CPC also while the vessel is underway or in rough sea conditions, the max tilt angle (rolling and pitching) of the CPC was technically improved from 10° up to over 30°. This EC-measurement was conducted over the high primary productive region with high frequency of sea fog appearance during the cruise MR06-4 on R/V Mirai from Hokkaido, Japan, to the Chukchi Sea in Arctic Ocean, lasting from August 2 through September 29, 2006. Initial results will be presented and discussed.

  15. Shipping, Ships and Waterways: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit is designed to increase familiarity with various types of ships and purposes for different varieties of marine vessels. It seeks to increase familiarity with routes of ocean shipping and the effect of ocean conditions such as currents upon shipping route patterns. A discussion treats the uses of various navigation…

  16. Live Educational Outreach for Ocean Exploration: High-Bandwidth Ship-to-Shore Broadcasts Using Internet2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, D. F.; Ballard, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 3 field seasons, our group at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, in partnership with the Institute for Exploration and a number of educational institutions, has conducted a series of ocean exploration expeditions with a significant focus on educational outreach through "telepresence" - utilizing live transmissions of video, audio, and data streams across the Internet and Internet2. Our educational partners include Immersion Presents, Boys and Girls Clubs of America, the Jason Foundation for Education, and the National Geographic Society, all who provided partial funding for the expeditions. The primary funding agency each year was NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and our outreach efforts were conducted in collaboration with them. During each expedition, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) systems were employed to examine interesting geological and archaeological sites on the seafloor. These expeditions include the investigation of ancient shipwrecks in the Black Sea in 2003, a survey of the Titanic shipwreck site in 2004, and a detailed sampling and mapping effort at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field in 2005. High-definition video cameras on the ROVs collected the footage that was then digitally encoded, IP-encapsulated, and streamed across a satellite link to a shore-based hub, where the streams were redistributed. During each expedition, live half-hour-long educational broadcasts were produced 4 times per day for 10 days. These shows were distributed using satellite and internet technologies to a variety of venues, including museums, aquariums, science centers, public schools, and universities. In addition to the live broadcasts, educational products were developed to enhance the learning experience. These include activity modules and curriculum-based material for teachers and informal educators. Each educational partner also maintained a web site that followed the expedition and provided additional background information

  17. Deposition of 7Be to Bermuda and the regional ocean: Environmental factors affecting estimates of atmospheric flux to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadko, David; Prospero, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of 7Be in ocean surface waters is used as tracer of upper ocean transport and atmospheric deposition processes. However, there is very little ocean deposition data available to characterize the temporal and spatial input of 7Be to the oceans and test model results. Here we measure the deposition of 7Be in bulk collectors at two sites at Bermuda over a span of nearly 2 years (April 2007 to January 2009) and compare these rates to the flux required to sustain the inventory of 7Be measured in the nearby Sargasso Sea. The Tudor Hill collector site undersampled (by ˜40%) both the rainfall compared to other Bermuda sites and the 7Be flux required for the ocean inventory. On the other hand, the 7Be flux captured at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences station site (0.048 dpm cm-2 d-1) matched that expected from the ocean observations. Previously measured long-term atmospheric concentration of 7Be in surface air at Bermuda was used to estimate deposition velocities and scavenging ratios, and our estimates in this marine environment were found to be similar to those measured in continental regions. The deposition of 7Be to the oceans is overwhelmingly determined by wet processes; dry deposition to the ocean surface accounts for only a few percent, at most, of the total deposition to the ocean. We place these measurements in a longer-term and large-scale spatial context by using climatological rainfall data on Bermuda and ocean rainfall estimates from the Global Precipitation Climatology Program and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.

  18. Onboard ship evaluation of the effectiveness and the potential environmental effects of PERACLEAN Ocean for ballast water treatment in very cold conditions.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Y; Despatie, S-P; Veilleux, E; Wiley, C

    2009-02-01

    This study verified the effectiveness and the potential toxic impact of PERACLEAN Ocean ballast water treatment for very cold freshwater (0.1-0.5 degrees C) in real ballast tank (750 m(3)) conditions aboard a ship and in large-volume (4.5 m(3)) polyethylene tanks. Concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gradually dropped by 41-59% over 5 days. The treatment altered the quality of the treated waters by causing a pH drop of 0.9-1.3 units and a fourfold to sevenfold increase in dissolved organic carbon and organophosphates concentrations. More than 90% of the biomass of free-floating micro-organisms and viable phytoplankton were eliminated within 48 h after treatment. The treatment resulted in 100% mortality in caged fish exposed to treated waters but was totally ineffective against adult zebra mussels and some nematods living in tank sediments. Toxic response from ecotoxicological assays indicated that treated waters after 5 days should be diluted by a factor of 1:2 to 1:200 to reduce toxicity below selected endpoints of acute lethality tests. On the basis of PAA degradation rate, fresh waters treated with 100-ppm PERACLEAN Ocean should be kept in ballast tanks for 15-20 days after treatment to reduce toxicity. It is concluded that the treatment can be an effective biocide to rapidly eliminate organisms of the water column inside the ballast tanks over a wide range of environmental conditions, but that the discharge of the toxic treated waters should be properly managed to minimize potential environmental impact.

  19. Onboard ship evaluation of the effectiveness and the potential environmental effects of PERACLEAN Ocean for ballast water treatment in very cold conditions.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Y; Despatie, S-P; Veilleux, E; Wiley, C

    2009-02-01

    This study verified the effectiveness and the potential toxic impact of PERACLEAN Ocean ballast water treatment for very cold freshwater (0.1-0.5 degrees C) in real ballast tank (750 m(3)) conditions aboard a ship and in large-volume (4.5 m(3)) polyethylene tanks. Concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gradually dropped by 41-59% over 5 days. The treatment altered the quality of the treated waters by causing a pH drop of 0.9-1.3 units and a fourfold to sevenfold increase in dissolved organic carbon and organophosphates concentrations. More than 90% of the biomass of free-floating micro-organisms and viable phytoplankton were eliminated within 48 h after treatment. The treatment resulted in 100% mortality in caged fish exposed to treated waters but was totally ineffective against adult zebra mussels and some nematods living in tank sediments. Toxic response from ecotoxicological assays indicated that treated waters after 5 days should be diluted by a factor of 1:2 to 1:200 to reduce toxicity below selected endpoints of acute lethality tests. On the basis of PAA degradation rate, fresh waters treated with 100-ppm PERACLEAN Ocean should be kept in ballast tanks for 15-20 days after treatment to reduce toxicity. It is concluded that the treatment can be an effective biocide to rapidly eliminate organisms of the water column inside the ballast tanks over a wide range of environmental conditions, but that the discharge of the toxic treated waters should be properly managed to minimize potential environmental impact. PMID:18461552

  20. Seasonal time bombs: dominant temperate viruses affect Southern Ocean microbial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-02-01

    Rapid warming in the highly productive western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region of the Southern Ocean has affected multiple trophic levels, yet viral influences on microbial processes and ecosystem function remain understudied in the Southern Ocean. Here we use cultivation-independent quantitative ecological and metagenomic assays, combined with new comparative bioinformatic techniques, to investigate double-stranded DNA viruses during the WAP spring-summer transition. This study demonstrates that (i) temperate viruses dominate this region, switching from lysogeny to lytic replication as bacterial production increases, and (ii) Southern Ocean viral assemblages are genetically distinct from lower-latitude assemblages, primarily driven by this temperate viral dominance. This new information suggests fundamentally different virus-host interactions in polar environments, where intense seasonal changes in bacterial production select for temperate viruses because of increased fitness imparted by the ability to switch replication strategies in response to resource availability. Further, temperate viral dominance may provide mechanisms (for example, bacterial mortality resulting from prophage induction) that help explain observed temporal delays between, and lower ratios of, bacterial and primary production in polar versus lower-latitude marine ecosystems. Together these results suggest that temperate virus-host interactions are critical to predicting changes in microbial dynamics brought on by warming in polar marine systems.

  1. African dust carries microbes across the ocean: are they affecting human and ecosystem health?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric transport of dust from northwest Africa to the western Atlantic Ocean region may be responsible for a number of environmental hazards, including the demise of Caribbean corals; red tides; amphibian diseases; increased occurrence of asthma in humans; and oxygen depletion (eutrophication) in estuaries. Studies of satellite images suggest that hundreds of millions of tons of dust are trans-ported annually at relatively low altitudes across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean Sea and southeastern United States. The dust emanates from the expanding Sahara/Sahel desert region in Africa and carries a wide variety of bacteria and fungi. The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the NASA/Goddard Spaceflight Center, is conducting a study to identify microbes--bacteria, fungi, viruses--transported across the Atlantic in African soil dust. Each year, millions of tons of desert dust blow off the west African coast and ride the trade winds across the ocean, affecting the entire Caribbean basin, as well as the southeastern United States. Of the dust reaching the U.S., Florida receives about 50 percent, while the rest may range as far north as Maine or as far west as Colorado. The dust storms can be tracked by satellite and take about one week to cross the Atlantic.

  2. Seasonal time bombs: dominant temperate viruses affect Southern Ocean microbial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Jennifer R; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Rapid warming in the highly productive western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region of the Southern Ocean has affected multiple trophic levels, yet viral influences on microbial processes and ecosystem function remain understudied in the Southern Ocean. Here we use cultivation-independent quantitative ecological and metagenomic assays, combined with new comparative bioinformatic techniques, to investigate double-stranded DNA viruses during the WAP spring–summer transition. This study demonstrates that (i) temperate viruses dominate this region, switching from lysogeny to lytic replication as bacterial production increases, and (ii) Southern Ocean viral assemblages are genetically distinct from lower-latitude assemblages, primarily driven by this temperate viral dominance. This new information suggests fundamentally different virus–host interactions in polar environments, where intense seasonal changes in bacterial production select for temperate viruses because of increased fitness imparted by the ability to switch replication strategies in response to resource availability. Further, temperate viral dominance may provide mechanisms (for example, bacterial mortality resulting from prophage induction) that help explain observed temporal delays between, and lower ratios of, bacterial and primary production in polar versus lower-latitude marine ecosystems. Together these results suggest that temperate virus–host interactions are critical to predicting changes in microbial dynamics brought on by warming in polar marine systems. PMID:26296067

  3. Helicopter- and ship-based measurements of mesoscale ocean color and thermal features in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanis, Fred J.; Manley, Thomas O.; Mitchell, Brian G.

    1990-09-01

    Eddies along the Polar Front/Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) in Fram Strait are thought to make important contributions to nutrient flux and stimulation of primary productivity. During the Coordinated Eastern Arctic Regional Experiment (CEAREX) helicopter-based measurements of upwelling radiance were made in four visible spectral bands and in the thermal IR across mesoscale features associated with the MIZ. These structures were mapped by flying a grid pattern over the ocean surface to define eddy boundaries. Subsequently, the area was also sampled vertically with CTD and spectral radiometer profilers. Data obtained from a single structure were integrated to construct a three dimensional picture of physical and optical properties. Volume modeling of temperature, salinity, and density fields obtained from CTD survey define the subsurface eddy structure and are in good agreement with infrared derived characteristics. Maximum temperature in the core was found to be four degrees higher than the surrounding water. Volume modeling further indicates that a subsurface layer of Arctic Intermediate Water is intrinsically associated with the surface expression of the eddy. The ratio of upwelling radiances, L(44l)/L(565), was found to be correlated to surface chlorophyll, particulate absorption coefficient, and in water determinations of L using the optical profiling system. The remote sensing reflectance ratio along with the IR sea surface temperature were found to be useful to detect the surface expression of the eddy and to indicate near surface biological and physical processes.

  4. Ocean Acidification Affects the Phyto-Zoo Plankton Trophic Transfer Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Gemma; Flynn, Kevin J.; Lindeque, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    The critical role played by copepods in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry warrants an understanding of how these animals may respond to ocean acidification (OA). Whilst an appreciation of the potential direct effects of OA, due to elevated pCO2, on copepods is improving, little is known about the indirect impacts acting via bottom-up (food quality) effects. We assessed, for the first time, the chronic effects of direct and/or indirect exposures to elevated pCO2 on the behaviour, vital rates, chemical and biochemical stoichiometry of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Bottom-up effects of elevated pCO2 caused species-specific biochemical changes to the phytoplanktonic feed, which adversely affected copepod population structure and decreased recruitment by 30%. The direct impact of elevated pCO2 caused gender-specific respiratory responses in A.tonsa adults, stimulating an enhanced respiration rate in males (> 2-fold), and a suppressed respiratory response in females when coupled with indirect elevated pCO2 exposures. Under the combined indirect+direct exposure, carbon trophic transfer efficiency from phytoplankton-to-zooplankton declined to < 50% of control populations, with a commensurate decrease in recruitment. For the first time an explicit role was demonstrated for biochemical stoichiometry in shaping copepod trophic dynamics. The altered biochemical composition of the CO2-exposed prey affected the biochemical stoichiometry of the copepods, which could have ramifications for production of higher tropic levels, notably fisheries. Our work indicates that the control of phytoplankton and the support of higher trophic levels involving copepods have clear potential to be adversely affected under future OA scenarios. PMID:27082737

  5. Ocean Acidification Affects the Phyto-Zoo Plankton Trophic Transfer Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Gemma; Flynn, Kevin J; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2016-01-01

    The critical role played by copepods in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry warrants an understanding of how these animals may respond to ocean acidification (OA). Whilst an appreciation of the potential direct effects of OA, due to elevated pCO2, on copepods is improving, little is known about the indirect impacts acting via bottom-up (food quality) effects. We assessed, for the first time, the chronic effects of direct and/or indirect exposures to elevated pCO2 on the behaviour, vital rates, chemical and biochemical stoichiometry of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Bottom-up effects of elevated pCO2 caused species-specific biochemical changes to the phytoplanktonic feed, which adversely affected copepod population structure and decreased recruitment by 30%. The direct impact of elevated pCO2 caused gender-specific respiratory responses in A.tonsa adults, stimulating an enhanced respiration rate in males (> 2-fold), and a suppressed respiratory response in females when coupled with indirect elevated pCO2 exposures. Under the combined indirect+direct exposure, carbon trophic transfer efficiency from phytoplankton-to-zooplankton declined to < 50% of control populations, with a commensurate decrease in recruitment. For the first time an explicit role was demonstrated for biochemical stoichiometry in shaping copepod trophic dynamics. The altered biochemical composition of the CO2-exposed prey affected the biochemical stoichiometry of the copepods, which could have ramifications for production of higher tropic levels, notably fisheries. Our work indicates that the control of phytoplankton and the support of higher trophic levels involving copepods have clear potential to be adversely affected under future OA scenarios.

  6. Ocean Acidification Affects the Phyto-Zoo Plankton Trophic Transfer Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Gemma; Flynn, Kevin J; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2016-01-01

    The critical role played by copepods in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry warrants an understanding of how these animals may respond to ocean acidification (OA). Whilst an appreciation of the potential direct effects of OA, due to elevated pCO2, on copepods is improving, little is known about the indirect impacts acting via bottom-up (food quality) effects. We assessed, for the first time, the chronic effects of direct and/or indirect exposures to elevated pCO2 on the behaviour, vital rates, chemical and biochemical stoichiometry of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Bottom-up effects of elevated pCO2 caused species-specific biochemical changes to the phytoplanktonic feed, which adversely affected copepod population structure and decreased recruitment by 30%. The direct impact of elevated pCO2 caused gender-specific respiratory responses in A.tonsa adults, stimulating an enhanced respiration rate in males (> 2-fold), and a suppressed respiratory response in females when coupled with indirect elevated pCO2 exposures. Under the combined indirect+direct exposure, carbon trophic transfer efficiency from phytoplankton-to-zooplankton declined to < 50% of control populations, with a commensurate decrease in recruitment. For the first time an explicit role was demonstrated for biochemical stoichiometry in shaping copepod trophic dynamics. The altered biochemical composition of the CO2-exposed prey affected the biochemical stoichiometry of the copepods, which could have ramifications for production of higher tropic levels, notably fisheries. Our work indicates that the control of phytoplankton and the support of higher trophic levels involving copepods have clear potential to be adversely affected under future OA scenarios. PMID:27082737

  7. A Novel Ship-rocking Forecasting Method based on Hilbert- Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De-yong, Kang; Yu-jian, Li; Xu-liang, Wang; Zhi, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The ship-rocking is a crucial factor which affects the accuracy of the ocean-based aerospace vehicle measurement. Here we have analysed groups of ship-rocking time series in horizontal and vertical directions utilizing a Hilbert based method from statistical physics. Based on these results we could predict certain amount of future values of the ship-rocking time series based on the current and the previous values. Our predictions are as accurate as the conventional methods from stochastic processes and provide a much wider prediction time range.

  8. Factors affecting the occurrence and transport of atmospheric organochlorines in the China Sea and the northern Indian and South East Atlantic Oceans.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Li, Jun; Schuster, Jasmin; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong; Spiro, Baruch; Bhatia, Ravinder S; Dachs, Jordi; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-09-18

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are reported in 97 air samples collected on board the RV Polarstern in November 2007 from the equator to Cape Town, South Africa and the MV Oceanic II (The Scholar Ship) in January-March 2008 from Shanghai, China to Cape Verde in the Central Atlantic Ocean. The atmospheric concentrations were higher close to the coast and lower in remote regions of the Indian and South Atlantic Ocean. Groups of samples were selected in the South China Sea, Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean where the relative wind direction matched the trajectory of the ship, thus all the samples had the same input of sources upwind. In these three regions the concentrations of OCPs and PCBs declined during atmospheric transport following first order kinetics. These sets of measurements provided estimates of field derived residence times (FDRTs) for individual compounds. These values were compared with predicted atmospheric residence times (PARTs) computed using a model of long-range atmospheric transport potential of POPs. The FDRTs are 5-10 times longer for the more volatile PCB congeners and TC, CC, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE than the respective PARTs, while they are similar to PARTs for the less volatile compounds. Possible causes of discrepancies between PARTs and FDRTs are discussed, and revolatilization from the ocean surface seems to be the main cause for the higher values of FDRTs of the more volatile compounds in comparison with the respective PARTs.

  9. Ocean plankton. Environmental characteristics of Agulhas rings affect interocean plankton transport.

    PubMed

    Villar, Emilie; Farrant, Gregory K; Follows, Michael; Garczarek, Laurence; Speich, Sabrina; Audic, Stéphane; Bittner, Lucie; Blanke, Bruno; Brum, Jennifer R; Brunet, Christophe; Casotti, Raffaella; Chase, Alison; Dolan, John R; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Grima, Nicolas; Guidi, Lionel; Hill, Christopher N; Jahn, Oliver; Jamet, Jean-Louis; Le Goff, Hervé; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Malviya, Shruti; Pelletier, Eric; Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste; Roux, Simon; Santini, Sébastien; Scalco, Eleonora; Schwenck, Sarah M; Tanaka, Atsuko; Testor, Pierre; Vannier, Thomas; Vincent, Flora; Zingone, Adriana; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer; Boss, Emmanuel; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stéphane; Sullivan, Matthew B; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; Not, Fabrice; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele

    2015-05-22

    Agulhas rings provide the principal route for ocean waters to circulate from the Indo-Pacific to the Atlantic basin. Their influence on global ocean circulation is well known, but their role in plankton transport is largely unexplored. We show that, although the coarse taxonomic structure of plankton communities is continuous across the Agulhas choke point, South Atlantic plankton diversity is altered compared with Indian Ocean source populations. Modeling and in situ sampling of a young Agulhas ring indicate that strong vertical mixing drives complex nitrogen cycling, shaping community metabolism and biogeochemical signatures as the ring and associated plankton transit westward. The peculiar local environment inside Agulhas rings may provide a selective mechanism contributing to the limited dispersal of Indian Ocean plankton populations into the Atlantic.

  10. Ocean plankton. Environmental characteristics of Agulhas rings affect interocean plankton transport.

    PubMed

    Villar, Emilie; Farrant, Gregory K; Follows, Michael; Garczarek, Laurence; Speich, Sabrina; Audic, Stéphane; Bittner, Lucie; Blanke, Bruno; Brum, Jennifer R; Brunet, Christophe; Casotti, Raffaella; Chase, Alison; Dolan, John R; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Grima, Nicolas; Guidi, Lionel; Hill, Christopher N; Jahn, Oliver; Jamet, Jean-Louis; Le Goff, Hervé; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Malviya, Shruti; Pelletier, Eric; Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste; Roux, Simon; Santini, Sébastien; Scalco, Eleonora; Schwenck, Sarah M; Tanaka, Atsuko; Testor, Pierre; Vannier, Thomas; Vincent, Flora; Zingone, Adriana; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer; Boss, Emmanuel; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stéphane; Sullivan, Matthew B; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; Not, Fabrice; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele

    2015-05-22

    Agulhas rings provide the principal route for ocean waters to circulate from the Indo-Pacific to the Atlantic basin. Their influence on global ocean circulation is well known, but their role in plankton transport is largely unexplored. We show that, although the coarse taxonomic structure of plankton communities is continuous across the Agulhas choke point, South Atlantic plankton diversity is altered compared with Indian Ocean source populations. Modeling and in situ sampling of a young Agulhas ring indicate that strong vertical mixing drives complex nitrogen cycling, shaping community metabolism and biogeochemical signatures as the ring and associated plankton transit westward. The peculiar local environment inside Agulhas rings may provide a selective mechanism contributing to the limited dispersal of Indian Ocean plankton populations into the Atlantic. PMID:25999514

  11. Quality and physiological responses of two late-season sweet cherry cultivars 'Lapins' and 'Skeena' to modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during simulated long distance ocean shipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavor loss, skin darkening, pitting, splitting, pedicel browning, and decay are the major quality deteriorations in sweet cherries during storage/shipping. In this research, three modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) liners with varied gas permeability were evaluated for the effect on quality deteri...

  12. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies

  13. Identifying and tracking plumes affected by an ocean breeze in support of emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    To better support emergency preparedness, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear has investigated the frequency of occurrence of the mesoscale ocean breeze at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS). Through the analysis of the horizontal wind direction and temperature patterns, simple identification of the ocean breeze along with a plume tracking procedure has been developed and incorporated into the site's emergency plant to better safeguard the public with sophisticated protective action measures in case of a nonroutine release. The ocean breeze will frequently produce wind trajectory fields within the plant's emergency planning zone that are different from the normal gradient wind flow. This could greatly alter proper protective action measures since most utilities employ straight-line trajectory air dispersion models. Knowledge of the existence of the ocean breeze and the location of the ocean breeze front become important in the results generated from the straight-line Gaussian dose calculation methodology and in the further development of a more complex dose assessment model. This paper describes the verification and existence of the sea breeze phenomenon and the incorporation of its effects into the OCNGS emergency plan.

  14. Phytoplankton behavior affects ocean mixed layer dynamics through biological-physical feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, S.; Hense, I.

    2011-08-01

    Biologically induced changes in physical oceanic properties through phytoplankton provide potential positive and negative feedback loops. In particular, surface floating cyanobacteria, which are expected to be favored from future environmental conditions and can form large surface mats, can increase light absorption and the surface albedo and decrease momentum input from the atmosphere by wind. In this work we study the effect of a changing phytoplankton community composition to one dominated by buoyant cyanobacteria on the physical oceanic properties. We use the water column model General Ocean Turbulence Model and set up an idealized biological model taking into account the phytoplankton species' characteristics as well as the effects of biology on physics. The model results show that an increase of buoyant cyanobacteria leads to substantial changes in the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer. The results furthermore indicate that the effects due to altered absorption and biologically induced reduction of the wind drag are larger than contrary effects due to changes in the surface albedo. Overall, our model results suggest that the development of cyanobacterial surface blooms and their feedbacks on light absorption and wind drag need to be taken into account in ocean models used for climate scenarios in order to capture changes in the dynamics of the upper ocean.

  15. Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: how changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota.

    PubMed

    Constable, Andrew J; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Corney, Stuart P; Arrigo, Kevin R; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnes, David K A; Bindoff, Nathaniel L; Boyd, Philip W; Brandt, Angelika; Costa, Daniel P; Davidson, Andrew T; Ducklow, Hugh W; Emmerson, Louise; Fukuchi, Mitsuo; Gutt, Julian; Hindell, Mark A; Hofmann, Eileen E; Hosie, Graham W; Iida, Takahiro; Jacob, Sarah; Johnston, Nadine M; Kawaguchi, So; Kokubun, Nobuo; Koubbi, Philippe; Lea, Mary-Anne; Makhado, Azwianewi; Massom, Rob A; Meiners, Klaus; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Nicol, Stephen; Reid, Keith; Richerson, Kate; Riddle, Martin J; Rintoul, Stephen R; Smith, Walker O; Southwell, Colin; Stark, Jonathon S; Sumner, Michael; Swadling, Kerrie M; Takahashi, Kunio T; Trathan, Phil N; Welsford, Dirk C; Weimerskirch, Henri; Westwood, Karen J; Wienecke, Barbara C; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Wright, Simon W; Xavier, Jose C; Ziegler, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Antarctic and Southern Ocean (ASO) marine ecosystems have been changing for at least the last 30 years, including in response to increasing ocean temperatures and changes in the extent and seasonality of sea ice; the magnitude and direction of these changes differ between regions around Antarctica that could see populations of the same species changing differently in different regions. This article reviews current and expected changes in ASO physical habitats in response to climate change. It then reviews how these changes may impact the autecology of marine biota of this polar region: microbes, zooplankton, salps, Antarctic krill, fish, cephalopods, marine mammals, seabirds, and benthos. The general prognosis for ASO marine habitats is for an overall warming and freshening, strengthening of westerly winds, with a potential pole-ward movement of those winds and the frontal systems, and an increase in ocean eddy activity. Many habitat parameters will have regionally specific changes, particularly relating to sea ice characteristics and seasonal dynamics. Lower trophic levels are expected to move south as the ocean conditions in which they are currently found move pole-ward. For Antarctic krill and finfish, the latitudinal breadth of their range will depend on their tolerance of warming oceans and changes to productivity. Ocean acidification is a concern not only for calcifying organisms but also for crustaceans such as Antarctic krill; it is also likely to be the most important change in benthic habitats over the coming century. For marine mammals and birds, the expected changes primarily relate to their flexibility in moving to alternative locations for food and the energetic cost of longer or more complex foraging trips for those that are bound to breeding colonies. Few species are sufficiently well studied to make comprehensive species-specific vulnerability assessments possible. Priorities for future work are discussed.

  16. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  17. Ship Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  18. Ocean acidification affects fish spawning but not paternity at CO2 seeps.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Marco; Cattano, Carlo; Alonzo, Suzanne H; Foggo, Andrew; Gristina, Michele; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Sinopoli, Mauro; Spatafora, Davide; Stiver, Kelly A; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2016-07-27

    Fish exhibit impaired sensory function and altered behaviour at levels of ocean acidification expected to occur owing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions during this century. We provide the first evidence of the effects of ocean acidification on reproductive behaviour of fish in the wild. Satellite and sneaker male ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) compete to fertilize eggs guarded by dominant nesting males. Key mating behaviours such as dominant male courtship and nest defence did not differ between sites with ambient versus elevated CO2 concentrations. Dominant males did, however, experience significantly lower rates of pair spawning at elevated CO2 levels. Despite the higher risk of sperm competition found at elevated CO2, we also found a trend of lower satellite and sneaker male paternity at elevated CO2 Given the importance of fish for food security and ecosystem stability, this study highlights the need for targeted research into the effects of rising CO2 levels on patterns of reproduction in wild fish.

  19. Climatic, tectonic, and biological factors affecting the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans: Implications for Phanerozoic O2 evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, K.; Tajika, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's atmosphere and oceans have seen fundamental changes in its oxidation state in response to the climatic, tectonic and geochemical variations. Over the past decade, several geochemical proxies have led to significant progress in understanding the paleredox states of ancient oceans. However, a quantitative interpretation of these data for atmospheric O2 levels remain unclear because the relationship between atmospheric O2 levels (pO2) and oceanic redox state depends on several environmental factors, such as terrestrial weathering rate, sea-level stands, and sinking rate of particulate organic matter (POM) in the water column and so on. It is widely thought that the redox-dependent P cycling also plays a crucial role in regulating pO2 because it acts as a negative feedback on a geological timescale. It is important that strength of this feedback for a given pO2 is also modulated by environmental factors, affecting not only O2 levels at steady state but also its susceptibility to environmental changes. In this study, a quantitative role of environmental factors in the oxidation state of Earth's surface environment is evaluated with an oceanic biogeochemical cycle model (CANOPS) coupled with global C cycle model, which enables us to understand the ancient CO2 and O2 evolution. Our results demonstrate that atmospheric O2 level at steady state is affected by CO2 input flux from Earth's interior via changes in biogeochemical cycles, but its response is modulated by several internal factors such as shelf area and POM sinking rate. We also found that early Paleozoic atmospheric O2 levels before the advent of land plant would be determined so that oceans may locate at the "edge of anoxia (EoA)" where the redox-dependency of marine P cycle plays a crucial role in regulating O2 cycle, and that POM sinking rate has a great impact on the EoA. Our findings provide insights into the O2 cycle over the Phanerozoic in response to the climatic and tectonic variations and

  20. Optical influence of ship wakes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Lewis, Marlon; Bissett, W Paul; Johnson, Bruce; Kohler, Dave

    2004-05-20

    The optical variations observed within ship wakes are largely due to the generation of copious amounts of air bubbles in the upper ocean, a fraction of which accumulate as foam at the surface, where they release scavenged surfactants. Field experiments were conducted to test previous theoretical predictions of the variations in optical properties that result from bubble injection in the surface ocean. Variations in remote-sensing reflectance and size distribution of bubbles within the ship-wake zone were determined in three different optical water types: the clear equatorial Pacific Ocean, moderately turbid coastal waters, and very turbid coastal waters, the latter two of which were offshore of New Jersey. Bubbles introduced by moving vessels increased the backscattering in all cases, which in turn enhanced the reflectance over the entire visible and infrared wave bands. The elevated reflectance had different spectral characteristics in the three locations. The color of ship wakes appears greener in the open ocean, whereas little change in color was observed in near-coastal turbid waters, consistent with predictions. Colorless themselves, bubbles increase the reflected radiance and change the color of the ocean in a way that depends on the spectral backscattering and absorption of the undisturbed background waters. For remote observation from aircraft or satellite, the foam and added surfactants further enhance the reflectance to a degree dependent on the illumination and the viewing geometry.

  1. Ocean Acidification Affects Hemocyte Physiology in the Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi).

    PubMed

    Meseck, Shannon L; Alix, Jennifer H; Swiney, Katherine M; Long, W Christopher; Wikfors, Gary H; Foy, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    We used flow cytometry to determine if there would be a difference in hematology, selected immune functions, and hemocyte pH (pHi), under two different, future ocean acidification scenarios (pH = 7.50, 7.80) compared to current conditions (pH = 8.09) for Chionoecetes bairdi, Tanner crab. Hemocytes were analyzed after adult Tanner crabs were held for two years under continuous exposure to acidified ocean water. Total counts of hemocytes did not vary among control and experimental treatments; however, there were significantly greater number of dead, circulating hemocytes in crabs held at the lowest pH treatment. Phagocytosis of fluorescent microbeads by hemocytes was greatest at the lowest pH treatment. These results suggest that hemocytes were dying, likely by apoptosis, at a rate faster than upregulated phagocytosis was able to remove moribund cells from circulation at the lowest pH. Crab hemolymph pH (pHe) averaged 8.09 and did not vary among pH treatments. There was no significant difference in internal pH (pHi) within hyalinocytes among pH treatments and the mean pHi (7.26) was lower than the mean pHe. In contrast, there were significant differences among treatments in pHi of the semi-granular+granular cells. Control crabs had the highest mean semi-granular+granular pHi compared to the lowest pH treatment. As physiological hemocyte functions changed from ambient conditions, interactions with the number of eggs in the second clutch, percentage of viable eggs, and calcium concentration in the adult crab shell was observed. This suggested that the energetic costs of responding to ocean acidification and maintaining defense mechanisms in Tanner crab may divert energy from other physiological processes, such as reproduction.

  2. Ocean Acidification Affects Hemocyte Physiology in the Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi)

    PubMed Central

    Meseck, Shannon L.; Alix, Jennifer H.; Swiney, Katherine M.; Long, W. Christopher; Wikfors, Gary H.; Foy, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    We used flow cytometry to determine if there would be a difference in hematology, selected immune functions, and hemocyte pH (pHi), under two different, future ocean acidification scenarios (pH = 7.50, 7.80) compared to current conditions (pH = 8.09) for Chionoecetes bairdi, Tanner crab. Hemocytes were analyzed after adult Tanner crabs were held for two years under continuous exposure to acidified ocean water. Total counts of hemocytes did not vary among control and experimental treatments; however, there were significantly greater number of dead, circulating hemocytes in crabs held at the lowest pH treatment. Phagocytosis of fluorescent microbeads by hemocytes was greatest at the lowest pH treatment. These results suggest that hemocytes were dying, likely by apoptosis, at a rate faster than upregulated phagocytosis was able to remove moribund cells from circulation at the lowest pH. Crab hemolymph pH (pHe) averaged 8.09 and did not vary among pH treatments. There was no significant difference in internal pH (pHi) within hyalinocytes among pH treatments and the mean pHi (7.26) was lower than the mean pHe. In contrast, there were significant differences among treatments in pHi of the semi-granular+granular cells. Control crabs had the highest mean semi-granular+granular pHi compared to the lowest pH treatment. As physiological hemocyte functions changed from ambient conditions, interactions with the number of eggs in the second clutch, percentage of viable eggs, and calcium concentration in the adult crab shell was observed. This suggested that the energetic costs of responding to ocean acidification and maintaining defense mechanisms in Tanner crab may divert energy from other physiological processes, such as reproduction. PMID:26859148

  3. Shipping Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Through a SBIR contract between Kennedy Space Center and Silicon Designs, came the tri-axial data acquisition system, known commercially as the G-Logger. It is a portable, self-contained device that stores and analyzes shock, vibration, and temperature data during payload transport. It is sealed for protection from the weather and can be left unattended for up to three weeks as it collects data. It can easily be linked with any desktop or laptop computer in order to download the collected data. It serves uses in the automotive, shipping, aerospace, and machining industries.

  4. Geologic and societal factors affecting the international oceanic transport of aggregate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregate, and together comprise approximately half the volume and tonnage of mined material in the United States. Natural aggregate is a bulky, heavy material without special or unique properties, and it is commonly used near its source of production to minimize haulage cost. However, remoteness is no longer an absolute disqualifier for the production of aggregate. Today interstate aggregate routinely is shipped hundreds of kilometers by rail and barge. In addition, during 1992, the United States imported 1,317,000 metric tons of aggregate from Canada and 1,531,000 metric tons from Mexico. A number of ports on the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States receive imports of crushed stone from foreign sources for transport to various parts of the eastern United States. These areas either lack adequate supplies of aggregate or are augmenting their supplies because they have difficulties meeting current demand. These difficulties may include poor stone quality, environmental permitting problems, or transportation. Certain societal and geologic conditions of New York City and Philadelphia along the Atlantic Coast, and Tampa and New Orleans along the Gulf Coast, are discussed to demonstrate the different combinations of issues that contribute to the economic viability of importing crushed stone. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  5. Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program. The VOS project is coordinated by the UNESCO International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP). The international groups from 14 countries have been outfitting research ships and commercial vessels with automated CO2 sampling equipment to analyze the carbon exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. [copied from http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/genInfo.html] CDIAC provides a map interface with the shipping routes of the 14 countries involved marked in different colors. Clicking on the ship's name on that route brings up information about the vessel, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, and, most important, the links to the data files themselves. The 14 countries are: United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Australia, Canada, Spain, Norway, New Zealand, China (including Taiwan), Iceland, and the Netherlands. Both archived and current, underway data can be accessed from the CDIAC VOS page.

  6. Climatic and anthropogenic factors affecting river discharge to the global ocean, 1951-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milliman, John D.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Jones, P.D.; Xu, K.H.; Smith, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century, cumulative annual discharge from 137 representative rivers (watershed areas ranging from 0.3 to 6300 ?? 103??km2) to the global ocean remained constant, although annual discharge from about one-third of these rivers changed by more than 30%. Discharge trends for many rivers reflected mostly changes in precipitation, primarily in response to short- and longer-term atmospheric-oceanic signals; with the notable exception of the Parana, Mississippi, Niger and Cunene rivers, few of these "normal" rivers experienced significant changes in either discharge or precipitation. Cumulative discharge from many mid-latitude rivers, in contrast, decreased by 60%, reflecting in large part impacts due to damming, irrigation and interbasin water transfers. A number of high-latitude and high-altitude rivers experienced increased discharge despite generally declining precipitation. Poorly constrained meteorological and hydrological data do not seem to explain fully these "excess" rivers; changed seasonality in discharge, decreased storage and/or decreased evapotranspiration also may play important roles. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocean acidification affects fish spawning but not paternity at CO2 seeps.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Marco; Cattano, Carlo; Alonzo, Suzanne H; Foggo, Andrew; Gristina, Michele; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Sinopoli, Mauro; Spatafora, Davide; Stiver, Kelly A; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2016-07-27

    Fish exhibit impaired sensory function and altered behaviour at levels of ocean acidification expected to occur owing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions during this century. We provide the first evidence of the effects of ocean acidification on reproductive behaviour of fish in the wild. Satellite and sneaker male ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) compete to fertilize eggs guarded by dominant nesting males. Key mating behaviours such as dominant male courtship and nest defence did not differ between sites with ambient versus elevated CO2 concentrations. Dominant males did, however, experience significantly lower rates of pair spawning at elevated CO2 levels. Despite the higher risk of sperm competition found at elevated CO2, we also found a trend of lower satellite and sneaker male paternity at elevated CO2 Given the importance of fish for food security and ecosystem stability, this study highlights the need for targeted research into the effects of rising CO2 levels on patterns of reproduction in wild fish. PMID:27466451

  8. Ocean acidification affects competition for space: projections of community structure using cellular automata.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sophie J; Allesina, Stefano; Pfister, Catherine A

    2016-03-16

    Historical ecological datasets from a coastal marine community of crustose coralline algae (CCA) enabled the documentation of ecological changes in this community over 30 years in the Northeast Pacific. Data on competitive interactions obtained from field surveys showed concordance between the 1980s and 2013, yet also revealed a reduction in how strongly species interact. Here, we extend these empirical findings with a cellular automaton model to forecast ecological dynamics. Our model suggests the emergence of a new dominant competitor in a global change scenario, with a reduced role of herbivory pressure, or trophic control, in regulating competition among CCA. Ocean acidification, due to its energetic demands, may now instead play this role in mediating competitive interactions and thereby promote species diversity within this guild.

  9. Oceanic acidification affects marine carbon pump and triggers extended marine oxygen holes.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Matthias; Schellnhuber, Hans-Joachim

    2009-03-01

    Rising atmospheric CO(2) levels will not only drive future global mean temperatures toward values unprecedented during the whole Quaternary but will also lead to massive acidification of sea water. This constitutes by itself an anthropogenic planetary-scale perturbation that could significantly modify oceanic biogeochemical fluxes and severely damage marine biota. As a step toward the quantification of such potential impacts, we present here a simulation-model-based assessment of the respective consequences of a business-as-usual fossil-fuel-burning scenario where a total of 4,075 Petagrams of carbon is released into the atmosphere during the current millennium. In our scenario, the atmospheric pCO(2) level peaks at approximately 1,750 microatm in the year 2200 while the sea-surface pH value drops by >0.7 units on global average, inhibiting the growth of marine calcifying organisms. The study focuses on quantifying 3 major concomitant effects. The first one is a significant (climate-stabilizing) negative feedback on rising pCO(2) levels as caused by the attenuation of biogenic calcification. The second one is related to the biological carbon pump. Because mineral ballast, notably CaCO(3), is found to play a dominant role in carrying organic matter through the water column, a reduction of its export fluxes weakens the strength of the biological carbon pump. There is, however, a third effect with severe consequences: Because organic matter is oxidized in shallow waters when mineral-ballast fluxes weaken, oxygen holes (hypoxic zones) start to expand considerably in the oceans in our model world--with potentially harmful impacts on a variety of marine ecosystems.

  10. Will ocean acidification affect the early ontogeny of a tropical oviparous elasmobranch (Hemiscyllium ocellatum)?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Martijn S.; Kraver, Daniel W.; Renshaw, Gillian M. C.; Rummer, Jodie L.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is increasing due to anthropogenic causes. Approximately 30% of this CO2 is being absorbed by the oceans and is causing ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on calcifying organisms are starting to be understood, but less is known about the effects on non-calcifying organisms, notably elasmobranchs. One of the few elasmobranch species that has been studied with respect to OA is the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum. Mature epaulette sharks can physiologically and behaviourally tolerate prolonged exposure to elevated CO2, and this is thought to be because they are routinely exposed to diurnal decreases in O2 and probably concomitant increases in CO2 in their coral reef habitats. It follows that H. ocellatum embryos, while developing in ovo on the reefs, would have to be equally if not more tolerant than adults because they would not be able to escape such conditions. Epaulette shark eggs were exposed to either present-day control conditions (420 µatm) or elevated CO2 (945 µatm) and observed every 3 days from 10 days post-fertilization until 30 days post-hatching. Growth (in square centimetres per day), yolk usage (as a percentage), tail oscillations (per minute), gill movements (per minute) and survival were not significantly different in embryos reared in control conditions when compared with those reared in elevated CO2 conditions. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of investigating early life-history stages, as the consequences are expected to transfer not only to the success of an individual but also to populations and their distribution patterns. PMID:27293755

  11. Ship-Track Clouds, Aerosol, and Ship Dynamic Effects; A Climate Perspective from Ship-Based Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.M.

    1998-10-13

    Ship-track clouds are marine boundary layer clouds that form behind ocean ships and are observed from satellites in the visible and near infrared. Ship-track clouds provide a rare opportunity to connect aerosol cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) emissions and observable changes in marine stratiform clouds. A very small change in the reflectivity of these eastern Pacific and Atlantic clouds (about 4%) provides a climate feedback of similar magnitude to doubling CO{sub 2} (increasing cloud reflectivity corresponds to global cooling). The Department of Energy sponsored research from 1991 to 1995 to study ship-track clouds including two ocean-based experiments in the summers of 1991 and 1994. These experiments showed that ship-track cloud properties were often more complex those related to a reduction of droplet size with an increase in number associated with increasing CCN from the ship's plume. The clouds showed evidence of morphological changes more likely to be associated with cloud dynamic effects either initiated by the increased CCN or directly by the ship's heat output or turbulent air wake. The fact that marine stratiform clouds, that are susceptible to ship track formation, are starved for both CCN and convective turbulence complicates the separation of the two effects.

  12. Sea surface temperature fronts affect distribution of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chen-Te; Sun, Chi-Lu; Belkin, Igor M.; Yeh, Su-Zan; Kuo, Chin-Lau; Liu, Don-Chung

    2014-09-01

    Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) is an important fisheries resource and commercial species of Taiwanese deep-sea saury stick-held dip net fishery in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. In this study, the logbook data of a 3-year (2006-2008) Taiwanese Pacific saury fishery and corresponding satellite-derived MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) data were analyzed to detect SST fronts and examine their influence on the spatio-temporal distribution of Pacific saury. The fronts were identified by the Cayula-Cornillon single-image edge detection algorithm. The results show that low frequency of SST fronts is associated with lower CPUEs during the early fishing season (June-August), while high frequency of SST fronts is associated with higher CPUEs during the peak fishing season. When fishing locations of Pacific saury are close to the SST fronts, higher CPUEs are observed. Results of this study provide a better understanding of how SST fronts influence distribution of Pacific saury and improve the basis of fishing ground forecasting.

  13. Coral and mollusc resistance to ocean acidification adversely affected by warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Houlbrèque, F.; Tambutté, É.; Boisson, F.; Baggini, C.; Patti, F. P.; Jeffree, R.; Fine, M.; Foggo, A.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are expectedto decrease surface ocean pH by 0.3-0.5 units by 2100 (refs , ), lowering the carbonate ion concentration of surfacewaters. This rapid acidification is predicted to dramatically decrease calcification in many marine organisms. Reduced skeletal growth under increased CO2 levels has already been shown for corals, molluscs and many other marine organisms. The impact of acidification on the ability of individual species to calcify has remained elusive, however, as measuring net calcification fails to disentangle the relative contributions of gross calcification and dissolution rates on growth. Here, we show that corals and molluscs transplanted along gradients of carbonate saturation state at Mediterranean CO2 vents are able to calcify and grow at even faster than normal rates when exposed to the high CO2 levels projected for the next 300 years. Calcifiers remain at risk, however, owing to the dissolution of exposed shells and skeletons that occurs as pH levels fall. Our results show that tissues and external organic layers play a major role in protecting shells and skeletons from corrosive sea water, limiting dissolution and allowing organisms to calcify. Our combined field and laboratory results demonstrate that the adverse effects of global warming are exacerbated when high temperatures coincide with acidification.

  14. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  15. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m-2 s-1) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36–60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA. PMID:26938454

  16. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA. PMID:26938454

  17. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA.

  18. Ships and shipping: a comprehensive guide

    SciTech Connect

    Nersesian, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to petroleum industry ships and shipping is presented. The world fleet is discussed, along with forecasting tanker demand and shipping economics. In addition, tankers, liquefied gas carriers, general cargo and container vessels, bulk carriers, and combination carriers are discussed. (JMT)

  19. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  20. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  1. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  2. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  3. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  4. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  5. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  7. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  8. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  10. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  11. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  12. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  13. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  14. Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a Cruise Ship Discharge Assessment Report in response to a petition the agency received in March 2000. The petition requested that EPA assess and where necessary control discharges from cruise ships. Comments received during public hearings, in 2000, resulted in the EPA agreeing to conduct a survey to assess the discharge plumes resulting from cruise ships, operating in ocean waters off the Florida coast and to compare the results to the Alaska dispersion models. This survey report describes the daily activities of August 2001 Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey, and provides a synopsis of the observations from the survey. It also provides data that can be used to assess dispersion of cruise ship wastewater discharges, while in transit. A description of the survey methods is provided in Section 2. Survey results are presented in Section 3. Findings and conclusions are discussed in Section 4.

  15. Infrared imaging simulation and detection of ship wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Chen, Xuan; Chang, Shizheng; Xu, Enchi; Wang, Xingyu; Wang, Ye; Zhao, Xiaolong; Du, Yongchen; Kou, Wei; Fan, Chunli

    2015-10-01

    The thermal wake would be formed owing to the cooling water or exhaust heat discharged by ship, and the cold wake could be formed by the cool water in the lower part of sea stirred up by the ship propeller or vortexes. Owing to the difference of surface temperature and emissivity between the ship wake and the surrounding ocean the ship wake will be easily detected by the infrared detecting system. The wave of wake also could be detected by the difference of reflected radiance between the background and the Kelvin wake of ship. In this paper the simulating models of infrared imaging of ship wake are developed based on the selfradiation of wake, the reflected radiance of the sky and sun and the transmitted radiance of atmosphere, and the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are investigated. The results show that the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake can be really simulated by the models proposed in this paper. The effects of the detecting height, the angle of view, the NETD of detector and the temperature of wake on the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are studied. The temperature difference between the ship wake and surrounding ocean is a main fact which effects on the detecting distance. The infrared imaging signatures of ship wake in 8-14μm wave band is stronger than that in 2-5μm wave band whenever the temperature of ship wake is warmer or cooler than the surrounding ocean. Further, the infrared imaging of thermal wake is investigated in the homogenous water and temperature stratified water at different speed of a ship and different flow rate and depth of the discharged water in a water tank. The spreading and decaying laws of infrared signature of ship wake are obtained experimentally. The results obtained in this paper have an important application in the infrared remote sensing of ship wake.

  16. Estimation Of The Average Velocity Of Ship(s) Using Multi Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, N.; Ali, M. M.; Rao, M. V.; Ramana, I. V.

    IRS_P4 (OCM) and NOAA-AVHRR are ocean sensors. These sensors have variety of applications besides being used for retrieval of ocean parameters like chlorophyll, suspended matter, dissolved organic matter Sea surface temperature (SST) and Identification of Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ). Apart from this an attempt has been made to track the ship(s) and estimated its velocity. It is important to keep the track of the ship movement and velocity for surveillance of oil tankers and large vessels, ply in the shipping routes for possible assessment of oil spill and defense applications. The ships while moving uses fossil fuel and release their exhaust in the form of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas. This Sulfur dioxide when comes in contact with water vapour, leads to the formation of Sulfate Aerosol's. These aerosol's act as the nuclei or 'seeds', these nuclei are called as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), around which cloud droplets take shape and together these droplets form clouds. Narrow lines of perturbed regions in marine stratiform clouds, caused by moving ships, appear brighter in satellite imagery. They can also appear as narrow lines of clouds in an otherwise cloud-free sky. Ship tracks are the long lived cloud lines that are formed from ship exhaust. The track of large ships is sometimes visualized as a trail, known as ship track. These are typically very long even 500km sometimes, i.e. long enough to be seen in Satellite imagery. These tracks formed in marine boundary layers that were between 300 to 750m height, high relative humidity, small Air-Sea temperature difference (0.5°C), moderate winds (average of 7 m/s) (Durkee et.al 2000).These tracks directly scattering solar radiation back to space and increasing cloud reflectivity through increased droplet concentrations, these clouds reflect much more solar energy than the ocean surface. In Infra red (IR) region the reflectance of the cloud is more compared with visual Bands, and thus we get ship track information

  17. Improving Ship Detection with Polarimetric SAR based on Convolution between Co-polarization Channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; He, Yijun; Wang, Wenguang

    2009-01-01

    The convolution between co-polarization amplitude only data is studied to improve ship detection performance. The different statistical behaviors of ships and surrounding ocean are characterized a by two-dimensional convolution function (2D-CF) between different polarization channels. The convolution value of the ocean decreases relative to initial data, while that of ships increases. Therefore the contrast of ships to ocean is increased. The opposite variation trend of ocean and ships can distinguish the high intensity ocean clutter from ships' signatures. The new criterion can generally avoid mistaken detection by a constant false alarm rate detector. Our new ship detector is compared with other polarimetric approaches, and the results confirm the robustness of the proposed method.

  18. Ocean acidification affects redox-balance and ion-homeostasis in the life-cycle stages of Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Rokitta, Sebastian D; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO(2) partial pressures (pCO(2); 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO(2)) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be

  19. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.

    2005-12-01

    In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to

  20. Ocean Acidification Affects Redox-Balance and Ion-Homeostasis in the Life-Cycle Stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Rokitta, Sebastian D.; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO2 partial pressures (pCO2; 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO2) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be attributed

  1. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Isakbaeva, Elmira T; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Beard, R Suzanne; Bulens, Sandra N; Mullins, James; Monroe, Stephan S; Bresee, Joseph; Sassano, Patricia; Cramer, Elaine H; Glass, Roger I

    2005-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis affected passengers on two consecutive cruises of ship X and continued on 4 subsequent cruises despite a 1-week sanitization. We documented transmission by food and person-to-person contact; persistence of virus despite sanitization onboard, including introductions of new strains; and seeding of an outbreak on land.

  2. Hydrographic Processes Driven by Seasonal Monsoon System Affect Siphonophore Assemblages in Tropical-Subtropical Waters (Western North Pacific Ocean)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Tseng; Yu, Shwu-Feng; Hsieh, Hung-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This work is a part of the Taiwan Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation, the first large scale hydrographic and plankton survey around Taiwan (21–26°N, 119–123°E). The present study examined the influence of hydrodynamic and biological variables driven by monsoon system on the siphonophore assemblages through an annual cycle in 2004. Calycophorans, namely Chelophyes appendiculata, Diphyes chamissonis, Lensia subtiloides, Bassia bassensis, and Muggiaea atlantica, were the most dominant siphonophore species. Maximum abundance of these dominant species generally occurred during the warm period (May and August), while M. atlantica had a significantly peak abundance in February. Although no apparently temporal difference in siphonophore abundance was observed in the study, siphonophore assemblage was more diverse in August than in other sampling times. Result of a cluster analysis indicated that assemblage structure of siphonophores in the waters around Taiwan varied at temporal and spatial scales during the sampling period. The intrusions of the Kuroshio Branch Current and China Coastal Current to the study area play an important role on the transportation of siphonophores. Also, the distribution of siphonophore assemblage was closely related to the hydrographic characteristics, with temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, and zooplankton abundance being the major environmental factors affecting the spatio-temporal variability of siphonophores. This study contributes substantially to the new knowledge of the siphonophore assemblage in the tropical-temperate waters of Taiwan. PMID:24932727

  3. Hydrographic processes driven by seasonal monsoon system affect siphonophore assemblages in tropical-subtropical waters (western North Pacific Ocean).

    PubMed

    Lo, Wen-Tseng; Yu, Shwu-Feng; Hsieh, Hung-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This work is a part of the Taiwan Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation, the first large scale hydrographic and plankton survey around Taiwan (21-26°N, 119-123°E). The present study examined the influence of hydrodynamic and biological variables driven by monsoon system on the siphonophore assemblages through an annual cycle in 2004. Calycophorans, namely Chelophyes appendiculata, Diphyes chamissonis, Lensia subtiloides, Bassia bassensis, and Muggiaea atlantica, were the most dominant siphonophore species. Maximum abundance of these dominant species generally occurred during the warm period (May and August), while M. atlantica had a significantly peak abundance in February. Although no apparently temporal difference in siphonophore abundance was observed in the study, siphonophore assemblage was more diverse in August than in other sampling times. Result of a cluster analysis indicated that assemblage structure of siphonophores in the waters around Taiwan varied at temporal and spatial scales during the sampling period. The intrusions of the Kuroshio Branch Current and China Coastal Current to the study area play an important role on the transportation of siphonophores. Also, the distribution of siphonophore assemblage was closely related to the hydrographic characteristics, with temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, and zooplankton abundance being the major environmental factors affecting the spatio-temporal variability of siphonophores. This study contributes substantially to the new knowledge of the siphonophore assemblage in the tropical-temperate waters of Taiwan. PMID:24932727

  4. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguíluz, Victor M.; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  5. East meets West: Differing views of the Aleutian Low's role in affecting Holocene productivity in the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, J. A.; Finney, B. P.; Harada, N.

    2012-12-01

    Modern instrumental and monitoring observations indicate strong multi-decadal changes and spatial heterogeneities affect climate and marine ecosystems in the North Pacific Ocean. Networks of high-resolution paleoclimate archives from this dynamic region are therefore required to describe changes prior to historical records. We present new decadally-resolved marine sediment core data from the Kuril Islands in the Sea of Okhotsk, together with sub-decadal data from the temperate fjords of the Gulf of Alaska (GoAK). These distant sites are located along the western (Kuril) and eastern (GoAK) boundaries of the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean, where micronutrient-rich coastal waters interact with North Pacific high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to drive highly productive marine ecosystems. In the Sea of Okhotsk, a notable increase in opal concentrations (a proxy for past siliceous primary productivity) occurs during the middle Holocene between ~5000 and 6000 yrs ago, while alkenone-based warm season SST proxies either decline or remain relatively constant. A similar middle Holocene increase in opal concentrations is also observed in the GoAK during an interval of declining warm season coastal SAT as inferred from pollen transfer functions [Heusser et al., 1985]. Declining summer solar insolation during the middle Holocene can explain the overall decline in warm-season SST in both the Sea of Okhotsk and the Gulf of Alaska. However, as the increase in opal likely reflects an improvement in North Pacific phytoplankton growing conditions during the spring/summer bloom season, then the opal increase seems unlikely to be related directly to summer solar insolation. We propose a middle Holocene intensification of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure cell and concomitant changes in North Pacific circulation may be responsible. In both regions, several potential mechanisms related to an intensified AL could result in greater productivity including: (i) increased advection

  6. Aerosol dynamics in ship tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Lynn M.; Seinfeld, John H.; Flagan, Richard C.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Hegg, Dean A.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Wobrock, Wolfram; Flossmann, Andrea I.; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Nielsen, Kurt E.; Durkee, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Ship tracks are a natural laboratory to isolate the effect of anthropogenic aerosol emissions on cloud properties. The Monterey Area Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment in the Pacific Ocean west of Monterey, California, in June 1994, provides an unprecedented data set for evaluating our understanding of the formation and persistence of the anomalous cloud features that characterize ship tracks. The data set includes conditions in which the marine boundary layer is both clean and continentally influenced. Two case studies during the MAST experiment are examined with a detailed aerosol microphysical model that considers an external mixture of independent particle populations. The model allows tracking individual particles through condensational and coagulational growth to identify the source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). In addition, a cloud microphysics model was employed to study specific effects of precipitation. Predictions and observations reveal important differences between clean (particle concentrations below 150 cm-3) and continentally influenced (particle concentrations above 400 cm-3) background conditions: in the continentally influenced conditions there is a smaller change in the cloud effective radius, drop number and liquid water content in the ship track relative to the background than in the clean marine case. Predictions of changes in cloud droplet number concentrations and effective radii are consistent with observations although there is significant uncertainty in the absolute concentrations due to a lack of measurements of the plume dilution. Gas-to-particle conversion of sulfur species produced by the combustion of ship fuel is predicted to be important in supplying soluble aerosol mass to combustion-generated particles, so as to render them available as CCN. Studies of the impact of these changes on the cloud's potential to precipitate concluded that more complex dynamical processes must be represented to allow sufficiently long drop

  7. Projections and predictability of Arctic shipping accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Nathanael; Haines, Keith; Hawkins, Ed

    2016-04-01

    The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice opens up the potential for shorter shipping routes across the Arctic Ocean, leading to potentially significant global economic savings. We demonstrate, using bias-corrected global climate models, that the projected sea ice melt through the 21st century increases opportunities for ships to sail through the Arctic between North Atlantic and East Asian ports. Transit potential for Open Water vessels doubles from early to mid-century and coincides with the opening of the trans-polar sea route. Although seasonal, routes become more reliable with an overall increased shipping season length, but with considerable variability from year-to-year. We also demonstrate that there is potential predictability for whether a particular season will be relatively open or closed to shipping access from a few months ahead.

  8. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  9. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  10. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  11. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  12. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  13. 46 CFR 545.1 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Refusal to negotiate with shippers' associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Refusal to... of Shipping Act of 1984—Refusal to negotiate with shippers' associations. (a) 8(c) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (“the Act”) (46 U.S.C. 40502) authorizes ocean common carriers and agreements between...

  14. How will ocean acidification affect Baltic sea ecosystems? an assessment of plausible impacts on key functional groups.

    PubMed

    Havenhand, Jonathan N

    2012-09-01

    Increasing partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean pH to fall-a process known as 'ocean acidification'. Scenario modeling suggests that ocean acidification in the Baltic Sea may cause a ≤ 3 times increase in acidity (reduction of 0.2-0.4 pH units) by the year 2100. The responses of most Baltic Sea organisms to ocean acidification are poorly understood. Available data suggest that most species and ecologically important groups in the Baltic Sea food web (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrozoobenthos, cod and sprat) will be robust to the expected changes in pH. These conclusions come from (mostly) single-species and single-factor studies. Determining the emergent effects of ocean acidification on the ecosystem from such studies is problematic, yet very few studies have used multiple stressors and/or multiple trophic levels. There is an urgent need for more data from Baltic Sea populations, particularly from environmentally diverse regions and from controlled mesocosm experiments. In the absence of such information it is difficult to envision the likely effects of future ocean acidification on Baltic Sea species and ecosystems.

  15. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships. PMID:26350312

  16. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships.

  17. Marine data sets and the shift of shipping routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadet, Daniel L.; Pafadnam, Yarcé

    1988-12-01

    Shipping routes of merchant ships have been changing since 1854, when the first observations over the ocean were organized. In certain areas where longitudinal and/or latitudinal gradients of surface parameters exist, spurious climatic signals due to the shift in the shipping routes can appear even when space averaging is made over a large domain. This problem is documented, and two methods to correct the time series are presented. Fields resulting from an objective analysis of the observations take into account the shift of shipping routes.

  18. Radar imagery from the 1994 Lock Linnhe ship wake experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, C.J.; Lehman, S.K.; Jones, H.

    1994-11-15

    The 1994 Loch Linnhe radar ocean imaging trials were held from September 4 through September 17. Two ships were used: the R.V. Colonel Templer, and the RMAS Collie. Thorn EMI, Inc., fielded a dual band, dual polarization radar on a hillside overlooking the loch. A primary purpose of the experiment was to obtain highly visible images of ship generated internal waves. Presented here is imagery for a few of the good ship runs, as well as a study of the environment of the visibility of ship generated internal waves.

  19. Evaluation of crack arrest fracture toughness of parent plate, weld metal and heat affected zone of BIS 812 EMA ship plate steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, I. A.

    1993-10-01

    The steel chosen for the pressure hull of the Collins class submarine has undergone evaluation to compare the crack arrest fracture toughness, K(Ia), of the parent plate with that of weld metal and heat affected zone. The tests were conducted over a range of subzero temperatures on specimens slightly outside the ASTM standard test method specimen configuration. Shallow face grooved specimens were used to vary the propagating crack velocity from that of non face grooved specimens and determine if K(Ia), is sensitive to changes in crack velocity. The weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ), and parent plate were assessed to determine if the welding process had a deleterious effect on the crack arrest properties of this particular steel. Tests on each of these regions revealed that, for the combination of parent plate, welding procedure and consumables, no adverse effect on crack arrest properties was encountered. Crack arrest fracture toughness of the weld metal and HAZ was superior to that of the parent plate at comparable temperatures.

  20. Open Ocean Bilging, Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    These dual oil slicks on the ocean surface are the result of tanker ships flushing their tanks (bilging) in the Arabian Sea (18.5N, 62.5E). These two ships flushed out their bilges, apparently contaminated with bunker oil, leaving oily residues on the ocean's surface. One wake, believed to have been done earlier than the other, has been broadened by the effects of surface winds and current.

  1. Air pollution from ships over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2016-04-01

    Shipping sector is a large and growing source of emissions. Large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are emitted from ships affecting the chemical composition of the atmosphere in coastal areas. Changes of the world fleet over the past decades suggest a continuously increasing trend of the shipping emissions. Therefore, shipping emissions may partly offset the benefits from the reduction of anthropogenic emissions over land. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on air quality degradation over Europe for a winter (January 2006) and a summer month (July 2006) using CMAQ modeling system and the TNO anthropogenic emission inventory for 2006. Results suggest that shipping emissions increase NO2 and SO2 mixing ratios more than 90% over the sea and close to the coastline, locally. Ship induced ozone contribution to total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline during the summer month. The largest impact is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. Ship traffic emissions are estimated to increase PM2.5 concentration during winter up to 40% over the Mediterranean Sea while during summer an increase more than 50% is simulated over the sea.

  2. Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Rodriguez, Maria Debora

    The oceans play a central role in the maintenance of life on Earth. Oceans provide extensive ecosystems for marine animals and plants covering two-thirds of the Earth's surface, are essential sources of food, economic activity, and biodiversity, and are central to the global biogeochemical cycles. The oceans are the largest reservoir of carbon in the Planet, and absorb approximately one-third of the carbon emissions that are released to the Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities. Since the beginning of industrialization, humans have been responsible for the increase in one greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), from approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) at the end of the nineteenth century to the current levels of 390ppm. As well as affecting the surface ocean pH, and the organisms living at the ocean surface, these increases in CO2 are causing global mean surface temperatures to rise.

  3. Ships to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

  4. WORLD SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SHIP'S DRIFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.P.; Schladow, S.G.

    1980-11-01

    Over 4 million observations of ship's drift are on file at the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Centre, in Washington, D. C., representing a vast amount of information on ocean surface currents. The observed drift speeds are dependent on the frequency of occurence of the particular current speeds and the frequency of observation. By comparing frequency of observation with the drift speeds observed it is possible to confirm known current patterns and detect singularities in surface currents.

  5. Do Waveless Ships Exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Philippe; Chapman, Jon; vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc

    2009-11-01

    Consider two-dimensional ideal and low-speed flow past a ship modeled as a semi-infinite body with constant draft. In the 1970s, on the basis of numerical evidence, it was conjectured that ships with a single front face will always generate a wake. Later in the 1980s, seemingly waveless ships with bulbous profiles were discovered. And finally, conflicting evidence in the 1990s suggested that the waves were in fact present, but simply too small to be recognized. In this talk, we will show how recent techniques in exponential asymptotics can be used in order to study the ship-wave problem. In particular, we will show how the formation of waves near a ship are a necessary consequence of singularities in ship's geometry, such as those corresponding to sharp corners or stagnation points. Finally, we will show how the theory can be applied in order to prove that certain ship profiles will or will not produce a wake in the low-speed limit.

  6. Partnership proposed for ocean observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossby, T.

    2012-04-01

    A report released on 1 March 2012 proposes a formal partnership between the ocean-observing communities and the global shipping industry for the systematic long-term study of the ocean water column from surface to depth. According to the report, the rationale for the proposal is that commercial ships on the high seas offer a cost-effective opportunity to contribute to directly addressing a significant observational deficiency. "The ocean is vastly under observed, particularly below the ocean surface, where satellites cannot measure the ocean's properties," according to the report, "OceanScope: A proposed partnership between the maritime industries and the ocean observing community to monitor the global ocean water column," prepared by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research/International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans (SCOR/IAPSO) Working Group 133. "Observations below the surface depend on getting platforms (ships, moored buoys, floats, gliders, etc.) to locations far beyond the coasts, which can be expensive," the report states.

  7. Ice Nucleation from Ship Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, E. S.; Weber, D.; Tuomi, J.; Pettersson, J.; Bingemer, H. G.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric ice particles play a significant role in many atmospheric processes and are central to the role of clouds in determining the global radiative balance. Atmospheric ice originates when Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) lower the free energy barrier to phase transformation. The Earth's polar regions are well isolated from the middle and lower latitudes and thus have limited access to INP, and therefore small changes in terms of regional sources or large scale transport of particulate may have significant impacts on polar ice cloud formation. Here we describe field measurements of INP collected in the Port of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. The port is the largest Scandinavian seaport and thus has heavy and diverse ocean vessel traffic. Unique to this study was the ability to isolate the INP contribution directly from the ship traffic by utilizing a sampling method that nearly simultaneously captured transiting ship plumes and the background aerosol. A small but potentially significant increase in IN from marine vessels was observed over two consecutive years. The results have implications for Arctic and global climate in the context of growing global commerce and trans-polar transport.

  8. Relative risk assessment of cruise ships biosolids disposal alternatives.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda, Pedro M; Englehardt, James D; Olascoaga, Josefina; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Brand, Larry; Lirman, Diego; Rogge, Wolfgang F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tchobanoglous, George

    2011-10-01

    A relative risk assessment of biosolids disposal alternatives for cruise ships is presented in this paper. The area of study encompasses islands and marine waters of the Caribbean Sea. The objective was to evaluate relative human health and ecological risks of (a) dewatering/incineration, (b) landing the solids for disposal, considering that in some countries land-disposed solids might be discharged in the near-shore environment untreated, and (c) deep ocean disposal. Input to the Bayesian assessment consisted of professional judgment based on available literature and modeling information, data on constituent concentrations in cruise ship biosolids, and simulations of constituent concentrations in Caribbean waters assuming ocean disposal. Results indicate that human health and ecological risks associated with land disposal and shallow ocean disposal are higher than those of the deep ocean disposal and incineration. For incineration, predicted ecological impacts were lower relative to deep ocean disposal before considering potential impacts of carbon emissions.

  9. Columbus ships at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    On the 500th arniversary of Christopher Columbus' discovery of the New World, replicas of his three ships sailed past the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) while the space shuttle Columbia sat poised for lift off.

  10. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships. The contribution from major ship types and ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2008-10-01

    A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), N2O, BC (Black Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon). The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions. A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over western North America (contribution 15 25%) and western Europe (5 15%). The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5 6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With regard to acidification we find that ships contribute 11% to nitrate wet deposition and 4.5% to sulphur wet deposition

  11. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2009-03-01

    A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), N2O, BC (Black Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon). The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions. A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over Western North America (contribution 15-25%) and Western Europe (5-15%). The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5-6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With regard to acidification we find that ships contribute 11% to nitrate wet deposition and 4.5% to sulphur wet deposition

  12. Japanese Whaling Ships' Sea Surface Temperatures 1946-84.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzejewska, Anna W.; Wu, Zhongxiang; Newell, Reginald E.; Miyashita, Tomio

    1997-03-01

    Japanese whaling ship data, a homogeneous dataset mainly covering the southern high-latitude oceans, may be used to fill in gaps in recent sea surface temperature datasets, contributing a fair number of additional observations in this area. The Japanese whaling ship data are treated separately here for the period 1946-84, and they show no significant temperature changes during this period in the main fishing region of 60°-70°S or in the west Pacific warm pool.

  13. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  14. 78 FR 48871 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  15. 78 FR 48871 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has been reissued pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  16. 77 FR 72863 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been reissued pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  17. 77 FR 72863 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  18. 78 FR 8533 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  19. 77 FR 70163 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act...

  20. 78 FR 30922 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  1. 77 FR 68779 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  2. 78 FR 25741 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  3. 78 FR 25741 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has been reissued pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  4. 78 FR 33841 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  5. 78 FR 75346 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has been reissued pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  6. 77 FR 74187 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been reissued pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  7. 78 FR 64941 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has been reissued pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  8. 78 FR 24200 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been reissued pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping...

  9. Robot mother ship design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  10. Preliminary study on detection sediment contamination in soil affected by the Indian Ocean giant tsunami 2004 in Aceh, Indonesia using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    This work is intended to asses the capability of LIBS for the detection of the tsunami sediment contamination in soil. LIBS apparatus used in this work consist of a laser system and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system. The soil sample was collected from in Banda Aceh City, Aceh, Indonesia, the most affected region by the giant Indian Ocean tsunami 2004. The laser beam was focused onto surface of the soil pellet using a focusing lens to produce luminous plasma. The experiment was conducted under air as surrounding gas at 1 atmosphere. The emission spectral lines from the plasma were detected by the OMA system. It was found that metal including heavy metals can surely be detected, thus implying the potent of LIBS technique as a fast screening tools of tsunami sediment contamination.

  11. Simulators for Safer Shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Each year one ship out of every five afloat collides with another vessel, rams a dock, or runs a ground. CAORF (Computer Aided Operations Research Facility), designed and built by Sperry Rand Corporation, incorporates technology developed in a wide variety of aerospace simulation and technical training programs. CAORF can be set up to duplicate the exact handling qualities of any vessel under various conditions of wind, tide and current. Currently a dozen different ships can be "plugged in." Bridge instrumentation is typical of modern shipboard equipment including radar, internal and external c.ommunications and new collision avoidance systems. From repetitive operation of simulated ships, MarAd is building a valuable data base for improving marine safety.

  12. Automated ship image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  18. Shuttle Mounted Sensors For The Analysis Of Ocean Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steller, David D.

    1984-09-01

    The Space Shuttle has proven to be an excellent platform for testing sensors for the analysis of ocean phenomena. The Shuttle provides a manned, stable platform that can be precisely navigated. The ocean monitoring sensors are operated, retrieved, evaluated in the laboratory and reflown. Of major importance is the ability of the astronaut/oceanographer to use his intellect and visual acuity to recognize valuable ocean phenomena and then to interact directly with the sensors. This interaction can include real-time sensor pointing, tuning, and coordination with the ground and ship stations. In the complex task of identifying ocean features from space, man can: make rapid interpretation, evaluate ocean color changes, filter out cloud affects, make geographic location decisions and assess the contrast of subtle ocean features from background. Optional sensor mounting methods have been designed to reduce flight costs and turnaround times necessary for continuing sensor demonstration schedules. The Shuttle platform permits space testing of ocean monitoring sensors without the commitment of long range, expensive, systems programs necessary for stand-alone satellite sensor testing.

  19. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  20. 76 FR 10593 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance Notice is hereby given that the following Ocean... to the licensing of Ocean Transportation Intermediaries, 46 CFR Part 515. License No. Name/Address... B, Miami, FL 33167. 020577N Bosmak, Inc. dba Ocean Breeze January 14, 2011. Shipping, 2501...

  1. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., <10 km), the acoustic wave field densely samples properties of the water column over the width of the receiver array. A method, referred to as ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  2. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., <10 km), the acoustic wave field densely samples properties of the water column over the width of the receiver array. A method, referred to as ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  3. Ship propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kimon, P.M.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes an improved efficiency propulsion system for a ship operated at both deep and shallow water depths, and at variable loaded and ballast waterlines. This propulsion system consists of a number of elements interactive in their operation. The first component of the system detailed is a variable diameter propeller means equipped with a mechanism for varying the diameter of the propeller between a maximum extended diameter and a minimum diameter. The next component of the system depicted in the patent is a propeller shaft mounting which enables the propeller to rotate in the stern portion of the ship. The propeller shaft is characterized as extending parallel to the bottom keel of the ship and having an axis of rotation displaced from the bottom keel a distance less than one-half the maximum diameter of the propeller means but more than one-half of the minimum diameter of the propeller means. As a consequence of the systems design characteristics the ship may obtain maximum propeller efficiency by means of the extension in diameter of the propeller means when it is operated in a fully loaded condition in deep water.

  4. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Eguíluz, Victor M; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011-2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far. PMID:27477878

  5. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Eguíluz, Victor M.; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far. PMID:27477878

  6. The main issues affecting coasts of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans: a meta-analysis from Seas at the Millennium.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, C

    2001-12-01

    A review of the world oceans in three volumes by 365 scientists, provides scope for several 'meta-analyses' of the main problems affecting over 100 areas in the year 2000. This article summarises the main issues affecting a sub-set of the reviewed areas, covering Asian, African and Arabian countries dealt with in Volume 2, which included over 50 articles. From all issues raised, assessment is made of the nature of the major ones, including evaluation of reasons why so many of them remain important issues after so much attention to them. These include long standing problems, several problems more newly flagged as becoming particularly important, the issue of global warming and no less than three related issues connected with fishing and over exploitation. One or two issues such as industrial pollution and sewage, previously considered of almost universal concern, almost traditional pollution issues even, continue to feature strongly for some countries, but while these were almost always referred to in Seas chapters, by and large these categories appear not to be the most pressing of issues today, except in localized areas (albeit areas where huge numbers of people live). Perhaps other issues have simply taken over. They are excluded from this article. PMID:11827106

  7. The main issues affecting coasts of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans: a meta-analysis from Seas at the Millennium.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, C

    2001-12-01

    A review of the world oceans in three volumes by 365 scientists, provides scope for several 'meta-analyses' of the main problems affecting over 100 areas in the year 2000. This article summarises the main issues affecting a sub-set of the reviewed areas, covering Asian, African and Arabian countries dealt with in Volume 2, which included over 50 articles. From all issues raised, assessment is made of the nature of the major ones, including evaluation of reasons why so many of them remain important issues after so much attention to them. These include long standing problems, several problems more newly flagged as becoming particularly important, the issue of global warming and no less than three related issues connected with fishing and over exploitation. One or two issues such as industrial pollution and sewage, previously considered of almost universal concern, almost traditional pollution issues even, continue to feature strongly for some countries, but while these were almost always referred to in Seas chapters, by and large these categories appear not to be the most pressing of issues today, except in localized areas (albeit areas where huge numbers of people live). Perhaps other issues have simply taken over. They are excluded from this article.

  8. Ocean acidification does not affect magnesium composition or dolomite formation in living crustose coralline algae, Porolithon onkodes in an experimental system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, M. C.; Uthicke, S.; Negri, A. P.; Cantin, N. E.

    2015-09-01

    There are concerns that Mg-calcite crustose coralline algae (CCA), which are key reef builders on coral reefs, will be most susceptible to increased rates of dissolution under higher pCO2 and ocean acidification. Due to the higher solubility of Mg-calcite, it has been hypothesised that magnesium concentrations in CCA Mg-calcite will decrease as the ocean acidifies, and that this decrease will make their skeletons more chemically stable. In addition to Mg-calcite, CCA Porolithon onkodes, the predominant encrusting species on tropical reefs, can have dolomite (Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3) infilling cell spaces which increases their stability. However, nothing is known about how bio-mineralised dolomite formation responds to higher pCO2. Using P. onkodes grown for 3 and 6 months in tank experiments, we aimed to determine (1) if mol % MgCO3 in new crust and new settlement was affected by increasing CO2 levels (365, 444, 676 and 904 μatm), (2) whether bio-mineralised dolomite formed within these time frames, and (3) if so, whether this was effected by CO2. Our results show that there was no significant effect of CO2 on mol % MgCO3 in any sample set, indicating an absence of a plastic response under a wide range of experimental conditions. Dolomite within the CCA cells formed within 3 months and dolomite abundance did not vary significantly with CO2 treatment. While evidence mounts that climate change will impact many sensitive coral and CCA species, the results from this study indicate that reef-building P. onkodes will continue to form stabilising dolomite infill under near-future acidification conditions, thereby retaining its higher resistance to dissolution.

  9. Ocean acidification does not affect magnesium composition or dolomite formation in living crustose coralline algae, Porolithon onkodes in an experimental system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, M. C.; Uthicke, S.; Negri, A. P.; Cantin, N. E.

    2015-01-01

    There are concerns that Mg-calcite crustose coralline algae (CCA), which are key reef builders on coral reefs, will be most susceptible to increased rates of dissolution under higher pCO2 and ocean acidification. Due to the higher solubility of Mg-calcite, it has been hypothesized that magnesium concentrations in CCA Mg-calcite will decrease as the ocean acidifies, and that this decrease will make their skeletons more chemically stable. In addition to Mg-calcite, CCA Porolithon onkodes the predominant encrusting species on tropical reefs, can have dolomite (Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3) infilling cell spaces which increases their stability. However, nothing is known about how bio-mineralised dolomite formation responds to higher pCO2. Using P. onkodes grown for 3 and 6 months in tank experiments, we aimed to determine (1) if mol % MgCO3 in new crust and new settlement affected by increasing pCO2 levels (365, 444, 676 and 904 ppm), (2) whether bio-mineralised dolomite formed within these time frames, and (3) if so, whether this was effected by pCO2. Our results show there was no significant effect of pCO2 on mol % MgCO3 in any sample set, indicating an absence of a plastic response under a wide range of experimental conditions. Dolomite within the CCA cells formed within 3 months and dolomite abundance did not vary significantly with pCO2 treatment. While evidence mounts that climate change will impact many sensitive coral and CCA species, the results from this study indicate that reef-building P. onkodes will continue to form stabilising dolomite infill under near-future acidification conditions, thereby retaining its higher resistance to dissolution.

  10. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  11. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  12. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  13. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  14. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  15. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  16. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  17. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  18. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  19. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  20. Geoengineering Using Oceanic Microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, P.; Crook, J. A.; Jackson, L. S.; Jenkins, A. K. L.

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly studied solar radiation management schemes reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed by reflecting more sunlight in the stratosphere (eg. stratospheric injection of SO2) or by making marine clouds more reflective (eg. injection of sea salt into the marine boundary layer). Both these schemes require technologies that do not currently exist and involve polluting the atmosphere. An alternative scheme which brightens the surface of the ocean without the use of chemicals has so far been largely overlooked. The technology already exists to efficiently create 1μ radius bubbles in water. Such bubbles could enhance the albedo of open sea by 0.2 and have a lifetime of the order of days (Seitz, 2010). The top of atmosphere radiative forcing produced by the wakes of existing large ocean going vessels has been estimated to be 0.14 mWm-2 (Gatebe et al, 2011). However, existing ships are not optimised to produce such small bubbles; their wake lifetimes are in the order of minutes and their albedo gains are of the order of 0.02. If fitted with existing bubble generation technology, the current fleet of cargo and merchant ships could provide a surface radiative forcing of around -1 Wm-2.We present results from a climate model simulation implemented with this enhanced albedo in current shipping lanes. Currently ships are more abundant in the Northern Hemisphere but a larger and more uniform forcing could be produced by sending out extra ships with bubble generators in the more sparsely populated Southern Hemisphere oceans. Our climate model simulation with a uniform open sea albedo enhancement of 0.03 had an effective radiative forcing of -2.6 Wm-2 and reduced global mean temperature by 1.6 K, enough to offset global mean warming under RCP4.5 for at least 40 years.

  1. The US Cruise Ship Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Willis H.

    1985-01-01

    The cruise ship industry relates directly to many features of the natural and cultural environments. The U.S. cruise ship industry is analyzed. Discusses the size of the industry, precruise passenger liners, current cruise ships, cruise regions and routes, ports of call, major ports, passengers, and future prospects. (RM)

  2. Mathematical Modeling: Convoying Merchant Ships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a mathematical model that connects mathematics with social studies. Students use mathematics to model independent versus convoyed ship deployments and sinkings to determine if the British should have convoyed their merchant ships during World War I. During the war, the British admiralty opposed sending merchant ships grouped…

  3. 49 CFR 172.201 - Preparation and retention of shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shipping paper must retain a copy of the shipping paper required by § 172.200(a), or an electronic image... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, the shipping paper copy must be retained for three... List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and...

  4. Performance of Landsat TM in ship detection in turbid waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guofeng; de Leeuw, Jan; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Liu, Yaolin; Prins, Herbert H. T.

    2009-02-01

    The visible and near infrared bands of Landsat have limitations for detecting ships in turbid water. The potential of TM middle infrared bands for ship detection has so far not been investigated. This study analyzed the performance of the six Landsat TM visible and infrared bands for detecting dredging ships in the turbid waters of the Poyang Lake, China. A colour composite of principal components analysis (PCA) components 3, 2 and 1 of a TM image was used to randomly select 81 dredging ships. The reflectance contrast between ships and adjacent water was calculated for each ship. A z-score and related p-value were used to assess the ship detection performance of the six Landsat TM bands. The reflectance contrast was related to water turbidity to analyze how water turbidity affected the capability of ship identification. The results revealed that the TM middle infrared bands 5 and 7 better discriminated vessels from surrounding waters than the visible and near infrared bands 1-4. A significant relation between reflectance contrast and water turbidity in bands 1-4 could explain the limitations of bands 1-4; while water turbidity has no a significant relation to the reflectance contrast of bands 5 and 7. This explains why bands 5 and 7 detect ships better than bands 1-4.

  5. Ship and Shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  6. Canadian Oceans and Coaastal Socio-Econimic Initiatives Using Envisat, SMOS, CryoSat-2 and RADARSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aube, Guy; Crevier, Yves

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) has been involved in the support of scientific initiatives, demonstration projects and operational activities related to oceans and coastal research, monitoring and management. Through the Government Related Initiatives Program (GRIP) and the Earth Observation Application Development Program (EOADP), the CSA and its public and private sector partners have fostered the development of Earth Observation (EO) information and services to monitor, understand and manage Canadian oceans (i.e. coastal zone, oil spills, ship detection, ocean colour, algae bloom, sea surface salinity, illegal fishing, etc.). The CSA understands the tremendous role and value that space-based EO systems and information have regarding oceans management and its environmental and socio-economic impacts and benefits. The proposed poster will provide a brief description of the Canadian EO initiatives and activities (i.e. ENVISAT/ MERIS & ASAR; SMOS, RADARSAT-2; etc.) affecting our oceans, focusing on existing EO programs, coordinated activities and assets.

  7. Remote sensing of the directional ocean wave spectra using HF backscatter radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elabdalla, A. M.

    Superresolution spectrum estimation techniques used in the remote sensing of the wave-height (DOWS) using HF backscatter radar were studied. The techniques investigated directional ocean wave spectrum are: (1) multiple signal classification (MUSIC), (2) maximum entropy (ME), and (3) maximum likelihood (ML). Two unbiased estimates of the directional spectrum based on the MUSIC and the ML algorithms were developed and implemented. The estimates of the DOWS using such techniques were compared with estimates using synthetic aperture radar. The comparison showed good agreement in estimating the mean direction of energy and the half power width. The advantages of using superresolution techniques are: (1) no assumptions need to be made about the shape of the spectrum and (2), if the ship (radar) is moving in a straight line, the spectrum estimate is not affected as long as the ship speed is less than the phase velocity of the ocean waves.

  8. Wave energy propelling marine ship

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabayashi, S.

    1982-06-29

    A wave energy propelling marine ship comprises a cylindrical ship body having a hollow space therein for transporting fluid material therewithin, a ship body disposed in or on the sea; a propeller attached to the ship body for the purpose of propelling the marine ship for sailing; a rudder for controlling the moving direction of the marine ship; at least one rotary device which includes a plurality of compartments which are each partitioned into a plurality of water chambers by a plurality of radial plates, and a plurality of water charge and/or discharge ports, wherein wave energy is converted into mechanical energy; and device for adjusting buoyancy of the marine ship so that the rotary device is positioned advantageously on the sea surface.

  9. Is increasing industrialization affecting remote ecosystem health in the South Americas? Insights from ocean surface water measurements of As, Sb and Pb from a GEOTRACES transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Dominik; Salaun, Pascal; Van den Berg, Stan; Bi, Zaoshun

    2014-05-01

    Continued industrial development of the South Americas with increasing atmospheric emission of toxic trace metals has lead to a growing concern about possible effects on pristine ecosystem health. Concentration measurements of trace metals in ocean surface waters in the North Atlantic have successfully revealed the global extent of atmospheric pollution in the Northern Hemisphere during economical growth in the USA and Europe, suggesting a similar approach can be applied to the Southern Hemisphere. To this end, we determined concentrations of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) using voltammetry in surface water samples of the South Atlantic Ocean collected during the third leg of the GEOTRACES West Atlantic Cruise. These elements are volatile and therefore most likely suitable tracer elements of industrial emissions from South America. The samples were not filtered and the solutions were acidified and UV digested. Total concentrations of Pb were detected. Detected As levels correspond to the sum of inorganic species (AsIII + AsV) plus the mono methyl arsenic acid (MMA) while the dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) is not detected in such conditions. For Sb, detected levels correspond at least to the sum of inorganic fractions (SbIII + SbV). The measured concentrations for Pb varied from 6 to 23 pM. Concentrations were highest at -35° latitude and lowest at -40° and -50° latitude. We found a decreasing trend from about -35° latitude southwards. The average concentrations of As was 20 nM and of Sb 1.2 nM. Arsenic showed a more significant north to south trend than Sb. Arsenic concentration was highest at -23 ° latitude (21 nM) and the lowest at -43 ° latitude (17.7 nM). Antimony concentration was highest at -31 ° latitude (1.5 nM) and lowest at -35 ° latitude (1.0 nM). Our preliminary data suggests that the major industrial centres in Brazil (i.e., Sao Paolo, Rio de Janeiro) and Argentina (i.e., Buenos Aires) affect atmospheric metal fluxes to remote

  10. Synfuel production ship

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, M.J.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a ship for producing gasoline while sailing. The ship consists of: 1.) a top deck; 2.) absorption venturi towers arranged in a multiple row and column orientation and mounted along an extended area of the deck and inclined toward the bow to capture air in an ellipsoid tapered air stream tube as the ship moves forward; 3.) means for delivering NaOH solution to the towers; means for forming droplets of NaOH solution and directing the droplets to pass through air, in the towers, thus causing CO/sub 2/ in the air to be absorbed by the solution for which results in a carbonate solution of sodium bicarbonate/hypo carbonate; 4.) means for communicating with the droplet forming means for receiving the carbonate solution and combining Cl/sub 2/ for stripping CO/sub 2/ as a first by-product from the carbonate solution and NaCl/NaOCI as a second by-product; 5.) means connected to the stripping for transferring the CO/sub 2/ to a methanol converter; 6.) electrolysis means for disassociating H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ from water provided to it; 7.) means connected to the electrolysis mechanism for transferring the H/sub 2/ to the methanol converter; 8.) a hydrocarbon synthesizer connected to an outlet of the methanol converter for converting methanol to gasoline; 9.) a boiler connected to the stripping for separating O/sub 2/ from the NaCl/NaOCI solution resulting in a NaCl solution; 10.) a chlor-alkali cell convertor connected to the boiler for converting the NaCl solution to (a) Cl/sub 2/ which is recycled, and (b) NaOH solution which is re-introduced to the NaOH droplet forming means; 11.) a nuclear reactor for generating steam; 12.) output for delivering the electrical power.

  11. Use of multi-disciplinary mooring data to extend intermittent OA observations from ship surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Send, U.; Ohman, M. D.; Martz, T. R.; Dickson, A. G.; Feely, R. A.; Demer, D.; Washburn, L.

    2012-12-01

    Ship surveys along the US West Coast have provided valuable insight into the conditions and changes in the water column that affect the ocean acidification state. Examples are the decades of CalCOFI sampling off southern California, and the West Coast ship survey published in Feely et al 2008. What is lacking in these observations is a description of the temporal variability of the conditions observed, and of the processes at work that lead to observed conditions or changes. Multi-disciplinary moorings are ideally suited for adding this dimension to the available observations which is critical for an understanding of the OA mechanisms. One example is the occurrence of corrosive water near the seafloor on the continental shelf, which was found in the Feely et al survey. Time series data from a mooring off Del Mar, California, with oxygen and pH sensors near the bottom in 100m depth show the frequency and intensity of corrosive and hypoxic conditions there, and how they relate to physical processes (cross-shelf and along-shelf flow), biological conditions, and climate processes (here La Nina). In the upwelling and open-ocean regimes off Pt. Conception two moorings (CCE1, CCE2) have been collecting data since early 2009 and 2010, respectively, co-located with CalCOFI stations and CCE LTER cardinal sites for ship observations. A glider also routinely passes by these moorings (along CalCOFI line 80). The moorings carry physical, oxygen, pH, pCO2, nutrient, and ecosystem sensors (chlorophyll fluorescence, water column irradiance absorption, acoustic backscatter) and telemeter most data in real-time. The mooring time series show the variability of OA parameters on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual time scales, and in the context of the spatial and historical sampling from ships. The multi-disciplinary sensor suite allows to study the forcing of the OA variability on those various time scales, and the impact on the ecosystem. Combined with the spatial information

  12. Ship trail/cloud dynamic effects from Apollo-Soyuz photograph July 16, 1975

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.M.; Kao, Chih-yue J.; Kyle, T.G.; Kelley, R.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    We describe in this paper the results of a preliminary analysis of a ship trail photograph taken by the Apollo-Soyuz crew at 22:21 GMT on 16 July 1975. The photograph was taken from an altitude of 174 km and shows three separate ship trails with two of the trails intersecting. Because these photographs were taken from a non-geosynchronous satellite with a high-resolution camera, the quality of the photograph provides more detail than is usually obtained from meteorological satellites (minimum spatial resolution 14 m compared to 57 m from Landsat). The photograph not only shows enhanced detail of the ship trails themselves, but also cloud free bands generated by the ship trails. The ship trails have maximum photographed widths of 3--6 km. These cloud free bands are an obvious indication of the importance of ship trail cloud dynamics to ship trial development. These cloud dynamical effects are driven both by the initial energy release of the ship's power plant and by latent heat release from the aerosol nucleation process. Since the aerosol nucleation process is the key to understanding ocean aerosol/cloud interactions, it is important to partition these two processes in the ship trial development. We will describe in this paper preliminary numerical modeling efforts to simulate the ship trails using only the energy release from the ship and thereby give an indication of how much more energy input may be required from the nucleation process. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses.

  14. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale.

  15. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale. PMID:27184471

  16. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-17

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale.

  17. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale. PMID:27184471

  18. Operational options for green ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  19. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping to inform marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob

    2012-11-01

    Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action. PMID:23145705

  20. CDIAC data management and archival support for a high-frequency atmospheric and seawater pCO2 data set from 14 open ocean moorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyr, Alex; Sutton, Adrienne; Sabine, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate change are increasing ocean temperatures and affecting ocean chemistry (e.g., ocean acidification). Monitoring these important changes using ships and other platforms generates large amounts of data from heterogenous sources. Since its inception in 1993, when it became a member of the DOE/NOAA Ocean Carbon Science Team engaged in the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the CDIAC Ocean Carbon Data Management Project has been organizing, quality assuring, documenting, archiving and distributing ocean carbon-related data collected via a number of U.S. and international ocean-observing programs. CDIAC's ocean carbon data collection includes discrete and underway measurements from a variety of platforms (e.g., research ships, commercial ships, buoys) in all oceans from the surface to seafloor. One important project at CDIAC is the data management support for the Global CO2 Time-series and Moorings Project. This poster will describe the collaboration between NOAA/PMEL Mooring group and CDIAC in the data management and archival of a high-frequency atmospheric and seawater pCO2 data from 14 open ocean sites using moored autonomous systems.. Advancements in the ocean carbon observation network over the last decade, such as the development and deployment of Moored Autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) systems, have dramatically improved our ability to characterize ocean climate, sea-air gas exchange, and biogeochemical processes. The Moored Autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) system provides high-resolution surface seawater and atmospheric CO2 data that can help us understand inter-annual, seasonal, and sub-seasonal dynamics and provide constrains on the impact of short-term biogeochemical variability on CO2 fluxes. CDIAC NDP-092 provides a description of the data as well as the methods and data quality control involved in developing an open-ocean MAPCO2 data set including over 100,000 individual atmospheric and seawater pCO2 measurements

  1. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  2. Occurrence of lower cloud albedo in ship tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Christensen, M. W.; Xue, L.; Sorooshian, A.; Stephens, G. L.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    The concept of geoengineering by marine cloud brightening is based on seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with sub-micrometer sea-salt particles to enhance the cloud droplet number concentration and cloud albedo, thereby producing a climate cooling effect. The efficacy of this as a strategy for global cooling rests on the extent to which aerosol-perturbed marine clouds will respond with increased albedo. Ship tracks, quasi-linear cloud features prevalent in oceanic regions impacted by ship exhaust, are a well-known manifestation of the effect of aerosol injection on marine clouds. We present here an analysis of the albedo responses in ship tracks, based on in situ aircraft measurements and three years of satellite observations of 589 individual ship tracks. It is found that the sign (increase or decrease) and magnitude of the albedo response in ship tracks depends on the mesoscale cloud structure, the free tropospheric humidity, and cloud top height. In a closed cell structure (cloud cells ringed by a perimeter of clear air), nearly 30% of ship tracks exhibited a decreased albedo. Detailed cloud responses must be accounted for in global studies of the potential efficacy of sea-spray geoengineering as a means to counteract global warming.

  3. New Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurence C; Stephenson, Scott R

    2013-03-26

    Recent historic observed lows in Arctic sea ice extent, together with climate model projections of additional ice reductions in the future, have fueled speculations of potential new trans-Arctic shipping routes linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. However, numerical studies of how projected geophysical changes in sea ice will realistically impact ship navigation are lacking. To address this deficiency, we analyze seven climate model projections of sea ice properties, assuming two different climate change scenarios [representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5] and two vessel classes, to assess future changes in peak season (September) Arctic shipping potential. By midcentury, changing sea ice conditions enable expanded September navigability for common open-water ships crossing the Arctic along the Northern Sea Route over the Russian Federation, robust new routes for moderately ice-strengthened (Polar Class 6) ships over the North Pole, and new routes through the Northwest Passage for both vessel classes. Although numerous other nonclimatic factors also limit Arctic shipping potential, these findings have important economic, strategic, environmental, and governance implications for the region. PMID:23487747

  4. New Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurence C; Stephenson, Scott R

    2013-03-26

    Recent historic observed lows in Arctic sea ice extent, together with climate model projections of additional ice reductions in the future, have fueled speculations of potential new trans-Arctic shipping routes linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. However, numerical studies of how projected geophysical changes in sea ice will realistically impact ship navigation are lacking. To address this deficiency, we analyze seven climate model projections of sea ice properties, assuming two different climate change scenarios [representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5] and two vessel classes, to assess future changes in peak season (September) Arctic shipping potential. By midcentury, changing sea ice conditions enable expanded September navigability for common open-water ships crossing the Arctic along the Northern Sea Route over the Russian Federation, robust new routes for moderately ice-strengthened (Polar Class 6) ships over the North Pole, and new routes through the Northwest Passage for both vessel classes. Although numerous other nonclimatic factors also limit Arctic shipping potential, these findings have important economic, strategic, environmental, and governance implications for the region.

  5. Estimating the amount of Ship Recycling Activity Using Remote Sensing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watagawa, M.; Shinoda, T.; Hasegawa, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched for earth observation and there are more than 6 million scenes of archives including coastal areas during period of five years. The wealth of satellite imagery is noticeable for investigating monitoring methods such as ship detection in wide ocean area. Especially, it is useful way to estimate past behaviour from satellite imagery compared to reference data. We collected satellite imagery and analysis breaking process in major ship breaking yards between year 2009 and 2011. Comparing the number of recycling ships by satellite imagery to the world statistics is in good agreement. In this study, Remote Sensing Application has been discussed in order to assess the potential to be used for economic activities such as ship recycling in wide coastal area. It was used to evaluate the performance of ship recycling monitoring by Satellite imagery. Additionally, an approach for recognizing ships by SAR imagery regardless of weather conditions is presented.

  6. Manipulating ship fuel sulfur content and modeling the effects on air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Laakso, Anton; Schmidt, Anja; Kokkola, Harri; Kuokkanen, Tuomas; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Laakso, Lauri; Korhonen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from international shipping are known to cause detrimental health effects on people mainly via increased lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. On the other hand, the aerosol particles from the ship emissions modify the properties of clouds and are believed to have a significant cooling effect on the global climate. In recent years, aerosol emissions from shipping have been more strictly regulated in order to improve air quality and thus decrease the mortality due to ship emissions. Decreasing the aerosol emissions from shipping is projected to decrease their cooling effect, which would intensify the global warming even further. In this study, we use a global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2 to test if continental air quality can be improved while still retaining the cooling effect from shipping. The model explicitly resolves emissions of aerosols and their pre-cursor gases. The model also calculates the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds, and can thus predict the changes in cloud properties due to aerosol emissions. We design and simulate a scenario where ship fuel sulfur content is strictly limited to 0.1% near all coastal regions, but doubled in the open oceans from the current global mean value of 2.7% (geo-ships). This scenario is compared to three other simulations: 1) No shipping emissions at all (no-ships), 2) present-day shipping emissions (std-ships) and 3) a future scenario where sulfur content is limited to 0.1% in the coastal zones and to 0.5% in the open ocean (future-ships). Global mean radiative flux perturbation (RFP) in std-ships compared to no-ships is calculated to be -0.4 W m-2, which is in the range of previous estimates for present-day shipping emissions. In the geo-ships simulation the corresponding global mean RFP is roughly equal, but RFP is spatially distributed more on the open oceans, as expected. In future-ships the decreased aerosol emissions provide weaker cooling effect of only -0.1 W m-2. In

  7. 77 FR 58379 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 40901 of the Shipping.... License No.: 022225NF. Name: Trans Ocean Logistics Forwarding L.L.C. Address: 1320 West Blancke...

  8. 78 FR 23252 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act..., 2013. Reason: Failed to maintain a valid bond. License No.: 020734NF. Name: Sil, LLC. dba Air Ocean...

  9. 78 FR 53456 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been reissued pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act..., TX 77449. Date Reissued: June 09, 2013. License No.: 023062F. Name: A & M Ocean Machinery,...

  10. 75 FR 39529 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... & NVO License Blue Ocean Freight, Inc. dba Seaship Line (OFF & NVO), 250 Valley Street, 2F, Providence..., Secretary, Application Type: Add NVO Service and Trade Name Change Blue Ocean Shipping, Inc. dba Advanced... Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants Notice is hereby given that the...

  11. 46 CFR 167.01-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS General Provisions § 167.01-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or...

  12. 46 CFR 167.01-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS General Provisions § 167.01-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or...

  13. 46 CFR 167.01-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS General Provisions § 167.01-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or...

  14. 46 CFR 167.01-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS General Provisions § 167.01-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or...

  15. 46 CFR 167.01-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS General Provisions § 167.01-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or...

  16. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  17. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  3. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  4. Linking science and policy to prevent the spread of invasive species from the ballast water discharge of ships

    EPA Science Inventory

    Huamn activites are causing the global redistribution of species at a historically unprecedented rates. In marine environments, a major vector of nonindigenous species introduction is commercial shipping, including the ballast water of ocean going vessels. The introduction of n...

  5. How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when

  6. Can increasing albedo of existing ship wakes reduce climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, Julia A.; Jackson, Lawrence S.; Forster, Piers M.

    2016-02-01

    Solar radiation management schemes could potentially alleviate the impacts of global warming. One such scheme could be to brighten the surface of the ocean by increasing the albedo and areal extent of bubbles in the wakes of existing shipping. Here we show that ship wake bubble lifetimes would need to be extended from minutes to days, requiring the addition of surfactant, for ship wake area to be increased enough to have a significant forcing. We use a global climate model to simulate brightening the wakes of existing shipping by increasing wake albedo by 0.2 and increasing wake lifetime by ×1440. This yields a global mean radiative forcing of -0.9 ± 0.6 Wm-2 (-1.8 ± 0.9 Wm-2 in the Northern Hemisphere) and a 0.5°C reduction of global mean surface temperature with greater cooling over land and in the Northern Hemisphere, partially offsetting greenhouse gas warming. Tropical precipitation shifts southward but remains within current variability. The hemispheric forcing asymmetry of this scheme is due to the asymmetry in the distribution of existing shipping. If wake lifetime could reach ~3 months, the global mean radiative forcing could potentially reach -3 Wm-2. Increasing wake area through increasing bubble lifetime could result in a greater temperature reduction, but regional precipitation would likely deviate further from current climatology as suggested by results from our uniform ocean albedo simulation. Alternatively, additional ships specifically for the purpose of geoengineering could be used to produce a larger and more hemispherically symmetrical forcing.

  7. Thermal surface signatures of ship propeller wakes in stratified waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voropayev, S. I.; Nath, C.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2012-11-01

    When a ship moves in temperature stratified water, e.g., in the ocean diurnal thermocline, the propeller(s) as well as the turbulent boundary layer of the hull mix the surface water with underlying colder fluid. As a result, when observed from above, a temperature "wake signature" of ˜1-2 °C may be detected at the water surface. To quantify this phenomenon, theoretical modeling and physical experiments were conducted. The dominant processes responsible for thermal wake generation were identified and parameterized. Most important similarity parameters were derived and estimates for wake signature contrast were made. To verify model predictions, scaled experiments were conducted, with the water surface temperature measured using a sensitive infrared camera. Comparison of laboratory measurements with model estimates has shown satisfactory agreement, both qualitative and quantitatively. Estimates for ocean ship-wake scenarios are also given, which are supported by available field observations.

  8. Ship-based measurements of sea surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. H.; Carter, G. S.; Merrifield, M. A.

    2009-06-01

    By equipping the research vessel Kilo Moana with a geodetic GPS receiver and a radar water level gauge, and using a kinematic GPS processing package, accurate 1 Hz estimates of the sea surface height were obtained. Geodetic positioning of ocean-platforms using only the GPS system cannot account for changes in the draft of the platform. This is especially problematic for ships, where changes in the load, speed and/or ocean density can change the ship's draft by 10s of centimeters. By installing a radar gauge this noise source can be removed from the estimates of the sea surface height. We envision that this technology could routinely provide high resolution information on the geoid, or the variation of the sea surface height, including sea-state, from an existing reference geoid.

  9. Geography and Weather: OCEANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. Thomas; Mogil, H. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Provided are suggestions for 23 different activities which can be used to discuss and investigate ocean currents and how they affect human activity. Several maps and charts accompany the activities. A list of 15 resources is included. (CW)

  10. Advanced Whale Detection Methods to Improve Whale-Ship Collision Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Tougher, B.

    2010-12-01

    hydrophone arrays. We here discuss the possibility of using Ambient Noise Imaging (ANI) systems initially developed for location of non-calling sperm whales along high speed ferry routes in the Canary Islands. A ‘hybrid’ ANI system has also been developed which uses sound from calling whales to ‘illuminate’ non-calling whales. Such systems designed for sperm whales would require modification for Blue and fin whales along California shipping lanes, and Bowhead whales in Alaska. We discuss how ANI whale detection systems could be developed for California and Alaska by combining bottom moorings with autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs) as part of ocean observing systems. The mechanisms, challenges, and potential solutions for use of ANI whale detection systems along critical shipping lanes along the California and Alaska coast to reduce whale-ship collisions are discussed as a means that permit science to assist in development of integrated state and federal ocean management policies. The combination of new scientific technology with ocean policy decisions can improve coastal ocean management, improve the safety and reduce the cost of shipping, while at the same time protecting endangered whale species.

  11. Research combines with public outreach on a cruise ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Prager, Ellen; Wilson, Doug

    An innovative partnership among academia, government, and private industry has created a unique opportunity for oceanographic and meteorological research on a cruise ship. The University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Royal Caribbean International, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Office of Naval Research have collaborated to establish two modern laboratories for oceanic and atmospheric research on the 142,000-ton Royal Caribbean ship Explorer of the Seas.The Explorer of the Seas combines extensive research capabilities with public outreach. Hundreds of passengers experience the planet's atmosphere-ocean systems through laboratory tours and presentations given by experienced guest scientists and graduate students. In addition to weekly public lectures, guided tours of the ocean and atmospheric laboratories are available, and ocean-related films are shown during selected afternoons. Two interactive eco-learning areas onboard are equipped with a series of interactive displays and large informational touch screens that illustrate marine and atmospheric concepts as well as the onboard research program.

  12. Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high

  13. Assessing sound exposure from shipping in coastal waters using a single hydrophone and Automatic Identification System (AIS) data.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Godley, Brendan J; Smith, George H

    2012-07-01

    Underwater noise from shipping is a growing presence throughout the world's oceans, and may be subjecting marine fauna to chronic noise exposure with potentially severe long-term consequences. The coincidence of dense shipping activity and sensitive marine ecosystems in coastal environments is of particular concern, and noise assessment methodologies which describe the high temporal variability of sound exposure in these areas are needed. We present a method of characterising sound exposure from shipping using continuous passive acoustic monitoring combined with Automatic Identification System (AIS) shipping data. The method is applied to data recorded in Falmouth Bay, UK. Absolute and relative levels of intermittent ship noise contributions to the 24-h sound exposure level are determined using an adaptive threshold, and the spatial distribution of potential ship sources is then analysed using AIS data. This technique can be used to prioritize shipping noise mitigation strategies in coastal marine environments. PMID:22658576

  14. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms.

  15. Distribution of an Invasive Aquatic Pathogen (Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus) in the Great Lakes and Its Relationship to Shipping

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms. PMID:20405014

  16. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions aboard and also on the prevention of accidents caused by walking around aboard the ship. PMID:11850550

  17. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  18. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  19. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  20. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  1. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  2. Beaches. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  3. Whales. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  4. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Ocean Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.; Cavanaugh, J.; Smith, J.; Esaias, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS) is a low cost instrument with potential commercial application. It is easily mounted on a small aircraft and flown over the coastal zone ocean to remotely measure sea surface temperature and three channels of ocean color information. From this data, chlorophyll levels can be derived for use by ocean scientists, fisheries, and environmental offices. Data can be transmitted to shipboard for real-time use with sea truth measurements, ocean productivity estimates and fishing fleet direction. The aircraft portion of the system has two primary instruments: an IR radiometer to measure sea surface temperature and a three channel visible spectro-radiometer for 460, 490, and 520 nm wavelength measurements from which chlorophyll concentration can be derived. The aircraft package contains a LORAN-C unit for aircraft location information, clock, on-board data processor and formatter, digital data storage, packet radio terminal controller, and radio transceiver for data transmission to a ship. The shipboard package contains a transceiver, packet terminal controller, data processing and storage capability, and printer. Both raw data and chlorophyll concentrations are available for real-time analysis.

  6. Model of shipping noise in the deep water: Directional density and spatial coherence functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peng; Yang, Kun-de; Lei, Bo

    2016-07-01

    The shipping noise properties in the deep ocean are studied. Shipping noise exhibits the strong dual-horned directionality features in the flat-seabed ocean, and its directional density can be modeled by a Von Mises distribution. With the explicit expression for the directional density function, the spatial coherence functions of shipping noise are also derived, and the relative features are studied. The research result shows that the properties of shipping noise are different from the ambient noise of other sources, and it can be used for the sonar array design. The model is well matched with the experimental result, and it can be extended to the situations when the ambient noise exhibits the dual-horned structure.

  7. Law sets up oceans commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In an anticipated move, U.S. President Bill Clinton on August 7 signed into law the Oceans Act of 2000.The bipartisan legislation, which takes effect on January 20,2001, establishes a commission on ocean policy to examine federal ocean policy and environmental and economic trends affecting oceans and coasts.The act—which grew out of a call issued by Clinton at the National Oceans Conference in Monterey, California in 1998—requires the commission to submit recommendations to Congress and the president within 18 months of its appointment, and for the President to submit proposals to Congress about the use and stewardship of ocean and coastal resources.

  8. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider before travel. Passengers should practice good respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Passengers should report their respiratory ... from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/ships/en/shipsancomp.pdf?ua=1 . Chapter 6 - ...

  9. The contribution of oceanic halocarbons to marine and free tropospheric air over the tropical West Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Atlas, Elliot; Hepach, Helmke; Shi, Qiang; Raimund, Stefan; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Emissions of halogenated very-short-lived substances (VSLSs) from the oceans contribute to the atmospheric halogen budget and affect tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. Here, we investigate the contribution of natural oceanic VSLS emissions to the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) and their transport into the free troposphere (FT) over the tropical West Pacific. The study concentrates on bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide measured on ship and aircraft during the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in the South China and Sulu seas in November 2011. Elevated oceanic concentrations for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide of on average 19.9, 5.0 and 3.8 pmol L-1, in particular close to Singapore and to the coast of Borneo, with high corresponding oceanic emissions of 1486, 405 and 433 pmol m-2 h-1 respectively, characterise this tropical region as a strong source of these compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL were unexpectedly relatively low with 2.08, 1.17 and 0.39 ppt for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide. We use meteorological and chemical ship and aircraft observations, FLEXPART trajectory calculations and source-loss estimates to identify the oceanic VSLS contribution to the MABL and to the FT. Our results show that the well-ventilated MABL and intense convection led to the low atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL despite the high oceanic emissions. Up to 45 % of the accumulated bromoform in the FT above the region originates from the local South China Sea area, while dibromomethane is largely advected from distant source regions and the local ocean only contributes 20 %. The accumulated methyl iodide in the FT is higher than can be explained with local contributions. Possible reasons, uncertainties and consequences of our observations and model estimates are discussed.

  10. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  11. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  12. Ocean noise in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sirović, Ana; Wiggins, Sean M; Oleson, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    Ocean ambient noise is well studied in the North Pacific and North Atlantic but is poorly described for most of the worlds' oceans. Calibrated passive acoustic recordings were collected during 2009-2010 at seven locations in the central and western tropical and subtropical Pacific. Monthly and hourly mean power spectra (15-1000 Hz) were calculated in addition to their skewness, kurtosis, and percentile distributions. Overall, ambient noise at these seven sites was 10-20 dB lower than reported recently for most other locations in the North Pacific. At frequencies <100 Hz, spectrum levels were equivalent to those predicted for remote or light shipping. Noise levels in the 40 Hz band were compared to the presence of nearby and distant ships as reported to the World Meteorological Organization Voluntary Observing Ship Scheme (VOS) project. There was a positive, but nonsignificant correlation between distant shipping and low frequency noise (at 40 Hz). There was a seasonal variation in ambient noise at frequencies >200 Hz with higher levels recorded in the winter than in the summer. Several species of baleen whales, humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and fin (B. physalus) whales, also contributed seasonally to ambient noise in characteristic frequency bands. PMID:24116406

  13. Ocean noise in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sirović, Ana; Wiggins, Sean M; Oleson, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    Ocean ambient noise is well studied in the North Pacific and North Atlantic but is poorly described for most of the worlds' oceans. Calibrated passive acoustic recordings were collected during 2009-2010 at seven locations in the central and western tropical and subtropical Pacific. Monthly and hourly mean power spectra (15-1000 Hz) were calculated in addition to their skewness, kurtosis, and percentile distributions. Overall, ambient noise at these seven sites was 10-20 dB lower than reported recently for most other locations in the North Pacific. At frequencies <100 Hz, spectrum levels were equivalent to those predicted for remote or light shipping. Noise levels in the 40 Hz band were compared to the presence of nearby and distant ships as reported to the World Meteorological Organization Voluntary Observing Ship Scheme (VOS) project. There was a positive, but nonsignificant correlation between distant shipping and low frequency noise (at 40 Hz). There was a seasonal variation in ambient noise at frequencies >200 Hz with higher levels recorded in the winter than in the summer. Several species of baleen whales, humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and fin (B. physalus) whales, also contributed seasonally to ambient noise in characteristic frequency bands.

  14. Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, A.-I.; Laakso, A.; Schmidt, A.; Kokkola, H.; Kuokkanen, T.; Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laakso, L.; Korhonen, H.

    2013-08-01

    Aerosol particles from shipping emissions both cool the climate and cause adverse health effects. The cooling effect is, however, declining because of shipping emission controls aiming to improve air quality. We used an aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to test whether by altering ship fuel sulfur content, the present-day aerosol-induced cooling effect from shipping could be preserved while at the same time reducing premature mortality rates related to shipping emissions. We compared the climate and health effects of a present-day shipping emission scenario with (1) a simulation with strict emission controls in the coastal waters (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1%) and twofold ship fuel sulfur content compared to current global average of 2.7% elsewhere; and (2) a scenario with global strict shipping emission controls (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1% in coastal waters and 0.5% elsewhere) roughly corresponding to international agreements to be enforced by the year 2020. Scenario 1 had a slightly stronger aerosol-induced radiative flux perturbation (RFP) from shipping than the present-day scenario (-0.43 W m-2 vs. -0.39 W m-2) while reducing premature mortality from shipping by 69% (globally 34 900 deaths avoided per year). Scenario 2 decreased the RFP to -0.06 W m-2 and annual deaths by 96% (globally 48 200 deaths avoided per year) compared to present-day. A small difference in radiative effect (global mean of 0.04 W m-2) in the coastal regions between Scenario 1 and the present-day scenario imply that shipping emission regulation in the existing emission control areas should not be removed in hope of climate cooling. Our results show that the cooling effect of present-day emissions could be retained with simultaneous notable improvements in air quality, even though the shipping emissions from the open ocean clearly have a significant effect on continental air quality. However, increasing ship fuel sulfur content in the open ocean would violate existing

  15. Math Model for Naval Ship Handling Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golovcsenko, Igor V.

    The report describes the math model for an experimental ship handling trainer. The training task is that of a replenishment operation at sea. The model includes equations for ship dynamics of a destroyer, propeller-engine response times, ship separation, interaction effects between supply ship and destroyer, and outputs to a visual display system.…

  16. Focusing on Improving Automated Meteorological Observations from Ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shawn R.

    2004-08-01

    The High-Resolution Marine Meteorology (HRMM) community is working to improve the quality of, and access to, surface marine meteorological and oceanographic data collected in situ by automated instrumentation on ships and moored platforms. The purpose of the Second High-Resolution Marine Meteorology Workshop, hosted by The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Climate Observation (OCO), last April, was to discuss implementation of the recommendations from the Workshop on High-Resolution Marine Meteorology held in Tallahassee, Florida on 3-5 March 2003 (for details, see http://www.coaps.fsu.edu/RVSMDC/marine_workshop/Workshop.html ). Shipboard automated meteorological and oceanographic systems (SAMOSs) are an essential component of a sustained ocean observing system. SAMOSs provide platform navigation, surface meteorology, and near-surface ocean data that are ideal benchmarks for new satellite sensors (e.g., WindSat, future National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) sensors) and global ocean-atmosphere models. SAMOS sampling is adequate to provide accurate estimates of the variability on scales (from subdiurnal) needed for satellite calibration and validation. Sampling rates also are ideal for estimating turbulent air-sea heat, momentum, and moisture fluxes that are critical for climate research and can be used to help understand sources of bias and uncertainty in global model flux fields. SAMOS observations from oceanographic research vessels (R/Vs) are of particular importance since these vessels frequently operate in areas far outside the normal merchant shipping lanes.

  17. Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas C.; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Seyler, André; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    NOx (NO and NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry and affect human health and the environment. Shipping emissions contribute substantially to the global emissions of anthropogenic NOx. Due to globalization and increased trade volume, the relative importance emissions from ships gain even more importance. The Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP), developed at IUP Bremen, has been used to perform measurements of NO2 in the visible spectral range. The observations allow the determination of spatial distributions of column densities of NO2 below the aircraft. Airborne measurements were performed over Northern Germany and adjacent coastal waters during the NOSE (NO2 from Shipping Emissions) campaign in August 2013. The focus of the campaign activities was on shipping emissions, but NO2 over cities and power plants has been measured as well. The measurements have a spatial resolution below the order of 100 × 30 m2, and they reveal the large spatial variability of NO2 and the evolution of NO2 plumes behind point sources. Shipping lanes as well as plumes of individual ships are detected by the AirMAP instrument. In this study, first results from the NOSE campaign are presented for selected measurement areas.

  18. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  19. Oceans '86 conference record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These five volumes represent the proceedings of the Oceans '86 Conference Washington, DC, 23-25 September 1986. Volume 1 includes papers on Underwater Photography and Sensing; Marine Recreation; Diving; CTACTS (Charleston Tactical Aircrew Combat Training System); Offshore and Coastal Structures; Underwater Welding, Burning and Cutting; Advances in Ocean Mapping; Ocean Energy; Biofouling and Corrosion; Moorings, Cables and Connections; Marine Minerals; Remote Sensing and Satellites; and Acoustics Analysis. Volume 2 covers Data Base Management; Modeling and Simulation; Ocean Current Simulation; Instrumentation; Artificial Reefs and Fisheries; US Status and Trends; Education and Technology Transfer; Economic Potential and Coastal Zone Management; and Water Quality. Volume 3 includes papers on National and Regional Monitoring Strategies; New Techniques and Strategies for Monitoring; Indicator Parameters/Organisms; Historical Data; Crystal Cube for Coastal and Estuarine Degradation; and the Monitoring Gap. Volume 4 covers the Organotin Symposium - Chemistry; Toxicity Studies; and Environmental Monitoring and Modeling. Volume 5 includes papers on Advances in Oceanography; Applied Oceanography; Unmanned Vehicles and ROV's; Manned Vehicles; and Oceanographic Ships.

  20. Future emissions from shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. P.; Nilssen, T. B.; Lindholt, L.; Eide, M. S.; Glomsrød, S.; Eide, L. I.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    The Arctic sea-ice is retreating faster than predicted by climate models and could become ice free during summer this century. The reduced sea-ice extent may effectively "unlock" the Arctic Ocean to increased human activities such as transit shipping and expanded oil and gas production. Travel time between Europe and the north Pacific Region can be reduced by up to 50 % with low sea-ice levels and the use of this route could increase substantially as the sea-ice retreats. Oil and gas activities already occur in the Arctic region and given the large undiscovered petroleum resources increased activity could be expected with reduced sea-ice. We use a bottom-up shipping model and a detailed global energy market model to construct emission inventories of Arctic shipping and petroleum activities in 2030 and 2050 given estimated sea-ice extents. The emission inventories are on a 1×1 degree grid and cover both short-lived components (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, BC, OC) and the long-lived greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). We find rapid growth in transit shipping due to increased profitability with the shorter transit times compensating for increased costs in traversing areas of sea-ice. Oil and gas production remains relatively stable leading to reduced emissions from emission factor improvements. The location of oil and gas production moves into locations requiring more ship transport relative to pipeline transport, leading to rapid emissions growth from oil and gas transport via ship. Our emission inventories for the Arctic region will be used as input into chemical transport, radiative transfer, and climate models to quantify the role of Arctic activities in climate change compared to similar emissions occurring outside of the Arctic region.

  1. Ocean science. Enhanced: internal tides and ocean mixing.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Chris

    2003-09-26

    Recent satellite and in situ observations have shown that at ocean ridges and other seafloor topographic features, a substantial amount of energy is transferred from the main ocean tides into "internal tides." In his Perspective, Garrett explains how these internal waves with tidal periods propagate through the density-stratified deep ocean and eventually break down into turbulence. The resulting mixing affects ocean stratification and ocean circulation. It thus influences climate as well as biological production. The energy for the internal tides is derived from the rotational energy of the Earth-Moon system changes of the length of the day and the distance to the Moon. PMID:14512611

  2. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleijpen, H. M. A.; Neele, Filip P.

    2004-08-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be achieved using a spray of cold water in the inner parts of the exhaust system. The effects are compared with the effect of cooling with air. A typical frigate size diesel engine serves as an example for gas flow, composition and temperature of the plume. The infrared emission of the cooled an un-cooled exhaust gases is calculated. Both the spectral behaviour and the integrated values over typical bands are discussed. Apart from the signature also some advantages of water exhaust gas cooling for the ship design are discussed.

  3. Identification of SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erin B; Nayak, Deepak K; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Bengten, Eva; Wilson, Melanie

    2015-07-01

    Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatases (SHIP) proteins have diverse roles in signal transduction. SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs were identified in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, based on sequence homology to murine and human SHIP sequences. Full-length cDNAs for catfish SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 (IpSHIP-1 and IpSHIP-2) were obtained using 5' and 3' RACE protocols. Catfish SHIP molecules share a high degree of sequence identity to their respective SHIP sequences from diverse taxa and both are encoded by single copy genes. IpSHIP-1 and IpSHIP-2 transcripts were expressed in all catfish tissues analyzed except for skin, and IpSHIP-1 message was more abundant than IpSHIP-2 message in lymphoid tissues. Catfish clonal B, cytotoxic T, and macrophage cell lines also expressed message for both molecules. IpSHIP-1 and IpSHIP-2 SH2 domains were expressed as recombinant proteins and were both found to be bound by cross-reacting rabbit anti-mouse SHIP-1 pAb. The anti-mouse SHIP-1 pAb also reacted with cell lysates from the cytotoxic T cell lines, macrophages and stimulated PBL. SHIP-1 is also phosphorylated at a conserved tyrosine residue, as shown by immunoprecipitation studies.

  4. Ocean tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendershott, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  5. Future Projections of Trans-Arctic Shipping Potential and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Smith, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    As the Arctic Ocean transitions towards a seasonally ice-free state, efforts to predict new connections between the Arctic and the global economy are underway. In particular, record lows in September sea ice extent from 2007-2013 have recast Arctic shipping routes as emerging international seaways for export of resources and as potential alternative pathways for global trade. While ensemble-averaged output from sea ice models suggest significant increases in vessel accessibility in September by midcentury (Smith & Stephenson, 2013), the seasonal length and variability of trans-Arctic shipping is not well understood. In addition, differences in ice extent due to inter-model variability reveal significant uncertainties in the magnitude and location of future vessel access. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping as driven by sea ice output from CMIP5 models. Optimal vessel transits from North America and Europe to the Bering Strait are estimated for two periods representing present-day (2006-2015) and midcentury (2040-2059) conditions under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5), assuming Polar Class 6 (PC6) and open-water vessels (OW) with medium and no ice-breaking capability, respectively. Results illustrate a range of potential futures for shipping in the Arctic owing to differences in model choice, vessel capability, and climate forcing. Inter-model differences reveal the importance of model choice in devising projections for strategic planning by governments, environmental agencies, and the global maritime industry.

  6. NASA tracking ship navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is broken down into its basic components. Particular emphasis is given to the inertial navigation system. Each navigation system used, a mariner star tracker, navigation satellite system, Loran C and OMEGA in conjunction with the inertial system is described. The accuracy of each system is compared along with their limitations.

  7. Shipping container for fissile material

    DOEpatents

    Crowder, H.E.

    1984-12-17

    The present invention is directed to a shipping container for the interstate transportation of enriched uranium materials. The shipping container is comprised of a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical-shaped outer vessel lined with thermal insulation. Disposed inside the thermal insulation and spaced apart from the inner walls of the outer vessel is a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical inner vessel impervious to liquid and gaseous substances and having the inner surfaces coated with a layer of cadmium to prevent nuclear criticality. The cadmium is, in turn, lined with a protective shield of high-density urethane for corrosion and wear protection. 2 figs.

  8. Direct and remote sensing observations of the effects of ships on clouds.

    PubMed

    Radke, L F; Coakley, J A; King, M D

    1989-12-01

    Under certain conditions ships can affect the structure of shallow layer clouds. Simultaneous observations of two ship track signatures in stratus clouds from a satellite and in situ from an aircraft show that in the ship tracks the droplet sizes were reduced and total concentrations of both droplets and particles were substantially increased from those in adjacent clouds. In situ measurements of the upwelling radiance within the ship tracks was significantly enhanced at visible wavelengths, whereas radiance at 2.2 micrometers was significantly reduced. Cloud reflectivity along the tracks was enhanced at 0.63 and 3.7 micrometers. These observations support the contention that ship track signatures in clouds are produced primarily by particles emitted from ships.

  9. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  10. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  11. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  12. Impact of future Arctic shipping on high-latitude black carbon deposition (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J. J.; Browse, J.; Carslaw, K. S.; Schmidt, A.

    2013-12-01

    The retreat of Arctic sea-ice has led to renewed calls to exploit Arctic shipping routes. The diversion of ship traffic through the Arctic will shorten shipping routes and possibly reduce global shipping emissions. However, deposition of black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted by additional Arctic ships could cause a reduction in the albedo of snow and ice, accelerating snow-melt and sea-ice loss. We use recently compiled Arctic shipping emission inventories for 2004 and 2050 together with a global aerosol microphysics model GLOMAP coupled to the chemical transport model TOMCAT to quantify the contribution of future Arctic shipping to high-latitude BC deposition. Emission rates of SOx (SO2 and SO4) and particulate matter (PM) were estimated for 2050 under both business-as-usual and high-growth scenarios. BC particles are assumed to be water-insoluble at emission but can become active in cloud drop formation through soluble material accumulation. After BC particles become cloud-active they are more efficiently wet scavenged, which accounts for 80% of modeled BC deposition. Current-day Arctic shipping contributes 0.3% to the BC mass deposited north of 60N (250 Gg). About 50% of modelled BC deposition is on open ocean, suggesting that current Arctic ship traffic may not significantly contribute to BC deposition on central Arctic sea ice. However, 6 - 8% of deposited BC on the west coast of Greenland originates from local ship traffic. Moreover, in-Arctic shipping contributes some 32% to high-latitude ship-sourced deposition despite accounting for less than 1.0% of global shipping emissions. This suggests that control of in-Arctic shipping BC emissions could yield greater decrease in high-latitude BC deposition than a similar control strategy applied only to the extra-Arctic shipping industry. Arctic shipping in 2050 will contribute less than 1% to the total BC deposition north of 60N due to the much greater relative contribution of BC transported from non-shipping sources

  13. 76 FR 22104 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... NVO License Ameritrans Freight International (USA), LLC (NVO & OFF), 13723 Harvest Glen Way...), Brian Ziha, President, Application Type: New NVO License Global Shipping & Freight International, Inc...-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary...

  14. 78 FR 35635 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40101) effective on...

  15. 75 FR 17744 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocation The Federal Maritime Commission hereby gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  16. 76 FR 34993 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance Notice is hereby given that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been reissued by the Federal Maritime Commission pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  17. 76 FR 60837 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocation The Federal Maritime Commission hereby gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  18. 75 FR 57797 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance Notice is hereby given that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has been reissued by the Federal Maritime Commission pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  19. 76 FR 31963 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation The Federal Maritime Commission hereby gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  20. 75 FR 65016 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance Notice is hereby given that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been reissued by the Federal Maritime Commission pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  1. 75 FR 3467 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Reissuance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Reissuance Notice is hereby given that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has been reissued by the Federal Maritime Commission pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984...

  2. 75 FR 17743 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance Notice is hereby given that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been reissued by the Federal Maritime Commission pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  3. 76 FR 59128 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation The Federal Maritime Commission hereby gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  4. 76 FR 31963 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Reissuance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Reissuance Notice is hereby given that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been reissued by the Federal Maritime Commission pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984...

  5. 76 FR 59128 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance Notice is hereby given that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has been reissued by the Federal Maritime Commission pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  6. 75 FR 3467 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Federal Maritime Commission hereby gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  7. 77 FR 49446 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has been reissued pursuant to section 40901 of the Shipping...: 1416 Blue Hill Avenue, Boston, MA 02125. Date Reissued: June 26, 2012. Vern W. Hill, Director,...

  8. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-02-09

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.

  9. Calcification rates of the Caribbean reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea adversely affected by both seawater warming and CO2-induced ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, K. M.; Connolly, B. D.; Westfield, I. T.; Chow, E.; Castillo, K. D.; Ries, J. B.

    2013-05-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that atmospheric pCO2 will increase to ca. 550-950 ppm by the end of the century, primarily due to the anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, and cement production. This is predicted to cause SST to increase by 1-3 °C and seawater pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3 units. Laboratory studies have shown that warming depresses calcification rates of scleractinian corals and that acidification yields mixed effects on coral calcification. With both warming and ocean acidification predicted for the next century, we must constrain the interactive effects of these two CO2-induced stressors on scleractinian coral calcification. Here, we present the results of experiments designed to assess the response of the scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea to both ocean warming and acidification. Coral fragments (12/tank) were reared for 60 days under three temperatures (25.1± 0.02 °C, 28.0± 0.02 °C, 31.8± 0.02 °C) at near modern pCO2 (436 ± 7) and near the highest IPCC estimate for atmospheric pCO2 for the year 2100 AD (883 ± 16). Each temperature and pCO2 treatment was executed in triplicate and contained similarly sized S. Siderea fragments obtained from the same suite of coral colonies equitably distributed amongst the nearshore, backreef, and forereef zones of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System off the coast of southern Belize. Individual coral fragments were hand fed Artemia sp. to satiation twice weekly. Weekly seawater samples (250 ml) were collected and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon via coulometry and total alkalinity via closed-cell potentiometric titration. Seawater pCO2, pH, carbonate ion concentration, bicarbonate ion concentration, aqueous CO2, and aragonite saturation state (ΩA) were calculated with the program CO2SYS. Under near-modern atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 436 ± 7 ppm, seawater warming from 25 to 28 to 32°C caused coral calcification rates (estimated from change in

  10. SHIP represses lung inflammation and inhibits mammary tumor metastasis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Melisa J; Halvorsen, Elizabeth C; LePard, Nancy E; Bosiljcic, Momir; Ho, Victor W; Lam, Vivian; Banáth, Judit; Bennewith, Kevin L; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-01-26

    SH2-containing-inositol-5'-phosphatase (SHIP) is a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway in hematopoietic cells and limits the development of leukemias and lymphomas. The potential role of SHIP in solid tumor development and metastasis remains unknown. While SHIP restricts the aberrant development of myeloid cells in C57BL/6 mice, there are conflicting reports regarding the effect of SHIP deletion in BALB/c mice with important consequences for determining the influence of SHIP in different model tumor systems. We generated SHIP-/- BALB/c mice and challenged them with syngeneic non-metastatic 67NR or metastatic 4T1 mammary tumors. We demonstrate that SHIP restricts the development, alternative-activation, and immunosuppressive function of myeloid cells in tumor-free and tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. Tumor-free SHIP-/- BALB/c mice exhibited pulmonary inflammation, myeloid hyperplasia, and M2-polarized macrophages and this phenotype was greatly exacerbated by 4T1, but not 67NR, tumors. 4T1-bearing SHIP-/- mice rapidly lost weight and died from necrohemorrhagic inflammatory pulmonary disease, characterized by massive infiltration of pulmonary macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells that were more M2-polarized and immunosuppressive than wild-type cells. Importantly, while SHIP loss did not affect primary tumor growth, 4T1-bearing SHIP-/- mice had 7.5-fold more metastatic tumor cells in their lungs than wild-type mice, consistent with the influence of immunosuppressive myeloid cells on metastatic growth. Our findings identify the hematopoietic cell-restricted protein SHIP as an intriguing target to influence the development of solid tumor metastases, and support development of SHIP agonists to prevent the accumulation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells and tumor metastases in the lungs to improve treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

  11. An outbreak of Cyclospora infection on a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R A; Nanyonjo, R; Pingault, N M; Combs, B G; Mazzucchelli, T; Armstrong, P; Tarling, G; Dowse, G K

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of cyclosporiasis affected passengers and crew on two successive voyages of a cruise ship that departed from and returned to Fremantle, Australia. There were 73 laboratory-confirmed and 241 suspected cases of Cyclospora infection reported in passengers and crew from the combined cruises. A case-control study performed in crew members found that illness was associated with eating items of fresh produce served onboard the ship, but the study was unable conclusively to identify the responsible food(s). It is likely that one or more of the fresh produce items taken onboard at a south-east Asian port during the first cruise was contaminated. If fresh produce supplied to cruise ships is sourced from countries or regions where Cyclospora is endemic, robust standards of food production and hygiene should be applied to the supply chain. PMID:22687637

  12. Compliance of Royal Naval ships with nitrogen oxide emissions legislation.

    PubMed

    Blatcher, D J; Eames, I

    2013-09-15

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from marine diesel engines pose a hazard to human health and the environment. From 2021, demanding emissions limits are expected to be applied to sea areas that the Royal Navy (RN) accesses. We analyze how these future constraints affect the choice of NOx abatement systems for RN ships, which are subject to more design constraints than civilian ships. A weighted matrix approach is used to facilitate a quantitative assessment. For most warships to be built soon after 2021 Lean Nitrogen Traps (LNT) in conjunction with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) represents a relatively achievable option with fewer drawbacks than other system types. Urea-selective catalytic reduction is likely to be most appropriate for ships that are built to civilian standards. The future technologies that are at an early stage of development are discussed. PMID:23906471

  13. Compliance of Royal Naval ships with nitrogen oxide emissions legislation.

    PubMed

    Blatcher, D J; Eames, I

    2013-09-15

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from marine diesel engines pose a hazard to human health and the environment. From 2021, demanding emissions limits are expected to be applied to sea areas that the Royal Navy (RN) accesses. We analyze how these future constraints affect the choice of NOx abatement systems for RN ships, which are subject to more design constraints than civilian ships. A weighted matrix approach is used to facilitate a quantitative assessment. For most warships to be built soon after 2021 Lean Nitrogen Traps (LNT) in conjunction with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) represents a relatively achievable option with fewer drawbacks than other system types. Urea-selective catalytic reduction is likely to be most appropriate for ships that are built to civilian standards. The future technologies that are at an early stage of development are discussed.

  14. An outbreak of Cyclospora infection on a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R A; Nanyonjo, R; Pingault, N M; Combs, B G; Mazzucchelli, T; Armstrong, P; Tarling, G; Dowse, G K

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of cyclosporiasis affected passengers and crew on two successive voyages of a cruise ship that departed from and returned to Fremantle, Australia. There were 73 laboratory-confirmed and 241 suspected cases of Cyclospora infection reported in passengers and crew from the combined cruises. A case-control study performed in crew members found that illness was associated with eating items of fresh produce served onboard the ship, but the study was unable conclusively to identify the responsible food(s). It is likely that one or more of the fresh produce items taken onboard at a south-east Asian port during the first cruise was contaminated. If fresh produce supplied to cruise ships is sourced from countries or regions where Cyclospora is endemic, robust standards of food production and hygiene should be applied to the supply chain.

  15. N2O and CH4 distribution and fluxes in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Andy; Brown, Ian; Shutler, Jamie; Ashton, Ian

    2016-04-01

    The world's oceans are a natural source of both N2O and CH4 contributing up to 30% and 10% of the global atmospheric emissions respectively. That said, marine sources are not well constrained owing to a paucity of observations. For both gases there are regional hotspots of production, often associated with upwelling areas and coastal environments, though the distribution of source and sink areas are often spatially and temporarily variable. Here we present data from the greater North Atlantic Ocean to examine factors affecting regional variability in the distribution of both gases and then provide an assessment of seasonal variability for the North East continental shelf region. The flux of gases between the ocean and atmosphere is described by the concentration gradient between the two phases and the gas transfer velocity, the determination of which is directly influenced by wind speed. The measurement of wind speed on ships at sea coincident with analyses of dissolved gases is prone to errors associated with the moving platform and turbulence associated with air masses at the sea surface. To address this problem we provide comparative estimates of the air-sea exchange of both gases determined by ship-based and remotely sensed measurements of wind speed and surface temperature.

  16. World Ships: The Solar-Photon Sail Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    The World Ship, a spacecraft large enough to simulate a small-scale terrestrial internal environment, may be the best feasible option to transfer members of a technological civilization between neighboring stars. Because of the projected size of these spacecraft, journey durations of ~1,000 years seem likely. One of the propulsion options for World Ships is the hyper-thin, likely space-manufactured solar-photon sail, unfurled as close to the migrating civilization's home star as possible. Because the sail and associated structure can be wound around the habitat while not in use, it represents the only known ultimately feasible interstellar propulsion system that can be applied for en route galactic-cosmic ray shielding as well as acceleration/ deceleration. This paper reviews the three suggested sail configurations that can be applied to world ship propulsion: parachute, hollow-body and hoop sails. Possible existing and advanced sail and structure materials and the predicted effects on the sail of the near-Sun space environment are reviewed. Consideration of solar-photon-sail World Ships also affects SETI (the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence). Can we detect such craft in flight? When in a star's lifetime is migration using such craft likely? What classes of stars are good candidates for solar-sail World-Ship searches?

  17. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  18. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... person receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  19. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... person receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  20. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  1. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... person receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  2. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  3. How To Improve You Shipping and Receiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how two universities improved their shipping and receiving operations and cut costs. Examples from the University of Texas at Dallas and John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, illustrate how they established greater shipping and receiving department efficiencies. (GR)

  4. Developing Shipping Emissions Assessments, Inventories and Scenarios (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Inventories of shipping have been important contributions to scientific understanding of regional pollution and transboundary transport. These inventories have also been used to evaluate global scale environmental and climate effects and trends. However, these inventories also inform policy making decisions and this role is increasingly occurring within the timescale of scientific assessment. Shipping exhibits a growth trend for uncontrolled pollutants that is highly coupled to economic activity, and historically increasing faster than many other anthropogenic sources on a global and regional scale. Shipping emissions are being regulated asymmetrically in various dimensions. Some pollutants are being controlled more than others, some regions are subject to stricter controls, and correlated changes in operations are affecting unregulated pollutant emissions. Shipping inventories require more than current assessments, including historic and future scenarios. Generally conceived as sets of business-as-usual (BAU) and high-growth scenarios, ship inventories now also need regulatory control pathways and maximum feasible reduction (MFR) scenarios. In this context, shipping inventories also present other challenges to both scientists and policymakers. Systemic bias can occur in non-shipping assessments when emissions along well-traveled shipping lanes are ignored by far offshore scientific studies, even some campaigns that control very carefully the potential influence of the shipping platforms for their measurements. Examples where shipping may contribute understood and potential biases include: a. Health impacts from transboundary pollution b. Ozone trends over the Pacific c. Sulfur emissions from biogenic sources in Northern hemisphere d. Acidification of coastal waters (potential) e. Arctic impacts on snow and ice Other challenges exist. The fuels and technology used by ships are unique from other transportation, from other stationary sources - and these are changing

  5. Modeling the chemical effects of ship exhaust in the cloud-free marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Lawrence, M. G.; Sander, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-02-01

    The chemical evolution of the exhaust plumes of ocean-going ships in the cloud-free marine boundary layer is examined with a box model. Dilution of the ship plume via entrainment of background air was treated as in studies of aircraft emissions and was found to be a very important process that significantly alters model results. We estimated the chemical lifetime (defined as the time when differences between plume and background air are reduced to 5% or less) of the exhaust plume of a single ship to be 2 days. Increased concentrations of NOx (= NO + NO2) in the plume air lead to higher catalytical photochemical production rates of O3 and also of OH. Due to increased OH concentrations in the plume, the lifetime of many species (especially NOx) is significantly reduced in plume air. The chemistry on background aerosols has a significant effect on gas phase chemistry in the ship plume, while partly soluble ship-produced aerosols are computed to only have a very small effect. Soot particles emitted by ships showed no effect on gas phase chemistry. Halogen species that are released from sea salt aerosols are slightly increased in plume air. In the early plume stages, however, the mixing ratio of BrO is decreased because it reacts rapidly with NO. To study the global effects of ship emissions we used a simple upscaling approach which suggested that the parameterization of ship emissions in global chemistry models as a constant source at the sea surface leads to an overestimation of the effects of ship emissions on O3 of about 50% and on OH of roughly a factor of 2. The differences are mainly caused by a strongly reduced lifetime (compared to background air) of NOxin the early stages of a ship plume.

  6. Modeling the chemical effects of ship exhaust in the cloud-free marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Lawrence, M. G.; Sander, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2002-06-01

    The chemical evolution of the exhaust plumes of ocean-going ships in the cloud-free marine boundary layer is examined with a box model. Dilution of the ship plume via entrainment of background air was treated as in studies of aircraft emissions and was found to be a very important process that significantly alters model results. We estimated the chemical lifetime (defined as the time when differences between plume and background air are reduced to 5% or less) of the exhaust plume of a single ship to be 2 days. Increased concentrations of NOx in the plume air lead to higher catalytical photochemical production rates of O3 and also of OH. Due to increased OH concentrations in the plume, the lifetime of many species (especially NOx) is reduced in plume air. The chemistry on background aerosols has a significant effect on gas phase chemistry in the ship plume, while partly soluble ship-produced aerosols are computed to only have a very small effect. Soot particles emitted by ships showed no effect on gas phase chemistry. Halogen species that are released from sea salt aerosols are slightly increased in plume air. In the early plume stages, however, the mixing ratio of BrO is decreased because it reacts rapidly with NO. To study the global effects of ship emissions we used a simple upscaling approach which suggested that the parameterization of ship emissions in global chemistry models as a constant source at the sea surface leads to an overestimation of the effects of ship emissions of roughly a factor of 2. The differences are caused by a strongly reduced lifetime (compared to background air) of NOx in the early stages of a ship plume.

  7. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis. PMID:27076378

  8. Ship detection from high-resolution imagery based on land masking and cloud filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Tianming; Zhang, Junping

    2015-12-01

    High resolution satellite images play an important role in target detection application presently. This article focuses on the ship target detection from the high resolution panchromatic images. Taking advantage of geographic information such as the coastline vector data provided by NOAA Medium Resolution Coastline program, the land region is masked which is a main noise source in ship detection process. After that, the algorithm tries to deal with the cloud noise which appears frequently in the ocean satellite images, which is another reason for false alarm. Based on the analysis of cloud noise's feature in frequency domain, we introduce a windowed noise filter to get rid of the cloud noise. With the help of morphological processing algorithms adapted to target detection, we are able to acquire ship targets in fine shapes. In addition, we display the extracted information such as length and width of ship targets in a user-friendly way i.e. a KML file interpreted by Google Earth.

  9. The contribution from shipping emissions to air quality and acid deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Derwent, Richard G; Stevenson, David S; Doherty, Ruth M; Collins, William J; Sanderson, Michael G; Johnson, Colin E; Cofala, Janusz; Mechler, Reinhard; Amann, Markus; Dentener, Frank J

    2005-02-01

    A global three-dimensional Lagrangian chemistry-transport model STOCHEM is used to describe the European regional acid deposition and ozone air quality impacts along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard of Europe, from the SO2, NOx, VOCs and CO emissions from international shipping under conditions appropriate to the year 2000. Model-derived total sulfur deposition from international shipping reaches over 200 mg S m(-2) yr(-1) over the southwestern approaches to the British Isles and Brittany. The contribution from international shipping to surface ozone concentrations during the summertime, peaks at about 6 ppb over Ireland, Brittany and Portugal. Shipping emissions act as an external influence on acid deposition and ozone air quality within Europe and may require control actions in the future if strict deposition and air quality targets are to be met.

  10. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis.

  11. 46 CFR 180.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 180... § 180.202 Survival craft—vessels operating on oceans routes. (a) Each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must either: (1) Be provided with inflatable buoyant apparatus of...

  12. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  13. 46 CFR 117.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 117... operating on oceans routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must be provided with inflatable liferafts of...

  14. 46 CFR 117.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 117... operating on oceans routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must be provided with inflatable liferafts of...

  15. 46 CFR 117.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 117... operating on oceans routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must be provided with inflatable liferafts of...

  16. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  17. 46 CFR 11.401 - Ocean and near-coastal officer or STCW endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean and near-coastal officer or STCW endorsements. 11... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.401 Ocean... master or mate on ocean waters qualifies the mariner to serve in the same grade on any waters, subject...

  18. 46 CFR 180.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 180... § 180.202 Survival craft—vessels operating on oceans routes. (a) Each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must either: (1) Be provided with inflatable buoyant apparatus of...

  19. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  20. 46 CFR 117.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 117... operating on oceans routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must be provided with inflatable liferafts of...

  1. 46 CFR 11.401 - Ocean and near-coastal national officer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean and near-coastal national officer endorsements. 11... Endorsements § 11.401 Ocean and near-coastal national officer endorsements. (a) Subject to the provisions of... on ocean waters qualifies the mariner to serve in the same grade on any waters, except towing...

  2. 46 CFR 11.401 - Ocean and near-coastal officer or STCW endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean and near-coastal officer or STCW endorsements. 11... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.401 Ocean... master or mate on ocean waters qualifies the mariner to serve in the same grade on any waters, subject...

  3. 46 CFR 11.401 - Ocean and near-coastal officer or STCW endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean and near-coastal officer or STCW endorsements. 11... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.401 Ocean... master or mate on ocean waters qualifies the mariner to serve in the same grade on any waters, subject...

  4. 46 CFR 11.401 - Ocean and near-coastal officer or STCW endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean and near-coastal officer or STCW endorsements. 11... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.401 Ocean... master or mate on ocean waters qualifies the mariner to serve in the same grade on any waters, subject...

  5. 46 CFR 180.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 180... § 180.202 Survival craft—vessels operating on oceans routes. (a) Each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must either: (1) Be provided with inflatable buoyant apparatus of...

  6. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  7. 46 CFR 117.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 117... operating on oceans routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must be provided with inflatable liferafts of...

  8. 46 CFR 180.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 180... § 180.202 Survival craft—vessels operating on oceans routes. (a) Each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must either: (1) Be provided with inflatable buoyant apparatus of...

  9. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  10. 46 CFR 180.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 180... § 180.202 Survival craft—vessels operating on oceans routes. (a) Each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must either: (1) Be provided with inflatable buoyant apparatus of...

  11. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  12. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26...

  13. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  14. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  15. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  16. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  17. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  18. Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Megan F; Ross, Donald; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Underwater radiated noise measurements for seven types of modern commercial ships during normal operating conditions are presented. Calibrated acoustic data (<1000 Hz) from an autonomous seafloor-mounted acoustic recorder were combined with ship passage information from the Automatic Identification System. This approach allowed for detailed measurements (i.e., source level, sound exposure level, and transmission range) on ships of opportunity. A key result was different acoustic levels and spectral shapes observed from different ship-types. A 54 kGT container ship had the highest broadband source level at 188 dB re 1 μPa@1m; a 26 kGT chemical tanker had the lowest at 177 dB re 1 μPa@1m. Bulk carriers had higher source levels near 100 Hz, while container ship and tanker noise was predominantly below 40 Hz. Simple models to predict source levels of modern merchant ships as a group from particular ship characteristics (e.g., length, gross tonnage, and speed) were not possible given individual ship-type differences. Furthermore, ship noise was observed to radiate asymmetrically. Stern aspect noise levels are 5 to 10 dB higher than bow aspect noise levels. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of including modern ship-types in quantifying shipping noise for predictive models of global, regional, and local marine environments. PMID:22280574

  19. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  20. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  1. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  2. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  3. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  4. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  5. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  6. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  7. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  8. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  9. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  10. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  11. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  12. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  13. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  14. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  15. Role of SHIP1 in Invariant NKT Cell Development and Functions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Courtney K; Salter, Alexander I; Toussaint, Leon E; Reilly, Emma C; Fugère, Céline; Srivastava, Neetu; Kerr, William G; Brossay, Laurent

    2015-09-01

    SHIP1 is a 5'-inositol phosphatase known to negatively regulate the signaling product of the PI3K pathway, phosphatidylinositol (3-5)-trisphosphate. SHIP1 is recruited to a large number of inhibitory receptors expressed on invariant NK (iNKT) cells. We hypothesized that SHIP1 deletion would have major effects on iNKT cell development by altering the thresholds for positive and negative selection. Germline SHIP1 deletion has been shown to affect T cells as well as other immune cell populations. However, the role of SHIP1 on T cell function has been controversial, and its participation on iNKT cell development and function has not been examined. We evaluated the consequences of SHIP1 deletion on iNKT cells using germline-deficient mice, chimeric mice, and conditionally deficient mice. We found that T cell and iNKT cell development are impaired in germline-deficient animals. However, this phenotype can be rescued by extrinsic expression of SHIP1. In contrast, SHIP1 is required cell autonomously for optimal iNKT cell cytokine secretion. This suggests that SHIP1 calibrates the threshold of iNKT cell reactivity. These data further our understanding of how iNKT cell activation is regulated and provide insights into the biology of this unique cell lineage. PMID:26232432

  16. Identification of SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol 5’-phosphatases (SHIP) proteins have diverse roles in signal transduction. SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs were identified in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, based on sequence homology to murine and human SHIP sequences. Full-length cDNAs for ...

  17. Ship motion estimation from polarized Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wang-Qiang; Zhang, Min; Nie, Ding; Sun, Rong-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces and further estimate the ship motion characteristics. The analysis of the ship wakes is helpful to detect the existence of ships on sea surface. And it will be an alternative method when the radar cross-section values are not competent to identify the ship target. In the study, Doppler spectra for different polarizations are compared with and without ship's wakes based on the second-order small slope approximation method. As expected, there appears the second spectral peak when ship's wake is considered. Moreover, the ship velocities, wind speed, and direction are also analyzed. As the results shown, there is a good linearity relation between the position of the second Doppler spectral peak and the ship velocity. Therefore, it is feasible to detect ship according the Doppler spectra.

  18. The quiet revolution: continuous glider monitoring at ocean 'choke' points as a key component of new cross-platform ocean observation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslop, E. E.; Tintore, J.; Ruiz, S.; Allen, J.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    A quiet revolution is taking place in ocean observations; in the last decade new multi-platform, integrated ocean observatories have been progressively implemented by forward looking countries with ocean borders of economic and strategic importance. These systems are designed to fill significant gaps in our knowledge of the ocean state and ocean variability, through long-term, science and society-led, ocean monitoring. These ocean observatories are now delivering results, not the headline results of a single issue experiment, but carefully and systematically improving our knowledge of ocean variability, and thereby, increasing model forecast skill and our ability to link physical processes to ecosystem response. Here we present the results from a 3-year quasi-continuous glider monitoring of a key circulation 'choke' point in the Western Mediterranean, undertaken by SOCIB (Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System). For the first time data from the high frequency glider sampling show variations in the transport volumes of water over timescales of days to weeks, as large as those previously only identifiable as seasonal or eddy driven. Although previous surveys noted high cruise-to-cruise variability, they were insufficient to show that in fact water volumes exchanged through this narrow 'choke' point fluctuate on 'weather' timescales. Using the glider data to leverage an 18-year record of ship missions, we define new seasonal cycles for the exchange of watermasses, challenging generally held assumptions. The pattern of the exchange is further simplified through the characterisation of 5 circulation modes and the defining of a new seasonal cycle for the interplay between mesoscale and basin scale dynamics. Restricted 'choke points' between our ocean basins are critical locations to monitor water transport variability, as they constrain the inter-basin exchange of heat, salt and nutrients. At the Ibiza Channel 'choke' point, the exchange of

  19. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  20. Resilience of SAR11 bacteria to rapid acidification in the high-latitude open ocean.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Manuela; Hill, Polly G; Tynan, Eithne; Achterberg, Eric P; Leakey, Raymond J G; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitous SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria numerically dominate marine planktonic communities. Because they are excruciatingly difficult to cultivate, there is comparatively little known about their physiology and metabolic responses to long- and short-term environmental changes. As surface oceans take up anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2, the consequential process of ocean acidification could affect the global biogeochemical significance of SAR11. Shipping accidents or inadvertent release of chemicals from industrial plants can have strong short-term local effects on oceanic SAR11. This study investigated the effect of 2.5-fold acidification of seawater on the metabolism of SAR11 and other heterotrophic bacterioplankton along a natural temperature gradient crossing the North Atlantic Ocean, Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Uptake rates of the amino acid leucine by SAR11 cells as well as other bacterioplankton remained similar to controls despite an instant ∼50% increase in leucine bioavailability upon acidification. This high physiological resilience to acidification even without acclimation, suggests that open ocean dominant bacterioplankton are able to cope even with sudden and therefore more likely with long-term acidification effects. PMID:26691595

  1. Resilience of SAR11 bacteria to rapid acidification in the high-latitude open ocean.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Manuela; Hill, Polly G; Tynan, Eithne; Achterberg, Eric P; Leakey, Raymond J G; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitous SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria numerically dominate marine planktonic communities. Because they are excruciatingly difficult to cultivate, there is comparatively little known about their physiology and metabolic responses to long- and short-term environmental changes. As surface oceans take up anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2, the consequential process of ocean acidification could affect the global biogeochemical significance of SAR11. Shipping accidents or inadvertent release of chemicals from industrial plants can have strong short-term local effects on oceanic SAR11. This study investigated the effect of 2.5-fold acidification of seawater on the metabolism of SAR11 and other heterotrophic bacterioplankton along a natural temperature gradient crossing the North Atlantic Ocean, Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Uptake rates of the amino acid leucine by SAR11 cells as well as other bacterioplankton remained similar to controls despite an instant ∼50% increase in leucine bioavailability upon acidification. This high physiological resilience to acidification even without acclimation, suggests that open ocean dominant bacterioplankton are able to cope even with sudden and therefore more likely with long-term acidification effects.

  2. Indian Ocean analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Gary

    1992-01-01

    The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality

  3. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  4. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  5. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  6. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  7. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  8. Predicting ship fuel consumption: Update. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrady, D.A.; Smyth, G.K.; Vassian, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report is concerned with the prediction of ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of predicted and actual fuel use data, the standard error of the estimate, and plots of actual and fitted data are given for 22 classes of Navy ships.

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required...

  10. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  11. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  12. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  13. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  14. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  15. Impact of Ship Emissions on Marine Boundary Layer NO(x) and SO2 Distributions over the Pacific Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. D.; Grodzinsky, G.; Kasibhatla, P.; Crawford, J.; Chen, G.; Liu, S.; Bandy, A.; Thornton, D.; Guan, H.; Sandholm, S.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of ship emissions on marine boundary layer (MBL) NO(x) and SO2 levels over the Pacific Ocean has been explored by comparing predictions (with and without ships) from a global chemical transport model (GCTM) against compiled airborne observations of MBL NO(x) and SO2. For latitudes above 15 N, which define that part of the Pacific having the heaviest shipping, this analysis revealed significant model over prediction for NOx and a modest under prediction for SO2 when ship emissions were considered. Possible reasons for the difference in NO(x) and SO2 were explored using a full-chemistry box model. These results revealed that for an actual plume setting the NO(x) lifetime could be greatly shortened by chemical processes promoted by ship plume emissions themselves. Similar chemical behavior was not found for SO2.

  16. The Ocean: Our Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  17. Ocean plankton. Patterns and ecological drivers of ocean viral communities.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Roux, Simon; Doulcier, Guilhem; Acinas, Silvia G; Alberti, Adriana; Chaffron, Samuel; Cruaud, Corinne; de Vargas, Colomban; Gasol, Josep M; Gorsky, Gabriel; Gregory, Ann C; Guidi, Lionel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stéphane; Poulos, Bonnie T; Schwenck, Sarah M; Speich, Sabrina; Dimier, Celine; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Bork, Peer; Bowler, Chris; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2015-05-22

    Viruses influence ecosystems by modulating microbial population size, diversity, metabolic outputs, and gene flow. Here, we use quantitative double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viral-fraction metagenomes (viromes) and whole viral community morphological data sets from 43 Tara Oceans expedition samples to assess viral community patterns and structure in the upper ocean. Protein cluster cataloging defined pelagic upper-ocean viral community pan and core gene sets and suggested that this sequence space is well-sampled. Analyses of viral protein clusters, populations, and morphology revealed biogeographic patterns whereby viral communities were passively transported on oceanic currents and locally structured by environmental conditions that affect host community structure. Together, these investigations establish a global ocean dsDNA viromic data set with analyses supporting the seed-bank hypothesis to explain how oceanic viral communities maintain high local diversity.

  18. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  3. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  4. IR susceptibility of naval ships using ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitekunas, David A.

    2010-04-01

    Methods of analysing the signature and susceptibility of naval platforms to infrared detection are described. An unclassified ShipIR destroyer model is used to illustrate the primary sources of infrared signature and detection: the exhaust system, solar-heating, and operating climate. The basic detection algorithm used by the Naval Threat Countermeasure Simulator (NTCS) component of ShipIR is described and used to analyse the effectiveness of various stealth technologies: stack suppression, low solar absorptive (LSA) paints, and Active Hull Cooling (AHC). Standard marine climate statistics are used to determine a minimum (5%), average (50%) and maximum (95%) signature condition for each operating region. The change in detection range of two wave-band sensors (3-5μm, 8-12 μm) operating at different altitudes (10m, 270m) in each of four climatic conditions is used to assess the effectiveness of each stealth solution, providing a more integral approach to infrared stealth design. These tools and methods form the basis on which future platform designs are being evaluated.

  5. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  6. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  7. Tools of Oceanography. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Florence

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern

  9. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination, inadequate heat treatment, and onshore excursions. Seafood was the most common food vehicle implicated in outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Many ship-associated outbreaks could have been prevented if measures had been taken to ensure adequate temperature control, avoidance of cross-contamination, reliable food sources, adequate heat treatment, and exclusion of infected food handlers from work. PMID:15219800

  10. Biodiversity Meets Neuroscience: From the Sequencing Ship (Ship-Seq) to Deciphering Parallel Evolution of Neural Systems in Omic's Era.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-12-01

    The origins of neural systems and centralized brains are one of the major transitions in evolution. These events might occur more than once over 570-600 million years. The convergent evolution of neural circuits is evident from a diversity of unique adaptive strategies implemented by ctenophores, cnidarians, acoels, molluscs, and basal deuterostomes. But, further integration of biodiversity research and neuroscience is required to decipher critical events leading to development of complex integrative and cognitive functions. Here, we outline reference species and interdisciplinary approaches in reconstructing the evolution of nervous systems. In the "omic" era, it is now possible to establish fully functional genomics laboratories aboard of oceanic ships and perform sequencing and real-time analyses of data at any oceanic location (named here as Ship-Seq). In doing so, fragile, rare, cryptic, and planktonic organisms, or even entire marine ecosystems, are becoming accessible directly to experimental and physiological analyses by modern analytical tools. Thus, we are now in a position to take full advantages from countless "experiments" Nature performed for us in the course of 3.5 billion years of biological evolution. Together with progress in computational and comparative genomics, evolutionary neuroscience, proteomic and developmental biology, a new surprising picture is emerging that reveals many ways of how nervous systems evolved. As a result, this symposium provides a unique opportunity to revisit old questions about the origins of biological complexity.

  11. Remote sensing of ocean currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Monthly field experiments in support of the NOAA investigation of ocean color boundary determination using ERTS data have been conducted since June 1972. The color boundary between the Loop Current and coastal water has been detected by airborne cameras with ERTS type bandpass filters, at altitudes of 7300 meters. Ship and aircraft data hint that the boundary may be enhanced due to increased phytoplankton populations caused by convergence of the surface waters. The term edge effect has been coined to describe this phenomenon.

  12. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation.

    PubMed

    Frajka-Williams, E

    2014-09-28

    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change.

  13. Coal-fired ships reappear

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A situation now exists where, in many countries, coal prices are almost half those of oil, and indications point toward this trend continuing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many shipowners are planning and building the next generation of steamships with coal-fired propulsion units. Six new coal-fired ships, the first for over 25 years, are now being built in Italy, Japan, and Spain. In the forefront in technology and systems for handling coal and ash is the British company Macawber Engineering. It has developed on-board systems responding to the problems created by coal handling on a modern steamship, problems that formed a major reason for the universal changeover to oil firing in the 1950s and 1960s. The traditional method of handling coal uses mechanical systems such as belt and draglink conveyors, and bucket elevators. These methods have disadvantages that make their use on ships far from satisfactory. Pneumatic conveying systems, due to their totally enclosed construction and relative simplicity, overcome these problems. The type of pneumatic system chosen, however, has to accommodate several other constraints imposed by on-board handling of coal. (SC)

  14. Shipping Cask Design Review Analysis.

    1998-01-04

    Version 01 SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) is a microcomputer based system of computer programs and databases for evaluating safety analysis reports on spent fuel shipping casks. SCANS calculates the global response to impact loads, pressure loads, and thermal conditions, providing reviewers with an independent check on analyses submitted by licensees. Analysis options are based on regulatory cases described in the Code of Federal Regulations (1983) and Regulatory Guides published by the NRC in 1977more » and 1978. The system is composed of a series of menus and input entry cask analysis, and output display programs. An analysis is performed by preparing the necessary input data and then selecting the appropriate analysis: impact, thermal (heat transfer), thermally-induced stress, or pressure-induced stress. All data are entered through input screens with descriptive data requests, and, where possible, default values are provided. Output (i.e., impact force, moment and sheer time histories; impact animation; thermal/stress geometry and thermal/stress element outlines; temperature distributions as isocontours or profiles; and temperature time histories) is displayed graphically and can also be printed.« less

  15. Study on photovoltaic power system on ships

    SciTech Connect

    Katagi, Takeshi; Fujii, Yoshimi; Nishikawa, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the application of photovoltaic power systems to ships. Two types of leisure or fishing boats powered by photovoltaics are designed. The boats described are single hull and catamaran type with twin hulls. The design of a new electric power system using a photovoltaic power system in a harbor ship having 20 tons is also proposed. The results of this study show that the photovoltaic power system can apply to small ships.

  16. The Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) Architecture: Coordination of Multiple Oceanic Robot Boats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Higinbotham, John; Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Kulczycki, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth s climate and ecology. Ocean sensing is typically done with satellites, buoys, and crewed research ships. The limitations of these systems include the fact that satellites are often blocked by cloud cover, and buoys and ships have spatial coverage limitations. This paper describes a multi-robot science exploration software architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF supervises and coordinates a group of robotic boats, the OASIS platforms, to enable in-situ study of phenomena in the ocean/atmosphere interface, as well as on the ocean surface and sub-surface. The OASIS platforms are extended deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAOSF allows a human operator to effectively supervise and coordinate multiple robotic assets using a sliding autonomy control architecture, where the operating mode of the vessels ranges from autonomous control to teleoperated human control. TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for robotic asset tasking, control, and monitoring. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We discuss the overall TAOSF architecture, describe field tests conducted under controlled conditions using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant, present initial results from these tests, and outline the next steps in the development of TAOSF.

  17. Convolution neural networks for ship type recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Katie; Reeder, John D.; Corelli, Alexander G.

    2016-05-01

    Algorithms to automatically recognize ship type from satellite imagery are desired for numerous maritime applications. This task is difficult, and example imagery accurately labeled with ship type is hard to obtain. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown promise in image recognition settings, but many of these applications rely on the availability of thousands of example images for training. This work attempts to under- stand for which types of ship recognition tasks CNNs might be well suited. We report the results of baseline experiments applying a CNN to several ship type classification tasks, and discuss many of the considerations that must be made in approaching this problem.

  18. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  19. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer: Evolving Models Enabling Remote Science Participation via Telepresence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, K.; Potter, J.; Martinez, C.; Pinner, W.; Russell, C. W.; Verplanck, N.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2005 NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) and partners have tested and developed uses of telepresence to extend ocean exploration expeditions to shore-based scientists and students in real-time. Telepresence increases the potential pace and scope of ocean exploration by enabling experts to join an expedition from anywhere, providing unlimited access to intellectual capital, while simultaneously expanding the reach of ocean science expeditions to public audiences worldwide. "America's Ship for Ocean Exploration", NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, is the first and only federal vessel purpose-outfitted for conducting telepresence-enabled ocean exploration. As a platform for testing new technologies and methodologies, her primary operating paradigm focuses on using telepresence to enable the majority of expedition scientists to participate and guide explorations from shore in real-time. Between 2010-2014, NOAA and partners implemented different models to conduct telepresence-enabled ocean exploration on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, all with the majority of the participating expedition scientists located on shore. These expeditions tested different scientist participation models, communication technologies, operating procedures, internet video streams, data distribution methods, and internet-based collaboration tools, and provided varying levels of real-time access to ongoing expeditions. Each expedition provided new insights into what makes remote science participation "work", and identified challenges that remain to be overcome. This presentation will provide an overview of the different methods and tools used by NOAA's Okeanos Explorer Program to enable remote science participation in expeditions over the last five years, highlighting successes, lessons learned, and challenges for the future.

  20. Emission inventories for ships in the arctic based on satellite sampled AIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Christensen, Jesper H.; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Ravn, Erik S.; Eriksson, Ómar F.; Kristensen, Hans Otto

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a detailed BC, NOx and SO2 emission inventory for ships in the Arctic in 2012 based on satellite AIS data, ship engine power functions and technology stratified emission factors. Emission projections are presented for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050. Furthermore, the BC, SO2 and O3 concentrations and the deposition of BC are calculated for 2012 and for two arctic shipping scenarios - with or without arctic diversion routes due to a possible polar sea ice extent in the future. In 2012, the largest shares of Arctic ships emissions are calculated for fishing ships (45% for BC, 38% for NOx, 23% for SO2) followed by passenger ships (20%, 17%, 25%), tankers (9%, 13%, 15%), general cargo (8%, 11%, 12%) and container ships (5%, 7%, 8%). In 2050, without arctic diversion routes, the total emissions of BC, NOx and SO2 are expected to change by +16%, -32% and -63%, respectively, compared to 2012. The results for fishing ships are the least certain, caused by a less precise engine power - sailing speed relation. The calculated BC, SO2, and O3 surface concentrations and BC deposition contributions from ships are low as a mean for the whole Arctic in 2012, but locally BC additional contributions reach up to 20% around Iceland, and high additional contributions (100-300%) are calculated in some sea areas for SO2. In 2050, the arctic diversion routes highly influence the calculated surface concentrations and the deposition of BC in the Arctic. During summertime navigation contributions become very visible for BC (>80%) and SO2 (>1000%) along the arctic diversion routes, while the O3 (>10%) and BC deposition (>5%) additional contributions, respectively, get highest over the ocean east of Greenland and in the High Arctic. The geospatial ship type specific emission results presented in this paper have increased the accuracy of the emission inventories for ships in the Arctic. The methodology can be used to estimate shipping emissions in other regions of the world

  1. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  2. Ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships: Recruiter's comments on the German-Norwegian debate.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is intended to fertilise the current discussion of ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships. Therefore 10 points are added to the debate containing different considerations focussing on the recommendations of the German Society of Maritime Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP's) Health Care Guidelines for Cruise Ship Medical Facilities and the different skills a ship's doctor should have from the perspective of the recruiter. PMID:26394316

  3. Ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships: Recruiter's comments on the German-Norwegian debate.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is intended to fertilise the current discussion of ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships. Therefore 10 points are added to the debate containing different considerations focussing on the recommendations of the German Society of Maritime Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP's) Health Care Guidelines for Cruise Ship Medical Facilities and the different skills a ship's doctor should have from the perspective of the recruiter.

  4. 46 CFR 11.420 - Service requirements for mate of ocean self-propelled vessels of less than 500 GRT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service requirements for mate of ocean self-propelled... National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.420 Service requirements for mate of ocean self-propelled vessels... mate of ocean self-propelled vessels of less than 500 GRT is 2 years of total service in the...

  5. 46 CFR 70.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) PASSENGER VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited coastwise...

  6. 46 CFR 90.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or...

  7. 46 CFR 90.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or...

  8. 46 CFR 90.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or...

  9. 46 CFR 90.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or...

  10. 46 CFR 11.402 - Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal endorsements for vessels of over 1600 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal... Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.402 Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal endorsements for vessels of over 1600 gross tons. (a) To qualify for an ocean or near coastal endorsement for vessels of...

  11. 46 CFR 30.01-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes-TB/OC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Administration § 30.01-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes—TB/OC. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited coastwise...

  12. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.522 Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of... assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in...

  13. 46 CFR 11.518 - Service requirements for chief engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service requirements for chief engineer (limited oceans... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.518 Service requirements for chief engineer (limited oceans) of steam... engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is five years total service in the engineroom...

  14. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.522 Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of... assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in...

  15. 46 CFR 11.402 - Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal endorsements for vessels of over 1600 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal... Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.402 Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal endorsements for vessels of over 1600 gross tons. (a) To qualify for an ocean or near coastal endorsement for vessels of...

  16. 46 CFR 188.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 188.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited...

  17. 46 CFR 11.402 - Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal endorsements for vessels of over 1600 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal... Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.402 Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal endorsements for vessels of over 1600 gross tons. (a) To qualify for an ocean or near coastal endorsement for vessels of...

  18. 46 CFR 70.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) PASSENGER VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited coastwise...

  19. 46 CFR 188.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 188.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited...

  20. 46 CFR 11.518 - Service requirements for chief engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service requirements for chief engineer (limited oceans... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.518 Service requirements for chief engineer (limited oceans) of steam... engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is five years total service in the engineroom...

  1. 46 CFR 30.01-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes-TB/OC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Administration § 30.01-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes—TB/OC. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited coastwise...

  2. 46 CFR 188.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 188.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited...

  3. 46 CFR 70.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) PASSENGER VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited coastwise...

  4. 46 CFR 188.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 188.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited...

  5. 46 CFR 188.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 188.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited...

  6. 46 CFR 30.01-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes-TB/OC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Administration § 30.01-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes—TB/OC. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited coastwise...

  7. 46 CFR 70.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) PASSENGER VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited coastwise...

  8. 46 CFR 11.518 - Service requirements for chief engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service requirements for chief engineer (limited oceans... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.518 Service requirements for chief engineer (limited oceans) of steam... engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is five years total service in the engineroom...

  9. 46 CFR 70.05-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great...) PASSENGER VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited coastwise...

  10. 46 CFR 11.402 - Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal endorsements for vessels of over 1600 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal... Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.402 Tonnage requirements for ocean or near coastal endorsements for vessels of over 1600 gross tons. (a) To qualify for an ocean or near coastal endorsement for vessels of...

  11. 46 CFR 11.424 - Requirements for master of ocean self-propelled vessels of less than 200 GRT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for master of ocean self-propelled vessels... National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.424 Requirements for master of ocean self-propelled vessels of less... master of ocean self-propelled vessels of less than 200 GRT is— (1) Three years of total service on...

  12. 46 CFR 11.425 - Requirements for mate of ocean self-propelled vessels of less than 200 GRT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for mate of ocean self-propelled vessels of... Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.425 Requirements for mate of ocean self-propelled vessels of less than 200 GRT. (a) The minimum service required to qualify for the endorsement as mate of ocean...

  13. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.522 Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of... assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in...

  14. 46 CFR 30.01-7 - Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes-TB/OC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Administration § 30.01-7 Ocean or unlimited coastwise vessels on inland and Great Lakes Routes—TB/OC. (a) Vessels inspected and certificated for ocean or unlimited coastwise...

  15. Smart Oceans BC: Supporting Coastal and Ocean Natural Hazards Mitigation for British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; Insua, T. L.; Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; McLean, S.

    2014-12-01

    Smart Oceans BC is a new multi-faceted program to support decision-makers faced with responding to natural disasters and hazards in Canada's Province of British Columbia. It leverages the unique capabilities of Ocean Networks Canada's cabled ocean observatories, NEPTUNE and VENUS to enhance public safety, marine safety and environmental monitoring. Smart Oceans BC combines existing and new marine sensing technology with its robust data management and archive system, Oceans 2.0, to deliver information and science for good ocean management and responsible ocean use. Smart Oceans BC includes new ocean observing infrastructure for: public safety, through natural hazard detection for earthquake groundshaking and near-field tsunamis; marine safety, by monitoring and providing alerts on sea state, ship traffic, and marine mammal presence; and environmental protection, by establishing baseline data in critical areas, and providing real-time environmental observations. Here we present the elements of this new ocean observing initiative that are focused on tsunami and earthquake early warning including cabled and autonomous sensor systems, real-time data delivery, software developments that enable rapid detection, analytics used in notification development, and stakeholder engagement plans.

  16. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  17. OceanSITES format and Ocean Observatory Output harmonisation: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnani, Maureen; Galbraith, Nan; Diggs, Stephen; Lankhorst, Matthias; Hidas, Marton; Lampitt, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) initiative was launched in 1991, and was the first step in creating a global view of ocean observations. In 1999 oceanographers at the OceanObs conference envisioned a 'global system of eulerian observatories' which evolved into the OceanSITES project. OceanSITES has been generously supported by individual oceanographic institutes and agencies across the globe, as well as by the WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (under JCOMMOPS). The project is directed by the needs of research scientists, but has a strong data management component, with an international team developing content standards, metadata specifications, and NetCDF templates for many types of in situ oceanographic data. The OceanSITES NetCDF format specification is intended as a robust data exchange and archive format specifically for time-series observatory data from the deep ocean. First released in February 2006, it has evolved to build on and extend internationally recognised standards such as the Climate and Forecast (CF) standard, BODC vocabularies, ISO formats and vocabularies, and in version 1.3, released in 2014, ACDD (Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery). The success of the OceanSITES format has inspired other observational groups, such as autonomous vehicles and ships of opportunity, to also use the format and today it is fulfilling the original concept of providing a coherent set of data from eurerian observatories. Data in the OceanSITES format is served by 2 Global Data Assembly Centres (GDACs), one at Coriolis, in France, at ftp://ftp.ifremer.fr/ifremer/oceansites/ and one at the US NDBC, at ftp://data.ndbc.noaa.gov/data/oceansites/. These two centres serve over 26,800 OceanSITES format data files from 93 moorings. The use of standardised and controlled features enables the files held at the OceanSITES GDACs to be electronically discoverable and ensures the widest access to the data. The Ocean

  18. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-11-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in the EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5 and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. Our results suggest that emissions from international shipping affect the air quality in northern and southern Europe differently and their contributions to the air concentrations vary seasonally. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Increased concentrations of the primary particle mass were found only along the shipping routes whereas concentrations of the secondary pollutants were affected over a larger area. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), in the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %) while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %) where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants are affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas-phase to the

  19. Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  20. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  6. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  7. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  9. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  13. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  14. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  15. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  16. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  18. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  19. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  20. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...