Science.gov

Sample records for affecting pathogen distribution

  1. Distribution of pathogenic Naegleria spp in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tiewcharoen, S; Junnu, V

    2001-01-01

    Research concerning the distribution, isolation, viability, ultrastructure, morphology and immunogenicity of Naegleria fowleri has been increasing in Thailand during 1988-2000. The distribution of the organism was carried out from 1985 to 1987 in Si Sa Ket and Ubon Rachathani Provinces, after the first fatal case was reported in Si Sa Ket. Since then in a 1998 survey of N. fowleri in stagnant water around industrial areas was carried out in Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Lopburi provinces. The results showed that 10% of pathogenic Naegleria belonged to species fowleri as characterized by morphology and the occurrence of pathogenesis in mice after nasal inoculation. In the same year, Nacapunchai et al (1999) determined the prevalence of amebae in aquatic habitat of human environments in five parts of Thailand during the summer. Fourteen percent of free living Naegleria spp were found in both soil and water resources. Recent studies of the ultrastructure, factors affecting the viability and SDS-PAGE electrophoretic patterns of 3 Thai strains of pathogenic Naegleria spp indicated their similarities in morphological characteristics of pathogenic reference control, Naegleria fowleri CDC VO 3081. Additional study using a genetic approach to species criteria using allozyme electrophoresis had been conducted.

  2. Factors affecting distributed system security

    SciTech Connect

    Nessett, D.M.

    1985-11-13

    Recent work examining distributed system security requirements is critiqued. A notion of trust based on distributed system topology and distributed system node evaluation levels proposed in that work is shown to be deficient. The notion fails to make allowances for the distributed system physical security environment, security factors related to the management of distributed systems by more than one jurisdictive authority and interactions that can occur between nodes supporting different mandatory and discretionary security mechanisms.

  3. Distribution of Plasmids in Distinct Leptospira Pathogenic Species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanzhuo; Zhuang, Xuran; Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Cuicai; Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhu, Yongzhang; He, Ping; Dong, Ke; Pal, Utpal; Guo, Xiaokui; Qin, Jinhong

    2015-11-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira, is a worldwide zoonotic infection. The genus Leptospira includes at least 21 species clustered into three groups--pathogens, non-pathogens, and intermediates--based on 16S rRNA phylogeny. Research on Leptospira is difficult due to slow growth and poor transformability of the pathogens. Recent identification of extrachromosomal elements besides the two chromosomes in L. interrogans has provided new insight into genome complexity of the genus Leptospira. The large size, low copy number, and high similarity of the sequence of these extrachromosomal elements with the chromosomes present challenges in isolating and detecting them without careful genome assembly. In this study, two extrachromosomal elements were identified in L. borgpetersenii serovar Ballum strain 56604 through whole genome assembly combined with S1 nuclease digestion following pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) analysis. Further, extrachromosomal elements in additional 15 Chinese epidemic strains of Leptospira, comprising L. borgpetersenii, L. weilii, and L. interrogans, were successfully separated and identified, independent of genome sequence data. Southern blot hybridization with extrachromosomal element-specific probes, designated as lcp1, lcp2 and lcp3-rep, further confirmed their occurrences as extrachromosomal elements. In total, 24 plasmids were detected in 13 out of 15 tested strains, among which 11 can hybridize with the lcp1-rep probe and 11 with the lcp2-rep probe, whereas two can hybridize with the lcp3-rep probe. None of them are likely to be species-specific. Blastp search of the lcp1, lcp2, and lcp3-rep genes with a nonredundant protein database of Leptospira species genomes showed that their homologous sequences are widely distributed among clades of pathogens but not non-pathogens or intermediates. These results suggest that the plasmids are widely distributed in Leptospira species, and further elucidation of their biological

  4. Distribution of Plasmids in Distinct Leptospira Pathogenic Species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanzhuo; Zhuang, Xuran; Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Cuicai; Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhu, Yongzhang; He, Ping; Dong, Ke; Pal, Utpal; Guo, Xiaokui; Qin, Jinhong

    2015-11-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira, is a worldwide zoonotic infection. The genus Leptospira includes at least 21 species clustered into three groups--pathogens, non-pathogens, and intermediates--based on 16S rRNA phylogeny. Research on Leptospira is difficult due to slow growth and poor transformability of the pathogens. Recent identification of extrachromosomal elements besides the two chromosomes in L. interrogans has provided new insight into genome complexity of the genus Leptospira. The large size, low copy number, and high similarity of the sequence of these extrachromosomal elements with the chromosomes present challenges in isolating and detecting them without careful genome assembly. In this study, two extrachromosomal elements were identified in L. borgpetersenii serovar Ballum strain 56604 through whole genome assembly combined with S1 nuclease digestion following pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) analysis. Further, extrachromosomal elements in additional 15 Chinese epidemic strains of Leptospira, comprising L. borgpetersenii, L. weilii, and L. interrogans, were successfully separated and identified, independent of genome sequence data. Southern blot hybridization with extrachromosomal element-specific probes, designated as lcp1, lcp2 and lcp3-rep, further confirmed their occurrences as extrachromosomal elements. In total, 24 plasmids were detected in 13 out of 15 tested strains, among which 11 can hybridize with the lcp1-rep probe and 11 with the lcp2-rep probe, whereas two can hybridize with the lcp3-rep probe. None of them are likely to be species-specific. Blastp search of the lcp1, lcp2, and lcp3-rep genes with a nonredundant protein database of Leptospira species genomes showed that their homologous sequences are widely distributed among clades of pathogens but not non-pathogens or intermediates. These results suggest that the plasmids are widely distributed in Leptospira species, and further elucidation of their biological

  5. Geological factors affecting CO2 plume distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Leetaru, H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the lateral extent of a CO2 plume has important implications with regards to buying/leasing pore volume rights, defining the area of review for an injection permit, determining the extent of an MMV plan, and managing basin-scale sequestration from multiple injection sites. The vertical and lateral distribution of CO2 has implications with regards to estimating CO2 storage volume at a specific site and the pore pressure below the caprock. Geologic and flow characteristics such as effective permeability and porosity, capillary pressure, lateral and vertical permeability anisotropy, geologic structure, and thickness all influence and affect the plume distribution to varying degrees. Depending on the variations in these parameters one may dominate the shape and size of the plume. Additionally, these parameters do not necessarily act independently. A comparison of viscous and gravity forces will determine the degree of vertical and lateral flow. However, this is dependent on formation thickness. For example in a thick zone with injection near the base, the CO2 moves radially from the well but will slow at greater radii and vertical movement will dominate. Generally the CO2 plume will not appreciably move laterally until the caprock or a relatively low permeability interval is contacted by the CO2. Conversely, in a relatively thin zone with the injection interval over nearly the entire zone, near the wellbore the CO2 will be distributed over the entire vertical component and will move laterally much further with minimal vertical movement. Assuming no geologic structure, injecting into a thin zone or into a thick zone immediately under a caprock will result in a larger plume size. With a geologic structure such as an anticline, CO2 plume size may be restricted and injection immediately below the caprock may have less lateral plume growth because the structure will induce downward vertical movement of the CO2 until the outer edge of the plume reaches a spill

  6. Global distribution of two fungal pathogens threatening endangered sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M; Abella-Pérez, Elena; Phillott, Andrea D; Sim, Jolene; van West, Pieter; Martín, María P; Marco, Adolfo; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Nascent fungal infections are currently considered as one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem health, and have driven several animal species into critical risk of extinction. Sea turtles are one of the most endangered groups of animals and only seven species have survived to date. Here, we described two pathogenic species, i.e., Fusarium falciforme and Fusarium keratoplasticum, that are globally distributed in major turtle nesting areas for six sea turtle species and that are implicated in low hatch success. These two fungi possess key biological features that are similar to emerging pathogens leading to host extinction, e.g., high virulence, and a broad host range style of life. Their optimal growth temperature overlap with the optimal incubation temperature for eggs, and they are able to kill up to 90% of the embryos. Environmental forcing, e.g., tidal inundation and clay/silt content of nests, were correlated to disease development. Thus, these Fusarium species constitute a major threat to sea turtle nests, especially to those experiencing environmental stressors. These findings have serious implications for the survival of endangered sea turtle populations and the success of conservation programs worldwide. PMID:24465748

  7. Global distribution of two fungal pathogens threatening endangered sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M; Abella-Pérez, Elena; Phillott, Andrea D; Sim, Jolene; van West, Pieter; Martín, María P; Marco, Adolfo; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Nascent fungal infections are currently considered as one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem health, and have driven several animal species into critical risk of extinction. Sea turtles are one of the most endangered groups of animals and only seven species have survived to date. Here, we described two pathogenic species, i.e., Fusarium falciforme and Fusarium keratoplasticum, that are globally distributed in major turtle nesting areas for six sea turtle species and that are implicated in low hatch success. These two fungi possess key biological features that are similar to emerging pathogens leading to host extinction, e.g., high virulence, and a broad host range style of life. Their optimal growth temperature overlap with the optimal incubation temperature for eggs, and they are able to kill up to 90% of the embryos. Environmental forcing, e.g., tidal inundation and clay/silt content of nests, were correlated to disease development. Thus, these Fusarium species constitute a major threat to sea turtle nests, especially to those experiencing environmental stressors. These findings have serious implications for the survival of endangered sea turtle populations and the success of conservation programs worldwide.

  8. Global Distribution of Two Fungal Pathogens Threatening Endangered Sea Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M.; Abella-Pérez, Elena; Phillott, Andrea D.; Sim, Jolene; van West, Pieter; Martín, María P.; Marco, Adolfo; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Nascent fungal infections are currently considered as one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem health, and have driven several animal species into critical risk of extinction. Sea turtles are one of the most endangered groups of animals and only seven species have survived to date. Here, we described two pathogenic species, i.e., Fusarium falciforme and Fusarium keratoplasticum, that are globally distributed in major turtle nesting areas for six sea turtle species and that are implicated in low hatch success. These two fungi possess key biological features that are similar to emerging pathogens leading to host extinction, e.g., high virulence, and a broad host range style of life. Their optimal growth temperature overlap with the optimal incubation temperature for eggs, and they are able to kill up to 90% of the embryos. Environmental forcing, e.g., tidal inundation and clay/silt content of nests, were correlated to disease development. Thus, these Fusarium species constitute a major threat to sea turtle nests, especially to those experiencing environmental stressors. These findings have serious implications for the survival of endangered sea turtle populations and the success of conservation programs worldwide. PMID:24465748

  9. Vulnerability of water distribution systems to pathogen intrusion: how effective is a disinfectant residual?

    PubMed

    Propato, Marco; Uber, James G

    2004-07-01

    Can the spread of infectious disease through water distribution systems be halted by a disinfectant residual? This question is overdue for an answer. Regulatory agencies and water utilities have long been concerned about accidental intrusions of pathogens into distribution system pipelines (i.e., cross-connections) and are increasingly concerned about deliberate pathogen contamination. Here, a simulation framework is developed and used to assess the vulnerability of a water system to microbiological contamination. The risk of delivering contaminated water to consumers is quantified by a network water quality model that includes disinfectant decay and disinfection kinetics. The framework is applied to two example networks under a worst-case deliberate intrusion scenario. Results show that the risk of consumer exposure is affected by the residual maintenance strategy employed. The common regulation that demands a "detectable" disinfectant residual may not provide effective consumer protection against microbial contamination. A chloramine residual, instead of free chlorine, may significantly weaken this final barrier against pathogen intrusions. Moreover, the addition of a booster station at storage tanks may improve consumer protection without requiring excessive disinfectant.

  10. Legionella - (re-)awakening to the Amoeba-based Pathogens of Distribution System Biofilm

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pathogens have long been the focus of concern in the distribution of drinking waters. Yet today, with distribution system ‘failures’ accounting for the majority of waterborne outbreaks in the USA, there is growing realization that pathogens endemic to aquatic biofilms may a...

  11. Database of host-pathogen and related species interactions, and their global distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wardeh, Maya; Risley, Claire; McIntyre, Marie Kirsty; Setzkorn, Christian; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between species, particularly where one is likely to be a pathogen of the other, as well as the geographical distribution of species, have been systematically extracted from various web-based, free-access sources, and assembled with the accompanying evidence into a single database. The database attempts to answer questions such as what are all the pathogens of a host, and what are all the hosts of a pathogen, what are all the countries where a pathogen was found, and what are all the pathogens found in a country. Two datasets were extracted from the database, focussing on species interactions and species distribution, based on evidence published between 1950–2012. The quality of their evidence was checked and verified against well-known, alternative, datasets of pathogens infecting humans, domestic animals and wild mammals. The presented datasets provide a valuable resource for researchers of infectious diseases of humans and animals, including zoonoses. PMID:26401317

  12. Distribution of indigenous bacterial pathogens and potential pathogens associated with roof-harvested rainwater.

    PubMed

    Dobrowsky, P H; De Kwaadsteniet, M; Cloete, T E; Khan, W

    2014-04-01

    The harvesting of rainwater is gaining acceptance among many governmental authorities in countries such as Australia, Germany, and South Africa, among others. However, conflicting reports on the microbial quality of harvested rainwater have been published. To monitor the presence of potential pathogenic bacteria during high-rainfall periods, rainwater from 29 rainwater tanks was sampled on four occasions (during June and August 2012) in a sustainable housing project in Kleinmond, South Africa. This resulted in the collection of 116 harvested rainwater samples in total throughout the sampling period. The identities of the dominant, indigenous, presumptive pathogenic isolates obtained from the rainwater samples throughout the sampling period were confirmed through universal 16S rRNA PCR, and the results revealed that Pseudomonas (19% of samples) was the dominant genus isolated, followed by Aeromonas (16%), Klebsiella (11%), and Enterobacter (9%). PCR assays employing genus-specific primers also confirmed the presence of Aeromonas spp. (16%), Klebsiella spp. (47%), Legionella spp. (73%), Pseudomonas spp. (13%), Salmonella spp. (6%), Shigella spp. (27%), and Yersinia spp. (28%) in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, on one sampling occasion, Giardia spp. were detected in 25% of the eight tank water samples analyzed. This study highlights the diverse array of pathogenic bacteria that persist in harvested rainwater during high-rainfall periods. The consumption of untreated harvested rainwater could thus pose a potential significant health threat to consumers, especially children and immunocompromised individuals, and it is recommended that harvested rainwater be treated for safe usage as an alternative water source.

  13. Distribution of Indigenous Bacterial Pathogens and Potential Pathogens Associated with Roof-Harvested Rainwater

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowsky, P. H.; De Kwaadsteniet, M.; Cloete, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    The harvesting of rainwater is gaining acceptance among many governmental authorities in countries such as Australia, Germany, and South Africa, among others. However, conflicting reports on the microbial quality of harvested rainwater have been published. To monitor the presence of potential pathogenic bacteria during high-rainfall periods, rainwater from 29 rainwater tanks was sampled on four occasions (during June and August 2012) in a sustainable housing project in Kleinmond, South Africa. This resulted in the collection of 116 harvested rainwater samples in total throughout the sampling period. The identities of the dominant, indigenous, presumptive pathogenic isolates obtained from the rainwater samples throughout the sampling period were confirmed through universal 16S rRNA PCR, and the results revealed that Pseudomonas (19% of samples) was the dominant genus isolated, followed by Aeromonas (16%), Klebsiella (11%), and Enterobacter (9%). PCR assays employing genus-specific primers also confirmed the presence of Aeromonas spp. (16%), Klebsiella spp. (47%), Legionella spp. (73%), Pseudomonas spp. (13%), Salmonella spp. (6%), Shigella spp. (27%), and Yersinia spp. (28%) in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, on one sampling occasion, Giardia spp. were detected in 25% of the eight tank water samples analyzed. This study highlights the diverse array of pathogenic bacteria that persist in harvested rainwater during high-rainfall periods. The consumption of untreated harvested rainwater could thus pose a potential significant health threat to consumers, especially children and immunocompromised individuals, and it is recommended that harvested rainwater be treated for safe usage as an alternative water source. PMID:24487540

  14. Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Timothy L.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs. PMID:20711408

  15. A hyperparasite affects the population dynamics of a wild plant pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Tollenaere, C; Pernechele, B; Mäkinen, H S; Parratt, S R; Németh, M Z; Kovács, G M; Kiss, L; Tack, A J M; Laine, A-L

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the impact of natural enemies of plant and animal pathogens on their host's population dynamics is needed to determine the role of hyperparasites in affecting disease dynamics, and their potential for use in efficient control strategies of pathogens. Here, we focus on the long-term study describing metapopulation dynamics of an obligate pathogen, the powdery mildew (Podosphaera plantaginis) naturally infecting its wild host plant (Plantago lanceolata) in the fragmented landscape of the Åland archipelago (southwest Finland). Regionally, the pathogen persists through a balance of extinctions and colonizations, yet factors affecting extinction rates remain poorly understood. Mycoparasites of the genus Ampelomyces appear as good candidates for testing the role of a hyperparasite, i.e. a parasite of other parasites, in the regulation of their fungal hosts' population dynamics. For this purpose, we first designed a quantitative PCR assay for detection of Ampelomyces spp. in field-collected samples. This newly developed molecular test was then applied to a large-scale sampling within the Åland archipelago, revealing that Ampelomyces is a widespread hyperparasite in this system, with high variability in prevalence among populations. We found that the hyperparasite was more common on leaves where multiple powdery mildew strains coexist, a pattern that may be attributed to differential exposure. Moreover, the prevalence of Ampelomyces at the plant level negatively affected the overwinter survival of its fungal host. We conclude that this hyperparasite may likely impact on its host population dynamics and argue for increased focus on the role of hyperparasites in disease dynamics. PMID:25204419

  16. Distribution and environmental limitations of an amphibian pathogen in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Pilliod, D.S.; Livo, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Amphibian populations continue to be imperiled by the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Understanding where B. dendrobatidis (Bd) occurs and how it may be limited by environmental factors is critical to our ability to effectively conserve the amphibians affected by Bd. We sampled 1247 amphibians (boreal toads and surrogates) at 261 boreal toad (Bufo boreas) breeding sites (97 clusters) along an 11?? latitudinal gradient in the Rocky Mountains to determine the distribution of B. dendrobatidis and examine environmental factors, such as temperature and elevation, that might affect its distribution. The fungus was detected at 64% of all clusters and occurred across a range of elevations (1030-3550 m) and latitudes (37.6-48.6??) but we detected it in only 42% of clusters in the south (site elevations higher), compared to 84% of clusters in the north (site elevations lower). Maximum ambient temperature (daily high) explained much of the variation in Bd occurrence in boreal toad populations and thus perhaps limits the occurrence of the pathogen in the Rocky Mountains to areas where climatic conditions facilitate optimal growth of the fungus. This information has implications in global climate change scenarios where warming temperatures may facilitate the spread of disease into previously un- or little-affected areas (i.e., higher elevations). This study provides the first regional-level, field-based effort to examine the relationship of environmental and geographic factors to the distribution of B. dendrobatidis in North America and will assist managers to focus on at-risk populations as determined by the local temperature regimes, latitude and elevation.

  17. Exposure to Corticosterone Affects Host Resistance, but Not Tolerance, to an Emerging Fungal Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Murone, Julie; DeMarchi, Joseph A.; Venesky, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Host responses to pathogens include defenses that reduce infection burden (i.e., resistance) and traits that reduce the fitness consequences of an infection (i.e., tolerance). Resistance and tolerance are affected by an organism's physiological status. Corticosterone (“CORT”) is a hormone that is associated with the regulation of many physiological processes, including metabolism and reproduction. Because of its role in the stress response, CORT is also considered the primary vertebrate stress hormone. When secreted at high levels, CORT is generally thought to be immunosuppressive. Despite the known association between stress and disease resistance in domesticated organisms, it is unclear whether these associations are ecologically and evolutionary relevant in wildlife species. We conducted a 3x3 fully crossed experiment in which we exposed American toads (Anaxyrus [Bufo] americanus) to one of three levels of exogenous CORT (no CORT, low CORT, or high CORT) and then to either low or high doses of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (“Bd”) or a sham exposure treatment. We assessed Bd infection levels and tested how CORT and Bd affected toad resistance, tolerance, and mortality. Exposure to the high CORT treatment significantly elevated CORT release in toads; however, there was no difference between toads given no CORT or low CORT. Exposure to CORT and Bd each increased toad mortality, but they did not interact to affect mortality. Toads that were exposed to CORT had higher Bd resistance than toads exposed to ethanol controls/low CORT, a pattern opposite that of most studies on domesticated animals. Exposure to CORT did not affect toad tolerance to Bd. Collectively, these results show that physiological stressors can alter a host’s response to a pathogen, but that the outcome might not be straightforward. Future studies that inhibit CORT secretion are needed to better our understanding of the relationship between stress physiology

  18. Sporothrix globosa, a pathogenic fungus with widespread geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Hugo; Cano, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Toriello, Conchita; Guarro, Josep

    2009-09-30

    Sporothrix globosa, reported from the USA, Europe, and Asia, is a recently described pathogenic species morphologically similar to Sporothrix schenckii. In this study, the phylogenetic affinities of 32 clinical and environmental isolates morphologically identified as S. schenckii, from Mexico, Guatemala, and Colombia, were assessed by cladistic analysis of partial sequences of the calmodulin gene using the maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining methods. The study revealed that one out of 25 isolates from Mexico (4%), one out of three isolates from Guatemala (33.3%), and two out of four isolates from Colombia (50%) belonged to S. globosa, while the other isolates belonged to S. schenckii sensu stricto. This is the first record of S. globosa from Mexico, and Central and South America.

  19. Environmental change and infectious disease: how new roads affect the transmission of diarrheal pathogens in rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Cevallos, William; Ponce, Karina; Levy, Karen; Bates, Sarah J; Scott, James C; Hubbard, Alan; Vieira, Nadia; Endara, Pablo; Espinel, Mauricio; Trueba, Gabriel; Riley, Lee W; Trostle, James

    2006-12-19

    Environmental change plays a large role in the emergence of infectious disease. The construction of a new road in a previously roadless area of northern coastal Ecuador provides a valuable natural experiment to examine how changes in the social and natural environment, mediated by road construction, affect the epidemiology of diarrheal diseases. Twenty-one villages were randomly selected to capture the full distribution of village population size and distance from a main road (remoteness), and these were compared with the major population center of the region, Borbón, that lies on the road. Estimates of enteric pathogen infection rates were obtained from case-control studies at the village level. Higher rates of infection were found in nonremote vs. remote villages [pathogenic Escherichia coli: odds ratio (OR) = 8.4, confidence interval (CI) 1.6, 43.5; rotavirus: OR = 4.0, CI 1.3, 12.1; and Giardia: OR = 1.9, CI 1.3, 2.7]. Higher rates of all-cause diarrhea were found in Borbón compared with the 21 villages (RR = 2.0, CI 1.5, 2.8), as well as when comparing nonremote and remote villages (OR = 2.7, CI 1.5, 4.8). Social network data collected in parallel offered a causal link between remoteness and disease. The significant and consistent trends across viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens suggest the importance of considering a broad range of pathogens with differing epidemiological patterns when assessing the environmental impact of new roads. This study provides insight into the initial health impacts that roads have on communities and into the social and environmental processes that create these impacts.

  20. Detection of enteric pathogens in Turkey flocks affected with severe enteritis, in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura-Alvarez, Joelma; Nuñez, Luis F N; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Knöbl, Terezinha; Chacón, Jorge L; Moreno, Andrea M; Jones, Richard C; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-two flocks of turkeys affected by enteric problems, with ages between 10 and 104 days and located in the Southern region of Brazil, were surveyed for turkey by PCR for turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2), turkey coronavirus (TCoV), hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), rotavirus, reovirus, Salmonella spp., and Lawsonia intracellularis (Li) infections. Eleven profiles of pathogen combination were observed. The most frequently encountered pathogen combinations were TCoV-Li, followed by TCoV-TAstV-2-Li, TCoV-TastV-2. Only TCoV was detected as the sole pathogen in three flocks. Eight and 19 flocks of the 22 were positive for TAstV-2 and TCoV, respectively. Six were positive for Salmonella spp. and L. intracellularis was detected in 12 turkey flocks. Reovirus and HEV were not detected in this survey. These results throw new light on the multiple etiology of enteritis in turkeys. The implications of these findings and their correlation with the clinical signs are comprehensively discussed, illustrating the complexity of the enteric diseases.

  1. Detection of enteric pathogens in Turkey flocks affected with severe enteritis, in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura-Alvarez, Joelma; Nuñez, Luis F N; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Knöbl, Terezinha; Chacón, Jorge L; Moreno, Andrea M; Jones, Richard C; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-two flocks of turkeys affected by enteric problems, with ages between 10 and 104 days and located in the Southern region of Brazil, were surveyed for turkey by PCR for turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2), turkey coronavirus (TCoV), hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), rotavirus, reovirus, Salmonella spp., and Lawsonia intracellularis (Li) infections. Eleven profiles of pathogen combination were observed. The most frequently encountered pathogen combinations were TCoV-Li, followed by TCoV-TAstV-2-Li, TCoV-TastV-2. Only TCoV was detected as the sole pathogen in three flocks. Eight and 19 flocks of the 22 were positive for TAstV-2 and TCoV, respectively. Six were positive for Salmonella spp. and L. intracellularis was detected in 12 turkey flocks. Reovirus and HEV were not detected in this survey. These results throw new light on the multiple etiology of enteritis in turkeys. The implications of these findings and their correlation with the clinical signs are comprehensively discussed, illustrating the complexity of the enteric diseases. PMID:24817479

  2. A stochastic optimization method to estimate the spatial distribution of a pathogen from a sample.

    PubMed

    Parnell, S; Gottwald, T R; Irey, M S; Luo, W; van den Bosch, F

    2011-10-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of plant disease can be utilized to implement efficient and spatially targeted disease management interventions. We present a pathogen-generic method to estimate the spatial distribution of a plant pathogen using a stochastic optimization process which is epidemiologically motivated. Based on an initial sample, the method simulates the individual spread processes of a pathogen between patches of host to generate optimized spatial distribution maps. The method was tested on data sets of Huanglongbing of citrus and was compared with a kriging method from the field of geostatistics using the well-established kappa statistic to quantify map accuracy. Our method produced accurate maps of disease distribution with kappa values as high as 0.46 and was able to outperform the kriging method across a range of sample sizes based on the kappa statistic. As expected, map accuracy improved with sample size but there was a high amount of variation between different random sample placements (i.e., the spatial distribution of samples). This highlights the importance of sample placement on the ability to estimate the spatial distribution of a plant pathogen and we thus conclude that further research into sampling design and its effect on the ability to estimate disease distribution is necessary. PMID:21916625

  3. Particle Size Distribution of Airborne Microorganisms and Pathogens during an Intense African Dust Event in the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    Background The distribution of microorganisms, and especially pathogens, over airborne particles of different sizes has been ignored to a large extent, but it could have significant implications regarding the dispersion of these microorganisms across the planet, thus affecting human health. Objectives We examined the microbial quality of the aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region during an African storm to determine the size distribution of microorganisms in the air. Methods We used a five-stage cascade impactor for bioaerosol collection in a coastal city on the eastern Mediterranean Sea during a north African dust storm. Bacterial communities associated with aerosol particles of six different size ranges were characterized following molecular culture–independent methods, regardless of the cell culturability (analysis of 16S rRNA genes). Results All 16S rDNA clone libraries were diverse, including sequences commonly found in soil and marine ecosystems. Spore-forming bacteria such as Firmicutes dominated large particle sizes (> 3.3 μm), whereas clones affiliated with Actinobacteria (found commonly in soil) and Bacteroidetes (widely distributed in the environment) gradually increased their abundance in aerosol particles of reduced size (< 3.3 μm). A large portion of the clones detected at respiratory particle sizes (< 3.3 μm) were phylogenetic neighbors to human pathogens that have been linked to several diseases. Conclusions The presence of aerosolized bacteria in small size particles may have significant implications to human health via intercontinental transportation of pathogens. PMID:18335093

  4. A distributed national network for label-free rapid identification of emerging pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J. Paul; Rajwa, Bartek P.; Dundar, M. Murat; Bae, Euiwon; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E. Daniel; Roumani, Ali; Bhunia, Arun K.; Dietz, J. Eric; Davisson, V. Jo; Thomas, John G.

    2011-05-01

    Typical bioterrorism prevention scenarios assume well-known and well-characterized pathogens like anthrax or tularemia, which are serious public concerns if released into food and/or water supplies or distributed using other vectors. Common governmental contingencies include rapid response to these biological threats with predefined treatments and management operations. However, bioterrorist attacks may follow a far more sophisticated route. With the widely known and immense progress in genetics and the availability of molecular biology tools worldwide, the potential for malicious modification of pathogenic genomes is very high. Common non-pathogenic microorganisms could be transformed into dangerous, debilitating pathogens. Known pathogens could also be modified to avoid detection, because organisms are traditionally identified on the basis of their known physiological or genetic properties. In the absence of defined primers a laboratory using genetic biodetection methods such as PCR might be unable to quickly identify a modified microorganism. Our concept includes developing a nationwide database of signatures based on biophysical (such as elastic light scattering (ELS) properties and/or Raman spectra) rather than genetic properties of bacteria. When paired with a machine-learning system for emerging pathogen detection these data become an effective detection system. The approach emphasizes ease of implementation using a standardized collection of phenotypic information and extraction of biophysical features of pathogens. Owing to the label-free nature of the detection modalities ELS is significantly less costly than any genotypic or mass spectrometry approach.

  5. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ederli, Luisa; Dawe, Adam; Pasqualini, Stefania; Quaglia, Mara; Xiong, Liming; Gehring, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens. PMID:25750645

  6. Determinants of the Usage of Splice-Associated cis-Motifs Predict the Distribution of Human Pathogenic SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, XianMing; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2016-01-01

    Where in genes do pathogenic mutations tend to occur and does this provide clues as to the possible underlying mechanisms by which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) cause disease? As splice-disrupting mutations tend to occur predominantly at exon ends, known also to be hot spots of cis-exonic splice control elements, we examine the relationship between the relative density of such exonic cis-motifs and pathogenic SNPs. In particular, we focus on the intragene distribution of exonic splicing enhancers (ESE) and the covariance between them and disease-associated SNPs. In addition to showing that disease-causing genes tend to be genes with a high intron density, consistent with missplicing, five factors established as trends in ESE usage, are considered: relative position in exons, relative position in genes, flanking intron size, splice sites usage, and phase. We find that more than 76% of pathogenic SNPs are within 3–69 bp of exon ends where ESEs generally reside, this being 13% more than expected. Overall from enrichment of pathogenic SNPs at exon ends, we estimate that approximately 20–45% of SNPs affect splicing. Importantly, we find that within genes pathogenic SNPs tend to occur in splicing-relevant regions with low ESE density: they are found to occur preferentially in the terminal half of genes, in exons flanked by short introns and at the ends of phase (0,0) exons with 3′ non-“AGgt” splice site. We suggest the concept of the “fragile” exon, one home to pathogenic SNPs owing to its vulnerability to splice disruption owing to low ESE density. PMID:26545919

  7. Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems. PMID:23851087

  8. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture.

  9. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  10. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  11. Pathogens and Indicators in United States Class B Biosolids: National and Historic Distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the first major study of the incidence of indicator organisms and pathogens found within Class B biosolids across the U.S. since the promulgation of the EPA Part 503 Rule in 1993. National distributions collected between 2005 and 2008, show that the incidence of bacterial and v...

  12. Processes affecting the oceanic distributions of dissolved calcium and alkalinity

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, A.M.; Gieskes, J.M.

    1980-05-20

    Recent studies of the CO/sub 2/ system have suggested that chemical processes in addition to the dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate affect the oceanic calcium and alkalinity distributions. Calcium and alkalinity data from the North Pacific have been examined both by using the simple physical-chemical model of previous workers and by a study involving the broader oceanographic context of these data. The simple model is shown to be an inadequate basis for these studies. Although a proton flux associated with organic decomposition may affect the alkalinity, previously reported deviations of calcium-alkalinity correlations from expected trends appear to be related to boundary processes that have been neglected rather than to this proton flux. The distribution of calcium in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean is examined.

  13. Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

    2014-05-01

    Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. PMID:24517626

  14. Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. PMID:24517626

  15. Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

    2014-05-01

    Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens.

  16. Distribution and Diversity of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Peri-domestic Surface Waters from South Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Meghan R.; Encina, Carolina; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis affecting animals and humans caused by infection with Leptospira. The bacteria can survive outside of hosts for long periods of time in soil and water. While identification of Leptospira species from human cases and animal reservoirs are increasingly reported, little is known about the diversity of pathogenic Leptospira species in the environment and how surveillance of the environment might be used for monitoring and controlling disease. Methods and Findings Water samples (n = 104) were collected from the peri-domestic environment of 422 households from farms, rural villages, and urban slums participating in a broader study on the eco-epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Los Rios Region, Chile, between October 2010 and April 2012. The secY region of samples, previously detected as pathogenic Leptospira by PCR, was amplified and sequenced. Sequences were aligned using ClustalW in MEGA, and a minimum spanning tree was created in PHYLOViZ using the goeBURST algorithm to assess sequence similarity. Sequences from four clinical isolates, 17 rodents, and 20 reference strains were also included in the analysis. Overall, water samples contained L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, and L. weilii, with descending frequency. All species were found in each community type. The distribution of the species differed by the season in which the water samples were obtained. There was no evidence that community-level prevalence of Leptospira in dogs, rodents, or livestock influenced pathogen diversity in the water samples. Conclusions This study reports the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in the peri-domestic environment of households in three community types and the differences in Leptospira diversity at the community level. Systematic environmental surveillance of Leptospira can be used for detecting changes in pathogen diversity and to identify and monitor contaminated areas where an increased risk of human infection exists. PMID

  17. Methyl esterification of pectin plays a role during plant-pathogen interactions and affects plant resistance to diseases.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Cervone, Felice; Bellincampi, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    The cell wall is a complex structure mainly composed by a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a cohesive pectin matrix. Pectin is synthesized in a highly methyl esterified form and is de-esterified in muro by pectin methyl esterases (PMEs). The degree and pattern of methyl esterification affect the cell wall structure and properties with consequences on both the physiological processes of the plants and their resistance to pathogens. PME activity displays a crucial role in the outcome of the plant-pathogen interactions by making pectin more susceptible to the action of the enzymes produced by the pathogens. This review focuses on the impact of pectin methyl esterification in plant-pathogen interactions and on the dynamic role of its alteration during pathogenesis.

  18. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms.

  19. Distribution of an Invasive Aquatic Pathogen (Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus) in the Great Lakes and Its Relationship to Shipping

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms. PMID:20405014

  20. Free-surface stability criterion as affected by velocity distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng-Lung, Chen

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines how the velocity distribution of flow in open channels affects the kinematic and dynamic wave velocities, from which the various forms of the Vedernikov number V can be formulated. When V >1, disturbances created in open-channel flow will amplify in the form of roll waves; when V <1, some (though not all) disturbances will attenuate. A study of the Vedernikov stability criterion reveals that it can be readily deduced within the framework of the kinematic and dynamic wave theories by comparing the kinematic wave velocity to the corresponding dynamic wave velocity. -from Author

  1. Stereotyped distribution of proliferating keratinocytes in disorders affecting the epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Pierard-Franchimont, C.; Pierard, G.E.

    1989-06-01

    We used the technique of autoradiography after incorporation of tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) to evaluate keratinocyte proliferation in basal, epibasal, and other epidermal layers in 30 diseases affecting the epidermis. The number and proportion of /sup 3/H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes were counted in the different layers of the epidermis. Significant correlations were found between the proliferative indices of the different epidermal layers. Such links indicate that the epidermis responds in a rather stereotyped way to various pathological conditions. There exists some regulation in the distribution, number, and proportion of /sup 3/H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes in the various layers of the epidermis.

  2. Mosquitoes of Guam and the Northern Marianas: distribution, checklists, and notes on mosquito-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pecor, James E; Reeves, Will K; Wolf, Stephen P; Nunn, Peter V; Rabago, Rosanna Y; Gutierrez, Teresa L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    This report includes the distribution records and updated checklists of the mosquitoes known to occur in Guam and nearby selected islands (ie, Saipan, Tinian, Rota), based on our field collections from various localities during 2010, published reports, and accessioned specimens deposited in the US National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors and their borne-pathogens are also noted.

  3. Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen.

  4. Factors Affecting Pathogen Survival in Finished Dairy Compost with Different Particle Sizes Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diao, Junshu; Chen, Zhao; Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in finished dairy compost with different particle sizes during storage as affected by moisture content and temperature under greenhouse conditions. The mixture of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium strains was inoculated into the finished composts with moisture contents of 20, 30, and 40%, separately. The finished compost samples were then sieved into 3 different particle sizes (>1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm) and stored under greenhouse conditions. For compost samples with moisture contents of 20 and 30%, the average Salmonella reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm were 2.15, 2.27, and 2.47 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.60, 2.03, and 2.26 log CFU g(-1) in late fall, respectively, and 2.61, 3.33, and 3.67 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. The average E. coli O157:H7 reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm were 1.98, 2.30, and 2.54 log CFU g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.70, 2.56, and 2.90 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. Our results revealed that both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost samples with larger particle size survived better than those with smaller particle sizes, and the initial rapid moisture loss in compost may contribute to the fast inactivation of pathogens in the finished compost. For the same season, the pathogens in the compost samples with the same particle size survived much better at the initial moisture content of 20% compared to 40%. PMID:26153914

  5. Processes affecting the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum and other persistent pathogens in surface- and ground-waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packman, A. I.; Lau, B. L.; Harter, T.; Atwill, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    Waterborne diseases are transmitted through numerous environmental pathways, and their migration is strongly mediated by interaction with a wide variety of sediments and other natural materials during transport. Here we provide an overview of factors that affect the fate of persistent water-borne pathogens, focusing particularly on the zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum as an example. While individual microbial cells are both small and have low specific gravity, suggesting that they should be highly mobile and remain suspended for long periods of time, attachment to a variety of background materials can substantially reduce pathogen mobility. Cryptosporidium oocysts readily associate with both inorganic and organic particles, resulting in the formation of aggregates. This process tends to increase the effective settling velocity of C. parvum in surface waters. Similarly, pathogens readily become associated with the solid matrix during transport in groundwater, resulting in removal by filtration. However, this process is reversible with C. parvum, resulting in a slow long-term release following the initial deposition. Pathogens also become associated with biofilms, which are surface-attached communities of microorganisms in a gelatinous matrix. The presence of biofilms increases the immobilization and retention of Cryptosporidium on solid surfaces. All of these processes influence pathogen transmission in surface waters such as rivers and water-supply canals. In these environments, pathogens can be immobilized by deposition into stable sediment beds by a combination of gravitational sedimentation and advection into pore waters followed by subsurface filtration. Association with background suspended matter tends to increase pathogen deposition by sedimentation, and the presence of benthic (sedimentary) biofilms also tends to increase pathogen retention. For pathogens that remain viable for long periods of time in natural aquatic systems, as is the case with

  6. Prevalence of bacterial pathogens in biofilms of drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    September, S M; Els, F A; Venter, S N; Brözel, V S

    2007-06-01

    Water for human consumption is required to be free from any bacteria that might pose a health risk. The presence of biofilms in the drinking water distribution system may play a role in the presence of potential pathogens in the drinking water supply. Ninety-five biofilm samples from various parts of South Africa were tested for the presence of Escherichia coli, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio spp. Members of these genera were quantified by the three-tube most probable number (MPN) approach using enrichment broths and plating on selective agars. The heterotrophic culturable counts were determined for both the planktonic and biofilm phases of the samples. Biofilm density varied between 10 and 1.9 x 10(9) colony forming units cm(-2). The 16S rRNA identity of the putative pathogenic isolates revealed that high numbers of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Enterobacter were present, but no putative Salmonella and Shigella could be confirmed. None of the Pseudomonas isolates belonged to the pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Pseudomonas mendocina while the Aeromonas isolates showed relatedness to known pathogenic members of this group.

  7. Origin and evolution of the worldwide distributed pathogenic amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2011-10-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a worldwide distributed pathogen, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Because it is such a fulminant disease, most patients do not survive the infection. This pathogen is a free-living amoeboflagellate present in warm water. To date, it is well established that there are several types of N. fowleri, which can be distinguished based on the length of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and a one bp transition in the 5.8S rDNA. Seven of the eight known types have been detected in Europe. Three types are present in the USA, of which one is unique to this country. Only one of the eight types occurs in Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Japan. In mainland Asia (India, China and Thailand) the two most common types are found, which are also present in Europe and the USA. There is strong indication that the pathogenic N. fowleri evolved from the nonpathogenic Naegleria lovaniensis on the American continent. There is no evidence of virulence differences between the types of N. fowleri. Two other Naegleria spp. are pathogenic for mice, but human infections due to these two other Naegleria spp. are not known.

  8. Rain-fed fig yield as affected by rainfall distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Ensieh; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza

    2014-08-01

    Variable annual rainfall and its uneven distribution are the major uncontrolled inputs in rain-fed fig production and possibly the main cause of yield fluctuation in Istahban region of Fars Province, I.R. of Iran. This introduces a considerable risk in rain-fed fig production. The objective of this study was to find relationships between seasonal rainfall distribution and rain-fed fig production in Istahban region to determine the critical rainfall periods for rain-fed fig production and supplementary irrigation water application. Further, economic analysis for rain-fed fig production was considered in this region to control the risk of production. It is concluded that the monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall indices are able to show the effects of rainfall and its distribution on the rain-fed fig yield. Fig yield with frequent occurrence of 80 % is 374 kg ha-1. The internal rates of return for interest rate of 4, 8 and 12 % are 21, 58 and 146 %, respectively, that are economically feasible. It is concluded that the rainfall in spring especially in April and in December has negatively affected fig yield due to its interference with the life cycle of Blastophaga bees for pollination. Further, it is concluded that when the rainfall is limited, supplementary irrigation can be scheduled in March.

  9. Host-specific thermal profiles affect fitness of a widespread pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Lisa A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A; Pike, David A

    2014-11-01

    Host behavior can interact with environmental context to influence outcomes of pathogen exposure and the impact of disease on species and populations. Determining whether the thermal behaviors of individual species influence susceptibility to disease can help enhance our ability to explain and predict how and when disease outbreaks are likely to occur. The widespread disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) often has species-specific impacts on amphibian communities; some host species are asymptomatic, whereas others experience mass mortalities and population extirpation. We determined whether the average natural thermal regimes experienced by sympatric frog species in nature, in and of themselves, can account for differences in vulnerability to disease. We did this by growing Bd under temperatures mimicking those experienced by frogs in the wild. At low and high elevations, the rainforest frogs Litoria nannotis, L. rheocola, and L. serrata maintained mean thermal regimes within the optimal range for pathogen growth (15-25°C). Thermal regimes for L. serrata, which has recovered from Bd-related declines, resulted in slower pathogen growth than the cooler and less variable thermal regimes for the other two species, which have experienced more long-lasting declines. For L. rheocola and L. serrata, pathogen growth was faster in thermal regimes corresponding to high elevations than in those corresponding to low elevations, where temperatures were warmer. For L. nannotis, which prefers moist and thermally stable microenvironments, pathogen growth was fastest for low-elevation thermal regimes. All of the thermal regimes we tested resulted in pathogen growth rates equivalent to, or significantly faster than, rates expected from constant-temperature experiments. The effects of host body temperature on Bd can explain many of the broad ecological patterns of population declines in our focal species, via direct effects on

  10. Geographic distribution of the chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis among mountain amphibians along the Italian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zampiglia, Mauro; Canestrelli, Daniele; Chiocchio, Andrea; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-11-25

    The amphibian chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is considered a major cause of amphibian population declines, particularly in montane areas. Here, we investigated the presence and distribution of Bd among populations of 3 mid- to high-altitude species spanning the entire Italian peninsula (486 individuals from 39 sites overall): the stream frog Rana italica, the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra gigliolii, and the alpine newt Mesotriton alpestris apuanus. We found Bd in all of the analyzed species. Despite the widespread distribution of the pathogen, its overall prevalence (6, 9 and 19%, respectively) was lower than previously reported for the endangered Apennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina pachypus (62.5%). Moreover, several populations of the species studied here were not infected, even at sites where Bd has been detected in other host species. When coupled with the lack of evidence for Bd-related mortalities in these species in peninsular Italy, these results suggest that mechanisms of resistance and/or tolerance are protecting populations of these species from the pathogenic activity of Bd. Nevertheless, in light of the dynamic pattern of Bd-host interactions reported in other studies, of Bd-related mortalities in at least 1 study species (S. s. salamandra) in other areas, and the ongoing climate changes in montane environments, we suggest that the occurrence of Bd should be considered a potential threat to the long-term persistence of these species, and urge the implementation of monitoring and conservation plans. PMID:24270024

  11. Geographic distribution of the chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis among mountain amphibians along the Italian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zampiglia, Mauro; Canestrelli, Daniele; Chiocchio, Andrea; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-11-25

    The amphibian chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is considered a major cause of amphibian population declines, particularly in montane areas. Here, we investigated the presence and distribution of Bd among populations of 3 mid- to high-altitude species spanning the entire Italian peninsula (486 individuals from 39 sites overall): the stream frog Rana italica, the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra gigliolii, and the alpine newt Mesotriton alpestris apuanus. We found Bd in all of the analyzed species. Despite the widespread distribution of the pathogen, its overall prevalence (6, 9 and 19%, respectively) was lower than previously reported for the endangered Apennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina pachypus (62.5%). Moreover, several populations of the species studied here were not infected, even at sites where Bd has been detected in other host species. When coupled with the lack of evidence for Bd-related mortalities in these species in peninsular Italy, these results suggest that mechanisms of resistance and/or tolerance are protecting populations of these species from the pathogenic activity of Bd. Nevertheless, in light of the dynamic pattern of Bd-host interactions reported in other studies, of Bd-related mortalities in at least 1 study species (S. s. salamandra) in other areas, and the ongoing climate changes in montane environments, we suggest that the occurrence of Bd should be considered a potential threat to the long-term persistence of these species, and urge the implementation of monitoring and conservation plans.

  12. Factors related to occurrence and distribution of selected bacterial and protozoan pathogens in Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duris, Joseph W.; Reif, Andrew G.; Donna A. Crouse,; Isaacs, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and bacterial and protozoan pathogens are controlled by diverse factors. To investigate these factors in Pennsylvania streams, 217 samples were collected quarterly from a 27-station water-quality monitoring network from July 2007 through August 2009. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) indicator bacteria, concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, and the presence of four genes related to pathogenic types of EC (eaeA, stx2, stx1, rfbO157) plus three microbial source tracking (MST) gene markers that are also associated with pathogenic ENT and EC (esp, LTIIa, STII). Water samples were concurrently analyzed for basic water chemistry, physical measures of water quality, nutrients, metals, and a suite of 79 organic compounds that included hormones, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics. For each sample location, stream discharge was measured by using standardized methods at the time of sample collection, and ancillary sample site information, such as land use and geological characteristics, was compiled. Samples exceeding recreational water quality criteria were more likely to contain all measured pathogen genes but notCryptosporidium or Giardia (oo)cysts. FIB and Giardia density and frequency of eaeA gene occurrence were significantly related to season. When discharge at a sampling location was high (>75th percentile of daily mean discharge), there were greater densities of FIB and Giardia, and the stx2, rfbO157, STII, and esp genes were found more frequently than at other discharge conditions. Giardia occurrence was likely related to nonpoint sources, which are highly influential during seasonal overland transport resulting from snowmelt and elevated precipitation in late winter and spring in Pennsylvania. When MST markers of human, swine, or bovine origin were present, samples more frequently carried the eaeA, stx2

  13. Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of two bumble bee pathogens, Nosema bombi and Crithidia bombi, in United States populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several bumble bee (Bombus) species in North America have undergone range reductions and rapid declines in relative abundance. Pathogens have been suggested as causal factors, however, baseline data on pathogen distributions in a large number of bumble bee species have not been available to rigorous...

  14. Estimating environmental conditions affecting protozoal pathogen removal in surface water wetland systems using a multi-scale, model-based approach.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Miles E; Hogan, Jennifer; Smith, Woutrina A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Shapiro, Karen; Los Huertos, Marc; Conrad, Patricia A; Dominik, Clare; Watson, Fred G R

    2014-09-15

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii are waterborne protozoal pathogens distributed worldwide and empirical evidence suggests that wetlands reduce the concentrations of these pathogens under certain environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate how protozoal removal in surface water is affected by the water temperature, turbidity, salinity, and vegetation cover of wetlands in the Monterey Bay region of California. To examine how protozoal removal was affected by these environmental factors, we conducted observational experiments at three primary spatial scales: settling columns, recirculating wetland mesocosm tanks, and an experimental research wetland (Molera Wetland). Simultaneously, we developed a protozoal transport model for surface water to simulate the settling columns, the mesocosm tanks, and the Molera Wetland. With a high degree of uncertainty expected in the model predictions and field observations, we developed the model within a Bayesian statistical framework. We found protozoal removal increased when water flowed through vegetation, and with higher levels of turbidity, salinity, and temperature. Protozoal removal in surface water was maximized (~0.1 hour(-1)) when flowing through emergent vegetation at 2% cover, and with a vegetation contact time of ~30 minutes compared to the effects of temperature, salinity, and turbidity. Our studies revealed that an increase in vegetated wetland area, with water moving through vegetation, would likely improve regional water quality through the reduction of fecal protozoal pathogen loads.

  15. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources.

    PubMed

    Slagter, Heleen A; Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L; Francis, Andrew D; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davis, James M; Davidson, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called "attentional-blink" deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditation, or mental training, affects the distribution of limited brain resources. Three months of intensive mental training resulted in a smaller attentional blink and reduced brain-resource allocation to the first target, as reflected by a smaller T1-elicited P3b, a brain-potential index of resource allocation. Furthermore, those individuals that showed the largest decrease in brain-resource allocation to T1 generally showed the greatest reduction in attentional-blink size. These observations provide novel support for the view that the ability to accurately identify T2 depends upon the efficient deployment of resources to T1. The results also demonstrate that mental training can result in increased control over the distribution of limited brain resources. Our study supports the idea that plasticity in brain and mental function exists throughout life and illustrates the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind.

  16. Distribution of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-8 and SPI-10 among different serotypes of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Saroj, Sunil D; Shashidhar, R; Karani, Manisha; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2008-04-01

    Many virulence phenotypes of Salmonella enterica are encoded by genes located on pathogenicity islands. Based on genome analysis, it is predicted that Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-8 is restricted to Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A, and SPI-10 to Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi, Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of SPI-8 and SPI-10 among Salmonella isolates from sprouts, fish, water and blood. A total of 110 Salmonella isolates and 6 Salmonella serovars from the Microbial Type Culture Collection, Chandigarh, India, were screened. All isolates belonging to Salmonella serovars Washington, Enteritidis and Paratyphi A had both SPI-8 and SPI-10. All Salmonella serovar Typhi isolates from water and blood had both SPI-8 and SPI-10, whereas isolates from fish contained only SPI-8. SPI-8 and SPI-10 were also detected in only 3 out of 42 isolates belonging to Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. Both SPI-8 and SPI-10 were absent in Salmonella serovars Worthington, Dublin, Paratyphi B and Paratyphi C. These results contradict the predictions from Salmonella genome sequences available in GenBank and indicate that SPI-8 and SPI-10 are widely distributed among Salmonella serovars and that virulence factors other than those on SPI-8 and SPI-10 may be responsible for host specificity. This is the first report on the distribution of SPIs in Salmonella isolates from India.

  17. Regrowth of Potential Opportunistic Pathogens and Algae in Reclaimed-Water Distribution Systems ▿

    PubMed Central

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Weinrich, Lauren A.; Cheng, Wei; Giraldo, Eugenio; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the quality of reclaimed water in treated effluent, after storage, and at three points in the distribution system of four plants in California, Florida, Massachusetts, and New York was conducted for 1 year. The plants had different treatment processes (conventional versus membrane bioreactor), production capacities, and methods for storage of the water, and the intended end uses of the water were different. The analysis focused on the occurrence of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci) and opportunistic pathogens (Aeromonas spp., enteropathogenic E. coli O157:H7, Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and Pseudomonas spp.), as well as algae. Using immunological methods, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the effluent of only one system, but it was not detected at the sampling points, suggesting that its survival in the system was poor. Although all of the treatment systems effectively reduced the levels of bacteria in the effluent, bacteria regrew in the reservoir and distribution systems because of the loss of residual disinfectant and high assimilable organic carbon levels. In the systems with open reservoirs, algal growth reduced the water quality by increasing the turbidity and accumulating at the end of the distribution system. Opportunistic pathogens, notably Aeromonas, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Pseudomonas, occurred more frequently than indicator bacteria (enterococci, coliforms, and E. coli). The Mycobacterium spp. were very diverse and occurred most frequently in membrane bioreactor systems, and Mycobacterium cookii was identified more often than the other species. The public health risk associated with these opportunistic pathogens in reclaimed water is unknown. Collectively, our results show the need to develop best management practices for reclaimed water to control bacterial regrowth and degradation of water before it is utilized at the point of use. PMID:20453149

  18. Projecting the Global Distribution of the Emerging Amphibian Fungal Pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Based on IPCC Climate Futures.

    PubMed

    Xie, Gisselle Yang; Olson, Deanna H; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in climate conditions are emerging as significant risk factors to numerous species, affecting habitat conditions and community interactions. Projections suggest species range shifts in response to climate change modifying environmental suitability and is supported by observational evidence. Both pathogens and their hosts can shift ranges with climate change. We consider how climate change may influence the distribution of the emerging infectious amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen associated with worldwide amphibian population losses. Using an expanded global Bd database and a novel modeling approach, we examined a broad set of climate metrics to model the Bd-climate niche globally and regionally, then project how climate change may influence Bd distributions. Previous research showed that Bd distribution is dependent on climatic variables, in particular temperature. We trained a machine-learning model (random forest) with the most comprehensive global compilation of Bd sampling records (~5,000 site-level records, mid-2014 summary), including 13 climatic variables. We projected future Bd environmental suitability under IPCC scenarios. The learning model was trained with combined worldwide data (non-region specific) and also separately per region (region-specific). One goal of our study was to estimate of how Bd spatial risks may change under climate change based on the best available data. Our models supported differences in Bd-climate relationships among geographic regions. We projected that Bd ranges will shift into higher latitudes and altitudes due to increased environmental suitability in those regions under predicted climate change. Specifically, our model showed a broad expansion of areas environmentally suitable for establishment of Bd on amphibian hosts in the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Our projections are useful for the development of monitoring designs in these areas, especially for

  19. Projecting the Global Distribution of the Emerging Amphibian Fungal Pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Based on IPCC Climate Futures

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Deanna H.; Blaustein, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in climate conditions are emerging as significant risk factors to numerous species, affecting habitat conditions and community interactions. Projections suggest species range shifts in response to climate change modifying environmental suitability and is supported by observational evidence. Both pathogens and their hosts can shift ranges with climate change. We consider how climate change may influence the distribution of the emerging infectious amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen associated with worldwide amphibian population losses. Using an expanded global Bd database and a novel modeling approach, we examined a broad set of climate metrics to model the Bd-climate niche globally and regionally, then project how climate change may influence Bd distributions. Previous research showed that Bd distribution is dependent on climatic variables, in particular temperature. We trained a machine-learning model (random forest) with the most comprehensive global compilation of Bd sampling records (~5,000 site-level records, mid-2014 summary), including 13 climatic variables. We projected future Bd environmental suitability under IPCC scenarios. The learning model was trained with combined worldwide data (non-region specific) and also separately per region (region-specific). One goal of our study was to estimate of how Bd spatial risks may change under climate change based on the best available data. Our models supported differences in Bd-climate relationships among geographic regions. We projected that Bd ranges will shift into higher latitudes and altitudes due to increased environmental suitability in those regions under predicted climate change. Specifically, our model showed a broad expansion of areas environmentally suitable for establishment of Bd on amphibian hosts in the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Our projections are useful for the development of monitoring designs in these areas, especially for

  20. Projecting the Global Distribution of the Emerging Amphibian Fungal Pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Based on IPCC Climate Futures.

    PubMed

    Xie, Gisselle Yang; Olson, Deanna H; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in climate conditions are emerging as significant risk factors to numerous species, affecting habitat conditions and community interactions. Projections suggest species range shifts in response to climate change modifying environmental suitability and is supported by observational evidence. Both pathogens and their hosts can shift ranges with climate change. We consider how climate change may influence the distribution of the emerging infectious amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen associated with worldwide amphibian population losses. Using an expanded global Bd database and a novel modeling approach, we examined a broad set of climate metrics to model the Bd-climate niche globally and regionally, then project how climate change may influence Bd distributions. Previous research showed that Bd distribution is dependent on climatic variables, in particular temperature. We trained a machine-learning model (random forest) with the most comprehensive global compilation of Bd sampling records (~5,000 site-level records, mid-2014 summary), including 13 climatic variables. We projected future Bd environmental suitability under IPCC scenarios. The learning model was trained with combined worldwide data (non-region specific) and also separately per region (region-specific). One goal of our study was to estimate of how Bd spatial risks may change under climate change based on the best available data. Our models supported differences in Bd-climate relationships among geographic regions. We projected that Bd ranges will shift into higher latitudes and altitudes due to increased environmental suitability in those regions under predicted climate change. Specifically, our model showed a broad expansion of areas environmentally suitable for establishment of Bd on amphibian hosts in the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Our projections are useful for the development of monitoring designs in these areas, especially for

  1. Olfactory Cues from Pathogenic Fungus Affect the Direction of Motion of Termites, Coptotermes formosanus.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Aya; Imai, Tomoya; Akino, Toshiharu; Toh, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus, tend to avoid pathogen odors when tested in Y-tube olfactometers, but approach and groom exposed nestmates to remove pathogens from their cuticle and maintain a healthy population. To better understand their differential reaction to pathogens and their odors, the relationship between odor cues and direction of motion was examined with the fungus Isaria fumosorosea K3 strain. The results indicate that nestmate odor was strongly attractive only in tests where fungal odors were present in both branches of the olfactometer. Termites generally avoid fungal odors when offered a choice without fungal odor. We also tested termite aversion to 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, major surface chemical compounds of I. fumosorosea K3, and estimated the total mass of these compounds present on the conidial surface by direct extraction method. The total quantity of these chemicals on the surface of fungal conidia was estimated to be approximately 0.01 ng per 10(7) conidia. This study demonstrates a context dependent behavioral change in termites in response to the odors of pathogenic fungi. PMID:26563202

  2. Olfactory Cues from Pathogenic Fungus Affect the Direction of Motion of Termites, Coptotermes formosanus.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Aya; Imai, Tomoya; Akino, Toshiharu; Toh, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus, tend to avoid pathogen odors when tested in Y-tube olfactometers, but approach and groom exposed nestmates to remove pathogens from their cuticle and maintain a healthy population. To better understand their differential reaction to pathogens and their odors, the relationship between odor cues and direction of motion was examined with the fungus Isaria fumosorosea K3 strain. The results indicate that nestmate odor was strongly attractive only in tests where fungal odors were present in both branches of the olfactometer. Termites generally avoid fungal odors when offered a choice without fungal odor. We also tested termite aversion to 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, major surface chemical compounds of I. fumosorosea K3, and estimated the total mass of these compounds present on the conidial surface by direct extraction method. The total quantity of these chemicals on the surface of fungal conidia was estimated to be approximately 0.01 ng per 10(7) conidia. This study demonstrates a context dependent behavioral change in termites in response to the odors of pathogenic fungi.

  3. Contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs from sandpits in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Macuhova, K; Akao, N; Fujinami, Y; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2013-09-01

    The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.

  4. [Affective disorders and dementia of the frontal lobe type. Hypothesis of a pathogenic relationship].

    PubMed

    Luauté, J P; Favel, P; Rémy, C; Sanabria, E; Bidault, E

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of some dysthymic states towards dementia is now rarely considered whereas it was well known at the beginning of the century. In French the final stage of this evolution was known as "démence vésanique". In recent years it has been noted that a proportion of patients with presenile dementia do not have Alzheimer's disease (AD) but a particular type of cognitive impairment., called dementia of the frontal lobe type (DFT), characterised by clinical and neuropsychological signs of frontal lobe disorder as well as an anterior defect of cerebral perfusion or metabolism. The onset of DFT is insiduous and marked by personality changes and inappropriate affect. It has not yet been reported as starting with true dysthymic disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Ten right handed patients (F/M = 9/1) became dysthymic in their fifties (m = 49.8 + 7.6 yr). All initially met the DSM III-R criteria for mood disorders. They were all treated with the standard drugs or ECT. Although initially responsive all the patients relapsed and their dysthymic disorders became less typical in presentation. At a mean age of 63.6 +/- 2.9 yrs a particular type of dementia became evident. None of the patients had a previous history of mood disorder or a family history of dementia. The demented patients received thorough clinical examinations and 8/10 were tested with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). All had XCT and HMPAO-SPECT scans using a rotating gamma camera. Three patients had a MRI Scan. RESULTS. The main symptoms were apathy and a lack of spontaneity as a result of which the patients were no longer able to live alone. HMPAO-SPECT: All the patients had clear hypoperfusion of the frontal and temporal lobes with seven showing a left predominance. XCT: A moderate degree of cortical atrophy, more pronounced in the frontal lobes, was observed in 6 patients. In 3 of them a previous XCT scan had been normal. MRI: Subcortical white matter hyperintensities were seen in the 3

  5. Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables

    PubMed Central

    Latouche, Melissa Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the bacterial load and isolate potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria from kitchen tables, including preparation tables and dining tables. Methods. A total of 53 households gave their consent for participation. The samples were collected by swabbing over an area of 5 cm by 5 cm of the tables and processed for bacterial count which was read as colony forming units (CFU), followed by isolation and identification of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Result. Knowledge about hygiene was not always put into practice. Coliforms, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., and S. aureus were detected from both dining and preparation tables. The mean CFU and presence of potential pathogens were significantly affected by the hygienic practices of the main food handler of the house, materials of kitchen tables, use of plastic covers, time of sample collection, use of multipurpose sponges/towels for cleaning, and the use of preparation tables as chopping boards (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Kitchen tables could be very important source of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria causing foodborne diseases. Lack of hygiene was confirmed by presence of coliforms, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp. The use of plastic covers, multipurpose sponges, and towels should be discouraged. PMID:27446220

  6. Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables.

    PubMed

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela; Latouche, Melissa Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the bacterial load and isolate potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria from kitchen tables, including preparation tables and dining tables. Methods. A total of 53 households gave their consent for participation. The samples were collected by swabbing over an area of 5 cm by 5 cm of the tables and processed for bacterial count which was read as colony forming units (CFU), followed by isolation and identification of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Result. Knowledge about hygiene was not always put into practice. Coliforms, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., and S. aureus were detected from both dining and preparation tables. The mean CFU and presence of potential pathogens were significantly affected by the hygienic practices of the main food handler of the house, materials of kitchen tables, use of plastic covers, time of sample collection, use of multipurpose sponges/towels for cleaning, and the use of preparation tables as chopping boards (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Kitchen tables could be very important source of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria causing foodborne diseases. Lack of hygiene was confirmed by presence of coliforms, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp. The use of plastic covers, multipurpose sponges, and towels should be discouraged.

  7. Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables.

    PubMed

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela; Latouche, Melissa Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the bacterial load and isolate potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria from kitchen tables, including preparation tables and dining tables. Methods. A total of 53 households gave their consent for participation. The samples were collected by swabbing over an area of 5 cm by 5 cm of the tables and processed for bacterial count which was read as colony forming units (CFU), followed by isolation and identification of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Result. Knowledge about hygiene was not always put into practice. Coliforms, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., and S. aureus were detected from both dining and preparation tables. The mean CFU and presence of potential pathogens were significantly affected by the hygienic practices of the main food handler of the house, materials of kitchen tables, use of plastic covers, time of sample collection, use of multipurpose sponges/towels for cleaning, and the use of preparation tables as chopping boards (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Kitchen tables could be very important source of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria causing foodborne diseases. Lack of hygiene was confirmed by presence of coliforms, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp. The use of plastic covers, multipurpose sponges, and towels should be discouraged. PMID:27446220

  8. Prevalence and distribution of soil-borne zoonotic pathogens in Lahore district of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shabbir, Muhammad Z.; Jamil, Tariq; Ali, Asad A.; Ahmad, Arfan; Naeem, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Muhammad H.; Bilal, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad A.; Muhammad, Khushi; Yaqub, Tahir; Bano, Asghari; Mirza, Ali I.; Shabbir, Muhammad A. B.; McVey, Walter R.; Patel, Ketan; Francesconi, Stephen; Jayarao, Bhushan M.; Rabbani, Masood

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary, collaborative project was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of soil-borne zoonotic pathogens in Lahore district of Pakistan and ascertain its Public Health Significance. Using a grid-based sampling strategy, soil samples (n = 145) were collected from villages (n = 29, 5 samples/village) and examined for Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis using real time PCR assays. Chemical analysis of soil samples was also performed on these samples. The relationship between soil composition and absence or presence of the pathogen, and seven risk factors was evaluated. DNA of B. anthracis (CapB), B. mallei/pseudomallei (chromosomal gene), C. burnetii (IS1111, transposase gene), and F. tularensis (lipoprotein/outer membrane protein) was detected in 9.6, 1.4, 4.8, and 13.1% of soil samples, respectively. None of the samples were positive for protective antigen plasmid (PA) of B. anthracis and Y. pestis (plasminogen activating factor, pPla gene). The prevalence of B. anthracis (CapB) was found to be associated with organic matter, magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), sodium (Na), ferrous (Fe), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K). Phosphorous (P) was found to be associated with prevalence of F. tularensis while it were Mg, Co, Na, Fe, Ca, and K for C. burnetii. The odds of detecting DNA of F. tularensis were 2.7, 4.1, and 2.7 higher when soil sample sites were >1 km from animal markets, >500 m from vehicular traffic roads and animal density of < 1000 animals, respectively. While the odds of detecting DNA of C. burnetii was 32, 11.8, and 5.9 higher when soil sample sites were >500 m from vehicular traffic roads, presence of ground cover and animal density of < 1000 animals, respectively. In conclusion, the distribution pattern of the soil-borne pathogens in and around the areas of Lahore district puts both human and

  9. Population Structure, Pathogenicity, and Mating Type Distribution of Magnaporthe oryzae Isolates from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Onaga, Geoffrey; Wydra, Kerstin; Koopmann, Birger; Séré, Yakouba; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the emergent threats to rice production in East Africa (EA), where little is known about the population genetics and pathogenicity of this pathogen. We investigated the genetic diversity and mating type (MAT) distribution of 88 isolates of M. oryzae from EA and representative isolates from West Africa (WA) and the Philippines (Asia) using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and mating-type-specific primer sets. In addition, the aggressiveness of each isolate was evaluated by inoculating on the susceptible Oryza sativa indica 'Co39', scoring the disease severity and calculating the disease progress. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed a low level of genetic differentiation at two levels (FST 0.12 and FCT 0.11). No evidence of population structure was found among the 65 isolates from EA, and gene flow among EA populations was high. Moreover, pairwise population differentiation (GST) in EA populations ranged from 0.03 to 0.04, suggesting that >96% of genetic variation is derived from within populations. However, the populations from Asia and WA were moderately differentiated from EA ones. The spatial analysis of principal coordinates and STRUCTURE revealed overlapping between individual M. oryzae isolates from EA, with limited distinctness according to the geographic origin. All the populations were clonal, given the positive and significant index of association (IA) and standardized index of association (rd), which indicates a significant (P<0.001) departure from panmixia (IA and rd=0). Both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were detected. However, MAT1-1 was more prevalent than MAT1-2. Pathogenicity analysis revealed variability in aggressiveness, suggesting a potential existence of different races. Our data suggest that either M. oryzae populations from EA could be distributed as a single genetic population or gene flow is exerting a significant influence, effectively swamping the action of selection

  10. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    PubMed

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  11. Tyrosine Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation in Burkholderia cenocepacia Affect Biofilm Formation, Growth under Nutritional Deprivation, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel; Tavares-Carreón, Faviola; Khodai-Kalaki, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia, a member of the B. cepacia complex (Bcc), is an opportunistic pathogen causing serious chronic infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Tyrosine phosphorylation has emerged as an important posttranslational modification modulating the physiology and pathogenicity of Bcc bacteria. Here, we investigated the predicted bacterial tyrosine kinases BCAM1331 and BceF and the low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases BCAM0208, BceD, and BCAL2200 of B. cenocepacia K56-2. We show that BCAM1331, BceF, BCAM0208, and BceD contribute to biofilm formation, while BCAL2200 is required for growth under nutrient-limited conditions. Multiple deletions of either tyrosine kinase or low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase genes resulted in the attenuation of B. cenocepacia intramacrophage survival and reduced pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella larval infection model. Experimental evidence indicates that BCAM1331 displays reduced tyrosine autophosphorylation activity compared to that of BceF. With the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the phosphatase activities of the three low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases demonstrated similar kinetic parameters. However, only BCAM0208 and BceD could dephosphorylate BceF. Further, BCAL2200 became tyrosine phosphorylated in vivo and catalyzed its autodephosphorylation. Together, our data suggest that despite having similar biochemical activities, low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases and tyrosine kinases have both overlapping and specific roles in the physiology of B. cenocepacia. PMID:26590274

  12. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    PubMed

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  13. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials

    PubMed Central

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  14. Analysis of spatial distribution and transmission characters for highly pathogenic avian influenza in Chinese mainland in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. L.; Wei, C. J.; Yan, L.; Chi, T. H.; Wu, X. B.; Xiao, C. S.

    2006-03-01

    After the outbreak of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in South Korea in the end of year 2003, estimates of the impact of HPAI in affected countries vary greatly, the total direct losses are about 3 billion US dollars, and it caused 15 million birds and poultry flocks death. It is significant to understand the spatial distribution and transmission characters of HPAI for its prevention and control. According to 50 outbreak cases for HPAI in Chinese mainland during 2004, this paper introduces the approach of spatial distribution and transmission characters for HPAI and its results. Its approach is based on remote sensing and GIS techniques. Its supporting data set involves normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (Ts) derived from a time-series of remote sensing data of 1 kilometer-resolution NOAA/AVHRR, birds' migration routes, topology geographic map, lake and wetland maps, and meteorological observation data. In order to analyze synthetically using these data, a supporting platform for analysis Avian Influenza epidemic situation (SPAS/AI) was developed. Supporting by SPAS/AI, the integrated information from multi-sources can be easily used to the analysis of the spatial distribution and transmission character of HPAI. The results show that the range of spatial distribution and transmission of HPAI in China during 2004 connected to environment factors NDVI, Ts and the distributions of lake and wetland, and especially to bird migration routes. To some extent, the results provide some suggestions for the macro-decision making for the prevention and control of HPAI in the areas of potential risk and reoccurrence.

  15. Invasiveness of plant pathogens depends on the spatial scale of host distribution.

    PubMed

    Mikaberidze, Alexey; Mundt, Christopher C; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Plant diseases often cause serious yield losses in agriculture. A pathogen's invasiveness can be quantified by the basic reproductive number, R₀. Since pathogen transmission between host plants depends on the spatial separation between them, R₀ is strongly influenced by the spatial scale of the host distribution. We present a proof of principle of a novel approach to estimate the basic reproductivenumber, R₀, of plant pathogens as a function of the size of a field planted with crops and its aspect ratio. This general approach is based on a spatially explicit population dynamical model. The basic reproductive number was found to increase with the field size at small field sizes and to saturate to a constant value at large field sizes. It reaches amaximum in square fields and decreases as the field becomes elongated. This pattern appears to be quite general: it holds for dispersal kernels that decrease exponentially or faster, as well as for fat-tailed dispersal kernels that decrease slower than exponential (i.e., power-law kernels). We used this approach to estimate R₀ in wheat stripe rust(an important disease caused by Puccinia striiformis), where we inferred both the transmission rates and the dispersal kernels from the measurements of disease gradients. For the two largest datasets, we estimated R₀ of P. striiformis in the limit of large fields to be of the order of 30. We found that the spatial extent over which R₀ changes strongly is quite fine-scaled (about 30 m of the linear extension of the field). Our results indicate that in order to optimize the spatial scale of deployment of fungicides or host resistances, the adjustments should be made at a fine spatial scale. We also demonstrated how the knowledge of the spatial dependence of R₀ can improve recommendations with regard to fungicide treatment. PMID:27509761

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of inhibition zone diameters of bovine mastitis pathogens in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Supré, K; Lommelen, K; De Meulemeester, L

    2014-07-16

    In dairy farms, antimicrobial drugs are frequently used for treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis. Determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens is needed to come to a correct use of antimicrobials. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus (n=768), Streptococcus uberis (n=939), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=444), Escherichia coli (n=563), and Klebsiella species (n=59) originating from routine milk samples from (sub)clinical mastitis were subjected to the disk diffusion method. Disks contained representatives of frequently used antibiotics in dairy. A limited number of clinical breakpoints were available through CLSI, and showed that susceptibility of Staph. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella was moderate to high. For streptococcal species however, a large variation between the tested species and the different antimicrobials was observed. In a next step, wild type populations were described based on epidemiological cut off values (EUCAST). Because of the limited number of official cut off values, the data were observed as a mastitis subpopulation and self-generated cut off values were created and a putative wild type population was suggested. The need for accurate clinical breakpoints for veterinary pathogens is high. Despite the lack of these breakpoints, however, a population study can be performed based on the distribution of inhibition zone diameters on the condition that a large number of strains is tested.

  17. TREM-1 Deficiency Can Attenuate Disease Severity without Affecting Pathogen Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Benjamin; Schuster, Steffen; Zysset, Daniel; Rihs, Silvia; Dickgreber, Nina; Schürch, Christian; Riether, Carsten; Siegrist, Mark; Schneider, Christoph; Pawelski, Helga; Gurzeler, Ursina; Ziltener, Pascal; Genitsch, Vera; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Ochsenbein, Adrian; Hofstetter, Willy; Kopf, Manfred; Kaufmann, Thomas; Oxenius, Annette; Reith, Walter; Saurer, Leslie; Mueller, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a potent amplifier of pro-inflammatory innate immune reactions. While TREM-1-amplified responses likely aid an improved detection and elimination of pathogens, excessive production of cytokines and oxygen radicals can also severely harm the host. Studies addressing the pathogenic role of TREM-1 during endotoxin-induced shock or microbial sepsis have so far mostly relied on the administration of TREM-1 fusion proteins or peptides representing part of the extracellular domain of TREM-1. However, binding of these agents to the yet unidentified TREM-1 ligand could also impact signaling through alternative receptors. More importantly, controversial results have been obtained regarding the requirement of TREM-1 for microbial control. To unambiguously investigate the role of TREM-1 in homeostasis and disease, we have generated mice deficient in Trem1. Trem1−/− mice are viable, fertile and show no altered hematopoietic compartment. In CD4+ T cell- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced models of colitis, Trem1−/− mice displayed significantly attenuated disease that was associated with reduced inflammatory infiltrates and diminished expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Trem1−/− mice also exhibited reduced neutrophilic infiltration and decreased lesion size upon infection with Leishmania major. Furthermore, reduced morbidity was observed for influenza virus-infected Trem1−/− mice. Importantly, while immune-associated pathologies were significantly reduced, Trem1−/− mice were equally capable of controlling infections with L. major, influenza virus, but also Legionella pneumophila as Trem1+/+ controls. Our results not only demonstrate an unanticipated pathogenic impact of TREM-1 during a viral and parasitic infection, but also indicate that therapeutic blocking of TREM-1 in distinct inflammatory disorders holds considerable promise by blunting excessive inflammation while preserving the capacity

  18. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  19. Distribution and diversity of the haemoglobin-haptoglobin iron-acquisition systems in pathogenic and non-pathogenic Neisseria.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Odile B; Bennett, Julia S; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J; Bayliss, Christopher D

    2013-09-01

    A new generation of vaccines containing multiple protein components that aim to provide broad protection against serogroup B meningococci has been developed. One candidate, 4CMenB (4 Component MenB), has been approved by the European Medicines Agency, but is predicted to provide at most 70-80 % strain coverage; hence there is a need for second-generation vaccines that achieve higher levels of coverage. Prior knowledge of the diversity of potential protein vaccine components is a key step in vaccine design. A number of iron import systems have been targeted in meningococcal vaccine development, including the HmbR and HpuAB outer-membrane proteins, which mediate the utilization of haemoglobin or haemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes as iron sources. While the genetic diversity of HmbR has been described, little is known of the diversity of HpuAB. Using whole genome sequences deposited in a Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequence Database (BIGSDB), the prevalence and diversity of HpuAB among Neisseria were investigated. HpuAB was widely present in a range of Neisseria species whereas HmbR was mainly limited to the pathogenic species Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Patterns of sequence variation in sequences from HpuAB proteins were suggestive of recombination and diversifying selection consistent with strong immune selection. HpuAB was subject to repeat-mediated phase variation in pathogenic Neisseria and the closely related non-pathogenic Neisseria species Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria polysaccharea but not in the majority of other commensal Neisseria species. These findings are consistent with HpuAB being subject to frequent genetic transfer potentially limiting the efficacy of this receptor as a vaccine candidate.

  20. Lobar distribution in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis predicts bacteriologic pathogen treatment.

    PubMed

    Izhakian, S; Wasser, W G; Fuks, L; Vainshelboim, B; Fox, B D; Fruchter, O; Kramer, M R

    2016-05-01

    Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBr) is a major cause of morbidity due to frequent infectious exacerbations. We analyzed the influence of patient age and bronchiectasis location on the bacterial profile of patients with NCFBr. This retrospective cohort study included 339 subjects diagnosed with an infectious exacerbation of NCFBr during the 9-year period between January 2006 and December 2014. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cultures and high-resolution computed tomography scans (HRCT) were utilized to characterize the location of the bronchiectasis and bacteriologic pathogenic profile. In univariate logistic regression, the frequency of Haemophilus influenzae was higher in patients aged ≤64 years (OR = 0.969, p < 0.0001, 95 % CI 0.954-0.983), whereas the frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 1.027, p = 0.008, 95 % CI 1.007-1.048) and Enterobacteriaceae (OR = 1.039, p = 0.01, 95 % CI 1.009-1.069) were significantly higher in patients aged >64 years. The lobar distribution of bronchiectasis in the subjects was 25.9 % in the right middle lobe (RML), 20.7 % in the right lower lobe (RLL), 20.4 % in the left lower lobe (LLL), 13.8 % in the lingula, 13 % in the right upper lobe (RUL), and 6.2 % in the left upper lobe (LUL). In the lower lobes, H. influenzae was the dominant species isolated, whereas in the RUL it was P. aeruginosa and in the LUL it was non- tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). H. influenzae was more prevalent in younger patients, whereas P. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae and NTM predominated in older patients. Different pathogens were associated with different lobar distributions. The RML, RLL and LLL showed a greater tendency to develop bronchiectasis than other lobes.

  1. Lobar distribution in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis predicts bacteriologic pathogen treatment.

    PubMed

    Izhakian, S; Wasser, W G; Fuks, L; Vainshelboim, B; Fox, B D; Fruchter, O; Kramer, M R

    2016-05-01

    Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBr) is a major cause of morbidity due to frequent infectious exacerbations. We analyzed the influence of patient age and bronchiectasis location on the bacterial profile of patients with NCFBr. This retrospective cohort study included 339 subjects diagnosed with an infectious exacerbation of NCFBr during the 9-year period between January 2006 and December 2014. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cultures and high-resolution computed tomography scans (HRCT) were utilized to characterize the location of the bronchiectasis and bacteriologic pathogenic profile. In univariate logistic regression, the frequency of Haemophilus influenzae was higher in patients aged ≤64 years (OR = 0.969, p < 0.0001, 95 % CI 0.954-0.983), whereas the frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 1.027, p = 0.008, 95 % CI 1.007-1.048) and Enterobacteriaceae (OR = 1.039, p = 0.01, 95 % CI 1.009-1.069) were significantly higher in patients aged >64 years. The lobar distribution of bronchiectasis in the subjects was 25.9 % in the right middle lobe (RML), 20.7 % in the right lower lobe (RLL), 20.4 % in the left lower lobe (LLL), 13.8 % in the lingula, 13 % in the right upper lobe (RUL), and 6.2 % in the left upper lobe (LUL). In the lower lobes, H. influenzae was the dominant species isolated, whereas in the RUL it was P. aeruginosa and in the LUL it was non- tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). H. influenzae was more prevalent in younger patients, whereas P. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae and NTM predominated in older patients. Different pathogens were associated with different lobar distributions. The RML, RLL and LLL showed a greater tendency to develop bronchiectasis than other lobes. PMID:26873379

  2. Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ton, Jurriaan; Brandenburg, Anna; Karlen, Danielle; Zopfi, Jakob; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by soil microorganisms influence plant growth and pathogen resistance. Yet, very little is known about their influence on herbivores and higher trophic levels. We studied the origin and role of a major bacterial VOC, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), on plant growth, pathogen and herbivore resistance, and the attraction of natural enemies in maize. One of the major contributors to 2,3-BD in the headspace of soil-grown maize seedlings was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, an endophytic bacterium that colonizes the plants. The production of 2,3-BD by E. aerogenes rendered maize plants more resistant against the Northern corn leaf blight fungus Setosphaeria turcica. On the contrary, E. aerogenes-inoculated plants were less resistant against the caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis. The effect of 2,3-BD on the attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris was more variable: 2,3-BD application to the headspace of the plants had no effect on the parasitoids, but application to the soil increased parasitoid attraction. Furthermore, inoculation of seeds with E. aerogenes decreased plant attractiveness, whereas inoculation of soil with a total extract of soil microbes increased parasitoid attraction, suggesting that the effect of 2,3-BD on the parasitoid is indirect and depends on the composition of the microbial community. PMID:24127750

  3. Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takayuki; Mizuno, Akifumi; Tsukamoto, Takanori; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Saito, Norihiko; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kikuchi, Shigemi; Uzuki, Tsuneyasu; Azegami, Koji; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    Bacteria were isolated from black lesions on shoots of European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) in an orchard in Japan. Previous characterization of this novel pathogen by phenotypic and genotypic methods suggested that it should belong to the genus Erwinia but might not correspond to either Erwinia amylovora or Erwinia pyrifoliae. Here, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it could not be assigned to any recognized species of the genus Erwinia. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the bacterial strains represented a novel species. The DNA G+C contents, the fatty acid profile and phenotypic characteristics resembled those previously reported for members of the genus Erwinia. On the basis of these and previous results, the pathogen represents a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov. (type strain: YPPS 951(T) = LMG 25843(T) = NCPPB 4475(T)) is proposed.

  4. Infant Sensitivity to Distributional Information Can Affect Phonetic Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maye, Jessica; Werker, Janet F.; Gerken, LouAnn

    2002-01-01

    Familiarized 6- and 8-month-olds with speech sounds from a phonetic continuum, exhibiting a bimodal or unimodal frequency distribution. Found that only infants in the bimodal condition discriminated tokens from the endpoints of the continuum. Results demonstrate that infants are sensitive to the statistical distribution of speech sounds in the…

  5. Standard deviation of luminance distribution affects lightness and pupillary response.

    PubMed

    Kanari, Kei; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether the standard deviation (SD) of luminance distribution serves as information of illumination. We measured the lightness of a patch presented in the center of a scrambled-dot pattern while manipulating the SD of the luminance distribution. Results showed that lightness decreased as the SD of the surround stimulus increased. We also measured pupil diameter while viewing a similar stimulus. The pupil diameter decreased as the SD of luminance distribution of the stimuli increased. We confirmed that these results were not obtained because of the increase of the highest luminance in the stimulus. Furthermore, results of field measurements revealed a correlation between the SD of luminance distribution and illuminance in natural scenes. These results indicated that the visual system refers to the SD of the luminance distribution in the visual stimulus to estimate the scene illumination. PMID:25606770

  6. Standard deviation of luminance distribution affects lightness and pupillary response.

    PubMed

    Kanari, Kei; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether the standard deviation (SD) of luminance distribution serves as information of illumination. We measured the lightness of a patch presented in the center of a scrambled-dot pattern while manipulating the SD of the luminance distribution. Results showed that lightness decreased as the SD of the surround stimulus increased. We also measured pupil diameter while viewing a similar stimulus. The pupil diameter decreased as the SD of luminance distribution of the stimuli increased. We confirmed that these results were not obtained because of the increase of the highest luminance in the stimulus. Furthermore, results of field measurements revealed a correlation between the SD of luminance distribution and illuminance in natural scenes. These results indicated that the visual system refers to the SD of the luminance distribution in the visual stimulus to estimate the scene illumination.

  7. Serologic survey for pathogens potentially affecting pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawn recruitment in Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Dubay, Shelli A; Noon, Ted H; deVos, James C; Ockenfels, Richard A

    2006-10-01

    During the 1990s, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) populations declined in Arizona, USA. To investigate potential causes of decline, we collected blood samples from hunter-harvested male pronghorn from 2001 to 2003 on four Arizona sites. Sera were tested for antibody to parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI3), bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), bluetongue virus (BTV), and Chlamydia psittaci. Antibody against PI3 was found in 33% of the samples, whereas antibody against BTV/EHDV was found in 77%. Antibodies to other pathogens were found at low prevalence rates. Although pronghorn decline in Arizona is probably not directly related to disease, potential reproductive effects of BTV/EHDV and PI3 infection on pronghorn in Arizona merit further study. PMID:17255453

  8. Plant Pathogenic Microbial Communication Affected by Elevated Temperature in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    PubMed

    Saha, N D; Chaudhary, A; Singh, S D; Singh, D; Walia, S; Das, T K

    2015-11-01

    Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria regulate specific gene expression in a population density-dependent manner by sensing level of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone (HSL) molecules which they produce and liberate to the environment, called Quorum Sensing (QS). The production of virulence factors (extracellular enzyme viz. cellulase, pectinase, etc.) in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) is under strong regulation of QS. The QS signal molecule, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-Homoserine Lactone (OHHL) was found as the central regulatory system for the virulence factor production in Pcc and is also under strict regulation of external environmental temperature. Under seven different incubation temperatures (24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 35, and 37 °C) in laboratory condition, highest amount of OHHL (804 violacein unit) and highest (79 %) Disease Severity Index (DSI) were measured at 33 °C. The OHHL production kinetics showed accumulation of highest concentration of OHHL at late log phase of the growth but diminution in the concentration occurred during stationary phase onwards to death phase. At higher temperature (35 and 37 °C) exposure, OHHL was not at detectable range. The effect of temperature on virulence factor production is the concomitant effect of HSL production and degradation which justifies less disease severity index in cross-inoculated tomato fruits incubated at 35 and 37 °C. The nondetection of the OHHL in the elevated temperature may because of degradation as these signal molecules are quite sensitive and prone to get degraded under different physical factors. This result provides the rationale behind the highest disease severity up to certain elevated temperature and leaves opportunities for investigation on mutation, co-evolution of superior plant pathogen with more stable HSL signals-mediated pathogenesis under global warming context. PMID:26271295

  9. Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Toffan, Anna; Panzarin, Valentina; Toson, Marica; Cecchettin, Krizia; Pascoli, Francesco

    2016-05-26

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the appearance and the severity of VNN disease. We assessed the effect of temperature (20°, 25° and 30°C) on mortality and virus load in the brain of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with 4 genetically different betanodaviruses, namely red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV), striped jack NNV (SJNNV) and the reassortant strains RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV. The RGNNV/SJNNV virus possesses the polymerase gene of RGNNV and the coat protein gene of SJNNV, and vice versa for the SJNNV/RGNNV virus. The obtained results showed that the RGNNV strain is the most pathogenic for juvenile sea bass, but clinical disease and mortality appeared only at higher temperatures. The SJNNV strain is weakly pathogenic for D. labrax regardless of the temperature used, while virus replication was detected in the brain of survivors only at 20°C. Finally, reassortant strains caused low mortality, independent of the temperature used, but the viral load in the brain was strongly influenced by water temperature and the genetic type of the polymerase gene. Taken together, these data show that nodavirus replication in vivo is a composite process regulated by both the genetic features of the viral strain and water temperatures. PMID:27225206

  10. Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Toffan, Anna; Panzarin, Valentina; Toson, Marica; Cecchettin, Krizia; Pascoli, Francesco

    2016-05-26

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the appearance and the severity of VNN disease. We assessed the effect of temperature (20°, 25° and 30°C) on mortality and virus load in the brain of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with 4 genetically different betanodaviruses, namely red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV), striped jack NNV (SJNNV) and the reassortant strains RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV. The RGNNV/SJNNV virus possesses the polymerase gene of RGNNV and the coat protein gene of SJNNV, and vice versa for the SJNNV/RGNNV virus. The obtained results showed that the RGNNV strain is the most pathogenic for juvenile sea bass, but clinical disease and mortality appeared only at higher temperatures. The SJNNV strain is weakly pathogenic for D. labrax regardless of the temperature used, while virus replication was detected in the brain of survivors only at 20°C. Finally, reassortant strains caused low mortality, independent of the temperature used, but the viral load in the brain was strongly influenced by water temperature and the genetic type of the polymerase gene. Taken together, these data show that nodavirus replication in vivo is a composite process regulated by both the genetic features of the viral strain and water temperatures.

  11. Plant Pathogenic Microbial Communication Affected by Elevated Temperature in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    PubMed

    Saha, N D; Chaudhary, A; Singh, S D; Singh, D; Walia, S; Das, T K

    2015-11-01

    Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria regulate specific gene expression in a population density-dependent manner by sensing level of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone (HSL) molecules which they produce and liberate to the environment, called Quorum Sensing (QS). The production of virulence factors (extracellular enzyme viz. cellulase, pectinase, etc.) in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) is under strong regulation of QS. The QS signal molecule, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-Homoserine Lactone (OHHL) was found as the central regulatory system for the virulence factor production in Pcc and is also under strict regulation of external environmental temperature. Under seven different incubation temperatures (24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 35, and 37 °C) in laboratory condition, highest amount of OHHL (804 violacein unit) and highest (79 %) Disease Severity Index (DSI) were measured at 33 °C. The OHHL production kinetics showed accumulation of highest concentration of OHHL at late log phase of the growth but diminution in the concentration occurred during stationary phase onwards to death phase. At higher temperature (35 and 37 °C) exposure, OHHL was not at detectable range. The effect of temperature on virulence factor production is the concomitant effect of HSL production and degradation which justifies less disease severity index in cross-inoculated tomato fruits incubated at 35 and 37 °C. The nondetection of the OHHL in the elevated temperature may because of degradation as these signal molecules are quite sensitive and prone to get degraded under different physical factors. This result provides the rationale behind the highest disease severity up to certain elevated temperature and leaves opportunities for investigation on mutation, co-evolution of superior plant pathogen with more stable HSL signals-mediated pathogenesis under global warming context.

  12. Understanding how inequality in the distribution of income affects health.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A

    1997-07-01

    Research on the determinants of health has almost exclusively focused on the individual but it seems clear we cannot understand or improve patterns of population health without engaging structural determinants at the societal level. This article traces the development of research on income distribution and health to the most recent epidemiologic studies from the USA that show how income inequality is related to age- adjusted mortality within the 50 States. (r = -0.62, p = 0.0001) even after accounting for absolute levels of income. We discuss potential material, psychological, social and behavioral pathways through which income distribution might be linked to health status. Distributional aspects of the economy are important determinants of health and may well provide one of the most pertinent indicators of overall social well-being.

  13. How is Order 636 affecting the gas distribution industry

    SciTech Connect

    Margossian, K.M. )

    1993-12-01

    This paper is part of a six part series on how interstate gas pipelines have been affected by Order 636. These papers are written in an interview format with different individuals representing the pipeline, natural gas, utility, and regulatory side of this new regulation. The issues deal with how it has affected these industries; how the relationships have changed between suppliers, marketers, distributors, etc.; the risks now involved in marketing, shipping, and buying gas products; and new technology developments have resulted to comply with the new regulations. This paper is an interview with Kenneth M. Magossian, president and chief operating officer of Commonwealth Gas Co. and Hopkinton LNG Corp.

  14. Vector-borne pathogens: New and emerging arboviral diseases affecting public health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dengue and Zika have quickly become two of the most important vector-borne diseases affecting Public health around the world. This presentation will introduce vector-borne diseases and all the vectors implicated. A focus will be made on the most important arboviral diseases (Zika and dengue) describ...

  15. The presence of opportunistic pathogens, Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex, in South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines.

    PubMed

    Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Fallowfield, H; Bentham, R

    2015-06-01

    Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively. During the summer period of sampling the concentration of all three organisms significantly increased (P < 0.05) along the pipeline, suggesting multiplication and hence viability. No seasonality in the decrease in chlorine residual along the pipelines was observed. This suggests that the combination of reduced chlorine residual and increased water temperature promoted the presence of these opportunistic pathogens. PMID:26042986

  16. MYT3, A Myb-Like Transcription Factor, Affects Fungal Development and Pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-01-01

    We previously characterized members of the Myb protein family, MYT1 and MYT2, in Fusarium graminearum. MYT1 and MYT2 are involved in female fertility and perithecium size, respectively. To expand knowledge of Myb proteins in F. graminearum, in this study, we characterized the functions of the MYT3 gene, which encodes a putative Myb-like transcription factor containing two Myb DNA-binding domains and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. MYT3 proteins were localized in nuclei during most developmental stages, suggesting the role of MYT3 as a transcriptional regulator. Deletion of MYT3 resulted in impairment of conidiation, germination, and vegetative growth compared to the wild type, whereas complementation of MYT3 restored the wild-type phenotype. Additionally, the Δmyt3 strain grew poorly on nitrogen-limited media; however, the mutant grew robustly on minimal media supplemented with ammonium. Moreover, expression level of nitrate reductase gene in the Δmyt3 strain was decreased in comparison to the wild type and complemented strain. On flowering wheat heads, the Δmyt3 strain exhibited reduced pathogenicity, which corresponded with significant reductions in trichothecene production and transcript levels of trichothecene biosynthetic genes. When the mutant was selfed, mated as a female, or mated as a male for sexual development, perithecia were not observed on the cultures, indicating that the Δmyt3 strain lost both male and female fertility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MYT3 is required for pathogenesis and sexual development in F. graminearum, and will provide a robust foundation to establish the regulatory networks for all Myb-like proteins in F. graminearum. PMID:24722578

  17. Legal & regulatory issues affecting participation in distributed resource markets

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmons, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes recent research co-sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and four investor-owned utilities. Its purpose was to investigate how legal and regulatory factors will shape strategic decisions on the roles of utilities and others in the development of distributed resources. The work was performed during 1995 and early 1996 by John Nimmons & Associates, with support from Thomas J. Starts, Energy & Environmental Economics, and Awad & Singer.

  18. Geochemical factors affecting PAH distribution in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.; Dickhut, R.M.; Kimbrough, K.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment/pore water distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s) of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined with depth at two sites in the Elizabeth River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Areas of the Elizabeth River have been historically extensively contaminated with PAHs. Varying trends in distribution coefficients were observed both across the range of molecular weights of the PAHs and with depth in the sediment. Linear relations between log K{sub d} and octanol-water partition coefficient (log K{sub ow}) were observed deep in the cores but not near the surface of the sediments. This phenomena indicates that PAH sediment/porewater distributions are not at equilibrium near the sediment-water interface. Moreover, down-core K{sub d}s decreased and were, in most cases, inversely related with fraction organic carbon. These data indicate that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may play a potentially significant role in mobilizing sediment-associated organic contaminants. The extent to which DOC and other geochemical parameters such as total lipid extract (TLE) and BET surface area control K{sub d}s of PAHs, is under further investigation.

  19. Regulation of Sulphur Assimilation Is Essential for Virulence and Affects Iron Homeostasis of the Human-Pathogenic Mould Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Amich, Jorge; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Krappmann, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential element that all pathogens have to absorb from their surroundings in order to grow inside their infected host. Despite its importance, the relevance of sulphur assimilation in fungal virulence is largely unexplored. Here we report a role of the bZIP transcription factor MetR in sulphur assimilation and virulence of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The MetR regulator is essential for growth on a variety of sulphur sources; remarkably, it is fundamental for assimilation of inorganic S-sources but dispensable for utilization of methionine. Accordingly, it strongly supports expression of genes directly related to inorganic sulphur assimilation but not of genes connected to methionine metabolism. On a broader scale, MetR orchestrates the comprehensive transcriptional adaptation to sulphur-starving conditions as demonstrated by digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, A. fumigatus is able to utilize volatile sulphur compounds produced by its methionine catabolism, a process that has not been described before and that is MetR-dependent. The A. fumigatus MetR transcriptional activator is important for virulence in both leukopenic mice and an alternative mini-host model of aspergillosis, as it was essential for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis and supported the systemic dissemination of the fungus. MetR action under sulphur-starving conditions is further required for proper iron regulation, which links regulation of sulphur metabolism to iron homeostasis and demonstrates an unprecedented regulatory crosstalk. Taken together, this study provides evidence that regulation of sulphur assimilation is not only crucial for A. fumigatus virulence but also affects the balance of iron in this prime opportunistic pathogen. PMID:24009505

  20. Regulation of sulphur assimilation is essential for virulence and affects iron homeostasis of the human-pathogenic mould Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Amich, Jorge; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Krappmann, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential element that all pathogens have to absorb from their surroundings in order to grow inside their infected host. Despite its importance, the relevance of sulphur assimilation in fungal virulence is largely unexplored. Here we report a role of the bZIP transcription factor MetR in sulphur assimilation and virulence of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The MetR regulator is essential for growth on a variety of sulphur sources; remarkably, it is fundamental for assimilation of inorganic S-sources but dispensable for utilization of methionine. Accordingly, it strongly supports expression of genes directly related to inorganic sulphur assimilation but not of genes connected to methionine metabolism. On a broader scale, MetR orchestrates the comprehensive transcriptional adaptation to sulphur-starving conditions as demonstrated by digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, A. fumigatus is able to utilize volatile sulphur compounds produced by its methionine catabolism, a process that has not been described before and that is MetR-dependent. The A. fumigatus MetR transcriptional activator is important for virulence in both leukopenic mice and an alternative mini-host model of aspergillosis, as it was essential for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis and supported the systemic dissemination of the fungus. MetR action under sulphur-starving conditions is further required for proper iron regulation, which links regulation of sulphur metabolism to iron homeostasis and demonstrates an unprecedented regulatory crosstalk. Taken together, this study provides evidence that regulation of sulphur assimilation is not only crucial for A. fumigatus virulence but also affects the balance of iron in this prime opportunistic pathogen.

  1. Distribution and pathogenic relationship of virulence associated genes among Vibrio alginolyticus from the mariculture systems.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun; Jiang, Xiao; Sun, Hongyan; Zhao, Zhe; Chen, Chang; Luo, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus has been confirmed as an important pathogen for aquatic animals. However, the pathogenic mechanism of V. alginolyticus is not completely understood. A total of 31 isolates of V. alginolyticus from sea water, fish and shrimp on the mariculture systems were fingerprinted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The pathogenicity of these isolates was tested by challenge and the 21 genes associated with the virulence of Vibrio cholerae or Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined in V. alginolyticus using PCR. The results showed that the 31 V. alginolyticus isolates belonged to 26 PFGE genotypes and the isolates from different source had different genotypes. Nine of the 31 isolates were confirmed as pathogenic strains by challenge. Moreover, 12 vibrio virulence genes were detected in this study. Of the detected genes, VCtoxR, VCtoxS, hlyA, VPtoxR and tlh were found in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates. However, the other 7 virulence genes, ctxB, zot, tagA, stn, sto, tdh and trh, were only present in pathogenic isolates. Analysis of the relationship between virulence associated genes and pathogenicity of V. alginolyticus provides a possible explanation that the pathogenic mechanism of V. alginolyticus might be similar to that of V. parahaemolyticus instead of V. cholerae.

  2. Distribution and dynamics of risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Guo, Z. W.; Bridge, E. S.; Li, Y. M.; Xiao, X. M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Within China’s Poyang Lake region, close interactions between wild migratory birds and domestic poultry are common and provide an opportunity for the transmission and subsequent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. We overlaid a series of ecological factors associated with HPAI to map the risk of HPAI in relation to natural and anthropogenic variables, and we identified two hotspots for potential HPAI outbreaks in the Poyang Lake region as well as three corridors connecting the two hotspot areas. In hotspot I, there is potential for migratory birds to bring new avian influenza (AI) strains that can reassort with existing strains to form new AI viruses. Hotspot II features high-density poultry production where outbreaks of endemic AI viruses are likely. The three communication corridors that link the two hotspots further promote HPAI H5N1 transmission and outbreaks and lead to the persistence of AI viruses in the Poyang Lake region. We speculate that the region’s unevenly distributed poultry supply-and-demand system might be a key factor inducing HPAI H5N1 transmission and outbreaks in the Poyang Lake region. PMID:23398949

  3. [A study on the distribution and etiology of pathogenic vibrio in the 5 coastal provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, J; Ni, Y

    1998-10-01

    In order to understand the distribution and pathogenicity of vibrio in the coastal areas of China a study consisted of 51 water samples and foodstuff from 10 different areas in 5 provinces was conducted microbiologically and etiologically. Results showed that 45 pathogenic vibrio were identified, with majority of A. caviae (26.7%), V. alginolyticus (22.2%) and V. parahaemolyticus (11.1%), same kinds of vibrio found in feces from patients with acute infectious diarrhea. Prevalence rates of pathogenic vibrio identified from the East China Sea, the South China Sea and the Yellow Sea were between 66%-77%. The detection rate of pathogenic vibrio in 29 water samples was 93.1% (27/29) with 38 strains isolated mainly in river water (57.8%), followed by in sea water (21.1%) and pool water (21.1%). The results revealed that the distribution of pathogenic vibrio in different waters was closely related to its pathogenecity, providing evidence that vibrio diarrhea be supervised, diagnosed and treated in order to decrease the incidence of the disease.

  4. Processes affecting the distribution and speciation of selenium in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Cutter, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The analyses of dissolved selenium species in the Pacific Ocean and anoxic waters of the Saanich Inlet, selenium in fluxing particles, and the regeneration of selenium from biogenic matter has been undertaken in order to evaluate the processes affecting selenium in the ocean. Analyses of oceanic surface waters show selenite to be severely depleted, and the degree of selenate depletion, a function of the oceanic regime (i.e. most depleted in oligotrophic regions). Both species are enriched in deeper waters with an approximately 60:40 ratio of Se +6 to +4. A major species in surface waters and the upper thermocline is organic selenide. A secondary maximum of organic selenide is seen in the suboxic oxygen minimum of the eastern tropical Pacific, while selenite shows a negative anomaly. The regeneration of selenium from biogenic matter shows a multistep behavior, with organic selenide being released rapidly and primarily, selenite and selenate being produced by the slow oxidation of this fraction. Selenium in the ocean is affected by several processes. First organisms preferentially take-up selenite over selenate. This incorporation of selenium into biological material involves reduction to selenide. As selenium is regenerated from biogenic matter, first organic selenide is released, which in turn oxidizes to selenite, which then oxidizes very slowly to selenate. Finally, selenium does appear to undergo redox reactions in anoxic systems, but the products of the reactions remain unidentified.

  5. Emotional prosody rarely affects the spatial distribution of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Hazel K; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2012-01-01

    Emotional manipulations have been demonstrated to produce leftward shifts in perceptual asymmetries. However, much of this research has used linguistic tasks to assess perceptual asymmetry and there are therefore two interpretations of the leftward shift. It may reflect a leftward shift in the spatial distribution of attention as a consequence of emotional activation of the right hemisphere; alternatively it may reflect emotional facilitation of right hemisphere linguistic processing. The current study used two non-linguistic attention tasks to determine whether emotional prosody influences the spatial distribution of visual attention. In a dual-task paradigm participants listened to semantically neutral sentences in neutral, happy or sad prosodies while completing a target discrimination task (Experiment 1) and a target detection task (Experiments 2 and 3). There was only one condition in one experiment that induced perceptual asymmetries that interacted with emotional prosody, suggesting that task-irrelevant emotional prosody only rarely directs attention. Instead a more likely cause of the leftward perceptual shift for comprehension of emotional speech is facilitation of right hemisphere linguistic processing.

  6. Do cleaning stations affect the distribution of territorial reef fishes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, Elizabeth A.; Côté, Isabelle M.; Reynolds, John D.

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the role of cleaning stations in determining the distribution of territorial reef species. Cleaner fish reduce their clients' ectoparasite loads and, therefore, proximity to cleaning stations should be advantageous for territorial fish. We focused on five damselfish species which hold permanent territories and cleaning stations occupied by cleaning gobies ( Elacatinus spp.) on a Caribbean reef. Contrary to our predictions of higher densities near cleaning stations, we found that bicolor damselfish were less abundant near cleaning stations than at ecologically similar points without cleaning gobies whereas no effects were seen for longfin, dusky, yellowtail, and threespot damselfish. In addition, although damselfish densities were higher in the immediate vicinity of cleaning stations than 1.5-3 m away for most species, this was also the case at points without cleaners. Because cleaning stations are usually located on prominent coral heads or sponges, the overall significant attraction of damselfish to such structures, whether occupied by cleaning gobies or not, could reflect attraction to past or potential cleaning stations. However, it is more likely that interspecific competition and/or the low benefits of being cleaned at our study site prevent aggregation around cleaners. Cleaning stations may play only a minor role in determining the distribution of territorial reef fishes.

  7. Mos1 mutagenesis reveals a diversity of mechanisms affecting response of Caenorhabditis elegans to the bacterial pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum.

    PubMed

    Yook, Karen; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2007-02-01

    A specific host-pathogen interaction exists between Caenorhabditis elegans and the gram-positive bacterium Microbacterium nematophilum. This bacterium is able to colonize the rectum of susceptible worms and induces a defensive tail-swelling response in the host. Previous mutant screens have identified multiple loci that affect this interaction. Some of these loci correspond to known genes, but many bus genes [those with a bacterially unswollen (Bus) mutant phenotype] have yet to be cloned. We employed Mos1 transposon mutagenesis as a means of more rapidly cloning bus genes and identifying new mutants with altered pathogen response. This approach revealed new infection-related roles for two well-characterized and much-studied genes, egl-8 and tax-4. It also allowed the cloning of a known bus gene, bus-17, which encodes a predicted galactosyltransferase, and of a new bus gene, bus-19, which encodes a novel, albeit ancient, protein. The results illustrate advantages and disadvantages of Mos1 transposon mutagenesis in this system. PMID:17151260

  8. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on the Mobility and Distribution of Metals and Pathogens at the River Basin Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiadi, Maria; De Nijs, Ton; Sterk, Ankie; Van Der Perk, Marcel; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Anticipated climate change will most likely affect the mobility and distribution of contaminants, such as metals and pathogens, in soil, groundwater and surface water, ultimately affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as public health. For example, temperature-induced changes in soil structure may affect species composition, thereby promoting the transport of toxic substances, such as copper and cadmium, and pathogenic microorganisms. In the framework of a project to assess the effects of climate change on the concentrations and fluxes of metals and pathogens at the catchment scale, a dynamic, spatially distributed River Basin Model that integrates catchment-scale transport models will be developed. The River Basin Model will consist of modules describing the transfers and feedbacks between the environmental compartments soil, groundwater and surface water. The innovative aspect of this project involves the development of a novel soil module to include the effects of changing soil organic matter content and composition on the speciation and transport pathways of contaminants. For this purpose, a point-scale soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics model will be linked to a chemical speciation and transport model, which allows a quantitative assessment of climate change effects on the mobility of metals and pathogens in various soil types. The results of this model analyses will be used to parameterize a large-scale soil module to be included in the river basin model. To assess the impact of climate change and changes in land use on the future distributions of contaminant concentrations in the major exposure pathways to man and ecosystems, a selected number of scenarios addressing climate change, agricultural practices (land use change, land management), current policies and mitigation strategies, will be defined. For each scenario, the River Basin Model will be used to project the probability distributions of contaminant concentrations in soil

  9. No evidence of infection or exposure to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenzas in peridomestic wildlife on an affected poultry facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, Daniel; Dusek, Robert J.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the potential transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wildlife species in three settings in association with an outbreak at a poultry facility: 1) small birds and small mammals on a poultry facility that was affected with highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) in April 2015; 2) small birds and small mammals on a nearby poultry facility that was unaffected by HPAIV; and 3) small birds, small mammals, and waterfowl in a nearby natural area. We live-captured small birds and small mammals and collected samples from hunter-harvested waterfowl to test for active viral shedding and evidence of exposure (serum antibody) to AIV and the H5N2 HPAIV that affected the poultry facility. We detected no evidence of shedding or specific antibody to AIV in small mammals and small birds 5 mo after depopulation of the poultry. We detected viral shedding and exposure to AIV in waterfowl and estimated approximately 15% viral shedding and 60% antibody prevalence. In waterfowl, we did not detect shedding or exposure to the HPAIV that affected the poultry facility. We also conducted camera trapping around poultry carcass depopulation composting barns and found regular visitation by four species of medium-sized mammals. We provide preliminary data suggesting that peridomestic wildlife were not an important factor in the transmission of AIV during the poultry outbreak, nor did small birds and mammals in natural wetland settings show wide evidence of AIV shedding or exposure, despite the opportunity for exposure.

  10. Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

  11. Soil Eukaryotic Microorganism Succession as Affected by Continuous Cropping of Peanut - Pathogenic and Beneficial Fungi were Selected

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping. PMID:22808226

  12. Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping. PMID:22808226

  13. Temperature Affects Species Distribution in Symbiotic Populations of Vibrio spp.

    PubMed Central

    Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2000-01-01

    The genus Sepiola (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) contains 10 known species that occur in the Mediterranean Sea today. All Sepiola species have a light organ that contains at least one of two species of luminous bacteria, Vibrio fischeri and Vibrio logei. The two Vibrio species coexist in at least four Sepiola species (S. affinis, S. intermedia, S. ligulata, and S. robusta), and their concentrations in the light organ depend on changes in certain abiotic factors, including temperature. Strains of V. fischeri grew faster in vitro and in Sepiola juveniles when they were incubated at 26°C. In contrast, strains of V. logei grew faster at 18°C in culture and in Sepiola juveniles. When aposymbiotic S. affinis or S. ligulata juveniles were inoculated with one Vibrio species, all strains of V. fischeri and V. logei were capable of infecting both squid species at the optimum growth temperatures, regardless of the squid host from which the bacteria were initially isolated. However, when two different strains of V. fischeri and V. logei were placed in direct competition with each other at either 18 or 26°C, strains of V. fischeri were present in sepiolid light organs in greater concentrations at 26°C, whereas strains of V. logei were present in greater concentrations at 18°C. In addition to the competition experiments, the ratios of the two bacterial species in adult Sepiola specimens caught throughout the season at various depths differed, and these differences were correlated with the temperature in the surrounding environment. My findings contribute additional data concerning the ecological and environmental factors that affect host-symbiont recognition and may provide insight into the evolution of animal-bacterium specificity. PMID:10919820

  14. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants.

    PubMed

    Schuerger, A C; Brown, C S

    1997-02-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  15. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  16. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants.

    PubMed

    Schuerger, A C; Brown, C S

    1997-02-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  17. Topography and Land Cover of Watersheds Predicts the Distribution of the Environmental Pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans in Aquatic Insects

    PubMed Central

    Carolan, Kevin; Garchitorena, Andres; García-Peña, Gabriel E.; Morris, Aaron; Landier, Jordi; Fontanet, Arnaud; Le Gall, Philippe; Texier, Gaëtan; Marsollier, Laurent; Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Eyangoh, Sara; Lo Seen, Danny; Guégan, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    Background An understanding of the factors driving the distribution of pathogens is useful in preventing disease. Often we achieve this understanding at a local microhabitat scale; however the larger scale processes are often neglected. This can result in misleading inferences about the distribution of the pathogen, inhibiting our ability to manage the disease. One such disease is Buruli ulcer, an emerging neglected tropical disease afflicting many thousands in Africa, caused by the environmental pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Herein, we aim to describe the larger scale landscape process describing the distribution of M. ulcerans. Methodology Following extensive sampling of the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates in Cameroon, we select the 5 dominant insect Orders, and conduct an ecological niche model to describe how the distribution of M. ulcerans positive insects changes according to land cover and topography. We then explore the generalizability of the results by testing them against an independent dataset collected in a second endemic region, French Guiana. Principal Findings We find that the distribution of the bacterium in Cameroon is accurately described by the land cover and topography of the watershed, that there are notable seasonal differences in distribution, and that the Cameroon model does not predict the distribution of M. ulcerans in French Guiana. Conclusions/Significance Future studies of M. ulcerans would benefit from consideration of local structure of the local stream network in future sampling, and further work is needed on the reasons for notable differences in the distribution of this species from one region to another. This work represents a first step in the identification of large-scale environmental drivers of this species, for the purposes of disease risk mapping. PMID:25375173

  18. Modeling the U.S. national distribution of waterborne pathogen concentrations with application to Cryptosporidium parvum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Ruppert, David; Behr, Christopher T.

    2003-09-01

    This paper provides a general statistical methodology for modeling environmental pathogen concentrations in natural waters. A hierarchical model of pathogen concentrations captures site and regional random effects as well as random laboratory recovery rates. Recovery rates were modeled by a generalized linear mixed model. Two classes of pathogen concentration models are differentiated according to their ultimate purpose: water quality prediction or health risk analysis. A fully Bayesian analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation is used for statistical inference. The applicability of this methodology is illustrated by the analysis of a national survey of Cryptosporidium parvum concentrations, in which 93% of the observations were zero counts.

  19. The regulatory gene VosA affects conidiogenesis and is involved in virulence of the fungal cereal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Leng, Yueqiang; Zhong, Shaobin

    2015-10-01

    VosA is one of the four components in the velvet complex shown to be involved in regulation of fungal development and secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi. However, the function of VosA has only been studied in a few plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, we identified the ortholog (CsVosA) of VosA in the cereal spot blotch pathogen Cochliobolus sativus and generated gene knockout mutants for functional characterization of the gene. Conidia of the CsVosA knockout mutants (ΔCsVosA) lacked trehalose, were significantly reduced in viability, had less pigmentation, and showed a dramatic reduction in tolerance to heat, oxidative, and ion stresses. However, ΔCsVosA produced more conidia than the wild type under both constant dark, and constant light conditions, suggesting that CsVosA is a negative-feedback regulator in conidiation. Interestingly, the ΔCsVosA mutants exhibited a hypermorphic conidiation phenotype with indeterminate growth of the conidial tip cells resulting in head-to-tail (acropetal) arrays of conidiogenesis, indicating that some genes involved in conidiation are also regulated by CsVosA. The ΔCsVosA mutants showed significant reduction in virulence on susceptible barley plants and the two genes for nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) involved in virulence during host infection were down-regulated in ΔCsVosA, suggesting that CsVosA may affect virulence of the fungus by regulating the expression of the genes for NRPSs, as well as other genes directly or indirectly involved in virulence.

  20. The regulatory gene VosA affects conidiogenesis and is involved in virulence of the fungal cereal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Leng, Yueqiang; Zhong, Shaobin

    2015-10-01

    VosA is one of the four components in the velvet complex shown to be involved in regulation of fungal development and secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi. However, the function of VosA has only been studied in a few plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, we identified the ortholog (CsVosA) of VosA in the cereal spot blotch pathogen Cochliobolus sativus and generated gene knockout mutants for functional characterization of the gene. Conidia of the CsVosA knockout mutants (ΔCsVosA) lacked trehalose, were significantly reduced in viability, had less pigmentation, and showed a dramatic reduction in tolerance to heat, oxidative, and ion stresses. However, ΔCsVosA produced more conidia than the wild type under both constant dark, and constant light conditions, suggesting that CsVosA is a negative-feedback regulator in conidiation. Interestingly, the ΔCsVosA mutants exhibited a hypermorphic conidiation phenotype with indeterminate growth of the conidial tip cells resulting in head-to-tail (acropetal) arrays of conidiogenesis, indicating that some genes involved in conidiation are also regulated by CsVosA. The ΔCsVosA mutants showed significant reduction in virulence on susceptible barley plants and the two genes for nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) involved in virulence during host infection were down-regulated in ΔCsVosA, suggesting that CsVosA may affect virulence of the fungus by regulating the expression of the genes for NRPSs, as well as other genes directly or indirectly involved in virulence. PMID:26399184

  1. The macroecology of infectious diseases: a new perspective on global-scale drivers of pathogen distributions and impacts.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Patrick R; Altizer, Sonia; Smith, Katherine F; Alonso Aguirre, A; Brown, James H; Budischak, Sarah A; Byers, James E; Dallas, Tad A; Jonathan Davies, T; Drake, John M; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Farrell, Maxwell J; Gittleman, John L; Han, Barbara A; Huang, Shan; Hutchinson, Rebecca A; Johnson, Pieter; Nunn, Charles L; Onstad, David; Park, Andrew; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Schmidt, John P; Poulin, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Identifying drivers of infectious disease patterns and impacts at the broadest scales of organisation is one of the most crucial challenges for modern science, yet answers to many fundamental questions remain elusive. These include what factors commonly facilitate transmission of pathogens to novel host species, what drives variation in immune investment among host species, and more generally what drives global patterns of parasite diversity and distribution? Here we consider how the perspectives and tools of macroecology, a field that investigates patterns and processes at broad spatial, temporal and taxonomic scales, are expanding scientific understanding of global infectious disease ecology. In particular, emerging approaches are providing new insights about scaling properties across all living taxa, and new strategies for mapping pathogen biodiversity and infection risk. Ultimately, macroecology is establishing a framework to more accurately predict global patterns of infectious disease distribution and emergence. PMID:27353433

  2. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees.

  3. Metabolite diversity in the plant pathogen Alternaria brassicicola: factors affecting production of brassicicolin A, depudecin, phomapyrone A and other metabolites.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Park, Myung Ryeol

    2015-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the metabolites of Alternaria brassicicola produced under various culture conditions is reported. The phytotoxin brassicicolin A is produced in significantly larger amounts in potato dextrose broth than in minimal medium cultures. In general an increase in the incubation temperature of cultures 23-30 C increases the production of brassicicolin A but decreases depudecin production. Reducing or eliminating nitrate from culture media or adding ammonium chloride increases the production of brassicicolin A at 30 C, depudecin at 23 C and α-acetylorcinol at either temperature, suggesting that nitrogen represses their biosynthesis. Siderophores are detected in cultures of A. brassicicola containing low and high ferric ion concentrations. The metabolites α-acetylorcinol and tyrosol are isolated for the first time from cultures of A. brassicicola, and α-acetylorcinol is synthesized in four steps and 36% overall yield. Only brassicicolin A and no other isolated metabolites, including depudecin and phomapyrone A, display phytotoxicity on leaves of Brassica species (up to 5.0 mM). Epigenetic modifiers, 5-azacitidin (5-AZA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA) do not affect the metabolite profiles of liquid cultures of this fungal pathogen.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores host bacteria that affect nutrient biodynamics and biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Andre Freire; Ishii, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    Summary The aim of this research was to isolate and characterize bacteria from spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We designated these bacteria ‘probable endobacteria’ (PE). Three bacterial strains were isolated from approximately 500 spores of Gigaspora margarita (Becker and Hall) using a hypodermic needle (diameter, 200 μm). The bacteria were identified by morphological methods and on the basis of ribosomal gene sequences as Bacillus sp. (KTCIGM01), Bacillus thuringiensis (KTCIGM02), and Paenibacillus rhizospherae (KTCIGM03). We evaluated the effect of these probable endobacteria on antagonistic activity to the soil-borne plant pathogens (SBPPs) Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae MAFF 744088, Rosellinia necatrix, Rhizoctonia solani MAFF 237426, and Pythium ultimum NBRC 100123. We also tested whether these probable endobacteria affected phosphorus solubilization, ethylene production, nitrogenase activity (NA), and stimulation of AMF hyphal growth. In addition, fresh samples of spores and hyphae were photographed using an in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) (Quanta 250FEG; FEI Co., Japan). Bacterial aggregates (BAs), structures similar to biofilms, could be detected on the surface of hyphae and spores. We demonstrate that using extraction with an ultrathin needle, it is possible to isolate AMF-associated bacterial species that are likely derived from inside the fungal spores. PMID:23213368

  5. A system for the distribution of differential host and pathogen sets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vegetable seed industry has been concerned with inconsistent naming of pathogen strains and races which has led to confusion in disease resistance claims. In August 2007, an American Phytopathological Society adhoc committee in cooperation with the International Seed Federation (ISF) was establi...

  6. Distributed micro-releases of bioterror pathogens : threat characterizations and epidemiology from uncertain patient observables.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Michael M.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Adams, Brian M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Ray, Jaideep; Najm, Habib N.

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist attacks using an aerosolized pathogen preparation have gained credibility as a national security concern since the anthrax attacks of 2001. The ability to characterize the parameters of such attacks, i.e., to estimate the number of people infected, the time of infection, the average dose received, and the rate of disease spread in contemporary American society (for contagious diseases), is important when planning a medical response. For non-contagious diseases, we address the characterization problem by formulating a Bayesian inverse problem predicated on a short time-series of diagnosed patients exhibiting symptoms. To keep the approach relevant for response planning, we limit ourselves to 3.5 days of data. In computational tests performed for anthrax, we usually find these observation windows sufficient, especially if the outbreak model employed in the inverse problem is accurate. For contagious diseases, we formulated a Bayesian inversion technique to infer both pathogenic transmissibility and the social network from outbreak observations, ensuring that the two determinants of spreading are identified separately. We tested this technique on data collected from a 1967 smallpox epidemic in Abakaliki, Nigeria. We inferred, probabilistically, different transmissibilities in the structured Abakaliki population, the social network, and the chain of transmission. Finally, we developed an individual-based epidemic model to realistically simulate the spread of a rare (or eradicated) disease in a modern society. This model incorporates the mixing patterns observed in an (American) urban setting and accepts, as model input, pathogenic transmissibilities estimated from historical outbreaks that may have occurred in socio-economic environments with little resemblance to contemporary society. Techniques were also developed to simulate disease spread on static and sampled network reductions of the dynamic social networks originally in the individual-based model

  7. Key design factors affecting microbial community composition and pathogenic organism removal in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Morató, Jordi; Codony, Francesc; Sánchez, Olga; Pérez, Leonardo Martín; García, Joan; Mas, Jordi

    2014-05-15

    Constructed wetlands constitute an interesting option for wastewater reuse since high concentrations of contaminants and pathogenic microorganisms can be removed with these natural treatment systems. In this work, the role of key design factors which could affect microbial removal and wetland performance, such as granular media, water depth and season effect was evaluated in a pilot system consisting of eight parallel horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands treating urban wastewater from Les Franqueses del Vallès (Barcelona, Spain). Gravel biofilm as well as influent and effluent water samples of these systems were taken in order to detect the presence of bacterial indicators such as total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, fecal enterococci (FE), Clostridium perfringens, and other microbial groups such as Pseudomonas and Aeromonas. The overall microbial inactivation ratio ranged between 1.4 and 2.9 log-units for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), from 1.2 to 2.2 log units for total coliforms (TC) and from 1.4 to 2.3 log units for E. coli. The presence of fine granulometry strongly influenced the removal of all the bacterial groups analyzed. This effect was significant for TC (p=0.009), E. coli (p=0.004), and FE (p=0.012). Shallow HSSF constructed wetlands were more effective for removing Clostridium spores (p=0.039), and were also more efficient for removing TC (p=0.011) and E. coli (p=0.013) when fine granulometry was used. On the other hand, changes in the total bacterial community from gravel biofilm were examined by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified fragments of the 16S rRNA gene recovered from DGGE bands. Cluster analysis of the DGGE banding pattern from the different wetlands showed that microbial assemblages separated according to water depth, and sequences of different phylogenetic groups, such as Alpha, Beta and Delta-Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Bacteroidetes

  8. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be...

  9. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be...

  10. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be...

  11. 75 FR 30529 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...: Pursuant to the Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000, this document is U.S. Customs and Border Protection's notice of intent to distribute assessed antidumping or countervailing duties (known as...

  12. Thematic and spatial resolutions affect model-based predictions of tree species distribution.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu; He, Hong S; Fraser, Jacob S; Wu, ZhiWei

    2013-01-01

    Subjective decisions of thematic and spatial resolutions in characterizing environmental heterogeneity may affect the characterizations of spatial pattern and the simulation of occurrence and rate of ecological processes, and in turn, model-based tree species distribution. Thus, this study quantified the importance of thematic and spatial resolutions, and their interaction in predictions of tree species distribution (quantified by species abundance). We investigated how model-predicted species abundances changed and whether tree species with different ecological traits (e.g., seed dispersal distance, competitive capacity) had different responses to varying thematic and spatial resolutions. We used the LANDIS forest landscape model to predict tree species distribution at the landscape scale and designed a series of scenarios with different thematic (different numbers of land types) and spatial resolutions combinations, and then statistically examined the differences of species abundance among these scenarios. Results showed that both thematic and spatial resolutions affected model-based predictions of species distribution, but thematic resolution had a greater effect. Species ecological traits affected the predictions. For species with moderate dispersal distance and relatively abundant seed sources, predicted abundance increased as thematic resolution increased. However, for species with long seeding distance or high shade tolerance, thematic resolution had an inverse effect on predicted abundance. When seed sources and dispersal distance were not limiting, the predicted species abundance increased with spatial resolution and vice versa. Results from this study may provide insights into the choice of thematic and spatial resolutions for model-based predictions of tree species distribution.

  13. Distribution of paratyphoids on Saudi Arabian poultry farms and pathogenicity studies of predominant serotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, E.K.; Nabbut, N.H.; Hinners, S.W.

    1983-07-01

    A total of 412 feed samples and 632 litter samples from 15 poultry farms (2 breeding farms and 13 rearing farms) were examined for Salmonella. Twelve of these farms had Salmonella in litter, five farms had Salmonella in the feed and four had Salmonella in both feed and litter. Seventeen feed samples (4.13%) and 121 litter samples (19.15%) were contaminated with Salmonella. Sixteen Salmonella serotypes were encountered, of which six were found in both feed and litter. Salmonella concord and S. livingstone were present in the litter of one breeding farm and its progeny farms. The five most frequently isolated Salmonella serotypes in feed and litter were S. concord (17.39%), S. coeln (15.94%), S. livingstone (15.22%), S. manhattan (11.59%), and S. paratyphi B var. java (8.69%). The pathogenicities of those serotypes were determined by calculating their median lethal doses (LD50) 24 and 48 hr postinjection of 1,050 one-day-old broiler chicks via the navel into the yolk sac. The composite 48-hr LD50s (viable cells) were: S. concord, less than 8.8 X 10(3); S. livingstone, 1.1 X 10(5); S. manhattan, 3.5 X 10(5); S. coeln, 1.25 X 10(7); and S. paratyphi B var. java, 1.73 X 10(7).

  14. HIV-1 Nef mutations abrogating downregulation of CD4 affect other Nef functions and show reduced pathogenicity in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Zaher . E-mail: Zaher.Hanna@ircm.qc.ca; Priceputu, Elena; Hu, Chunyan; Vincent, Patrick; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2006-03-01

    pathologies) in respectively Nef{sup RD35/36AA} and Nef{sup D174K} Tg mice, relative to those developing in Nef{sup Wt} Tg mice. Our data suggest that the RD35/36AA and D174K mutations affect other Nef functions, namely those involved in the development of lung and kidney diseases, in addition to their known role in CD4 downregulation. Similarly, in HIV-1-infected individuals, loss of CD4 downregulation by Nef alleles may reflect their lower intrinsic pathogenicity, independently of their effects on virus replication.

  15. Modifications of Sphingolipid Content Affect Tolerance to Hemibiotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens by Modulating Plant Defense Responses in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Le Bourse, Doriane; Markham, Jonathan; Dorey, Stéphan; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dhondt-Cordelier, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are emerging as second messengers in programmed cell death and plant defense mechanisms. However, their role in plant defense is far from being understood, especially against necrotrophic pathogens. Sphingolipidomics and plant defense responses during pathogenic infection were evaluated in the mutant of long-chain base phosphate (LCB-P) lyase, encoded by the dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate lyase1 (AtDPL1) gene and regulating long-chain base/LCB-P homeostasis. Atdpl1 mutants exhibit tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea but susceptibility to the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). Here, a direct comparison of sphingolipid profiles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during infection with pathogens differing in lifestyles is described. In contrast to long-chain bases (dihydrosphingosine [d18:0] and 4,8-sphingadienine [d18:2]), hydroxyceramide and LCB-P (phytosphingosine-1-phosphate [t18:0-P] and 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine-1-phosphate [t18:1-P]) levels are higher in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants in response to B. cinerea. Following Pst infection, t18:0-P accumulates more strongly in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants. Moreover, d18:0 and t18:0-P appear as key players in Pst- and B. cinerea-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species accumulation. Salicylic acid levels are similar in both types of plants, independent of the pathogen. In addition, salicylic acid-dependent gene expression is similar in both types of B. cinerea-infected plants but is repressed in Atdpl1-1 after treatment with Pst. Infection with both pathogens triggers higher jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine accumulation, and jasmonic acid-dependent gene expression in Atdpl1-1 mutants. Our results demonstrate that sphingolipids play an important role in plant defense, especially toward necrotrophic pathogens, and highlight a novel connection between the jasmonate signaling pathway, cell death, and sphingolipids. PMID:26378098

  16. Factors affecting the distribution of mallards wintering in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Hines, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the principal wintering area for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ) in the Mississippi Flyway. Here the authors consider it a distinct habitat, i.e., fitness is relatively homogeneous among ducks within the MAV but different from that of ducks in other such habitats. They analyzed recovery distributions of mallards banded preseason (July-September 1950-1980) to test hypotheses concerning the effects of winter temperatures, precipitation, and population levels on mallard winter distribution. When two groups of years that comprised extremes of warm and cold winter weather were compared, recovery distributions of all four age and sex classes (adult males and females, young males and females) differed significantly; recoveries were located farther south in cold years. The authors concluded that temperature, water conditions, and population size affect the habitat suitability of mallard wintering areas and that mallards exhibit considerable flexibility in winter distribution associated with these factors.

  17. [Spatial distribution pattern of soil nitrogen in Huanghuadianzi watershed and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Yao, Yun-feng; Qin, Fu-cang; Gao, Yu-han; Zhang, Mei-li

    2015-05-01

    This research was conducted in Huanghuadianzi watershed in Aohan, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. Geostatistic was used to study the spatial distribution of soil nitrogen and their affecting factors. The results showed that the soil nitrogen contents in all layers distributed as an island shape, and the high value areas were mainly distributed in the northwest of the watershed as an obvious fertile island shape, while the low value areas were mainly distributed in the south of the watershed. Nitrogen was mainly concentrated in the surface soil, and its content decreased with the increase of soil depth. The soil nitrogen content at first increased then decreased with the altitude, decreased with the slope, and showed the order of shady slope>semi-shady slope>semi-sunny slope> sunny slope in different aspects. The average soil nitrogen contents in different land use types ranked as cropland >woodland > grassland.

  18. Bacterial Shape and ActA Distribution Affect Initiation of Listeria monocytogenes Actin-Based Motility

    PubMed Central

    Rafelski, Susanne M.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the process by which the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes initiates actin-based motility and determined the contribution of the variable surface distribution of the ActA protein to initiation and steady-state movement. To directly correlate ActA distributions to actin dynamics and motility of live bacteria, ActA was fused to a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1). Actin comet tail formation and steady-state bacterial movement rates both depended on ActA distribution, which in turn was tightly coupled to the bacterial cell cycle. Motility initiation was found to be a highly complex, multistep process for bacteria, in contrast to the simple symmetry breaking previously observed for ActA-coated spherical beads. F-actin initially accumulated along the sides of the bacterium and then slowly migrated to the bacterial pole expressing the highest density of ActA as a tail formed. Early movement was highly unstable with extreme changes in speed and frequent stops. Over time, saltatory motility and sensitivity to the immediate environment decreased as bacterial movement became robust at a constant steady-state speed. PMID:15980176

  19. Distribution of pathogenicity island markers in commensal and uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Samei, Ali; Haghi, Fakhri; Zeighami, Habib

    2016-05-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates contain large genomic segments, termed pathogenicity islands (PAIs), that contribute to their virulence. A total of 150 UPEC and 50 commensal E. coli isolates from outpatients were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of eight PAI markers. One hundred ninety (95 %) isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. The most frequent resistance found against amoxicillin (68 %), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (55 %), aztreonam (50 %), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46 %) and tetracycline (43.5 %). Antimicrobial resistance among UPEC isolates was higher than that of commensals. PAI markers were detected in substantial percentage of commensal (88 %) and UPEC isolates (98.6 %) (P > 0.05). The most prevalent PAI marker among UPEC and commensal isolates was PAI IV536 (98.7 % UPEC vs. 84 % commensal). We found a high number of PAI markers such as PAI ICFT073, PAI IICFT073, PAI I536, PAI II536, PAI III536 and PAI IIJ96 significantly associated with UPEC. PAI III536 (21.3 %) and PAI IIJ96 (8 %) were detected only in the uropathogenic isolates. Several different combinations of PAIs were found among UPEC isolates. Comparison of PAIs among UPEC and commensal isolates showed that many UPEC isolates (79.3 %) carried two or more PAI markers, while 6 % of commensals had two PAI markers (P < 0.05). The most frequent combinations of PAI markers in UPEC isolates were PAI IV536 + PAI IICFT073 (18 %) and PAI IV536 + PAI ICFT073 + PAI IICFT073 (18 %). These results indicate that PAI markers are widespread among commensal and UPEC isolates and these commensal isolates may be reservoirs for transmission of these markers.

  20. Spontaneous substitutions in the vicinity of the V3 analog affect cell tropism and pathogenicity of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, V M; Martin, J E; Dapolito, G; Elkins, W R; London, W T; Goldstein, S; Johnson, P R

    1994-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) exists within tissues of infected macaques as a mixture of diverse genotypes. The goal of this study was to investigate the biologic significance of this variation in terms of cellular tropism and pathogenicity. PCR was used to amplify and clone 3'-half genomes from the spleen of an immunodeficiency SIV-infected pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina). Eight infectious clones were generated by ligation of respective 3' clones into a related SIVsm 5' clone, and virus stocks were generated by transient transfection. Four of these viruses were infectious for macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Three viruses with distinct tropism for macaque PBMC or MDM were tested for in vivo infectivity and pathogenicity. The ability of these three viruses to infect PBMC and macrophages correlated with differences in infectivity and pathogenicity. Thus, a virus that was infectious for both PBMC and MDM was highly infectious for macaques and induced AIDS in half of the inoculated animals. In contrast, virus that was less infectious for PBMC and not infectious for MDM induced only transient viremia. Finally, a virus that was not infectious for either primary cell type did not infect macaques. Chimeric clones exchanging portions of the envelope gene of the 62A and smH4 molecular clones and a series of point mutants were used to map the determinant of tropism to a 60-amino-acid region of gp120 encompassing the V3 analog of SIV. Naturally occurring mutations within this region were critical for determining tropism and, as a result, pathogenicity of these SIVsm clones. Images PMID:8139042

  1. Factors That Affect Proliferation of Salmonella in Tomatoes Post-Harvest: The Roles of Seasonal Effects, Irrigation Regime, Crop and Pathogen Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Hochmuth, George J.; Giurcanu, Mihai C.; George, Andrée S.; Noel, Jason T.; Bartz, Jerry; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Main Objectives Fresh fruits and vegetables become increasingly recognized as vehicles of human salmonellosis. Physiological, ecological, and environmental factors are all thought to contribute to the ability of Salmonella to colonize fruits and vegetables pre- and post-harvest. The goal of this study was to test how irrigation levels, fruit water congestion, crop and pathogen genotypes affect the ability of Salmonella to multiply in tomatoes post-harvest. Experimental Design Fruits from three tomato varieties, grown over three production seasons in two Florida locations, were infected with seven strains of Salmonella and their ability to multiply post-harvest in field-grown tomatoes was tested. The field experiments were set up as a two-factor factorial split plot experiment, with the whole-plot treatments arranged in a randomized complete-block design. The irrigation treatment (at three levels) was the whole-plot factor, and the split-plot factor was tomato variety, with three levels. The significance of the main, two-way, and three-way interaction effects was tested using the (type III) F-tests for fixed effects. Mean separation for each significant fixed effect in the model was performed using Tukey’s multiple comparison testing procedure. Most Important Discoveries and Significance The irrigation regime per se did not affect susceptibility of the crop to post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella. However, Salmonella grew significantly better in water-congested tissues of green tomatoes. Tomato maturity and genotype, Salmonella genotype, and inter-seasonal differences were the strongest factors affecting proliferation. Red ripe tomatoes were significantly and consistently more conducive to proliferation of Salmonella. Tomatoes harvested in the driest, sunniest season were the most conducive to post-harvest proliferation of the pathogen. Statistically significant interactions between production conditions affected post-harvest susceptibility of the crop to the

  2. Different types of stainless steel used in equipment in meat plants do not affect the initial microbial transfer, including pathogens, from pork skin.

    PubMed

    Larivière-Gauthier, Guillaume; Quessy, Sylvain; Fournaise, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    This study describes and measures the impact of different compositions and finishes of stainless steel used in equipment in the meat industry on the transfer of natural flora and selected pathogens from artificially contaminated pork skin. It is known that the adhesion to surfaces of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, 2 pathogens frequently found in contaminated pork meat, depends on the nature and roughness of the surface. Our results show no statistically significant differences in microbial transfer regardless of the types of stainless steel considered, with the highest measured transfer difference being 0.18 log colony-forming units (CFUs)/800 cm(2). Moreover, no differences in total microbial community were observed after transfer on the 5 types of stainless steel using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). It was concluded that the different characteristics of the stainless steel tested did not affect the initial bacterial transfer in this study.

  3. Different types of stainless steel used in equipment in meat plants do not affect the initial microbial transfer, including pathogens, from pork skin

    PubMed Central

    Larivière-Gauthier, Guillaume; Quessy, Sylvain; Fournaise, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This study describes and measures the impact of different compositions and finishes of stainless steel used in equipment in the meat industry on the transfer of natural flora and selected pathogens from artificially contaminated pork skin. It is known that the adhesion to surfaces of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, 2 pathogens frequently found in contaminated pork meat, depends on the nature and roughness of the surface. Our results show no statistically significant differences in microbial transfer regardless of the types of stainless steel considered, with the highest measured transfer difference being 0.18 log colony-forming units (CFUs)/800 cm2. Moreover, no differences in total microbial community were observed after transfer on the 5 types of stainless steel using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). It was concluded that the different characteristics of the stainless steel tested did not affect the initial bacterial transfer in this study. PMID:26130860

  4. Global Distribution, Public Health and Clinical Impact of the Protozoan Pathogen Cryptosporidium

    PubMed Central

    Putignani, Lorenza; Menichella, Donato

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, oocysts-forming apicomplexan protozoa, which complete their life cycle both in humans and animals, through zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission, causing cryptosporidiosis. The global burden of this disease is still underascertained, due to a conundrum transmission modality, only partially unveiled, and on a plethora of detection systems still inadequate or only partially applied for worldwide surveillance. In children, cryptosporidiosis encumber is even less recorded and often misidentified due to physiological reasons such as early-age unpaired immunological response. Furthermore, malnutrition in underdeveloped countries or clinical underestimation of protozoan etiology in developed countries contribute to the underestimation of the worldwide burden. Principal key indicators of the parasite distribution were associated to environmental (e.g., geographic and temporal clusters, etc.) and host determinants of the infection (e.g., age, immunological status, travels, community behaviours). The distribution was geographically mapped to provide an updated picture of the global parasite ecosystems. The present paper aims to provide, by a critical analysis of existing literature, a link between observational epidemiological records and new insights on public health, and diagnostic and clinical impact of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:20706669

  5. Salmonella methylglyoxal detoxification by STM3117-encoded lactoylglutathione lyase affects virulence in coordination with Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 and phagosomal acidification.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sangeeta; Chaudhuri, Debalina; Balakrishnan, Arjun; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2014-09-01

    Intracellular pathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) manipulate their host cells through the interplay of various virulence factors. A multitude of such virulence factors are encoded on the genome of S. Typhimurium and are usually organized in pathogenicity islands. The virulence-associated genomic stretch of STM3117-3120 has structural features of pathogenicity islands and is present exclusively in non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella. It encodes metabolic enzymes predicted to be involved in methylglyoxal metabolism. STM3117-encoded lactoylglutathione lyase significantly impacts the proliferation of intracellular Salmonella. The deletion mutant of STM3117 (Δlgl) fails to grow in epithelial cells but hyper-replicates in macrophages. This difference in proliferation outcome was the consequence of failure to detoxify methylglyoxal by Δlgl, which was also reflected in the form of oxidative DNA damage and upregulation of kefB in the mutant. Within macrophages, the toxicity of methylglyoxal adducts elicits the potassium efflux channel (KefB) in the mutant which subsequently modulates the acidification of mutant-containing vacuoles (MCVs). The perturbation in the pH of the MCV milieu and bacterial cytosol enhances the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 translocation in Δlgl, increasing its net growth within macrophages. In epithelial cells, however, the maturation of Δlgl-containing vacuoles were affected as these non-phagocytic cells maintain less acidic vacuoles compared to those in macrophages. Remarkably, ectopic expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 on epithelial cells partially restored the survival of Δlgl. This study identified a novel metabolic enzyme in S. Typhimurium whose activity during intracellular infection within a given host cell type differentially affected the virulence of the bacteria.

  6. DNA Extraction Method Affects the Detection of a Fungal Pathogen in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Adams, Andrea J; LaBonte, John P; Ball, Morgan L; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Toothman, Mary H; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2015-01-01

    Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR methodologies for detecting Bd DNA in formalin-fixed specimens can provide an efficient and effective approach to examining historical Bd emergence and prevalence. Techniques for detecting Bd in museum specimens have not been evaluated for their effectiveness in control specimens that mimic the conditions of animals most likely to be encountered in museums, including those with low pathogen loads. We used American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) of known infection status to evaluate the success of qPCR to detect Bd in formalin-fixed specimens after three years of ethanol storage. Our objectives were to compare the most commonly used DNA extraction method for Bd (PrepMan, PM) to Macherey-Nagel DNA FFPE (MN), test optimizations for Bd detection with PM, and provide recommendations for maximizing Bd detection. We found that successful detection is relatively high (80-90%) when Bd loads before formalin fixation are high, regardless of the extraction method used; however, at lower infection levels, detection probabilities were significantly reduced. The MN DNA extraction method increased Bd detection by as much as 50% at moderate infection levels. Our results indicate that, for animals characterized by lower pathogen loads (i.e., those most commonly encountered in museum collections), current methods may underestimate the proportion of Bd-infected amphibians. Those extracting DNA from archived museum

  7. DNA Extraction Method Affects the Detection of a Fungal Pathogen in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Andrea J.; LaBonte, John P.; Ball, Morgan L.; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L.; Toothman, Mary H.; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2015-01-01

    Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR methodologies for detecting Bd DNA in formalin-fixed specimens can provide an efficient and effective approach to examining historical Bd emergence and prevalence. Techniques for detecting Bd in museum specimens have not been evaluated for their effectiveness in control specimens that mimic the conditions of animals most likely to be encountered in museums, including those with low pathogen loads. We used American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) of known infection status to evaluate the success of qPCR to detect Bd in formalin-fixed specimens after three years of ethanol storage. Our objectives were to compare the most commonly used DNA extraction method for Bd (PrepMan, PM) to Macherey-Nagel DNA FFPE (MN), test optimizations for Bd detection with PM, and provide recommendations for maximizing Bd detection. We found that successful detection is relatively high (80–90%) when Bd loads before formalin fixation are high, regardless of the extraction method used; however, at lower infection levels, detection probabilities were significantly reduced. The MN DNA extraction method increased Bd detection by as much as 50% at moderate infection levels. Our results indicate that, for animals characterized by lower pathogen loads (i.e., those most commonly encountered in museum collections), current methods may underestimate the proportion of Bd-infected amphibians. Those extracting DNA from archived museum

  8. DNA Extraction Method Affects the Detection of a Fungal Pathogen in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Adams, Andrea J; LaBonte, John P; Ball, Morgan L; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Toothman, Mary H; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2015-01-01

    Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR methodologies for detecting Bd DNA in formalin-fixed specimens can provide an efficient and effective approach to examining historical Bd emergence and prevalence. Techniques for detecting Bd in museum specimens have not been evaluated for their effectiveness in control specimens that mimic the conditions of animals most likely to be encountered in museums, including those with low pathogen loads. We used American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) of known infection status to evaluate the success of qPCR to detect Bd in formalin-fixed specimens after three years of ethanol storage. Our objectives were to compare the most commonly used DNA extraction method for Bd (PrepMan, PM) to Macherey-Nagel DNA FFPE (MN), test optimizations for Bd detection with PM, and provide recommendations for maximizing Bd detection. We found that successful detection is relatively high (80-90%) when Bd loads before formalin fixation are high, regardless of the extraction method used; however, at lower infection levels, detection probabilities were significantly reduced. The MN DNA extraction method increased Bd detection by as much as 50% at moderate infection levels. Our results indicate that, for animals characterized by lower pathogen loads (i.e., those most commonly encountered in museum collections), current methods may underestimate the proportion of Bd-infected amphibians. Those extracting DNA from archived museum

  9. IGS Minisatellites Useful for Race Differentiation in Colletotrichum lentis and a Likely Site of Small RNA Synthesis Affecting Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Jonathan; Bissett, John; Pahlavani, Mohammadhadi; Mooney, Brent; Buchwaldt, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum lentis is a fungal pathogen of lentil in Canada but rarely reported elsewhere. Two races, Ct0 and Ct1, have been identified using differential lines. Our objective was to develop a PCR-probe differentiating these races. Sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α), RNA polymerase II subunit B2 (rpb2), ATP citrate lyase subunit A (acla), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were monomorphic, while the intergenic spacer (IGS) region showed length polymorphisms at two minisatellites of 23 and 39 nucleotides (nt). A PCR-probe (39F/R) amplifying the 39 nt minisatellite was developed which subsequently revealed 1-5 minisatellites with 1-12 repeats in C. lentis. The probe differentiated race Ct1 isolates having 7, 9 or 7+9 repeats from race Ct0 having primarily 2 or 4 repeats, occasionally 5, 6, or 8, but never 7 or 9 repeats. These isolates were collected between 1991 and 1999. In a 2012 survey isolates with 2 and 4 repeats increased from 34% to 67%, while isolated with 7 or 9 repeats decreased from 40 to 4%, likely because Ct1 resistant lentil varieties had been grown. The 39 nt repeat was identified in C. gloeosporioides, C. trifolii, Ascochyta lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, the 39F/R PCR probe is not species specific, but can differentiate isolates based on repeat number. The 23 nt minisatellite in C. lentis exists as three length variants with ten sequence variations differentiating race Ct0 having 14 or 19 repeats from race Ct1 having 17 repeats, except for one isolate. RNA-translation of 23 nt repeats forms hairpins and has the appropriate length to suggest that IGS could be a site of small RNA synthesis, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. Small RNA from fungal plant pathogens able to silence genes either in the host or pathogen thereby aiding infection have been reported. PMID:26340001

  10. Landscape and Meteorological Factors Affecting Prevalence of Three Food-Borne Pathogens in Fruit and Vegetable Farms

    PubMed Central

    Strawn, Laura K.; Fortes, Esther D.; Bihn, Elizabeth A.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Worobo, Randy W.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Produce-related outbreaks have been traced back to the preharvest environment. A longitudinal study was conducted on five farms in New York State to characterize the prevalence, persistence, and diversity of food-borne pathogens in fresh produce fields and to determine landscape and meteorological factors that predict their presence. Produce fields were sampled four times per year for 2 years. A total of 588 samples were analyzed for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The prevalence measures of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and STEC were 15.0, 4.6, and 2.7%, respectively. L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were detected more frequently in water samples, while STEC was detected with equal frequency across all sample types (soil, water, feces, and drag swabs). L. monocytogenes sigB gene allelic types 57, 58, and 61 and Salmonella enterica serovar Cerro were repeatedly isolated from water samples. Soil available water storage (AWS), temperature, and proximity to three land cover classes (water, roads and urban development, and pasture/hay grass) influenced the likelihood of detecting L. monocytogenes. Drainage class, AWS, and precipitation were identified as important factors in Salmonella detection. This information was used in a geographic information system framework to hypothesize locations of environmental reservoirs where the prevalence of food-borne pathogens may be elevated. The map indicated that not all croplands are equally likely to contain environmental reservoirs of L. monocytogenes. These findings advance recommendations to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination by enhancing models of the environmental constraints on the survival and persistence of food-borne pathogens in fields. PMID:23144137

  11. IGS Minisatellites Useful for Race Differentiation in Colletotrichum lentis and a Likely Site of Small RNA Synthesis Affecting Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Jonathan; Bissett, John; Pahlavani, Mohammadhadi; Mooney, Brent; Buchwaldt, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum lentis is a fungal pathogen of lentil in Canada but rarely reported elsewhere. Two races, Ct0 and Ct1, have been identified using differential lines. Our objective was to develop a PCR-probe differentiating these races. Sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α), RNA polymerase II subunit B2 (rpb2), ATP citrate lyase subunit A (acla), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were monomorphic, while the intergenic spacer (IGS) region showed length polymorphisms at two minisatellites of 23 and 39 nucleotides (nt). A PCR-probe (39F/R) amplifying the 39 nt minisatellite was developed which subsequently revealed 1–5 minisatellites with 1–12 repeats in C. lentis. The probe differentiated race Ct1 isolates having 7, 9 or 7+9 repeats from race Ct0 having primarily 2 or 4 repeats, occasionally 5, 6, or 8, but never 7 or 9 repeats. These isolates were collected between 1991 and 1999. In a 2012 survey isolates with 2 and 4 repeats increased from 34% to 67%, while isolated with 7 or 9 repeats decreased from 40 to 4%, likely because Ct1 resistant lentil varieties had been grown. The 39 nt repeat was identified in C. gloeosporioides, C. trifolii, Ascochyta lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, the 39F/R PCR probe is not species specific, but can differentiate isolates based on repeat number. The 23 nt minisatellite in C. lentis exists as three length variants with ten sequence variations differentiating race Ct0 having 14 or 19 repeats from race Ct1 having 17 repeats, except for one isolate. RNA-translation of 23 nt repeats forms hairpins and has the appropriate length to suggest that IGS could be a site of small RNA synthesis, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. Small RNA from fungal plant pathogens able to silence genes either in the host or pathogen thereby aiding infection have been reported. PMID:26340001

  12. TITER AND PRODUCT AFFECTS THE DISTRIBUTION OF GENE EXPRESSION AFTER INTRAPUTAMINAL CONVECTION-ENHANCED DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Emborg, Marina E.; Hurley, Samuel A.; Joers, Valerie; Tromp, Do P.M.; Swanson, Christine R.; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Bondarenko, Viktorya; Cummisford, Kyle; Sonnemans, Marc; Hermening, Stephan; Blits, Bas; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficacy and safety of intracerebral gene therapy for brain disorders, like Parkinson’s disease, depends on appropriate distribution of gene expression. Objectives To assess if the distribution of gene expression is affected by vector titer and protein type. Methods Four adult macaque monkeys seronegative for adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) received in the right and left ventral postcommisural putamen 30μl inoculation of a high or low titer suspension of AAV5 encoding glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Inoculations were performed using convection enhanced delivery and intraoperative MRI (IMRI). Results IMRI confirmed targeting and infusion cloud irradiating from the catheter tip into surrounding area. Postmortem analysis six weeks after surgery revealed GFP and GDNF expression ipsilateral to the injection side that had a titer-dependent distribution. GFP and GDNF expression was also observed in fibers in the Substantia Nigra (SN) pars reticulata (pr), demonstrating anterograde transport. Few GFP-positive neurons were present in the SN pars compacta (pc), possibly by direct retrograde transport of the vector. GDNF was present in many SNpc and SNpr neurons. Conclusions After controlling for target and infusate volume, intracerebral distribution of gene product is affected by vector titer and product biology. PMID:24943657

  13. Spatial distribution and risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Vincent; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J.; Guo, Fusheng; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was first encountered in 1996 in Guangdong province (China) and started spreading throughout Asia and the western Palearctic in 2004–2006. Compared to several other countries where the HPAI H5N1 distribution has been studied in some detail, little is known about the environmental correlates of the HPAI H5N1 distribution in China. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreaks, and HPAI virus (HPAIV) H5N1 isolated from active risk-based surveillance sampling of domestic poultry (referred to as HPAIV H5N1 surveillance positives in this manuscript) were modeled separately using seven risk variables: chicken, domestic waterfowl population density, proportion of land covered by rice or surface water, cropping intensity, elevation, and human population density. We used bootstrapped logistic regression and boosted regression trees (BRT) with cross-validation to identify the weight of each variable, to assess the predictive power of the models, and to map the distribution of HPAI H5N1 risk. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreak occurrence in domestic poultry was mainly associated with chicken density, human population density, and elevation. In contrast, HPAIV H5N1 infection identified by risk-based surveillance was associated with domestic waterfowl density, human population density, and the proportion of land covered by surface water. Both models had a high explanatory power (mean AUC ranging from 0.864 to 0.967). The map of HPAIV H5N1 risk distribution based on active surveillance data emphasized areas south of the Yangtze River, while the distribution of reported outbreak risk extended further North, where the density of poultry and humans is higher. We quantified the statistical association between HPAI H5N1 outbreak, HPAIV distribution and post-vaccination levels of seropositivity (percentage of effective post-vaccination seroconversion in vaccinated birds) and found that provinces with either outbreaks or HPAIV H5N1 surveillance

  14. Soil microbes and plant invasions—how soil-borne pathogens regulate plant populations and affect plant invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic plant invaders are a major global threat to biodiversity and ecosystem function. Here I present multiple lines of evidence suggesting that soil microbial communities affect the population growth rates of Prunus serotina in its native range and affect its invasiveness abroad. Research often ...

  15. Phylogenetic distribution of symbiotic bacteria from Panamanian amphibians that inhibit growth of the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew H; Walke, Jenifer B; Murrill, Lindsey; Woodhams, Douglas C; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Burzynski, Elizabeth A; Umile, Thomas P; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Belden, Lisa K

    2015-04-01

    The introduction of next-generation sequencing has allowed for greater understanding of community composition of symbiotic microbial communities. However, determining the function of individual members of these microbial communities still largely relies on culture-based methods. Here, we present results on the phylogenetic distribution of a defensive functional trait of cultured symbiotic bacteria associated with amphibians. Amphibians are host to a diverse community of cutaneous bacteria and some of these bacteria protect their host from the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) by secreting antifungal metabolites. We cultured over 450 bacterial isolates from the skins of Panamanian amphibian species and tested their interactions with Bd using an in vitro challenge assay. For a subset of isolates, we also completed coculture experiments and found that culturing isolates with Bd had no effect on inhibitory properties of the bacteria, but it significantly decreased metabolite secretion. In challenge assays, approximately 75% of the bacterial isolates inhibited Bd to some extent and these inhibitory isolates were widely distributed among all bacterial phyla. Although there was no clear phylogenetic signal of inhibition, three genera, Stenotrophomonas, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas, had a high proportion of inhibitory isolates (100%, 77% and 73%, respectively). Overall, our results demonstrate that antifungal properties are phylogenetically widespread in symbiotic microbial communities of Panamanian amphibians and that some functional redundancy for fungal inhibition occurs in these communities. We hope that these findings contribute to the discovery and development of probiotics for amphibians that can mitigate the threat of chytridiomycosis.

  16. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in some flood-affected areas during 2011 Chiang Mai flood.

    PubMed

    Wannasan, Anchalee; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Songsangchun, Apichart; Morakote, Nimit

    2013-01-01

    The survey was carried out to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) during flood in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. From different crisis flood areas, seven water samples were collected and tested for the presence of amoebae using culture and molecular methods. By monoxenic culture, FLA were detected from all samples at 37 °C incubation. The FLA growing at 37 °C were morphologically identified as Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp. and some unidentified amoebae. Only three samples (42.8%), defined as thermotolerant FLA, continued to grow at 42 °C. By molecular methods, two non-thermotolerant FlA were shown to have 99% identity to Acanthamoeba sp. and 98% identity to Hartmannella vermiformis while the two thermotolerant FLA were identified as Echinamoeba exundans (100% identity) and Hartmannella sp. (99% identity). This first report of the occurrence of FLA in water during the flood disaster will provide information to the public to be aware of potentially pathogenic FLA.

  17. POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC FREE-LIVING AMOEBAE IN SOME FLOOD-AFFECTED AREAS DURING 2011 CHIANG MAI FLOOD

    PubMed Central

    Wannasan, Anchalee; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Songsangchun, Apichart; Morakote, Nimit

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The survey was carried out to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) during flood in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. From different crisis flood areas, seven water samples were collected and tested for the presence of amoebae using culture and molecular methods. By monoxenic culture, FLA were detected from all samples at 37 °C incubation. The FLA growing at 37 °C were morphologically identified as Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp. and some unidentified amoebae. Only three samples (42.8%), defined as thermotolerant FLA, continued to grow at 42 °C. By molecular methods, two non-thermotolerant FlA were shown to have 99% identity to Acanthamoeba sp. and 98% identity to Hartmannella vermiformis while the two thermotolerant FLA were identified as Echinamoeba exundans (100% identity) and Hartmannella sp. (99% identity). This first report of the occurrence of FLA in water during the flood disaster will provide information to the public to be aware of potentially pathogenic FLA. PMID:24213194

  18. Seasonal distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba species from drinking water reservoirs in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kao, Po-Min; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Tzeng, Kai-Jiun; Huang, Shih-Wei; Huang, Yu-Li

    2015-03-01

    In order to detect the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba along with geographical variations, water quality variations and seasonal change of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan was investigated by 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected quarterly at 19 drinking water reservoir sites from November 2012 to August 2013. Acanthamoeba was detected in 39.5 % (30/76) of the water sample, and the detection rate was 63.2 % (12/19) from samples collected in autumn. The average concentration of Acanthamoeba was 3.59 × 10(4) copies/L. For geographic distribution, the detection rate for Acanthamoeba at the northern region was higher than the central and southern regions in all seasons. Results of Spearman rank test revealed that heterotrophic plate count (HPC) had a negative correlation (R = -0.502), while dissolved oxygen (DO) had a positive correlation (R = 0.463) in summer. Significant differences were found only between the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and HPC in summer (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). T2 and T4 genotypes of Acanthamoeba were identified, and T4 was the most commonly identified Acanthamoeba genotypes. The presence of Acanthamoeba in reservoirs presented a potential public health threat and should be further examined.

  19. Distribution and transmission of the highly pathogenic parasite Ichthyophonus in marine fishes of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Jacob L.; Grady, Courtney A.; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of field surveys, molecular typing, and laboratory experiments were used to improve our understanding of the distribution and transmission mechanisms of fish parasites in the genus Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus spp. infections were detected from the Bering Sea to the coast of Oregon in 10 of 13 host species surveyed. Sequences of rDNA extracted from these isolates indicate that a ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurs in the NE Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and accounts for nearly all the infections encountered. Among NE Pacific isolates, only parasites from yellowtail rockfish and Puget Sound rockfish varied at the DNA locus examined. These data suggest that a single source population of these parasites is available to fishes in diverse niches across a wide geographic range. A direct life cycle within a common forage species could account for the relatively low parasite diversity we encountered. In the laboratory we tested the hypothesis that waterborne transmission occurs among Pacific herring, a common NE Pacific forage species. No horizontal transmission occurred during a four-month cohabitation experiment involving infected herring and conspecific sentinels. The complete life cycle of Ichthyophonus spp. is not known, but these results suggest that system-wide processes maintain a relatively homogenous parasite population.

  20. Distribution and pathogen identification of cassava brown leaf spot in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y L; Shi, T; Li, C P; Liu, X B; Cai, J M; Huang, G X

    2014-01-01

    Cassava brown leaf spot surveys were conducted in the main cassava plantation areas of China between 2007 and 2012 in order to understand the distribution of the disease. Cassava plants were damaged by the disease to different degrees in most of the survey sites. Samples were collected and seven strains were isolated from lesions. The mycelium-breaking plus black light induction method was applied for sporulation. Microconidia were formed by means of fragmentation on artificial medium plates. When the leaf was stabbed and inoculated with conidia solution, similar symptoms were formed 14 days later. Morphological characteristics of the specimens and conidia were similar to descriptions of Passalora henningsii infection. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA were obtained with primer pair ITS1/ITS4 and deposited in GenBank, which differed by three base pairs from that of the P. henningsii isolate (AF284389). The ITS sequences of related species were downloaded from the NCBI database, and phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences originating from our strains clustered in the same clade as the AF284389 isolate. Biological characteristics were evaluated in two strains from different sites, which indicated that the optimum conditions for mycelia growth were a temperature of 26° to 28°C, carrot agar medium, pH 6, and continuous dark; cassava leaf juice added to malt extract and cassava leaf juice added to potato dextrose agar were the best media for conidia production. The optimal and lethal temperatures for macroconidia germination were 26° to 28°C, and 60°C for 10 min, respectively.

  1. Distribution and Prevalence of the Australian Non-Pathogenic Rabbit Calicivirus Is Correlated with Rainfall and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, June; Fordham, Damien A.; Cooke, Brian D.; Cox, Tarnya; Mutze, Greg; Strive, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Background Australia relies heavily on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) for the biological control of introduced European wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, which are significant economic and environmental pests. An endemic non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus termed RCV–A1 also occurs in wild rabbits in Australian and provides partial protection against lethal RHDV infection, thus interfering with effective rabbit control. Despite its obvious importance for rabbit population management, little is known about the epidemiology of this benign rabbit calicivirus. Methods We determined the continent-wide distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 by analysing 1,805 serum samples from wild rabbit populations at 78 sites across Australia for the presence of antibodies to RCV-A1 using a serological test that specifically detects RCV-A1 antibodies and does not cross-react with co-occurring RHDV antibodies. We also investigated possible correlation between climate variables and prevalence of RCV-A1 by using generalised linear mixed effect models. Results Antibodies to RCV-A1 were predominantly detected in rabbit populations in cool, high rainfall areas of the south-east and south-west of the continent. There was strong support for modelling RCV-A1 prevalence as a function of average annual rainfall and minimum temperature. The best ranked model explained 26% of the model structural deviance. According to this model, distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 is positively correlated with periods of above average rainfall and negatively correlated with periods of drought. Implications Our statistical model of RCV-A1 prevalence will greatly increase our understanding of RCV-A1 epidemiology and its interaction with RHDV in Australia. By defining the environmental conditions associated with the prevalence of RCV-A1, it also contributes towards understanding the distribution of similar viruses in New Zealand and Europe. PMID:25486092

  2. Pathogenic effects of Fusarium sulphureum, Fusarium solani Var. coeruleum and dry rot affected potatoes on the internal organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Rotkiewicz, T; Szarek, J; Tarkowian, S

    1993-01-01

    Rats of the Wistar race were used in toxicological experiments involving Fusarium sulphureum Schl., F. solani var. coeruleum (Sacc.) Booth and potatoes damaged by these fungi. The in vivo and postmortem studies revealed that both fungi and effected tubers had hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects on the animals. Morphological changes in the internal organs were mainly manifested by disturbances in blood circulation and regressive metamorphosis. These changes intensified proportionally to the dose of fungi and diseased potatoes in the feed used. Fusarium solani was more pathogenic than F. sulphureum. No teratogenic effect was observed, although addition of the fungi and infested potatoes into the feeds decreased the reproductive ability of rats and caused a decrease in foetal body weight as well as haematomae in foetuses.

  3. Changes in plantar load distribution and gait pattern following foot drop correction in leprosy affected patients.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Mrinmoy; Joshua, Jerry; Mahato, Nidhu

    2015-09-01

    This study was done to compare the changes in plantar load (weight distribution) and gait patterns before and after tibialis posterior transfer surgery in people affected by leprosy. Changes in gait patterns were observed and proportionate changes in plantar load were quantified using data captured by a baropodometer. All the eight patients who underwent tibialis posterior transfer surgery in 2013 in our hospital were included in the study. In addition to the regular pre-operative and post-operative assessments, the patients also underwent baropodometric evaluation. There was a significant change in plantar load at the heel, lateral border and forefoot. Using the foot pressure scan, it was noted that the progression of the centre of mass (displayed graphically as 'the gait line') was also affected by the altered pattern of weight distribution. This study reiterates the importance of tibialis posterior transfer because: it restores the normal gait pattern of 1, 2, 3 (where 1 is heel strike, 2 is mid foot contact and 3 is forefoot contact) and provides a more uniform distribution of planter load. PMID:26665356

  4. Factors affecting the distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal Burullus Lake.

    PubMed

    El-Reefy, H I; Badran, H M; Sharshar, T; Hilal, M A; Elnimr, T

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, measurements of naturally occurring radioactive materials and (137)Cs activity in sediment were conducted for locations covering the entire Burullus Lake in order to gather information about radionuclides mobility and distribution. Low-background γ-spectrometry was employed to determine the activity concentrations of water and sediment samples. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th are close to uniform distribution in the lake environment. Among the different physical and chemical characteristics measured for water and sediment, only salinity and total organic matter content have the potential to affect the mobility of (137)Cs and (40)K. The results suggest that these two radionuclides are attached to different mobile particulates. Increasing salinity tends to strengthen the adsorption of (137)Cs and solubilization of (40)K in sediment. On the other hand, sediment with high organic matter content traps (137)Cs and (40)K associated particulates to bottom sediment.

  5. Factors affecting the distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal Burullus Lake.

    PubMed

    El-Reefy, H I; Badran, H M; Sharshar, T; Hilal, M A; Elnimr, T

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, measurements of naturally occurring radioactive materials and (137)Cs activity in sediment were conducted for locations covering the entire Burullus Lake in order to gather information about radionuclides mobility and distribution. Low-background γ-spectrometry was employed to determine the activity concentrations of water and sediment samples. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th are close to uniform distribution in the lake environment. Among the different physical and chemical characteristics measured for water and sediment, only salinity and total organic matter content have the potential to affect the mobility of (137)Cs and (40)K. The results suggest that these two radionuclides are attached to different mobile particulates. Increasing salinity tends to strengthen the adsorption of (137)Cs and solubilization of (40)K in sediment. On the other hand, sediment with high organic matter content traps (137)Cs and (40)K associated particulates to bottom sediment. PMID:24657852

  6. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development.

  7. Mannose-Binding Lectin Inhibits the Motility of Pathogenic Salmonella by Affecting the Driving Forces of Motility and the Chemotactic Response

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Guo, Yijie; Ihara, Kohei; Tomioka, Rintaro; Masuda, Mizuki; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko

    2016-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key pattern recognition molecule in the lectin pathway of the complement system, an important component of innate immunity. MBL functions as an opsonin which enhances the sequential immune process such as phagocytosis. We here report an inhibitory effect of MBL on the motility of pathogenic bacteria, which occurs by affecting the energy source required for motility and the signaling pathway of chemotaxis. When Salmonella cells were treated with a physiological concentration of MBL, their motile fraction and free-swimming speed decreased. Rotation assays of a single flagellum showed that the flagellar rotation rate was significantly reduced by the addition of MBL. Measurements of the intracellular pH and membrane potential revealed that MBL affected a driving force for the Salmonella flagellum, the electrochemical potential difference of protons. We also found that MBL treatment increased the reversal frequency of Salmonella flagellar rotation, which interfered with the relative positive chemotaxis toward an attractive substrate. We thus propose that the motility inhibition effect of MBL may be secondarily involved in the attack against pathogens, potentially facilitating the primary role of MBL in the complement system. PMID:27104738

  8. Geographic distance affects dispersal of the patchy distributed greater long-tailed hamster (Tscherskia triton).

    PubMed

    Xue, Huiliang; Zhong, Min; Xu, Jinhui; Xu, Laixiang

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is a fundamental process in ecology influencing the genetic structure and the viability of populations. Understanding how variable factors influence the dispersal of the population is becoming an important question in animal ecology. To date, geographic distance and geographic barriers are often considered as main factors impacting dispersal, but their effects are variable depending on different conditions. In general, geographic barriers affect more significantly than geographic distance on dispersal. In rapidly expanding populations, however, geographic barriers have less effect on dispersal than geographic distance. The effects of both geographic distance and geographic barriers in low-density populations with patchy distributions are poorly understood. By using a panel of 10 microsatellite loci we investigated the genetic structure of three patchy-distributed populations of the Greater long-tailed hamster (Tscherskia triton) from Raoyang, Guan and Shunyi counties of the North China Plain. The results showed that (i) high genetic diversity and differentiation exist in three geographic populations with patchy distributions; (ii) gene flow occurs among these three populations with physical barriers of Beijing city and Hutuo River, which potentially restricted the dispersal of the animal; (iii) the gene flow is negatively correlated with the geographic distance, while the genetic distance shows the positive correlation. Our results suggest that the effect of the physical barriers is conditional-dependent, including barrier capacity or individual potentially dispersal ability. Geographic distance also acts as an important factor affecting dispersal for the patchy distributed geographic populations. So, gene flow is effective, even at relatively long distances, in balancing the effect of geographic barrier in this study. PMID:24911266

  9. Statistical analysis of factors affecting landslide distribution in the new Madrid seismic zone, Tennessee and Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.; Keefer, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    More than 220 large landslides along the bluffs bordering the Mississippi alluvial plain between Cairo, Ill., and Memphis, Tenn., are analyzed by discriminant analysis and multiple linear regression to determine the relative effects of slope height and steepness, stratigraphic variation, slope aspect, and proximity to the hypocenters of the 1811-12 New Madrid, Mo., earthquakes on the distribution of these landslides. Three types of landslides are analyzed: (1) old, coherent slumps and block slides, which have eroded and revegetated features and no active analogs in the area; (2) old earth flows, which are also eroded and revegetated; and (3) young rotational slumps, which are present only along near-river bluffs, and which are the only young, active landslides in the area. Discriminant analysis shows that only one characteristic differs significantly between bluffs with and without young rotational slumps: failed bluffs tend to have sand and clay at their base, which may render them more susceptible to fluvial erosion. Bluffs having old coherent slides are significantly higher, steeper, and closer to the hypocenters of the 1811-12 earthquakes than bluffs without these slides. Bluffs having old earth flows are likewise higher and closer to the earthquake hypocenters. Multiple regression analysis indicates that the distribution of young rotational slumps is affected most strongly by slope steepness: about one-third of the variation in the distribution is explained by variations in slope steepness. The distribution of old coherent slides and earth flows is affected most strongly by slope height, but the proximity to the hypocenters of the 1811-12 earthquakes also significantly affects the distribution. The results of the statistical analyses indicate that the only recently active landsliding in the area is along actively eroding river banks, where rotational slumps formed as bluffs are undercut by the river. The analyses further indicate that the old coherent slides

  10. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  11. Distribution and pathogenicity of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans and Triatoma guasayana from rural western Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lauricella, Marta A; Stariolo, Raúl L; Riarte, Adelina R; Segura, Elsa L; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in peridomestic triatomines collected manually at a district-wide scale in rural villages around Olta, western Argentina, and typed the isolated strains according to their pathogenicity to laboratory mice. Of 1623 triatomines examined, only 14 (0.9%) were infected with T. cruzi based on microscopical examination of feces. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 0.8% in Triatoma infestans, 2.3% in T. guasayana, and nil in T. garciabesi, T. platensis, and T. eratyrusiformis. Local transmission occurred in kitchens, store-rooms and goat corrals or nearby, though at very low levels. T. cruzi was detected by at least one parasitological method in 11 (79%) of 14 microscope-positive bugs. Hemoculture was the most sensitive method (67%) followed by culture of organ homogenates, histopathology or xenodiagnosis of inoculated suckling mice (55-58%), and culture of microscope-positive bug feces (46%). The evidence suggests that most of the isolated T. cruzi strains would be myotropic type III. Our study establishes for the first time that peridomestic, microscope-positive T. guasayana nymphs were actually infected with T. cruzi, and may be implicated as a putative secondary vector of T. cruzi in domestic or peridomestic sites. PMID:16021298

  12. A novel poisson distribution-based approach for testing boundaries of real-time PCR assays for food pathogen quantification.

    PubMed

    Rossmanith, Peter; Wagner, Martin

    2011-09-01

    The validation of quantitative real-time PCR systems and above all, proof of the detection limit of this method, is a frequently and intensively discussed topic in food pathogen detection. Among proper sample collection, assay design, careful experimental design, execution of real-time PCR, and data analysis, the validation of the method per se ensuring reliable quantification data is of prime importance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel validation tool for real-time PCR assays, based on the theoretical possibility of the amplification of a single DNA target. The underlying mathematical basis for the work is Poisson distribution, which describes patterns of low particle numbers in a volume. In this context, we focused on the quantitative aspect of real-time PCR for the first time. This allowed for demonstration of the reliable amplification of a lone target DNA molecule and the demonstration of the distinct discrimination between integer molecular numbers when using low initial copy numbers. A real-time PCR assay amplifying a 274-bp fragment of the positive regulatory protein A locus of Listeria monocytogenes was used for this work. Evidence for a linear range of quantification from a single target copy to 10 ng of target DNA was experimentally demonstrated, and evidence for the significance of this novel validation approach is presented here.

  13. Pathogen intelligence.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  14. Pathogen intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  15. Colonization History, Host Distribution, Anthropogenic Influence and Landscape Features Shape Populations of White Pine Blister Rust, an Invasive Alien Tree Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Brar, Simren; Tsui, Clement K. M.; Dhillon, Braham; Bergeron, Marie-Josée; Joly, David L.; Zambino, P. J.; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    White pine blister rust is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales). This invasive alien pathogen was introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century on pine seedlings imported from Europe and has caused serious economic and ecological impacts. In this study, we applied a population and landscape genetics approach to understand the patterns of introduction and colonization as well as population structure and migration of C. ribicola. We characterized 1,292 samples of C. ribicola from 66 geographic locations in North America using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluated the effect of landscape features, host distribution, and colonization history on the structure of these pathogen populations. We identified eastern and western genetic populations in North America that are strongly differentiated. Genetic diversity is two to five times higher in eastern populations than in western ones, which can be explained by the repeated accidental introductions of the pathogen into northeastern North America compared with a single documented introduction into western North America. These distinct genetic populations are maintained by a barrier to gene flow that corresponds to a region where host connectivity is interrupted. Furthermore, additional cryptic spatial differentiation was identified in western populations. This differentiation corresponds to landscape features, such as mountain ranges, and also to host connectivity. We also detected genetic differentiation between the pathogen populations in natural stands and plantations, an indication that anthropogenic movement of this pathogen still takes place. These results highlight the importance of monitoring this invasive alien tree pathogen to prevent admixture of eastern and western populations where different pathogen races occur. PMID:26010250

  16. Colonization history, host distribution, anthropogenic influence and landscape features shape populations of white pine blister rust, an invasive alien tree pathogen.

    PubMed

    Brar, Simren; Tsui, Clement K M; Dhillon, Braham; Bergeron, Marie-Josée; Joly, David L; Zambino, P J; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Hamelin, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    White pine blister rust is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales). This invasive alien pathogen was introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century on pine seedlings imported from Europe and has caused serious economic and ecological impacts. In this study, we applied a population and landscape genetics approach to understand the patterns of introduction and colonization as well as population structure and migration of C. ribicola. We characterized 1,292 samples of C. ribicola from 66 geographic locations in North America using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluated the effect of landscape features, host distribution, and colonization history on the structure of these pathogen populations. We identified eastern and western genetic populations in North America that are strongly differentiated. Genetic diversity is two to five times higher in eastern populations than in western ones, which can be explained by the repeated accidental introductions of the pathogen into northeastern North America compared with a single documented introduction into western North America. These distinct genetic populations are maintained by a barrier to gene flow that corresponds to a region where host connectivity is interrupted. Furthermore, additional cryptic spatial differentiation was identified in western populations. This differentiation corresponds to landscape features, such as mountain ranges, and also to host connectivity. We also detected genetic differentiation between the pathogen populations in natural stands and plantations, an indication that anthropogenic movement of this pathogen still takes place. These results highlight the importance of monitoring this invasive alien tree pathogen to prevent admixture of eastern and western populations where different pathogen races occur.

  17. Defective oxidative phosphorylation in thyroid oncocytic carcinoma is associated with pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting complexes I and III.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Elena; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Biondi, Annalisa; Ghelli, Anna; Carelli, Valerio; Baracca, Alessandra; Tallini, Giovanni; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Lenaz, Giorgio; Rugolo, Michela; Romeo, Giovanni

    2006-06-15

    Oncocytic tumors are characterized by cells with an aberrant accumulation of mitochondria. To assess mitochondrial function in neoplastic oncocytic cells, we studied the thyroid oncocytic cell line XTC.UC1 and compared it with other thyroid non-oncocytic cell lines. Only XTC.UC1 cells were unable to survive in galactose, a condition forcing cells to rely solely on mitochondria for energy production. The rate of respiration and mitochondrial ATP synthesis driven by complex I substrates was severely reduced in XTC.UC1 cells. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of complexes I and III was dramatically decreased in these cells compared with controls, in conjunction with a strongly enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Osteosarcoma-derived transmitochondrial cell hybrids (cybrids) carrying XTC.UC1 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were generated to discriminate whether the energetic failure depended on mitochondrial or nuclear DNA mutations. In galactose medium, XTC.UC1 cybrid clones showed reduced viability and ATP content, similarly to the parental XTC.UC1, clearly pointing to the existence of mtDNA alterations. Sequencing of XTC.UC1 mtDNA identified a frameshift mutation in ND1 and a nonconservative substitution in cytochrome b, two mutations with a clear pathogenic potential. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that mitochondrial dysfunction of XTC.UC1 is due to a combined complex I/III defect associated with mtDNA mutations, as proven by the transfer of the defective energetic phenotype with the mitochondrial genome into the cybrids.

  18. Animal Slurry Acidification Affects Particle Size Distribution and Improves Separation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, I; Pociask, M; Coutinho, J; Fangueiro, D

    2016-05-01

    Solid-liquid separation is performed to improve slurry management, and acidification of the slurry is used to reduce ammonia emissions. Acidification is known to affect slurry characteristics, and we hypothesized that it may affect mechanical separation. Our objective in this study was to assess the effects of slurry acidification on particle size distribution and separation efficiency. Two types of slurry, aged pig and fresh dairy, and two different acidification additives, sulfuric acid and aluminum sulfate (alum), were studied. We found that acidification with sulfuric acid promoted phosphorus (P) solubilization for both slurries, but no change was observed with alum. More ammonium was found in the acidified dairy slurry compared with raw dairy slurry, but no difference was found in aged pig slurry. Acidification before separation increased the proportion of the solid fraction in the slurries, and the effect was significantly higher with alum. When alum was used to acidify the slurries, the proportion of particles larger than 100 μm increased significantly, as did the P concentration in this particle size range. The efficiency of P separation increased markedly in both slurries when alum was used, with the removal to the solid fraction of the dairy slurry being almost complete (90%). Because the priority in mechanical separation is to increase the P content in the solid fraction, the use of alum before centrifugation may be the most suitable option for enhancing its nutrient content. We conclude that separation efficiency and particle size distribution are significantly affected by acidification, but the extent of the effects depends on slurry type and on the type of additive used for acidification. PMID:27136179

  19. Geostatistical mapping of effluent-affected sediment distribution on the Palos Verdes Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J. ); Lee, H J.; Hampton, M A.

    2001-12-01

    Geostatistical techniques were used to study the spatial continuity of the thickness of effluent-affected sediment in the offshore Palos Verdes margin area. The thickness data were measured directly from cores and indirectly from high-frequency subbottom profiles collected over the Palos Verdes Margin. Strong spatial continuity of the sediment thickness data was identified, with a maximum range of correlation in excess of 1.4 km. The spatial correlation showed a marked anisotropy, and was more than twice as continuous in the alongshore direction as in the cross-shelf direction. Sequential indicator simulation employing models fit to the thickness data variograms was used to map the distribution of the sediment, and to quantify the uncertainty in those estimates. A strong correlation between sediment thickness data and measurements of the mass of the contaminant p,p?-DDE per unit area was identified. A calibration based on the bivariate distribution of the thickness and p,p?-DDE data was applied using Markov-Bayes indicator simulation to extend the geostatistical study and map the contamination levels in the sediment. Integrating the map grids produced by the geostatistical study of the two variables indicated that 7.8 million cubic meters of effluent-affected sediment exist in the map area, containing approximately 61 to 72 Mg (metric tons) of p,p?-DDE. Most of the contaminated sediment (about 85% of the sediment and 89% of the p,p?-DDE) occurs in water depths less than 100 m. The geostatistical study also indicated that the samples available for mapping are well distributed and the uncertainty of the estimates of the thickness and contamination level of the sediments is lowest in areas where the contaminated sediment is most prevalent.

  20. Hypoxia Affects Nitrogen Uptake and Distribution in Young Poplar (Populus × canescens) Trees

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The present study with young poplar trees aimed at characterizing the effect of O2 shortage in the soil on net uptake of NO3- and NH4+ and the spatial distribution of the N taken up. Moreover, we assessed biomass increment as well as N status of the trees affected by O2 deficiency. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted in which hydroponically grown young poplar trees were exposed to hypoxic and normoxic (control) conditions for 14 days. 15N-labelled NO3- and NH4+ were used to elucidate N uptake and distribution of currently absorbed N and N allocation rates in the plants. Whereas shoot biomass was not affected by soil O2 deficiency, it significantly reduced root biomass and, consequently, the root-to-shoot ratio. Uptake of NO3- but not of NH4+ by the roots of the trees was severely impaired by hypoxia. As a consequence of reduced N uptake, the N content of all poplar tissues was significantly diminished. Under normoxic control conditions, the spatial distribution of currently absorbed N and N allocation rates differed depending on the N source. Whereas NO3- derived N was mainly transported to the younger parts of the shoot, particularly to the developing and young mature leaves, N derived from NH4+ was preferentially allocated to older parts of the shoot, mainly to wood and bark. Soil O2 deficiency enhanced this differential allocation pattern. From these results we assume that NO3- was assimilated in developing tissues and preferentially used to maintain growth and ensure plant survival under hypoxia, whereas NH4+ based N was used for biosynthesis of storage proteins in bark and wood of the trees. Still, further studies are needed to understand the mechanistic basis as well as the eco-physiological advantages of such differential allocation patterns. PMID:26308462

  1. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  2. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  3. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age.

  4. Degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine appears not to affect the cellular cholesterol distribution.

    PubMed

    Pörn, M I; Ares, M P; Slotte, J P

    1993-08-01

    To clarify the role of possible cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine interactions in cellular cholesterol distribution, we have used a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus to degrade the cell surface phosphatidylcholine of cultured human fibroblasts. Of cellular phosphatidylcholine, approximately 15% was susceptible to degradation by the phospholipase. In spite of the dramatic redistribution of cellular cholesterol that can be observed after sphingomyelin depletion, the degradation of cell surface phosphatidylcholine did not affect the distribution of cholesterol in fibroblasts. In cholesterol-depleted cells as well as in cholesterol-loaded cells, the size of the cell surface cholesterol pool (susceptible to cholesterol oxidase) remained unchanged after phosphatidylcholine degradation. The rate of cholesterol esterification with [3H]oleic acid and the rate of [3H]cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts to high density lipoproteins also remained unchanged after degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine. An increase in the level of [3H]cholesterol efflux to high density lipoproteins was observed after degradation of plasma membrane sphingomyelin with exogenous sphingomyelinase, in-contrast to earlier reports, where no such effect was observed. The results suggest that interactions between cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in the fibroblast plasma membranes are less important than cholesterol/sphingomyelin interactions for the asymmetric distribution of cellular cholesterol.

  5. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age. PMID:23705375

  6. Aβ-affected pathogenic induction of S-nitrosylation of OGT and identification of Cys-NO linkage triplet.

    PubMed

    Ryu, In-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Young; Do, Su-Il

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic link of protein hypo-O-GlcNAcylation to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. Here, we found that S-nitrosylation of O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (SNO-OGT) was induced by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) exposure to SK-N-MC and SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. Subsequently, Aβ-induced SNO-OGT led to protein hypo-O-GlcNAcylation globally including tau hypo-O-GlcNAcylation. Our results support that underlying mechanism for induction of SNO-OGT comprises the concerted action of Aβ-triggered Ca2+ entry into cells and nNOS-catalyzed NO production. Intriguingly, OGT was found to be associated with nNOS and its association was enhanced during Aβ treatment. In parallel with SNO-OGT-mediated tau hypo-O-GlcNAcylation, Aβ led to SNO-Akt-mediated GSK3β activation for tau phosphorylation, suggesting that tau hyperphosphorylation is established by synergistic connection between SNO-OGT and GSK3β activation. We also observed that Aβ-neurotoxicity including both reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death was amplified with DON treatment, whereas it was restored by PUGNAc treatment, GlcNH2 treatment or OGT overexpression. Early time-course Aβ-monitoring assay revealed that premaintained hyper-O-GlcNAcylation inside cells blocked not only Aβ-triggered Ca2+ entry into cells but also induction of SNO-OGT and SNO-Akt. Together, these findings suggest that induction of SNO-OGT by Aβ exposure is a pathogenic mechanism to cause cellular hypo-O-GlcNAcylation by which Aβ neurotoxicity is executed, and conversely, hyper-O-GlcNAcylation within cells can defend against Aβ neurotoxicity. Furthermore, our Cys mapping demonstrates that cysteine-nitric oxide (Cys-NO) linkages in SNO-OGT occur at triple Cys845, Cys921, and Cys965 residues in C-terminal catalytic domain (C-CAT), suggesting that Cys-NO linkage triplet in SNO-OGT is associated with null OGT activity. PMID:26854602

  7. Nearest Neighbor Interactions Affect the Conformational Distribution in the Unfolded State of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toal, Siobhan; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Rybka, Karin; Schwalbe, Hardol

    2013-03-01

    In order to enable structural predictions of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) the intrinsic conformational propensities of amino acids must be complimented by information on nearest-neighbor interactions. To explore the influence of nearest-neighbors on conformational distributions, we preformed a joint vibrational (Infrared, Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD), polarized Raman) and 2D-NMR study of selected GxyG host-guest peptides: GDyG, GSyG, GxLG, GxVG, where x/y ={A,K,LV}. D and S (L and V) were chosen at the x (y) position due to their observance to drastically change the distribution of alanine in xAy tripeptide sequences in truncated coil libraries. The conformationally sensitive amide' profiles of the respective spectra were analyzed in terms of a statistical ensemble described as a superposition of 2D-Gaussian functions in Ramachandran space representing sub-ensembles of pPII-, β-strand-, helical-, and turn-like conformations. Our analysis and simulation of the amide I' band profiles exploits excitonic coupling between the local amide I' vibrational modes in the tetra-peptides. The resulting distributions reveal that D and S, which themselves have high propensities for turn-structures, strongly affect the conformational distribution of their downstream neighbor. Taken together, our results indicate that Dx and Sx motifs might act as conformational randomizers in proteins, attenuating intrinsic propensities of neighboring residues. Overall, our results show that nearest neighbor interactions contribute significantly to the Gibbs energy landscape of disordered peptides and proteins.

  8. Modelling pathogen fate in stormwaters by a particle-pathogen interaction model using population balances.

    PubMed

    Vergeynst, L; Vallet, B; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater is polluted by various contaminants affecting the quality of receiving water bodies. Pathogens are one of these contaminants, which have a critical effect on water use in rivers. Increasing the retention time of water in stormwater basins can lead to reduced loads of pathogens released to the rivers. In this paper a model describing the behaviour of pathogens in stormwater basins is presented including different fate processes such as decay, adsorption/desorption, settling and solar disinfection. By considering the settling velocity distribution of particles and a layered approach, this model is able to create a light intensity, and particle and pathogen concentration profile along the water depth in the basin. A strong effect of solar disinfection is discerned. The model has been used to evaluate pathogen removal efficiencies in stormwater basins. It includes a population of particle classes characterized by a distribution of settling velocities in order to be able to reproduce stormwater quality and treatment in a realistic way.

  9. [The pathogenic aspects of fat acids metabolism with short chain and production of cytokines in target affected areas of skin under psoriasis].

    PubMed

    fal'ko, E V; Khyshiktuev, B S; Karavaeva, T M; Tereshkov, P P; Gomboeva, A Ts

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the results of analysis of specters of short-chained fat acids and cytokines in affected skin of patients with psoriasis. The study revealed the significant decrease of short-chained fat acids level, the shift of cytokine profile in the direction of anti-inflammatory factors (interleukins 1L-1beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha, interferon IFN-alpha) and mytogenetic factors (EGF) on the background of stable values of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4. The direct pathogenically significant correlation relationships are established between the IL-4 level and the amount of most analyzed short-chained fat acids. The negative correlation relationships were established between content of C2 and IL-1beta.

  10. Does day length affect winter bird distribution? Testing the role of an elusive variable.

    PubMed

    Carrascal, Luis M; Santos, Tomás; Tellería, José L

    2012-01-01

    Differences in day length may act as a critical factor in bird biology by introducing time constraints in energy acquisition during winter. Thus, differences in day length might operate as a main determinant of bird abundance along latitudinal gradients. This work examines the influence of day length on the abundance of wintering crested tits (Lophophanes cristatus) in 26 localities of Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) dwarf woodlands (average height of 5 m) located along a latitudinal gradient in the Spanish highlands, while controlling for the influence of food availability, minimum night temperature, habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Top regression models in the AIC framework explained 56% of variance in bird numbers. All models incorporated day length as the variable with the highest magnitude effect. Food availability also played an important role, although only the crop of ripe juniper fruits, but not arthropods, positively affected crested tit abundance. Differences in vegetation structure across localities had also a strong positive effect (average tree height and juniper tree density). Geographical variation in night temperature had no influence on crested tit distribution, despite the low winter temperatures reached in these dwarf forests. This paper demonstrates for the first time that winter bird abundance increases with day length after controlling for the effect of other environmental variables. Winter average difference in day length was only 10.5 minutes per day along the 1°47' latitudinal interval (190 km) included in this study. This amount of time, which reaches 13.5 h accumulated throughout the winter season, appears to be large enough to affect the long-term energy budget of small passerines during winter and to shape the distribution of winter bird abundance under restrictive environmental conditions.

  11. Does Day Length Affect Winter Bird Distribution? Testing the Role of an Elusive Variable

    PubMed Central

    Carrascal, Luis M.; Santos, Tomás; Tellería, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in day length may act as a critical factor in bird biology by introducing time constraints in energy acquisition during winter. Thus, differences in day length might operate as a main determinant of bird abundance along latitudinal gradients. This work examines the influence of day length on the abundance of wintering crested tits (Lophophanes cristatus) in 26 localities of Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) dwarf woodlands (average height of 5 m) located along a latitudinal gradient in the Spanish highlands, while controlling for the influence of food availability, minimum night temperature, habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Top regression models in the AIC framework explained 56% of variance in bird numbers. All models incorporated day length as the variable with the highest magnitude effect. Food availability also played an important role, although only the crop of ripe juniper fruits, but not arthropods, positively affected crested tit abundance. Differences in vegetation structure across localities had also a strong positive effect (average tree height and juniper tree density). Geographical variation in night temperature had no influence on crested tit distribution, despite the low winter temperatures reached in these dwarf forests. This paper demonstrates for the first time that winter bird abundance increases with day length after controlling for the effect of other environmental variables. Winter average difference in day length was only 10.5 minutes per day along the 1°47′ latitudinal interval (190 km) included in this study. This amount of time, which reaches 13.5 h accumulated throughout the winter season, appears to be large enough to affect the long-term energy budget of small passerines during winter and to shape the distribution of winter bird abundance under restrictive environmental conditions. PMID:22393442

  12. The relative importance of Staphylococcus saprophyticus as a urinary tract pathogen: distribution of bacteria among urinary samples analysed during 1 year at a major Swedish laboratory.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Andreas; Giske, Christian G; Ternhag, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To determine the distribution of urinary tract pathogens with focus on Staphylococcus saprophyticus and analyse the seasonality, antibiotic susceptibility, and gender and age distributions in a large Swedish cohort. S. saprophyticus is considered an important causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, and some earlier studies have reported up to approximately 40% of UTIs in this patient group being caused by S. saprophyticus. We hypothesized that this may be true only in very specific outpatient settings. During the year 2010, 113,720 urine samples were sent for culture to the Karolinska University Hospital, from both clinics in the hospital and from primary care units. Patient age, gender and month of sampling were analysed for S. saprophyticus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. Species data were obtained for 42,633 (37%) of the urine samples. The most common pathogens were E. coli (57.0%), Enterococcus faecalis (6.5%), K. pneumoniae (5.9%), group B streptococci (5.7%), P. mirabilis (3.0%) and S. saprophyticus (1.8%). The majority of subjects with S. saprophyticus were women 15-29 years of age (63.8%). In this age group, S. saprophyticus constituted 12.5% of all urinary tract pathogens. S. saprophyticus is a common urinary tract pathogen in young women, but its relative importance is low compared with E. coli even in this patient group. For women in other ages and for men, growth of S. saprophyticus is a quite uncommon finding.

  13. Coal fly ash effluent affects the distributions of Brachionus calyciflorus sibling species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Xi, Yi-Long; Xue, Ying-Hao; Xiang, Xian-Ling; Wen, Xin-Li

    2015-02-01

    Fly ash, a coal combustion residue of thermal power plants and a source of multiple pollutants, has been recognized as an environmental hazard all over the world. Although it is known that fly ash effluent affects density, diversity and distribution of rotifers in drainage systems and receiving water bodies, the effect of fly ash effluent on the distributions of highly similar rotifer species remains unknown. In this study, the mtDNA COI genes of 90 individuals in Brachionus calyciflorus complex from Lake Hui (as a fly ash discharge water pond) and other two neighboring lakes (Lake Fengming and Lake Tingtang) were sequenced and analyzed, and the responses in selected life table demographic parameters (life expectancy at hatching, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of population increase and proportion of sexual offspring) of different rotifer populations to fly ash effluent were investigated. Overall, 72 mtDNA haplotypes were defined, and were split into two clades by the phylogenetic trees. The divergence of COI gene sequences between the two clades ranged from 11.8% to17.8%, indicating the occurrence of two sibling species (sibling species I and sibling species II). Sibling species I distributed in all the three lakes, showing strong capabilities for dispersal and colonization, which were supported by its higher level of gene flow (2.60-4.04) between the populations from Lake Hui and each of the other two lakes, longer life expectancy at hatching (101.6-148.2 h), and higher net reproductive rate (4.4-16.4 offspring/female) and intrinsic rate of population increase (0.60-0.98/d) when cultured in aerated tap water and fly ash effluent. Sibling species II distributed in both Lake Tingtang and Lake Fengming, showing that its dispersal existed between the two lakes. Considering that the distance between Lake Hui and Lake Fengming is shorter than that between Lake Tingtang and Lake Fengming, sibling species II is able to disperse at least from Lake Fengming to Lake

  14. Coal fly ash effluent affects the distributions of Brachionus calyciflorus sibling species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Xi, Yi-Long; Xue, Ying-Hao; Xiang, Xian-Ling; Wen, Xin-Li

    2015-02-01

    Fly ash, a coal combustion residue of thermal power plants and a source of multiple pollutants, has been recognized as an environmental hazard all over the world. Although it is known that fly ash effluent affects density, diversity and distribution of rotifers in drainage systems and receiving water bodies, the effect of fly ash effluent on the distributions of highly similar rotifer species remains unknown. In this study, the mtDNA COI genes of 90 individuals in Brachionus calyciflorus complex from Lake Hui (as a fly ash discharge water pond) and other two neighboring lakes (Lake Fengming and Lake Tingtang) were sequenced and analyzed, and the responses in selected life table demographic parameters (life expectancy at hatching, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of population increase and proportion of sexual offspring) of different rotifer populations to fly ash effluent were investigated. Overall, 72 mtDNA haplotypes were defined, and were split into two clades by the phylogenetic trees. The divergence of COI gene sequences between the two clades ranged from 11.8% to17.8%, indicating the occurrence of two sibling species (sibling species I and sibling species II). Sibling species I distributed in all the three lakes, showing strong capabilities for dispersal and colonization, which were supported by its higher level of gene flow (2.60-4.04) between the populations from Lake Hui and each of the other two lakes, longer life expectancy at hatching (101.6-148.2 h), and higher net reproductive rate (4.4-16.4 offspring/female) and intrinsic rate of population increase (0.60-0.98/d) when cultured in aerated tap water and fly ash effluent. Sibling species II distributed in both Lake Tingtang and Lake Fengming, showing that its dispersal existed between the two lakes. Considering that the distance between Lake Hui and Lake Fengming is shorter than that between Lake Tingtang and Lake Fengming, sibling species II is able to disperse at least from Lake Fengming to Lake

  15. Scale-dependent factors affecting North American river otter distribution in the midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffress, Mackenzie R.; Paukert, C.P.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Sandercock, B.K.; Gipson, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) is recovering from near extirpation throughout much of its range. Although reintroductions, trapping regulations and habitat improvements have led to the reestablishment of river otters in the Midwest, little is known about how their distribution is influenced by local- and landscape-scale habitat. We conducted river otter sign surveys from Jan. to Apr. in 2008 and 2009 in eastern Kansas to assess how local- and landscape-scale habitat factors affect river otter occupancy. We surveyed three to nine 400-m stretches of stream and reservoir shorelines for 110 sites and measured local-scale variables (e.g., stream order, land cover types) within a 100 m buffer of the survey site and landscape-scale variables (e.g., road density, land cover types) for Hydrological Unit Code 14 watersheds. We then used occupancy models that account for the probability of detection to estimate occupancy as a function of these covariates using Program PRESENCE. The best-fitting model indicated river otter occupancy increased with the proportion of woodland cover and decreased with the proportion of cropland and grassland cover at the local scale. Occupancy also increased with decreased shoreline diversity, waterbody density and stream density at the landscape scale. Occupancy was not affected by land cover or human disturbance at the landscape scale. Understanding the factors and scale important to river otter occurrence will be useful in identifying areas for management and continued restoration. ?? 2011, American Midland Naturalist.

  16. Anthropogenic lead distribution in rodent-affected and undisturbed soils in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.E.; Graham, R.C.; Amrhein, C.

    1997-01-01

    Anthropogenic Pb is the world`s largest and most widespread heavy metal contamination. Inspired by recent evidence suggesting a faster redistribution of Pb through the mineral soil profile than was previously expected, we investigated the effects of rodent activity on Pb redistribution. Total Pb was analyzed at the 0-1, 1-4, and 4-7-cm depths in a rodent-affected soil and in an undisturbed soil, in the same proximity and with the same parent material, in the Box Springs Mountains near Riverside, California. Six replicate sites of each condition were sampled. Lead was recovered by a digest in 4 M HNO{sub 3} and measured using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Anthropotenic Pb content to a 7-cm depth averaged 19 mg kg{sup -1} in undisturbed soils and 10 mg kg{sup -1} in rodent-affected soils. In both soils, the highest concentrations of Pb were located in the top 4 cm of the profile. After accounting for an estimated native Pb ({approximately}3.3 mg kg{sup -1}), we determined that 20 to 38 kg ha{sup -1} Pb has been deposited on these soils, through air pollution. Our findings suggest rodents significantly modify the distribution of anthropogenic Pb in the rodent-affected soils of the box Springs Mountains primarily in two ways: (i) by reducing Pb concentration in surface soils, thereby decreasing the potential for erosional redistribution of Pb, and (ii) by decreasing Pb transport time through the soil profile as a result of physical mixing. This redistribution mechanism is likely applicable to other surface deposited anthropogenic contaminants that have similarly low soil mobility. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Different tree species affect soil respiration spatial distribution in a subtropical forest of southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Wang, Ya-nan; Lai, Yen-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Soil carbon cycling processes are paid much attention by ecological scientists and policy makers because of the possibility of carbon being stored in soil via land use management. Soil respiration contributed large part of terrestrial carbon flux, but the relationship of soil respiration and climate change was still obscurity. Most of soil respiration researches focus on template and tropical area, little was known that in subtropical area. Afforestation is one of solutions to mitigate CO2 increase and to sequestrate CO2 in tree and soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of tree species and soil respiration distribution in subtropical broad-leaves plantation in southern Taiwan. The research site located on southern Taiwan was sugarcane farm before 2002. The sugarcane was removed and fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Sixteen plots (250m*250m) were set on 1 km2 area, each plot contained 4 subplots (170m2). The forest biomass (i.e. tree height, DBH) understory biomass, litter, and soil C were measured and analyzed at 2011 to 2012. Soil respiration measurement was sampled in each subplot in each month. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Soil carbon storage showed significantly negative relationship with soil bulk density (p<0.001) in research site. The differences of distribution of live tree C pool among 16 plots were affected by growth characteristic of tree species. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Different tree species planted in 16 plots, resulting in high spatial variation of litterfall amount. It also affected total amount of litterfall

  18. Evidence that Stress Amplitude Does Not Affect the Temporal Distribution of Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Most physical aftershock triggering models, including the rate and state friction model of Dieterich (1994), the stress corrosion model (see discussion in Gomberg, 2001) and other accelerating failure models predict that larger stress changes on a fault will lead to an aftershocks that happens more quickly (larger clock advance), all else equal. Thus as stress change amplitude decreases with distance from the mainshock, there is an expected shift in the aftershock distribution toward longer time delays. This effect was formalized by Dieterich (1994) as an increase of the modified Omori Law c value (N(t) = A/(t+c)p where t = time, N(t) = aftershock rate, and A, p, and c are constants). Jones and Hauksson (1998), however, found no change in c value with distance after the 1992 MW 7.3 Landers earthquake. The assumption that the aftershock temporal distribution is independent of distance is also made in ETAS (Epidemic Triggering Aftershock Sequence) aftershock simulations (Ogata, 1998; Helmstetter, 2002) without adverse affect on fitting real data. Here we verify the independence of stress change and aftershock temporal distribution using a data set of 33 M 5-6 mainshocks from throughout California. These mainshocks are large enough to produce a significant number of aftershocks in the near and far field, but small enough to be frequent and thus provide good statistical sampling. Our data verifies that the temporal distribution of aftershocks is independent of stress change amplitude. We suggest that the most likely explanation for this observation is that the timing of each fault that participates in an aftershock sequence is independent of the amplitude of the stress that triggers it. In this case aftershock decay with distance from the mainshock cannot be caused by smaller clock advances on lesser-stressed faults, as in the Dieterich (1994) model, but rather by a stress amplitude dependent probability that a fault will be clock advanced at all. In future work we

  19. NS Reassortment of an H7-Type Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Affects Its Propagation by Altering the Regulation of Viral RNA Production and Antiviral Host Response▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongfang; Robb, Nicole C.; Lenz, Eva; Wolff, Thorsten; Fodor, Ervin; Pleschka, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) with reassorted NS segments from H5- and H7-type avian virus strains placed in the genetic background of the A/FPV/Rostock/34 HPAIV (FPV; H7N1) were generated by reverse genetics. Virological characterizations demonstrated that the growth kinetics of the reassortant viruses differed from that of wild-type (wt) FPV and depended on whether cells were of mammalian or avian origin. Surprisingly, molecular analysis revealed that the different reassortant NS segments were not only responsible for alterations in the antiviral host response but also affected viral genome replication and transcription as well as nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP) export. RNP reconstitution experiments demonstrated that the effects on accumulation levels of viral RNA species were dependent on the specific NS segment as well as on the genetic background of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Beta interferon (IFN-β) expression and the induction of apoptosis were found to be inversely correlated with the magnitude of viral growth, while the NS allele, virus subtype, and nonstructural protein NS1 expression levels showed no correlation. Thus, these results demonstrate that the origin of the NS segment can have a dramatic effect on the replication efficiency and host range of HPAIV. Overall, our data suggest that the propagation of NS reassortant influenza viruses is affected at multiple steps of the viral life cycle as a result of the different effects of the NS1 protein on multiple viral and host functions. PMID:20739516

  20. Geohelminths distribution as affected by soil properties, physicochemical factors and climate in Sharkyia governorate Egypt.

    PubMed

    Etewa, Samia E; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Fathy, Ghada M; El-Shafey, Mahmoud A; Ewis, A M G

    2016-06-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are mainly a group of parasitic nematodes causing human infection through contact with parasite eggs or larvae; they survive in the warm and moist soil of the tropical and subtropical countries. This study was carried out in Sharkyia governorate from October, 2011 to October, 2013, to correlate between the prevalence and distribution of these parasites in the soil and the physicochemical factors affecting the examined samples of the soil. One hundred and twenty samples of different types of soil (clay, silt, sand) from different localities were collected and examined. Diagnosis of geohelminths was confirmed by the recovery of their eggs and larvae with other protozoa by different parasitological methods. The modified baermann method was found to be more efficient in detection of geohelminths larvae than charcoal culture method. Among the examined sites geohelminths were much more numerous in the soil of rural areas especially in the spring and summer seasons, while the contamination of canal banks by geohelminths was the worst (80 %). An insignificant correlation was reported between the soil texture and the number of positive samples in the examined areas while the relationship was directly proportional among (moisture, PH, organic). It appeared that the most common geohelminthic stage was Toxocara spp. eggs besides other types of protozoa especially Balantidium coli cysts. This suggests that factors other than soil texture are important in the prevalence of geohelminths in the soil e.g. temperature, moisture, PH and organic matter. So, to change some of these factors in a trial to control geoparasites transmission but with keeping the environment should be tried. These results also open the way to further studies to highlight the mutual affection between inhabitants of these sites and the prevalence of these geoparasites.

  1. Geohelminths distribution as affected by soil properties, physicochemical factors and climate in Sharkyia governorate Egypt.

    PubMed

    Etewa, Samia E; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Fathy, Ghada M; El-Shafey, Mahmoud A; Ewis, A M G

    2016-06-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are mainly a group of parasitic nematodes causing human infection through contact with parasite eggs or larvae; they survive in the warm and moist soil of the tropical and subtropical countries. This study was carried out in Sharkyia governorate from October, 2011 to October, 2013, to correlate between the prevalence and distribution of these parasites in the soil and the physicochemical factors affecting the examined samples of the soil. One hundred and twenty samples of different types of soil (clay, silt, sand) from different localities were collected and examined. Diagnosis of geohelminths was confirmed by the recovery of their eggs and larvae with other protozoa by different parasitological methods. The modified baermann method was found to be more efficient in detection of geohelminths larvae than charcoal culture method. Among the examined sites geohelminths were much more numerous in the soil of rural areas especially in the spring and summer seasons, while the contamination of canal banks by geohelminths was the worst (80 %). An insignificant correlation was reported between the soil texture and the number of positive samples in the examined areas while the relationship was directly proportional among (moisture, PH, organic). It appeared that the most common geohelminthic stage was Toxocara spp. eggs besides other types of protozoa especially Balantidium coli cysts. This suggests that factors other than soil texture are important in the prevalence of geohelminths in the soil e.g. temperature, moisture, PH and organic matter. So, to change some of these factors in a trial to control geoparasites transmission but with keeping the environment should be tried. These results also open the way to further studies to highlight the mutual affection between inhabitants of these sites and the prevalence of these geoparasites. PMID:27413327

  2. Factors Affecting the Spatial Distribution of Oviposition Sites for Tandem Black Saddlebags Dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae)

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Jessica L.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site location may be affected by (1) factors influencing the costs and benefits to the offspring (e.g., resource availability, competition, predation risk) and (2) factors influencing the costs and benefits to the female (e.g., predation risk or mate harassment). In cases in which both the male and female are involved in locating a site, costs and benefits may differ for each parent and the resulting oviposition site location may represent the outcome of selection pressures on one or both of them. We studied oviposition behavior in the black saddlebags dragonfly (Tramea lacerata Hagen), a species in which the male and female typically remain together (i.e., in tandem) while traveling among potential oviposition locations. Oviposition sites tended to be away from pond shoreline at the outer edge of the vegetation on the water’s surface. We found that tandems distributed their oviposition locations widely around the pond, and interactions with other dragonflies (typically other T. lacerata, either territorial males or tandems) led to a larger distance between consecutive oviposition locations. Interestingly, for 10% of the tandems, the female became separated from the male and oviposited solitarily multiple times. These solitary females spent significantly less time and traveled significantly smaller distances between successive oviposition sites than when in tandem. Our results indicate that while some aspects of oviposition behavior and site selection may be consistent between the male and female (e.g., the characteristics that make a site suitable), other aspects, such as the distribution of sites, may be a result of a differing benefits and costs for the two sexes, perhaps as a consequence of potential sperm competition.

  3. Investigating differences across host species and scales to explain the distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Anna C; McKenzie, Valerie J

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens infect more than one host species, and clarifying how these different hosts contribute to pathogen dynamics can facilitate the management of pathogens and can lend insight into the functioning of pathogens in ecosystems. In this study, we investigated a suite of native and non-native amphibian hosts of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across multiple scales to identify potential mechanisms that may drive infection patterns in the Colorado study system. Specifically, we aimed to determine if: 1) amphibian populations vary in Bd infection across the landscape, 2) amphibian community composition predicts infection (e.g., does the presence or abundance of any particular species influence infection in others?), 3) amphibian species vary in their ability to produce infectious zoospores in a laboratory infection, 4) heterogeneity in host ability observed in the laboratory scales to predict patterns of Bd prevalence in the landscape. We found that non-native North American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) are widespread and have the highest prevalence of Bd infection relative to the other native species in the landscape. Additionally, infection in some native species appears to be related to the density of sympatric L. catesbeianus populations. At the smaller host scale, we found that L. catesbeianus produces more of the infective zoospore stage relative to some native species, but that this zoospore output does not scale to predict infection in sympatric wild populations of native species. Rather, landscape level infection relates most strongly to density of hosts at a wetland as well as abiotic factors. While non-native L. catesbeianus have high levels of Bd infection in the Colorado Front Range system, we also identified Bd infection in a number of native amphibian populations allopatric with L. catesbeianus, suggesting that multiple host species are important contributors to the dynamics of the Bd pathogen in this landscape. PMID

  4. Investigating Differences across Host Species and Scales to Explain the Distribution of the Amphibian Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Anna C.; McKenzie, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens infect more than one host species, and clarifying how these different hosts contribute to pathogen dynamics can facilitate the management of pathogens and can lend insight into the functioning of pathogens in ecosystems. In this study, we investigated a suite of native and non-native amphibian hosts of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across multiple scales to identify potential mechanisms that may drive infection patterns in the Colorado study system. Specifically, we aimed to determine if: 1) amphibian populations vary in Bd infection across the landscape, 2) amphibian community composition predicts infection (e.g., does the presence or abundance of any particular species influence infection in others?), 3) amphibian species vary in their ability to produce infectious zoospores in a laboratory infection, 4) heterogeneity in host ability observed in the laboratory scales to predict patterns of Bd prevalence in the landscape. We found that non-native North American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) are widespread and have the highest prevalence of Bd infection relative to the other native species in the landscape. Additionally, infection in some native species appears to be related to the density of sympatric L. catesbeianus populations. At the smaller host scale, we found that L. catesbeianus produces more of the infective zoospore stage relative to some native species, but that this zoospore output does not scale to predict infection in sympatric wild populations of native species. Rather, landscape level infection relates most strongly to density of hosts at a wetland as well as abiotic factors. While non-native L. catesbeianus have high levels of Bd infection in the Colorado Front Range system, we also identified Bd infection in a number of native amphibian populations allopatric with L. catesbeianus, suggesting that multiple host species are important contributors to the dynamics of the Bd pathogen in this landscape. PMID

  5. Chapter A7. Section 7.3. Protozoan Pathogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bushon, Rebecca N.; Francy, Donna S.

    2003-01-01

    Protozoan pathogens are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the principal protozoan pathogens that are known to affect the acceptability of water supplies for public use within the United States. A sampling program for protozoan pathogens should be conducted over an extended period of time because of cyclical and seasonal variations in their concentrations in the environment. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and laboratory method that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on protozoan pathogens.

  6. Fractal Scaling of Particle Size Distribution and Relationships with Topsoil Properties Affected by Biological Soil Crusts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guang-Lei; Ding, Guo-Dong; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Qin, Shu-Gao; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Bao, Yan-Feng; Liu, Yun-Dong; Wan, Li; Deng, Ji-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological soil crusts are common components of desert ecosystem; they cover ground surface and interact with topsoil that contribute to desertification control and degraded land restoration in arid and semiarid regions. Methodology/Principal Findings To distinguish the changes in topsoil affected by biological soil crusts, we compared topsoil properties across three types of successional biological soil crusts (algae, lichens, and mosses crust), as well as the referenced sandland in the Mu Us Desert, Northern China. Relationships between fractal dimensions of soil particle size distribution and selected soil properties were discussed as well. The results indicated that biological soil crusts had significant positive effects on soil physical structure (P<0.05); and soil organic carbon and nutrients showed an upward trend across the successional stages of biological soil crusts. Fractal dimensions ranged from 2.1477 to 2.3032, and significantly linear correlated with selected soil properties (R2 = 0.494∼0.955, P<0.01). Conclusions/Significance Biological soil crusts cause an important increase in soil fertility, and are beneficial to sand fixation, although the process is rather slow. Fractal dimension proves to be a sensitive and useful index for quantifying changes in soil properties that additionally implies desertification. This study will be essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on optimal solutions regarding desertification control and assessment, as well as degraded ecosystem restoration in arid and semiarid regions. PMID:24516668

  7. Distribution of abnormal prion protein in a sheep affected with L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Y; Iwamaru, Y; Masujin, K; Imamura, M; Mohri, S; Yokoyama, T; Okada, H

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the topographical distribution and patterns of deposition of immunolabelled abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)), interspecies transmission of atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to Cheviot ewes (ARQ/ARQ genotype) was performed. L-type BSE was successfully transmitted via the intracerebral route to a ewe, with an incubation period of 1,562 days. Minimal vacuolar change was detected in the basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstem, and PrP(Sc) accumulated throughout the brain. The L-type BSE-affected sheep was characterized by conspicuous fine particulate deposits in the neuropil, particulate and/or granular intraneuronal and intraglial deposits, and the absence of PrP(Sc) plaques or stellate deposits. In addition, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed that PrP(Sc) accumulation was present in peripheral nervous tissues (including the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglion) and adrenal glands, but was absent in lymphoid tissues. These results suggest that L-type BSE has distinct and distinguishable characteristics as well as PrP(Sc) tissue tropism in sheep.

  8. Particle size distribution of rice flour affecting the starch enzymatic hydrolysis and hydration properties.

    PubMed

    de la Hera, Esther; Gomez, Manuel; Rosell, Cristina M

    2013-10-15

    Rice flour is becoming very attractive as raw material, but there is lack of information about the influence of particle size on its functional properties and starch digestibility. This study evaluates the degree of dependence of the rice flour functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior, with the particle size distribution. Hydration properties of flours and gels and starch enzymatic hydrolysis of individual fractions were assessed. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour significantly affected functional properties and starch features, at room temperature and also after gelatinization; and the extent of that effect was grain type dependent. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour induces different pattern in starch enzymatic hydrolysis, with the long grain having slower hydrolysis as indicated the rate constant (k). No correlation between starch digestibility and hydration properties or the protein content was observed. It seems that in intact granules interactions with other grain components must be taken into account. Overall, particle size fractionation of rice flour might be advisable for selecting specific physico-chemical properties.

  9. Distribution and pathogenicity of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in boreal toads from the grand teton area of western wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, P.J.; St-Hilaire, S.; Bruer, S.; Corn, P.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the skin disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. Bd has been implicated in recent declines of boreal toads, Bufo boreas boreas, in Colorado but populations of boreal toads in western Wyoming have high prevalence of Bd without suffering catastrophic mortality. In a field and laboratory study, we investigated the prevalence of Bd in boreal toads from the Grand Teton ecosystem (GRTE) in Wyoming and tested the pathogenicity of Bd to these toads in several environments. The pathogen was present in breeding adults at all 10 sites sampled, with a mean prevalence of 67%. In an experiment with juvenile toadlets housed individually in wet environments, 106 zoospores of Bd isolated from GRTE caused lethal disease in all Wyoming and Colorado animals within 35 days. Survival time was longer in toadlets from Wyoming than Colorado and in toadlets spending more time in dry sites. In a second trial involving Colorado toadlets exposed to 35% fewer Bd zoospores, infection peaked and subsided over 68 days with no lethal chytridiomycosis in any treatment. However, compared with drier aquaria with dry refuges, Bd infection intensity was 41% higher in more humid aquaria and 81% higher without dry refuges available. Our findings suggest that although widely infected in nature, Wyoming toads may escape chytridiomycosis due to a slight advantage in innate resistance or because their native habitat hinders Bd growth or provides more opportunities to reduce pathogen loads behaviorally than in Colorado. ?? 2009 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  10. Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is widely distributed in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Liu, X; Xu, X; Zhao, Y; Yang, D; Han, X; Tian, M; Ding, C; Peng, D; Yu, S

    2016-10-01

    Pathogens utilize type III secretion systems to deliver effector proteins, which facilitate bacterial infections. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) which plays a crucial role in bacterial virulence, is present in the majority of E. coli strains, although ETT2 has undergone widespread mutational attrition. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of ETT2 in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) isolates and identified five different ETT2 isoforms, including intact ETT2, in 57·6% (141/245) of the isolates. The ETT2 locus was present in the predominant APEC serotypes O78, O2 and O1. All of the ETT2 loci in the serotype O78 isolates were degenerate, whereas an intact ETT2 locus was mostly present in O1 and O2 serotype strains, which belong to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Interestingly, a putative second type III secretion-associated locus (eip locus) was present only in the isolates with an intact ETT2. Moreover, ETT2 was more widely distributed in APEC isolates and exhibited more isoforms compared to ETT2 in human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, suggesting that APEC might be a potential risk to human health. However, there was no distinct correlation between ETT2 and other virulence factors in APEC.

  11. Distribution of Pathogenic Genes aatA, aap, aggR, among Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Their Linkage with StbA Gene.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, A; Mirinargasi, M; Merikhi, N; Sharifi, S H

    2011-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) with E. coli (UPEC) is one of the most common bacterial infections among human beings. In addition to the host predisposing factors, genes are also proposed to have an important role in the occurrence of UTIs. This study investigated the distribution of three pathogenic genes including aggR, aap and aatA among UPEC infected samples and their linkage with stbA, the essential gene for maintaining of pAA plasmid. A total of 244 samples were collected from patients with UTIs through clinical laboratories located in western side of Tehran (Iran) during years 2008-2009. E. coli isolation was performed according to standard laboratory methods. DNAs were extracted from samples using Boiling method, and the presence of aap, aggR, aatA and stbA genes were investigated by PCR. No pathogenic genes (aap, aggR, aatA) were found in 104 out of 244 UPEC samples, while 14 of them were carrying stbA gene. Out of 140 UPEC samples with pathogenic genes, 94 (46.6%) were carrying aap gene, 52 (23%) aggR gene, and 80 (35.4%) aatA gene. A total of 18 samples were also carrying all pathogenic genes together. Moreover, 44 out of 144 samples were carrying stbA gene. The results obtained by this study showed that the aggR, aap and aatA pathogenic genes have different existence patterns in different E. coli strains that infect different organs. Our study also showed that these three plasmid genes in EAEC strains are able to transpose in the genome and change their level of linkage with pAA plasmid essential gene stbA. Meanwhile, this study confirmed that aggR, aap and aatA genes are not specific to only EAEC strains.

  12. Lung perfusion and emphysema distribution affect the outcome of endobronchial valve therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Christian; Theilig, Dorothea; Herzog, Dominik; Poellinger, Alexander; Doellinger, Felix; Schreiter, Nils; Schreiter, Vera; Schürmann, Dirk; Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, Bettina; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2016-01-01

    The exclusion of collateral ventilation (CV) and other factors affect the clinical success of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). However, despite its benefits, the outcome of ELVR remains difficult to predict. We investigated whether clinical success could be predicted by emphysema distribution assessed by computed tomography scan and baseline perfusion assessed by perfusion scintigraphy. Data from 57 patients with no CV in the target lobe (TL) were retrospectively analyzed after ELVR with valves. Pulmonary function tests (PFT), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) were performed on patients at baseline. The sample was grouped into high and low levels at the median of TL perfusion, ipsilateral nontarget lobe (INL) perfusion, and heterogeneity index (HI). These groups were analyzed for association with changes in outcome parameters from baseline to 3 months follow-up. Compared to baseline, patients showed significant improvements in PFT, SGRQ, and 6MWT (all P≤0.001). TL perfusion was not associated with changes in the outcome. High INL perfusion was significantly associated with increases in 6MWT (P=0.014), and high HI was associated with increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), (P=0.012). Likewise, there were significant correlations for INL perfusion and improvement of 6MWT (r=0.35, P=0.03) and for HI and improvement in FEV1 (r=0.45, P=0.001). This study reveals new attributes that associate with positive outcomes for patient selection prior to ELVR. Patients with high perfusions in INL demonstrated greater improvements in 6MWT, while patients with high HI were more likely to respond in FEV1. PMID:27354783

  13. Analysis of geological structure and anthropological factors affecting arsenic distribution in the Lahore aquifer, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Akhtar Malik; Zhonghua, Tang; Sissou, Zakari; Mohamadi, Bahaa; Ehsan, Muhsan

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the potential factors affecting arsenic concentration in the groundwater system of Lahore, Pakistan. The effects of several factors such as population density (PD), pumping rate (PR), impermeable land use (LU), surface elevation (SE), and water-table elevation (WL) on arsenic concentration were studied in 101 union councils of Lahore. Forty single and multi-factor models were established using geographic information system (GIS) techniques to develop an arsenic contamination map and to investigate the most effective combinations among factors. Additionally, statistical tests were used to evaluate arsenic concentration between classes of the same single factor. The arsenic concentration in the Lahore aquifer varied from 0.001 to 0.143 mg L-1. The highest arsenic concentrations were detected in the Walled City and the town of Shahdara. Among the 40 raster models, groundwater arsenic concentration showed the best matching frequency with single-factor models for PD (50.70 %) and SE (47 %). Thus, PD and SE were used to develop an arsenic distribution raster map, and they were also used to study the effect of aquifer depth on arsenic concentration. PD was found to have hidden latent variables such as PR and LU. The shallow aquifer depth was negatively correlated with arsenic concentration (r = -0.23) and positively with PR (r = 0.15). Therefore, when there was high PR in wells with smaller aquifer depth, the arsenic concentration was high. The existing water treatment and alternative water resources are good options, which should be developed to deal with Lahore wells contaminated with arsenic at high concentrations.

  14. Free fatty acids chain length distribution affects the permeability of skin lipid model membranes.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Masayuki; Oguri, Masashi; Mojumdar, Enamul H; Gooris, Gert S; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2016-09-01

    The lipid matrix in the stratum corneum (SC) plays an important role in the barrier function of the skin. The main lipid classes in this lipid matrix are ceramides (CERs), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acids (FFAs). The aim of this study was to determine whether a variation in CER subclass composition and chain length distribution of FFAs affect the permeability of this matrix. To examine this, we make use of lipid model membranes, referred to as stratum corneum substitute (SCS). We prepared SCS containing i) single CER subclass with either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs and CHOL, or ii) a mixture of various CER subclasses with either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs and CHOL. In vitro permeation studies were performed using ethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (E-PABA) as a model drug. The flux of E-PABA across the SCS containing the mixture of FFAs was higher than that across the SCS containing a single FA with a chain length of 24 C atoms (FA C24), while the E-PABA flux was not effected by the CER composition. To select the underlying factors for the changes in permeability, the SCSs were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All lipid models demonstrated a similar phase behavior. However, when focusing on the conformational ordering of the individual FFA chains, the shorter chain FFA (with a chain length of 16, 18 or 20 C atoms forming only 11m/m% of the total FFA level) had a higher conformational disordering, while the conformational ordering of the chains of the CER and FA C24 and FA C22 hardly did not change irrespective of the composition of the SCS. In conclusion, the conformational mobility of the short chain FFAs present only at low levels in the model SC lipid membranes has a great impact on the permeability of E-PABA. PMID:27287726

  15. Environmental factors affecting methane distribution and bacterial methane oxidation in the German Bight (North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osudar, Roman; Matoušů, Anna; Alawi, Mashal; Wagner, Dirk; Bussmann, Ingeborg

    2015-07-01

    River estuaries are responsible for high rates of methane emissions to the atmosphere. The complexity and diversity of estuaries require detailed investigation of methane sources and sinks, as well as of their spatial and seasonal variations. The Elbe river estuary and the adjacent North Sea were chosen as the study site for this survey, which was conducted from October 2010 to June 2012. Using gas chromatography and radiotracer techniques, we measured methane concentrations and methane oxidation (MOX) rates along a 60 km long transect from Cuxhaven to Helgoland. Methane distribution was influenced by input from the methane-rich mouth of the Elbe and gradual dilution by methane-depleted sea water. Methane concentrations near the coast were on average 30 ± 13 nmol L-1, while in the open sea, they were 14 ± 6 nmol L-1. Interestingly, the highest methane concentrations were repeatedly detected near Cuxhaven, not in the Elbe River freshwater end-member as previously reported. Though, we did not find clear seasonality we observed temporal methane variations, which depended on temperature and presumably on water discharge from the Elbe River. The highest MOX rates generally coincided with the highest methane concentrations, and varied from 2.6 ± 2.7 near the coast to 0.417 ± 0.529 nmol L-1 d-1 in the open sea. Turnover times varied from 3 to >1000 days. MOX rates were strongly affected by methane concentration, temperature and salinity. We ruled out the supposition that MOX is not an important methane sink in most of the Elbe estuary and adjacent German Bight.

  16. Building ensemble representations: How the shape of preceding distractor distributions affects visual search.

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-08-01

    Perception allows us to extract information about regularities in the environment. Observers can quickly determine summary statistics of a group of objects and detect outliers. The existing body of research has, however, not revealed how such ensemble representations develop over time. Moreover, the correspondence between the physical distribution of features in the external world and their potential internal representation as a probability density function (PDF) by the visual system is still unknown. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that such internal PDFs are built during visual search and show how they can be assessed with repetition and role-reversal effects. Using singleton search for an oddly oriented target line among differently oriented distractors (a priming of pop-out paradigm), we test how different properties of previously observed distractor distributions (mean, variability, and shape) influence search times. Our results indicate that observers learn properties of distractor distributions over and above mean and variance; in fact, response times also depend on the shape of the preceding distractor distribution. Response times decrease as a function of target distance from the mean of preceding Gaussian distractor distributions, and the decrease is steeper when preceding distributions have small standard deviations. When preceding distributions are uniform, however, this decrease in response times can be described by a two-piece function corresponding to the uniform distribution PDF. Moreover, following skewed distributions response times function is skewed in accordance with the skew in distributions. Indeed, internal PDFs seem to be specifically tuned to the observed feature distribution. PMID:27232163

  17. Building ensemble representations: How the shape of preceding distractor distributions affects visual search.

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-08-01

    Perception allows us to extract information about regularities in the environment. Observers can quickly determine summary statistics of a group of objects and detect outliers. The existing body of research has, however, not revealed how such ensemble representations develop over time. Moreover, the correspondence between the physical distribution of features in the external world and their potential internal representation as a probability density function (PDF) by the visual system is still unknown. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that such internal PDFs are built during visual search and show how they can be assessed with repetition and role-reversal effects. Using singleton search for an oddly oriented target line among differently oriented distractors (a priming of pop-out paradigm), we test how different properties of previously observed distractor distributions (mean, variability, and shape) influence search times. Our results indicate that observers learn properties of distractor distributions over and above mean and variance; in fact, response times also depend on the shape of the preceding distractor distribution. Response times decrease as a function of target distance from the mean of preceding Gaussian distractor distributions, and the decrease is steeper when preceding distributions have small standard deviations. When preceding distributions are uniform, however, this decrease in response times can be described by a two-piece function corresponding to the uniform distribution PDF. Moreover, following skewed distributions response times function is skewed in accordance with the skew in distributions. Indeed, internal PDFs seem to be specifically tuned to the observed feature distribution.

  18. Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Del Ponte, Emerson M; Spolti, Piérri; Ward, Todd J; Gomes, Larissa B; Nicolli, Camila P; Kuhnem, Paulo R; Silva, Cleiltan N; Tessmann, Dauri J

    2015-02-01

    A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were found among 671 FGSC isolates from Fusarium head blight (FHB)-infected wheat heads: F. graminearum (83%) of the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) genotype, F. meridionale (12.8%) and F. asiaticum (0.4%) of the nivalenol (NIV) genotype, and F. cortaderiae (2.5%) and F. austroamericanum (0.9%) with either the NIV or the 3-ADON genotype. Regional differences in FGSC composition were observed, with F. meridionale and the NIV type being significantly (P<0.001) more prevalent in PR (>28%) than in RS (≤9%). Within RS, F. graminearum was overrepresented in fields below 600 m in elevation and in fields with higher levels of FHB incidence (P<0.05). Species composition was not significantly influenced by previous crop or the stage of grain development at sampling. Habitat-specific differences in FGSC composition were evaluated in three fields by characterizing a total of 189 isolates collected from corn stubble, air above the wheat canopy, and symptomatic wheat kernels. Significant differences in FGSC composition were observed among these habitats (P<0.001). Most strikingly, F. meridionale and F. cortaderiae of the NIV genotype accounted for the vast majority (>96%) of isolates from corn stubble, whereas F. graminearum with the 15-ADON genotype was dominant (>84%) among isolates from diseased wheat kernels. Potential differences in pathogenic fitness on wheat were also suggested by a greenhouse competitiveness assay in which F. graminearum was recovered at much higher frequency (>90%) than F. meridionale from four wheat varieties inoculated with an equal mixture of F. graminearum and F. meridionale isolates. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that FGSC composition and

  19. ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of plant defenses in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses have been studied through a limited number of models that may have constrained our view of plant-pathogen interactions. Discovery of new defense mechanisms should be favored by broadening the range of pathogens under study. With this aim, Arabidopsis defense response to the ‘...

  20. Distribution and abundance of predators that affect duck production--prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Greenwood, R.J.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    During 1983-88, the relative abundance of 18 species and species-groups of mammalian and avian predators affecting duck production in the prairie pothole region was determined in 33 widely scattered study areas ranging in size from 23-26 km2. Accounts of each studied species and species-group include habitat and history, population structure and reported densities, and information on distribution and abundance from the present study. Index values of undetected, scarce, uncommon, common, or numerous were used to rate abundance of nearly all species in each study area. Principal survey methods were livetrapping of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii), systematic searches for carnivore tracks in quarter sections (0.65 km2), daily records of sightings of individual predator species, and systematic searches for occupied nests of tree-nesting avian predators. Abundances of predators in individual areas were studied 1-3 years.The distribution and abundance of predator species throughout the prairie pothole region have undergone continual change since settlement of the region by Europeans in the late 1800's. Predator populations in areas we studied differed markedly from those of pristine times. The changes occurred from habitat alterations, human-inflicted mortality of predators, and interspecific relations among predator species. Indices from surveys of tracks revealed a decline in the abundance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and an albeit less consistent decline in the abundance of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with an increase in the abundance of coyotes (Canis latrans). Records of locations of occupied nests revealed great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) tended to nest 0.5 km apart, and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) tended to avoid nesting 0.5 km of nests of red-tailed hawks. Excluding large gulls, for which no measurements of abundance were obtained, the number of

  1. Emerging foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of new foodborne pathogens is due to a number of factors. An important factor is the globalization of the food supply with the possibility of the introduction of foodborne pathogens from other countries. Animal husbandry, food production, food processing, and food distribution system...

  2. Mycobiome of the Bat White Nose Syndrome Affected Caves and Mines Reveals Diversity of Fungi and Local Adaptation by the Fungal Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Sunanda S.; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C.; Hicks, Alan C.; Davis, April D.; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010–2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi (‘mycobiome’). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  3. Mycobiome of the bat white nose syndrome affected caves and mines reveals diversity of fungi and local adaptation by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Victor, Tanya R; Rajkumar, Sunanda S; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Hicks, Alan C; Davis, April D; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010-2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi ('mycobiome'). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  4. Factors affecting winter distribution and migration distance of wood ducks from southern breeding populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.; Hines, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    We used direct band-recovery records of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) banded 1 April-15 September (1960-1987) in the southern and southeastern reference areas of Bowers and Martin (1975) to test whether winter distribution and migration distance were age- and sex-specific. Effects of variation in early-autumn temperature and precipitation conditions on winter distribution patterns also were studied. Latitude and longitude of winter band recoveries did not differ by age and sex in the southern reference area; but adult Wood Ducks tended to migrate shorter distances than young. In the southeastern reference area, recovery distributions of males and females also did not differ; but adults were distributed north and east of young birds, and migrated shorter distances. We predicted that Wood Ducks would move farther south in winter when early-autumn (October-November) temperature and spring-summer (April-September) precipitation were below normal. Adults were recovered farther south when precipitation was below average, but deviations from average temperatures were not associated with winter distribution. Young Wood Ducks occurred farther south when rainfall in spring-summer was less than normal and when average November temperature was colder than normal. We conclude that winter distributions of male and female Wood Ducks did not differ, but that adults migrated shorter distances than young. Variation in winter distribution was associated with early-autumn habitat suitability.

  5. Factors Affecting Crater Size-Frequency Distribution Measurements: Insights Supported by the LRO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Zanetti, M.; Plescia, J. B.; Ostrach, L. R.; Mahanti, P.; Meyer, H. M.; McEwen, A. S.; Pasckert, J. H.; Michael, G.; Kneissl, T.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    CSFD measurements are affected by illumination angle, count area size/slope, secondary cratering, target property effects, and differential degradation. Investigations using LRO data have made progress characterizing and quantifying these factors.

  6. 78 FR 32713 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Offset to Affected Domestic Producers) in the Federal Register (66 FR 48546) on September 21, 2001, which........... Softwood Lumber/ 71 Lumber Co. Canada. Almond Bros Lbr Co. Anthony Timberlands. Balfour Lbr Co. Ball...

  7. Factors Affecting the Distribution of Perfluorinated Compounds in Sediments from Lake Shihwa, Korea

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitously distributed in various environmental media including water, soil, sediment, and biota. PFCs have also been shown to biomagnify in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Lake Shihwa is an artificial saltwater lake, located on ...

  8. The log-dynamic brain: how skewed distributions affect network operations

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Mizuseki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We often assume that the variables of functional and structural brain parameters — such as synaptic weights, the firing rates of individual neurons, the synchronous discharge of neural populations, the number of synaptic contacts between neurons and the size of dendritic boutons — have a bell-shaped distribution. However, at many physiological and anatomical levels in the brain, the distribution of numerous parameters is in fact strongly skewed with a heavy tail, suggesting that skewed (typically lognormal) distributions are fundamental to structural and functional brain organization. This insight not only has implications for how we should collect and analyse data, it may also help us to understand how the different levels of skewed distributions — from synapses to cognition — are related to each other. PMID:24569488

  9. Unequally distributed psychological assets: are there social disparities in optimism, life satisfaction, and positive affect?

    PubMed

    Boehm, Julia K; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health.

  10. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces: Simulations and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hygum, M. A.; Popok, V. N.

    2014-07-01

    Accurate models for the water vapor flux at a water-air interface are required in various scientific, reliability and civil engineering aspects. Here, a study of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed water is presented. A model predicting a spatial distribution and time evolution of relative humidity based on statistical rate theory and computational fluid dynamics is developed. In our approach we use short-term steady-state steps to simulate the slowly evolving evaporation in the system. Experiments demonstrate considerably good agreement with the computer modeling and allow one to distinguish the most important parameters for the model.

  11. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be determined without regard...

  12. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be determined without regard...

  13. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  14. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in 'Border Dark Red', but none in 'Yellow Empire'. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased 'Yellow Empire' following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased 'Border Dark Red' following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected 'Border Dark Red' and 'Yellow Empire' indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  15. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  16. 77 FR 32717 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... June 1, 2012 Part II Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection Distribution of..., No. 106 / Friday, June 1, 2012 / Notices#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and... AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of intent...

  17. Targeted mutagenesis in pathogenic Leptospira species: disruption of the LigB gene does not affect virulence in animal models of leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Croda, Julio; Figueira, Claudio Pereira; Wunder, Elsio A; Santos, Cleiton S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2008-12-01

    The pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira interrogans, the causal agent of leptospirosis, remain largely unknown. This is mainly due to the lack of tools for genetically manipulating pathogenic Leptospira species. Thus, homologous recombination between introduced DNA and the corresponding chromosomal locus has never been demonstrated for this pathogen. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like repeat (Lig) proteins were previously identified as putative Leptospira virulence factors. In this study, a ligB mutant was constructed by allelic exchange in L. interrogans; in this mutant a spectinomycin resistance (Spc(r)) gene replaced a portion of the ligB coding sequence. Gene disruption was confirmed by PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunofluorescence studies. The ligB mutant did not show decrease virulence compared to the wild-type strain in the hamster model of leptospirosis. In addition, inoculation of rats with the ligB mutant induced persistent colonization of the kidneys. Finally, LigB was not required to mediate bacterial adherence to cultured cells. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence of site-directed homologous recombination in pathogenic Leptospira species. Furthermore, our data suggest that LigB does not play a major role in dissemination of the pathogen in the host and in the development of acute disease manifestations or persistent renal colonization. PMID:18809657

  18. Exopolysaccharide production is influenced by sugars, N-acylhomoserine lactone, and transcriptional regulators RcsA and RcsB, but does not affect pathogenicity in the plant pathogen Pantoea ananatis.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Oseki, Kiemi; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2011-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis SK-1 produced EPS by AHL-mediated quorum sensing on an LB agar plate containing glucose, fructose, and sucrose. rcsA and rcsB mutants did not produce EPS with or without AHLs and with or without sugars, but they induced necrotic symptoms in onion leaves. These results indicate that EPS production does not relate to the pathogenicity of SK-1.

  19. Proteasome Activity Is Affected by Fluctuations in Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Distribution.

    PubMed

    Sbardella, Diego; Tundo, Grazia Raffaella; Sciandra, Francesca; Bozzi, Manuela; Gioia, Magda; Ciaccio, Chiara; Tarantino, Umberto; Brancaccio, Andrea; Coletta, Massimo; Marini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-Degrading-Enzyme (IDE) is a Zn2+-dependent peptidase highly conserved throughout evolution and ubiquitously distributed in mammalian tissues wherein it displays a prevalent cytosolic localization. We have recently demonstrated a novel Heat Shock Protein-like behaviour of IDE and its association with the 26S proteasome. In the present study, we examine the mechanistic and molecular features of IDE-26S proteasome interaction in a cell experimental model, extending the investigation also to the effect of IDE on the enzymatic activities of the 26S proteasome. Further, kinetic investigations indicate that the 26S proteasome activity undergoes a functional modulation by IDE through an extra-catalytic mechanism. The IDE-26S proteasome interaction was analyzed during the Heat Shock Response and we report novel findings on IDE intracellular distribution that might be of critical relevance for cell metabolism.

  20. Proteasome Activity Is Affected by Fluctuations in Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sbardella, Diego; Tundo, Grazia Raffaella; Sciandra, Francesca; Bozzi, Manuela; Gioia, Magda; Ciaccio, Chiara; Tarantino, Umberto; Brancaccio, Andrea; Coletta, Massimo; Marini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-Degrading-Enzyme (IDE) is a Zn2+-dependent peptidase highly conserved throughout evolution and ubiquitously distributed in mammalian tissues wherein it displays a prevalent cytosolic localization. We have recently demonstrated a novel Heat Shock Protein-like behaviour of IDE and its association with the 26S proteasome. In the present study, we examine the mechanistic and molecular features of IDE-26S proteasome interaction in a cell experimental model, extending the investigation also to the effect of IDE on the enzymatic activities of the 26S proteasome. Further, kinetic investigations indicate that the 26S proteasome activity undergoes a functional modulation by IDE through an extra-catalytic mechanism. The IDE-26S proteasome interaction was analyzed during the Heat Shock Response and we report novel findings on IDE intracellular distribution that might be of critical relevance for cell metabolism. PMID:26186340

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING PHYTOPLANKTON DISTRIBUTION IN A DOUBLE-CELL SEWAGE LAGOON (1) (2).

    PubMed

    DeNoyelles, F

    1967-12-01

    The distribution of phyioplankton in a double-cell sewage lagoon at Hallam, Nebraska, was studied in relation to physical, chemical, and biological factors during the summer and fall of 1965. Sixteen species of algae were recorded in the first and more organically rich of the two physically similar ponds, with 28 species recorded in the second pond. Population sizes were always greater in the first pond due to reduced grazing during the summer and large quantities of ammonia-nitrogen during the fall. The dominant algal species in both ponds on nearly all sampling dates was Ankistrodesmus falcatus v. acicularis. Declines in this population occurred with high organic pollution and heavy grazing. Both ponds had severe reductions in algal numbers during late October due to heavy grazing by the rotifer Brachionus. The distribution of phytoplankton in the Hallam ponds is compared to that of other sewage ponds in the United States, and the general pattern which emerged is discussed. PMID:27065027

  2. BB0744 Affects Tissue Tropism and Spatial Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Wager, Beau; Shaw, Dana K; Groshong, Ashley M; Blevins, Jon S; Skare, Jon T

    2015-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, produces a variety of proteins that promote survival and colonization in both the Ixodes species vector and various mammalian hosts. We initially identified BB0744 (also known as p83/100) by screening for B. burgdorferi strain B31 proteins that bind to α1β1 integrin and hypothesized that, given the presence of a signal peptide, BB0744 may be a surface-exposed protein. In contrast to this expectation, localization studies suggested that BB0744 resides in the periplasm. Despite its subsurface location, we were interested in testing whether BB0744 is required for borrelial pathogenesis. To this end, a bb0744 deletion was isolated in a B. burgdorferi strain B31 infectious background, complemented, and queried for the role of BB0744 following experimental infection. A combination of bioluminescent imaging, cultivation of infected tissues, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) demonstrated that Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi bacteria were attenuated in the ability to colonize heart tissue, as well as skin locations distal to the site of infection. Furthermore, qPCR indicated a significantly reduced spirochetal load in distal skin and joint tissue infected with Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi. Complementation with bb0744 restored infectivity, indicating that the defect seen in Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi was due to the loss of BB0744. Taken together, these results suggest that BB0744 is necessary for tissue tropism, particularly in heart tissue, alters the ability of B. burgdorferi to disseminate efficiently, or both. Additional studies are warranted to address the mechanism employed by BB0744 that alters the pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi.

  3. How climate, migration ability and habitat fragmentation affect the projected future distribution of European beech.

    PubMed

    Saltré, Frédérik; Duputié, Anne; Gaucherel, Cédric; Chuine, Isabelle

    2015-02-01

    Recent efforts to incorporate migration processes into species distribution models (SDMs) are allowing assessments of whether species are likely to be able to track their future climate optimum and the possible causes of failing to do so. Here, we projected the range shift of European beech over the 21st century using a process-based SDM coupled to a phenomenological migration model accounting for population dynamics, according to two climate change scenarios and one land use change scenario. Our model predicts that the climatically suitable habitat for European beech will shift north-eastward and upward mainly because (i) higher temperature and precipitation, at the northern range margins, will increase survival and fruit maturation success, while (ii) lower precipitations and higher winter temperature, at the southern range margins, will increase drought mortality and prevent bud dormancy breaking. Beech colonization rate of newly climatically suitable habitats in 2100 is projected to be very low (1-2% of the newly suitable habitats colonised). Unexpectedly, the projected realized contraction rate was higher than the projected potential contraction rate. As a result, the realized distribution of beech is projected to strongly contract by 2100 (by 36-61%) mainly due to a substantial increase in climate variability after 2050, which generates local extinctions, even at the core of the distribution, the frequency of which prevents beech recolonization during more favourable years. Although European beech will be able to persist in some parts of the trailing edge of its distribution, the combined effects of climate and land use changes, limited migration ability, and a slow life-history are likely to increase its threat status in the near future.

  4. Bloodborne pathogens

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000453.htm Bloodborne pathogens To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A pathogen is something that causes disease. Germs that can ...

  5. How do interactions with the physical environment affect the distribution of Antarctic krill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Sally; Murphy, Eugene; Tarling, Geraint; Renner, Angelika

    2010-05-01

    Antarctic krill Euphausia superba are a relatively large (60+ mm), long-lived (~6 years) crustacean with a patchy distribution in the Southern Ocean. In addition to being a key food source for many of the higher marine predators of the Southern Ocean, Antarctic krill is also the target of a commercial fishery. This increases the importance of understanding what drives the observed heterogeneous distribution of krill. In this study we use a coupled physical-biological model to examine the role of physical forcing in generating the observed distribution. By incorporating aspects of the life cycle of krill into a particle tracking model (using output from the OCCAM ocean model), we can identify key stages at which interaction with the environment determines the dispersal or retention of the local krill populations. For example, sea ice is an important habitat for young krill and our results suggest that in places the association of the krill with the sea ice can create opposing population connections to those due solely to ocean circulation. A long time series of output from the ORCA ocean model allows us to investigate the variability in some of these population connections and suggests that trends in the environmental forcing, as observed for example with the Southern Annular Mode, are likely to impact the Southern Ocean ecosystem.

  6. Mercury distribution in a mangrove tidal creek affected by intensive shrimp farming.

    PubMed

    Costa, B G B; Soares, T M; Torres, R F; Lacerda, L D

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the Hg distributions in water and sediments from a mangrove creek that receives intensive shrimp farming effluents were determined. The average dissolved and particulate Hg concentrations in the water varied from 3.1 to 9.2 ng L(-1) and from 4.4 to 9.4 ng L(-1), respectively. However, the Hg concentrations in the suspended particulate matter and the bottom sediments varied from 95.4 to 115.7 ng g(-1) and from 1.6 to 10.3 ng g(-1), respectively. A Ward quadratic distance cluster analysis based on the Hg concentrations and hydro- and geochemical parameters (oxygen, salinity, temperature, pH, and organic matter and aluminum content) showed the effects of shrimp farming effluents on the Hg distribution pattern. Furthermore, these results were supported by the Hg distribution in the sediment cores. This study emphasizes the necessity of including Hg as a potential pollutant when monitoring the environmental impacts of intensive shrimp farming.

  7. Unpreferred plants affect patch choice and spatial distribution of European brown hares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijper, D. P. J.; Bakker, J. P.

    2008-11-01

    Many herbivore species prefer to forage on patches of intermediate biomass. Plant quality and forage efficiency are predicted to decrease with increasing plant standing crop which explains the lower preference of the herbivore. However, often is ignored that on the long-term, plant species composition is predicted to change with increasing plant standing crop. The amount of low-quality, unpreferred food plants increases with increasing plant standing crop. In the present study the effects of unpreferred plants on patch choice and distribution of European brown hare in a salt-marsh system were studied. In one experiment, unpreferred plants were removed from plots. In the second experiment, plots were planted with different densities of an unpreferred artificial plant. Removal of unpreferred plants increased hare-grazing pressure more than fivefold compared to unmanipulated plots. Planting of unpreferred plants reduced hare-grazing pressure, with a significant reduction of grazing already occurring at low unpreferred plant density. Spatial distribution of hares within this salt-marsh system was related to spatial arrangement of unpreferred plants. Hare-grazing intensity decreased strongly with increasing abundance of unpreferred plants despite a high abundance of principal food plants. The results of this study indicate that plant species replacement is an important factor determining patch choice and spatial distribution of hares next to changing plant quality. Increasing abundance of unpreferred plant species can strengthen the decreasing patch quality with increasing standing crop and can decrease grazing intensity when preferred food plants are still abundantly present.

  8. [Distribution of micronutrients in soils as affected by landforms in a loessial gully watershed].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Rong; Shao, Ming-An

    2009-09-15

    Landform is the most important environmental factor influencing the distribution of soil micronutrients in the Loess Plateau and the well understanding of the effects is an important prerequisite for the estimation of soil micronutrients' availability and geochemistry in the Loess Plateau. This study was therefore conducted in a watershed of the loessial gully region to reveal the effects of landforms on profile distribution of soil micronutrients. Soil samples from 37 profiles were collected and total, available and adsorbed iron, manganese, zinc and copper were determined. The results showed that total micronutrients varied slightly with covariance coefficients lower than 15%, while available and adsorbed micronutrients varied greatly in the studied area. Total contents of iron, manganese and copper were higher in gully bottom soils, while total zinc, available and adsorbed micronutrients were higher in plateau land soils compared with soils in other landforms. The soil-forming process and land use conditions in each landform are the major reasons for the differences in soil total micronutrients. Landform induced changes of soil organic matter is the major factor controlling profile distribution of available and adsorbed micronutrients. PMID:19927834

  9. Toxicity and subcellular distribution of cadmium in wheat as affected by dissolved organic acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Zhou, Dongmei

    2012-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effects of humic acid (HA) and citric acid (CA) on the toxicity and subcellular distribution of Cd in wheat. Results show that the toxicity and uptake of Cd decreased with increasing HA. The EC50 values of Cd increased from 3.36 micromol/L to 4.96 and 7.33 micromol/L at 50 and 250 mg/L HA, respectively, but decreased to 1.39 micromol/L in the presence of CA based on free ion activity model (FIAM). HA decreased the relative subcellular distribution of Cd in the heat-denatured proteins (decreased from 54% to 33%) but increased Cd in the heat-stable proteins in root (from 25% to 50%) at 7.61 micromol/L {Cd2+} (free Cd activity), which resulted in decreasing Cd toxicity. However, CA increased Cd toxicity due to the increased internalization of Cd although the relative subcellular distributions of Cd exhibited a decrease in the heat-denatured proteins and increase in the granule fraction compared to the control at high-level Cd. The FIAM could not predict the toxicity of Cd in the presence of organic acids. Alternatively, the internal Cd accumulation and subcellular Cd concentration were better to describe the toxicity of Cd to wheat.

  10. How the Assumed Size Distribution of Dust Minerals Affects the Predicted Ice Forming Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Fridlind, A. M.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of ice in clouds depends on the availability of ice forming nuclei (IFN). Dust aerosol particles are considered the most important source of IFN at a global scale. Recent laboratory studies have demonstrated that the mineral feldspar provides the most efficient dust IFN for immersion freezing and together with kaolinite for deposition ice nucleation, and that the phyllosilicates illite and montmorillonite (a member of the smectite group) are of secondary importance.A few studies have applied global models that simulate mineral specific dust to predict the number and geographical distribution of IFN. These studies have been based on the simple assumption that the mineral composition of soil as provided in data sets from the literature translates directly into the mineral composition of the dust aerosols. However, these tables are based on measurements of wet-sieved soil where dust aggregates are destroyed to a large degree. In consequence, the size distribution of dust is shifted to smaller sizes, and phyllosilicates like illite, kaolinite, and smectite are only found in the size range <2 μm. In contrast, in measurements of the mineral composition of dust aerosols, the largest mass fraction of these phyllosilicates is found in the size range >2 μm as part of dust aggregates. Conversely, the mass fraction of feldspar is smaller in this size range, varying with the geographical location. This may have a significant effect on the predicted IFN number and its geographical distribution.An improved mineral specific dust aerosol module has been recently implemented in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE2. The dust module takes into consideration the disaggregated state of wet-sieved soil, on which the tables of soil mineral fractions are based. To simulate the atmospheric cycle of the minerals, the mass size distribution of each mineral in aggregates that are emitted from undispersed parent soil is reconstructed. In the current study, we test the null

  11. How the Assumed Size Distribution of Dust Minerals Affects the Predicted Ice Forming Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlwitz, Jan P.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Miller, Ron L.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of ice in clouds depends on the availability of ice forming nuclei (IFN). Dust aerosol particles are considered the most important source of IFN at a global scale. Recent laboratory studies have demonstrated that the mineral feldspar provides the most efficient dust IFN for immersion freezing and together with kaolinite for deposition ice nucleation, and that the phyllosilicates illite and montmorillonite (a member of the smectite group) are of secondary importance.A few studies have applied global models that simulate mineral specific dust to predict the number and geographical distribution of IFN. These studies have been based on the simple assumption that the mineral composition of soil as provided in data sets from the literature translates directly into the mineral composition of the dust aerosols. However, these tables are based on measurements of wet-sieved soil where dust aggregates are destroyed to a large degree. In consequence, the size distribution of dust is shifted to smaller sizes, and phyllosilicates like illite, kaolinite, and smectite are only found in the size range 2 m. In contrast, in measurements of the mineral composition of dust aerosols, the largest mass fraction of these phyllosilicates is found in the size range 2 m as part of dust aggregates. Conversely, the mass fraction of feldspar is smaller in this size range, varying with the geographical location. This may have a significant effect on the predicted IFN number and its geographical distribution.An improved mineral specific dust aerosol module has been recently implemented in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE2. The dust module takes into consideration the disaggregated state of wet-sieved soil, on which the tables of soil mineral fractions are based. To simulate the atmospheric cycle of the minerals, the mass size distribution of each mineral in aggregates that are emitted from undispersed parent soil is reconstructed. In the current study, we test the null

  12. Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorscens bacteria differentially affect survivorship of waxworm (Galleria mellonella) larvae exposed to an arthropod fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were found contaminating a biopesticide used in a previous study against Varroa destructor infestations in honey bee hives. In the aforementioned study the biopesticide, a formulation of the arthropod pathogen Beauveria bassiana, failed to have any impact on t...

  13. Myosins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 Affect Asexual and Sexual Development, Reduces Pathogenicity, and FaMyo2B Acts Jointly with the Myosin Passenger Protein FaSmy1 to Affect Resistance to Phenamacril in Fusarium asiaticum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhitian; Liu, Xiumei; Li, Bin; Cai, Yiqiang; Zhu, Yuanye; Zhou, Mingguo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that mutations occurred in the gene myosin5 were responsible for resistance to the fungicide phenamacril in Fusarium graminearum. Here, we determined whether there is a functional link between phenamacril resistance and the myosin proteins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 in Fusarium asiaticum, which is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight in China. We found that FaMyo2B acts jointly with FaSmy1 to affect resistance to phenamacril in F. asiaticum. We also found that FaMyo2B disruption mutant and Famyo2 deletion mutant were defective in hyphal branching, conidiation, and sexual reproduction. ΔFamyo2 also had an enhanced sensitivity to cell wall damaging agents and an abnormal distribution of septa and nuclei. In addition, the FaMyo2B and Famyo2 mutants had reduced pathogenicity on wheat coleoptiles and flowering wheat heads. Taken together, these results reveal that FaMyo2B and Famyo2 are required for several F. asiaticum developmental processes and activities, which help us better understand the resistance mechanism and find the most effective approach to control FHB. PMID:27099966

  14. Myosins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 Affect Asexual and Sexual Development, Reduces Pathogenicity, and FaMyo2B Acts Jointly with the Myosin Passenger Protein FaSmy1 to Affect Resistance to Phenamacril in Fusarium asiaticum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhitian; Liu, Xiumei; Li, Bin; Cai, Yiqiang; Zhu, Yuanye; Zhou, Mingguo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that mutations occurred in the gene myosin5 were responsible for resistance to the fungicide phenamacril in Fusarium graminearum. Here, we determined whether there is a functional link between phenamacril resistance and the myosin proteins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 in Fusarium asiaticum, which is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight in China. We found that FaMyo2B acts jointly with FaSmy1 to affect resistance to phenamacril in F. asiaticum. We also found that FaMyo2B disruption mutant and Famyo2 deletion mutant were defective in hyphal branching, conidiation, and sexual reproduction. ΔFamyo2 also had an enhanced sensitivity to cell wall damaging agents and an abnormal distribution of septa and nuclei. In addition, the FaMyo2B and Famyo2 mutants had reduced pathogenicity on wheat coleoptiles and flowering wheat heads. Taken together, these results reveal that FaMyo2B and Famyo2 are required for several F. asiaticum developmental processes and activities, which help us better understand the resistance mechanism and find the most effective approach to control FHB. PMID:27099966

  15. Seasonal habitat suitability modeling and factors affecting the distribution of Asian Houbara in East Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghania, Ali; Aliabadian, Mansour; Sarhangzadeh, Jalil; Setoodehc, Ahad

    2016-08-01

    In this study, maximum entropy models were developed in four seasons to evaluate habitat suitability and factors affecting Asian Houbara in Iran. Environmental variables used in modeling consisted of 42 environmental and climate variables for Nayband wildlife refuge and 36 environmental and climate variables for Petregan protected area. Also, seasonal overlap area were obtained using the ENM TOOLS software. The results showed that the most important factors affecting habitat suitability of the Asian Houbara in all seasons included the ratio of distance to hill, the type of Artemisia-Gymnocarpus, distance to the slope (8-12%) in the Nayband wildlife refuge, distance to the type of Artemisia aucheri, distance to the Land Passion, and distance to the dry land farming in the Petregan region. In summer, the most suitable habitat is Nayband but is Petergan during fall-winter. there is maximum overlap in summer, and the least overlap in the spring these areas. The results of this study can be used as a valuable tool in implementing conservation and management strategies, in order to increase desirable habitats in the eastern part of Iran. PMID:27570839

  16. From daily movements to population distributions: weather affects competitive ability in a guild of soaring birds

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Emily L. C.; Lambertucci, Sergio A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of many animals to access and exploit food is dependent on the ability to move. In the case of scavenging birds, which use soaring flight to locate and exploit ephemeral resources, the cost and speed of movement vary with meteorological factors. These factors are likely to modify the nature of interspecific interactions, as well as individual movement capacity, although the former are less well understood. We used aeronautical models to examine how soaring performance varies with weather within a guild of scavenging birds and the consequences this has for access to a common resource. Birds could be divided broadly into those with low wing loading that are more competitive in conditions with weak updraughts and low winds (black vultures and caracaras), and those with high wing loading that are well adapted for soaring in strong updraughts and moderate to high winds (Andean condors). Spatial trends in meteorological factors seem to confine scavengers with high wing loading to the mountains where they out-compete other birds; a trend that is borne out in worldwide distributions of the largest species. However, model predictions and carcass observations suggest that the competitive ability of these and other birds varies with meteorological conditions in areas where distributions overlap. This challenges the view that scavenging guilds are structured by fixed patterns of dominance and suggests that competitive ability varies across spatial and temporal scales, which may ultimately be a mechanism promoting diversity among aerial scavengers. PMID:24026471

  17. Elevation and stream-size thresholds affect distributions of native and exotic warmwater fishes in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of elevation and stream width on the occurrence of 28 native and six exotic fish species using data collected (1954-2003) from 1,114 stream reaches in Wyoming. Medians and ranges of elevation and stream width were used to assess how elevation and stream width influenced the occurrence of individual species and to indicate which species had large and small ranges of distribution. Twenty-four species were common at elevations below 1,550 m and 31 species occurred in streams less than 20 m wide. The six exotic species had the potential to overlap all of the native species with regard to both elevation and stream width. In general, species that were collected over a wide range of elevations were also collected over a wide range of stream widths. Red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) occurred over the smallest elevation ranges ( 2,500 m). Longnose sucker and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) occurred over the greatest ranges in stream widths (> 90 m), and brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans), black bullhead (Ameiurus melas), and quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus) were found over the lowest ranges in stream widths (< 12 m). The distributions of native and exotic species in streams that transition from the Rocky Mountains to the Great Plains were largely explained by elevation and stream width.

  18. Sea surface temperature fronts affect distribution of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chen-Te; Sun, Chi-Lu; Belkin, Igor M.; Yeh, Su-Zan; Kuo, Chin-Lau; Liu, Don-Chung

    2014-09-01

    Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) is an important fisheries resource and commercial species of Taiwanese deep-sea saury stick-held dip net fishery in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. In this study, the logbook data of a 3-year (2006-2008) Taiwanese Pacific saury fishery and corresponding satellite-derived MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) data were analyzed to detect SST fronts and examine their influence on the spatio-temporal distribution of Pacific saury. The fronts were identified by the Cayula-Cornillon single-image edge detection algorithm. The results show that low frequency of SST fronts is associated with lower CPUEs during the early fishing season (June-August), while high frequency of SST fronts is associated with higher CPUEs during the peak fishing season. When fishing locations of Pacific saury are close to the SST fronts, higher CPUEs are observed. Results of this study provide a better understanding of how SST fronts influence distribution of Pacific saury and improve the basis of fishing ground forecasting.

  19. From daily movements to population distributions: weather affects competitive ability in a guild of soaring birds.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Emily L C; Lambertucci, Sergio A

    2013-11-01

    The ability of many animals to access and exploit food is dependent on the ability to move. In the case of scavenging birds, which use soaring flight to locate and exploit ephemeral resources, the cost and speed of movement vary with meteorological factors. These factors are likely to modify the nature of interspecific interactions, as well as individual movement capacity, although the former are less well understood. We used aeronautical models to examine how soaring performance varies with weather within a guild of scavenging birds and the consequences this has for access to a common resource. Birds could be divided broadly into those with low wing loading that are more competitive in conditions with weak updraughts and low winds (black vultures and caracaras), and those with high wing loading that are well adapted for soaring in strong updraughts and moderate to high winds (Andean condors). Spatial trends in meteorological factors seem to confine scavengers with high wing loading to the mountains where they out-compete other birds; a trend that is borne out in worldwide distributions of the largest species. However, model predictions and carcass observations suggest that the competitive ability of these and other birds varies with meteorological conditions in areas where distributions overlap. This challenges the view that scavenging guilds are structured by fixed patterns of dominance and suggests that competitive ability varies across spatial and temporal scales, which may ultimately be a mechanism promoting diversity among aerial scavengers. PMID:24026471

  20. Environmental variables affecting the distribution of POPs on Mt. Meru, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Guazzoni, Niccolò; Comolli, Roberto; Binelli, Andrea; Tremolada, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    Tanzania is an equatorial country characterized by warm temperatures, which should increase the volatilization of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but this scenario could be different in mountainous areas like Mount Meru, a volcano situated in the East African Rift (Tz). We collected soil samples along an altitudinal transect upto 4577 m a.s.l., reporting the first data about POP contamination in this area (DDX, HCHs, HCB and PCBs). The DDX contamination pattern in Mt. Meru shows levels slightly higher than those of other remote places with a strong increase in the metabolites/DDT historical trend, which is different from DDX, PCBs, HCHs and particularly HCB as this shows very low contamination levels. Back trajectory analysis allowed a discussion about putative contamination sources, while analysis of the environmental features (climatic and pedological) allowed us to discriminate their relative importance. The distribution of POPs shows a strong correlation with soil organic matter and vegetation. SOM-normalization evidenced altitudinal dependence according to cold condensation for PCBs and HCHs, while DDX are present in larger amounts in the agricultural area at the volcano foot. OM-normalized concentrations suggested also a possible role of the OM composition on the POPs' distribution.

  1. Soil acidity affects distribution, behavior, and physiology of the salamander Plethodon cinereus

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.L.; Hawksley-Lescault, D.S.

    1987-12-01

    Censuses at two sites in Delaware County, New York from spring 1981 through spring 1985 indicated that the density and distribution of Plethodon cinereus were influenced by soil pH but not by soil temperature or moisture. Of 1044 1-m/sup 2/ quadrats of forest litter searched, 284 had a pH of 3.7 or less and only 25 of these (8.8%) contained salamanders. Of 760 quadrats with a pH 3.8 or more, 386 (50.8%) contained salamanders. Juvenile salamanders were never found on soils with a pH less than or equal to 3.7. Seasonal salamander density was correlated (r = -0.92) with the percentage of quadrats with a pH of 3.7 and less. Salamanders apparently were excluded from 27% of forest habitat because of low soil pH. In the laboratory, P. cinereus preferred to occupy substrates near neutral pH when given a choice among three levels of substrate acidity. The acutely lethal pH was between 2.5 and 3 and the 8-mo chronically lethal pH was between 3 and 4. Growth and respiration were reduced at low pHs. The influence of soil pH on salamander distribution might fundamentally change the forest floor decomposer food web of which P. cinereus is an upper-level consumer.

  2. Abiotic factors affecting summer distribution and movement of male paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, in a prairie reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Fisher, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    Six male paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, were implanted with ultrasonic temperature-sensing transmitters and tracked during June through August 1997 to quantify effects of physicochemical conditions on their distribution and movement in Keystone Reservoir, Oklahoma. Paddlefish moved about twice as much during night than day. Movement rate of paddlefish was related to reservoir water level, inflow, and discharge from the reservoir at night; however, none of these variables was significant during the day. Location in the reservoir (distance from the dam) was negatively related to water level and positively related to inflow during day and night periods. Location in the reservoir was negatively related to discharge during the day. Paddlefish avoided the highest available water temperatures, but did not always avoid low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Paddlefish avoided the Cimarron River arm of the reservoir in summer, possibly because of high salinity. Our study demonstrates that distribution of paddlefish during summer and movement in Keystone Reservoir was influenced by physicochemical and hydrologic conditions in the system. However, biotic factors (e.g., food availability) not measured in this study may have been influenced by abiotic conditions in the reservoir.

  3. Environmental variables affecting the distribution of POPs on Mt. Meru, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Guazzoni, Niccolò; Comolli, Roberto; Binelli, Andrea; Tremolada, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    Tanzania is an equatorial country characterized by warm temperatures, which should increase the volatilization of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but this scenario could be different in mountainous areas like Mount Meru, a volcano situated in the East African Rift (Tz). We collected soil samples along an altitudinal transect upto 4577 m a.s.l., reporting the first data about POP contamination in this area (DDX, HCHs, HCB and PCBs). The DDX contamination pattern in Mt. Meru shows levels slightly higher than those of other remote places with a strong increase in the metabolites/DDT historical trend, which is different from DDX, PCBs, HCHs and particularly HCB as this shows very low contamination levels. Back trajectory analysis allowed a discussion about putative contamination sources, while analysis of the environmental features (climatic and pedological) allowed us to discriminate their relative importance. The distribution of POPs shows a strong correlation with soil organic matter and vegetation. SOM-normalization evidenced altitudinal dependence according to cold condensation for PCBs and HCHs, while DDX are present in larger amounts in the agricultural area at the volcano foot. OM-normalized concentrations suggested also a possible role of the OM composition on the POPs' distribution. PMID:23807727

  4. The granule size distribution in an anammox-based granular sludge reactor affects the conversion--implications for modeling.

    PubMed

    Volcke, E I P; Picioreanu, C; De Baets, B; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2012-07-01

    Mathematical models are useful tools to optimize the performance of granular sludge reactors. In these models, typically a uniform granule size is assumed for the whole reactor, even though in reality the granules follow a size distribution and the granule size as such affects the process performance. This study assesses the effect of the granule size distribution on the performance of a granular sludge reactor in which autotrophic nitrogen removal is realized through one-stage partial nitritation-anammox. A comparison is made between different approaches to deal with particle size distributions in one-dimensional biofilm models, from the use of a single characteristic diameter to applying a multiple compartment model. The results show a clear impact on the conversion efficiency of the way in which particle size distribution is modeled, resulting from the effect of the granule size on the competition between nitrite oxidizing and anammox bacteria and from the interaction between granules of different sizes in terms of the exchange of solutes. Whereas the use of a uniform granule size is sufficient in case only the overall reactor behavior needs to be assessed, taking into account the detailed granule size distribution is required to study the solute exchange between particles of different sizes. For the latter purpose, the application of the widespread software package Aquasim is limited and the development of dedicated software applications is required.

  5. Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (19752005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Tieszen, L.L.; Singh, A.; Gillette, S.; Kelmelis, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to estimate the present extent of tsunami-affected mangrove forests and determine the rates and causes of deforestation from 1975 to 2005. Location: Our study region covers the tsunami-affected coastal areas of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka in Asia. Methods: We interpreted time-series Landsat data using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of plus-or-minus half a pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. Each image was normalized for solar irradiance by converting digital number values to the top-of-the atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and data bases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. We used a post-classification change detection approach. Results: were validated with the help of local experts and/or high-resolution commercial satellite data. Results The region lost 12% of its mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of c. 1,670,000 ha. Rates and causes of deforestation varied both spatially and temporally. Annual deforestation was highest in Burma (c. 1%) and lowest in Sri Lanka (0.1%). In contrast, mangrove forests in India and Bangladesh remained unchanged or gained a small percentage. Net deforestation peaked at 137,000 ha during 1990-2000, increasing from 97,000 ha during 1975-90, and declining to 14,000 ha during 2000-05. The major causes of deforestation were agricultural expansion (81%), aquaculture (12%) and urban development (2%). Main conclusions: We assessed and monitored mangrove forests in the tsunami-affected region of Asia using the historical archive of Landsat data. We also measured the rates of change and determined possible causes. The results of our study can be used to better understand the role of mangrove forests in saving lives and property from natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, and to identify

  6. Interrill erosion, runoff and sediment size distribution as affected by slope steepness and antecedent moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defersha, M. B.; Quraishi, S.; Melesse, A.

    2010-08-01

    Soil erosion is a two-phase process consisting of the detachment of individual particles and their transport by erosive agents such as flowing water. The rate at which erosion occurs depends upon the individual as well as interactive effects of different parameters responsible for soil erosion. The study discusses results of a laboratory analysis and evaluates the effect of slope steepness and antecedent moisture content on sediment yield (wash) and runoff rate. Interrill sediment yield, splash detachment, runoff, and sediment size distribution were measured in laboratory erosion pans under simulated total duration of 90 min. Rainfall intensity at 120 mm/hr, 70 mm/hr, and 55 mm/hr were applied sequentially at 9, 25, and 45% slope steepness for three soils (Alemaya Black soil, Regosols, and Cambisols) varied from clay to sandy clay loam in texture with wet and dry antecedent water contents. As slope steepness increased from 9 to 25% splash increased for five treatments and decreased for the remaining treatment; washed sediment increased for all treatments. As slope increased from 25 to 45% splash decreased for five treatments but increased for one treatment, and washed sediment increased for three treatments but decreased for the other three treatments. Pre-wetting decreased splash detachment for all soil treatments and rate of reduction was high for the highly aggregated soil, Alemaya Black soil and low for the less aggregated soil Regosols. Splash sediment and sediment yield was not correlated. Change in splash with increase in slope steepness was also not correlated with change in sediment yield. Change in runoff rate with increase in slope steepness was correlated (r=0.66) with change in sediment yield. For Alemaya Black soil and Regosols, splashed sediment size distribution was correlated with washed sediment size distribution. Interrill erosion models that include runoff and rainfall intensity parameters were a better fit for these data than the rainfall

  7. Photoperiod affects distribution of dynorphin A in the brain of Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Meyza, Ksenia Z; Sotowska-Brochocka, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    Dynorphin A1-77 (DYN A1-17) acting in the CNS is known to affect thermoregulation, water and energy balance in the short time scale. In this study a long-term alteration of these functions induced by changes of day length in the highly photoperiodic species, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) was studied using immunohistochemistry for DYN A1-17. We found that in the long day (LD, L:D 16 h:8 h) more brain areas express DYN A1-17 peptide than in the short day (SD, L:D 8 h:16 h) conditions. Structures of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis as well as cells of the ependyma, subcomissural organ and choroid plexus of the lateral and third brain ventricles are immunoreactive to anti-dynorphin IgG only in the LD. This might indicate a seasonal regulatory role of DYN A1-17 in physiological adaptations to severe climate changes.

  8. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mahé, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Mahdi Bendif, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

    2011-09-01

    Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 ± 0.11 °C in average per decade, P < 0.01). In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise) and in June-July 2008 (BOUM cruise). Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts.

  9. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mahé, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Bendif, E. M.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

    2011-05-01

    Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have risen in recent years. In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined on a transect from the South coast of France to Cyprus in the summer of 2008 (BOUM cruise). Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region. Data were compared with those obtained during the PROSOPE cruise held almost a decade earlier, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts. This is discussed in the context of the low phosphorus concentrations found in surface waters in the eastern Mediterranean basin, as this may constitute a barrier to

  10. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect cadmium uptake kinetics, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in rice?

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Luo, Na; Zhang, Li Jun; Zhao, Hai Ming; Li, Yan Wen; Cai, Quan Ying; Wong, Ming Hung; Mo, Ce Hui

    2016-11-15

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were inoculated with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) - Rhizophagus intraradices (RI) and Funneliformis mosseae (FM) and grown for 60days to ensure strong colonization. Subsequently, a short-term hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of AMF on cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in rice exposed to six Cd levels (0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1mM) for three days. The results showed that the uptake kinetics of Cd fitted the Michaelis-Menten model well (R(2)>0.89). AMF significantly decreased the Cd concentrations both in shoots and roots in Cd solutions. Furthermore, the decrement of Cd concentrations by FM was significantly higher than RI treatment in roots. AMF reduced the Cd concentrations markedly in the cell wall fractions at high Cd substrate (≥0.025mM). The main subcellular fraction contributed to Cd detoxification was cell wall at low Cd substrate (<0.05mM), while vacuoles at high Cd substrate (≥0.05mM). Moreover, the concentrations and proportions of Cd in inorganic and water-soluble form also reduced by AMF colonization at high Cd substrate (≥0.05mM), both in shoots and roots. This suggested that AMF could convert Cd into inactive forms which were less toxic. Therefore, AMF could enhance rice resistance to Cd through altering subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in rice. PMID:27450963

  11. Factors Affecting the Evolution of Hurricane Erin and the Distributions of Hydrometeors: Role of Microphysical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarquhar, Greg M.; Zhang, Henian; Dudhia, Jimy; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Hood, Robbie; Marks, Frank, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Fine-resolution simulations of Hurricane Erin 2001 are conducted using the Penn State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model version 3.5 to investigate the role of thermodynamic, boundary layer and microphysical processes in Erin's growth and maintenance, and their effects on the horizontal and vertical distributions of hydrometeors. Through comparison against radar, radiometer, and dropsonde data collected during the Convection and Moisture Experiment 4, it is seen that realistic simulations of Erin are obtained provided that fine resolution simulations with detailed representations of physical processes are conducted. The principle findings of the study are as follows: 1) a new iterative condensation scheme, which limits the unphysical increase of equivalent potential temperature associated with most condensation schemes, increases the horizontal size of the hurricane, decreases its maximum rainfall rate, reduces its intensity, and makes its eye more moist; 2) in general, microphysical parameterization schemes with more categories of hydrometeors produce more intense hurricanes, larger hydrometeor mixing ratios, and more intense updrafts and downdrafts; 3) the choice of coefficients describing hydrometeor fall velocities has as big of an impact on the hurricane simulations as does choice of microphysical parameterization scheme with no clear relationship between fall velocity and hurricane intensity; and 4) in order for a tropical cyclone to adequately intensify, an advanced boundary layer scheme (e.g., Burk-Thompson scheme) must be used to represent boundary layer processes. The impacts of varying simulations on the horizontal and vertical distributions of different categories of hydrometeor species, on equivalent potential temperature, and on storm updrafts and downdrafts are examined to determine how the release of latent heat feedbacks upon the structure of Erin. In general, all simulations tend to overpredict precipitation rate

  12. Estimating how inflated or obscured effects of climate affect forecasted species distribution.

    PubMed

    Real, Raimundo; Romero, David; Olivero, Jesús; Estrada, Alba; Márquez, Ana L

    2013-01-01

    Climate is one of the main drivers of species distribution. However, as different environmental factors tend to co-vary, the effect of climate cannot be taken at face value, as it may be either inflated or obscured by other correlated factors. We used the favourability models of four species (Alytes dickhilleni, Vipera latasti, Aquila fasciata and Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting Spanish mountains as case studies to evaluate the relative contribution of climate in their forecasted favourability by using variation partitioning and weighting the effect of climate in relation to non-climatic factors. By calculating the pure effect of the climatic factor, the pure effects of non-climatic factors, the shared climatic effect and the proportion of the pure effect of the climatic factor in relation to its apparent effect (ρ), we assessed the apparent effect and the pure independent effect of climate. We then projected both types of effects when modelling the future favourability for each species and combination of AOGCM-SRES (two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models: CGCM2 and ECHAM4, and two Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES): A2 and B2). The results show that the apparent effect of climate can be either inflated (overrated) or obscured (underrated) by other correlated factors. These differences were species-specific; the sum of favourable areas forecasted according to the pure climatic effect differed from that forecasted according to the apparent climatic effect by about 61% on average for one of the species analyzed, and by about 20% on average for each of the other species. The pure effect of future climate on species distributions can only be estimated by combining climate with other factors. Transferring the pure climatic effect and the apparent climatic effect to the future delimits the maximum and minimum favourable areas forecasted for each species in each climate change scenario.

  13. Emission and distribution of fumigants as affected by soil moistures in three different textured soils.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein

    2013-01-01

    Water application is a low-cost strategy to control emissions of soil fumigant to meet the requirements of the stringent environmental regulations and it is applicable for a wide range of commodity groups. Although it is known that an increase in soil moisture reduces emissions, the range of soil moisture for minimizing emissions without risking pest control, is not well defined for various types of soils. With two column studies, we determined the effect of different soil moisture levels on emission and distribution of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in three different textured soils. Results on sandy loam and loam soils showed that by increasing soil moisture from 30% to 100% of field capacity (FC), peak fluxes were lowered by 77-88% and their occurrences were delayed 5-15 h, and cumulative emissions were reduced 24-49%. For the sandy soil, neither peak fluxes nor the cumulative emissions were significantly different when soil moisture increased from 30% to 100% FC. Compared to the drier soils, the wetter soils retained consistently higher fumigant concentrations in the gas-phase, suggesting efficacy may not be impacted in these soils. The air-filled porosity positively and linearly correlated with the cumulative emission loss across all soil types indicating that it may serve as a good indicator for estimating emissions. These laboratory findings can be further tested under field conditions to conclude what irrigation regime should be used for increasing soil water content before fumigant application that can achieve maximum emission reduction and uniform fumigant distribution with high exposure index values.

  14. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect cadmium uptake kinetics, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in rice?

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Luo, Na; Zhang, Li Jun; Zhao, Hai Ming; Li, Yan Wen; Cai, Quan Ying; Wong, Ming Hung; Mo, Ce Hui

    2016-11-15

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were inoculated with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) - Rhizophagus intraradices (RI) and Funneliformis mosseae (FM) and grown for 60days to ensure strong colonization. Subsequently, a short-term hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of AMF on cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in rice exposed to six Cd levels (0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1mM) for three days. The results showed that the uptake kinetics of Cd fitted the Michaelis-Menten model well (R(2)>0.89). AMF significantly decreased the Cd concentrations both in shoots and roots in Cd solutions. Furthermore, the decrement of Cd concentrations by FM was significantly higher than RI treatment in roots. AMF reduced the Cd concentrations markedly in the cell wall fractions at high Cd substrate (≥0.025mM). The main subcellular fraction contributed to Cd detoxification was cell wall at low Cd substrate (<0.05mM), while vacuoles at high Cd substrate (≥0.05mM). Moreover, the concentrations and proportions of Cd in inorganic and water-soluble form also reduced by AMF colonization at high Cd substrate (≥0.05mM), both in shoots and roots. This suggested that AMF could convert Cd into inactive forms which were less toxic. Therefore, AMF could enhance rice resistance to Cd through altering subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in rice.

  15. Sources of iron and phosphate affect the distribution of diazotrophs in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratten, Jenni-Marie; LaRoche, Julie; Desai, Dhwani K.; Shelley, Rachel U.; Landing, William M.; Boyle, Ed; Cutter, Gregory A.; Langlois, Rebecca J.

    2015-06-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) supplies nutrient-depleted oceanic surface waters with new biologically available fixed nitrogen. Diazotrophs are the only organisms that can fix dinitrogen, but the factors controlling their distribution patterns in the ocean are not well understood. In this study, the relative abundances of eight diazotrophic phylotypes in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the nifH gene using TaqMan probes. A total of 152 samples were collected at 27 stations during two GEOTRACES cruises; Lisbon, Portugal to Mindelo, Cape Verde Islands (USGT10) and Woods Hole, MA, USA via the Bermuda Time Series (BATS) to Praia, Cape Verde Islands (USGT11). Seven of the eight diazotrophic phylotypes tested were detected. These included free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria (unicellular groups (UCYN) A, B and C, Trichodesmium, the diatom-associated cyanobacteria Rhizoselinia-Richelia and Hemiaulus-Richelia) and a γ-proteobacterium (Gamma A, AY896371). The nifH gene abundances were analyzed in the context of a large set of hydrographic parameters, macronutrient and trace metal concentrations measured in parallel with DNA samples using the PRIMER-E software. The environmental variables that most influenced the abundances and distribution of the diazotrophic phylotypes were determined. We observed a geographic segregation of diazotrophic phylotypes between east and west, with UCYN A, UCYN B and UCYN C and the Rhizosolenia-Richelia symbiont associated with the eastern North Atlantic (east of 40°W), and Trichodesmium and Gamma A detected across the basin. Hemiaulus-Richelia symbionts were primarily found in temperate waters near the North American coast. The highest diazotrophic phylotype abundance and diversity were associated with temperatures greater than 22 °C in the surface mixed layer, a high supply of iron from North African aeolian mineral dust deposition and from remineralized nutrients upwelled at the

  16. Reduced Expression of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter and Neurotransmitter Content Affects Synaptic Vesicle Distribution and Shape in Mouse Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Hermann A.; Fonseca, Matheus de C.; Camargo, Wallace L.; Lima, Patrícia M. A.; Martinelli, Patrícia M.; Naves, Lígia A.; Prado, Vânia F.; Prado, Marco A. M.; Guatimosim, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, nerve muscle communication is mediated by the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine packed inside synaptic vesicles by a specific vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Here we used a mouse model (VAChT KDHOM) with 70% reduction in the expression of VAChT to investigate the morphological and functional consequences of a decreased acetylcholine uptake and release in neuromuscular synapses. Upon hypertonic stimulation, VAChT KDHOM mice presented a reduction in the amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials, FM 1–43 staining intensity, total number of synaptic vesicles and altered distribution of vesicles within the synaptic terminal. In contrast, under electrical stimulation or no stimulation, VAChT KDHOM neuromuscular junctions did not differ from WT on total number of vesicles but showed altered distribution. Additionally, motor nerve terminals in VAChT KDHOM exhibited small and flattened synaptic vesicles similar to that observed in WT mice treated with vesamicol that blocks acetylcholine uptake. Based on these results, we propose that decreased VAChT levels affect synaptic vesicle biogenesis and distribution whereas a lower ACh content affects vesicles shape. PMID:24260111

  17. Reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and neurotransmitter content affects synaptic vesicle distribution and shape in mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Hermann A; Fonseca, Matheus de C; Camargo, Wallace L; Lima, Patrícia M A; Martinelli, Patrícia M; Naves, Lígia A; Prado, Vânia F; Prado, Marco A M; Guatimosim, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, nerve muscle communication is mediated by the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine packed inside synaptic vesicles by a specific vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Here we used a mouse model (VAChT KD(HOM)) with 70% reduction in the expression of VAChT to investigate the morphological and functional consequences of a decreased acetylcholine uptake and release in neuromuscular synapses. Upon hypertonic stimulation, VAChT KD(HOM) mice presented a reduction in the amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials, FM 1-43 staining intensity, total number of synaptic vesicles and altered distribution of vesicles within the synaptic terminal. In contrast, under electrical stimulation or no stimulation, VAChT KD(HOM) neuromuscular junctions did not differ from WT on total number of vesicles but showed altered distribution. Additionally, motor nerve terminals in VAChT KD(HOM) exhibited small and flattened synaptic vesicles similar to that observed in WT mice treated with vesamicol that blocks acetylcholine uptake. Based on these results, we propose that decreased VAChT levels affect synaptic vesicle biogenesis and distribution whereas a lower ACh content affects vesicles shape. PMID:24260111

  18. Pathogenicity of vibrios in fish: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Li; Woo, Norman Y. S.

    2003-10-01

    Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment. Due to the rapid expansion of intensive mariculture and the consequent deterioration of culture conditions, more and more Vibrio spp. have been recognized as pathogenic agents in outbreaks of vibriosis, a serious epizootic disease affecting most wild and farmed fish species worldwide, which has become the most important limiting factor for the development of intensive mariculture industry. Attempts have been made to understand the pathogenicity of vibrios in host fish with the ultimate aim of elucidating the best means for disease control. After an extensive literature survey of the recent advances in the field of fish vibriosis, the pathological changes, virulence factors and associated potential pathogenic mechanisms, transmission routes and related environmental factors involved in outbreak of vibriosis, as well as the controlling strategies are reviewed in the present paper.

  19. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhu, Jagadamma; Lal, Dr. Rattan

    2010-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed heterogeneously among different-sized primary particles and aggregates. Further, the SOC associated with different physical fractions respond differently to managements. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective to quantify the SOC associated with all the three structural levels of SOC (particulate organic matter, soil separates and aggregate-size fractions) as influenced by long-term change in management. The study also aims at reevaluating the concept that the SOC sink capacity of individual size-fractions is limited. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on distribution of SOC among fractions were compared with soil from adjacent undisturbed area under native vegetation for the mixed, mesic, Typic Fragiudalf of Wooster, OH. Forty five years of no-till (NT) management resulted in more SOC accumulation in soil surface (0 7.5 cm) than in chisel tillage and plow tillage (PT) treatments. However, PT at this site resulted in a redistribution of SOC from surface to deeper soil layers. The soils under continuous corn accumulated significantly more SOC than those under corn soybean rotation at 7.5 45 cm depth. Although soil texture was dominated by the silt-sized particles, most of the SOC pool was associated with the clay fraction. Compared to PT, the NT treatment resulted in (i) significantly higher proportion of large macroaggregates (>2,000 m) and (ii) 1.5 2.8 times higher SOC concentrations in all aggregate-size classes. A comparative evaluation using radar graphs indicated that among the physical fractions, the SOC associated with sand and silt fractions quickly changed with a land use conversion from native vegetation to agricultural crops. A key finding of this study is the assessment of SOC sink capacity of individual fractions, which revealed that the clay fraction of agricultural soils continues to accumulate more SOC, albeit at a slower rate, with progressive increase in total SOC concentration

  20. Contextual factors affecting task distribution in two participatory ergonomic interventions: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Shane Michael; Theberge, Nancy

    2011-11-01

    This article provides an analysis of the evolution of the division of labour in participatory ergonomics (PE) programmes in two worksites. The analysis is based on interviews and field observations in the worksites. In both settings there was meaningful participation by both worker and management members of ergonomic change teams (ECTs) in the hazard assessment and solution identification stages, but as the teams moved to the implementation stage, worker representatives were marginalised and the participatory nature of the programmes was severely curtailed. The removal of workers from the process was the outcome of the interplay among the type of activities pursued in the implementation stage, the skills and knowledge required to carry out those activities, and workers' limited influence in the organisational hierarchies. Findings highlight the salience of the social context in which participatory programmes are located and the importance of examining participatory programmes as they evolve over time. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article contributes to a growing literature on the process and implementation of PE programmes. The article's focus on social and organisational factors that affect the division of labour and attention to the evolution of involvement over time extend current understandings of participation in ergonomics programmes. PMID:22026944

  1. Environmental stability affects phenotypic evolution in a globally distributed marine picoplankton.

    PubMed

    Schaum, C-Elisa; Rost, Björn; Collins, Sinéad

    2016-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton can evolve rapidly when confronted with aspects of climate change because of their large population sizes and fast generation times. Despite this, the importance of environment fluctuations, a key feature of climate change, has received little attention-selection experiments with marine phytoplankton are usually carried out in stable environments and use single or few representatives of a species, genus or functional group. Here we investigate whether and by how much environmental fluctuations contribute to changes in ecologically important phytoplankton traits such as C:N ratios and cell size, and test the variability of changes in these traits within the globally distributed species Ostreococcus. We have evolved 16 physiologically distinct lineages of Ostreococcus at stable high CO2 (1031±87 μatm CO2, SH) and fluctuating high CO2 (1012±244 μatm CO2, FH) for 400 generations. We find that although both fluctuation and high CO2 drive evolution, FH-evolved lineages are smaller, have reduced C:N ratios and respond more strongly to further increases in CO2 than do SH-evolved lineages. This indicates that environmental fluctuations are an important factor to consider when predicting how the characteristics of future phytoplankton populations will have an impact on biogeochemical cycles and higher trophic levels in marine food webs. PMID:26125683

  2. Geographic Distribution of Regional Metastatic Nodes Affects Outcome of Trimodality-Eligible Patients with Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Hironori; Slack, Rebecca; Sudo, Kazuki; Elimova, Elena; Wadhwa, Roopma; Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Skinner, Heath D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Weston, Brian; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Blum, Mariela A.; Rogers, Jane E.; Maru, Dipen M.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant nodes in patients with localized esophageal adenocarcinoma (L-EAC) portend a poor prognosis. We assessed the distribution of nodes to correlate with outcome of patients undergoing chemoradiation/surgery (trimodality). Methods We studied 209 L-EAC patients who had confirmed or suspicious nodes at baseline staging. All patients had trimodality therapy. Patients were grouped by nodal geography: above the diaphragm (AD), below the diaphragm (BD), or above and below the diaphragm (ABD). Survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The outcomes in subgroups were assessed by the log-rank test. Results Patients were primarily Caucasians (91%), men (93%), and had baseline stage III L-EAC (89%). The median follow-up was 2.8 years (range, 0.4 to 11.7 years). Of the 209 patients, 35% (n=73) had nodes AD, 20% (n=41) had nodes BD, and 45% (n=95) had nodes ABD. ABD patients had the 5-year overall survival rate of 33% compared to AD patients (55%) and BD (60%; P=0.02). Patients with higher histology grade were also at higher risk of relapse and had poor survival (P<0.01 for both). Conclusions L-EAC patients in the ABD group had worst outcome after trimodality compared to those in the AD or BD group. Novel strategies are needed for ABD patients. PMID:25765098

  3. Overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase in Yarrowia lipolytica affects lipid body size, number and distribution.

    PubMed

    Gajdoš, Peter; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Čertík, Milan; Rossignol, Tristan

    2016-09-01

    In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are major factors for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. The Q4 strain, in which the four acyltransferases have been deleted, is unable to accumulate lipids and to form lipid bodies (LBs). However, the expression of a single acyltransferase in this strain restores TAG accumulation and LB formation. Using this system, it becomes possible to characterize the activity and specificity of an individual DGAT. Here, we examined the effects of DGAT overexpression on lipid accumulation and LB formation in Y. lipolytica Specifically, we evaluated the consequences of introducing one or two copies of the Y. lipolytica DGAT genes YlDGA1 and YlDGA2 Overall, multi-copy DGAT overexpression increased the lipid content of yeast cells. However, the size and distribution of LBs depended on the specific DGAT overexpressed. YlDGA2 overexpression caused the formation of large LBs, while YlDGA1 overexpression generated smaller but more numerous LBs. This phenotype was accentuated through the addition of a second copy of the overexpressed gene and might be linked to the distinct subcellular localization of each DGAT, i.e. YlDga1 being localized in LBs, while YlDga2 being localized in a structure strongly resembling the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27506614

  4. A Common Polymorphism in EC-SOD Affects Cardiopulmonary Disease Risk by Altering Protein Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hartney, John M.; Stidham, Timothy; Goldstrohm, David A.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Weaver, Michael R.; Valnickova-Hansen, Zuzana; Scavenius, Carsten; Benninger, Richard K.P.; Leahy, Katelyn F.; Johnson, Richard; Gally, Fabienne; Kosmider, Beata; Zimmermann, Angela K.; Enghild, Jan J.; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Bowler, Russell P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The enzyme extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD; SOD3) is a major antioxidant defense in lung and vasculature. A nonsynonomous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in EC-SOD (rs1799895) leads to an arginine to glycine (Arg->Gly) amino acid substitution at position 213 (R213G) in the heparin-binding domain (HBD). In recent human genetic association studies, this SNP attenuates the risk of lung disease, yet paradoxically increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Capitalizing on the complete sequence homology between human and mouse in the HBD, we created an analogous R213G SNP knockin mouse. The R213G SNP did not change enzyme activity, but shifted the distribution of EC-SOD from lung and vascular tissue to extracellular fluid (e.g. bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma). This shift reduces susceptibility to lung disease (lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury) and increases susceptibility to cardiopulmonary disease (chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension). Conclusions We conclude that EC-SOD provides optimal protection when localized to the compartment subjected to extracellular oxidative stress: thus, the redistribution of EC-SOD from the lung and pulmonary circulation to the extracellular fluids is beneficial in alveolar lung disease but detrimental in pulmonary vascular disease. These findings account for the discrepant risk associated with R213G in humans with lung diseases compared with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25085920

  5. How does the preparation of rye porridge affect molecular weight distribution of extractable dietary fibers?

    PubMed

    Rakha, Allah; Aman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  6. Environmental stability affects phenotypic evolution in a globally distributed marine picoplankton.

    PubMed

    Schaum, C-Elisa; Rost, Björn; Collins, Sinéad

    2016-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton can evolve rapidly when confronted with aspects of climate change because of their large population sizes and fast generation times. Despite this, the importance of environment fluctuations, a key feature of climate change, has received little attention-selection experiments with marine phytoplankton are usually carried out in stable environments and use single or few representatives of a species, genus or functional group. Here we investigate whether and by how much environmental fluctuations contribute to changes in ecologically important phytoplankton traits such as C:N ratios and cell size, and test the variability of changes in these traits within the globally distributed species Ostreococcus. We have evolved 16 physiologically distinct lineages of Ostreococcus at stable high CO2 (1031±87 μatm CO2, SH) and fluctuating high CO2 (1012±244 μatm CO2, FH) for 400 generations. We find that although both fluctuation and high CO2 drive evolution, FH-evolved lineages are smaller, have reduced C:N ratios and respond more strongly to further increases in CO2 than do SH-evolved lineages. This indicates that environmental fluctuations are an important factor to consider when predicting how the characteristics of future phytoplankton populations will have an impact on biogeochemical cycles and higher trophic levels in marine food webs.

  7. Molecular size and molecular size distribution affecting traditional balsamic vinegar aging.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Pasquale Massimiliano; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-08-27

    A first attempt at a semiquantitative study of molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) in cooked grape must and traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) with increasing well-defined age was performed by high-performance liquid size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using dual detection, that is, differential refractive index (DRI) and absorbance (UV-vis) based detectors. With this aim, MW and MWD, including number- and weight-average MW and polydispersity, were determined with respect to a secondary standard and then analyzed. All investigated vinegar samples were recognized as compositionally and structurally heterogeneous blends of copolymers (melanoidins) spreading over a wide range of molecular sizes: the relative MW ranged from 2 to >2000 kDa. The extent of the polymerization reactions was in agreement with the TBV browning kinetics. MWD parameters varied asymptotically toward either upper or lower limits during aging, reflecting a nonequilibrium status of the balance between polymerization and depolymerization reactions in TBV. MWD parameters were proposed as potential aging markers of TBV. PMID:18656930

  8. How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?

    PubMed Central

    Rakha, Allah; Åman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance. PMID:21686191

  9. Aging affects spatial distribution of leg muscle oxygen saturation during ramp cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Osada, Takuya; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We compared muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) responses in several leg muscles and within a single muscle during ramp cycling exercise between elderly men (n = 8; age, 65 ± 3 years; ELD) and young men (n = 10; age, 23 ± 3 years; YNG). SmO2 was monitored at the distal site of the vastus lateralis (VLd), proximal site of the vastus lateralis (VLp), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and tibialis anterior (TA) by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. During submaximal exercise, significantly lower SmO2 at a given absolute work rate was observed in VLd, RF, BF, GL, and TA but not in VLp, VM, and GM in ELD than in YNG. In contrast, at all measurement sites, SmO2 at peak exercise was not significantly different between groups. These results indicate that the effects of aging on SmO2 responses are heterogeneous between leg muscles and also within a single muscle. The lower SmO2 in older men may have been caused by reduced muscle blood flow or altered blood flow distribution.

  10. Overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase in Yarrowia lipolytica affects lipid body size, number and distribution.

    PubMed

    Gajdoš, Peter; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Čertík, Milan; Rossignol, Tristan

    2016-09-01

    In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are major factors for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. The Q4 strain, in which the four acyltransferases have been deleted, is unable to accumulate lipids and to form lipid bodies (LBs). However, the expression of a single acyltransferase in this strain restores TAG accumulation and LB formation. Using this system, it becomes possible to characterize the activity and specificity of an individual DGAT. Here, we examined the effects of DGAT overexpression on lipid accumulation and LB formation in Y. lipolytica Specifically, we evaluated the consequences of introducing one or two copies of the Y. lipolytica DGAT genes YlDGA1 and YlDGA2 Overall, multi-copy DGAT overexpression increased the lipid content of yeast cells. However, the size and distribution of LBs depended on the specific DGAT overexpressed. YlDGA2 overexpression caused the formation of large LBs, while YlDGA1 overexpression generated smaller but more numerous LBs. This phenotype was accentuated through the addition of a second copy of the overexpressed gene and might be linked to the distinct subcellular localization of each DGAT, i.e. YlDga1 being localized in LBs, while YlDga2 being localized in a structure strongly resembling the endoplasmic reticulum.

  11. Jamaica Bay studies VII: Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of ducks in a New York estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna; Trout, J. Richard; Wander, Wade; Ritter, Glenn S.

    1984-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of ducks (Anatini, Cairinini, Aythyini, Mergini, Oxyurini) were examined at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, a coastal estuary on Long Island, New York. The refuge contains a variety of tidal habitats as well two freshwater impoundments. The largest concentrations of diving ducks were present in March and April, and from October through December; while the largest concentrations of dabbling ducks were present from June through December. Thus, diving ducks used the refuge on migration whereas dabbling ducks used the refuge during and following the breeding season. Time of year was thus the most significant factor affecting distribution and abundance. Some species were present all year, including Black Duck Anas rubripes, Mallard A. platyrhynchos, Gadwall A. strepera, and Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis. Although both dabblers and divers used all areas of the bay, dabblers used both ponds while divers used only the East Pond. Dabbling ducks concentrated in the bay at low tide, and on the ponds at high tide. There were more divers on the bay on a falling tide although tide direction did not influence the abundance or distribution of dabblers. Temperature and wind variables influenced the distribution of all ducks: they used the bay at low temperatures, and rafted in large flocks on the bay in intermediate, Northwest winds. Only the numbers and distribution of dabblers were significantly influenced by cloud cover. We conclude that abiotic factors influence the abundance and distribution of ducks on Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, and that tidal factors should be considered when managing migratory or wintering populations of ducks.

  12. α-Ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application affects endogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and aromatic volatiles in grapes infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Saito, Takanori; Ohkawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Shishido, Masahiro; Ikeura, Hiromi; Takagi, Kazuteru; Ogawa, Shigeyuki; Yokoyama, Mineyuki; Kondo, Satoru

    2016-03-15

    Effects of α-ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application on endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and aromatic volatiles were investigated in 'Kyoho' grapes (Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera) infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata). The expressions of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1), lipoxygenase (VvLOX), and allene oxide synthase (VvAOS) were also examined. The grape berries were dipped in 0.1mM KODA solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25°C for 12 days. The development of infection was significantly suppressed upon KODA treatment. Endogenous ABA, JA and phaseic acid (PA) were induced in inoculated berries. KODA application before inoculation increased endogenous ABA, PA and JA through the activation of VvNCED1, VvCYP707A1 and VvAOS genes, respectively. In addition, terpenes, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and C6-aldehydes such as (E)-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenal associated with fungal resistance also increased in KODA-treated berries during storage. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of JA, ABA, and some aromatic volatiles induced by KODA application may provide resistance to pathogen infection in grape berries. PMID:26881925

  13. The role of particular tick developmental stages in the circulation of tick-borne pathogens affecting humans in Central Europe. 2. Tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Hard-bodied ticks transmit various pathogens, such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and carry numerous other microorganisms with an unknown pathogenic potential. Among them, tick-borne encephalitis virus has great importance. In Central European conditions all developmental stages of ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of the TBE virus. According to pathogen and tick biology, the roles of larvae, nymphs and adults are different. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents and medium sized mammals; adults transfer the infection to ruminants and to next generations via transovarial transmission. All active developmental stages of I. ricinus can play role of the bridge vector, transmitting the infection to humans apart males which don't feed. The late summer peak of human infectivity is caused by the summer peak of I. ricinus nymphs' activity. The Dermacentor reticulatus tick attacks humans infrequently, but does participate in the circulation of the virus in the zoonotic foci; larvae and nymphs of the D. reticulatus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents, mainly Microtinae, while adults transmit the infection to ruminants. PMID:27262951

  14. Patchy distributions of competitors affect the growth of a clonal plant when the competitor density is high.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei; Huang, Lin; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Environments are patchy in not only abiotic factors but also biotic ones. Many studies have examined effects of spatial heterogeneity in abiotic factors such as light, water and nutrients on the growth of clonal plants, but few have tested those in biotic factors. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine how patchy distributions of competitors affect the growth of a rhizomatous wetland plant Bolboschoenus planiculmis and whether such effects depend on the density of the competitors. We grew one ramet of B. planiculmis in the center of each of the experimental boxes without competitors (Schoenoplectus triqueter), with a homogeneous distribution of the competitors of low or high density, and with a patchy distribution of the competitors of low or high density. The presence of competitors markedly decreased the growth (biomass, number of ramets, number of tubers and rhizome length) of the B. planiculmis clones. When the density of the competitors was low, the growth of B. planiculmis did not differ significantly between the competitor patches and competitor-free patches. However, when the density of the competitors was high, the growth of B. planiculmis was significantly higher in the competitor-free patches than in the competitor patches. Therefore, B. planiculmis can respond to patchy distributions of competitors by placing more ramets in competition-free patches when the density of competitors is high, but cannot do so when the density of competitors is low.

  15. Carbon amendment and soil depth affect the distribution and abundance of denitrifiers in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Barrett, M; Khalil, M I; Jahangir, M M R; Lee, C; Cardenas, L M; Collins, G; Richards, K G; O'Flaherty, V

    2016-04-01

    The nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase-encoding (nosZ) genes of denitrifying populations present in an agricultural grassland soil were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Samples from three separate pedological depths at the chosen site were investigated: horizon A (0-10 cm), horizon B (45-55 cm), and horizon C (120-130 cm). The effect of carbon addition (treatment 1, control; treatment 2, glucose-C; treatment 3, dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) on denitrifier gene abundance and N2O and N2 fluxes was determined. In general, denitrifier abundance correlated well with flux measurements; nirS was positively correlated with N2O, and nosZ was positively correlated with N2 (P < 0.03). Denitrifier gene copy concentrations per gram of soil (GCC) varied in response to carbon type amendment (P < 0.01). Denitrifier GCCs were high (ca. 10(7)) and the bac:nirK, bac:nirS, bac:nir (T) , and bac:nosZ ratios were low (ca. 10(-1)/10) in horizon A in all three respective treatments. Glucose-C amendment favored partial denitrification, resulting in higher nir abundance and higher N2O fluxes compared to the control. DOC amendment, by contrast, resulted in relatively higher nosZ abundance and N2 emissions, thus favoring complete denitrification. We also noted soil depth directly affected bacterial, archaeal, and denitrifier abundance, possibly due to changes in soil carbon availability with depth.

  16. Trypanosoma evansi and surra: a review and perspectives on origin, history, distribution, taxonomy, morphology, hosts, and pathogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Desquesnes, Marc; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lai, De-Hua; Dargantes, Alan; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Jittaplapong, Sathaporn

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of "surra," is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies). It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras) and biological vectors (vampire bats). Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death), which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect. PMID:24024184

  17. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Origin, History, Distribution, Taxonomy, Morphology, Hosts, and Pathogenic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Desquesnes, Marc; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lai, De-Hua; Dargantes, Alan; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Jittaplapong, Sathaporn

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of “surra,” is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies). It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras) and biological vectors (vampire bats). Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death), which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect. PMID:24024184

  18. Factors affecting phytoplankton distribution and production in the Elephant Island area, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Helbling, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    During the austral summer of four years, 1990 to 1993, studies on phytoplankton were performed in the Elephant Island area as one component of the US Antarctica Marine Living Resources program. In addition to continuous measurements (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, beam attenuation) made on ship's intake water, a profiling CTD-rosette unit was used to obtain water column characteristics (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, attenuation of solar radiation, beam attenuation) from the surface to 750m depth and also water samples from at least 10 depths for chemical and biological analyses. The sampling grid consisted of an average of 70 stations, all of which were occupied two times each year. The Elephant Island area is a transition zone between the rich coastal areas, where phytoplankton can develop dense blooms, and pelagic waters where the phytoplankton biomass is in general very low. A frontal zone was usually found to the north of Elephant Island and over the continental slope, and high phytoplankton biomass was in general associated with this frontal region. Although the location of this frontal system showed seasonal movement in a north-south direction, it seems to be a consistent feature from year to year. There seems to be considerable year-to-year variability in physical (water temperatures and salinity) and phytoplankton characteristics within the study area, in regard to both distributional patterns in surface waters and to profile characteristics in the upper 100m of the water column. With shallow upper mixed layer depths of less than 50 m, phytoplankton can attain relatively high concentrations. Optimum light conditions for growth occurred when the mixed layer was less than 55% of the euphotic zone. As the area around Elephant Island is characterized by relatively strong and frequent winds, the depth of the upper mixed layer at many stations approached the depth of the euphotic zone, with the result that growth of phytoplankton was light limited.

  19. Mutations in MCT8 in patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley-syndrome affecting its cellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Kersseboom, Simone; Kremers, Gert-Jan; Friesema, Edith C H; Visser, W Edward; Klootwijk, Wim; Peeters, Robin P; Visser, Theo J

    2013-05-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a thyroid hormone (TH)-specific transporter. Mutations in the MCT8 gene are associated with Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), consisting of severe psychomotor retardation and disturbed TH parameters. To study the functional consequences of different MCT8 mutations in detail, we combined functional analysis in different cell types with live-cell imaging of the cellular distribution of seven mutations that we identified in patients with AHDS. We used two cell models to study the mutations in vitro: 1) transiently transfected COS1 and JEG3 cells, and 2) stably transfected Flp-in 293 cells expressing a MCT8-cyan fluorescent protein construct. All seven mutants were expressed at the protein level and showed a defect in T3 and T4 transport in uptake and metabolism studies. Three mutants (G282C, P537L, and G558D) had residual uptake activity in Flp-in 293 and COS1 cells, but not in JEG3 cells. Four mutants (G221R, P321L, D453V, P537L) were expressed at the plasma membrane. The mobility in the plasma membrane of P537L was similar to WT, but the mobility of P321L was altered. The other mutants studied (insV236, G282C, G558D) were predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. In essence, loss of function by MCT8 mutations can be divided in two groups: mutations that result in partial or complete loss of transport activity (G221R, P321L, D453V, P537L) and mutations that mainly disturb protein expression and trafficking (insV236, G282C, G558D). The cell type-dependent results suggest that MCT8 mutations in AHDS patients may have tissue-specific effects on TH transport probably caused by tissue-specific expression of yet unknown MCT8-interacting proteins. PMID:23550058

  20. Distribution of Pseudomonas Species in a Dairy Plant Affected by Occasional Blue Discoloration

    PubMed Central

    Lomonaco, Sara; Nucera, Daniele; Garoglio, Davide; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Civera, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    During 2010 many cases of discoloration in mozzarella, popularly termed as blue mozzarella, have been reported to the attention of public opinion. Causes of the alteration were bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The strong media impact of such cases has created confusion, not only among consumers, but also among experts. In order to help improving the knowledge on microbial ecology of this microorganism a study has been set up with the collaboration of a medium-sized dairy plant producing fresh mozzarella cheese, with occasional blue discoloration, conducting surveys and sampling in the pre-operational, operational and post-operational process phase, milk before and after pasteurization, water (n=12), environmental surfaces (n=22) and the air (n=27). A shelf life test was conducted on finished products stored at different temperatures (4-8°C). Among the isolates obtained from the microbiological analysis of the samples, 60 were subjected to biomolecular tests in order to confirm the belonging to Pseudomonas genus and to get an identification at species level by the amplification and sequencing of the gyrB gene. The results of microbiological tests demonstrated the presence of microorganisms belonging to the genus Pseudomonas along the entire production lane; molecular tests showed 7 different species among the 40 isolates identified. One particular species (Pseudomonas koreensis) was isolated from blue discolored mozzarella cheese and was indicated as the most relevant for the production plant, both for the distribution along the processing chain and for the consequences on the finished product. PMID:27800364

  1. Pathogen distribution and drug resistance in a burn ward: a three-year retrospective analysis of a single center in China

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Hanghui; Wu, Zhenbo; Wang, Fan; Han, Chunmao

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the spread of multiple-resistant strain in a burn ward to inform clinical administration of antibiotic drugs, burn wound treatment and decision-making for infection control. A 3-year retrospective analysis was conducted. Specimens from wounds, blood, catheter, sputum, urine and stool collected from inpatients of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University of Medicine between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 were cultured and strains were identified by automatic bacteria analysis. Sensitivity to 30 commonly used antibiotics was assessed by K-B disk diffusion. A total of 2212 strains of pathogenic bacteria or fungi were isolated (33.9% Gram-positive and 52.7% Gram-negative bacteria and 13.4% fungi), including 1466 from wound extracts, 128 from blood culture, 335 from urine culture, 5 from stool culture, 153 from sputum culture and 125 from catheters. The most frequently detected pathogens in wound secretions were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Proteus mirabilis were also frequently detected. The most frequently detected strains of fungi were Candida albicans; tropicalis, glabrata and parapsilosis, and all were highly sensitive to itraconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole but resistant to ketoconazole. Attention should be paid to MRSA, multi-resistant A. baumanni, ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae and Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. Understanding the distribution of bacterial infections in Chinese hospitals will be crucial to reduce hospital-acquired infection and drug resistance. PMID:26770555

  2. Sediment-water interactions affecting dissolved-mercury distributions in Camp Far West Reservoir, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Stewart, A. Robin; Fend, Steven V.; Parcheso, Francis; Moon, Gerald E.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in April and November 2002 to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micrometer filtered) mercury species (total and methylated forms) between the bottom sediment and water column at three sampling locations within Camp Far West Reservoir, California: one near the Bear River inlet to the reservoir, a second at a mid-reservoir site of comparable depth to the inlet site, and the third at the deepest position in the reservoir near the dam (herein referred to as the inlet, midreservoir and near-dam sites, respectively; Background, Fig. 1). Because of interest in the effects of historic hydraulic mining and ore processing in the Sierra Nevada foothills just upstream of the reservoir, dissolved-mercury species and predominant ligands that often control the mercury speciation (represented by dissolved organic carbon, and sulfides) were the solutes of primary interest. Benthic flux, sometimes referred to as internal recycling, represents the transport of dissolved chemical species between the water column and the underlying sediment. Because of the affinity of mercury to adsorb onto particle surfaces and to form insoluble precipitates (particularly with sulfides), the mass transport of mercury in mining-affected watersheds is typically particle dominated. As these enriched particles accumulate at depositional sites such as reservoirs, benthic processes facilitate the repartitioning, transformation, and transport of mercury in dissolved, biologically reactive forms (dissolved methylmercury being the most bioavailable for trophic transfer). These are the forms of mercury examined in this study. In contrast to typical scientific manuscripts, this report is formatted in a pyramid-like structure to serve the needs of diverse groups who may be interested in reviewing or acquiring information at various levels of technical detail (Appendix 1). The report enables quick transitions between the initial

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease in the Americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Victor

    2004-10-01

    is not clear, but it is accepted that animals are mostly affected as a spinoff during outbreaks in domestic species. Experimentally infected capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris hydrochoeris) showed clinical signs and infected other susceptible species, but their role in the maintenance of infection in nature is so far not clear.

  4. Factors affecting nitrate distribution in shallow groundwater under a beef farm in south eastern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Fenton, O; Richards, K G; Kirwan, L; Khalil, M I; Healy, M G

    2009-07-01

    Groundwater contamination was characterised using a methodology which combines shallow groundwater geochemistry data from 17 piezometers over a 2 yr period in a statistical framework and hydrogeological techniques. Nitrate-N (NO3-N) contaminant mass flux was calculated across three control planes (rows of piezometers) in six isolated plots. Results showed natural attenuation occurs on site although the method does not directly differentiate between dilution and denitrification. It was further investigated whether NO3-N concentration in shallow groundwater (<5 m below ground level) generated from an agricultural point source on a 4.2 ha site on a beef farm in SE Ireland could be predicted from saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) measurements, ground elevation (m Above Ordnance Datum), elevation of groundwater sampling (screen opening interval) (m AOD) and distance from a dirty water point pollution source. Tobit regression, using a background concentration threshold of 2.6 mg NO3-N L(-1) showed, when assessed individually in a step wise procedure, Ksat was significantly related to groundwater NO3-N concentration. Distance of the point dirty water pollution source becomes significant when included with Ksat in the model. The model relationships show areas with higher Ksat values have less time for denitrification to occur, whereas lower Ksat values allow denitrification to occur. Areas with higher permeability transport greater NO3-N fluxes to ground and surface waters. When the distribution of Cl- was examined by the model, Ksat and ground elevation had the most explanatory power but Ksat was not significant pointing to dilution having an effect. Areas with low NO3 concentration and unaffected Cl- concentration points to denitrification, low NO3 concentration and low Cl- chloride concentration points to dilution and combining these findings allows areas of denitrification and dilution to be inferred. The effect of denitrification is further supported as mean

  5. Charge Distribution and Imperfect Amphipathicity Affect Pore Formation by Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mihajlovic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides often permeabilize biological membranes via a pore mechanism. Two pore types have been proposed: toroidal, where the pore is partly lined by lipid, and barrel-stave, where a cylindrical pore is completely lined by peptides. What drives the preference of antimicrobial peptides for a certain pore type is not yet fully understood. According to neutron scattering and oriented circular dichroism, melittin and MG-H2 induce toroidal pores whereas alamethicin forms barrel-stave pores. In previous work we found that indeed melittin seems to favor toroidal pores whereas alamethicin favors cylindrical pores. Here we designed mutants of these two peptides and the magainin analogue MG-H2, aimed to probe how the distribution of charges along the helix and its imperfectly amphipathic structure influence pore formation. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the peptides in a pre-formed cylindrical pore have been performed. The duration of the simulations was 136 ns to 216 ns. We found that a melittin mutant with lysine 7 neutralized favors cylindrical pores whereas a MG-H2 mutant with lysines in the N-terminal half of these peptides neutralized and an alamethicin mutant with a positive charge at the position 7 form semitoroidal pores. These results suggest that charged residues within the N-terminal half are important for the toroidal pore formation. Toroidal pores produced by MG-H2 are more disordered than the melittin pores, likely because of the charged residues located in the middle of the MG-H2 helix (K11 and K14). Imperfect amphipathicity of melitin seems to play a role in its preference for toroidal pores since the substitutions of charged residues located within the nonpolar face by hydrophobic residues suppress evolution of a toroidal pore. The mutations change the position of lysine 7 near the N-terminus, relative to the lower leaflet headgroups. The MD simulations also show that the melittin P14A mutant forms a toroidal pore, but its

  6. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0–20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20–30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20–50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20–50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants’ ability to access nutrients and water. An

  7. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0-20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20-30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20-50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20-50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants' ability to access nutrients and water. An optimal

  8. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0-20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20-30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20-50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20-50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants' ability to access nutrients and water. An optimal

  9. Impact of Climate Trends on Tick-Borne Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ayllón, Nieves; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick–pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance, and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with epidemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis) are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever) is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick–pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22470348

  10. Distribution of relaxin-3 and RXFP3 within arousal, stress, affective, and cognitive circuits of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig M; Shen, Pei-Juan; Banerjee, Avantika; Bonaventure, Pascal; Ma, Sherie; Bathgate, Ross A D; Sutton, Steven W; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2010-10-01

    Relaxin-3 (RLN3) and its native receptor, relaxin family peptide 3 receptor (RXFP3), constitute a newly identified neuropeptide system enriched in mammalian brain. The distribution of RLN3/RXFP3 networks in rat brain and recent experimental studies suggest a role for this system in modulation of arousal, stress, metabolism, and cognition. In order to facilitate exploration of the biology of RLN3/RXFP3 in complementary murine models, this study mapped the neuroanatomical distribution of the RLN3/RXFP3 system in mouse brain. Adult, male wildtype and RLN3 knock-out (KO)/LacZ knock-in (KI) mice were used to map the central distribution of RLN3 gene expression and RLN3-like immunoreactivity (-LI). The distribution of RXFP3 mRNA and protein was determined using [(35)S]-oligonucleotide probes and a radiolabeled RXFP3-selective agonist ([(125)I]-R3/I5), respectively. High densities of neurons expressing RLN3 mRNA, RLN3-associated beta-galactosidase activity and RLN3-LI were detected in the nucleus incertus (or nucleus O), while smaller populations of positive neurons were observed in the pontine raphé, the periaqueductal gray and a region adjacent to the lateral substantia nigra. RLN3-LI was observed in nerve fibers/terminals in nucleus incertus and broadly throughout the pons, midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus, septum, hippocampus, and neocortex, but was absent in RLN3 KO/LacZ KI mice. This RLN3 neural network overlapped the regional distribution of RXFP3 mRNA and [(125)I]-R3/I5 binding sites in wildtype and RLN3 KO/LacZ KI mice. These findings provide further evidence for the conserved nature of RLN3/RXFP3 systems in mammalian brain and the ability of RLN3/RXFP3 signaling to modulate "behavioral state" and an array of circuits involved in arousal, stress responses, affective state, and cognition.

  11. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N-69.5° N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to

  12. Accuracy of travel time distribution (TTD) models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, and model and tracer selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yong; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Landon, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical models of the travel time distribution (TTD) from a source area to a sample location are often used to estimate groundwater ages and solute concentration trends. The accuracies of these models are not well known for geologically complex aquifers. In this study, synthetic datasets were used to quantify the accuracy of four analytical TTD models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, model selection, and tracer selection. Synthetic TTDs and tracer data were generated from existing numerical models with complex hydrofacies distributions for one public-supply well and 14 monitoring wells in the Central Valley, California. Analytical TTD models were calibrated to synthetic tracer data, and prediction errors were determined for estimates of TTDs and conservative tracer (NO3−) concentrations. Analytical models included a new, scale-dependent dispersivity model (SDM) for two-dimensional transport from the watertable to a well, and three other established analytical models. The relative influence of the error sources (TTD complexity, observation error, model selection, and tracer selection) depended on the type of prediction. Geological complexity gave rise to complex TTDs in monitoring wells that strongly affected errors of the estimated TTDs. However, prediction errors for NO3− and median age depended more on tracer concentration errors. The SDM tended to give the most accurate estimates of the vertical velocity and other predictions, although TTD model selection had minor effects overall. Adding tracers improved predictions if the new tracers had different input histories. Studies using TTD models should focus on the factors that most strongly affect the desired predictions.

  13. Ghost of habitat past: historic habitat affects the contemporary distribution of giant garter snakes in a modified landscape.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Historic habitat conditions can affect contemporary communities and populations, but most studies of historic habitat are based on the reduction in habitat extent or connectivity. Little is known about the effects of historic habitat on contemporary species distributions when historic habitat has been nearly completely removed, but species persist in a highly altered landscape. More than 93% of the historic wetlands in the Central Valley of California, USA, have been drained and converted to agricultural and other uses, but agricultural wetlands, such as rice and its supporting infrastructure of canals, allow some species to persist. Little is known about the distribution of giant garter snakes Thamnophis gigas, a rare aquatic snake species inhabiting this predominantly agricultural landscape, or the variables that affect where this species occurs. We used occupancy modeling to examine the distribution of giant garter snakes at the landscape scale in the Sacramento Valley (northern portion of the Central Valley) of California, with an emphasis on the relative strength of historic and contemporary variables (landscape-scale habitat, local microhabitat, vegetation composition and relative prey counts) for predicting giant garter snake occurrence. Proximity to historic marsh best explained variation in the probability of occurrence of giant garter snakes at the landscape scale, with greater probability of occurrence near historic marsh. We suspect that the importance of distance to historic marsh represents dispersal limitations of giant garter snakes. These results suggest that preserving and restoring areas near historic marsh, and minimizing activities that reduce the extent of marsh or marsh-like (e.g. rice agriculture, canal) habitats near historic marsh may be advantageous to giant garter snakes.

  14. Quantitative risk assessment: an emerging tool for emerging foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Lammerding, A. M.; Paoli, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    New challenges to the safety of the food supply require new strategies for evaluating and managing food safety risks. Changes in pathogens, food preparation, distribution, and consumption, and population immunity have the potential to adversely affect human health. Risk assessment offers a framework for predicting the impact of changes and trends on the provision of safe food. Risk assessment models facilitate the evaluation of active or passive changes in how foods are produced, processed, distributed, and consumed. PMID:9366601

  15. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland, northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to buffer and immobilize substances of natural and anthropogenic origin to prevent their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since Arctic ecosystems are considered to be highly sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterises background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5-69.5° N), representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on the element content of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest median concentrations of Fe and Mn were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) while the highest median values of Ni, Pb and Zn were found in soils of both the ice-complex and the Holocene estuarine terrace of the Lena River delta region, as well as in the southernmost study unit of the hinterland area. Detailed observations of trace metal distribution on the micro scale showed that organic matter content, soil texture and iron-oxide contents influenced by cryogenic processes, temperature, and hydrological regimes are the most important factors determining the metal abundance in permafrost-affected soils. The observed range of trace element background concentrations was similar to trace metal levels reported for other pristine northern areas.

  16. Prasinovirus distribution in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea is affected by the environment and particularly by phosphate availability.

    PubMed

    Clerissi, Camille; Grimsley, Nigel; Subirana, Lucie; Maria, Eric; Oriol, Louise; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Moreau, Hervé; Desdevises, Yves

    2014-10-01

    Numerous seawater lagoons punctuate the southern coastline of France. Exchanges of seawater between these lagoons and the open sea are limited by narrow channels connecting them. Lagoon salinities vary according to evaporation and to the volume of freshwater arriving from influent streams, whose nutrients also promote the growth of algae. We compared Prasinovirus communities, whose replication is supported by microscopic green algae, in four lagoons and at a coastal sampling site. Using high-throughput sequencing of DNA from a giant virus-specific marker gene, we show that the environmental conditions significantly affect the types of detectable viruses across samples. In spatial comparisons between 5 different sampling sites, higher levels of phosphates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and silicates tend to increase viral community richness independently of geographical distances between the sampling sites. Finally, comparisons of Prasinovirus communities at 2 sampling sites over a period of 10 months highlighted seasonal effects and the preponderant nature of phosphate concentrations in constraining viral distribution. PMID:25109909

  17. [Spatial-temporal distributions of dissolved inorganic carbon and its affecting factors in the Yellow River estuary].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xing-Sen; Lü, Ying-Chun; Sun, Zhi-Gao; Wang, Chuan-Yuan; Zhao, Quan-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    Estuary is an important area contributing to the global carbon cycle. In order to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the surface water of Yellow River estuary. Samples were collected in spring, summer, fall, winter of 2013, and discussed the correlation between the content of DIC and environmental factors. The results show that, the DIC concentration of the surface water in Yellow River estuary is in a range of 26.34-39.43 mg x L(-1), and the DIC concentration in freshwater side is higher than that in the sea side. In some areas where the salinity is less than 15 per thousand, the DIC concentration appears significant losses-the maximum loss is 20.46%. Seasonal distribution of performance in descending order is spring, fall, winter, summer. Through principal component analysis, it shows that water temperature, suspended solids, salinity and chlorophyll a are the main factors affecting the variation of the DIC concentration in surface water, their contribution rate is as high as 83% , and alkalinity, pH, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved oxygen and other factors can not be ignored. The loss of DIC in the low area is due to the calcium carbonate sedimentation. DIC presents a gradually increasing trend, which is mainly due to the effects of water retention time, temperature, outside input and environmental conditions.

  18. [Vertical distribution patterns of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen and related affecting factors along northern slope of Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Nian-lai

    2009-03-01

    With the shady and sunny northern slopes of Qilian Mountains along an altitude gradient from 2600 m to 3600 m as test objectives, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of surface soil (0-20 cm) organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and their relations to the altitude, landform, and vegetation. The results indicated that SOC and TN contents were significantly higher on shady than on sunny slope, and all increased with increasing altitude. The SOC and TN contents under different vegetation types were in the order of alpine bush > Picea crassifolia forest > alpine meadow > Sabina przewalskii forest, and alpine bush > alpine meadow > P. crassifolia forest > S. przewalskii forest, respectively. SOC had significant positive correlations with altitude, annual precipitation, soil moisture, and soil TN, and significant negative correlations with soil pH and annual temperature. Soil C/N ratio along the gradient was within the range of 6.7-23.3, being favorable to the nutrient release during organic matter decomposition. Among the factors affecting SOC, the annual temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture content constituted the first principal component, and soil C/N ratio constituted the second principal component. These two principal components accounted for 71% of the variance of SOC content, suggesting that climate factors controlled the vertical distribution patterns of SOC and TN along the altitude gradient.

  19. DGAT1-deficiency affects the cellular distribution of hepatic retinoid and attenuates the progression of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Jason J.; Lee, Seung-Ah; Jiang, Hongfeng; Brun, Pierre-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis, transferring an acyl group from acyl-CoA to diacylglycerol. DGAT1 also catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent formation of retinyl esters in vitro and in mouse intestine and skin. Although DGAT1 is expressed in both hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), we reported genetic and nutritional studies that established that DGAT1 does not contribute to retinyl ester formation in the liver. Methods We now have explored in more depth the role(s) of DGAT1 in hepatic retinoid metabolism and storage. Results Our data show that DGAT1 affects the cellular distribution between hepatocytes and HSCs of stored and newly absorbed dietary retinol. For livers of Dgat1-deficient mice, a greater percentage of stored retinyl ester is present in HSCs at the expense of hepatocytes. This is also true for newly absorbed oral [3H]retinol. These differences are associated with significantly increased expression, by 2.8-fold, of cellular retinol-binding protein, type I (RBP1) in freshly isolated HSCs from Dgat1-deficient mice, raising the possibility that RBP1, which contributes to retinol uptake into cells and retinyl ester synthesis, accounts for the differences. We further show that the retinyl ester-containing lipid droplets in HSCs are affected in Dgat1-null mice, being fewer in number but, on average, larger than in wild type (WT) HSCs. Finally, we demonstrate that DGAT1 affects experimentally induced HSC activation in vivo but that this effect is independent of altered retinoic acid availability or effects on gene expression. Conclusions Our studies establish that DGAT1 has a role in hepatic retinoid storage and metabolism, but this does not involve direct actions of DGAT1 in retinyl ester synthesis. PMID:26151058

  20. Review of factors affecting the distribution and abundance of waterfowl in shallow-water habitats of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Deller, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term trends of waterfowl populations in Chesapeake Bay demonstrate the importance of shallow-water habitats for waterfowl species. Although recent increases in field feeding by geese and swans lessened the importance of shallow-water areas for these species, most duck species depend almost exclusively on shallow-water habitats. Many factors influenced the distribution and abundance of waterfowl in shallow-water habitats. Habitat degradation resulted in the decline in numbers of most duck species and a change in distribution of some species. Increased numbers of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in recent decades probably resulted from release programs conducted by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources and private individuals. Studies of food habits since 1885 showed a decline in submerged-aquatic vegetation in the diet of some species, such as the canvasback (Aythya valisineria ), and an increase in the proportions of invertebrates in the diet. Diversity of food organisms for many waterfowl species has declined. Surveys of vegetation and invertebrates in the Chesapeake Bay generally reflect a degradation of shallow-water habitat. Human population increases in the Chesapeake Bay watershed directly and indirectly affected waterfowl distribution and abundance. The increase of exotic plant and invertebrate species in the bay, in most cases, benefited waterfowl populations. Increased contaminants have reduced the quality and quantity of habitat, although serious attempts to reverse this trend are underway. The use of shallow-water habitats by humans for fishing, hunting, boating, and other recreational and commercial uses reduced the use of shallow-water habitats by waterfowl. Humans can lessen the adverse influences on the valuable shallow-water habitats by restricting human population growth near these habitats and improving the water quality of the bay tributaries. Other affirmative actions that will improve these areas for waterfowl include greater

  1. Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions.

    PubMed

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Nagao, Seiya; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-08-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, triggered by a big earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011, caused a substantial release of radiocesium ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) and a subsequent contamination of soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying factors and processes affecting radiocesium retention in these soils is essential to predict how the deposited radiocesium will migrate through the soil profile and to other biological components. We investigated vertical distributions of radiocesium and physicochemical properties in soils (to 20 cm depth) at 15 locations under different land-use types (croplands, grasslands, and forests) within a 2 km × 2 km mesh area in Fukushima city. The total (137)Cs inventory deposited onto and into soil was similar (58.4±9.6 kBq m(-2)) between the three different land-use types. However, aboveground litter layer at the forest sites and herbaceous vegetation at the non-forested sites contributed differently to the total (137)Cs inventory. At the forest sites, 50-91% of the total inventory was observed in the litter layer. The aboveground vegetation contribution was in contrast smaller (<35%) at the other sites. Another remarkable difference was found in vertical distribution of (137)Cs in mineral soil layers; (137)Cs penetrated deeper in the forest soil profiles than in the non-forested soil profiles. We quantified (137)Cs retention at surface soil layers, and showed that higher (137)Cs retention can be explained in part by larger amounts of silt- and clay-sized particles in the layers. More importantly, the (137)Cs retention highly and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content divided by clay content across all land-use types. The results suggest that organic matter inhibits strong adsorption of (137)Cs on clay minerals in surface soil layers, and as a result affects the vertical distribution and thus the mobility of (137)Cs in soil, particularly in the forest ecosystems.

  2. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus strains provoke heterogeneous IFN-α/β responses that distinctively affect viral propagation in human cells.

    PubMed

    Matthaei, Markus; Budt, Matthias; Wolff, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    The fatal transmissions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAV) of the H5N1 subtype to humans and high titer replication in the respiratory tract indicate that these pathogens can overcome the bird-to-human species barrier. While type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are well described to contribute to the species barrier of many zoonotic viruses, current data to the role of these antiviral cytokines during human H5N1 IAV infections is limited and contradictory. We hypothesized an important role for the IFN system in limiting productive infection of avian H5N1 strains in human cells. Hence, we examined IFN-α/β gene activation by different avian and human H5N1 isolates, if the IFN-α/β response restricts H5N1 growth and whether the different strains were equally capable to regulate the IFN-α/β system via their IFN-antagonistic NS1 proteins. Two human H5N1 isolates and a seasonal H3N2 strain propagated efficiently in human respiratory cells and induced little IFN-β, whereas three purely avian H5N1 strains were attenuated for replication and provoked higher IFN secretion. Replication of avian viruses was significantly enhanced on interferon-deficient cells, and exogenous IFN potently limited the growth of all strains in human cells. Moreover, IFN-α/β activation by all strains depended on retinoic acid-inducible gene I excluding principal differences in receptor activation between the different viruses. Interestingly, all H5N1 NS1 proteins suppressed IFN-α/β induction comparably well to the NS1 of seasonal IAV. Thus, our study shows that H5N1 strains are heterogeneous in their capacity to activate human cells in an NS1-independent manner. Our findings also suggest that H5N1 viruses need to acquire adaptive changes to circumvent strong IFN-α/β activation in human host cells. Since no single amino acid polymorphism could be associated with a respective high- or low induction phenotype we propose that the necessary adaptations to overcome the human IFN

  3. Pathogenic adaptations to host-derived antibacterial copper

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Kaveri S.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that both host and pathogen manipulate copper content in infected host niches during infections. In this review, we summarize recent developments that implicate copper resistance as an important determinant of bacterial fitness at the host-pathogen interface. An essential mammalian nutrient, copper cycles between copper (I) (Cu+) in its reduced form and copper (II) (Cu2+) in its oxidized form under physiologic conditions. Cu+ is significantly more bactericidal than Cu2+ due to its ability to freely penetrate bacterial membranes and inactivate intracellular iron-sulfur clusters. Copper ions can also catalyze reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which may further contribute to their toxicity. Transporters, chaperones, redox proteins, receptors and transcription factors and even siderophores affect copper accumulation and distribution in both pathogenic microbes and their human hosts. This review will briefly cover evidence for copper as a mammalian antibacterial effector, the possible reasons for this toxicity, and pathogenic resistance mechanisms directed against it. PMID:24551598

  4. Short-Term Heat Shock Affects Host–Virus Interaction in Mice Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jia; Fan, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Shouping; Xiao, Jin; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is a highly contagious virus that can cause acute respiratory infections and high human fatality ratio due to excessive inflammatory response. Short-term heat shock, as a stressful condition, could induce the expression of heat shock proteins that function as molecular chaperones to protect cells against multiple stresses. However, the protective effect of short-term heat shock in influenza infection is far from being understood. In this study, mice were treated at 39°C for 4 h before being infected with HPAIV H5N1. Interestingly, short-term heat shock significantly increased the levels of HSP70 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of mice. Following HPAIV H5N1 infection, short-term heat shock alleviated immunopathology and viral replication in lung tissue and repressed the weight loss and increased the survival rate of H5N1-infected mice. Our data reported that short-term heat shock provided beneficial anti-HPAIV H5N1 properties in mice model, which offers an alternative strategy for non-drug prevention for influenza infection. PMID:27379054

  5. Mutation of FVS1, encoding a protein with a sterile alpha motif domain, affects asexual reproduction in the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yuichiro; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Yoshioka, Yosuke; Tsuge, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Fusarium oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores: microconidia, macroconidia and chlamydospores. We previously analysed expressed sequence tags during vegetative growth and conidiation in F. oxysporum and found 42 genes that were markedly upregulated during conidiation compared to vegetative growth. One of the genes, FVS1, encodes a protein with a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, which functions in protein-protein interactions that are involved in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. Here, we made FVS1-disrupted mutants from the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Although the mutants produced all three kinds of asexual spores with normal morphology, they formed markedly fewer microconidia and macroconidia than the wild type. The mutants appeared to have a defect in the development of the conidiogenesis cells, conidiophores and phialides, required for the formation of microconidia and macroconidia. In contrast, chlamydospore formation was dramatically promoted in the mutants. The growth rates of the mutants on media were slightly reduced, indicating that FVS1 is also involved in, but not essential for, vegetative growth. We also observed that mutation of FVS1 caused defects in conidial germination and virulence, suggesting that the Fvs1 has pleiotropic functions in F. oxysporum.

  6. How Salmonella became a pathogen.

    PubMed

    Groisman, E A; Ochman, H

    1997-09-01

    In many pathogens, virulence can be conferred by a single region of the genome. In contrast, the facultative intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella demands a large number of genes distributed around the chromosome. The evolution of Salmonella has been marked by the acquisition of several 'pathogenicity islands', each contributing to the unique virulence properties of this microorganism.

  7. Mutation of Lon protease differentially affects the expression of Pseudomonas syringae type III secretion system genes in rich and minimal media and reduces pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lan, Lefu; Deng, Xin; Xiao, Yanmei; Zhou, Jian-Min; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2007-06-01

    The bacterial Lon protease participates in a variety of biological processes. In Pseudomonas syringae, mutation of lon is known to activate hrpL and a few hrpL-regulated genes in rich medium. The elevated expression of hrpL and hrpL-regulated genes results from increased stability of HrpR, the transcriptional activator of hrpL, in the lon mutant. Here, we conducted a microarray analysis to identify genes that are differentially expressed in a lon- mutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 grown in the rich medium King's B (KB). Most genes induced in the lon- mutant belong to the HrpL regulon or are related to transcription, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism. A major group of genes reduced in the lon- mutant are related to cell wall biogenesis. The HrpL-regulated genes exhibit different induction patterns in the lon- mutant, suggesting that additional regulators other than HrpL are likely to be involved in regulation of these genes. Compared with the wild-type bacteria, lon- mutants of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 strains exhibit elevated hrpL expression in KB medium, but reduced hrpL expression in minimal medium (MM). The reduced hrpL RNA is correlated with reduced hrpR and hrpS RNAs, suggesting that the Lon-mediated regulation of hrpL involves different mechanisms in KB and MM. The lon- mutation also reduced bacterial pathogenicity.

  8. Vertical distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne pathogens in the northern Moravian mountains correlated with climate warming (Jeseníky Mts., Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Milan; Materna, Jan; Honig, Václav; Metelka, Ladislav; Danielová, Vlasta; Harcarik, Josef; Kliegrová, Stanislava; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-09-01

    A study of the vertical distribution of the common tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne pathogens--tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.--was performed in the highest part of the Jeseniky mountain area (the Hrubý Jesenik Mts. with the highest summit Praded, 1,491 m above see level). Altogether 1,253 specimens of all tick stages (607 larvae, 614 nymphs, 8 females and 24 males) were collected at the altitude 990-1,300 m above sea level on 12 collection sites by the flagging method. Altogether 1,207 ticks (8 females, 24 males, 568 nymphs and 607 larvae) were examined for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus and B. burgdorferi s.l. None of the samples contained TBEV, 35 samples (6% of adult ticks, 5% of nymphs, 0.7% of larvae) were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. The most prevalent genospecies were B. afzelii (44%), B. garinii (28%), less frequent were B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5%), B. valaisiana (3%). The rather large number of ticks (in absolute numbers as well as recounted to the index: average number of nymphs/worker/collection hour) and the presence of all developmental stages clearly demonstrate that there are viable local tick populations in all the sites, and that recorded ticks were not randomly individuals brought into higher altitudes by birds or game animals. The results are compared with the long-term (2002-2007) monitoring of the tick altitudinal distribution in the Krkonose Mts. and the conditions, which allow ticks to establish local populations up to the timberline in both mountain areas, are discussed. Simultaneously, changes in climatic conditions (especially the air temperature) monitored at 3 meteorological stations in the area of the Jeseníky Mts. were compared with the records from another 8 stations in other mountain areas in the Czech Republic. A very similar statistically significant trend of increasing mean air temperatures during the last three decades is found at all analyzed

  9. Dynamics of aggregate stability and soil organic C distribution as affected by climatic aggressiveness: a mesocosm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Sergio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Costanza Andrenelli, Maria; Barbetti, Roberto; Castelli, Fabio; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Tomozeiu, Rodica; Razzaghi, Somayyeh; Vignozzi, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of a research project aimed at evaluating the adaptation scenarios of the Italian agriculture to the current climate change, a mesocosm experiment under controlled conditions was set up for studying the dynamics of soil aggregate stability and organic C in different size fractions. Three alluvial loamy soils (BOV - Typic Haplustalfs coarse-loamy; CAS - Typic Haplustalfs fine-loamy; MED - Typic Hapludalfs fine-loamy) along a climatic gradient (from dryer to moister pedoclimatic conditions) in the river Po valley (northern Italy), under crop rotation for animal husbandry from more than 40 years, were selected. The Ap horizons (0-30cm) were taken and placed in 9 climatic chambers under controlled temperature and rainfall. Each soil was subjected to three different climate scenarios in terms of erosivity index obtained by combining Modified Fournier and Bagnouls-Gaussen indexes: i) typical (TYP), the median year of each site related to the 1961-1990 reference period; ii) maximum aggressive year (MAX) observed in the same period, and iii) the simulated climate (SIM), obtained by projections of climate change precipitation and temperature for the period 2021-2050 as provided by the IPCC-A1B emission scenario. In the climatic chambers the year climate was reduced to six months. The soils were analyzed for particle size distribution, aggregate stability by wet and dry sieving, and organic C content at the beginning and at the end of the trial. The soils showed different behaviour in terms of aggregate stability and dynamics of organic C in the diverse size fractions. The soils significantly differed in terms of initial mean weight diameter (MWD) (CAS>MED>BOV). A general reduction of MWD in all sites was observed at the end of the experiment, with the increase of the smallest aggregate fractions (0.250-0.05 mm). In particular, BOV showed the maximum decrease of the aggregate stability and MED the lowest. C distribution in aggregate fractions significantly

  10. Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects steady-state distribution and clearance of arsenic in arsenate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael F.; Edwards, Brenda C.; Herbin-Davis, Karen M.; Saunders, Jesse; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.

    2010-12-15

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes formation of mono-, di-, and tri-methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Distribution and retention of arsenic were compared in adult female As3mt knockout mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice using a regimen in which mice received daily oral doses of 0.5 mg of arsenic as arsenate per kilogram of body weight. Regardless of genotype, arsenic body burdens attained steady state after 10 daily doses. At steady state, arsenic body burdens in As3mt knockout mice were 16 to 20 times greater than in wild-type mice. During the post dosing clearance period, arsenic body burdens declined in As3mt knockout mice to {approx} 35% and in wild-type mice to {approx} 10% of steady-state levels. Urinary concentration of arsenic was significantly lower in As3mt knockout mice than in wild-type mice. At steady state, As3mt knockout mice had significantly higher fractions of the body burden of arsenic in liver, kidney, and urinary bladder than did wild-type mice. These organs and lung had significantly higher arsenic concentrations than did corresponding organs from wild-type mice. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in tissues of As3mt knockout mice; tissues from wild-type mice contained mixtures of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Diminished capacity for arsenic methylation in As3mt knockout mice prolongs retention of inorganic arsenic in tissues and affects whole body clearance of arsenic. Altered retention and tissue tropism of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice could affect the toxic or carcinogenic effects associated with exposure to this metalloid or its methylated metabolites.

  11. Vertical distribution of radiocesium in soils of the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Yoschenko, V. I.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Presented are results of the study of radiocesium vertical distribution in the soils of the irrigation pond catchments in the near field 0.25 to 8 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, on sections of the Niida River floodplain, and in a forest ecosystem typical of the territory contaminated after the accident. It is shown that the vertical migration of radiocesium in undisturbed forest and grassland soils in the zone affected by the Fukushima accident is faster than it was in the soils of the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for a similar time interval after the accident. The effective dispersion coefficients in the Fukushima soils are several times higher than those for the Chernobyl soils. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone. In the forest soils the radiocesium dispersion is faster as compared to grassland soils, both in the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones. The study and analysis of the vertical distribution of the Fukushima origin radiocesium in the Niida gawa floodplain soils has made it possible to identify areas of contaminated sediment accumulation on the floodplain. The average accumulation rate for sediments at the study locations on the Niida gawa floodplain varied from 0.3 to 3.3 cm/year. Taking into account the sediments accumulation leading to an increase in the radiocesium inventory in alluvial soils is key for predicting redistribution of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima accident on the river catchments, as well as for decision-making on contaminated territories remediation and clean-up. Clean-up of alluvial soils does not seem to be worthwhile because of the following accumulation of contaminated sediments originating from more contaminated areas, including the exclusion zone.

  12. Waterborne Pathogens: The Protozoans.

    PubMed

    Moss, Joseph Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Waterborne diseases associated with polluted recreational and potable waters have been documented for more than a century. Key microbial protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are causative agents for gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Although not a first-line diagnostic approach for these diseases, medical imaging, such as radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and nuclear medicine technologies, can be used to evaluate patients with long-term effects. This article describes protozoan pathogens that affect human health, treatment of common waterborne pathogen-related diseases, and associated medical imaging. PMID:27601690

  13. Prion Protein Gene Variability in Spanish Goats. Inference through Susceptibility to Classical Scrapie Strains and Pathogenic Distribution of Peripheral PrPsc

    PubMed Central

    Acín, Cristina; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Monleón, Eva; Lyahyai, Jaber; Pitarch, José Luis; Serrano, Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Zaragoza, Pilar; Badiola, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Classical scrapie is a neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal, partially protease resistant prion protein (PrPsc) in the CNS and in some peripheral tissues in domestic small ruminants. Whereas the pathological changes and genetic susceptibility of ovine scrapie are well known, caprine scrapie has been less well studied. We report here a pathological study of 13 scrapie-affected goats diagnosed in Spain during the last 9 years. We used immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques to discriminate between classical and atypical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). All the animals displayed PrPsc distribution patterns and western blot characteristics compatible with classical scrapie. In addition, we determined the complete open reading frame sequence of the PRNP in these scrapie-affected animals. The polymorphisms observed were compared with those of the herd mates (n = 665) and with the frequencies of healthy herds (n = 581) of native Spanish goats (Retinta, Pirenaica and Moncaina) and other worldwide breeds reared in Spain (Saanen, Alpine and crossbreed). In total, sixteen polymorphic sites were identified, including the known amino acid substitutions at codons G37V, G127S, M137I, I142M, H143R, R151H, R154H, R211Q, Q222K, G232W, and P240S, and new polymorphisms at codons G74D, M112T, R139S, L141F and Q215R. In addition, the known 42, 138 and 179 silent mutations were detected, and one new one is reported at codon 122. The genetic differences observed in the population studied have been attributed to breed and most of the novel polymorphic codons show frequencies lower than 5%. This work provides the first basis of polymorphic distribution of PRNP in native and worldwide goat breeds reared in Spain. PMID:23580248

  14. Prion protein gene variability in Spanish goats. Inference through susceptibility to classical scrapie strains and pathogenic distribution of peripheral PrP(sc.).

    PubMed

    Acín, Cristina; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Monleón, Eva; Lyahyai, Jaber; Pitarch, José Luis; Serrano, Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Zaragoza, Pilar; Badiola, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Classical scrapie is a neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal, partially protease resistant prion protein (PrP(sc)) in the CNS and in some peripheral tissues in domestic small ruminants. Whereas the pathological changes and genetic susceptibility of ovine scrapie are well known, caprine scrapie has been less well studied. We report here a pathological study of 13 scrapie-affected goats diagnosed in Spain during the last 9 years. We used immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques to discriminate between classical and atypical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). All the animals displayed PrP(sc) distribution patterns and western blot characteristics compatible with classical scrapie. In addition, we determined the complete open reading frame sequence of the PRNP in these scrapie-affected animals. The polymorphisms observed were compared with those of the herd mates (n = 665) and with the frequencies of healthy herds (n = 581) of native Spanish goats (Retinta, Pirenaica and Moncaina) and other worldwide breeds reared in Spain (Saanen, Alpine and crossbreed). In total, sixteen polymorphic sites were identified, including the known amino acid substitutions at codons G37V, G127S, M137I, I142M, H143R, R151H, R154H, R211Q, Q222K, G232W, and P240S, and new polymorphisms at codons G74D, M112T, R139S, L141F and Q215R. In addition, the known 42, 138 and 179 silent mutations were detected, and one new one is reported at codon 122. The genetic differences observed in the population studied have been attributed to breed and most of the novel polymorphic codons show frequencies lower than 5%. This work provides the first basis of polymorphic distribution of PRNP in native and worldwide goat breeds reared in Spain.

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of contaminated, effluent-affected sediment on the Palos Verdes margin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Sherwood, C.R.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Wong, F.; Hamer, M.

    2002-01-01

    A sedimentary deposit on the continental margin near the Palos Verdes Peninsula, California is comprised of sewage effluent and geologic materials and is contaminated with metals, pesticides (including DDT and associated compounds), and PCBs. The deposit was mapped with subbottom acoustic profilers, and sediment cores were analyzed for geochemical and physical properties to determine the volume of the deposit and the distribution and mass of contaminants. Mapping showed that the deposit ranges up to 60-cm thick, has a total volume exceeding 9 million m3, and covers over 40 km2. Virtually the entire effluent-affected deposit is contaminated with DDT and PCBs. Nearly half of the area of the deposit lies on the continental slope, but 70-75% of the volume of the deposit and total mass of DDT reside on the continental shelf. Analysis of data collected biennially since 1981 by the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County show that the mass of DDT has apparently decreased at some stations but has remained essentially constant at others. Temporal changes m mass per unit area of DDT are not statistically significant (at the 90% confidence level) at the most contaminated locations over a 16-yr period. The results of this mapping effort were used as a basis for modeling efforts described elsewhere in this issue. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon-Impurity Affected Depth Elemental Distribution in Solution-Processed Inorganic Thin Films for Solar Cell Application.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Shanza; Kim, Ka Young; Han, Jeonghyeob; Eo, Young-Joo; Gwak, Jihye; Ahn, Seung Kyu; Yun, Jae Ho; Yoon, KyungHoon; Cho, Ara; Ahn, SeJin

    2016-03-01

    A common feature of the inorganic thin films including Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 fabricated by nonvacuum solution-based approaches is the doubled-layered structure, with a top dense inorganic film and a bottom carbon-containing residual layer. Although the latter has been considered to be the main efficiency limiting factor, (as a source of high series resistance), the exact influence of this layer is still not clear, and contradictory views are present. In this study, using a CISe as a model system, we report experimental evidence indicating that the carbon residual layer itself is electrically benign to the device performance. Conversely, carbon was found to play a significant role in determining the depth elemental distribution of final film, in which carbon selectively hinders the diffusion of Cu during selenization, resulting in significantly Cu-deficient top CISe layer while improving the film morphology. This carbon-affected compositional and morphological impact on the top CISe films is a determining factor for the device efficiency, which was supported by the finding that CISe solar cells processed from the precursor film containing intermediate amount of carbon demonstrated high efficiencies of up to 9.15% whereas the performances of the devices prepared from the precursor films with very high and very low carbon were notably poor. PMID:26817680

  17. Non-specific phospholipase C1 affects silicon distribution and mechanical strength in stem nodes of rice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huasheng; Zhuo, Lin; Su, Yuan; Sun, Linxiao; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-05-01

    Silicon, the second abundant element in the crust, is beneficial for plant growth, mechanical strength, and stress responses. Here we show that manipulation of the non-specific phospholipase C1, NPC1, alters silicon content in nodes and husks of rice (Oryza sativa). Silicon content in NPC1-overexpressing (OE) plants was decreased in nodes but increased in husks compared to wild-type, whereas RNAi suppression of NPC1 resulted in the opposite changes to those of NPC1-OE plants. NPC1 from rice hydrolyzed phospholipids and galactolipids to generate diacylglycerol that can be phosphorylated to phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid interacts with Lsi6, a silicon transporter that is expressed at the highest level in nodes. In addition, the node cells of NPC1-OE plants have lower contents of cellulose and hemicellulose, and thinner sclerenchyma and vascular bundle fibre cells than wild-type plants; whereas NPC1-RNAi plants displayed the opposite changes. These data indicate that NPC1 modulates silicon distribution and secondary cell wall deposition in nodes and grains, affecting mechanical strength and seed shattering. PMID:26991499

  18. The bacterial lipopeptide iturins induce Verticillium dahliae cell death by affecting fungal signalling pathways and mediate plant defence responses involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Han, Qin; Wu, Fengli; Wang, Xiaonan; Qi, Hong; Shi, Liang; Ren, Ang; Liu, Qinghai; Zhao, Mingwen; Tang, Canming

    2015-04-01

    Verticillium wilt in cotton caused by Verticillium dahliae is one of the most serious plant diseases worldwide. Because no known fungicides or cotton cultivars provide sufficient protection against this pathogen, V. dahliae causes major crop yield losses. Here, an isolated cotton endophytic bacterium, designated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 41B-1, exhibited greater than 50% biocontrol efficacy against V. dahliae in cotton plants under greenhouse conditions. Through high-performance liquid chromatography and mass analysis of the filtrate, we found that the antifungal compounds present in the strain 41B-1 culture filtrate were a series of isoforms of iturins. The purified iturins suppressed V. dahliae microsclerotial germination in the absence or presence of cotton. Treatment with the iturins induced reactive oxygen species bursts, Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and defects in cell wall integrity. The oxidative stress response and high-osmolarity glycerol pathway contribute to iturins resistance in V. dahliae. In contrast, the Slt2 MAPK pathway may be involved in iturins sensitivity in this fungus. In addition to antagonism, iturins could induce plant defence responses as activators and mediate pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity. These findings suggest that iturins may affect fungal signalling pathways and mediate plant defence responses against V. dahliae.

  19. How the Dynamics and Structure of Sexual Contact Networks Shape Pathogen Phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Katy; Fyson, Nick; Cohen, Ted; Fraser, Christophe; Colijn, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of the host contact network over which a pathogen is transmitted affect both epidemic spread and the projected effectiveness of control strategies. Given the importance of understanding these contact networks, it is unfortunate that they are very difficult to measure directly. This challenge has led to an interest in methods to infer information about host contact networks from pathogen phylogenies, because in shaping a pathogen's opportunities for reproduction, contact networks also shape pathogen evolution. Host networks influence pathogen phylogenies both directly, through governing opportunities for evolution, and indirectly by changing the prevalence and incidence. Here, we aim to separate these two effects by comparing pathogen evolution on different host networks that share similar epidemic trajectories. This approach allows use to examine the direct effects of network structure on pathogen phylogenies, largely controlling for confounding differences arising from population dynamics. We find that networks with more heterogeneous degree distributions yield pathogen phylogenies with more variable cluster numbers, smaller mean cluster sizes, shorter mean branch lengths, and somewhat higher tree imbalance than networks with relatively homogeneous degree distributions. However, in particular for dynamic networks, we find that these direct effects are relatively modest. These findings suggest that the role of the epidemic trajectory, the dynamics of the network and the inherent variability of metrics such as cluster size must each be taken into account when trying to use pathogen phylogenies to understand characteristics about the underlying host contact network. PMID:23818840

  20. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p<0.001). In particular, those with lower BV/TV (<50th percentile) had significantly lower Cn.CaMean (p=0.037) and higher Cn.CaLow (p=0.020) compared with those with higher (>50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone

  1. Genetic structure and distribution of four pathogenicity islands (PAI I(536) to PAI IV(536)) of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536.

    PubMed

    Dobrindt, Ulrich; Blum-Oehler, Gabriele; Nagy, Gabor; Schneider, György; Johann, André; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Hacker, Jörg

    2002-11-01

    For the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536 (O6:K15:H31), the DNA sequences of three pathogenicity islands (PAIs) (PAI I(536) to PAI III(536)) and their flanking regions (about 270 kb) were determined to further characterize the virulence potential of this strain. PAI I(536) to PAI III(536) exhibit features typical of PAIs, such as (i) association with tRNA-encoding genes; (ii) G+C content differing from that of the host genome; (iii) flanking repeat structures; (iv) a mosaic-like structure comprising a multitude of functional, truncated, and nonfunctional putative open reading frames (ORFs) with known or unknown functions; and (v) the presence of many fragments of mobile genetic elements. PAI I(536) to PAI III(536) range between 68 and 102 kb in size. Although these islands contain several ORFs and known virulence determinants described for PAIs of other extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates, they also consist of as-yet-unidentified ORFs encoding putative virulence factors. The genetic structure of PAI IV(536), which represents the core element of the so-called high-pathogenicity island encoding a siderophore system initially identified in pathogenic yersiniae, was further characterized by sample sequencing. For the first time, multiple PAI sequences (PAI I(536) to PAI IV(536)) in uropathogenic E. coli were studied and their presence in several wild-type E. coli isolates was extensively investigated. The results obtained suggest that these PAIs or at least large fragments thereof are detectable in other pathogenic E. coli isolates. These results support our view that the acquisition of large DNA regions, such as PAIs, by horizontal gene transfer is an important factor for the evolution of bacterial pathogens.

  2. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and gene markers of pathogenic bacteria in Great Lakes tributaries, March-October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Angela K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Totten, Alexander R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Water samples were analyzed for the presence of FIB concentrations (FIB; fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli [E. coli], and enterococci) by using membrane filtration and serial dilution methods. The resulting enrichments from standard culturing of the samples were then analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the occurrence of pathogen gene markers for Shigella species, Campylobacter jejuni and coli, Salmonellaspecies, and pathogenic E. coli, including Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC).

  3. Distribution and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus in São Paulo State, Brasil, in leaves of an affected sweet orange tree as determined by PCR.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Diva C; Saillard, Colette; Couture, Carole; Martins, Elaine C; Wulff, Nelson A; Eveillard-Jagoueix, Sandrine; Yamamoto, Pedro T; Ayres, Antonio J; Bové, Joseph M

    2008-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), an insect-transmitted disease of citrus, known for many years in Asia and Africa, has appeared in the state of São Paulo State (SSP), Brazil, in 2004, and the state of Florida, USA, in 2005. HLB endangers the very existence of citrus, as trees infected with the bacterial pathogen, irrevocably decline. In the absence of curative procedures, control of HLB is difficult and only based on prevention. Even though not available in culture, the HLB bacterium could be shown to be Gram-negative and to represent a new candidate genus, Candidatus Liberibacter, in the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Three Candidatus (Ca.) L. species occur: Ca. L. africanus in Africa, Ca. L. asiaticus in Asia, SSP, and Florida, and Ca. L. americanus in SSP. The liberibacters occur exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes. On affected trees, HLB symptoms are often seen on certain branches only, suggesting an uneven distribution of the Liberibacter. Occurrence of Ca. L. americanus, the major HLB agent in SSP, has been examined in 822 leaf samples from an affected sweet orange tree by two conventional PCR techniques and a newly developed real time (RTi) PCR, also used for quantification of the Liberibacter in the leaves. Even though RTi-PCR was able to detect as few as 10 liberibacters per gram of leaf tissue (l/g), no liberibacters could be detected in any of the many leaf samples from a symptomless branch, while in blotchy mottle leaves from symptomatic branches of the same tree, the Liberibacter titer reached values as high as 10(7)l/g. These results demonstrate the uneven distribution of the Liberibacter in HLB-affected trees.

  4. Within plant distribution of Potato Virus Y in hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides): an inoculum source affecting PVY aphid transmission.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Felix A; Alvarez, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is vectored by several potato-colonizing and non-colonizing aphid species in a non-persistent manner and has a wide host range. It occurs naturally in several plant families. Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae are the most efficient potato-colonizing aphid vectors of PVY. Rhopalosiphum padi, a cereal aphid that migrates in large numbers through potato fields during the middle of the growing season, does not colonize potato plants but can transmit PVY. Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, a prevalent annual solanaceous weed in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States, is an alternative host for PVY and a preferred host for M. persicae and M. euphorbiae. Hence, hairy nightshade plants might play an important role as an inoculum source in the epidemiology of PVY. We looked at titre accumulation and distribution of PVY(O), PVY(N:O) and PVY(NTN) in S. sarrachoides and potato after aphid inoculation with M. persicae and studied the transmission of PVY(O) and PVY(NTN), by M. persicae, M. euphorbiae and R. padi from hairy nightshade to potato plants. Virus titre at different positions on the plant was similar in S. sarrachoides and potato plants with strains PVY(O) and PVY(N:O). Titres of PVY(NTN) were similar in S. sarrachoides and potato but differences in titre were observed at different positions within the plant depending on the plant phenology. Percentage transmission of PVY(NTN) by M. persicae and M. euphorbiae was twice as high (46 and 34%, respectively) from hairy nightshade to potato than from potato to potato (20 and 14%). Percentage transmission of PVY(O) by M. persicae and M. euphorbiae was not affected by the inoculum source. No effect of the inoculum source was observed in the transmission of either PVY strain by R. padi. These results show that hairy nightshade may be an equal or better virus reservoir than potato and thus, important in the epidemiology of PVY.

  5. Predicting probability of occurrence and factors affecting distribution and abundance of three Ozark endemic crayfish species at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolen, Matthew S.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Imhoff, Emily M.; Wagner, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    We found that a range of environmental variables were important in predicting crayfish distribution and abundance at multiple spatial scales and their importance was species-, response variable- and scale dependent. We would encourage others to examine the influence of spatial scale on species distribution and abundance patterns.

  6. Pesticide distributions in surface water: The distribution of pesticide concentrations at two study sites points to herbicides that may affect management of public water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Wieczorek, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Distributions of concentrations of 46 pesticides were documented from May 1992 through March 1994 for Maple Creek near Nickerson, Neb., and Platte River at Louisville, Neb. As their source of public water supplies, Lincoln and the western part of Omaha withdraw groundwater from the adjacent alluvium near the Platte River site, which is hydraulically connected to the Platte River. Organonitrogen herbicides dominated the pesticide distributions at each site. Variations in the distributions of pesticides at the two sites partly reflect differences in land use and land management practices. Diazinon, an insecticide used in urban areas, was commonly detected at the Platte River site but not at the Maple Creek site. Of the 46 pesticides analyzed at the Platte River site, the herbicides atrazine and alachlor were more likely to exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels of 3.0 and 2.0 pg/L; cyanazine was more likely to exceed the health advisory level of 1.0 ??g/L.

  7. Effect of thermal additions on the density and distribution of thermophilic amoebae and pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in a newly created cooling lake

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Ironside, K.S.; Metler, P.L.; Tan, E.L. ); Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B. )

    1989-03-01

    Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of fatal human amoebic meningoencephalitis. The protozoan is ubiquitous in nature, and its presence is enhanced by thermal additions. In this investigation, water and sediments from a newly created cooling lake were quantitatively analyzed for the presence of thermophilic amoebae, thermophilic Naegleria spp., and the pathogen Naegleria fowleri. During periods of thermal additions, the concentrations of thermophilic amoebae and thermophilic Naegleria spp. increased as much as 5 orders of magnitude, and the concentration of the pathogen N. fowleri increased as much as 2 orders of magnitude. Concentrations of amoebae returned to prior thermal perturbation levels within 30 to 60 days after cessation of thermal additions. Increases in the thermophilic amoeba concentrations were noted in Savannah River oxbows downriver from the Savannah River plant discharge streams as compared with oxbows upriver from the discharges. Concentrations of thermophilic amoebae and thermophilic Naegleria spp. correlated significantly with temperature and conductivity. Air samples taken proximal to the lade during periods of thermal addition showed no evidence of thermophilic Naegleria spp. Isoenzyme patterns of the N. fowleri isolated from the cooling lake were identical to patterns of N. fowleri isolated from other sites in the United States and Belgium.

  8. Factors Affecting the Evolution of Hurricane Erin (2001) and the Distributions of Hydrometeors: Role of Microphysical Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarquhar, Greg M.; Zhang, Henian; Heymsfield, Gerald; Hood, Robbie; Dudhia, Jimy; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Marks, Frank, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Fine-resolution simulations of Hurricane Erin are conducted using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) to investigate roles of thermodynamic, boundary layer, and microphysical processes on Erin’s structure and evolution. Choice of boundary layer scheme has the biggest impact on simulations, with the minimum surface pressure (Pmin) averaged over the last 18 h (when Erin is relatively mature) varying by over 20 hPa. Over the same period, coefficients used to describe graupel fall speeds (Vg) affect Pmin by up to 7 hPa, almost equivalent to the maximum 9-hPa difference between microphysical parameterization schemes; faster Vg and schemes with more hydrometeor categories generally give lower Pmin. Compared to radar reflectivity factor (Z) observed by the NOAA P-3 lower fuselage radar and the NASA ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) in Erin, all simulations overpredict the normalized frequency of occurrence of Z larger than 40 dBZ and underpredict that between 20 and 40 dBZ near the surface; simulations overpredict Z larger than 25 to 30 dBZ and underpredict that between 15 and 25 or 30 dBZ near the melting layer, the upper limit depending on altitude. Brightness temperatures (Tb) computed from modeled fields at 37.1- and 85.5-GHz channels that respond to scattering by graupel-size ice show enhanced scattering, mainly due to graupel, compared to observations. Simulated graupel mixing ratios are about 10 times larger than values observed in other hurricanes. For the control run at 6.5 km averaged over the last 18 simulated hours, Doppler velocities computed from modeled fields (Vdop) greater than 5 m s-1 make up 12% of Erin’s simulated area for the base simulation but less than 2% of the observed area. In the eyewall, 5% of model updrafts above 9 km are stronger than 10 m s-1, whereas statistics from other hurricanes show that 5% of updrafts are stronger than only 5 m s-1. Variations in distributions of Z, vertical motion, and graupel

  9. Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Bebber, Daniel Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by environmental conditions and thus global warming and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global warming signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs. PMID:26047565

  10. Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Bebber, Daniel Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by environmental conditions and thus global warming and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global warming signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs.

  11. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

  12. Second Language Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading with Audio Support: How Do Frequency and Distribution of Occurrence Affect Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated (1) the extent of vocabulary learning through reading and listening to 10 graded readers, and (2) the relationship between vocabulary gain and the frequency and distribution of occurrence of 100 target words in the graded readers. The experimental design expanded on earlier studies that have typically examined incidental…

  13. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects steady-state distribution and clearance of arsenic in arsenate-treated mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes formation of mono-, di-, and tri-methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Distribution and retention of arsenic were compared in adult female As3mt knockout mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice using a regimen in whi...

  14. The UL24 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Abdeljelil, Nawel; Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Pearson, Angela

    2013-09-15

    Mutations in UL24 of herpes simplex virus type 1 can lead to a syncytial phenotype. We hypothesized that UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion. In non-immortalized human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) we detected viral glycoproteins B (gB), gD, gH and gL present in extended blotches throughout the cytoplasm with limited nuclear membrane staining; however, in HFFs infected with a UL24-deficient virus (UL24X), staining for the viral glycoproteins appeared as long, thin streaks running across the cell. Interestingly, there was a decrease in co-localized staining of gB and gD with F-actin at late times in UL24X-infected HFFs. Treatment with chemical agents that perturbed the actin cytoskeleton hindered the formation of UL24X-induced syncytia in these cells. These data support a model whereby the UL24 syncytial phenotype results from a mislocalization of viral glycoproteins late in infection. - Highlights: • UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins required for fusion. • Sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins varies in cell-type dependent manner. • Drugs targeting actin microfilaments affect formation of UL24-related syncytia in HFFs.

  15. Is the distribution of the lancelet Branchiostoma caribaeum affected by sewage discharges? An analysis at multiple scales of variability.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Carlos Alberto de Moura; Hadlich, Heliatrice Louise; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César de Castro; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2013-04-15

    Spatial variation in the density and biomass of Branchiostoma caribaeum was analyzed along a sewage contamination gradient identified by fecal steroids in a subtropical estuary, southern Brazil. Sampling, repeated in the austral winter and summer, followed a hierarchical design nested at four spatial scales (sector>1 km; area>100 m; site>10 m; replicate<1 m). Density and biomass were significantly lower at sites characterized by high concentrations of fecal steroids. The best combinations of variables that explained the biological similarities among sites involved contamination indicators. Most of the variation of biological data was found at the smallest scales and could be related with the sediment texture. Our study highlighted the usefulness of a multi-scale perspective to evaluate distribution patterns of benthic invertebrates as a biological indication of environmental pollution. Gradient analyses at larger spatial scales may be invalidated by the patchy distribution of benthic fauna if they do not account for such small scale variability.

  16. Is the distribution of the lancelet Branchiostoma caribaeum affected by sewage discharges? An analysis at multiple scales of variability.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Carlos Alberto de Moura; Hadlich, Heliatrice Louise; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César de Castro; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2013-04-15

    Spatial variation in the density and biomass of Branchiostoma caribaeum was analyzed along a sewage contamination gradient identified by fecal steroids in a subtropical estuary, southern Brazil. Sampling, repeated in the austral winter and summer, followed a hierarchical design nested at four spatial scales (sector>1 km; area>100 m; site>10 m; replicate<1 m). Density and biomass were significantly lower at sites characterized by high concentrations of fecal steroids. The best combinations of variables that explained the biological similarities among sites involved contamination indicators. Most of the variation of biological data was found at the smallest scales and could be related with the sediment texture. Our study highlighted the usefulness of a multi-scale perspective to evaluate distribution patterns of benthic invertebrates as a biological indication of environmental pollution. Gradient analyses at larger spatial scales may be invalidated by the patchy distribution of benthic fauna if they do not account for such small scale variability. PMID:23452624

  17. SVD identifies transcript length distribution functions from DNA microarray data and reveals evolutionary forces globally affecting GBM metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolli, Nicolas M; Drake, Justin A; Tennessen, Jason M; Alter, Orly

    2013-01-01

    To search for evolutionary forces that might act upon transcript length, we use the singular value decomposition (SVD) to identify the length distribution functions of sets and subsets of human and yeast transcripts from profiles of mRNA abundance levels across gel electrophoresis migration distances that were previously measured by DNA microarrays. We show that the SVD identifies the transcript length distribution functions as "asymmetric generalized coherent states" from the DNA microarray data and with no a-priori assumptions. Comparing subsets of human and yeast transcripts of the same gene ontology annotations, we find that in both disparate eukaryotes, transcripts involved in protein synthesis or mitochondrial metabolism are significantly shorter than typical, and in particular, significantly shorter than those involved in glucose metabolism. Comparing the subsets of human transcripts that are overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or normal brain tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we find that GBM maintains normal brain overexpression of significantly short transcripts, enriched in transcripts that are involved in protein synthesis or mitochondrial metabolism, but suppresses normal overexpression of significantly longer transcripts, enriched in transcripts that are involved in glucose metabolism and brain activity. These global relations among transcript length, cellular metabolism and tumor development suggest a previously unrecognized physical mode for tumor and normal cells to differentially regulate metabolism in a transcript length-dependent manner. The identified distribution functions support a previous hypothesis from mathematical modeling of evolutionary forces that act upon transcript length in the manner of the restoring force of the harmonic oscillator.

  18. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  19. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24270074

  20. Distribution and Replication of the Pathogenicity Plasmid pPATH in Diverse Populations of the Gall-Forming Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Weinthal, Dan M.; Barash, Isaac; Panijel, Mary; Valinsky, Lea; Gaba, Victor; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2007-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans has been transformed from a commensal bacterium into two related gall-forming pathovars by acquisition of pPATH plasmids containing a pathogenicity island (PAI). This PAI harbors an hrp/hrc gene cluster, type III effectors, and phytohormone biosynthetic genes. DNA typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed two major groups of P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae and one group of P. agglomerans pv. betae. The pPATH plasmids of the different groups had nearly identical replicons (98% identity), and the RepA protein showed the highest level of similarity with IncN plasmid proteins. A series of plasmids, designated pRAs, in which the whole replicon region (2,170 bp) or deleted derivatives of it were ligated with nptI were generated for replicon analysis. A basic 929-bp replicon (pRA6) was sufficient for replication in Escherichia coli and in nonpathogenic P. agglomerans. However, the whole replicon region (pRA1) was necessary for expulsion of the pPATH plasmid, which resulted in the loss of pathogenicity. The presence of direct repeats in the replicon region suggests that the pPATH plasmid is an iteron plasmid and that the repeats may regulate its replication. The pPATH plasmids are nonconjugative but exhibit a broad host range, as shown by replication of pRA1 in Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses indicated that the PAIs in the two groups of P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae are similar but different from those in P. agglomerans pv. betae. The results could indicate that the pPATH plasmids evolved from a common ancestral mobilizable plasmid that was transferred into different strains of P. agglomerans. PMID:17921271

  1. Distribution and replication of the pathogenicity plasmid pPATH in diverse populations of the gall-forming bacterium Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Weinthal, Dan M; Barash, Isaac; Panijel, Mary; Valinsky, Lea; Gaba, Victor; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2007-12-01

    Pantoea agglomerans has been transformed from a commensal bacterium into two related gall-forming pathovars by acquisition of pPATH plasmids containing a pathogenicity island (PAI). This PAI harbors an hrp/hrc gene cluster, type III effectors, and phytohormone biosynthetic genes. DNA typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed two major groups of P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae and one group of P. agglomerans pv. betae. The pPATH plasmids of the different groups had nearly identical replicons (98% identity), and the RepA protein showed the highest level of similarity with IncN plasmid proteins. A series of plasmids, designated pRAs, in which the whole replicon region (2,170 bp) or deleted derivatives of it were ligated with nptI were generated for replicon analysis. A basic 929-bp replicon (pRA6) was sufficient for replication in Escherichia coli and in nonpathogenic P. agglomerans. However, the whole replicon region (pRA1) was necessary for expulsion of the pPATH plasmid, which resulted in the loss of pathogenicity. The presence of direct repeats in the replicon region suggests that the pPATH plasmid is an iteron plasmid and that the repeats may regulate its replication. The pPATH plasmids are nonconjugative but exhibit a broad host range, as shown by replication of pRA1 in Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses indicated that the PAIs in the two groups of P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae are similar but different from those in P. agglomerans pv. betae. The results could indicate that the pPATH plasmids evolved from a common ancestral mobilizable plasmid that was transferred into different strains of P. agglomerans.

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics affect the spatial distribution of pesticide and transformation product loss to an agricultural brook.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, M; Olsson, O; Stamm, C; Weiler, M; Kümmerer, K

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse entry of pesticide residues from agriculture into rivers is spatially unevenly distributed. Therefore, the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) may support water quality management in agricultural catchments. In contrast to former studies, we followed the hypothesis that not only hydrological and topographical characteristics but also physico-chemical properties of pesticide residues have a major influence on their loss to rivers and on corresponding formation of CSAs. We designed a virtual experiment, i.e. a numerical experiment as close as possible to environmental conditions, in a headwater catchment where pronounced spatial differences in hydrological transport processes were identified in the past. 144 scenarios with different combinations of adsorption coefficients (KOC = 10-1000 ml/g) and transformation half-lives (DT50 = 3-60 days) for pesticide parent compounds (PCs) and their transformation products (TPs) were simulated using the catchment-scale spatially distributed reactive transport model ZIN-AgriTra. Export fractions of substances in the virtual experiment ranged from 0.001-15% for pesticides and 0.001-1.8% for TPs. The results of the scenario investigations suggest that more of the calculated export mass variability could be attributed to KOC than to DT50 for both PCs and TPs. CSAs for TPs were spatially more equally distributed in the catchment than for PC export which was likely an effect of changing physico-chemical properties during transformation. The ranking of highest export fields was different between PCs and TPs for most of the investigated scenarios but six fields appeared among the top ten export fields in 95% of the scenarios, which shows the influence of site characteristics such as tile drains or soil properties in the catchment. Thus, the highest export fields were determined by a combination of site characteristics and substance characteristics. Therefore, despite the challenge of widely differing physico

  3. Pathogene Mikroorganismen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Martin

    Infektionen, die vom Tier auf den Menschen übertragen werden, werden als Zoonosen bezeichnet. Pathogene Mikroorganismen können entweder durch Mensch-Mensch, Mensch-Tier-Kontakt oder durch Kontakt mit kontaminierten Vektoren übertragen werden [39]. Vektoren können einerseits belebt (z. B. blutsaugende Insekten), andererseits unbelebt sein. Kontaminierte Lebensmittel und Wasser gehören zu den wichtigsten unbelebten Vektoren. Neben Lebensmitteln können aber auch kontaminierte Gegenstände oder der Kontakt mit Kontaminationsquellen in der Umwelt Auslöser von Krankheitsfällen sein. Weltweit sind mehr als 1400 krankheitsverursachende biologische Agentien bekannt, von denen über 60 % ein zoonotisches Potenzial aufweisen. Als Ergebnis von Expertengesprächen wurde kürzlich berichtet, dass etwa 3 bis 4, meist virale, neu auftretende Infektionskrankheiten ("emerging diseases“) pro Jahr erwartet werden können [15]. Es handelt sich bei diesen Vorgängen aber nicht nur um das Auftauchen vollkommen neuer oder unbeschriebener Spezies, sondern auch um evolutionsbedingte Anpassungen von mikrobiellen Populationen an neue Bedingungen in ihrem Ökosystem [7]. Molekulare Analysen an Umweltchlamydien erbrachten Hinweise, dass die Evolution erste genetische Pathogenitätsmerkmale in dieser Spezies schon vor 700 Mio. Jahren entstehen ließ [14]. Viele Faktoren befeuern den Prozess der Anpassung, unter anderem auch alle Strategien, mit denen der Mensch seit Jahrtausenden versucht, Lebensmittel sicher und haltbar zu machen. Als die treibenden Kräfte des Auftretens neuer Krankheitserreger werden in der Gegenwart vor allem das sich ändernde Weltklima, die globalen Warenströme und die sich verändernden Konsumgewohnheiten genannt. Es steht auch außer Zweifel, dass viele dieser Erreger Tiere als ihr natürliches Reservoir haben werden, d. h. Zoonosen im klassischen Sinne sind [15].

  4. Disturbance frequency and vertical distribution of seeds affect long-term population dynamics: a mechanistic seed bank model.

    PubMed

    Eager, Eric Alan; Haridas, Chirakkal V; Pilson, Diana; Rebarber, Richard; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-08-01

    Seed banks are critically important for disturbance specialist plants because seeds of these species germinate only in disturbed soil. Disturbance and seed depth affect the survival and germination probability of seeds in the seed bank, which in turn affect population dynamics. We develop a density-dependent stochastic integral projection model to evaluate the effect of stochastic soil disturbances on plant population dynamics with an emphasis on mimicking how disturbances vertically redistribute seeds within the seed bank. We perform a simulation analysis of the effect of the frequency and mean depth of disturbances on the population's quasi-extinction probability, as well as the long-term mean and variance of the total density of seeds in the seed bank. We show that increasing the frequency of disturbances increases the long-term viability of the population, but the relationship between the mean depth of disturbance and the long-term viability of the population are not necessarily monotonic for all parameter combinations. Specifically, an increase in the probability of disturbance increases the long-term viability of the total seed bank population. However, if the probability of disturbance is too low, a shallower mean depth of disturbance can increase long-term viability, a relationship that switches as the probability of disturbance increases. However, a shallow disturbance depth is beneficial only in scenarios with low survival in the seed bank.

  5. Spatial distribution of diuron sorption affinity as affected by soil, terrain and management practices in an intensively managed apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Umali, Beng P; Oliver, Danielle P; Ostendorf, Bertram; Forrester, Sean; Chittleborough, David J; Hutson, John L; Kookana, Rai S

    2012-05-30

    We investigated how the sorption affinity of diuron (3'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimenthyl-urea), a moderately hydrophobic herbicide, is affected by soil properties, topography and management practices in an intensively managed orchard system. Soil-landscape analysis was carried out in an apple orchard which had a strong texture contrast soil and a landform with relief difference of 50 m. Diuron sorption (K(d)) affinity was successfully predicted (R(2)=0.79; p<0.001) using a mid-infrared - partial least squares model and calibrated against measured data using a conventional batch sorption technique. Soil and terrain properties explained 75% of the variance of diuron K(d) with TOC, pH(w), slope and WI as key variables. Mean diuron K(d) values were also significantly different (p<0.05) between alley and tree line and between the different management zones. Soil in the tree line generally had lower sorption capacity for diuron than soil in the alleys. Younger stands, which were found to have lower TOC than in the older stands, also had lower diuron K(d) values. In intensively managed orchards, sorption affinity of pesticides to soils was not only affected by soil properties and terrain attributes but also by management regime.

  6. Gradient moduli lens models: how material properties and application of forces can affect deformation and distributions of stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kehao; Venetsanos, Demetrios; Wang, Jian; Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2016-01-01

    The human lens provides one-third of the ocular focussing power and is responsible for altering focus over a range of distances. This ability, termed accommodation, defines the process by which the lens alters shape to increase or decrease ocular refractive power; this is mediated by the ciliary muscle through the zonule. This ability decreases with age such that around the sixth decade of life it is lost rendering the eye unable to focus on near objects. There are two opponent theories that provide an explanation for the mechanism of accommodation; definitive support for either of these requires investigation. This work aims to elucidate how material properties can affect accommodation using Finite Element models based on interferometric measurements of refractive index. Gradients of moduli are created in three models from representative lenses, aged 16, 35 and 48 years. Different forms of zonular attachments are studied to determine which may most closely mimic the physiological form by comparing stress and displacement fields with simulated shape changes to accommodation in living lenses. The results indicate that for models to mimic accommodation in living eyes, the anterior and posterior parts of the zonule need independent force directions. Choice of material properties affects which theory of accommodation is supported. PMID:27507665

  7. Gradient moduli lens models: how material properties and application of forces can affect deformation and distributions of stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kehao; Venetsanos, Demetrios; Wang, Jian; Pierscionek, Barbara K.

    2016-01-01

    The human lens provides one-third of the ocular focussing power and is responsible for altering focus over a range of distances. This ability, termed accommodation, defines the process by which the lens alters shape to increase or decrease ocular refractive power; this is mediated by the ciliary muscle through the zonule. This ability decreases with age such that around the sixth decade of life it is lost rendering the eye unable to focus on near objects. There are two opponent theories that provide an explanation for the mechanism of accommodation; definitive support for either of these requires investigation. This work aims to elucidate how material properties can affect accommodation using Finite Element models based on interferometric measurements of refractive index. Gradients of moduli are created in three models from representative lenses, aged 16, 35 and 48 years. Different forms of zonular attachments are studied to determine which may most closely mimic the physiological form by comparing stress and displacement fields with simulated shape changes to accommodation in living lenses. The results indicate that for models to mimic accommodation in living eyes, the anterior and posterior parts of the zonule need independent force directions. Choice of material properties affects which theory of accommodation is supported. PMID:27507665

  8. Distribution of rare earth elements in an alluvial aquifer affected by acid mine drainage: the Guadiamar aquifer (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Olías, M; Cerón, J C; Fernández, I; De la Rosa, J

    2005-05-01

    This work analyses the spatial distribution, the origin, and the shale-normalised fractionation patterns of the rare earth elements (REE) in the alluvial aquifer of the Guadiamar River (south-western Spain). This river received notoriety in April 1998 for a spill that spread a great amount of slurry (mainly pyrites) and acid waters in a narrow strip along the river course. Groundwaters and surface waters were sampled to analyse, among other elements, the REEs. Their spatial distribution shows a peak close to the mining region, in an area with low values of pH and high concentrations of sulphates and other metals such as Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd. The patterns of shale-normalised fractionation at the most-contaminated points show an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements (MREE) with respect to the light (LREE) and heavy (HREE) ones, typical of acid waters. The Ce-anomaly becomes more negative as pH increases, due to the preferential fractionation of Ce in oxyhydroxides of Fe. PMID:15701392

  9. Subtle Change in the Charge Distribution of Surface Residues May Affect the Secondary Functions of Cytochrome c*

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Simanta Sarani; Sil, Pallabi; Haldar, Shubhasis; Mitra, Samaresh; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda

    2015-01-01

    Although the primary function of cytochrome c (cyt c) is electron transfer, the protein caries out an additional secondary function involving its interaction with membrane cardiolipin (CDL), its peroxidase activity, and the initiation of apoptosis. Whereas the primary function of cyt c is essentially conserved, its secondary function varies depending on the source of the protein. We report here a detailed experimental and computational study, which aims to understand, at the molecular level, the difference in the secondary functions of cyt c obtained from horse heart (mammalian) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). The conformational landscape of cyt c has been found to be heterogeneous, consisting of an equilibrium between the compact and extended conformers as well as the oligomeric species. Because the determination of relative populations of these conformers is difficult to obtain by ensemble measurements, we used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a method that offers single-molecule resolution. The population of different species is found to depend on multiple factors, including the protein source, the presence of CDL and urea, and their concentrations. The complex interplay between the conformational distribution and oligomerization plays a crucial role in the variation of the pre-apoptotic regulation of cyt c observed from different sources. Finally, computational studies reveal that the variation in the charge distribution at the surface and the charge reversal sites may be the key determinant of the conformational stability of cyt c. PMID:25873393

  10. A post-implementation evaluation of ceramic water filters distributed to tsunami-affected communities in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-06-01

    Sri Lanka was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. During recovery, the Red Cross distributed approximately 12,000 free ceramic water filters. This cross-sectional study was an independent post-implementation assessment of 452 households that received filters, to determine the proportion still using filters, household characteristics associated with use, and quality of household drinking water. The proportion of continued users was high (76%). The most common household water sources were taps or shallow wells. The majority (82%) of users used filtered water for drinking only. Mean filter flow rate was 1.12 L/hr (0.80 L/hr for households with taps and 0.71 for those with wells). Water quality varied by source; households using tap water had source water of high microbial quality. Filters improved water quality, reducing Escherichia coli for households (largely well users) with high levels in their source water. Households were satisfied with filters and are potentially long-term users. To promote sustained use, recovery filter distribution efforts should try to identify households at greatest long-term risk, particularly those who have not moved to safer water sources during recovery. They should be joined with long-term commitment to building supply chains and local production capacity to ensure safe water access.

  11. Distribution of rare earth elements in an alluvial aquifer affected by acid mine drainage: the Guadiamar aquifer (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Olías, M; Cerón, J C; Fernández, I; De la Rosa, J

    2005-05-01

    This work analyses the spatial distribution, the origin, and the shale-normalised fractionation patterns of the rare earth elements (REE) in the alluvial aquifer of the Guadiamar River (south-western Spain). This river received notoriety in April 1998 for a spill that spread a great amount of slurry (mainly pyrites) and acid waters in a narrow strip along the river course. Groundwaters and surface waters were sampled to analyse, among other elements, the REEs. Their spatial distribution shows a peak close to the mining region, in an area with low values of pH and high concentrations of sulphates and other metals such as Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd. The patterns of shale-normalised fractionation at the most-contaminated points show an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements (MREE) with respect to the light (LREE) and heavy (HREE) ones, typical of acid waters. The Ce-anomaly becomes more negative as pH increases, due to the preferential fractionation of Ce in oxyhydroxides of Fe.

  12. A preliminary investigation of the variables affecting the distribution of giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Skalos, Shannon M.; Casazza, Michael L.; Wylie, Glenn D.

    2015-01-01

    Giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) comprise a species of rare, semi-aquatic snake precinctive to the Central Valley of California. Because of the loss of more than 90% of their natural habitat, giant gartersnakes are listed as Threatened by the United States and California endangered species acts. Little is known, however, about the distribution of giant gartersnakes in the Sacramento Valley, which is where most extant populations occur. We conducted detection-nondetection surveys for giant gartersnakes throughout the rice-growing regions of the Sacramento Valley, and used occupancy models to examine evidence for the effects of landscape-scale GIS-derived variables, local habitat and vegetation composition, and prey communities on patterns of giant gartersnake occurrence. Although our results are based on a relatively small sample of sites, we found that distance to historic marsh, relative fish count, and an interaction of distance to historic marsh with proportion of habitat composed of submerged vegetation were important variables for explaining occupancy of giant gartersnakes. In particular, giant gartersnakes were more likely to occur closer to historic marsh and where relatively fewer fish were captured in traps. At locations in or near historic marsh, giant gartersnakes were more likely to occur in areas with less submerged vegetation, but this relationship was reversed (and more uncertain) at sites distant from historic marsh. Additional research with a larger sample of sites would further elucidate the distribution of giant gartersnakes in the Sacramento Valley.

  13. A preliminary investigation of the variables affecting the distribution of giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Skalos, Shannon M.; Casazza, Michael L.; Wylie, Glenn D.

    2015-09-30

    Giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) comprise a species of rare, semi-aquatic snake precinctive to the Central Valley of California. Because of the loss of more than 90% of their natural habitat, giant gartersnakes are listed as Threatened by the United States and California endangered species acts. Little is known, however, about the distribution of giant gartersnakes in the Sacramento Valley, which is where most extant populations occur. We conducted detection-nondetection surveys for giant gartersnakes throughout the rice-growing regions of the Sacramento Valley, and used occupancy models to examine evidence for the effects of landscape-scale GIS-derived variables, local habitat and vegetation composition, and prey communities on patterns of giant gartersnake occurrence. Although our results are based on a relatively small sample of sites, we found that distance to historic marsh, relative fish count, and an interaction of distance to historic marsh with proportion of habitat composed of submerged vegetation were important variables for explaining occupancy of giant gartersnakes. In particular, giant gartersnakes were more likely to occur closer to historic marsh and where relatively fewer fish were captured in traps. At locations in or near historic marsh, giant gartersnakes were more likely to occur in areas with less submerged vegetation, but this relationship was reversed (and more uncertain) at sites distant from historic marsh. Additional research with a larger sample of sites would further elucidate the distribution of giant gartersnakes in the Sacramento Valley.

  14. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate affects the growth of LNCaP cells via membrane fluidity and distribution of cellular zinc*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun-guo; Yu, Hai-ning; Sun, Shi-li; Zhang, Lan-cui; He, Guo-qing; Das, Undurti N.; Ruan, Hui; Shen, Sheng-rong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the viability, membrane properties, and zinc distribution, with and without the presence of Zn2+, in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. Methods: We examined changes in cellular morphology and membrane fluidity of LNCaP cells, distribution of cellular zinc, and the incorporated portion of EGCG after treatments with EGCG, Zn2+, and EGCG+Zn2+. Results: We observed an alteration in cellular morphology and a decrease in membrane fluidity of LNCaP cells after treatment with EGCG or Zn2+. The proportion of EGCG incorporated into liposomes treated with the mixture of EGCG and Zn2+ at the ratio of 1:1 was 90.57%, which was significantly higher than that treated with EGCG alone (30.33%). Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies and determination of fatty acids showed that the effects of EGCG on the membrane fluidity of LNCaP were decreased by Zn2+. EGCG accelerated the accumulation of zinc in the mitochondria and cytosol as observed by atomic absorption spectrometer. Conclusion: These results show that EGCG interacted with cell membrane, decreased the membrane fluidity of LNCaP cells, and accelerated zinc accumulation in the mitochondria and cytosol, which could be the mechanism by which EGCG inhibits proliferation of LNCaP cells. In addition, high concentrations of Zn2+ could attenuate the actions elicited by EGCG. PMID:19489106

  15. Neither folic acid supplementation nor pregnancy affects the distribution of folate forms in the red blood cells of women.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Brenda A; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2014-09-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30-36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P < 0.0022). No difference was found between the NPW-1 and NPW-5 groups. We detected 5-methyl-THF [limit of detection (LOD) = 0.06 nmol/L] in all groups and tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.2 nmol/L) in most women regardless of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype. Most women consuming folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83-84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6-3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did

  16. Distribution and expression analysis of transcription factors in tissues and progenitor cell populations of the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) in response to growth factors and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Katzenback, Barbara A; Karpman, Matthew; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2011-05-01

    We report on the mRNA levels of a panel of transcription factors in the kidney and spleen tissues, and in the cell populations from the blood, the spleen, and in the sorted kidney progenitor cells. The mRNA levels of cebpα, cjun, cmyb, egr1, gata1, gata2, gata3, lmo2, mafb, pax5, pu.1 and runx1 were assessed in healthy goldfish as well as in fish challenged with two different pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida A449 or Trypanosoma carassii. Spleen tissue from healthy goldfish showed higher expression of myeloid (cjun), erythroid (gata1) and lymphoid (gata3, pax5) transcription factors, and lower expression of the myeloid transcription factor cebpα when compared to that of kidney. Splenocytes and PBLs had significantly higher mRNA levels of the transcription factors involved in myeloid (pu.1, mafb, cjun, egr1, cebpa), erythroid (gata1, lmo2), and lymphoid pathways (gata3 and pax5) compared to sorted kidney R1 progenitor cells, while R1 progenitor cells had higher mRNA levels of early progenitor transcription factors (runx1 and cmyb). Furthermore, the R1 progenitor cells had higher mRNA levels of the transcription factors involved in early progenitor cells (egr1, gata2) and the lymphoid lineage progenitors (gata3, pax5) compared to those in kidney. The mRNA levels of the transcription factors (gata2, mafb, cjun, gata1, lmo2, gata3, and pax5) in R1 progenitor cells changed during cultivation; they were elevated in day 2 R1 cells and down-regulated by day 6 of cultivation, when compared to those of day 0 R1 cells. Treatment of day 2 R1 progenitor cells with rgCSF-1 resulted in an up-regulation of transcription factors important for myeloid cell development (cjun and egr1). Similarly, rgkitla up-regulated the expressions of myeloid (mafb, egr1 and cebpa) transcription factors. Changes in the expression of transcription factors in the R1 progenitor cells were related to the observed developmental processes of myeloid progenitor cells during cultivation or treatment with

  17. The distribution of arsenic in soils affected by the Aznalcóllar mine spill, SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Taggart, M A; Carlisle, M; Pain, D J; Williams, R; Osborn, D; Joyson, A; Meharg, A A

    2004-05-01

    In April 1998, a holding lagoon containing pyrite ore processing waste, failed and released an estimated 5-6 million m(3) of metal rich sludge and acidic waters into the Rio Guadiamar, SW Spain. Over 2700 ha of the internationally important Doñana National and Natural Parks were contaminated. The sludge component of the waste contained up to 0.6% arsenic. This paper presents an extensive set of 0-5 cm soil analyses results from samples taken 6-8 months after the spill. Data are presented on pseudo-total arsenic levels in these samples, and on arsenic removed by both single batch and sequential extraction techniques. Pseudo-total levels of arsenic in the sludge ranged from 1521 to 3510 mg kg(-1), and a mean 4.4% of this was found to be extractable using 2.5% acetic acid. Soils in the Guadiamar Valley and Entremuros areas (those worst affected by the spill) were found to contain 85.4-782 mg kg(-1) and 7.1-196 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total arsenic, respectively. The mean acetic acid extractable component in these areas was 2.5% and 4.9%, respectively. Background pseudo-total arsenic levels in the soils of the area have been found to be 4.2-13.6 mg kg(-1). Rapid input of acidic waters, and the acidic nature of the sludge itself, may have caused depletion of Mg, Na and K, and to a lesser extent Mn, Ca and PO(4) in the upper 5 cm of the worst affected soils. Sequential extraction results suggest clear As-Fe associations, and possible As-Mn associations within the more soluble phases.

  18. How do climate fluctuations affect persistent organic pollutant distribution in North America? Evidence from a decade of air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianmin; Hung, Hayley; Blanchard, Pierrette

    2004-05-01

    Interannual variations of persistent organic pollutant (POP) air concentrations from the Great Lakes region and the Arctic during the 1990s are strongly associated with atmospheric low-frequency fluctuations, notably the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern. This suggests interactions between climate variation and the global distribution of POPs. Atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and several lighter polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured around the Great Lakes basin increased during the positive phases of NAO and ENSO in the spring. This implies that anomalous high air temperatures associated with NAO and ENSO enhance volatilization of POPs from reservoirs on the Earth's surface accumulated in the past. These compounds are then available for transport from source regions to more pristine regions such as the Arctic under favorable flow patterns associated with global climate variations.

  19. Distribution of non-collagenous dentin matrix proteins and proteoglycans, and their relation to calcium accumulation in bisphosphonate-affected rat incisors.

    PubMed

    Ohma, N; Takagi, Y; Takano, Y

    2000-06-01

    It has been reported that multiple injections of 1-hydroxyethylidene- 1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) to rats prevent mineralization of incisor dentin, thereby revealing high concentrations of calcium in the non-mineralized matrix of circumpulpal dentin. To identify the molecules responsible for calcium accumulation in circumpulpal dentin matrix, rats were injected daily with HEBP (8 mg P/kg) for 7 d, and the incisors processed for various histochemical and immunohistochemical staining of non-collagenous matrices of dentin. Cuprolinic blue reactions for proteoglycans (PGs) were equally distributed in non-mineralized matrix of mantle and circumpulpal dentin layers. Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and osteopontin (OPN) immunoreactions were found in non-mineralized circumpulpal dentin matrix, but not in mantle dentin. In normal incisors, however, predentin matrix showing significant DSP immunoreactivity was negative for Ca-GBHA reactions. HEBP-affected, non-mineralized OPN immunopositive bone matrix was also non-reactive for calcium. From these observations, neither PGs, OPN nor DSP appear to be responsible for calcium accumulation in HEBP-affected circumpulpal dentin. Stains-all reactive component, possibly dentin phosphoprotein (DPP), only showed the same distribution as that of Ca-GBHA in both HEBP-affected and normal dentin matrix, implicating a possible contribution of DPP to calcium accumulation in circumpulpal dentin and, hence, to appositional mineralization of dentin. PMID:10872993

  20. Distribution and factors affecting adsorption of sterols in the surface sediments of Bosten Lake and Manas Lake, Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Yao, Xiaorui; Lu, Jianjiang; Qiao, Xiuwen; Liu, Zilong; Li, Shanman

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the concentrations and distribution of eight sterol compounds in the surface sediments of Bosten Lake and Manas Lake, Xinjiang, China. The ratios of sterols as diagnostic indices were used to identify pollution sources. The sediment of the two lakes was selected as an adsorbent to investigate the adsorption behaviour of sterols. Results showed that the sterols were widely distributed in the sediments of the lakes in the study areas. The total concentrations of the detected sterols in Bosten Lake and in Manas Lake were 1.584-27.897 and 2.048-18.373 μg g(-1)∙dw, respectively. In all of the sampling sites, the amount of faecal sterols was less than that of plant sterols. β-sitosterol was the dominant plant sterol with a mean concentration of 2.378 ± 2.234 μg g(-1)∙dw; cholesterol was the most abundant faecal sterol with a mean concentration of 1.060 ± 1.402 μg g(-1)∙dw. The pollution level was higher in Bosten Lake than in Manas Lake. Majority of the ratios clearly demonstrated that the contamination by human faecal sources was occurring at stations which are adjacent to residential areas and water inlets. The adsorption behaviour of sterols to sediment suggested that the sterol adsorption coefficients were reduced as temperature increased. As salinity increased, the adsorption quantity also increased. As pH increased, the sediment adsorption of sterol slightly increased because the strong alkaline solution is not conducive to the adsorption of sterols. The ratios between sterols did not change largely with the change in external factors.

  1. The Coupled Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Understanding How Clouds Affect the Vertical Distribution and Meridional Transport of Dust and Water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The dust and water cycles are crucial to the current Martian climate, and they are coupled through cloud formation. Dust strongly impacts the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation, while clouds provide radiative forcing and control the hemispheric exchange of water through the modification of the vertical distributions of water and dust. Recent improvements in the quality and sophistication of both observations and climate models allow for a more comprehensive understanding of how the interaction between the dust and water cycles (through cloud formation) affects the dust and water cycles individually. We focus here on the effects of clouds on the vertical distribution of dust and water, and how those vertical distributions control the net meridional transport of water. For this study, we utilize observations of temperature, dust and water ice from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) combined with the NASA ARC Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM). We demonstrate that the magnitude and nature of the net meridional transport of water between the northern and southern hemispheres during NH summer is sensitive to the vertical structure of the simulated aphelion cloud belt. We further examine how clouds influence the atmospheric thermal structure and thus the vertical structure of the cloud belt. Our goal is to identify and understand the importance of radiative/dynamic feedbacks due to the physical processes involved with cloud formation and evolution on the current climate of Mars.

  2. The Coupled Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Understanding How Clouds Affect the Vertical Distribution and Meridional Transport of Dust and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahre, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The dust and water cycles are crucial to the current Martian climate, and they are coupled through cloud formation. Dust strongly impacts the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation, while clouds provide radiative forcing and control the hemispheric exchange of water through the modification of the vertical distributions of water and dust. Recent improvements in the quality and sophistication of both observations and climate models allow for a more comprehensive understanding of how the interaction between the dust and water cycles (through cloud formation) affects the dust and water cycles individually. We focus here on the effects of clouds on the vertical distribution of dust and water, and how those vertical distributions control the net meridional transport of water. For this study, we utilize observations of temperature, dust and water ice from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) combined with the NASA ARC Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM). We demonstrate that the magnitude and nature of the net meridional transport of water between the northern and southern hemispheres during NH summer is sensitive to the vertical structure of the simulated aphelion cloud belt. We further examine how clouds influence the atmospheric thermal structure and thus the vertical structure of the cloud belt. Our goal is to identify and understand the importance of radiative/dynamic feedbacks due to the physical processes involved with cloud formation and evolution on the current climate of Mars.

  3. Flying over an infected landscape: distribution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in South Asia and satellite tracking of wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Loth, Leo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Prosser, Diann J.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Rao, Mandava Venkata Subba; Mundkur, Taej; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Tseveenmayadag, Natsagdorj; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus persists in Asia, posing a threat to poultry, wild birds, and humans. Previous work in Southeast Asia demonstrated that HPAI H5N1 risk is related to domestic ducks and people. Other studies discussed the role of migratory birds in the long distance spread of HPAI H5N1. However, the interplay between local persistence and long-distance dispersal has never been studied. We expand previous geospatial risk analysis to include South and Southeast Asia, and integrate the analysis with migration data of satellite-tracked wild waterfowl along the Central Asia flyway. We find that the population of domestic duck is the main factor delineating areas at risk of HPAI H5N1 spread in domestic poultry in South Asia, and that other risk factors, such as human population and chicken density, are associated with HPAI H5N1 risk within those areas. We also find that satellite tracked birds (Ruddy Shelduck and two Bar-headed Geese) reveal a direct spatio-temporal link between the HPAI H5N1 hot-spots identified in India and Bangladesh through our risk model, and the wild bird outbreaks in May,June,July 2009 in China(Qinghai Lake), Mongolia, and Russia. This suggests that the continental-scale dynamics of HPAI H5N1 are structured as a number of persistence areas delineated by domestic ducks, connected by rare transmission through migratory waterfowl.

  4. Outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus infection in two commercial layer facilities: lesions and viral antigen distribution.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Paulo H E; Stevenson, Gregory W; Killian, Mary L; Burrough, Eric R; Gauger, Phillip C; Harmon, Karen M; Magstadt, Drew R; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zhang, Jianqiang; Madson, Darin M; Piñeyro, Pablo; Derscheid, Rachel J; Schwartz, Kent J; Cooper, Vickie L; Halbur, Patrick G; Main, Rodger G; Sato, Yuko; Arruda, Bailey L

    2016-09-01

    The largest outbreak of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus (HPAIV) infection in U.S. history began in December 2014 resulting in the euthanasia of millions of birds and collateral economic consequences to the U.S. poultry industry. We describe 2 cases of H5N2 HPAIV infection in laying hens in Iowa. Following a sharp increase in mortality with minimal clinical signs, 15 dead birds, from 2 unrelated farms, were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Common lesions included diffuse edema and multifocal hemorrhage of the comb, catarrhal exudate in the oropharynx, and multifocal tracheal hemorrhage. Less common lesions included epicardial petechiae, splenic hemorrhage, and pancreatic necrosis. Influenza A virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple cell types including ependymal cells, the choroid plexus, neurons, respiratory epithelium and macrophages in the lung, cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, necrotic foci in the spleen, Kupffer cells in the liver, and necrotic acinar cells in the pancreas. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing confirmed H5N2 HPAIV with molecular characteristics similar to other contemporary U.S. H5N2 HPAIVs in both cases. PMID:27423731

  5. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Vera L.; Temperton, Vicky M.; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Rascher, Uwe; Postma, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm−3) increases in the topsoil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g−1) due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24–340 seeds m−2) in 2 consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose-response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm). Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the topsoil (0–10 cm). Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the topsoil. Rooting depth (D50) of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4–1.0 mm) was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased specific root length and shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m−2 suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a

  6. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Hecht, Vera L; Temperton, Vicky M; Nagel, Kerstin A; Rascher, Uwe; Postma, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm(-3)) increases in the topsoil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g(-1)) due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24-340 seeds m(-2)) in 2 consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose-response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm). Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the topsoil (0-10 cm). Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the topsoil. Rooting depth (D50) of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4-1.0 mm) was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased specific root length and shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m(-2) suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a

  7. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Hecht, Vera L; Temperton, Vicky M; Nagel, Kerstin A; Rascher, Uwe; Postma, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm(-3)) increases in the topsoil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g(-1)) due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24-340 seeds m(-2)) in 2 consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose-response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm). Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the topsoil (0-10 cm). Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the topsoil. Rooting depth (D50) of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4-1.0 mm) was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased specific root length and shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m(-2) suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a

  8. Landscape distribution of food and nesting sites affect larval diet and nest size, but not abundance of Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Coudrain, Valérie; Rittiner, Sarah; Herzog, Felix; Tinner, Willy; Entling, Martin H

    2016-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat for beneficial organisms and the ecosystem services they provide. Multiple-habitat users such as wild bees depend on both nesting and foraging habitat. Thus, they may be affected by the fragmentation of at least two habitat types. We investigated the effects of landscape-scale amount of and patch isolation from both nesting habitat (woody plants) and foraging habitat (specific pollen sources) on the abundance and diet of Osmia bicornis L. Trap-nests of O. bicornis were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. Nesting and foraging habitats were mapped in a radius of 500 m around the sites. Pollen composition of larval diet changed as isolation to the main pollen source, Ranunculus, increased, suggesting that O. bicornis adapted its foraging strategy in function of the nest proximity to main pollen sources. Abundance of O. bicornis was neither related to isolation or amount of nesting habitat nor to isolation or abundance of food plants. Surprisingly, nests of O. bicornis contained fewer larvae in sites at forest edge compared to isolated sites, possibly due to higher parasitism risk. This study indicates that O. bicornis can nest in a variety of situations by compensating scarcity of its main larval food by exploiting alternative food sources.

  9. Landscape distribution of food and nesting sites affect larval diet and nest size, but not abundance of Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Coudrain, Valérie; Rittiner, Sarah; Herzog, Felix; Tinner, Willy; Entling, Martin H

    2016-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat for beneficial organisms and the ecosystem services they provide. Multiple-habitat users such as wild bees depend on both nesting and foraging habitat. Thus, they may be affected by the fragmentation of at least two habitat types. We investigated the effects of landscape-scale amount of and patch isolation from both nesting habitat (woody plants) and foraging habitat (specific pollen sources) on the abundance and diet of Osmia bicornis L. Trap-nests of O. bicornis were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. Nesting and foraging habitats were mapped in a radius of 500 m around the sites. Pollen composition of larval diet changed as isolation to the main pollen source, Ranunculus, increased, suggesting that O. bicornis adapted its foraging strategy in function of the nest proximity to main pollen sources. Abundance of O. bicornis was neither related to isolation or amount of nesting habitat nor to isolation or abundance of food plants. Surprisingly, nests of O. bicornis contained fewer larvae in sites at forest edge compared to isolated sites, possibly due to higher parasitism risk. This study indicates that O. bicornis can nest in a variety of situations by compensating scarcity of its main larval food by exploiting alternative food sources. PMID:25973721

  10. Native defects affecting the Li atom distribution tune the optical emission of ZnO:Li epitaxial thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, R.; Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Datta, R.

    2014-02-03

    It is found that the oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}) defect concentration affecting the separation between individual species in Li{sub Zn}-Li{sub i} complex influences the optical emission property of Li{sub 0.06}Zn{sub 0.94}O epitaxial thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition. The film grown under low oxygen partial pressure (n-type conductivity)/higher partial pressure (resistive-type) has broad emission at ∼2.99 eV/∼2.1 eV and a narrower emission at 3.63 eV/3.56 eV, respectively. First principle based mBJLDA electronic structure calculation suggests that the emission at 2.99 eV is due to the Li{sub Zn}-Li{sub i} pair complex and the emission at 2.1 eV is when the component species are away from each other.

  11. Availability and temporal heterogeneity of water supply affect the vertical distribution and mortality of a belowground herbivore and consequently plant growth.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Tomonori; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2014-01-01

    We examined how the volume and temporal heterogeneity of water supply changed the vertical distribution and mortality of a belowground herbivore, and consequently affected plant biomass. Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) seedlings were grown at one per pot under different combinations of water volume (large or small volume) and heterogeneity (homogeneous water conditions, watered every day; heterogeneous conditions, watered every 4 days) in the presence or absence of a larva of the belowground herbivorous insect, Anomala cuprea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The larva was confined in different vertical distributions to top feeding zone (top treatment), middle feeding zone (middle treatment), or bottom feeding zone (bottom treatment); alternatively no larva was introduced (control treatment) or larval movement was not confined (free treatment). Three-way interaction between water volume, heterogeneity, and the herbivore significantly affected plant biomass. With a large water volume, plant biomass was lower in free treatment than in control treatment regardless of heterogeneity. Plant biomass in free treatment was as low as in top treatment. With a small water volume and in free treatment, plant biomass was low (similar to that under top treatment) under homogeneous water conditions but high under heterogeneous ones (similar to that under middle or bottom treatment). Therefore, there was little effect of belowground herbivory on plant growth under heterogeneous water conditions. In other watering regimes, herbivores would be distributed in the shallow soil and reduced root biomass. Herbivore mortality was high with homogeneous application of a large volume or heterogeneous application of a small water volume. Under the large water volume, plant biomass was high in pots in which the herbivore had died. Thus, the combinations of water volume and heterogeneity affected plant growth via the change of a belowground herbivore. PMID:24937126

  12. Availability and temporal heterogeneity of water supply affect the vertical distribution and mortality of a belowground herbivore and consequently plant growth.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Tomonori; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2014-01-01

    We examined how the volume and temporal heterogeneity of water supply changed the vertical distribution and mortality of a belowground herbivore, and consequently affected plant biomass. Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) seedlings were grown at one per pot under different combinations of water volume (large or small volume) and heterogeneity (homogeneous water conditions, watered every day; heterogeneous conditions, watered every 4 days) in the presence or absence of a larva of the belowground herbivorous insect, Anomala cuprea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The larva was confined in different vertical distributions to top feeding zone (top treatment), middle feeding zone (middle treatment), or bottom feeding zone (bottom treatment); alternatively no larva was introduced (control treatment) or larval movement was not confined (free treatment). Three-way interaction between water volume, heterogeneity, and the herbivore significantly affected plant biomass. With a large water volume, plant biomass was lower in free treatment than in control treatment regardless of heterogeneity. Plant biomass in free treatment was as low as in top treatment. With a small water volume and in free treatment, plant biomass was low (similar to that under top treatment) under homogeneous water conditions but high under heterogeneous ones (similar to that under middle or bottom treatment). Therefore, there was little effect of belowground herbivory on plant growth under heterogeneous water conditions. In other watering regimes, herbivores would be distributed in the shallow soil and reduced root biomass. Herbivore mortality was high with homogeneous application of a large volume or heterogeneous application of a small water volume. Under the large water volume, plant biomass was high in pots in which the herbivore had died. Thus, the combinations of water volume and heterogeneity affected plant growth via the change of a belowground herbivore.

  13. Storage temperature affects distribution of carbon, VFA, ammonia, phosphorus, copper and zinc in raw pig slurry and its separated liquid fraction.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Olga; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-08-01

    Chemical-mechanical separation of pig slurry into a solid fraction rich in dry matter, P, Cu and Zn and a liquid fraction rich in inorganic N but poor in dry matter may allow farmers to manage surplus slurry by exporting the solid fraction to regions with no nutrient surplus. Pig slurry can be applied to arable land only in certain periods during the year, so it is commonly stored prior to field application. This study investigated the effect of storage duration and temperature on chemical characteristics and P, Cu and Zn distribution between particle size classes of raw slurry and its liquid separation fraction. Dry matter, VFA, total N and ammonium content of both slurry products decreased during storage and were affected by temperature, showing higher losses at higher storage temperatures. In both products, total P, Cu and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by storage duration or temperature. Particle size distribution was affected by slurry separation, storage duration and temperature. In raw slurry, particles larger than 1 mm decreased, whereas particles 250 μm-1 mm increased. The liquid fraction produced was free of particles >500 μm, with the highest proportions of P, Cu and Zn in the smallest particle size class (<25 μm). The proportion of particles <25 μm increased when the liquid fraction was stored at 5 °C, but decreased at 25 °C. Regardless of temperature, distribution of P, Cu and Zn over particle size classes followed a similar pattern to dry matter.

  14. Factors that affect molecular weight distribution of Suwannee river fulvic acid as determined by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Leenheer, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of methylation, molar response, multiple charging, solvents, and positive and negative ionization on molecular weight distributions of aquatic fulvic acid were investigated by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. After preliminary analysis by positive and negative modes, samples and mixtures of standards were derivatized by methylation to minimize ionization sites and reanalyzed.Positive ionization was less effective and produced more complex spectra than negative ionization. Ionization in methanol/water produced greater response than in acetonitrile/water. Molar response varied widely for the selected free acid standards when analyzed individually and in a mixture, but after methylation this range decreased. After methylation, the number average molecular weight of the Suwannee River fulvic acid remained the same while the weight average molecular weight decreased. These differences are probably indicative of disaggregation of large aggregated ions during methylation. Since the weight average molecular weight decreased, it is likely that aggregate formation in the fulvic acid was present prior to derivatization, rather than multiple charging in the mass spectra. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The uptake and distribution of cadmium in tomato plants as affected by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Wolterbeek, H T; van der Meer, A; de Bruin, M

    1988-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill, cv. Tiny Tim) were examined with and without the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) as metabolic inhibitor. Eight-week-old intact and derooted tomato seedlings were used in hydroculture experiments with cadmium applied as (115)Cd(NO(3))(2) in a range of concentrations. Measurements of the (115)Cd content of roots, stems and leaves were carried out by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The data showed that applications of both EDTA and DNP resulted in reduced total Cd accumulation in the plants, but relatively enhanced Cd transport into the above-ground plant parts. The Cd mobility in the transport channels in the shoots was increased by EDTA in both intact and derooted plants. Application of DNP leads to increased relative Cd import to leaves in derooted plants, but a reduced import into leaves of intact plants. These results suggest that Cd-complexes are formed in root cells before root-to-shoot transport. Furthermore, initial Cd uptake may be associated with adsorption on the negative charges of the cell walls of the root system. The high Cd mobility in shoots, in experiments with intact plants and Cd-EDTA application, indicates the possibility of simultaneous uptake of Cd and EDTA, possibly as a Cd-EDTA complex. PMID:15092498

  16. IL-10 Conditioning of Human Skin Affects the Distribution of Migratory Dendritic Cell Subsets and Functional T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lindenberg, Jelle J.; Oosterhoff, Dinja; Sombroek, Claudia C.; Lougheed, Sinéad M.; Hooijberg, Erik; Stam, Anita G. M.; Santegoets, Saskia J. A. M.; Tijssen, Henk J.; Buter, Jan; Pinedo, Herbert M.; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J. M.; Scheper, Rik J.; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.; van de Ven, Rieneke; de Gruijl, Tanja D.

    2013-01-01

    In cancer patients pervasive systemic suppression of Dendritic Cell (DC) differentiation and maturation can hinder vaccination efficacy. In this study we have extensively characterized migratory DC subsets from human skin and studied how their migration and T cell-stimulatory abilities were affected by conditioning of the dermal microenvironment through cancer-related suppressive cytokines. To assess effects in the context of a complex tissue structure, we made use of a near-physiological skin explant model. By 4-color flow cytometry, we identified migrated Langerhans Cells (LC) and five dermis-derived DC populations in differential states of maturation. From a panel of known tumor-associated suppressive cytokines, IL-10 showed a unique ability to induce predominant migration of an immature CD14+CD141+DC-SIGN+ DC subset with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules, up-regulated expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and the M2-associated macrophage marker CD163. A similarly immature subset composition was observed for DC migrating from explants taken from skin overlying breast tumors. Whereas predominant migration of mature CD1a+ subsets was associated with release of IL-12p70, efficient Th cell expansion with a Th1 profile, and expansion of functional MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells, migration of immature CD14+ DDC was accompanied by increased release of IL-10, poor expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and skewing of Th responses to favor coordinated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression and regulatory T cell differentiation and outgrowth. Thus, high levels of IL-10 impact the composition of skin-emigrated DC subsets and appear to favor migration of M2-like immature DC with functional qualities conducive to T cell tolerance. PMID:23875023

  17. In Absence of the Cellular Prion Protein, Alterations in Copper Metabolism and Copper-Dependent Oxidase Activity Affect Iron Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Legname, Giuseppe; Benetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. Their metabolism is strictly regulated by cellular pathways, since dysregulation of metal homeostasis is responsible for many detrimental effects. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases are characterized by alterations of metal ions. These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. In this work we focused on the effect of prion protein absence on copper and iron metabolism during development and adulthood. In particular, we investigated copper and iron functional values in serum and several organs such as liver, spleen, total brain and isolated hippocampus. Our results show that iron content is diminished in prion protein-null mouse serum, while it accumulates in liver and spleen. Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. Altogether, these results reveal that the absence of the cellular prion protein impairs copper metabolism and copper-dependent oxidase activity, with ensuing alteration of iron mobilization from cellular storage compartments. PMID:27729845

  18. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 μg/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 μg/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions.

  19. [Profile distribution and storage of soil organic carbon in a black soil as affected by land use types].

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiang-xiang; Han, Xiao-zeng; Li, Lu-jun; Zou, Wen-xiu; Lu, Xin-chun; Qiao, Yun-fa

    2015-04-01

    Taking soils in a long-term experimental field over 29 years with different land uses types, including arable land, bare land, grassland and larch forest land as test materials, the distribution and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the profile (0-200 cm) in typical black soil (Mollisol) region of China were investigated. The results showed that the most significant differences in SOC content occurred in the 0-10 cm surface soil layer among all soils with the order of grassland > arable land > larch forest land > bare land. SOC contents at 10-120 cm depth were lower in arable land as compared with the other land use types. Compared with arable land, grassland could improve SOC content obviously. SOC content down to a depth of 60 cm in grassland was significantly higher than that in arable land. The content of SOC at 0-10 cm in bare land was significantly lower than that in arable land. Although there were no significant differences in SOC content at 0-20 cm depth between larch forestland and arable land, the SOC contents at 20-140 cm depth were generally higher in larch forestland than that in arable land. In general, SOC content showed a significantly negative relationship with soil pH, bulk density, silt and clay content and an even stronger significantly positive relationship with soil total N content and sand content. The SOC storage in arable land at 0-200 cm depth was significantly lower than that in the other three land use types, which was 13.6%, 11.4% and 10.9% lower than in grassland, bare land and larch forest land, respectively. Therefore, the arable land of black soil has a great potential for sequestering C in soil and improving environmental quality.

  20. Cuspy no more: how outflows affect the central dark matter and baryon distribution in Λ cold dark matter galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Governato, F.; Zolotov, A.; Pontzen, A.; Christensen, C.; Oh, S. H.; Brooks, A. M.; Quinn, T.; Shen, S.; Wadsley, J.

    2012-05-01

    We examine the evolution of the inner dark matter (DM) and baryonic density profile of a new sample of simulated field galaxies using fully cosmological, Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM), high-resolution SPH+N-Body simulations. These simulations include explicit H2 and metal cooling, star formation (SF) and supernovae-driven gas outflows. Starting at high redshift, rapid, repeated gas outflows following bursty SF transfer energy to the DM component and significantly flatten the originally 'cuspy' central DM mass profile of galaxies with present-day stellar masses in the 104.5-109.8 M⊙ range. At z= 0, the central slope of the DM density profile of our galaxies (measured between 0.3 and 0.7 kpc from their centre) is well fitted by ρDM ∝ rα with α≃-0.5 + 0.35 log10(M★/108 M⊙), where M★ is the stellar mass of the galaxy and 4 < log M★ < 9.4. These values imply DM profiles flatter than those obtained in DM-only simulations and in close agreement with those inferred in galaxies from the THINGS and LITTLE THINGS surveys. Only in very small haloes, where by z= 0 SF has converted less than ˜0.03 per cent of the original baryon abundance into stars, outflows do not flatten the original cuspy DM profile out to radii resolved by our simulations. The mass (DM and baryonic) measured within the inner 500 pc of each simulated galaxy remains nearly constant over 4 orders of magnitudes in stellar mass for M★ < 109 M⊙. This finding is consistent with estimates for faint Local Group dwarfs and field galaxies. These results address one of the outstanding problems faced by the CDM model, namely the strong discrepancy between the original predictions of cuspy DM profiles and the shallower central DM distribution observed in galaxies.

  1. Habitat selection, facilitation, and biotic settlement cues affect distribution and performance of coral recruits in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Habitat selection can determine the distribution and performance of individuals if the precision with which sites are chosen corresponds with exposure to risks or resources. Contrastingly, facilitation can allow persistence of individuals arriving by chance and potentially maladapted to local abiotic conditions. For marine organisms, selection of a permanent attachment site at the end of their larval stage or the presence of a facilitator can be a critical determinant of recruitment success. In coral reef ecosystems, it is well known that settling planula larvae of reef-building corals use coarse environmental cues (i.e., light) for habitat selection. Although laboratory studies suggest that larvae can also use precise biotic cues produced by crustose coralline algae (CCA) to select attachment sites, the ecological consequences of biotic cues for corals are poorly understood in situ. In a field experiment exploring the relative importance of biotic cues and variability in habitat quality to recruitment of hard corals, pocilloporid and acroporid corals recruited more frequently to one species of CCA, Titanoderma prototypum, and significantly less so to other species of CCA; these results are consistent with laboratory assays from other studies. The provision of the biotic cue accurately predicted coral recruitment rates across habitats of varying quality. At the scale of CCA, corals attached to the “preferred” CCA experienced increased survivorship while recruits attached elsewhere had lower colony growth and survivorship. For reef-building corals, the behavioral selection of habitat using chemical cues both reduces the risk of incidental mortality and indicates the presence of a facilitator. PMID:20169452

  2. N-Glycan Branching Affects the Subcellular Distribution of and Inhibition of Matriptase by HAI-2/Placental Bikunin

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hongyu; Xu, Yuan; Shiao, Frank; Huang, Nanxi; Li, Linpei; Lee, Ming-Shyue; Johnson, Michael D.; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The gene product of SPINT 2, that encodes a transmembrane, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor independently designated as HAI-2 or placenta bikunin (PB), is involved in regulation of sodium absorption in human gastrointestinal track. Here, we show that SPINT 2 is expressed as two species of different size (30-40- versus 25-kDa) due to different N-glycans on Asn-57. The N-glycan on 25-kDa HAI-2 appears to be of the oligomannose type and that on 30-40-kDa HAI-2 to be of complex type with extensive terminal N-acetylglucosamine branching. The two different types of N-glycan differentially mask two epitopes on HAI-2 polypeptide, recognized by two different HAI-2 mAbs. The 30-40-kDa form may be mature HAI-2, and is primarily localized in vesicles/granules. The 25-kDa form is likely immature HAI-2, that remains in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the perinuclear regions of mammary epithelial cells. The two different N-glycans could, therefore, represent different maturation stages of N-glycosylation with the 25-kDa likely a precursor of the 30-40-kDa HAI-2, with the ratio of their levels roughly similar among a variety of cells. In breast cancer cells, a significant amount of the 30-40-kDa HAI-2 can translocate to and inhibit matriptase on the cell surface, followed by shedding of the matriptase-HAI-2 complex. The 25-kDa HAI-2 appears to have also exited the ER/Golgi, being localized at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane of breast cancer cells. While the 25-kDa HAI-2 was also detected at the extracellular face of plasma membrane at very low levels it appears to have no role in matriptase inhibition probably due to its paucity on the cell surface. Our study reveals that N-glycan branching regulates HAI-2 through different subcellular distribution and subsequently access to different target proteases. PMID:26171609

  3. Scolecobasidium humicola, a fungal pathogen of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1973-01-01

    Scolecobasidium humicola, a previously undescribed fungal pathogen of fish was isolated from coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In natural infections the kidney was the organ most affected. The disease was difficult to transmit experimentally and appeared to be only weakly contagious.

  4. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modeling of published pathogen inactivation data.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T

    2010-05-01

    A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures. PMID:20501041

  5. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modeling of published pathogen inactivation data.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T

    2010-05-01

    A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures.

  6. Quantitative molecular biology and gas flux measurements demonstrate soil treatment and depth affects on the distribution and activity of denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, M. M.; Jahangir, M.; Cardenas, L.; Khalil, M.; Richards, K. R.; O'Flaherty, V.

    2010-12-01

    The growing industrialisation of agriculture has led to a dramatic increase in organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) fertiliser inputs to agro-ecosystems. This increase has had negative effects on the quality of water ecosystems and greenhouse gas emissions.The study objective was to quantify denitrification and denitrifying microorganisms, using real-time PCR assays of the nitrite reductase(nir) and nitrous oxide reductase(nos) functional gene copy concentrations (GCC g[soil]-1) in Irish agricultural surface and subsoils. Soil cores from 3 soil horizons (A:0-10 cm; B:45-55 cm; C:120-130cm) were amended with 3 alternate N- and C-source amendments (NO3-; NO3-+glucose-C; NO3-+Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Real-time production of N2O and N2 was recorded by gas chromatography in a specialized He/O2 environment. N2O and Total Denitrification (TDN) (N2O+N2) production was generally greater in surface soil (2.052 mg/kg/d TDN) than in subsoils (0.120 mg/kg/d TDN). The abundance of denitrifying nirS, nirK (nir) and nos genes was higher in the surface soil, decreasing with soil depth, except in incubations amended with NO3- and DOC, where the carbon source directly positively affected gene copy numbers and fluxes of N2O and N2 production. C addition increased soil denitrification rates, and resulted in higher N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios in surface soil (0.39) than subsoils (0.005), indicating that the subsoil had higher potential for complete reduction of N2O to N2. In the subsoils, complete reduction of NO3- due to glucose-C and DOC addition was observed. Interestingly, at all 3 soil depths, lower nirK abundance (2.78 105 GCC) was recorded, compared to nirS (1.45 107 GCC), but the overall abundance of nir (S+K) i.e. (1.54 107GCC), corresponded with N2O emission fluxes (3.34 mg/kg/d) Statistical analysis indicates negative correlation between nirK GCC and N2O production, but a strong positive correlation was observed between nirS GCC and N2O. We therefore hypothesize that the

  7. Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) ‐ New functionality for predicting changes in distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in response to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee II, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie R; McCoy, Lee M; Clinton, Patrick J.; Clough, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    The “Sea‐Level Affecting Marshes Model” (SLAMM) is a moderate resolution model used to predict the effects of sea level rise on marsh habitats (Craft et al. 2009). SLAMM has been used extensively on both the west coast (e.g., Glick et al., 2007) and east coast (e.g., Geselbracht et al., 2011) of the United States to evaluate potential changes in the distribution and extent of tidal marsh habitats. However, a limitation of the current version of SLAMM, (Version 6.2) is that it lacks the ability to model distribution changes in seagrass habitat resulting from sea level rise. Because of the ecological importance of SAV habitats, U.S. EPA, USGS, and USDA partnered with Warren Pinnacle Consulting to enhance the SLAMM modeling software to include new functionality in order to predict changes in Zostera marina distribution within Pacific Northwest estuaries in response to sea level rise. Specifically, the objective was to develop a SAV model that used generally available GIS data and parameters that were predictive and that could be customized for other estuaries that have GIS layers of existing SAV distribution. This report describes the procedure used to develop the SAV model for the Yaquina Bay Estuary, Oregon, appends a statistical script based on the open source R software to generate a similar SAV model for other estuaries that have data layers of existing SAV, and describes how to incorporate the model coefficients from the site‐specific SAV model into SLAMM to predict the effects of sea level rise on Zostera marina distributions. To demonstrate the applicability of the R tools, we utilize them to develop model coefficients for Willapa Bay, Washington using site‐specific SAV data.

  8. Distribution of free radicals and intermediates during the photodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls strongly affected by cosolvents and TiO₂ catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Wang, Yujun; Qin, Wenxiu; Zhang, Shicheng; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential ecological risk because of their high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Photodegradation, which is an important process for the removal of PCBs, is greatly influenced by the cosolvent and catalyst. Hence, it is important to explore their effects on the photodegradation behavior of PCBs. In this study, 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB28) was selected as a model compound, and the effects of two typical cosolvents, namely acetone and ethanol, and TiO2 catalyst on the distributions of free radicals and intermediates were investigated. Interestingly, the TiO2 catalyst did not promote PCB28 photodegradation. Moreover, the free radical distribution was greatly influenced in the presence of the TiO2 catalyst, while was only slightly affected in its absence by the cosolvent kinds. The main photodegradation pathways are proposed on the basis of the distribution of detected intermediates, which were significantly regulated by both the cosolvent and TiO2 catalyst. The results provide novel insights into the photodegradation of PCBs and may have important implications for choosing cosolvent in desorbing soil PCBs and consequently enhancing PCBs degradation.

  9. Infectious pathogens and bronchiolitis outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Camargo, Carlos A

    2014-07-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common early childhood illness and an important cause of morbidity, it is the number one cause of hospitalization among US infants. Bronchiolitis is also an active area of research, and recent studies have advanced our understanding of this illness. Although it has long been the conventional wisdom that the infectious etiology of bronchiolitis does not affect outcomes, a growing number of studies have linked specific pathogens of bronchiolitis (e.g., rhinovirus) to short- and long-term outcomes, such as future risk of developing asthma. The authors review the advent of molecular diagnostic techniques that have demonstrated diverse pathogens in bronchiolitis, and they review recent studies on the complex link between infectious pathogens of bronchiolitis and the development of childhood asthma.

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  11. The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  12. Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers in small, high-elevation rivers near the western edge of the species' natural distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amadio, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Johnson, K.; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

    2005-01-01

    Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers Sander canadensis were studied throughout the Wind River basin, a high-elevation watershed (> 1,440 m above mean sea level) on the western periphery of the species' natural distribution in central Wyoming. Adult saugers appeared to have a contiguous distribution over 170 km of streams among four rivers in the watershed. The upstream boundaries of sauger distribution were influenced by summer water temperatures and channel slopes in two rivers and by water diversion dams that created barriers to upstream movement in the other two rivers. Models that included summer water temperature, maximum water depth, habitat type (pool or run), dominant substrate, and alkalinity accounted for the variation in sauger occurrence across the watershed within the areas of sauger distribution. Water temperature was the most important basin-scale habitat feature associated with sauger occurrence, and maximum depth was the most important site-specific habitat feature. Saugers were found in a larger proportion of pools than runs in all segments of the watershed and occurred almost exclusively in pools in upstream segments of the watershed. Suitable summer water temperatures and deep, low-velocity habitat were available to support saugers over a large portion of the Wind River watershed. Future management of saugers in the Wind River watershed, as well as in other small river systems within the species' native range, should involve (1) preserving natural fluvial processes to maintain the summer water temperatures and physical habitat features needed by saugers and (2) assuring that barriers to movement do not reduce upstream boundaries of populations.

  13. Genetic evidence for a high diversity and wide distribution of endemic strains of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild Asian amphibians.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Fong, Jonathan J; Cha, Moonsuk; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Baek, Hae Jun; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce

    2013-08-01

    Population declines and extinctions of amphibians have been attributed to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), especially one globally emerging recombinant lineage ('Bd-GPL'). We used PCR assays that target the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of Bd to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bd in South Korea, where Bd is widely distributed but is not known to cause morbidity or mortality in wild populations. We isolated Korean Bd strains from native amphibians with low infection loads and compared them to known worldwide Bd strains using 19 polymorphic SNP and microsatellite loci. Bd prevalence ranged between 12.5 and 48.0%, in 11 of 17 native Korean species, and 24.7% in the introduced bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus. Based on ITS sequence variation, 47 of the 50 identified Korean haplotypes formed a group closely associated with a native Brazilian Bd lineage, separated from the Bd-GPL lineage. However, multilocus genotyping of three Korean Bd isolates revealed strong divergence from both Bd-GPL and the native Brazilian Bd lineages. Thus, the ITS region resolves genotypes that diverge from Bd-GPL but otherwise generates ambiguous phylogenies. Our results point to the presence of highly diversified endemic strains of Bd across Asian amphibian species. The rarity of Bd-GPL-associated haplotypes suggests that either this lineage was introduced into Korea only recently or Bd-GPL has been outcompeted by native Bd strains. Our results highlight the need to consider possible complex interactions among native Bd lineages, Bd-GPL and their associated amphibian hosts when assessing the spread and impact of Bd-GPL on worldwide amphibian populations.

  14. Factors affecting distribution of wood, detritus, and sediment in headwater streams draining managed young-growth red alder - Conifer forests in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomi, T.; Johnson, A.C.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Orlikowska, E.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Factors (riparian stand condition, management regimes, and channel properties) affecting distributions of wood, detritus (leaves and branches), and sediment were examined in headwater streams draining young-growth red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer riparian forests (40 years old) remained in channels and provided sites for sediment and organic matter storage. Despite various alder-conifer mixtures and past harvesting effects, the abundance of large wood, fine wood, and detritus accumulations significantly decreased with increasing channel bank-full width (0.5-3.5 m) along relatively short channel distances (up to 700 m). Changes in wood, detritus, and sediment accumulations together with changes in riparian stand characteristics create spatial and temporal variability of in-channel conditions in headwater systems. A component of alder within young-growth riparian forests may benefit both wood production and biological recovery in disturbed headwater stream channels. ?? 2006 NRC.

  15. Linking spatially distributed biogeochemical data with a two-host life-cycle pathogen:A model of whirling disease dynamics in salmonid fishes in the Intermountain West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Lamb, R.; Stevens, L.; Morrissey, L. A.; Kerans, B.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    and then compared the resulting groups to site-specific worm community structures. The SOM mined patterns from this highly dimensional data and produced 2-D visualizations of the data clusters. This process, in concert with iterative feedback with stream ecologists, led to the adaptation of new nonlinear relations and suggests new subsets of input parameters that guide the next round of SOM simulations, expand the pool of concepts, hone existing hypotheses, generate new hypotheses, and so on. The methodologies developed here helped mine the relationship between dominant biogeochemical features and the distribution of an alternative host of a vertebrate disease. This collaboration between modelers, field ecologists and geneticists will prove useful in guiding future data gathering and modeling efforts. (i.e., identifying missing data gaps and sampling frequency), and will enable more effective, high-volume hypothesis generation that, in turn, will better guide complex experimental designs providing integrated understanding of disease dynamics.

  16. Ectopic expression of foxtail millet zip-like gene, SiPf40, in transgenic rice plants causes a pleiotropic phenotype affecting tillering, vascular distribution and root development.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yunxia; Wang, Baosheng; Zhao, Qian; Ao, Guangming; Yu, Jingjuan

    2010-12-01

    Plant architecture determines grain production in rice (Oryza sativa) and is affected by important agronomic traits such as tillering, plant height, and panicle morphology. Many key genes involved in controlling the initiation and outgrowth of axillary buds, the elongation of stems, and the architecture of inflorescences have been isolated and analyzed. Previous studies have shown that SiPf40, which was identified from a foxtail millet (Setaria italica) immature seed cDNA library, causes extra branches and tillers in SiPf40-transgenic tobacco and foxtail millet, respectively. To reconfirm its function, we generated transgenic rice plants overexpressing SiPf40 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter. SiPf40-overexpressing transgenic plants have a greater tillering number and a wider tiller angle than wild-type plants. Their root architecture is modified by the promotion of lateral root development, and the distribution of xylem and phloem in the vascular bundle is affected. Analysis of hormone levels showed that the ratios of indole-3-acetic acid/zeatin (IAA/ZR) and IAA/gibberellic acid (IAA/GA) decreased in SiPf40-transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. These findings strongly suggest that SiPf40 plays an important role in plant architecture.

  17. Analysis of the factors that affect the distribution and abundance of three Neobuxbaumia species (Cactaceae) that differ in their degree of rarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruedas, Marcela; Valverde, Teresa; Zavala-Hurtado, José Alejandro

    2006-03-01

    We studied three species of columnar cacti in the genus Neobuxbaumia which differ in their degree of rarity: Neobuxbaumia macrocephala (the rarest), Neobuxbaumia tetetzo (intermediate), and Neobuxbaumia mezcalaensis (the most common). To investigate the ecological factors that limit their distribution and abundance, we surveyed 80 localities within the region of Tehuacan-Cuicatlán, in Central Mexico. At each locality we measured several environmental variables, and the density of the Neobuxbaumia populations present. We used a principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the factors that are associated to the presence/absence of each species. Additionally, we carried out multiple regressions between environmental variables and population density to test whether the variation in these variables was related to changes in abundance. The results show that factors significantly affecting the distribution of these species are mean annual temperature, altitude, rainfall, and soil properties such as texture and organic matter content. N. mezcalaensis reaches maximum population densities of 14,740 plants per ha (average density = 3943 plants per ha) and is associated with localities with relatively abundant rainfall. N. tetetzo shows maximum population densities of 14,060 plants per ha (average = 3070 plants per ha), and is associated with sites located at high latitudes and with high phosphorous content in the soil. The rarest species, N. macrocephala, shows maximum densities of 1180 plants per ha (average = 607 plants per ha) and is associated with localities with high soil calcium content. The distribution of this species is limited to sites with specific values of the environmental variables recorded, conferring it a high habitat specificity which accounts for its rarity.

  18. The movement and distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae on pea plants is affected by egg placement and flowering.

    PubMed

    Perkins, L E; Cribb, B W; Hanan, J; Zalucki, M P

    2010-10-01

    The distribution and movement of 1st instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on whole garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were determined in glasshouse trials. This economically-important herbivore attacks a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural and indigenous plants. To investigate the mechanisms underlying larval intra-plant movement, we used early-flowering and wild-type plant genotypes and placed eggs at different vertical heights within the plants, one egg per plant. Leaf water and nitrogen content and cuticle hardness were measured at the different plant heights. Of 92 individual larvae, 41% did not move from the node of eclosion, 49% moved upwards and 10% moved downwards with the distance moved being between zero and ten plant nodes. Larvae from eggs placed on the lower third of the plant left the natal leaf more often and moved further than larvae from eggs placed in the middle or upper thirds. The low nutritive value of leaves was the most likely explanation for more movement away from lower plant regions. Although larvae on flowering plants did not move further up or down than larvae on non-flowering plants, they more often departed the leaflet (within a leaf) where they eclosed. The final distribution of larvae was affected by plant genotype, with larvae on flowering plants found less often on leaflets and more often on stipules, tendrils and reproductive structures. Understanding intra-plant movement by herbivorous insects under natural conditions is important because such movement determines the value of economic loss to host crops. Knowing the behaviour underlying the spatial distribution of herbivores on plants will assist us to interpret field data and should lead to better informed pest management decisions.

  19. The role of pathogen shedding in linking within- and between-host pathogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Michael; Orive, Maria E; Holt, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    A model linking within- and between-host pathogen dynamics via pathogen shedding (emission of pathogens throughout the course of infection) is developed, and several aspects of host availability and co-infection are considered. In this model, the rate of pathogen shedding affects both the pathogen population size within a host (also affecting host mortality) and the rate of infection of new hosts. Our goal is to ascertain how the rate of shedding is likely to evolve, and what factors permit coexistence of alternative shedding rates in a pathogen population. For a constant host population size (where an increase in infected hosts necessarily decreases susceptible hosts), important differences arise depending on whether pathogens compete only for susceptible (uninfected) hosts, or whether co-infection allows for competition for infected hosts. With no co-infection, the pathogen type that can persist with the lowest number of susceptible hosts will outcompete any other, which under the assumptions of the model is the pathogen with the highest basic reproduction number. This is often a pathogen with a relatively high shedding rate (s). If within-host competition is allowed, a trade-off develops due to the conflicting effects of shedding on within- and between-host pathogen dynamics, with within-host competition favoring clones with low shedding rates while between-host competition benefits clones with higher shedding rates. With within-host competition for the same host cells, low shedding rate clones should eliminate high-s clones in a co-infected host, if equilibrium is reached. With co-infection, but no within-host competition, pathogen clones still interact by affecting the mortality of co-infected hosts; here, coexistence is more likely. With co-infection, two clones can coexist if one is the superior competitor for uninfected hosts and the other for co-infected hosts. PMID:25958811

  20. Recent evolution of bacterial pathogens: the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans case.

    PubMed

    Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2009-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a widespread epiphyte and commensal bacterium, has evolved into an Hrp-dependent and host-specific tumorigenic pathogen by acquiring a plasmid containing a pathogenicity island (PAI). The PAI was evolved on an iteron plasmid of the IncN family, which is distributed among genetically diverse populations of P. agglomerans. The structure of the PAI supports the premise of a recently evolved pathogen. This review offers insight into a unique model for emergence of new bacterial pathogens. It illustrates how horizontal gene transfer was the major driving force in the creation of the PAI, although a pathoadaptive mechanism might also be involved. It describes the crucial function of plant-produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinines (CK) in gall initiation as opposed to the significant but secondary role of pathogen-secreted phytohormones. It also unveils the role of type III effectors in determination of host specificity and evolution of the pathogen into pathovars. Finally, it describes how interactions between the quorum sensing system, hrp regulatory genes, and bacterially secreted IAA or CKs affect gall formation and epiphytic fitness.

  1. The B-3 ethylene response factor MtERF1-1 mediates resistance to a subset of root pathogens in Medicago truncatula without adversely affecting symbiosis with rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Gleason, Cynthia; Oliver, Richard P; Singh, Karam B

    2010-10-01

    The fungal necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is a significant constraint to a range of crops as diverse as cereals, canola, and legumes. Despite wide-ranging germplasm screens in many of these crops, no strong genetic resistance has been identified, suggesting that alternative strategies to improve resistance are required. In this study, we characterize moderate resistance to R. solani anastomosis group 8 identified in Medicago truncatula. The activity of the ethylene- and jasmonate-responsive GCC box promoter element was associated with moderate resistance, as was the induction of the B-3 subgroup of ethylene response transcription factors (ERFs). Genes of the B-1 subgroup showed no significant response to R. solani infection. Overexpression of a B-3 ERF, MtERF1-1, in Medicago roots increased resistance to R. solani as well as an oomycete root pathogen, Phytophthora medicaginis, but not root knot nematode. These results indicate that targeting specific regulators of ethylene defense may enhance resistance to an important subset of root pathogens. We also demonstrate that overexpression of MtERF1-1 enhances disease resistance without apparent impact on nodulation in the A17 background, while overexpression in sickle reduced the hypernodulation phenotype. This suggests that under normal regulation of nodulation, enhanced resistance to root diseases can be uncoupled from symbiotic plant-microbe interactions in the same tissue and that ethylene/ERF regulation of nodule number is distinct from the defenses regulated by B-3 ERFs. Furthermore, unlike the stunted phenotype previously described for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ubiquitously overexpressing B-3 ERFs, overexpression of MtERF1-1 in M. truncatula roots did not show adverse effects on plant development.

  2. Factors Affecting Occurrence and Distribution of Selected Contaminants in Ground Water From Selected Areas in the Piedmont Aquifer System, Eastern United States, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Falls, William F.; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Harned, Douglas A.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of ground-water sampling from 255 wells and 19 springs in 11 studies done by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program within the Piedmont Aquifer System (PAS) were analyzed to determine the factors affecting occurrence and distribution of selected contaminants. The contaminants, which were selected on the basis of potential human-health effects, included nitrate, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and radon. The PAS was subdivided on the basis of the general rock type of the aquifers into three areas for the study-crystalline, carbonate, and siliciclastic. The 11 studies were designed to areally represent an individual aquifer rock type and overall are representative of the PAS in their distribution; 7 studies are in the crystalline-rock aquifers, 3 studies are in the siliciclastic-rock aquifers, and 1 study is in the carbonate-rock aquifers. Four of the studies were focused on land use, 1 in an agricultural area and 3 in urban areas. The remaining studies had wells representing a range of land-use types. Analysis of results of nitrate sampling indicated that in 8 of the 10 areas where nitrate concentrations were measured, median concentrations of nitrate were below 3 mg/L (milligrams per liter); 2 of the 10 areas had statistically significant higher median concentrations when compared to the other 8 areas. The agricultural land-use study in the carbonate-rock aquifer in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin had the highest median nitrate concentration (11 mg/L), and 60 percent of the wells sampled exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L. The major aquifer study in the crystalline-rock aquifer of the Lower Susquehanna River Basin Study Unit had the second-highest median nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations were positively correlated to the percentage of agricultural land use around the well, the total input of nitrogen from all sources

  3. Assessment of metabolic flux distribution in the thermophilic hydrogen producer Caloramator celer as affected by external pH and hydrogen partial pressure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caloramator celer is a strict anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium capable of converting glucose to hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide, acetate, ethanol and formate by a mixed acid fermentation. Depending on the growth conditions C. celer can produce H2 at high yields. For a biotechnological exploitation of this bacterium for H2 production it is crucial to understand the factors that regulate carbon and electron fluxes and therefore the final distribution of metabolites to channel the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Results Combining experimental results from batch fermentations with genome analysis, reconstruction of central carbon metabolism and metabolic flux analysis (MFA), this study shed light on glucose catabolism of the thermophilic alkalitolerant bacterium C. celer. Two innate factors pertaining to culture conditions have been identified to significantly affect the metabolic flux distribution: culture pH and partial pressures of H2 (PH2). Overall, at alkaline to neutral pH the rate of biomass synthesis was maximized, whereas at acidic pH the lower growth rate and the less efficient biomass formation are accompanied with more efficient energy recovery from the substrate indicating high cell maintenance possibly to sustain intracellular pH homeostasis. Higher H2 yields were associated with fermentation at acidic pH as a consequence of the lower synthesis of other reduced by-products such as formate and ethanol. In contrast, PH2 did not affect the growth of C. celer on glucose. At high PH2 the cellular redox state was balanced by rerouting the flow of carbon and electrons to ethanol and formate production allowing unaltered glycolytic flux and growth rate, but resulting in a decreased H2 synthesis. Conclusion C. celer possesses a flexible fermentative metabolism that allows redistribution of fluxes at key metabolic nodes to simultaneously control redox state and efficiently harvest energy from substrate even under unfavorable

  4. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gunzo; Bagarinao, Teodora; Yong, Annita Seok Kian; Chen, Chiau Yu; Noor, Siti Norasidah Mat; Lim, Leong Seng

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

  5. The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 specifically affects mitotic progression by regulating the basal level, distribution and stability of mitotic spindles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Yeon; Nam, Hyun-Ja; Do, Mihyang; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    RSK2, also known as RPS6KA3 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 3), is a downstream kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is important in regulating survival, transcription, growth and proliferation. However, its biological role in mitotic progression is not well understood. In this study, we examined the potential involvement of RSK2 in the regulation of mitotic progression. Interestingly, depletion of RSK2, but not RSK1, caused the accumulation of mitotic cells. Time-lapse analysis revealed that mitotic duration, particularly the duration for metaphase-to-anaphase transition was prolonged in RSK2-depleted cells, suggesting activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Indeed, more BubR1 (Bub1-related kinase) was present on metaphase plate kinetochores in RSK2-depleted cells, and depletion of BubR1 abolished the mitotic accumulation caused by RSK2 depletion, confirming BubR1-dependent SAC activation. Along with the shortening of inter-kinetochore distance, these data suggested that weakening of the tension across sister kinetochores by RSK2 depletion led to the activation of SAC. To test this, we analyzed the RSK2 effects on the stability of kinetochore–microtubule interactions, and found that RSK2-depleted cells formed less kinetochore–microtubule fibers. Moreover, RSK2 depletion resulted in the decrease of basal level of microtubule as well as an irregular distribution of mitotic spindles, which might lead to observed several mitotic progression defects such as increase in unaligned chromosomes, defects in chromosome congression and a decrease in pole-to-pole distance in these cells. Taken together, our data reveal that RSK2 affects mitotic progression by regulating the distribution, basal level and the stability of mitotic spindles. PMID:27491410

  6. An investigation of agitation speed as a factor affecting the quantity and monomer distribution of alginate from Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC(®) 9046.

    PubMed

    Kıvılcımdan Moral, C; Sanin, F D

    2012-03-01

    Alginate is a copolymer of β-D: -mannuronic and α-L: -guluronic acids. Distribution of these monomers in the alginate structure is one of the important characteristics that affect the commercial value of the polymer. In the present work, the effect of agitation speed in the range of 200-700 rpm on alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC(®) 9046 was investigated at a dissolved oxygen tension of 5% of air saturation. Experiments were conducted in a fermentor operated in batch mode for 72 h while the production of biomass and alginate, the consumption of substrate and the change in culture broth viscosity and monomer distribution of the polymer were monitored. Results showed that the growth rate of the bacteria increased from 0.165 to 0.239 h(-1) by the increase of mixing speed from 200 to 400 rpm. On the other hand, alginate production was found to be the most efficient at 400 rpm with the highest value of 4.51 g/l achieved at the end of fermentation. The viscosity of culture broth showed similar trends to alginate production. Viscosity was recorded as 24.61 cP at 400 rpm while it was only 4.26 cP at 700 rpm. The MM- and GG-block contents were almost equal in most of the culture times at 400 rpm. On the other hand, GG-blocks dominated at both low and high mixing speeds. Knowing that GG-blocks make rigid and protective gels with divalent cations, due to the higher GG-block content, the gel formation potential is higher at 200 rpm as well at 700 rpm, which might originate from the unfavorable environmental conditions that the bacteria were exposed to. PMID:22009058

  7. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of land snails in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, G K M; Santos, S B

    2012-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of terrestrial molluscs are affected by environmental factors, but data are lacking for Brazilian land snails. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between measured environmental factors and the land-snail species composition of two hillsides covered with Atlantic Rain Forest on Ilha Grande. On each hillside, five plots located at 100 m intervals between 100 to 500 m asl were chosen. Each plot was sampled by carrying out timed searches and collecting and sorting litter samples from ten quadrats of 25 × 75 cm. A range of environmental data was measured for each of the quadrats in a plot. A Cluster Analysis was carried out for the richness and abundance data. The environmental variables were analysed using a Pearson Correlation Matrix and Discriminant Analysis. Our results show that the two mountains are similar in species richness, but species composition and abundance are different, probably reflecting observed differences in environmental conditions. The environmental factors associated with compositional variation between the two mountains were: atmospheric temperature, soil temperature, litter depth, and relative air humidity. Distinct luminosity and canopy closure conditions were related to the composition of the land-snail community of one hillside. PMID:22437388

  8. Elimination of D-lactate synthesis increases poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and ethanol synthesis from glycerol and affects cofactor distribution in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nikel, Pablo I; Giordano, Andrea M; de Almeida, Alejandra; Godoy, Manuel S; Pettinari, M Julia

    2010-11-01

    The effect of eliminating D-lactate synthesis in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-accumulating recombinant Escherichia coli (K24K) was analyzed using glycerol as a substrate. K24KL, an ldhA derivative, produced more biomass and had altered carbon partitioning among the metabolic products, probably due to the increased availability of carbon precursors and reducing power. This resulted in a significant increase of PHB and ethanol synthesis and a decrease in acetate production. Cofactor measurements revealed that cultures of K24K and K24KL had a high intracellular NADPH content and that the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio was higher than the NADH/NAD(+) ratio. The ldhA mutation affected cofactor distribution, resulting in a more reduced intracellular state, mainly due to a further increase in NADPH/NADP(+). In 60-h fed-batch cultures, K24KL reached 41.9 g·liter⁻¹ biomass and accumulated PHB up to 63% ± 1% (wt/wt), with a PHB yield on glycerol of 0.41 ± 0.03 g·g⁻¹, the highest reported using this substrate.

  9. Elimination of d-Lactate Synthesis Increases Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) and Ethanol Synthesis from Glycerol and Affects Cofactor Distribution in Recombinant Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Nikel, Pablo I.; Giordano, Andrea M.; de Almeida, Alejandra; Godoy, Manuel S.; Pettinari, M. Julia

    2010-01-01

    The effect of eliminating d-lactate synthesis in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-accumulating recombinant Escherichia coli (K24K) was analyzed using glycerol as a substrate. K24KL, an ldhA derivative, produced more biomass and had altered carbon partitioning among the metabolic products, probably due to the increased availability of carbon precursors and reducing power. This resulted in a significant increase of PHB and ethanol synthesis and a decrease in acetate production. Cofactor measurements revealed that cultures of K24K and K24KL had a high intracellular NADPH content and that the NADPH/NADP+ ratio was higher than the NADH/NAD+ ratio. The ldhA mutation affected cofactor distribution, resulting in a more reduced intracellular state, mainly due to a further increase in NADPH/NADP+. In 60-h fed-batch cultures, K24KL reached 41.9 g·liter−1 biomass and accumulated PHB up to 63% ± 1% (wt/wt), with a PHB yield on glycerol of 0.41 ± 0.03 g·g−1, the highest reported using this substrate. PMID:20870794

  10. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ(13)C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1). Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners.

  11. Endurance training alters basal erythrocyte MCT-1 contents and affects the lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells in T2DM men following maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Opitz, David; Lenzen, Edward; Opiolka, Andreas; Redmann, Melanie; Hellmich, Martin; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brixius, Klara; Brinkmann, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Chronic elevated lactate levels are associated with insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, lactacidosis plays a role in limiting physical performance. Erythrocytes, which take up lactate via monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) proteins, may help transport lactate within the blood from lactate-producing to lactate-consuming organs. This study investigates whether cycling endurance training (3 times/week for 3 months) alters the basal erythrocyte content of MCT-1, and whether it affects lactate distribution kinetics in the blood of T2DM men (n = 10, years = 61 ± 9, body mass index = 31 ± 3 kg/m(2)) following maximal exercise (WHO step-incremental cycle ergometer test). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that basal erythrocyte contents of MCT-1 protein were up-regulated (+90%, P = 0.011) post-training. Erythrocyte and plasma lactate increased from before acute exercise (= resting values) to physical exhaustion pre- as well as post-training (pre-training: +309%, P = 0.004; +360%, P < 0.001; post-training: +318%, P = 0.008; +300%, P < 0.001), and did not significantly decrease during 5 min recovery. The lactate ratio (erythrocytes:plasma) remained unchanged after acute exercise pre-training, but was significantly increased after 5 min recovery post-training (compared with the resting value) (+22%, P = 0.022). The results suggest an increased time-delayed influx of lactate into erythrocytes following an acute bout of exercise in endurance-trained diabetic men.

  12. Flight Investigation on a Fighter-type Airplane of Factors which Affect the Loads and Load Distributions on the Vertical Tail Surfaces During Rudder Kicks and Fishtails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boshar, John

    1947-01-01

    Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

  13. Microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2006-06-01

    The supply of clean drinking water is a major, and relatively recent, public health milestone. Control of microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems, often achieved through the addition of disinfectants, is essential to limiting waterborne illness, particularly in immunocompromised subpopulations. Recent inquiries into the microbial ecology of distribution systems have found that pathogen resistance to chlorination is affected by microbial community diversity and interspecies relationships. Research indicates that multispecies biofilms are generally more resistant to disinfection than single-species biofilms. Other recent findings are the increased survival of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila when present inside its protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis and the depletion of chloramine disinfectant residuals by nitrifying bacteria, leading to increased overall microbial growth. Interactions such as these are unaccounted for in current disinfection models. An understanding of the microbial ecology of distribution systems is necessary to design innovative and effective control strategies that will ensure safe and high-quality drinking water. PMID:16701992

  14. Emergence and accumulation of novel pathogens suppress an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Harmon, Philip F; Goss, Erica M; Clay, Keith; Luke Flory, S

    2016-04-01

    Emerging pathogens are a growing threat to human health, agriculture and the diversity of ecological communities but may also help control problematic species. Here we investigated the diversity, distribution and consequences of emerging fungal pathogens infecting an aggressive invasive grass that is rapidly colonising habitats throughout the eastern USA. We document the recent emergence and accumulation over time of diverse pathogens that are members of a single fungal genus and represent multiple, recently described or undescribed species. We also show that experimental suppression of these pathogens increased host performance in the field, demonstrating the negative effects of emerging pathogens on invasive plants. Our results suggest that invasive species can facilitate pathogen emergence and amplification, raising concerns about movement of pathogens among agricultural, horticultural, and wild grasses. However, one possible benefit of pathogen accumulation is suppression of aggressive invaders over the long term, potentially abating their negative impacts on native communities.

  15. Pathogen pollution and the emergence of a deadly amphibian pathogen.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Peterson, Anna C

    2012-11-01

    Imagine a single pathogen that is responsible for mass mortality of over a third of an entire vertebrate class. For example, if a single pathogen were causing the death, decline and extinction of 30% of mammal species (including humans), the entire world would be paying attention. This is what has been happening to the world's amphibians - the frogs, toads and salamanders that are affected by the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (referred to as Bd), which are consequently declining at an alarming rate. It has aptly been described as the worst pathogen in history in terms of its effects on biodiversity (Kilpatrick et al. 2010). The pathogen was only formally described about 13 years ago (Longcore et al. 1999), and scientists are still in the process of determining where it came from and investigating the question: why now? Healthy debate has ensued as to whether Bd is a globally endemic organism that only recently started causing high mortality due to shifting host responses and/or environmental change (e.g. Pounds et al. 2006) or whether a virulent strain of the pathogen has rapidly disseminated around the world in recent decades, affecting new regions with a vengeance (e.g. Morehouse et al. 2003; Weldon et al. 2004; Lips et al. 2008). We are finally beginning to shed more light on this question, due to significant discoveries that have emerged as a result of intensive DNA-sequencing methods comparing Bd isolates from different amphibian species across the globe. Evidence is mounting that there is indeed a global panzootic lineage of Bd (BdGPL) in addition to what appear to be more localized endemic strains (Fisher et al. 2009; James et al. 2009; Farrer et al. 2011). Additionally, BdGPL appears to be a hypervirulent strain that has resulted from the hybridization of different Bd strains that came into contact in recent decades, and is now potentially replacing the less-virulent endemic strains of the pathogen (Farrer et al. 2011

  16. Pathogen pollution and the emergence of a deadly amphibian pathogen.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Peterson, Anna C

    2012-11-01

    Imagine a single pathogen that is responsible for mass mortality of over a third of an entire vertebrate class. For example, if a single pathogen were causing the death, decline and extinction of 30% of mammal species (including humans), the entire world would be paying attention. This is what has been happening to the world's amphibians - the frogs, toads and salamanders that are affected by the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (referred to as Bd), which are consequently declining at an alarming rate. It has aptly been described as the worst pathogen in history in terms of its effects on biodiversity (Kilpatrick et al. 2010). The pathogen was only formally described about 13 years ago (Longcore et al. 1999), and scientists are still in the process of determining where it came from and investigating the question: why now? Healthy debate has ensued as to whether Bd is a globally endemic organism that only recently started causing high mortality due to shifting host responses and/or environmental change (e.g. Pounds et al. 2006) or whether a virulent strain of the pathogen has rapidly disseminated around the world in recent decades, affecting new regions with a vengeance (e.g. Morehouse et al. 2003; Weldon et al. 2004; Lips et al. 2008). We are finally beginning to shed more light on this question, due to significant discoveries that have emerged as a result of intensive DNA-sequencing methods comparing Bd isolates from different amphibian species across the globe. Evidence is mounting that there is indeed a global panzootic lineage of Bd (BdGPL) in addition to what appear to be more localized endemic strains (Fisher et al. 2009; James et al. 2009; Farrer et al. 2011). Additionally, BdGPL appears to be a hypervirulent strain that has resulted from the hybridization of different Bd strains that came into contact in recent decades, and is now potentially replacing the less-virulent endemic strains of the pathogen (Farrer et al. 2011

  17. The Combined Deficiency of Immunoproteasome Subunits Affects Both the Magnitude and Quality of Pathogen- and Genetic Vaccination-Induced CD8+ T Cell Responses to the Human Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Ersching, Jonatan; Vasconcelos, José R.; Ferreira, Camila P.; Caetano, Braulia C.; Machado, Alexandre V.; Bruna–Romero, Oscar; Baron, Monique A.; Ferreira, Ludmila R. P.; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    The β1i, β2i and β5i immunoproteasome subunits have an important role in defining the repertoire of MHC class I-restricted epitopes. However, the impact of combined deficiency of the three immunoproteasome subunits in the development of protective immunity to intracellular pathogens has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that immunoproteasomes play a key role in host resistance and genetic vaccination-induced protection against the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative agent of Chagas disease), immunity to which is dependent on CD8+ T cells and IFN-γ (the classical immunoproteasome inducer). We observed that infection with T. cruzi triggers the transcription of immunoproteasome genes, both in mice and humans. Importantly, genetically vaccinated or T. cruzi-infected β1i, β2i and β5i triple knockout (TKO) mice presented significantly lower frequencies and numbers of splenic CD8+ effector T cells (CD8+CD44highCD62Llow) specific for the previously characterized immunodominant (VNHRFTLV) H-2Kb-restricted T. cruzi epitope. Not only the quantity, but also the quality of parasite-specific CD8+ T cell responses was altered in TKO mice. Hence, the frequency of double-positive (IFN-γ+/TNF+) or single-positive (IFN-γ+) cells specific for the H-2Kb-restricted immunodominant as well as subdominant T. cruzi epitopes were higher in WT mice, whereas TNF single-positive cells prevailed among CD8+ T cells from TKO mice. Contrasting with their WT counterparts, TKO animals were also lethally susceptible to T. cruzi challenge, even after an otherwise protective vaccination with DNA and adenoviral vectors. We conclude that the immunoproteasome subunits are key determinants in host resistance to T. cruzi infection by influencing both the magnitude and quality of CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:27128676

  18. Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J; Schurr, M; LeBlanc, C; Ramamurthy, R; Buchanan, K; Nickerson, C

    2002-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria utilise a number of mechanisms to cause disease in human hosts. Bacterial pathogens express a wide range of molecules that bind host cell targets to facilitate a variety of different host responses. The molecular strategies used by bacteria to interact with the host can be unique to specific pathogens or conserved across several different species. A key to fighting bacterial disease is the identification and characterisation of all these different strategies. The availability of complete genome sequences for several bacterial pathogens coupled with bioinformatics will lead to significant advances toward this goal. PMID:11930024

  19. A microfluidic-based hybrid SPR/molecular imaging biosensor for the multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zordan, Michael D.; Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Acharya, Ghanashyam; Reece, Lisa M.; Aronson, Arthur I.; Park, Kinam; Leary, James F.

    2009-02-01

    It is important to screen our food supply for pathogen contaminations. Current methods to screen for bacterial contamination involve using costly reagents such as antibodies or PCR reagents or time-costly growth in cultures. There is need for portable, real-time, multiplex pathogen detection technology that can predict the safety of food where it is produced or distributed. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging is a sensitive, label-free method that can detect the binding of an analyte to a surface due to changes in refractive index that occur upon binding. It can be used for label-free detection of the presence of potential pathogens. Simultaneous fluorescence molecular imaging on the other side of the biochip can be used to ascertain pathogen status or functional state which may affect its potential danger to humans or animals. We are designing and testing hybrid microfluidic biochips to detect multiple pathogens using a combination of SPRI and fluorescence imaging. The device consists of an array of gold spots, each functionalized with a peptide targeting a specific pathogen. This peptide biosensor array is enclosed by a PDMS microfluidic flow chamber that delivers a magnetically concentrated sample to be tested. An SPR image is taken from the bottom of the biochip. Image analysis is used to quantify the amount of pathogen (both live and dead) bound to each spot. Since PDMS is very transmissive to visible light, an epi-fluorescence image is taken from the top of the biochip. Fluorescence imaging determines the live:dead ratio of each pathogen using an inexpensive SYTO 9(R)-Propidium Iodide assay. The volume of sample that the biochip can analyze is small, so possible pathogens are pre-concentrated using immunomagnetic separation. Functionalized magnetic particles are bound to pathogens present in the sample, and a magnet is used to separate them from the bulk fluid.

  20. Disruption of the arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase gene in the mouse alters the phenotype for methylation of arsenic and affects distribution and retention of orally administered arsenate.

    PubMed

    Drobna, Zuzana; Naranmandura, Hua; Kubachka, Kevin M; Edwards, Brenda C; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Styblo, Miroslav; Le, X Chris; Creed, John T; Maeda, Noboyu; Hughes, Michael F; Thomas, David J

    2009-10-01

    The arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) gene encodes a 43 kDa protein that catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic. Altered expression of AS3MT in cultured human cells controls arsenic methylation phenotypes, suggesting a critical role in arsenic metabolism. Because methylated arsenicals mediate some toxic or carcinogenic effects linked to inorganic arsenic exposure, studies of the fate and effects of arsenicals in mice which cannot methylate arsenic could be instructive. This study compared retention and distribution of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice and in wild-type C57BL/6 mice in which expression of the As3mt gene is normal. Male and female mice of either genotype received an oral dose of 0.5 mg of arsenic as arsenate per kg containing [(73)As]-arsenate. Mice were radioassayed for up to 96 h after dosing; tissues were collected at 2 and 24 h after dosing. At 2 and 24 h after dosing, livers of As3mt knockouts contained a greater proportion of inorganic and monomethylated arsenic than did livers of C57BL/6 mice. A similar predominance of inorganic and monomethylated arsenic was found in the urine of As3mt knockouts. At 24 h after dosing, As3mt knockouts retained significantly higher percentages of arsenic dose in liver, kidneys, urinary bladder, lungs, heart, and carcass than did C57BL/6 mice. Whole body clearance of [(73)As] in As3mt knockouts was substantially slower than in C57BL/6 mice. At 24 h after dosing, As3mt knockouts retained about 50% and C57BL/6 mice about 6% of the dose. After 96 h, As3mt knockouts retained about 20% and C57BL/6 mice retained less than 2% of the dose. These data confirm a central role for As3mt in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic and indicate that phenotypes for arsenic retention and distribution are markedly affected by the null genotype for arsenic methylation, indicating a close linkage between the metabolism and retention of arsenicals.

  1. Dendritic Distributions of Dopamine D1 Receptors in the Rat Nucleus Accumbens are Synergistically Affected by Startle-Evoking Auditory Stimulation and Apomorphine

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yuko; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2007-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition of the startle response to auditory stimulation (AS) is a measure of sensorimotor gating that is disrupted by the dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonist, apomorphine. The apomorphine effect on prepulse inhibition is ascribed in part to altered synaptic transmission in the limbic-associated shell and motor-associated core subregions of the nucleus accumbens (Acb). We used electron microscopic immunolabeling of dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in the Acb shell and core to test the hypothesis that region-specific redistribution of D1Rs is a short-term consequence of AS and/or apomorphine administration. Thus, comparisons were made in the Acb of rats sacrificed one hour after receiving a single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (VEH) or apomorphine (APO) alone or in combination with startle-evoking AS (VEH+AS, APO+AS). In both regions of all animals, the D1R immunoreactivity was present in somata and large, as well as small, presumably more distal dendrites and dendritic spines. In the Acb shell, compared with the VEH+AS group, the APO+AS group had more spines containing D1R immunogold particles, and these particles were more prevalent on the plasma membranes. This suggests movement of D1Rs from distal dendrites to the plasma membrane of dendritic spines. Small- and medium-sized dendrites also showed a higher plasmalemmal density of D1R in the Acb shell of the APO+AS group compared with the APO group. In the Acb core, the APO+AS group had a higher plasmalemmal density of D1R in medium-sized dendrites compared with the APO or VEH+AS group. Also in the Acb core, D1R-labeled dendrites were significantly smaller in the VEH+AS group compared to all other groups. These results suggest that alerting stimuli and apomorphine synergistically affect distributions of D1R in Acb shell and core. Thus adaptations in D1R distribution may contribute to sensorimotor gating deficits that can be induced acutely by apomorphine or develop over time in schizophrenia. PMID:17490822

  2. ESTROGEN AND AGING AFFECT THE SYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA-IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE CA1 REGION OF FEMALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Elizabeth M.; Yildirim, Murat; Janssen, William G.M.; Lou, W.Y. Wendy; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. Young females rats express more estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunolabeling in CA1sr spine synapse complexes than aged rats and ERα regulation is E sensitive in young but not aged rats. The current study examined whether estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in spine synapse complexes may be altered by age or E treatment. Young (3–4 months) and aged (22–23 months) female rats were ovariectomized 7 days prior to implantation of silastic capsules containing either vehicle (cholesterol) or E (10% in cholesterol) for 2 days. ERβ immunoreactivity (ir) in CA1sr was quantitatively analyzed using post-embedding electron microscopy. ERβ-ir was more prominent postsynaptically than presynaptically and both age and E treatment affected its synaptic distribution. While age decreased the spine synaptic complex localization of ERβ-ir (i.e., within 60 nm of the pre- and post-synaptic membranes), E treatment increased synaptic ERβ in both young and aged rats. In addition, the E treatment, but not age, increased dendritic shaft labeling. This data demonstrates that like ERα the levels of ERβ-ir decrease in CA1 axospinous synapses with age, however, unlike ERα the levels of ERβ-ir increase in these synapses in both young and aged rats in response to E. This suggests that synaptic ERβ may be a more responsive target to E, particularly in aged females. PMID:20875808

  3. BACTERIAL WATERBORNE PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial pathogens are examples of classical etiological agents of waterborne disease. While these agents no longer serve as major threats to U.S. water supplies, they are still important pathogens in areas with substandard sanitation and poor water treatment facilities. In th...

  4. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOEpatents

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  5. Plant pathogen resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  6. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  7. Sources of Verticillium dahliae affecting lettuce.

    PubMed

    Atallah, Zahi K; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1995, lettuce in coastal California, where more than half of the crop in North America is grown, has consistently suffered from severe outbreaks of Verticillium wilt. The disease is confined to this region, although the pathogen (Verticillium dahliae) and the host are present in other crop production regions in California. Migration of the pathogen with infested spinach seed was previously documented, but the geographic sources of the pathogen, as well as the impact of lettuce seed sparsely infested with V. dahliae produced outside coastal California on the pathogen population in coastal California remain unclear. Population analyses of V. dahliae were completed using 16 microsatellite markers on isolates from lettuce plants in coastal California, infested lettuce seed produced in the neighboring Santa Clara Valley of California, and spinach seed produced in four major spinach seed production regions: Chile, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States (Washington State). California produces 80% of spinach in the United States and all seed planted with the majority infested by V. dahliae comes from the above four sources. Three globally distributed genetic populations were identified, indicating sustained migration among these distinct geographic regions with multiple spinach crops produced each year and repeated every year in coastal California. The population structure of V. dahliae from coastal California lettuce plants was heavily influenced by migration from spinach seed imported from Denmark and Washington. Conversely, the sparsely infested lettuce seed had limited or no contribution to the Verticillium wilt epidemic in coastal California. The global trade in plant and seed material is likely contributing to sustained shifts in the population structure of V. dahliae, affecting the equilibrium of native populations, and likely affecting disease epidemiology.

  8. Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Castillo, Flor Yazmín; Loera-Muro, Abraham; Jacques, Mario; Garneau, Philippe; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Harel, Josée; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma Lilián

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health. PMID:26011827

  9. Waterborne pathogens: detection methods and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Castillo, Flor Yazmín; Loera-Muro, Abraham; Jacques, Mario; Garneau, Philippe; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Harel, Josée; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma Lilián

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health. PMID:26011827

  10. Waterborne pathogens: detection methods and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Castillo, Flor Yazmín; Loera-Muro, Abraham; Jacques, Mario; Garneau, Philippe; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Harel, Josée; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma Lilián

    2015-05-21

    Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

  11. Association and Host Selectivity in Multi-Host Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Malpica, José M.; Sacristán, Soledad; Fraile, Aurora; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of multi-host pathogens over their host range conditions their population dynamics and structure. Also, host co-infection by different pathogens may have important consequences for the evolution of hosts and pathogens, and host-pathogen co-evolution. Hence it is of interest to know if the distribution of pathogens over their host range is random, or if there are associations between hosts and pathogens, or between pathogens sharing a host. To analyse these issues we propose indices for the observed patterns of host infection by pathogens, and for the observed patterns of co-infection, and tests to analyse if these patterns conform to randomness or reflect associations. Applying these tests to the prevalence of five plant viruses on 21 wild plant species evidenced host-virus associations: most hosts and viruses were selective for viruses and hosts, respectively. Interestingly, the more host-selective viruses were the more prevalent ones, suggesting that host specialisation is a successful strategy for multi-host pathogens. Analyses also showed that viruses tended to associate positively in co-infected hosts. The developed indices and tests provide the tools to analyse how strong and common are these associations among different groups of pathogens, which will help to understand and model the population biology of multi-host pathogens. PMID:17183670

  12. Overexpression of Differentially Expressed Genes Identified in Non-pathogenic and Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Clones Allow Identification of New Pathogenicity Factors Involved in Amoebic Liver Abscess Formation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Martin; Fehling, Helena; Matthiesen, Jenny; Lorenzen, Stephan; Schuldt, Kathrin; Bernin, Hannah; Zaruba, Mareen; Lender, Corinna; Ernst, Thomas; Ittrich, Harald; Roeder, Thomas; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2016-08-01

    We here compared pathogenic (p) and non-pathogenic (np) isolates of Entamoeba histolytica to identify molecules involved in the ability of this parasite to induce amoebic liver abscess (ALA)-like lesions in two rodent models for the disease. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 12 clones (A1-A12) derived from a non-pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-A and 12 clones (B1-B12) derived from a pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-B. "Non-pathogenicity" included the induction of small and quickly resolved lesions while "pathogenicity" comprised larger abscess development that overstayed day 7 post infection. All A-clones were designated as non-pathogenic, whereas 4 out of 12 B-clones lost their ability to induce ALAs in gerbils. No correlation between ALA formation and cysteine peptidase (CP) activity, haemolytic activity, erythrophagocytosis, motility or cytopathic activity was found. To identify the molecular framework underlying different pathogenic phenotypes, three clones were selected for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Comparison of a non-pathogenic clone A1np with pathogenic clone B2p revealed 76 differentially expressed genes, whereas comparison of a non-pathogenic clone B8np with B2p revealed only 19 differentially expressed genes. Only six genes were found to be similarly regulated in the two non-pathogenic clones A1np and B8np in comparison with the pathogenic clone B2p. Based on these analyses, we chose 20 candidate genes and evaluated their roles in ALA formation using the respective gene-overexpressing transfectants. We conclude that different mechanisms lead to loss of pathogenicity. In total, we identified eight proteins, comprising a metallopeptidase, C2 domain proteins, alcohol dehydrogenases and hypothetical proteins, that affect the pathogenicity of E. histolytica. PMID:27575775

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  14. Host-Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    English, Patricia D.; Jurale, Joseph Byrne; Albersheim, Peter

    1971-01-01

    The effect of a number of physiological variables on the secretion of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes by culture-grown Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Saccardo and Magnus) Scribner was determined. The number of spores used to inoculate cultures grown on isolated bean hypocotyl cell walls affects the time after inoculation at which enzyme secretion occurs, but has no significant effect on the maximal amount of enzyme ultimately secreted. Cell walls isolated from bean leaves, first internodes, or hypocotyls (susceptible to C. lindemuthianum infection), when used as carbon source for C. lindemuthianum growth, stimulate the fungus to secrete more α-galactosidase than do cell walls isolated from roots (resistant to infection). The concentration of carbon source used for fungal growth determines the final level of enzyme activity in the culture fluid. The level of enzyme secretion is not proportional to fungal growth; rather, enzyme secretion is induced. Maximal α-galactosidase activity in the culture medium is found when the concentration of cell walls used as carbon source is 1% or greater. A higher concentration of cell walls is necessary for maximal α-arabinosidase activity. Galactose, when used as the carbon source, stimulates α-galactosidase secretion but, at comparable concentrations, is less effective in doing so than are cell walls. Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are secreted by C. lindemuthianum at different times during growth of the pathogen on isolated cell walls. Pectinase and α-arabinosidase are secreted first, followed by β-xylosidase and cellulase, then β-glucosidase, and, finally, α-galactosidase. PMID:16657562

  15. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee