Science.gov

Sample records for affecting short-term memory

  1. Gaze direction affects visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries were investigated by changing the horizontal position of stimuli that had to be remembered in a visuo-spatial short-term memory task. Observers looked at matrices containing a variable number of filled squares on the left or right side of the screen center. At stimulus offset, participants reproduced the positions of the filled squares in an empty response matrix. Stimulus and response matrices were presented in the same quadrant. We observed that memory performance was better when the matrices were shown on the left side of the screen. We distinguished between recall strategies that relied on visual or non-visual (verbal) cues and found that the effect of gaze position occurred more reliably in participants using visual recall strategies. Overall, the results show that there is a solid enhancement of visuo-spatial short-term memory when observers look to the left. In contrast, vertical position had no influence on performance. We suggest that unilateral gaze to the left activates centers in the right hemisphere contributing to visuo-spatial memory.

  2. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    PubMed

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  3. Inhibition of Connexin43 Hemichannels Impairs Spatial Short-Term Memory without Affecting Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Walrave, Laura; Vinken, Mathieu; Albertini, Giulia; De Bundel, Dimitri; Leybaert, Luc; Smolders, Ilse J.

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are active players in higher brain function as they can release gliotransmitters, which are essential for synaptic plasticity. Various mechanisms have been proposed for gliotransmission, including vesicular mechanisms as well as non-vesicular ones, for example by passive diffusion via connexin hemichannels (HCs). We here investigated whether interfering with connexin43 (Cx43) HCs influenced hippocampal spatial memory. We made use of the peptide Gap19 that blocks HCs but not gap junction channels and is specific for Cx43. To this end, we microinfused transactivator of transcription linked Gap19 (TAT-Gap19) into the brain ventricle of male NMRI mice and assessed spatial memory in a Y maze. We found that the in vivo blockade of Cx43 HCs did not affect the locomotor activity or spatial working memory in a spontaneous alternation Y maze task. Cx43 blockade did however significantly impair the spatial short-term memory in a delayed spontaneous alternation Y maze task. These results indicate that Cx43 HCs play a role in spatial short-term memory. PMID:28066184

  4. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  5. Sleep Deprivation Accelerates Delay-Related Loss of Visual Short-Term Memories Without Affecting Precision

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Natalie; Asplund, Christopher L.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is an important measure of information processing capacity and supports many higher-order cognitive processes. We examined how sleep deprivation (SD) and maintenance duration interact to influence the number and precision of items in VSTM using an experimental design that limits the contribution of lapses at encoding. Design: For each trial, participants attempted to maintain the location and color of three stimuli over a delay. After a retention interval of either 1 or 10 seconds, participants reported the color of the item at the cued location by selecting it on a color wheel. The probability of reporting the probed item, the precision of report, and the probability of reporting a nonprobed item were determined using a mixture-modeling analysis. Participants were studied twice in counterbalanced order, once after a night of normal sleep and once following a night of sleep deprivation. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Nineteen healthy college age volunteers (seven females) with regular sleep patterns. Interventions: Approximately 24 hours of total SD. Measurements and Results: SD selectively reduced the number of integrated representations that can be retrieved after a delay, while leaving the precision of object information in the stored representations intact. Delay interacted with SD to lower the rate of successful recall. Conclusions: Visual short-term memory is compromised during sleep deprivation, an effect compounded by delay. However, when memories are retrieved, they tend to be intact. Citation: Wee N; Asplund CL; Chee MWL. Sleep deprivation accelerates delay-related loss of visual short-term memories without affecting precision. SLEEP 2013;36(6):849-856. PMID:23729928

  6. Does exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation affect short-term memory of elementary school students?

    PubMed Central

    Movvahedi, M. M.; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, A.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Haghani, M.; Razi, Z.; Shojaie-fard, M. B.; Zare, M.; Mina, E.; Mansourabadi, L.; Nazari-Jahromi; Safari, A.; Shokrpour, N.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Now-a-days, children are exposed to mobile phone radiation at a very early age. We have previously shown that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz, Iran use mobile phones. Furthermore, we have indicated that the visual reaction time (VRT) of university students was significantly affected by a 10 min real/sham exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone. We found that these exposures decreased the reaction time which might lead to a better response to different hazards. We have also revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term exposure of elementary school students to radiofrequency (RF) radiation leads to changes in their reaction time and short-term memory. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 elementary school children ages ranging from 8 to 10 years studying at a public elementary school in Shiraz, Iran were enrolled in this study. Standardized computer-based tests of VRT and short-term memory (modified for children) were administered. The students were asked to perform some preliminary tests for orientation with the VRT test. After orientation, to reduce the random variation of measurements, each test was repeated ten times in both real and sham exposure phases. The time interval between the two subsequent sham and real exposure phases was 30 min. Results: The mean ± standard deviation reaction times after a 10 min talk period and after a 10 min sham exposure (switched off mobile) period were 249.0 ± 82.3 ms and 252.9 ± 68.2 ms (P = 0.629), respectively. On the other hand, the mean short-term memory scores after the talk and sham exposure periods were 1062.60 ± 305.39, and 1003.84 ± 339.68 (P = 0.030), respectively. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that short-term exposure of elementary school students to RF radiation leads to the better performance of

  7. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term.

    PubMed

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-10-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that the object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object, relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by using a family of frontal event-related potentials believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when the objects repeated frequently, such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate that frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms.

  8. Does Occupational Exposure of Shahid Dastghieb International Airport Workers to Radiofrequency Radiation Affect Their Short Term Memory and Reaction Time?

    PubMed Central

    Jarideh, S.; Taeb, S.; Pishva, S. M.; Haghani, M.; Sina, S.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Hosseini, M. A.; Nematollahi, S.; Shokrpour, N.; Hassan Shahi, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airport workers are continuously exposed to different levels of radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) radiation emitted by radar equipments. Radars are extensively used in military and aviation industries. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and MRI. The main goal of this study was to investigate if occupational exposure of Shahid Dastghieb international airport workers to radiofrequency radiation affects their short term memory and reaction time. Methods Thirty two airport workers involved in duties at control and approach tower (21 males and 11 females), with the age range of 27-67 years old (mean age of 37.38), participated voluntary in this study. On the other hand, 29 workers (13 males, and 16 females) whose offices were in the city with no exposure history to radar systems were also participated in this study as the control group. The employees’ reaction time and short term memory were analyzed using a standard visual reaction time (VRT) test software and the modified Wechsler memory scale test, respectively. Results The mean± SD values for the reaction times of the airport employees (N=32) and the control group (N=29) were 0.45±0.12 sec and 0.46±0.17 sec, respectively.  Moreover, in the four subset tests; i.e. paired words, forward digit span, backward digit span and word recognition, the following points were obtained for the airport employees and the control group, respectively: (i) pair words test: 28.00±13.13 and 32.07±11.65, (ii) forward digit span: 8.38±1.40 and 9.03±1.32, (iii) backward digit span: 5.54±1.87 and 6.31±1.46, and (iv) word recognition: 5.73±2.36 and 6.50±1.93. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The occupational exposure of the employees to the RF radiation in Shahid Dastghieb

  9. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…

  10. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  11. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  12. Item repetition in short-term memory: Ranschburg repeated.

    PubMed

    Henson, R N

    1998-09-01

    In serial recall from short-term memory, repeated items are recalled well when close together (repetition facilitation), but not when far apart (repetition inhibition; the Ranschburg effect). These effects were re-examined with a new scoring scheme that addresses the possibility that repetitions are distinct tokens in memory. Repetition facilitation and repetition inhibition proved robust, and were shown to interact with the temporal grouping of items (Experiment 1), which affected the probability of detecting repetition (Experiments 2A and 2B). It is argued that detection of a repetition is necessary for repetition facilitation, attributable to the tagging of immediate repetition, whereas the failure to detect or remember a repetition results in repetition inhibition, attributable to an automatic suppression of previous responses and a bias against guessing repeated items (Experiment 3). The findings are discussed in relation to models of short-term memory and the phenomenon of repetition blindness.

  13. Effects of sleep deprivation on short-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Polzella, D J

    1975-03-01

    A probe-recognition short-term memory paradigm was used to inquire into the precise effects of sleep deprivation on human memory. It was found that recognition performance, as measured by d', was generally impaired for each subjects after 24 hr of sleep deprivation. While d' was shown to decrease exponentially as the number of items intervening between the target and the probe increased, this decay rate was not affected by sleep loss. In addition there was confirmation of a previously observed increase in the positive skewness of reaction times after wakefulness. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that sleep deprivation increases the occurrence of lapses, periods of lowered reactive capacity, which prevent the encoding of items in short-term memory.

  14. Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei

    2004-01-01

    A visual short-term memory task was more strongly disrupted by visual than spatial interference, and a spatial memory task was simultaneously more strongly disrupted by spatial than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and spatial components. In 6 experiments,…

  15. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review.

  16. Acute Exposure to Worst-Case Concentrations of Amitraz Does Not Affect Honey Bee Learning, Short-Term Memory, or Hemolymph Octopamine Levels.

    PubMed

    Rix, Rachel R; Christopher Cutler, G

    2016-12-27

    Amitraz, an acaricide used to treat Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, is one of the most commonly detected pesticides in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives. Acaricides sometimes negatively impact honey bee cognition, but potential effects of amitraz on honey bee learning have been rarely studied. We topically exposed foragers to 95th percentile field-relevant levels of amitraz and, 24 h later, tested the ability of bees to associate a sucrose reward with a conditioned odor (learning response) using the proboscis extension response (PER). We then tested the ability of the bees to retain this memory 1 h and 2 h post-conditioning. Because amitraz is thought to affect octopamine metabolism in honey bees, and because octopamine is directly related to honey bee learning and memory, we also examined effects of exposure to amitraz on octopamine levels in honey bee hemolymph. We found that acute exposure to 95th percentile doses of amitraz had no impact on honey bee learning or short-term memory as measured by PER. Concentrations of octopamine in hemolymph from our low amitraz treatment were 1.4-fold higher than control levels, but other treatments had no effect. Our results from worst-case acute exposure experiments with worker bees in the laboratory suggest that typical field-relevant (within hive) exposures to amitraz probably have little effect on honey bee learning and memory.

  17. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Speech-Disordered Children: Implications for Articulatory Coding in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)

  18. Retrieval-Induced Inhibition in Short-Term Memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul

    2015-07-01

    We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory.

  19. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  20. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  1. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the use of rehearsal processes. In this article the authors present a series of studies using a novel paradigm to address this problem directly, by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of time but that interference plays a much larger role in their degradation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for existing models of memory decay and interference. PMID:19271849

  2. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  3. Measures of Short-Term Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Ronald; Karker, Jurgen

    The primary purpose of the present study was to compare three measures of recognition memory. One hundred and forty-four high school students were instructed to study silently 36 CVCVC verbal units (target items) at a 4-sec. rate of presentation. The Ss were then given one of three tasks which required them to identify target items from among…

  4. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans.

  5. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  6. Overwriting and intrusion in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Jones, Jeffery A; Ensor, Tyler M; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Studies of interference in working and short-term memory suggest that irrelevant information may overwrite the contents of memory or intrude into memory. While some previous studies have reported greater interference when irrelevant information is similar to the contents of memory than when it is dissimilar, other studies have reported greater interference for dissimilar distractors than for similar distractors. In the present study, we find the latter effect in a paradigm that uses auditory tones as stimuli. We suggest that the effects of distractor similarity to memory contents are mediated by the type of information held in memory, particularly the complexity or simplicity of information.

  7. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  8. The Precategorical Nature of Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Philip T.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of recognition experiments that assessed whether visual short-term memory (VSTM) is sensitive to shared category membership of to-be-remembered (tbr) images of common objects. In Experiment 1 some of the tbr items shared the same basic level category (e.g., hand axe): Such items were no better retained than others. In the…

  9. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  10. The Role of Short-Term Memory in Operator Workload

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Baddeley, 1966; 1984), simultaneous digit processing ( Klapp and Philipoff, 1983), simultaneous, irrelevant articulation (articulatory suppression...Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1, 153-161. Klapp , S.T. and Philipoff, A., 1983, Short term memory limits in performance. Turning the tide of

  11. Regularization in Short-Term Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew; Bylsma, Lauren M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that short-term memory for serial order can be influenced by background knowledge concerning regularities of sequential structure. Specifically, it has been shown that recall is superior for sequences that fit well with familiar sequencing constraints. The authors report a corresponding effect pertaining to serial…

  12. Relation between Intelligence and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ronald L.; Sandberg, Tor

    1977-01-01

    Intelligence and short-term memory correlations in children were measured using probed serial recall of supraspan digit lists. Results showed the predictive power of intelligence to range from a maximum in the case of recall for recency items to practically zero in the case of primacy items. (Author/MV)

  13. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  14. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  15. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  16. Enhanced Visual Short-Term Memory for Angry Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Wu, Chia-Yun; Linden, David E. J.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    Although some views of face perception posit independent processing of face identity and expression, recent studies suggest interactive processing of these 2 domains. The authors examined expression-identity interactions in visual short-term memory (VSTM) by assessing recognition performance in a VSTM task in which face identity was relevant and…

  17. Language repetition and short-term memory: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury. PMID:23874280

  18. Short-term memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Jason; Fernandes, Yohaan; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-15

    Learning and memory represent perhaps the most complex behavioral phenomena. Although their underlying mechanisms have been extensively analyzed, only a fraction of the potential molecular components have been identified. The zebrafish has been proposed as a screening tool with which mechanisms of complex brain functions may be systematically uncovered. However, as a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience, the zebrafish has not been well characterized for its cognitive and mnemonic features, thus learning and/or memory screens with adults have not been feasible. Here we study short-term memory of adult zebrafish. We show animated images of conspecifics (the stimulus) to the experimental subject during 1 min intervals on ten occasions separated by different (2, 4, 8 or 16 min long) inter-stimulus intervals (ISI), a between subject experimental design. We quantify the distance of the subject from the image presentation screen during each stimulus presentation interval, during each of the 1-min post-stimulus intervals immediately following the stimulus presentations and during each of the 1-min intervals furthest away from the last stimulus presentation interval and just before the next interval (pre-stimulus interval), respectively. Our results demonstrate significant retention of short-term memory even in the longest ISI group but suggest no acquisition of reference memory. Because in the employed paradigm both stimulus presentation and behavioral response quantification is computer automated, we argue that high-throughput screening for drugs or mutations that alter short-term memory performance of adult zebrafish is now becoming feasible.

  19. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  20. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-06

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia.

  1. Human short-term spatial memory: precision predicts capacity.

    PubMed

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Boujon, Valérie; Ndarugendamwo, Angélique; Lavenex, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Here, we aimed to determine the capacity of human short-term memory for allocentric spatial information in a real-world setting. Young adults were tested on their ability to learn, on a trial-unique basis, and remember over a 1-min interval the location(s) of 1, 3, 5, or 7 illuminating pads, among 23 pads distributed in a 4m×4m arena surrounded by curtains on three sides. Participants had to walk to and touch the pads with their foot to illuminate the goal locations. In contrast to the predictions from classical slot models of working memory capacity limited to a fixed number of items, i.e., Miller's magical number 7 or Cowan's magical number 4, we found that the number of visited locations to find the goals was consistently about 1.6 times the number of goals, whereas the number of correct choices before erring and the number of errorless trials varied with memory load even when memory load was below the hypothetical memory capacity. In contrast to resource models of visual working memory, we found no evidence that memory resources were evenly distributed among unlimited numbers of items to be remembered. Instead, we found that memory for even one individual location was imprecise, and that memory performance for one location could be used to predict memory performance for multiple locations. Our findings are consistent with a theoretical model suggesting that the precision of the memory for individual locations might determine the capacity of human short-term memory for spatial information.

  2. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  3. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  4. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  5. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  6. Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Kishiyamaa, Mark M; Lund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Edwards, Ben; Poliva, Oren; Hink, Robert F; Reed, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with subdigit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory.

  7. Short-term memory load and pronunciation rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickert, Richard; Hayt, Cathrin

    1988-01-01

    In a test of short-term memory recall, two subjects attempted to recall various lists. For unpracticed subjects, the time it took to read the list is a better predictor of immediate recall than the number of items on the list. For practiced subjects, the two predictors do about equally well. If the items that must be recalled are unfamiliar, it is advantageous to keep the items short to pronounce. On the other hand, if the same items will be encountered over and over again, it is advantageous to make them distinctive, even at the cost of adding to the number of syllables.

  8. Chlorella sorokiniana Extract Improves Short-Term Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Morgese, Maria Grazia; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Francavilla, Matteo; Bove, Maria; Morgano, Lucia; Tucci, Paolo; Trabace, Luigia; Schiavone, Stefania

    2016-09-29

    Increasing evidence shows that eukaryotic microalgae and, in particular, the green microalga Chlorella, can be used as natural sources to obtain a whole variety of compounds, such as omega (ω)-3 and ω-6 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs). Although either beneficial or toxic effects of Chlorella sorokiniana have been mainly attributed to its specific ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs content, the underlying molecular pathways remain to be elucidated yet. Here, we investigate the effects of an acute oral administration of a lipid extract of Chlorella sorokiniana, containing mainly ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs, on cognitive, emotional and social behaviour in rats, analysing possible underlying neurochemical alterations. Our results showed improved short-term memory in Chlorella sorokiniana-treated rats compared to controls, without any differences in exploratory performance, locomotor activity, anxiety profile and depressive-like behaviour. On the other hand, while the social behaviour of Chlorella sorokiniana-treated animals was significantly decreased, no effects on aggressivity were observed. Neurochemical investigations showed region-specific effects, consisting in an elevation of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) content in hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In conclusion, our results point towards a beneficial effect of Chlorella sorokiniana extract on short-term memory, but also highlight the need of caution in the use of this natural supplement due to its possible masked toxic effects.

  9. Spatiotemporal Proximity Effects in Visual Short-Term Memory Examined by Target-Nontarget Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapkota, Raju P.; Pardhan, Shahina; van der Linde, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a limited-capacity system that holds a small number of objects online simultaneously, implying that competition for limited storage resources occurs (Phillips, 1974). How the spatial and temporal proximity of stimuli affects this competition is unclear. In this 2-experiment study, we examined the effect of the…

  10. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  11. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  12. Short-term memory for order but not for item information is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hachmann, Wibke M; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-07-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short- to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory increasingly incorporate a distinction of order and item processing (Majerus et al. Cognition 107: 395-419, 2008). The current study is aimed to investigate whether serial order processing deficiencies in dyslexia can be traced back to a selective impairment of short-term memory for serial order and whether this impairment also affects processing beyond the verbal domain. A sample of 26 adults with dyslexia and a group of age and IQ-matched controls participated in a 2 × 2 × 2 experiment in which we assessed short-term recognition performance for order and item information, using both verbal and nonverbal material. Our findings indicate that, irrespective of the type of material, participants with dyslexia recalled the individual items with the same accuracy as the matched control group, whereas the ability to recognize the serial order in which those items were presented appeared to be affected in the dyslexia group. We conclude that dyslexia is characterized by a selective impairment of short-term memory for serial order, but not for item information, and discuss the integration of these findings into current theoretical views on dyslexia and its associated dysfunctions.

  13. Conceptual Short Term Memory in Perception and Thought

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle – identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material – may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed. PMID:22557984

  14. Conceptual short term memory in perception and thought.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle - identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material - may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed.

  15. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKMζ), dopamine, and glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Braren, Stephen H.; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ). Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA. PMID:25566006

  16. Tactile short-term memory in sensory-deprived individuals.

    PubMed

    Papagno, Costanza; Minniti, Giovanna; Mattavelli, Giulia C; Mantovan, Lara; Cecchetto, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on practice or are biologically determined, we investigated 13 deafblind participants, 16 deaf participants, 15 blind participants, and 13 matched normally sighted and hearing controls on a tactile short-term memory task, using checkerboard matrices of increasing length in which half of the squares were made up of a rough texture and half of a smooth one. Time of execution of a fixed matrix, number of correctly reproduced matrices, largest matrix correctly reproduced and tactile span were recorded. The three groups of sensory-deprived individuals did not differ in any measure, while blind and deaf participants outscored controls in all parameters except time of execution; the difference approached significance for deafblind people compared to controls only in one measure, namely correctly reproduced matrices. In blind and deafblind participants, performance negatively correlated with age of Braille acquisition, the older being the subject when acquiring Braille, the lower the performance, suggesting that practice plays a role. However, the fact that deaf participants, who did not share tactile experience, performed similarly to blind participants and significantly better than controls highlights that practice cannot be the only contribution to better tactile memory.

  17. Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been proposed that the face recognition deficits seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may reflect impaired short-term face memory (STFM). For example, introducing a brief delay between the presentation of target and test faces seems to disproportionately impair matching or recognition performance in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study sought to determine whether deficits of STFM contribute to impaired face recognition seen in Developmental Prosopagnosia. To determine whether developmental prosopagnosics exhibit impaired STFM, the present study used a six-alternative-forced-choice match-to-sample procedure. Memory demand was manipulated by employing a short or long delay between the presentation of the target face, and the six test faces. Crucially, the perceptual demands were identical in both conditions, thereby allowing the independent contribution of STFM to be assessed. Prosopagnosics showed clear evidence of a category-specific impairment for face-matching in both conditions; they were both slower and less accurate than matched controls. Crucially, however, the prosopagnosics showed no evidence of disproportionate face recognition impairment in the long-interval condition. While individuals with DP may have problems with the perceptual encoding of faces, it appears that their representations are stable over short durations. These results suggest that the face recognition difficulties seen in DP and autism may be qualitatively different, attributable to deficits of perceptual encoding and perceptual maintenance, respectively.

  18. Verbal Short-Term Memory Reflects the Organization of Long-Term Memory: Further Evidence from Short-Term Memory for Emotional Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of…

  19. Temporal Clustering and Sequencing in Short-Term Memory and Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…

  20. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  1. Short-term memory stores organized by information domain.

    PubMed

    Noyce, Abigail L; Cestero, Nishmar; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2016-04-01

    Vision and audition have complementary affinities, with vision excelling in spatial resolution and audition excelling in temporal resolution. Here, we investigated the relationships among the visual and auditory modalities and spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM) using change detection tasks. We created short sequences of visual or auditory items, such that each item within a sequence arose at a unique spatial location at a unique time. On each trial, two successive sequences were presented; subjects attended to either space (the sequence of locations) or time (the sequence of inter item intervals) and reported whether the patterns of locations or intervals were identical. Each subject completed blocks of unimodal trials (both sequences presented in the same modality) and crossmodal trials (Sequence 1 visual, Sequence 2 auditory, or vice versa) for both spatial and temporal tasks. We found a strong interaction between modality and task: Spatial performance was best on unimodal visual trials, whereas temporal performance was best on unimodal auditory trials. The order of modalities on crossmodal trials also mattered, suggesting that perceptual fidelity at encoding is critical to STM. Critically, no cost was attributable to crossmodal comparison: In both tasks, performance on crossmodal trials was as good as or better than on the weaker unimodal trials. STM representations of space and time can guide change detection in either the visual or the auditory modality, suggesting that the temporal or spatial organization of STM may supersede sensory-specific organization.

  2. Role of short-term memory in loudness comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Werner, Birgit

    2003-04-01

    In an earlier study of the auditory discrimination of time-varying noise bursts [Ellermeier and Schrödl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2596 (2000)], listeners were found to place greater weight on the beginning and end of the sounds than on the middle portion. To investigate whether this outcome is due to primacy and recency effects in short-term memory which tend to be sensitive to manipulations of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), the ISI separating the two noise bursts in a 2IFC task was varied systematically. Six participants performed loudness comparisons on 1-s samples of white noise randomly changing in level every 100 ms. In different blocks of trials, the two noise bursts to be compared were either separated by a 500-ms or a 2-s ISI. COSS analysis [Berg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1743-1746 (1989)] of the overall loudness judgments revealed elevated weights for the beginning and end of the noises, as in the earlier study. These weighting patterns were largely unaffected by the manipulation of ISI, suggesting that the temporal weights found characterize loudness integration in general, and are not just due to idiosyncrasies of the timing used in the 2IFC procedure.

  3. As the world turns: short-term human spatial memory in egocentric and allocentric coordinates.

    PubMed

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lecci, Sandro; Prêtre, Vincent; Brandner, Catherine; Mazza, Christian; Pasquier, Jérôme; Lavenex, Pierre

    2011-05-16

    We aimed to determine whether human subjects' reliance on different sources of spatial information encoded in different frames of reference (i.e., egocentric versus allocentric) affects their performance, decision time and memory capacity in a short-term spatial memory task performed in the real world. Subjects were asked to play the Memory game (a.k.a. the Concentration game) without an opponent, in four different conditions that controlled for the subjects' reliance on egocentric and/or allocentric frames of reference for the elaboration of a spatial representation of the image locations enabling maximal efficiency. We report experimental data from young adult men and women, and describe a mathematical model to estimate human short-term spatial memory capacity. We found that short-term spatial memory capacity was greatest when an egocentric spatial frame of reference enabled subjects to encode and remember the image locations. However, when egocentric information was not reliable, short-term spatial memory capacity was greater and decision time shorter when an allocentric representation of the image locations with respect to distant objects in the surrounding environment was available, as compared to when only a spatial representation encoding the relationships between the individual images, independent of the surrounding environment, was available. Our findings thus further demonstrate that changes in viewpoint produced by the movement of images placed in front of a stationary subject is not equivalent to the movement of the subject around stationary images. We discuss possible limitations of classical neuropsychological and virtual reality experiments of spatial memory, which typically restrict the sensory information normally available to human subjects in the real world.

  4. False memory for face in short-term memory and neural activity in human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-12-03

    Human memory is often inaccurate. Similar to words and figures, new faces are often recognized as seen or studied items in long- and short-term memory tests; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this false memory remain elusive. In a previous fMRI study using morphed faces and a standard false memory paradigm, we found that there was a U-shaped response curve of the amygdala to old, new, and lure items. This indicates that the amygdala is more active in response to items that are salient (hit and correct rejection) compared to items that are less salient (false alarm), in terms of memory retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we determined whether the false memory for faces occurs within the short-term memory range (a few seconds), and assessed which neural correlates are involved in veridical and illusory memories. Nineteen healthy participants were scanned by 3T MRI during a short-term memory task using morphed faces. The behavioral results indicated that the occurrence of false memories was within the short-term range. We found that the amygdala displayed a U-shaped response curve to memory items, similar to those observed in our previous study. These results suggest that the amygdala plays a common role in both long- and short-term false memory for faces. We made the following conclusions: First, the amygdala is involved in detecting the saliency of items, in addition to fear, and supports goal-oriented behavior by modulating memory. Second, amygdala activity and response time might be related with a subject's response criterion for similar faces.

  5. Neuronal correlate of pictorial short-term memory in the primate temporal cortexYasushi Miyashita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yasushi; Chang, Han Soo

    1988-01-01

    It has been proposed that visual-memory traces are located in the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex, as electric stimulation of this area in humans results in recall of imagery1. Lesions in this area also affect recognition of an object after a delay in both humans2,3 and monkeys4-7 indicating a role in short-term memory of images8. Single-unit recordings from the temporal cortex have shown that some neurons continue to fire when one of two or four colours are to be remembered temporarily9. But neuronal responses selective to specific complex objects10-18 , including hands10,13 and faces13,16,17, cease soon after the offset of stimulus presentation10-18. These results led to the question of whether any of these neurons could serve the memory of complex objects. We report here a group of shape-selective neurons in an anterior ventral part of the temporal cortex of monkeys that exhibited sustained activity during the delay period of a visual short-term memory task. The activity was highly selective for the pictorial information to be memorized and was independent of the physical attributes such as size, orientation, colour or position of the object. These observations show that the delay activity represents the short-term memory of the categorized percept of a picture.

  6. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term “working memory”) that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1. PMID:18394484

  7. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  8. Short-term memory deficits correlate with hippocampal-thalamic functional connectivity alterations following acute sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Chengyang, Li; Daqing, Huang; Jianlin, Qi; Haisheng, Chang; Qingqing, Meng; Jin, Wang; Jiajia, Liu; Enmao, Ye; Yongcong, Shao; Xi, Zhang

    2016-07-21

    Acute sleep restriction heavily influences cognitive function, affecting executive processes such as attention, response inhibition, and memory. Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between hippocampal activity and short-term memory function. However, the specific contribution of the hippocampus to the decline of short-term memory following sleep restriction has yet to be established. In the current study, we utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the association between hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) and the decline of short-term memory following total sleep deprivation (TSD). Twenty healthy adult males aged 20.9 ± 2.3 years (age range, 18-24 years) were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Short-term memory and FC were assessed using a Delay-matching short-term memory test and a resting-state fMRI scan before and after TSD. Seed-based correlation analysis was performed using fMRI data for the left and right hippocampus to identify differences in hippocampal FC following TSD. Subjects demonstrated reduced alertness and a decline in short-term memory performance following TSD. Moreover, fMRI analysis identified reduced hippocampal FC with the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), temporal regions, and supplementary motor area. In addition, an increase in FC between the hippocampus and bilateral thalamus was observed, the extent of which correlated with short-term memory performance following TSD. Our findings indicate that the disruption of hippocampal-cortical connectivity is linked to the decline in short-term memory observed after acute sleep restriction. Such results provide further evidence that support the cognitive impairment model of sleep deprivation.

  9. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    PubMed

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease.

  10. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  11. Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

  12. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  13. An Approach toward the Development of a Functional Encoding Model of Short Term Memory during Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Mary Anne

    1978-01-01

    In a model of the functioning of short term memory, the encoding of information for subsequent storage in long term memory is simulated. In the encoding process, semantically equivalent paragraphs are detected for recombination into a macro information unit. (HOD)

  14. Order recall in verbal short-term memory: The role of semantic networks.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Marie; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Mair, Ali; Tehan, Gerry; Tolan, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In their recent article, Acheson, MacDonald, and Postle (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 37:44-59, 2011) made an important but controversial suggestion: They hypothesized that (a) semantic information has an effect on order information in short-term memory (STM) and (b) order recall in STM is based on the level of activation of items within the relevant lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) network. However, verbal STM research has typically led to the conclusion that factors such as semantic category have a large effect on the number of correctly recalled items, but little or no impact on order recall (Poirier & Saint-Aubin, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 48A:384-404, 1995; Saint-Aubin, Ouellette, & Poirier, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12:171-177, 2005; Tse, Memory 17:874-891, 2009). Moreover, most formal models of short-term order memory currently suggest a separate mechanism for order coding-that is, one that is separate from item representation and not associated with LTM lexico-semantic networks. Both of the experiments reported here tested the predictions that we derived from Acheson et al. The findings show that, as predicted, manipulations aiming to affect the activation of item representations significantly impacted order memory.

  15. A Latent Variable Analysis of Working Memory Capacity, Short-Term Memory Capacity, Processing Speed, and General Fluid Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Andrew R. A.; Cowan, Nelsin; Bunting, Michael F.; Therriault, David J.; Minkoff, Scott R. B.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the interrelationships among general fluid intelligence, short-term memory capacity, working memory capacity, and processing speed in 120 young adults and used structural equation modeling to determine the best predictor of general fluid intelligence. Results suggest that working memory capacity, but not short-term memory capacity or…

  16. Understanding the Function of Visual Short-Term Memory: Transsaccadic Memory, Object Correspondence, and Gaze Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Richard, Ashleigh M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has received intensive study over the past decade, with research focused on VSTM capacity and representational format. Yet, the function of VSTM in human cognition is not well understood. Here, the authors demonstrate that VSTM plays an important role in the control of saccadic eye movements. Intelligent human…

  17. Independence of long-term contextual memory and short-term perceptual hypotheses: Evidence from contextual cueing of interrupted search.

    PubMed

    Schlagbauer, Bernhard; Mink, Maurice; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Observers are able to resume an interrupted search trial faster relative to responding to a new, unseen display. This finding of rapid resumption is attributed to short-term perceptual hypotheses generated on the current look and confirmed upon subsequent looks at the same display. It has been suggested that the contents of perceptual hypotheses are similar to those of other forms of memory acquired long-term through repeated exposure to the same search displays over the course of several trials, that is, the memory supporting "contextual cueing." In three experiments, we investigated the relationship between short-term perceptual hypotheses and long-term contextual memory. The results indicated that long-term, contextual memory of repeated displays neither affected the generation nor the confirmation of short-term perceptual hypotheses for these displays. Furthermore, the analysis of eye movements suggests that long-term memory provides an initial benefit in guiding attention to the target, whereas in subsequent looks guidance is entirely based on short-term perceptual hypotheses. Overall, the results reveal a picture of both long- and short-term memory contributing to reliable performance gains in interrupted search, while exerting their effects in an independent manner.

  18. Reading Ability and Short-Term Memory: The Role of Phonological Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapala, Michele Merlo; Brady, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the basis of short-term memory deficits for children with reading disability and explores the origin of developmental verbal memory span increases. Finds a strong relationship between efficiency of phonological processes and capacity of verbal memory but no relationship between phonological processing and nonverbal memory. (RS)

  19. Association between early attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and current verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and adolescence. The participants included 401 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 213 siblings, and 176 unaffected controls aged 8-17 years (mean age, 12.02 ± 2.24). All participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric disorders retrospectively, at an earlier age first, then currently. The participants were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--3rd edition, including Digit Span, and the Spatial working memory task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. Although crude analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms significantly predicted deficits in short-term memory, only inattention symptoms had significant effects (all p<0.001) in a model that included all three ADHD symptoms. After further controlling for comorbidity, age of assessment, treatment with methylphenidate, and Full-scale IQ, the severity of childhood inattention symptoms was still significantly associated with worse verbal (p = 0.008) and spatial (p ranging from 0.017 to 0.002) short-term memory at the current assessment. Therefore, our findings suggest that earlier inattention symptoms are associated with impaired verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory at a later development stage. Impaired short-term memory in adolescence can be detected earlier by screening for the severity of inattention in childhood.

  20. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  1. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  2. Dissociation of rugose-dependent short-term memory component from memory consolidation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Lu, Y; Zhao, X; Yao, X; Shuai, Y; Huang, C; Wang, L; Jeong, S H; Zhong, Y

    2013-08-01

    Extensive investigations show several molecular and neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying short-lived and long-lasting memory in Drosophila. At the molecular level, the genetic pathway of memory formation, which was obtained through mutant research, seems to occur sequentially. So far, studies of Drosophila mutants appear to support the idea that mutants defective in short-term memory (STM) are always associated with long-term memory (LTM) impairment. At the neuroanatomical level, distinct memory traces are partially independently distributed. However, whether memory phase dissociation also exists at the molecular level remains unclear. Here, we report on molecular separation of STM and consolidated memory through genetic dissection of rugose mutants. Mutants in the rugose gene, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved A-kinase anchor protein, show immediate memory defects as assayed through aversive olfactory conditioning. Intriguingly, two well-defined consolidated memory components, anesthesia-resistant memory and protein synthesis-dependent LTM, are both normal in spite of the defective immediate memory after 10-session massed and spaced training. Moreover, rugose genetically interacts with cyclic AMP-protein kinase A signaling during STM formation. Considering our previous study that AKAP Yu specifically participates in LTM formation, these results suggest that there exists a molecular level of memory phase dissociation with distinct AKAPs in Drosophila.

  3. Selective deficit of spatial short-term memory: Role of storage and rehearsal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bonnì, Sonia; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-10-01

    We report the neuropsychological and MRI investigation of a patient (GP) who developed a selective impairment of spatial short-term memory (STM) following damage to the dorso-mesial areas of the right frontal lobe. We assessed in this patient spatial STM with an experimental procedure that evaluated immediate and 5-20 s delayed recall of verbal, visual and spatial stimuli. The patient scored significantly worse than normal controls on tests that required delayed recall of spatial data. This could not be ascribed to a deficit of spatial episodic long-term memory because amnesic patients performed normally on these tests. Conversely, the patient scored in the normal range on tests of immediate recall of verbal, visual and spatial data and tests of delayed recall of verbal and visual data. Comparison with a previously described patient who had a selective deficit in immediate spatial recall and an ischemic lesion that affected frontal and parietal dorso-mesial areas in the right hemisphere (Carlesimo GA, Perri R, Turriziani P, Tomaiuolo F, Caltagirone C. Remembering what but not where: independence of spatial and visual working memory in the human brain. Cortex. 2001 Sep; 37(4):519-34) suggests that the right parietal areas are involved in the short-term storage of spatial information and that the dorso-mesial regions of the right frontal underlie mechanisms for the delayed maintenance of the same data.

  4. Short Term, Low Dose Simvastatin Pretreatment Alters Memory Immune Function Following Secondary Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Smelser, Lisa K; Walker, Callum; Burns, Erin M; Curry, Michael; Black, Nathanael; Metzler, Jennifer A; McDowell, Susan A; Bruns, Heather A

    Statins are potent modulators of immune responses, resulting in their ability to enhance host survival from primary bacterial infections. Alterations in primary immune responses that may be beneficial for survival following infection may also result in alterations in the generation of the immunologic memory response and subsequently affect immune responses mounted during secondary bacterial infection. In this study, we report that levels of total serum IgG2c, following primary infection, were decreased in simvastatin pretreated mice, and investigate the effect of simvastatin treatment, prior to primary infection, on immune responses activated during secondary S. aureus infection. A secondary infection model was implemented whereby simvastatin pretreated and control mice were reinfected with S. aureus 14 days after primary infection, with no additional simvastatin treatment, and assessed for survival and alterations in immune function. While survivability to secondary S. aureus infection was not different between simvastatin pretreated and control mice, memory B and T lymphocyte functions were altered. Memory B cells, isolated 14 days after secondary infection, from simvastatin pretreated mice and stimulated ex vivo produced increased levels of IgG1 compared to memory B cells isolated from control mice, while levels of IgM and IgG2c remained similar. Furthermore, memory B and T lymphocytes from simvastatin pretreated mice exhibited a decreased proliferative response when stimulated ex vivo compared to memory cells isolated from control mice. These findings demonstrate the ability of a short term, low dose simvastatin treatment to modulate memory immune function.

  5. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    PubMed

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme.

  6. Verbal and Visuospatial Short-Term and Working Memory in Children: Are They Separable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Pickering, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the structure of verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory in children between ages 4 and 11 years. Multiple tasks measuring 4 different memory components were used to capture the cognitive processes underlying working memory. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the processing component of working memory…

  7. Visual Short-Term Memory Capacity for Simple and Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola; Gotler, Alex; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not…

  8. Conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) supports core claims of Christiansen and Chater.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of words or pictured scenes provides evidence for a large-capacity conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) that momentarily provides rich associated material from long-term memory, permitting rapid chunking (Potter 1993; 2009; 2012). In perception of scenes as well as language comprehension, we make use of knowledge that briefly exceeds the supposed limits of working memory.

  9. Decoding the content of visual short-term memory under distraction in occipital and parietal areas

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Katherine C.; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided conflicting accounts regarding where in the human brain visual short-term memory (VSTM) content is stored, with strong univariate fMRI responses reported in superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) but robust multivariate decoding reported in occipital cortex. Given the continuous influx of information in everyday vision, VSTM storage under distraction is often required. We found that neither distractor presence nor predictability during the memory delay affected behavioral performance. Similarly, superior IPS exhibited consistent decoding of VSTM content across all distractor manipulations and had multivariate responses that closely tracked behavioral VSTM performance. However, occipital decoding of VSTM content was significantly modulated by distractor presence and predictability. Furthermore, we found no effect of target-distractor similarity on VSTM behavioral performance, further challenging the role of sensory regions in VSTM storage. Overall, consistent with previous univariate findings, these results show that superior IPS, not occipital cortex, plays a central role in VSTM storage. PMID:26595654

  10. Assessment and Treatment of Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Stroke Aphasia: A Practical Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salis, Christos; Kelly, Helen; Code, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia following stroke refers to impairments that affect the comprehension and expression of spoken and/or written language, and co-occurring cognitive deficits are common. In this paper we focus on short-term and working memory impairments that impact on the ability to retain and manipulate auditory-verbal information. Evidence from…

  11. Time manages interference in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amy V; McKeown, Denis; Bunce, David

    2017-01-31

    Emerging evidence suggests that age-related declines in memory may reflect a failure in pattern separation, a process that is believed to reduce the encoding overlap between similar stimulus representations during memory encoding. Indeed, behavioural pattern separation may be indexed by a visual continuous recognition task in which items are presented in sequence and observers report for each whether it is novel, previously viewed (old), or whether it shares features with a previously viewed item (similar). In comparison to young adults, older adults show a decreased pattern separation when the number of items between "old" and "similar" items is increased. Yet the mechanisms of forgetting underpinning this type of recognition task are yet to be explored in a cognitively homogenous group, with careful control over the parameters of the task, including elapsing time (a critical variable in models of forgetting). By extending the inter-item intervals, number of intervening items and overall decay interval, we observed in a young adult sample (N = 35, Mage = 19.56 years) that the critical factor governing performance was inter-item interval. We argue that tasks using behavioural continuous recognition to index pattern separation in immediate memory will benefit from generous inter-item spacing, offering protection from inter-item interference.

  12. Relational and conjunctive binding functions dissociate in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Cubelli, Roberto; Hernandez Valdez, Maria; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Remembering complex events requires binding features within unified objects (conjunctions) and holding associations between objects (relations). Recent studies suggest that the two functions dissociate in long-term memory (LTM). Less is known about their functional organization in short-term memory (STM). The present study investigated this issue in patient AE affected by a stroke which caused damage to brain regions known to be relevant for relational functions both in LTM and in STM (i.e., the hippocampus). The assessment involved a battery of standard neuropsychological tasks and STM binding tasks. One STM binding task (Experiment 1) presented common objects and common colors forming either pairs (relations) or integrated objects (conjunctions). Free recall of relations or conjunctions was assessed. A second STM binding task used random polygons and non-primary colors instead (Experiment 2). Memory was assessed by selecting the features that made up the relations or the conjunctions from a set of single polygons and a set of single colors. The neuropsychological assessment revealed impaired delayed memory in AE. AE's pronounced relational STM binding deficits contrasted with his completely preserved conjunctive binding functions in both Experiments 1 and 2. Only 2.35% and 1.14% of the population were expected to have a discrepancy more extreme than that presented by AE in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Processing relations and conjunctions of very elementary nonspatial features in STM led to dissociating performances in AE. These findings may inform current theories of memory decline such as those linked to cognitive aging.

  13. The roles of long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge in phonological short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Yuki; Ueno, Taiji; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Saito, Satoru

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have explored and confirmed the influence of long-term phonological representations on phonological short-term memory. In most investigations, phonological effects have been explored with respect to phonotactic constraints or frequency. If interaction between long-term memory and phonological short-term memory is a generalized principle, then other phonological characteristics-that is, suprasegmental aspects of phonology-should also exert similar effects on phonological short-term memory. We explored this hypothesis through three immediate serial-recall experiments that manipulated Japanese nonwords with respect to lexical prosody (pitch-accent type, reflecting suprasegmental characteristics) as well as phonotactic frequency (reflecting segmental characteristics). The results showed that phonotactic frequency affected the retention not only of the phonemic sequences, but also of pitch-accent patterns, when participants were instructed to recall both the phoneme sequence and accent pattern of nonwords. In addition, accent pattern typicality influenced the retention of the accent pattern: Typical accent patterns were recalled more accurately than atypical ones. These results indicate that both long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge contribute to phonological short-term memory performance.

  14. Do Children with Phonological Delay Have Phonological Short-Term and Phonological Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Rebecca; Eadie, Patricia; Liow, Susan Rickard; Dodd, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    While little is known about why children make speech errors, it has been hypothesized that cognitive-linguistic factors may underlie phonological speech sound disorders. This study compared the phonological short-term and phonological working memory abilities (using immediate memory tasks) and receptive vocabulary size of 14 monolingual preschool…

  15. Short-Term Memory for Order but Not for Item Information Is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachmann, Wibke M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short-to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition" 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory…

  16. Presentation Modality and Proactive Interference in Children's Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joan Delahanty

    This study examined the role of visual and auditory presentation in memory encoding processes of 80 second-grade children, using the release-from-proactive-interference short-term memory (STM) paradigm. Words were presented over three trials within one of the presentation modes and one taxonomic category, followed by a fourth trial in which the…

  17. A Probabilistic Clustering Theory of the Organization of Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, A. Emin; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the content of a memory for even a simple display encoded in visual short-term memory (VSTM) can be very complex. VSTM uses organizational processes that make the representation of an item dependent on the feature values of all displayed items as well as on these items' representations. Here, we develop a…

  18. The Demise of Short-Term Memory Revisited: Empirical and Computational Investigations of Recency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davelaar,Eddy J.; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Ashkenazi, Amir; Haarmann, Henk J.; Usher, Marius

    2005-01-01

    In the single-store model of memory, the enhanced recall for the last items in a free-recall task (i.e., the recency effect) is understood to reflect a general property of memory rather than a separate short-term store. This interpretation is supported by the finding of a long-term recency effect under conditions that eliminate the contribution…

  19. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  20. Semantic Encoding of Spoken Sentences: Adult Aging and the Preservation of Conceptual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Deborah M.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Prentice, Kristen J.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Traditional models of human memory have postulated the need for a brief phonological or verbatim representation of verbal input as a necessary gateway to a higher level conceptual representation of the input. Potter has argued that meaningful sentences may be encoded directly in a conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) running parallel in time to…

  1. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  2. Electrophysiological Correlates of Improved Short-Term Memory for Emotional Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; Morgan, Helen M.; Jackson, Margaret C.; Linden, David E. J.; Van Strien, Jan W.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) is enhanced for emotional information, but the influence of stimulus emotionality on short-term memory (STM) is less clear. We examined the electrophysiological correlates of improved visual STM for emotional face identity, focusing on the P1, N170, P3b and N250r event-related potential (ERP) components. These correlates are…

  3. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water) and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h), diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h), proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h) of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7). Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy. PMID:20149258

  4. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  5. Children's arithmetical difficulties: contributions from processing speed, item identification, and short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bull, R; Johnston, R S

    1997-04-01

    Children's arithmetical difficulties are often explained in terms of a short-term memory deficit. However, the underlying cause of this memory deficit is unclear, with some researchers suggesting a slow articulation rate and hence increased decay of information during recall, while others offer an explanation in terms of slow speed of item identification, indicating difficulty in retrieving information stored in long-term memory. General processing speed is also related to measures of short-term memory but has rarely been assessed in studies of children's arithmetic. Measures of short-term memory, processing speed, sequencing ability, and retrieval of information from long-term memory were therefore given to 7-year-old children. When reading ability was controlled for, arithmetic ability was best predicted by processing speed, with short-term memory accounting for no further unique variance. It was concluded that children with arithmetic difficulties have problems specifically in automating basic arithmetic facts which may stem from a general speed of processing deficit.

  6. Short-Term Memory Depends on Dissociable Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Das, Sandhitsu R; Mancuso, Lauren; Olson, Ingrid R; Arnold, Steven E; Wolk, David A

    2016-05-01

    Short-term memory (STM) has generally been thought to be independent of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in contrast to long-term memory (LTM). Prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a condition in which the MTL is a major early focus of pathology and LTM is thought disproportionately affected relative to STM. However, recent studies have suggested a role for the MTL in STM, particularly hippocampus, when binding of different elements is required. Other work has suggested involvement of extrahippocampal MTL structures, particularly in STM tasks that involve item-level memory. We examined STM for individual objects, locations, and object-location conjunctions in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), often associated with prodromal AD. Relative to age-matched, cognitively normal controls, MCI patients not only displayed impairment on object-location conjunctions but were similarly impaired for non-bound objects and locations. Moreover, across all participants, these conditions displayed dissociable correlations of cortical thinning along the long axis of the MTL and associated cortical nodes of anterior and posterior MTL networks. These findings support the role of the MTL in visual STM tasks and the division of labor of MTL in support of different types of memory representations, overlapping with findings in LTM.

  7. Short-term memory predictions across the lifespan: monitoring span before and after conducting a task.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Julie Marilyne; Moulin, Chris John Anthony; Souchay, Céline

    2016-06-17

    Our objective was to explore metamemory in short-term memory across the lifespan. Five age groups participated in this study: 3 groups of children (4-13 years old), and younger and older adults. We used a three-phase task: prediction-span-postdiction. For prediction and postdiction phases, participants reported with a Yes/No response if they could recall in order a series of images. For the span task, they had to actually recall such series. From 4 years old, children have some ability to monitor their short-term memory and are able to adjust their prediction after experiencing the task. However, accuracy still improves significantly until adolescence. Although the older adults had a lower span, they were as accurate as young adults in their evaluation, suggesting that metamemory is unimpaired for short-term memory tasks in older adults.

  8. Short-term memory traces for action bias in human reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Rafal; McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Cohen, Jonathan D; Montague, P Read

    2007-06-11

    Recent experimental and theoretical work on reinforcement learning has shed light on the neural bases of learning from rewards and punishments. One fundamental problem in reinforcement learning is the credit assignment problem, or how to properly assign credit to actions that lead to reward or punishment following a delay. Temporal difference learning solves this problem, but its efficiency can be significantly improved by the addition of eligibility traces (ET). In essence, ETs function as decaying memories of previous choices that are used to scale synaptic weight changes. It has been shown in theoretical studies that ETs spanning a number of actions may improve the performance of reinforcement learning. However, it remains an open question whether including ETs that persist over sequences of actions allows reinforcement learning models to better fit empirical data regarding the behaviors of humans and other animals. Here, we report an experiment in which human subjects performed a sequential economic decision game in which the long-term optimal strategy differed from the strategy that leads to the greatest short-term return. We demonstrate that human subjects' performance in the task is significantly affected by the time between choices in a surprising and seemingly counterintuitive way. However, this behavior is naturally explained by a temporal difference learning model which includes ETs persisting across actions. Furthermore, we review recent findings that suggest that short-term synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons may provide a realistic biophysical mechanism for producing ETs that persist on a timescale consistent with behavioral observations.

  9. Neural mechanisms of semantic interference and false recognition in short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Alexandra S.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research using the Deese-Roediger-McDermot (DRM) paradigm have demonstrated that episodic memory is vulnerable to semantic distortion, and neuroimaging investigations of this phenomenon have shown dissociations between the neural mechanisms subserving true and false retrieval from long-term memory. Recently, false short-term memories have also been demonstrated, with false recognition of items related in meaning to memoranda encoded less than 5 seconds earlier. Semantic interference is also evident in short-term memory, such that correct rejection of related lures is slowed relative to correct rejection of unrelated lures. The present research constitutes the first fMRI investigation of false recognition and semantic interference in short-term memory using a short-term DRM paradigm in which participants retained 4 semantic associates over a short 4 second filled retention interval. Results showed increased activation in the left mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA45) associated with semantic interference, and significant correlations between these increases and behavioral measures of interference across subjects. Furthermore, increases in dorsolateral PFC occurred when related lures were correctly rejected versus falsely remembered. Compared with false recognition, true recognition was associated with increases in left fusiform gyrus, a finding consistent with the notion that increased perceptual processing may distinguish true from false recognition over both short and long retention intervals. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of interference resolution in short-term memory, and suggest that false short-term recognition occurs as a consequence of the failure of frontally-mediated cognitive control processes which adjudicate semantic familiarity in support of accurate mnemonic retrieval. PMID:21349335

  10. Neural mechanisms of semantic interference and false recognition in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Alexandra S; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2011-06-01

    Decades of research using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm have demonstrated that episodic memory is vulnerable to semantic distortion, and neuroimaging investigations of this phenomenon have shown dissociations between the neural mechanisms subserving true and false retrieval from long-term memory. Recently, false short-term memories have also been demonstrated, with false recognition of items related in meaning to memoranda encoded less than 5s earlier. Semantic interference is also evident in short-term memory, such that correct rejection of related lures is slowed relative to correct rejection of unrelated lures. The present research constitutes the first fMRI investigation of false recognition and semantic interference in short-term memory using a short-term DRM paradigm in which participants retained 4 semantic associates over a short 4-s filled retention interval. Results showed increased activation in the left mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA45) associated with semantic interference, and significant correlations between these increases and behavioral measures of interference across subjects. Furthermore, increases in dorsolateral PFC occurred when related lures were correctly rejected versus falsely remembered. Compared with false recognition, true recognition was associated with increases in left fusiform gyrus, a finding consistent with the notion that increased perceptual processing may distinguish true from false recognition over both short and long retention intervals. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of interference resolution in short-term memory, and suggest that false short-term recognition occurs as a consequence of the failure of frontally mediated cognitive control processes which adjudicate semantic familiarity in support of accurate mnemonic retrieval.

  11. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials.

  12. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline.

  13. Low-Complexity Discriminative Feature Selection From EEG Before and After Short-Term Memory Task.

    PubMed

    Behzadfar, Neda; Firoozabadi, S Mohammad P; Badie, Kambiz

    2016-10-01

    A reliable and unobtrusive quantification of changes in cortical activity during short-term memory task can be used to evaluate the efficacy of interfaces and to provide real-time user-state information. In this article, we investigate changes in electroencephalogram signals in short-term memory with respect to the baseline activity. The electroencephalogram signals have been analyzed using 9 linear and nonlinear/dynamic measures. We applied statistical Wilcoxon examination and Davis-Bouldian criterion to select optimal discriminative features. The results show that among the features, the permutation entropy significantly increased in frontal lobe and the occipital second lower alpha band activity decreased during memory task. These 2 features reflect the same mental task; however, their correlation with memory task varies in different intervals. In conclusion, it is suggested that the combination of the 2 features would improve the performance of memory based neurofeedback systems.

  14. Prosodic Similarity Effects in Short-Term Memory in Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha; Barnes, Lisa; Mead, Natasha; Power, Alan James; Leong, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory. We study participants with dyslexia and age-matched and younger reading-level-matched typically developing controls. We find that all participants, including dyslexic participants, show prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. All participants exhibited better retention of words that differed in prosodic structure, although participants with dyslexia recalled fewer words accurately overall compared to age-matched controls. Individual differences in prosodic memory were predicted by earlier vocabulary abilities, by earlier sensitivity to syllable stress and by earlier phonological awareness. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. The implications of a prosodic similarity effect for theories of lexical representation and of dyslexia are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  16. The functional neuroanatomy of multitasking: combining dual tasking with a short term memory task.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm.

  17. The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

  18. Short-term exposure to engineered nanomaterials affects cellular epigenome.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Miousse, Isabelle R; Pirela, Sandra V; Melnyk, Stepan; Koturbash, Igor; Demokritou, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Extensive incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into industrial and biomedical applications increases the risks of exposure to these potentially hazardous materials. While the geno- and cytotoxic effects of ENMs have been investigated, the potential of ENMs to target the cellular epigenome remains largely unknown. Our goal was to determine whether industry relevant ENMs can affect the epigenome at low cytotoxic doses. A panel of cells relevant to inhalation exposures such as human and murine macrophages (THP-1 and RAW264.7, respectively) and human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles (PEPs), mild steel welding fumes (MS-WF), copper oxide (CuO) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Toxicological effects, including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were assessed, taking into consideration in vitro dosimetry. The effects of ENMs on cellular epigenome were determined by addressing the global and transposable elements (TEs)-associated DNA methylation and expression of DNA methylation machinery and TEs. The percentage of ENMs-induced cytotoxicity for all cell lines was in the range of 0-15%. Oxidative stress was evident in SAEC after exposure to PEPs and in THP-1 when exposed to CuO. In addition, exposure to ENMs resulted in modest alterations in DNA methylation of two most abundant TEs in mammalian genomes, LINE-1 and Alu/SINE, their transcriptional reactivation, and decreased expression of DNA methylation machinery in a cell-, dose- and ENM-dependent manner. These results indicate that exposure to ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations, aside from the geno- and cytotoxic effects, can also affect the epigenome of target cells.

  19. Short-term exposure to engineered nanomaterials affects cellular epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Pirela, Sandra V.; Melnyk, Stepan; Koturbash, Igor; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Extensive incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into industrial and biomedical applications increases the risks of exposure to these potentially hazardous materials. While the geno- and cytotoxic effects of ENMs have been investigated, the potential of ENMs to target the cellular epigenome remains largely unknown. Our goal was to determine whether or not industry relevant ENMs can affect the epigenome at low cytotoxic doses. A panel of cells relevant to inhalation exposures such as human and murine macrophages (THP-1 and RAW264.7, respectively) and human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles (PEPs), mild steel welding fumes (MS-WF), copper oxide (CuO), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Toxicological effects, including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses were assessed, taking into consideration in-vitro dosimetry. The effects of ENMs on cellular epigenome were determined by addressing the global and transposable elements (TEs)-associated DNA methylation and expression of DNA methylation machinery and TEs. The percentage of ENMs-induced cytotoxicity for all cell lines was in the range of 0-15%. Oxidative stress was evident in SAEC after exposure to PEPs and in THP-1 when exposed to CuO. Additionally, exposure to ENMs resulted in modest alterations in DNA methylation of two most abundant TEs in mammalian genomes, LINE-1 and Alu/SINE, their transcriptional reactivation, and decreased expression of DNA methylation machinery in a cell-, dose-, and ENM-dependent manner. These results indicate that exposure to ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations, aside from the geno- and cytotoxic effects, can also affect the epigenome of target cells. PMID:25938281

  20. Binding and Inhibition in Working Memory: Individual and Age Differences in Short-Term Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC), adult age, and the resolution of conflict between familiarity and recollection in short-term recognition tasks. Experiment 1 showed a specific deficit of young adults with low WMC in rejecting intrusion probes (i.e., highly familiar probes) in a modified Sternberg…

  1. Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

  2. Relationship of Visual and Auditory Short-Term Memory to Later Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Robert J.; Snyder, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that the Snyder/Pope Visual Memory Technique using the Bender-Gestalt Test is a useful predictor of reading ability for first-grade children. Short-term visual recall appears highly related to the Grade 1 reading task and should be assessed when children begin learning to read. (Author/SJL)

  3. Short-Term Memory for Serial Order: A Recurrent Neural Network Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Plaut, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a century of research, the mechanisms underlying short-term or working memory for serial order remain uncertain. Recent theoretical models have converged on a particular account, based on transient associations between independent item and context representations. In the present article, the authors present an alternative model, according…

  4. Postscript: More Problems with Botvinick and Plaut's (2006) PDP Model of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Damian, Markus F.; Davis, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    Presents a postscript to the current authors' comment on the original article, "Short-term memory for serial order: A recurrent neural network model," by M. M. Botvinick and D. C. Plaut. In their commentary, the current authors demonstrated that Botvinick and Plaut's (2006) model of immediate serial recall catastrophically fails when familiar…

  5. Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

  6. Visuospatial Support for Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Cintia Perez; Covre, Priscila; Braga, Ana Claudia; de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have impaired verbal short-term memory (STM), which persists even when visual support is provided for carrying out verbal tasks. Objective: The current study aims to investigate whether visuospatial support, rather than just visual, can compensate for verbal STM deficits in these individuals. The…

  7. What's Magic about Magic Numbers? Chunking and Data Compression in Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathy, Fabien; Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Short term memory is famously limited in capacity to Miller's (1956) magic number 7 plus or minus 2--or, in many more recent studies, about 4 plus or minus 1 "chunks" of information. But the definition of "chunk" in this context has never been clear, referring only to a set of items that are treated collectively as a single unit. We propose a new…

  8. Attentional Demands Predict Short-Term Memory Load Response in Posterior Parietal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Hagit; Emmanouil, Tatiana-Aloi; McMains, Stephanie A.; Kastner, Sabine; Treisman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Limits to the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) indicate a maximum storage of only 3 or 4 items. Recently, it has been suggested that activity in a specific part of the brain, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), is correlated with behavioral estimates of VSTM capacity and might reflect a capacity-limited store. In three experiments that…

  9. Neural Evidence for a Distinction between Short-Term Memory and the Focus of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A.; Drysdale, Andrew T.; Oberauer, Klaus; Postle, Bradley R.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the short-term retention of information is accomplished via maintenance of an active neural trace. However, we demonstrate that memory can be preserved across a brief delay despite the apparent loss of sustained representations. Delay period activity may, in fact, reflect the focus of attention, rather than STM. We…

  10. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  11. Encoding: The Keystone to Efficient Functioning of Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Johanna G.; Sabisch, Beate; Friederici, Angela D.; Brauer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to play a critical role in language learning. It is indexed by the nonword repetition task where listeners are asked to repeat meaningless words like "blonterstaping". The present study investigated the effect on nonword repetition performance of differences in efficiency of functioning of some part of…

  12. Evidence for a Specific Impairment of Serial Order Short-Term Memory in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Trecy Martinez; Majerus, Steve; Mahot, Aline; Poncelet, Martine

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits in dyslexic children, the present study used the distinction between item and serial order retention capacities in STM tasks. According to recent STM models, storage of verbal item information depends very directly upon the richness of underlying phonological and…

  13. The Impact of Pointing on the Short-Term Memory (STM) of Heterophonic Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study entailed two short-term memory (STM) experiments investigating the importance of vowel diacritics for the temporary retention of three distinct Hebrew word list types: heterophonic homographs, non-homographs and homophonic homographs. Eighty university students participated in each experiment, with half of them tested with word lists…

  14. Short-Term Memory Stages in Sign vs. Speech: The Source of the Serial Span Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew L.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Speakers generally outperform signers when asked to recall a list of unrelated verbal items. This phenomenon is well established, but its source has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluate the relative contribution of the three main processing stages of short-term memory--perception, encoding, and recall--in this effect. The present study…

  15. The Development of Visual Short-Term Memory for Multifeature Items during Middle childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Simpson, Andrew; Potts, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) research suggests that the adult capacity is limited to three or four multifeature object representations. Despite evidence supporting a developmental increase in capacity, it remains unclear what the unit of capacity is in children. The current study employed the change detection paradigm to investigate both the…

  16. Splitting Attention across the Two Visual Fields in Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Holt, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…

  17. Parallel Consolidation of Simple Features into Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mance, Irida; Becker, Mark W.; Liu, Taosheng

    2012-01-01

    Although considerable research has examined the storage limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM), little is known about the initial formation (i.e., the consolidation) of VSTM representations. A few previous studies have estimated the capacity of consolidation to be one item at a time. Here we used a sequential-simultaneous manipulation to…

  18. The Influence of Auditory Short-Term Memory on Behavior Problem Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Justin; Keith, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of two subcomponents of auditory short-term memory on the developmental trajectories of behavior problems. The sample included 7,058 children from the NLSY79--Children and Young Adult survey between the ages 5 and 14 years. Results suggested that anxious/depressed behavior increases…

  19. Impact of Auditory Selective Attention on Verbal Short-Term Memory and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…

  20. Relations among Acute and Chronic Nicotine Administration, Short-Term Memory, and Tactics of Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance short-term memory. Some of this evidence comes from nonhuman primate research using a procedure called delayed matching-to-sample, wherein the monkey is trained to select a comparison stimulus that matches some physical property of a previously presented sample stimulus. Delays between sample…

  1. Semantic Short-Term Memory and Its Role in Sentence Processing: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Randi C.; He, Tao

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that an aphasic patient (AB) with a semantic short-term memory deficit (STM) had difficulties comprehending and producing sentences with structures that demanded the simultaneous retention of several individual word meanings (Martin & Freedman, 2001a, 2001b; Martin & Romani, 1994; Martin, Shelton, & Yaffee, 1994). The…

  2. Visual Short-Term Memory for Complex Objects in 6- and 8-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' visual short-term memory (VSTM) for simple objects undergoes dramatic development: Six-month-old infants can store in VSTM information about only a simple object presented in isolation, whereas 8-month-old infants can store information about simple objects presented in multiple-item arrays. This study extended this work to examine…

  3. Order Short-Term Memory Capacity Predicts Nonword Reading and Spelling in First and Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of short-term memory (STM) distinguish between item information, which reflects the temporary activation of long-term representations stored in the language system, and serial-order information, which is encoded in a specific representational system that is independent of the language network. Some studies examining the…

  4. Visual Short-Term Memory Benefit for Objects on Different 3-D Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoda; Nakayama, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) plays an important role in visual cognition. Although objects are located on different 3-dimensional (3-D) surfaces in the real world, how VSTM capacity may be influenced by the presence of multiple 3-D surfaces has never been examined. By manipulating binocular disparities of visual displays, the authors found that…

  5. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b",…

  6. The Influence of Contextual Change on Remembering in Short-Term Memory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenberg, Philippe R.

    If the contextual similarity between learning and recall within a single trial in a short-term memory (STM) paradigm is varied, recall varies proportionately. This context effect was demonstrated using variations of the Peterson-Peterson (1959) paradigm for both aurally and visually presented material, verbal and arithmetic context, and within and…

  7. Recall Improves in Short-Term Memory The More Recall Context Resembles Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenberg, Philippe R.

    1972-01-01

    Eight experiments are reported: the first four demonstrate the context effects in short-term-memory (that retrieval from STM improves as the context for learning is made more similar to the context for retrieval), and four more experiments examine the mechanism by which the context effect might operate. (Author/MB)

  8. Short-Term Longitudinal Changes in Memory, Intelligence and Perceived Competence in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilewski, Michael J.; Schaie, K. Warner

    Previous research on intelligence and aging has relied on tests developed for younger adults, which often incorporate many factors that could impede optimal performance in elderly populations. To investigate short-term longitudinal changes in memory, intelligence, and perceived competence in everyday situations among older adults, 227 adults were…

  9. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions: Constraints on 40-Hz models of short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingber, Lester

    1995-10-01

    Calculations presented in L. Ingber and P.L. Nunez, Phys. Rev. E 51, 5074 (1995) detailed the evolution of short-term memory in the neocortex, supporting the empirical 7+/-2 rule of constraints on the capacity of neocortical processing. These results are given further support when other recent models of 40-Hz subcycles of low-frequency oscillations are considered.

  10. A Visual Short-Term Memory Advantage for Objects of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Kim M.; Glazek, Kuba; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is limited, especially for complex objects. Its capacity, however, is greater for faces than for other objects; this advantage may stem from the holistic nature of face processing. If the holistic processing explains this advantage, object expertise--which also relies on holistic processing--should endow experts…

  11. Orienting Attention within Visual Short-Term Memory: Development and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna C.; Astle, Duncan; Scerif, Gaia

    2014-01-01

    How does developing attentional control operate within visual short-term memory (VSTM)? Seven-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults (total n = 205) were asked to report whether probe items were part of preceding visual arrays. In Experiment 1, central or peripheral cues oriented attention to the location of to-be-probed items either prior to…

  12. [Effect of eleutherococcus on short-term memory and visual perception in healthy humans].

    PubMed

    Arushanian, E B; Baĭda, O A; Mastiagin, S S; Popova, A P; Shikina, I B

    2003-01-01

    Acute administration of a liquid eleutherococcus extract significantly improves short-term memory in healthy humans. The expression of this action depends on the daytime and psychophysiological peculiarities of the volunteers. Administration of the preparation also changes light perception by increasing retinal sensitivity. This effect was more pronounced in humans with weak type of high nervous activity in evening hours.

  13. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  14. Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

  15. Language and Short-Term Memory: The Role of Perceptual-Motor Affordance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The advantage for real words over nonwords in serial recall—the lexicality effect—is typically attributed to support for item-level phonology, either via redintegration, whereby partially degraded short-term traces are “cleaned up” via support from long-term representations of the phonological material or via the more robust temporary activation of long-term lexical phonological knowledge that derives from its combination with established lexical and semantic levels of representation. The much smaller effect of lexicality in serial recognition, where the items are re-presented in the recognition cue, is attributed either to the minimal role for redintegration from long-term memory or to the minimal role for item memory itself in such retrieval conditions. We show that the reduced lexicality effect in serial recognition is not a function of the retrieval conditions, but rather because previous demonstrations have used auditory presentation, and we demonstrate a robust lexicality effect for visual serial recognition in a setting where auditory presentation produces no such effect. Furthermore, this effect is abolished under conditions of articulatory suppression. We argue that linguistic knowledge affects the readiness with which verbal material is segmentally recoded via speech motor processes that support rehearsal and therefore affects tasks that involve recoding. On the other hand, auditory perceptual organization affords sequence matching in the absence of such a requirement for segmental recoding and therefore does not show such effects of linguistic knowledge. PMID:24797440

  16. Memory for relations in the short term and the long term after medial temporal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Squire, Larry R

    2017-02-11

    A central idea about the organization of declarative memory and the function of the hippocampus is that the hippocampus provides for the coding of relationships between items. A question arises whether this idea refers to the process of forming long-term memory or whether, as some studies have suggested, memory for relations might depend on the hippocampus even at short retention intervals and even when the task falls within the province of short-term (working) memory. The latter formulation appears to place the operation of relational memory into conflict with the idea that working memory is independent of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. In this report, the concepts of relational memory and working memory are discussed in the light of a simple demonstration experiment. Patients with MTL lesions successfully learned and recalled two word pairs when tested directly after learning but failed altogether when tested after a delay. The results do not contradict the idea that the hippocampus has a fundamental role in relational memory. However, there is a need for further elaboration and specification of the idea in order to explain why patients with MTL lesions can establish relational memory in the short term but not in long-term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  18. Binding of Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory in Williams Syndrome and Moderate Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Phillips, Caroline; Baddeley, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    A main aim of this study was to test the claim that individuals with Williams syndrome have selectively impaired memory for spatial as opposed to visual information. The performance of 16 individuals with Williams syndrome (six males, 10 females; mean age 18y 7mo [SD 7y 6mo], range 9y 1mo-30y 7mo) on tests of short-term memory for item and…

  19. Complex network structure influences processing in long-term and short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological word-forms influenced retrieval from the mental lexicon (that portion of long-term memory dedicated to language) during the on-line recognition and production of spoken words. In the present study we examined how network structure influences other retrieval processes in long- and short-term memory. In a false-memory task—examining long-term memory—participants falsely recognized more words with low- than high-C. In a recognition memory task—examining veridical memories in long-term memory—participants correctly recognized more words with low- than high-C. However, participants in a serial recall task—examining redintegration in short-term memory—recalled lists comprised of high-C words more accurately than lists comprised of low-C words. These results demonstrate that network structure influences cognitive processes associated with several forms of memory including lexical, long-term, and short-term. PMID:22745522

  20. Memory integration in amnesia: prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-04-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM-LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit from two

  1. Memory and hippocampal architecture following short-term midazolam in western diet-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Dorothea S; Falangola, Maria F; Ledreux, Aurélie; Nie, Xingju; Suhre, Wendy M; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-05-16

    The impact of short-term benzodiazepine exposure on cognition in middle-aged or older patients is a highly debated topic among anesthesiologists, critical care physicians and public media. "Western diet" (WD) consumption is linked to impaired cognition as well. The combination of benzodiazepines with substantial exposure to WD might set the stage for increased hippocampal vulnerability for benzodiazepines leading to exaggerated cognitive impairment in the postoperative period. In this study, Fischer 344 rats were fed either WD or standard rodent diet from 5 to 10.5 months of age. Rats were exposed to midazolam or placebo two days prior to an MRI scan using Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) to assess brain microstructural integrity, followed by behavioral testing using a water radial arm maze. Hippocampal tissue was collected to assess alterations in protein biochemistry in brain regions associated with learning and memory. Our results showed that rats exposed to the combination of midazolam and WD had significantly delayed time of learning and exhibited spatial memory impairment. Further, we observed an overall increase of kurtosis metrics in the hippocampus and increased expression of the mitochondrial protein VDAC2 in midazolam-treated rats. Our data suggest that both the short-acting benzodiazepine midazolam and WD contribute to negatively affect the brain in middle-aged rats. This study is the first application of DKI on the effects of midazolam and WD exposure, and the findings demonstrate that diffusion metrics are sensitive indicators of changes in the complexity of neurite architecture.

  2. Internal attention to features in visual short-term memory guides object learning

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Attending to objects in the world affects how we perceive and remember them. What are the consequences of attending to an object in mind? In particular, how does reporting the features of a recently seen object guide visual learning? In three experiments, observers were presented with abstract shapes in a particular color, orientation, and location. After viewing each object, observers were cued to report one feature from visual short-term memory (VSTM). In a subsequent test, observers were cued to report features of the same objects from visual long-term memory (VLTM). We tested whether reporting a feature from VSTM: (1) enhances VLTM for just that feature (practice-benefit hypothesis), (2) enhances VLTM for all features (object-based hypothesis), or (3) simultaneously enhances VLTM for that feature and suppresses VLTM for unreported features (feature-competition hypothesis). The results provided support for the feature-competition hypothesis, whereby the representation of an object in VLTM was biased towards features reported from VSTM and away from unreported features (Experiment 1). This bias could not be explained by the amount of sensory exposure or response learning (Experiment 2) and was amplified by the reporting of multiple features (Experiment 3). Taken together, these results suggest that selective internal attention induces competitive dynamics among features during visual learning, flexibly tuning object representations to align with prior mnemonic goals. PMID:23954925

  3. The impact of interference on short-term memory for visual orientation.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Rosanne L; Bloem, Ilona M; De Weerd, Peter; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-12-01

    Visual short-term memory serves as an efficient buffer for maintaining no longer directly accessible information. How robust are visual memories against interference? Memory for simple visual features has proven vulnerable to distractors containing conflicting information along the relevant stimulus dimension, leading to the idea that interacting feature-specific channels at an early stage of visual processing support memory for simple visual features. Here we showed that memory for a single randomly orientated grating was susceptible to interference from a to-be-ignored distractor grating presented midway through a 3-s delay period. Memory for the initially presented orientation became noisier when it differed from the distractor orientation, and response distributions were shifted toward the distractor orientation (by ∼3°). Interestingly, when the distractor was rendered task-relevant by making it a second memory target, memory for both retained orientations showed reduced reliability as a function of increased orientation differences between them. However, the degree to which responses to the first grating shifted toward the orientation of the task-relevant second grating was much reduced. Finally, using a dichoptic display, we demonstrated that these systematic biases caused by a consciously perceived distractor disappeared once the distractor was presented outside of participants' awareness. Together, our results show that visual short-term memory for orientation can be systematically biased by interfering information that is consciously perceived.

  4. C. elegans positive butanone learning, short-term, and long-term associative memory assays.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Amanda; Parsons, Lance; Stein, Geneva; Wills, Airon; Kaletsky, Rachel; Murphy, Coleen

    2011-03-11

    The memory of experiences and learned information is critical for organisms to make choices that aid their survival. C. elegans navigates its environment through neuron-specific detection of food and chemical odors, and can associate nutritive states with chemical odors, temperature, and the pathogenicity of a food source. Here, we describe assays of C. elegans associative learning and short- and long-term associative memory. We modified an aversive olfactory learning paradigm to instead produce a positive response; the assay involves starving ~400 worms, then feeding the worms in the presence of the AWC neuron-sensed volatile chemoattractant butanone at a concentration that elicits a low chemotactic index (similar to Toroyama et al.). A standard population chemotaxis assay1 tests the worms' attraction to the odorant immediately or minutes to hours after conditioning. After conditioning, wild-type animals' chemotaxis to butanone increases ~0.6 Chemotaxis Index units, its "Learning Index". Associative learning is dependent on the presence of both food and butanone during training. Pairing food and butanone for a single conditioning period ("massed training") produces short-term associative memory that lasts ~2 hours. Multiple conditioning periods with rest periods between ("spaced training") yields long-term associative memory (<40 hours), and is dependent on the cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor required for long-term memory across species. Our protocol also includes image analysis methods for quick and accurate determination of chemotaxis indices. High-contrast images of animals on chemotaxis assay plates are captured and analyzed by worm counting software in MatLab. The software corrects for uneven background using a morphological tophat transformation. Otsu's method is then used to determine a threshold to separate worms from the background. Very small particles are removed automatically and larger non-worm regions (plate edges

  5. The hard fall effect: high working memory capacity leads to a higher, but less robust short-term memory performance.

    PubMed

    Thomassin, Noémylle; Gonthier, Corentin; Guerraz, Michel; Roulin, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Participants with a high working memory span tend to perform better than low spans in a variety of tasks. However, their performance is paradoxically more impaired when they have to perform two tasks at once, a phenomenon that could be labeled the "hard fall effect." The present study tested whether this effect exists in a short-term memory task, and investigated the proposal that the effect is due to high spans using efficient facilitative strategies under simple task conditions. Ninety-eight participants performed a spatial short-term memory task under simple and dual task conditions; stimuli presentation times either allowed for the use of complex facilitative strategies or not. High spans outperformed low spans only under simple task conditions when presentation times allowed for the use of facilitative strategies. These results indicate that the hard fall effect exists on a short-term memory task and may be caused by individual differences in strategy use.

  6. Short term memory of Caenorhabditis elegans against bacterial pathogens involves CREB transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Prithika, Udayakumar; Vikneswari, Ramaraj; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2017-04-01

    One of the key issues pertaining to the control of memory is to respond to a consistently changing environment or microbial niche present in it. Human cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor which plays a crucial role in memory has a homolog in C. elegans, crh-1. crh-1 appears to influence memory processes to certain extent by habituation of the host to a particular environment. The discrimination between the pathogen and a non-pathogen is essential for C. elegans in a microbial niche which determines its survival. Training the nematodes in the presence of a virulent pathogen (S. aureus) and an opportunistic pathogen (P. mirabilis) separately exhibits a different behavioural paradigm. This appears to be dependent on the CREB transcription factor. Here we show that C. elegans homolog crh-1 helps in memory response for a short term against the interacting pathogens. Following conditioning of the nematodes to S. aureus and P. mirabilis, the wild type nematodes exhibited a positive response towards the respective pathogens which diminished slowly after 2h. By contrast, the crh-1 deficient nematodes had a defective memory post conditioning. The molecular data reinforces the importance of crh-1 gene in retaining the memory of nematode. Our results also suggest that involvement of neurotransmitters play a crucial role in modulating the memory of the nematode with the assistance of CREB. Therefore, we elucidate that CREB is responsible for the short term memory response in C. elegans against bacterial pathogens.

  7. Working Memory, Short-Term Memory, and Reading Disabilities: A Selective Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Zheng, Xinhua; Jerman, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to synthesize research that compares children with and without reading disabilities (RD) on measures of short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM). Across a broad age, reading, and IQ range, 578 effect sizes (ESs) were computed, yielding a mean ES across studies of -0.89 (SD = 1.03). A total of 257 ESs…

  8. A Spiking Working Memory Model Based on Hebbian Short-Term Potentiation.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Florian; Lansner, Anders

    2017-01-04

    A dominant theory of working memory (WM), referred to as the persistent activity hypothesis, holds that recurrently connected neural networks, presumably located in the prefrontal cortex, encode and maintain WM memory items through sustained elevated activity. Reexamination of experimental data has shown that prefrontal cortex activity in single units during delay periods is much more variable than predicted by such a theory and associated computational models. Alternative models of WM maintenance based on synaptic plasticity, such as short-term nonassociative (non-Hebbian) synaptic facilitation, have been suggested but cannot account for encoding of novel associations. Here we test the hypothesis that a recently identified fast-expressing form of Hebbian synaptic plasticity (associative short-term potentiation) is a possible mechanism for WM encoding and maintenance. Our simulations using a spiking neural network model of cortex reproduce a range of cognitive memory effects in the classical multi-item WM task of encoding and immediate free recall of word lists. Memory reactivation in the model occurs in discrete oscillatory bursts rather than as sustained activity. We relate dynamic network activity as well as key synaptic characteristics to electrophysiological measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that fast Hebbian short-term potentiation is a key WM mechanism.

  9. Distinct electrophysiological indices of maintenance in auditory and visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Grimault, Stephan; Thibault, Jennifer; Guimond, Synthia; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert J; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    We compared the electrophysiological correlates for the maintenance of non-musical tones sequences in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) to those for the short-term maintenance of sequences of coloured disks held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). The visual stimuli yielded a sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), suggesting that the maintenance of sequences of coloured stimuli engaged structures similar to those involved in the maintenance of simultaneous visual displays. On the other hand, maintenance of acoustic sequences produced a sustained negativity at fronto-central sites. This component is named the Sustained Anterior Negativity (SAN). The amplitude of the SAN increased with increasing load in ASTM and predicted individual differences in the performance. There was no SAN in a control condition with the same auditory stimuli but no memory task, nor one associated with visual memory. These results suggest that the SAN is an index of brain activity related to the maintenance of representations in ASTM that is distinct from the maintenance of representations in VSTM.

  10. Persistent spatial information in the frontal eye field during object-based short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kelsey L; Noudoost, Behrad; Moore, Tirin

    2012-08-08

    Spatial attention is known to gate entry into visual short-term memory, and some evidence suggests that spatial signals may also play a role in binding features or protecting object representations during memory maintenance. To examine the persistence of spatial signals during object short-term memory, the activity of neurons in the frontal eye field (FEF) of macaque monkeys was recorded during an object-based delayed match-to-sample task. In this task, monkeys were trained to remember an object image over a brief delay, regardless of the locations of the sample or target presentation. FEF neurons exhibited visual, delay, and target period activity, including selectivity for sample location and target location. Delay period activity represented the sample location throughout the delay, despite the irrelevance of spatial information for successful task completion. Furthermore, neurons continued to encode sample position in a variant of the task in which the matching stimulus never appeared in their response field, confirming that FEF maintains sample location independent of subsequent behavioral relevance. FEF neurons also exhibited target-position-dependent anticipatory activity immediately before target onset, suggesting that monkeys predicted target position within blocks. These results show that FEF neurons maintain spatial information during short-term memory, even when that information is irrelevant for task performance.

  11. Short-Term Memory Trace in Rapidly Adapting Synapses of Inferior Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Liu, Zheng; Wiener, Matthew C.; Optican, Lance M.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Visual short-term memory tasks depend upon both the inferior temporal cortex (ITC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Activity in some neurons persists after the first (sample) stimulus is shown. This delay-period activity has been proposed as an important mechanism for working memory. In ITC neurons, intervening (nonmatching) stimuli wipe out the delay-period activity; hence, the role of ITC in memory must depend upon a different mechanism. Here, we look for a possible mechanism by contrasting memory effects in two architectonically different parts of ITC: area TE and the perirhinal cortex. We found that a large proportion (80%) of stimulus-selective neurons in area TE of macaque ITCs exhibit a memory effect during the stimulus interval. During a sequential delayed matching-to-sample task (DMS), the noise in the neuronal response to the test image was correlated with the noise in the neuronal response to the sample image. Neurons in perirhinal cortex did not show this correlation. These results led us to hypothesize that area TE contributes to short-term memory by acting as a matched filter. When the sample image appears, each TE neuron captures a static copy of its inputs by rapidly adjusting its synaptic weights to match the strength of their individual inputs. Input signals from subsequent images are multiplied by those synaptic weights, thereby computing a measure of the correlation between the past and present inputs. The total activity in area TE is sufficient to quantify the similarity between the two images. This matched filter theory provides an explanation of what is remembered, where the trace is stored, and how comparison is done across time, all without requiring delay period activity. Simulations of a matched filter model match the experimental results, suggesting that area TE neurons store a synaptic memory trace during short-term visual memory. PMID:18464917

  12. Evaluating the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in junior high school girls.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, A; Sohrabi, Z; Eftekhari, M H

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in guidance-school students. Memory improves for subjects who have eaten breakfast. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms. What children eat for breakfast before going to school is very important. A total of 150 junior high school girls were taken from a subject pool in four schools in Shiraz (capital of the Fars Province in Iran). They filled out the socio-economic questionnaires as well as food frequency questionnaires for breakfast and provided two-three day breakfast records in two different seasons and their short-term memories were evaluated by Weksler test socio-economic conditions and dietary intakes were analyzed. The results of the study showed that there was no correlation between parents job, students mean age and their school grades with their memory scores. Dietary analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between local soup consumption in breakfast and memory scores. Food record analysis showed no correlation between fat, cholesterol, protein, vitamin B6, B12, calorie and iodine intake in breakfast and memory scores, but there was a positive correlation between carbohydrate, iron and vitamin B3 intake in breakfast and memory scores, similarly there was a positive correlation between B12 intake in the breakfast and students' average school grades during the year.

  13. Olfactory short-term memory encoding and maintenance - an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Steffen; Bluschke, Annet; Beste, Christian; Iannilli, Emilia; Rößner, Veit; Hummel, Thomas; Bender, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether the memory encoding and short term maintenance of olfactory stimuli is associated with neurophysiological activation patterns which parallel those described for sensory modalities such as vision and auditory. We examined olfactory event-related potentials in an olfactory change detection task in twenty-four healthy adults and compared the measured activation to that found during passive olfactory stimulation. During the early olfactory post-processing phase, we found a sustained negativity over bilateral frontotemporal areas in the passive perception condition which was enhanced in the active memory task. There was no significant lateralization in either experimental condition. During the maintenance interval at the end of the delay period, we still found sustained activation over bilateral frontotemporal areas which was more negative in trials with correct - as compared to incorrect - behavioural responses. This was complemented by a general significantly stronger frontocentral activation. Summarizing, we were able to show that olfactory short term memory involves a parallel sequence of activation as found in other sensory modalities. In addition to olfactory-specific frontotemporal activations in the memory encoding phase, we found slow cortical potentials over frontocentral areas during the memory maintenance phase indicating the activation of a supramodal memory maintenance system. These findings could represent the neurophysiological underpinning of the 'olfactory flacon', the olfactory counter-part to the visual sketchpad and phonological loop embedded in Baddeley's working memory model.

  14. Short-Term Memory Retrievals and Expectation in On-Line Sentence Comprehension: The Effects of Recent Linguistic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartek, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how short-term memory shapes sentence comprehension processes is a long-standing topic in psycholinguistics. This thesis pursues new insights on two facets of short-term memory's role in sentence comprehension: (a) The first four experiments search for, and obtain, concrete evidence that locality effects, or increased integration…

  15. The Relationship between Perisylvian Morphology and Verbal Short-Term Memory Functioning in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Morgan, Allison E.; Hiemenz, Jennifer R.; Cohen, Morris J.; Hynd, George W.

    2004-01-01

    Although children with neurodevelopmental disorders frequently present with reduced short-term memory functioning, the relationship between perisylvian morphology and verbal short-term memory functioning has received limited attention. Thus, examining this relationship in children with neurodevelopmental disorders was the focus of this exploratory…

  16. Serial Order Reconstruction in Down Syndrome: Evidence for a Selective Deficit in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Down syndrome consistently perform less well than appropriately matched comparison groups on tests of verbal short-term memory, despite performing relatively well on non-verbal short-term memory tasks. However, it is not clear whether these findings constitute evidence for a selective deficit in verbal short-term…

  17. What Links Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance and Vocabulary Level? Evidence of Changing Relationships among Individuals with Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Hewes, Alexa K.; Leeke, Tansy C.; Phillips, Caroline E.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies are presented that adopt a novel approach to determining whether verbal short-term memory performance is causally related to vocabulary acquisition in childhood. This involves examining whether verbal short-term memory measures are more closely related to the absolute level of individuals' vocabulary, or the rate at which vocabulary…

  18. Short-term memory for serial order: the Start-End Model.

    PubMed

    Henson, R N

    1998-07-01

    Three solutions to the problem of serial order can be identified: chaining, ordinal and positional theories. Error patterns in serial recall from short-term memory fail to support chaining theories, yet provide unequivocal evidence for positional theories. In a new model of short-term memory, the Start-End Model (SEM), the positions of items in a sequence are coded relative to the start and end of that sequence. Simulations confirm SEM's ability to capture the main phenomena in serial recall, such as the effects of primacy, recency, list length, grouping, modality, redundant suffices, proactive interference, retention interval, and phonological similarity. Moreover, SEM is the first model to capture the complete pattern of errors, including transpositions, repetitions, omissions, intrusions, confusions, and, in particular, positional errors between groups and between trials. Unlike other positional models however, SEM predicts that positional errors will maintain relative rather than absolute position, in agreement with recent experiments (Henson, 1977).

  19. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority.

  20. Limitless capacity: a dynamic object-oriented approach to short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John; Jones, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    The notion of capacity-limited processing systems is a core element of cognitive accounts of limited and variable performance, enshrined within the short-term memory construct. We begin with a detailed critical analysis of the conceptual bases of this view and argue that there are fundamental problems – ones that go to the heart of cognitivism more generally – that render it untenable. In place of limited capacity systems, we propose a framework for explaining performance that focuses on the dynamic interplay of three aspects of any given setting: the particular task that must be accomplished, the nature and form of the material upon which the task must be performed, and the repertoire of skills and perceptual-motor functions possessed by the participant. We provide empirical examples of the applications of this framework in areas of performance typically accounted for by reference to capacity-limited short-term memory processes. PMID:25852610

  1. Representations of temporal information in short-term memory: Are they modality-specific?

    PubMed

    Bratzke, Daniel; Quinn, Katrina R; Ulrich, Rolf; Bausenhart, Karin M

    2016-10-01

    Rattat and Picard (2012) reported that the coding of temporal information in short-term memory is modality-specific, that is, temporal information received via the visual (auditory) modality is stored as a visual (auditory) code. This conclusion was supported by modality-specific interference effects on visual and auditory duration discrimination, which were induced by secondary tasks (visual tracking or articulatory suppression), presented during a retention interval. The present study assessed the stability of these modality-specific interference effects. Our study did not replicate the selective interference pattern but rather indicated that articulatory suppression not only impairs short-term memory for auditory but also for visual durations. This result pattern supports a crossmodal or an abstract view of temporal encoding.

  2. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    PubMed

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  3. Ethanol facilitation of short-term memory in adult rats with a disturbed circadian cycle.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, P; Okulicz-Kozaryn, I; Nowaczyk, M; Kaminska, E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3-month ethanol treatment on olfactory social memory test performance using two inter-exposure intervals [30 min: short-term recognition (STR); or 120 min: long-term recognition (LTR)] in adult rats with a disturbed circadian cycle (DCC). Ethanol treatment both in ethanol-preferring and -non-preferring groups improved the STR task compared to control rats. However, LTR procedure triggered the opposite tendency. Moreover, no differences between control rats with DCC and those with normal diurnal rhythm in STR and LTR paradigms were observed. Our results suggest that, under some conditions, alcohol facilitates short-term memory in adult rats.

  4. Neural activity in the hippocampus predicts individual visual short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    von Allmen, David Yoh; Wurmitzer, Karoline; Martin, Ernst; Klaver, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Although the hippocampus had been traditionally thought to be exclusively involved in long-term memory, recent studies raised controversial explanations why hippocampal activity emerged during short-term memory tasks. For example, it has been argued that long-term memory processes might contribute to performance within a short-term memory paradigm when memory capacity has been exceeded. It is still unclear, though, whether neural activity in the hippocampus predicts visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance. To investigate this question, we measured BOLD activity in 21 healthy adults (age range 19-27 yr, nine males) while they performed a match-to-sample task requiring processing of object-location associations (delay period  =  900 ms; set size conditions 1, 2, 4, and 6). Based on individual memory capacity (estimated by Cowan's K-formula), two performance groups were formed (high and low performers). Within whole brain analyses, we found a robust main effect of "set size" in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In line with a "set size × group" interaction in the hippocampus, a subsequent Finite Impulse Response (FIR) analysis revealed divergent hippocampal activation patterns between performance groups: Low performers (mean capacity  =  3.63) elicited increased neural activity at set size two, followed by a drop in activity at set sizes four and six, whereas high performers (mean capacity  =  5.19) showed an incremental activity increase with larger set size (maximal activation at set size six). Our data demonstrated that performance-related neural activity in the hippocampus emerged below capacity limit. In conclusion, we suggest that hippocampal activity reflected successful processing of object-location associations in VSTM. Neural activity in the PPC might have been involved in attentional updating.

  5. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-02-01

    Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.

  6. Neuroleptics ameliorate phencyclidine-induced impairments of short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Ulrike; Schroeder, Helmut; Schwegler, Herbert; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2000-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP), a non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, is able to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in animals and in humans. It is known that schizophrenic patients have deficits in memory processes. Therefore, it was investigated whether subchronic pulsatile or continuous application of 5.0 mg kg−1 PCP over 5 days induce short-term memory deficits in holeboard learning and the action of two different neuroleptics on this behavioural test. First, an impairment in the holeboard task was described when the animals were tested 24 h after the last application but not after 15 min or 1 h after the last injection. Secondly, the influence of haloperidol and risperidone on the PCP-induced short-term memory changes was tested. The combined application of PCP and risperidone led to a complete antagonism of the short-term deficits, but the combined treatment with haloperidol was accompanied by a partial abolishment of the PCP-induced deficits. PCP led to an upregulation of the glutamate binding sites in striatum and nucleus accumbens whereas the D2 binding sites were reduced in striatum. The D1 binding sites seem to be unchanged. The receptor protein expression of glutamate receptors mGluR1, GluR2, GluR5/7 and NMDAR1 were not modified in response to PCP treatment. The determination of a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons shows a decrease of the cells within the CA3 of the hippocampal formation. These findings indicate that PCP induced impairments in short term memory can be detected by holeboard learning and may provide an interesting tool for the search of new neuroleptics. PMID:10780995

  7. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (<2h/month, N=12), casual players (4-8h/month, N=10), and experienced players (>15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  8. A Spiking Working Memory Model Based on Hebbian Short-Term Potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Florian

    2017-01-01

    A dominant theory of working memory (WM), referred to as the persistent activity hypothesis, holds that recurrently connected neural networks, presumably located in the prefrontal cortex, encode and maintain WM memory items through sustained elevated activity. Reexamination of experimental data has shown that prefrontal cortex activity in single units during delay periods is much more variable than predicted by such a theory and associated computational models. Alternative models of WM maintenance based on synaptic plasticity, such as short-term nonassociative (non-Hebbian) synaptic facilitation, have been suggested but cannot account for encoding of novel associations. Here we test the hypothesis that a recently identified fast-expressing form of Hebbian synaptic plasticity (associative short-term potentiation) is a possible mechanism for WM encoding and maintenance. Our simulations using a spiking neural network model of cortex reproduce a range of cognitive memory effects in the classical multi-item WM task of encoding and immediate free recall of word lists. Memory reactivation in the model occurs in discrete oscillatory bursts rather than as sustained activity. We relate dynamic network activity as well as key synaptic characteristics to electrophysiological measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that fast Hebbian short-term potentiation is a key WM mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Working memory (WM) is a key component of cognition. Hypotheses about the neural mechanism behind WM are currently under revision. Reflecting recent findings of fast Hebbian synaptic plasticity in cortex, we test whether a cortical spiking neural network model with such a mechanism can learn a multi-item WM task (word list learning). We show that our model can reproduce human cognitive phenomena and achieve comparable memory performance in both free and cued recall while being simultaneously compatible with experimental data on structure, connectivity, and

  9. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alduais, Ahmed Mohammed Saleh; Almukhaizeem, Yasir Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first…

  10. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lydia T. S.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval. PMID:24478681

  11. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity.

    PubMed

    Yee, Lydia T S; Hannula, Deborah E; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  12. A Computerized Evaluation of Sensory Memory and Short-term Memory Impairment After Rapid Ascent to 4280 m.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qing Hai; Ge, Di; Zhao, Wei; Ma, Xue; Hu, Ke Yan; Lu, Yao; Liu, Zheng Xiang; Ran, Ji Hua; Li, Xiao Ling; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Jian Feng

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute high-altitude exposure on sensory and short-term memory using interactive software, we transported 30 volunteers in a sport utility vehicle to a 4280 m plateau within 3 h. We measured their memory performance on the plain (initial arrival) and 3 h after arrival on the plateau using six measures. Memory performance was significantly poorer on the plateau by four of the six measures. Furthermore, memory performance was significantly poorer in the acute mountain sickness (AMS) group than in the non-AMS group by five of the six measures. These findings indicate that rapid ascent to 4280 m and remaining at this altitude for 3 h resulted in decreased sensory and short-term memory, particularly among participants who developed AMS.

  13. Effect of acoustic similarity on short-term auditory memory in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the monkey's short-term memory in audition depends on a passively retained sensory trace as opposed to a trace reactivated from long-term memory for use in working memory. Reliance on a passive sensory trace could render memory particularly susceptible to confusion between sounds that are similar in some acoustic dimension. If so, then in delayed matching-to-sample, the monkey's performance should be predicted by the similarity in the salient acoustic dimension between the sample and subsequent test stimulus, even at very short delays. To test this prediction and isolate the acoustic features relevant to short-term memory, we examined the pattern of errors made by two rhesus monkeys performing a serial, auditory delayed match-to-sample task with interstimulus intervals of 1 s. The analysis revealed that false-alarm errors did indeed result from similarity-based confusion between the sample and the subsequent nonmatch stimuli. Manipulation of the stimuli showed that removal of spectral cues was more disruptive to matching behavior than removal of temporal cues. In addition, the effect of acoustic similarity on false-alarm response was stronger at the first nonmatch stimulus than at the second one. This pattern of errors would be expected if the first nonmatch stimulus overwrote the sample's trace, and suggests that the passively retained trace is not only vulnerable to similarity-based confusion but is also highly susceptible to overwriting.

  14. Time-resolved neuroimaging of visual short term memory consolidation by post-perceptual attention shifts.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Marcus; Thiemann, Ulf; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    Post-perceptual cues can enhance visual short term memory encoding even after the offset of the visual stimulus. However, both the mechanisms by which the sensory stimulus characteristics are buffered as well as the mechanisms by which post-perceptual selective attention enhances short term memory encoding remain unclear. We analyzed late post-perceptual event-related potentials (ERPs) in visual change detection tasks (100ms stimulus duration) by high-resolution ERP analysis to elucidate these mechanisms. The effects of early and late auditory post-cues (300ms or 850ms after visual stimulus onset) as well as the effects of a visual interference stimulus were examined in 27 healthy right-handed adults. Focusing attention with post-perceptual cues at both latencies significantly improved memory performance, i.e. sensory stimulus characteristics were available for up to 850ms after stimulus presentation. Passive watching of the visual stimuli without auditory cue presentation evoked a slow negative wave (N700) over occipito-temporal visual areas. N700 was strongly reduced by a visual interference stimulus which impeded memory maintenance. In contrast, contralateral delay activity (CDA) still developed in this condition after the application of auditory post-cues and was thereby dissociated from N700. CDA and N700 seem to represent two different processes involved in short term memory encoding. While N700 could reflect visual post processing by automatic attention attraction, CDA may reflect the top-down process of searching selectively for the required information through post-perceptual attention.

  15. Relations between Short-term Memory Deficits, Semantic Processing, and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Corinne M.; Martin, Randi C.; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested separable short-term memory (STM) buffers for the maintenance of phonological and lexical-semantic information, as some patients with aphasia show better ability to retain semantic than phonological information and others show the reverse. Recently, researchers have proposed that deficits to the maintenance of semantic information in STM are related to executive control abilities. Aims The present study investigated the relationship of executive function abilities with semantic and phonological short-term memory (STM) and semantic processing in such patients, as some previous research has suggested that semantic STM deficits and semantic processing abilities are critically related to specific or general executive function deficits. Method and Procedures 20 patients with aphasia and STM deficits were tested on measures of short-term retention, semantic processing, and both complex and simple executive function tasks. Outcome and Results In correlational analyses, we found no relation between semantic STM and performance on simple or complex executive function tasks. In contrast, phonological STM was related to executive function performance in tasks that had a verbal component, suggesting that performance in some executive function tasks depends on maintaining or rehearsing phonological codes. Although semantic STM was not related to executive function ability, performance on semantic processing tasks was related to executive function, perhaps due to similar executive task requirements in both semantic processing and executive function tasks. Conclusions Implications for treatment and interpretations of executive deficits are discussed. PMID:22736889

  16. Visual short-term memory capacity for simple and complex objects.

    PubMed

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola; Gotler, Alex; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not related to storage limitations of VSTM, per se. We used ERPs to track neuronal activity specifically related to retention in VSTM by measuring the sustained posterior contralateral negativity during a change detection task (which required detecting if an item was changed between a memory and a test array). The sustained posterior contralateral negativity, during the retention interval, was larger for complex objects than for simple objects, suggesting that neurons mediating VSTM needed to work harder to maintain more complex objects. This, in turn, is consistent with the view that VSTM capacity depends on complexity.

  17. Contribution of visuospatial attention, short-term memory and executive functions to performance in number interval bisection.

    PubMed

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Carbè, Katia; Gevers, Wim

    2017-03-06

    Number interval bisection consists of estimating the mid-number within a pair (1-9=>5). Healthy adults and right-brain damage patients can show biased performance in this task, underestimating and overestimating the mid-number, respectively. The role of visuospatial attention during this task, and its interplay with other cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory) is still object of debate. In this study we explored the relation between visuospatial attention and individual differences in working memory and executive functions during number interval bisection. To manipulate the deployment of visuospatial attention, healthy participants tracked a dot moving to the left or moving to the right while bisecting numerical intervals. We also collected information concerning verbal and visuospatial short-term memory span, and concerning verbal and visuospatial fluency scores. Beside replicating what is typically observed in this task (e.g., underestimation bias), a correlation was observed between verbal short-term memory and bisection bias, and an interesting relation between performance in the number interval bisection, verbal short-term memory, and visuospatial attention. Specifically, performance of those participants with low verbal span was affected by the direction of the moving dot, underestimating at a larger extent when the dot moved leftward than rightward. Finally, it was also observed that participants' verbal fluency ability contributed in the generation of biases in the numerical task. The finding of the involvement of abilities belonging to the verbal domain contributes to unveil the multi-componential nature of number interval bisection. Considering the debate on the nature of number interval bisection and its use in the clinical assessment of deficits following brain damage, this finding may be interesting also from a clinical perspective.

  18. Age differences in short-term memory binding are related to working memory performance across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Fandakova, Yana; Sander, Myriam C; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2014-03-01

    Memory performance increases during childhood and adolescence, and decreases in old age. Among younger adults, better ability to bind items to the context in which they were experienced is associated with higher working memory performance (Oberauer, 2005). Here, we examined the extent to which age differences in binding contribute to life span age differences in short-term memory (STM). Younger children (N = 85; 10 to 12 years), teenagers (N = 41; 13 to 15 years), younger adults (N = 84; 20 to 25 years), and older adults (N = 86; 70 to 75 years) worked on global and local short-term recognition tasks that are assumed to measure item and item-context memory, respectively. Structural equation models showed that item-context bindings are functioning less well in children and older adults compared with younger adults and teenagers. This result suggests protracted development of the ability to form and recollect detailed short-term memories, and decline of this ability in aging. Across all age groups, better item-context binding was associated with higher working memory performance, indicating that developmental differences in binding mechanisms are closely related to working memory development in childhood and old age.

  19. A single brief burst induces GluR1-dependent associative short-term potentiation: a potential mechanism for short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Martha A; Maramara, Lauren A; Lisman, John

    2010-11-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon that has received little attention. Here we examined several properties of STP and tested the dependence of STP on GluR1. The minimal requirement for inducing STP was examined using a test pathway and a conditioning pathway. Several closely spaced stimuli in the test pathway, forming a single brief burst, were sufficient to induce STP. Thus, STP is likely to be induced by the similar bursts that occur in vivo. STP induction is associative in nature and dependent on the NMDAR. STP decays with two components, a fast component (1.6 +/- 0.26 min) and a slower one (19 +/- 6.6 min). To test the role of GluR1 in STP, experiments were conducted on GluR1 knockout mice. We found that STP was greatly reduced. These results, taken together with the behavioral work of D. Sanderson et al. [Sanderson, D., Good, M. A., Skelton, K., Sprengel, R., Seeburg, P. H., Nicholas, J., et al. Enhanced long-term and impaired short-term spatial memory in GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit knockout mice: Evidence for a dual-process memory model. Learning and Memory, 2009], provide genetic evidence that STP is a likely mechanism of STM.

  20. Working memory and arithmetic calculation in children: the contributory roles of processing speed, short-term memory, and reading.

    PubMed

    Berg, Derek H

    2008-04-01

    The cognitive underpinnings of arithmetic calculation in children are noted to involve working memory; however, cognitive processes related to arithmetic calculation and working memory suggest that this relationship is more complex than stated previously. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relative contributions of processing speed, short-term memory, working memory, and reading to arithmetic calculation in children. Results suggested four important findings. First, processing speed emerged as a significant contributor of arithmetic calculation only in relation to age-related differences in the general sample. Second, processing speed and short-term memory did not eliminate the contribution of working memory to arithmetic calculation. Third, individual working memory components--verbal working memory and visual-spatial working memory--each contributed unique variance to arithmetic calculation in the presence of all other variables. Fourth, a full model indicated that chronological age remained a significant contributor to arithmetic calculation in the presence of significant contributions from all other variables. Results are discussed in terms of directions for future research on working memory in arithmetic calculation.

  1. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  2. Routes to short term memory indexing: Lessons from deaf native users of American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Fernandez, Nina M.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Models of working memory (WM) have been instrumental in understanding foundational cognitive processes and sources of individual differences. However, current models cannot conclusively explain the consistent group differences between deaf signers and hearing speakers on a number of short-term memory (STM) tasks. Here we take the perspective that these results are not due to a temporal order-processing deficit in deaf individuals, but rather reflect different biases in how different types of memory cues are used to do a given task. We further argue that the main driving force behind the shifts in relative biasing is a consequence of language modality (sign vs. speech) and the processing they afford, and not deafness, per se. PMID:22871205

  3. CMIP and ATP2C2 Modulate Phonological Short-Term Memory in Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, Dianne F.; Winchester, Laura; Addis, Laura; Paracchini, Silvia; Buckingham, Lyn-Louise; Clark, Ann; Cohen, Wendy; Cowie, Hilary; Dworzynski, Katharina; Everitt, Andrea; Goodyer, Ian M.; Hennessy, Elizabeth; Kindley, A. David; Miller, Laura L.; Nasir, Jamal; O'Hare, Anne; Shaw, Duncan; Simkin, Zoe; Simonoff, Emily; Slonims, Vicky; Watson, Jocelynne; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Fisher, Simon E.; Seckl, Jonathon R.; Helms, Peter J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Baird, Gillian; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in language acquisition despite otherwise normal development and in the absence of any obvious explanatory factors. We performed a high-density screen of SLI1, a region of chromosome 16q that shows highly significant and consistent linkage to nonword repetition, a measure of phonological short-term memory that is commonly impaired in SLI. Using two independent language-impaired samples, one family-based (211 families) and another selected from a population cohort on the basis of extreme language measures (490 cases), we detected association to two genes in the SLI1 region: that encoding c-maf-inducing protein (CMIP, minP = 5.5 × 10−7 at rs6564903) and that encoding calcium-transporting ATPase, type2C, member2 (ATP2C2, minP = 2.0 × 10−5 at rs11860694). Regression modeling indicated that each of these loci exerts an independent effect upon nonword repetition ability. Despite the consistent findings in language-impaired samples, investigation in a large unselected cohort (n = 3612) did not detect association. We therefore propose that variants in CMIP and ATP2C2 act to modulate phonological short-term memory primarily in the context of language impairment. As such, this investigation supports the hypothesis that some causes of language impairment are distinct from factors that influence normal language variation. This work therefore implicates CMIP and ATP2C2 in the etiology of SLI and provides molecular evidence for the importance of phonological short-term memory in language acquisition. PMID:19646677

  4. Verbal short-term memory as an articulatory system: evidence from an alternative paradigm.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Him; Wooltorton, Lana

    2002-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the role of articulatory rehearsal in verbal [corrected] short-term memory was examined via a shadowing-plus-recall paradigm. In this paradigm, subjects shadowed a word target presented closely after an auditory memory list before they recalled the list. The phonological relationship between the shadowing target and the final item on the memory list was manipulated. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that targets sounding similar to the list-final memory item generally took longer to shadow than unrelated targets. This inhibitory effect of phonological relatedness was more pronounced with tense- than lax-vowel pseudoword recall lists. The interaction between vowel tenseness and phonological relatedness was replicated in Experiment 3 using shorter lists of real words. In Experiment 4, concurrent articulation was applied during list learning to block rehearsal; consequently, neither the phonological relatedness effect nor its interaction with vowel tenseness emerged. Experiments 5 and 6 manipulated the occurrence frequencies and lexicality of the recall items, respectively, instead of vowel tenseness. Unlike vowel tenseness, these non-articulatory memory factors failed to interact with the phonological relatedness effect. Experiment 7 orthogonally manipulated the vowel tenseness and frequencies of the recall items; slowing in shadowing times due to phonological relatedness was modulated by vowel tenseness but not frequency. Taken together, these results suggest that under the present paradigm, the modifying effect of vowel tenseness on the magnitude of slowing in shadowing due to phonological relatedness is indicative of a prominent articulatory component in verbal short-term retention. The shadowing-plus-recall approach avoids confounding overt recall into internal memory processing, which is an inherent problem of the traditional immediate serial recall and span tasks.

  5. Monkeys have a limited form of short-term memory in audition.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2012-07-24

    A stimulus trace may be temporarily retained either actively [i.e., in working memory (WM)] or by the weaker mnemonic process we will call passive short-term memory, in which a given stimulus trace is highly susceptible to "overwriting" by a subsequent stimulus. It has been suggested that WM is the more robust process because it exploits long-term memory (i.e., a current stimulus activates a stored representation of that stimulus, which can then be actively maintained). Recent studies have suggested that monkeys may be unable to store acoustic signals in long-term memory, raising the possibility that they may therefore also lack auditory WM. To explore this possibility, we tested rhesus monkeys on a serial delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task using a small set of sounds presented with ~1-s interstimulus delays. Performance was accurate whenever a match or a nonmatch stimulus followed the sample directly, but it fell precipitously if a single nonmatch stimulus intervened between sample and match. The steep drop in accuracy was found to be due not to passive decay of the sample's trace, but to retroactive interference from the intervening nonmatch stimulus. This "overwriting" effect was far greater than that observed previously in serial DMS with visual stimuli. The results, which accord with the notion that WM relies on long-term memory, indicate that monkeys perform serial DMS in audition remarkably poorly and that whatever success they had on this task depended largely, if not entirely, on the retention of stimulus traces in the passive form of short-term memory.

  6. Perception of musical timbre in congenital amusia: categorization, discrimination and short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized primarily by difficulties in the pitch domain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the perception of musical timbre in a group of individuals with congenital amusia by probing discrimination and short-term memory for real-world timbral stimuli as well as examining the ability of these individuals to sort instrumental tones according to their timbral similarity. Thirteen amusic individuals were matched with thirteen non-amusic controls on a range of background variables. The discrimination task included stimuli of two different durations and pairings of instrumental tones that reflected varying distances in a perceptual timbre space. Performance in the discrimination task was at ceiling for both groups. In contrast, amusic individuals scored lower than controls on the short-term timbral memory task. Amusic individuals also performed worse than controls on the sorting task, suggesting differences in the higher-order representation of musical timbre. These findings add to the emerging picture of amusia as a disorder that has consequences for the perception and memory of musical timbre, as well as pitch.

  7. Initial evidence linking synaptic superoxide production with poor short-term memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sameh S; Young, Jared W; Wallace, Chelsea K; Gresack, Jodi; Jeste, Dilip V; Geyer, Mark A; Dugan, Laura L; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2011-01-12

    Unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a marker of cellular and organismal aging linked to cognitive decline in humans and rodents. The sources of elevated ROS contributing to cognitive decline are unknown. Because NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibition may prevent memory decline with age, we hypothesized that Nox and not mitochondrial sources of synaptic ROS production are linked to individual variance in cognitive performance in aged mice. Young (8 months) and aged (26 months) mice were tested in the novel object recognition task (NORT). Mitochondrial and Nox ROS production was assayed in isolated synaptosomes using spin trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Aged mice exhibited variance in NORT performance, with some performing similar to young mice while others exhibited poorer short-term memory. EPR studies indicated that Nox rather than mitochondria was the major ROS source at the synapse, and Nox-induced but not mitochondrial-induced ROS levels correlated with NORT performance in aged mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that variance in Nox-specific synaptic ROS production may predict short-term memory deficits with age.

  8. Resolving semantic and proactive interference in memory over the short-term

    PubMed Central

    Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Lewis, Richard L.; Jonides, John

    2011-01-01

    Interference is a major source of short-term errors of memory. The present investigation explores the relationship between two important forms of interference: proactive interference (PI), induced by the need to reject recently studied items no longer relevant to task performance, and semantic interference (SI), induced by the need to reject lures sharing a meaningful relationship with current memoranda. We explore the possibility that shared cognitive control processes are recruited to resolve both forms of interference. In Experiment 1, we find that the requirement to engage in articulatory suppression during the retention interval of tasks that induce either PI or SI increases both forms of interference similarly and selectively. In Experiment 2, we develop a task to examine PI and SI within the same experimental context. The results show interactive effects between factors that lead to the two forms of interference. Taken together, these findings support contextual-cuing models of short-term remembering (Nairne, Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 53–81 2002), where the context in which retrieval occurs can influence susceptibility to interference. Lastly, we discuss several theoretical hypotheses concerning the cognitive control processes that are recruited to resolve SI and PI in short-term remembering. PMID:21327614

  9. Pupil old/new effects reflect stimulus encoding and decoding in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Brocher, Andreas; Graf, Tim

    2016-12-01

    We conducted five pupil old/new experiments to examine whether pupil old/new effects can be linked to familiarity and/or recollection processes of recognition memory. In Experiments 1-3, we elicited robust pupil old/new effects for legal words and pseudowords (Experiment 1), positive and negative words (Experiment 2), and low-frequency and high-frequency words (Experiment 3). Importantly, unlike for old/new effects in ERPs, we failed to find any effects of long-term memory representations on pupil old/new effects. In Experiment 4, using the words and pseudowords from Experiment 1, participants made lexical decisions instead of old/new decisions. Pupil old/new effects were restricted to legal words. Additionally requiring participants to make speeded responses (Experiment 5) led to a complete absence of old/new effects. Taken together, these data suggest that pupil old/new effects do not map onto familiarity and recollection processes of recognition memory. They rather seem to reflect strength of memory traces in short-term memory, with little influence of long-term memory representations. Crucially, weakening the memory trace through manipulations in the experimental task significantly reduces pupil/old new effects.

  10. Markers of preparatory attention predict visual short-term memory performance.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexandra M; Nobre, Anna C; Stokes, Mark G

    2011-05-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is limited in capacity. Therefore, it is important to encode only visual information that is most likely to be relevant to behaviour. Here we asked which aspects of selective biasing of VSTM encoding predict subsequent memory-based performance. We measured EEG during a selective VSTM encoding task, in which we varied parametrically the memory load and the precision of recall required to compare a remembered item to a subsequent probe item. On half the trials, a spatial cue indicated that participants only needed to encode items from one hemifield. We observed a typical sequence of markers of anticipatory spatial attention: early attention directing negativity (EDAN), anterior attention directing negativity (ADAN), late directing attention positivity (LDAP); as well as of VSTM maintenance: contralateral delay activity (CDA). We found that individual differences in preparatory brain activity (EDAN/ADAN) predicted cue-related changes in recall accuracy, indexed by memory-probe discrimination sensitivity (d'). Importantly, our parametric manipulation of memory-probe similarity also allowed us to model the behavioural data for each participant, providing estimates for the quality of the memory representation and the probability that an item could be retrieved. We found that selective encoding primarily increased the probability of accurate memory recall; that ERP markers of preparatory attention predicted the cue-related changes in recall probability.

  11. The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Jackie; Baddeley, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical strings at study improved grammar learning compared with suppressing rehearsal or remaining silent during learning. Experiment 3 found no effects of rehearsal on grammar learning once participants had learned the component syllables. The findings suggest that phonological STM aids artificial grammar learning via effects on vocabulary learning.

  12. Visual short-term memory deficits associated with GBA mutation and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zokaei, Nahid; McNeill, Alisdair; Proukakis, Christos; Beavan, Michelle; Jarman, Paul; Korlipara, Prasad; Hughes, Derralynn; Mehta, Atul; Hu, Michele T M; Schapira, Anthony H V; Husain, Masud

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with mutation in the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are at significantly high risk of developing Parkinson's disease with cognitive deficit. We examined whether visual short-term memory impairments, long associated with patients with Parkinson's disease, are also present in GBA-positive individuals-both with and without Parkinson's disease. Precision of visual working memory was measured using a serial order task in which participants observed four bars, each of a different colour and orientation, presented sequentially at screen centre. Afterwards, they were asked to adjust a coloured probe bar's orientation to match the orientation of the bar of the same colour in the sequence. An additional attentional 'filtering' condition tested patients' ability to selectively encode one of the four bars while ignoring the others. A sensorimotor task using the same stimuli controlled for perceptual and motor factors. There was a significant deficit in memory precision in GBA-positive individuals-with or without Parkinson's disease-as well as GBA-negative patients with Parkinson's disease, compared to healthy controls. Worst recall was observed in GBA-positive cases with Parkinson's disease. Although all groups were impaired in visual short-term memory, there was a double dissociation between sources of error associated with GBA mutation and Parkinson's disease. The deficit observed in GBA-positive individuals, regardless of whether they had Parkinson's disease, was explained by a systematic increase in interference from features of other items in memory: misbinding errors. In contrast, impairments in patients with Parkinson's disease, regardless of GBA status, was explained by increased random responses. Individuals who were GBA-positive and also had Parkinson's disease suffered from both types of error, demonstrating the worst performance. These findings provide evidence for dissociable signature deficits within the domain of visual short-term

  13. Effects of High Intensity White Noise on Short-Term Memory for Position in a List and Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daee, Safar; Wilding, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Seven experiments are described investigating the effecy of high intensity white noise during the visual presentation of words on a number of short-term memory tasks. Examines results relative to position learning and sequence learning. (Editor/RK)

  14. Differences in the verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in alcoholics: Short-term vs. long-term abstainers.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Jabłkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Mokros, Łukasz; Koprowicz, Jacek; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in two subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients, those undergoing short-term abstinence (STA) and those undergoing long-term abstinence (LTA), and to compare the level of cognitive functions in patients after long-term abstinence with healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 106 alcohol-dependent patients (53 immediately after drinking at least 3 days and 53 after at least one-year abstinence). The control group comprised 53 subjects, whose age, sex and education levels matched those of the patients in the experimental group. The dependence intensity was assessed using SADD and MAST scales. The neuropsychological assessment was based on the FAS Test, Stroop Test and TMT A&B Test. The results obtained for alcohol-dependent patients revealed significant disturbances of cognitive functions. Such results indicate the presence of severe frontal cerebral cortex dysfunctions. Frontal cortex dysfunctions affecting the verbal fluency and working memory subsystems and the executive functions also persisted during long-term abstinence periods. No significant correlations between the duration of dependence, quantity of alcohol consumed and efficiency of the working memory and executive functions were observed in alcohol-dependent subjects after short-term or long-term abstinence.

  15. Verbal and musical short-term memory: Variety of auditory disorders after stroke.

    PubMed

    Hirel, Catherine; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Lévêque, Yohana; Hannoun, Salem; Fornoni, Lesly; Daligault, Sébastien; Bouchet, Patrick; Jung, Julien; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks. All participants then performed verbal and musical auditory short-term memory (STM) tasks that were implemented in the same way for both materials. Participants had to indicate whether series of four words or four tones presented in pairs, were the same or different. To detect domain-general STM deficits, they also had to perform a visual STM task. Behavioral results showed that patients had lower performance for the STM tasks in comparison with control participants, regardless of the material (words, tones, visual) and the lesion side. The individual patient data showed a double dissociation between some patients exhibiting verbal deficits without musical deficits or the reverse. Exploratory VLSM analyses suggested that dorsal pathways are involved in verbal (phonetic), musical (melodic), and visual STM, while the ventral auditory pathway is involved in musical STM.

  16. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2′-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27162767

  17. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2'-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury.

  18. Visual short-term memory binding deficit in familial Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuying; Pertzov, Yoni; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Henley, Susie M.D.; Crutch, Sebastian; Woodward, Felix; Leung, Kelvin; Fox, Nick C.; Husain, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Long-term episodic memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are well characterised but, until recently, short-term memory (STM) function has attracted far less attention. We employed a recently-developed, delayed reproduction task which requires participants to reproduce precisely the remembered location of items they had seen only seconds previously. This paradigm provides not only a continuous measure of localization error in memory, but also an index of relational binding by determining the frequency with which an object is misplaced to the location of one of the other items held in memory. Such binding errors in STM have previously been found on this task to be sensitive to medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage in focal lesion cases. Twenty individuals with pathological mutations in presenilin 1 or amyloid precursor protein genes for familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) were tested together with 62 healthy controls. Participants were assessed using the delayed reproduction memory task, a standard neuropsychological battery and structural MRI. Overall, FAD mutation carriers were worse than controls for object identity as well as in gross localization memory performance. Moreover, they showed greater misbinding of object identity and location than healthy controls. Thus they would often mislocalize a correctly-identified item to the location of one of the other items held in memory. Significantly, asymptomatic gene carriers – who performed similarly to healthy controls on standard neuropsychological tests – had a specific impairment in object-location binding, despite intact memory for object identity and location. Consistent with the hypothesis that the hippocampus is critically involved in relational binding regardless of memory duration, decreased hippocampal volume across FAD participants was significantly associated with deficits in object-location binding but not with recall precision for object identity or localization. Object-location binding may

  19. A visual short-term memory advantage for objects of expertise

    PubMed Central

    Curby, Kim M.; Glazek, Kuba; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is limited, especially for complex objects. Its capacity, however, is greater for faces than for other objects, an advantage that may stem from the holistic nature of face processing. If the holistic processing explains this advantage, then object expertise—which also relies on holistic processing—should endow experts with a VSTM advantage. We compared VSTM for cars among car experts to that among car novices. Car experts, but not car novices, demonstrated a VSTM advantage similar to that for faces; this advantage was orientation-specific and was correlated with an individual's level of car expertise. Control experiments ruled out accounts based solely on verbal- or long-term memory representations. These findings suggest that the processing advantages afforded by visual expertise result in domain-specific increases in VSTM capacity, perhaps by allowing experts to maximize the use of an inherently limited VSTM system. PMID:19170473

  20. Exploiting short-term memory in soft body dynamics as a computational resource

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, K.; Li, T.; Hauser, H.; Pfeifer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Soft materials are not only highly deformable, but they also possess rich and diverse body dynamics. Soft body dynamics exhibit a variety of properties, including nonlinearity, elasticity and potentially infinitely many degrees of freedom. Here, we demonstrate that such soft body dynamics can be employed to conduct certain types of computation. Using body dynamics generated from a soft silicone arm, we show that they can be exploited to emulate functions that require memory and to embed robust closed-loop control into the arm. Our results suggest that soft body dynamics have a short-term memory and can serve as a computational resource. This finding paves the way towards exploiting passive body dynamics for control of a large class of underactuated systems. PMID:25185579

  1. Electrophysiological correlates of the retention of tones differing in timbre in auditory short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Nolden, Sophie; Bermudez, Patrick; Alunni-Menichini, Kristelle; Lefebvre, Christine; Grimault, Stephan; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    We examined the electrophysiological correlates of retention in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) for sequences of one, two, or three tones differing in timbre but having the same pitch. We focused on event-related potentials (ERPs) during the retention interval and revealed a sustained fronto-central ERP component (most likely a sustained anterior negativity; SAN) that became more negative as memory load increased. Our results are consistent with recent ERP studies on the retention of pitch and suggest that the SAN reflects brain activity mediating the low-level retention of basic acoustic features in ASTM. The present work shows that the retention of timbre shares common features with the retention of pitch, hence supporting the notion that the retention of basic sensory features is an active process that recruits modality-specific brain areas.

  2. A visual short-term memory advantage for objects of expertise.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Glazek, Kuba; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-02-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is limited, especially for complex objects. Its capacity, however, is greater for faces than for other objects; this advantage may stem from the holistic nature of face processing. If the holistic processing explains this advantage, object expertise--which also relies on holistic processing--should endow experts with a VSTM advantage. The authors compared VSTM for cars among car experts and car novices. Car experts, but not car novices, demonstrated a VSTM advantage similar to that for faces; this advantage was orientation specific and was correlated with an individual's level of car expertise. Control experiments ruled out accounts based solely on verbal- or long-term memory representations. These findings suggest that the processing advantages afforded by visual expertise result in domain-specific increases in VSTM capacity, perhaps by allowing experts to maximize the use of an inherently limited VSTM system.

  3. Short-term memory and vocabulary development in children with Down syndrome and children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Hick, Rachel F; Botting, Nicola; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2005-08-01

    A longitudinal comparison was made between development of verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory and vocabulary in children with Down syndrome (DS), children with specific language impairment (SLI), and typically developing children as a control group. Participants were 12 children with DS (6 males, 6 females; mean chronological age 9y 9mo [SD 2.8 mo], range 8y 6mo to 11y 4mo); nine children with SLI (4 males, 5 females; mean chronological age 3y 9mo [SD 4.8mo], range 3y 3mo to 4y 5mo); and 12 typically developing children (5 males, 7 females; mean chronological age 4y 4mo [SD 3.9mo], range 3y 3mo to 4y 3mo). Participants were matched on mental age (mean mental age 4y 3mo). All participants completed verbal short-term memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory, and expressive and receptive vocabulary tasks on three occasions over 1 year. Similarities were seen in the clinical groups for verbal short-term memory. There was some evidence of difficulty in visuo-spatial short-term memory in the children with SLI relative to the other groups, but all three groups showed overlap in visuo-spatial short-term memory performance. At the final time-point vocabulary performance in the clinical groups was similar; the typically developing children showed higher vocabulary abilities than both clinical groups.

  4. Contralateral Cortical Organisation of Information in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Lateralized Brain Activity during Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Robert; McDonald, John J.; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a…

  5. Cannabinoid and Cholinergic Systems Interact during Performance of a Short-Term Memory Task in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goonawardena, Anushka V.; Robinson, Lianne; Hampson, Robert E.; Riedel, Gernot

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that cannabinoid agonists such as [delta][superscript 9]-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide, and WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-2) produce potent and specific deficits in working memory (WM)/short-term memory (STM) tasks in rodents. Although mediated through activation of CB1 receptors located in memory-related brain regions such…

  6. Short-Term Memory Performances during Sustained Wakefulness in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greneche, Jerome; Krieger, Jean; Bertrand, Frederic; Erhardt, Christine; Maumy, Myriam; Tassi, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Both working and immediate memories were assessed every 4 h by specific short-term memory tasks over sustained wakefulness in 12 patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and 10 healthy controls. Results indicated that OSAHS patients exhibited lower working memory performances than controls on both backward digit span and…

  7. The phonological neighbourhood effect on short-term memory for order.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, L; Roodenrys, S; Miller, L M; Hulme, C

    2017-03-01

    There is a growing body of literature that suggests that long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM) structures that were once thought to be distinct are actually co-dependent, and that LTM can aid retrieval from STM. The mechanism behind this effect is commonly argued to act on item memory but not on order memory. The aim of the current study was to examine whether LTM could exert an influence on STM for order by examining an effect attributed to LTM, the phonological neighbourhood effect, in a task that reduced the requirement to retain item information. In Experiment 1, 18 participants completed a serial reconstruction task where neighbourhood density alternated within the lists. In Experiment 2, 22 participants completed a serial reconstruction task using pure lists of dense and sparse neighbourhood words. In Experiment 3, 22 participants completed a reconstruction task with both mixed and pure lists. There was a significant effect of neighbourhood density with better recall for dense than sparse neighbourhood words in pure lists but not in mixed lists. Results suggest that LTM exerts an influence prior to that proposed by many models of memory for order.

  8. Memory timeline: Brain ERP C250 (not P300) is an early biomarker of short-term storage.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert M; Gardner, Margaret N; Mapstone, Mark; Dupree, Haley M; Antonsdottir, Inga M

    2015-04-16

    Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) offer a quantitative link between neurophysiological activity and cognitive performance. ERPs were measured while young adults performed a task that required storing a relevant stimulus in short-term memory. Using principal components analysis, ERP component C250 (maximum at 250 ms post-stimulus) was extracted from a set of ERPs that were separately averaged for various task conditions, including stimulus relevancy and stimulus sequence within a trial. C250 was more positive in response to task-specific stimuli that were successfully stored in short-term memory. This relationship between C250 and short-term memory storage of a stimulus was confirmed by a memory probe recall test where the behavioral recall of a stimulus was highly correlated with its C250 amplitude. ERP component P300 (and its subcomponents of P3a and P3b, which are commonly thought to represent memory operations) did not show a pattern of activation reflective of storing task-relevant stimuli. C250 precedes the P300, indicating that initial short-term memory storage may occur earlier than previously believed. Additionally, because C250 is so strongly predictive of a stimulus being stored in short-term memory, C250 may provide a strong index of early memory operations.

  9. Memory Timeline: Brain ERP C250 (not P300) is an Early Biomarker of Short-Term Storage

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Gardner, Margaret N.; Mapstone, Mark; Dupree, Haley M.; Antonsdottir, Inga M.

    2015-01-01

    Brain Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) offer a quantitative link between neurophysiological activity and cognitive performance. ERPs were measured while young adults performed a task that required storing a relevant stimulus in short-term memory. Using Principal Components Analysis, ERP component C250 (maximum at 250 ms post-stimulus) was extracted from a set of ERPs that were separately averaged for various task conditions, including stimulus relevancy and stimulus sequence within a trial. C250 was more positive in response to task-specific stimuli that were successfully stored in short-term memory. This relationship between C250 and short-term memory storage of a stimulus was confirmed by a memory probe recall test where the behavioral recall of a stimulus was highly correlated with its C250 amplitude. ERP component P300 (and its subcomponents of P3a and P3b, which are commonly thought to represent memory operations) did not show a pattern of activation reflective of storing task-relevant stimuli. C250 precedes the P300, indicating that initial short-term memory storage may occur earlier than previously believed. Additionally, because C250 is so strongly predictive of a stimulus being stored in short-term memory, C250 may provide a strong index of early memory operations. PMID:25641043

  10. A bilateral advantage for maintaining objects in visual short term memory.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jessica L; Delvenne, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that attentional pre-cues can subsequently influence the transfer of information into visual short term memory (VSTM) (Schmidt, B., Vogel, E., Woodman, G., & Luck, S. (2002). Voluntary and automatic attentional control of visual working memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 64(5), 754-763). However, studies also suggest that those effects are constrained by the hemifield alignment of the pre-cues (Holt, J. L., & Delvenne, J.-F. (2014). A bilateral advantage in controlling access to visual short-term memory. Experimental Psychology, 61(2), 127-133), revealing better recall when distributed across hemifields relative to within a single hemifield (otherwise known as a bilateral field advantage). By manipulating the duration of the retention interval in a colour change detection task (1s, 3s), we investigated whether selective pre-cues can also influence how information is later maintained in VSTM. The results revealed that the pre-cues influenced the maintenance of the colours in VSTM, promoting consistent performance across retention intervals (Experiments 1 & 4). However, those effects were only shown when the pre-cues were directed to stimuli displayed across hemifields relative to stimuli within a single hemifield. Importantly, the results were not replicated when participants were required to memorise colours (Experiment 2) or locations (Experiment 3) in the absence of spatial pre-cues. Those findings strongly suggest that attentional pre-cues have a strong influence on both the transfer of information in VSTM and its subsequent maintenance, allowing bilateral items to better survive decay.

  11. Developmental changes in visual short-term memory in infancy: evidence from eye-tracking

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Heidi A.; Barrett, Frederick S.; Messenger, Ian M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed visual short-term memory (VSTM) for color in 6- and 8-month-old infants (n = 76) using a one-shot change detection task. In this task, a sample array of two colored squares was visible for 517 ms, followed by a 317-ms retention period and then a 3000-ms test array consisting of one unchanged item and one item in a new color. We tracked gaze at 60 Hz while infants looked at the changed and unchanged items during test. When the two sample items were different colors (Experiment 1), 8-month-old infants exhibited a preference for the changed item, indicating memory for the colors, but 6-month-olds exhibited no evidence of memory. When the two sample items were the same color and did not need to be encoded as separate objects (Experiment 2), 6-month-old infants demonstrated memory. These results show that infants can encode information in VSTM in a single, brief exposure that simulates the timing of a single fixation period in natural scene viewing, and they reveal rapid developmental changes between 6 and 8 months in the ability to store individuated items in VSTM. PMID:24106485

  12. A feature-segmentation model of short-term visual memory.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Koji; Inui, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    A feature-segmentation model of short-term visual memory (STVM) for contours is proposed. Memory of the First stimulus is maintained until the second stimulus is observed. Three processes interact to determine the relationship between stimulus and response: feature encoding, memory, and decision. Basic assumptions of the model are twofold: (i) the STVM system divides a contour into convex parts at regions of concavity; and (ii) the value of each convex part represented in STVM is an independent Gaussian random variable. Simulation showed that the five-parameter fits give a good account of the effects of the four experimental variables. The model provides evidence that: (i) contours are successfully encoded within 0.5 s exposure, regardless of pattern complexity; (ii) memory noise increases as a linear function of retention interval; (iii) the capacity of STVM, defined by pattern complexity (the degree that a pattern can be handled for several seconds with little loss), is about 4 convex parts; and (iv) the confusability contributing to the decision process is a primary factor in deteriorating recognition of complex figures. It is concluded that visually presented patterns can be retained in STVM with considerable precision for prolonged periods of time, though some loss of precision is inevitable.

  13. Grouping Influences Output Interference in Short-term Memory: A Mixture Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Suk; Oh, Byung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Output interference is a source of forgetting induced by recalling. We investigated how grouping influences output interference in short-term memory. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to remember four colored items. Those items were grouped by temporal coincidence as well as spatial alignment: two items were presented in the first memory array and two were presented in the second, and the items in both arrays were either vertically or horizontally aligned as well. The participants then performed two recall tasks in sequence by selecting a color presented at a cued location from a color wheel. In the same-group condition, the participants reported both items from the same memory array; however, in the different-group condition, the participants reported one item from each memory array. We analyzed participant responses with a mixture model, which yielded two measures: guess rate and precision of recalled memories. The guess rate in the second recall was higher for the different-group condition than for the same-group condition; however, the memory precisions obtained for both conditions were similarly degraded in the second recall. In Experiment 2, we varied the probability of the same- and different-group conditions with a ratio of 3 to 7. We expected output interference to be higher in the same-group condition than in the different-group condition. This is because items of the other group are more likely to be probed in the second recall phase and, thus, protecting those items during the first recall phase leads to a better performance. Nevertheless, the same pattern of results was robustly reproduced, suggesting grouping shields the grouped items from output interference because of the secured accessibility. We discussed how grouping influences output interference.

  14. P3 response during short-term memory retrieval revisited by a spatio-temporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Mehmet; Yildirim, Erol; Uslu, Atilla; Gürvit, Hakan; Demiralp, Tamer

    2012-05-01

    The most reported event related potential (ERP) parameter during short-term memory retrieval has been P3 wave and the association has been built on the relation between P3 latency and reaction times. The aim of this study is to identify an ERP component that reflects the memory scanning process preceding the decision making stage which has been associated with the P3 peak. A spatiotemporal analysis was applied on the P3 and pre-P3 period of ERP responses obtained during the retrieval phase of the Sternberg paradigm with two memory load conditions (3 and 5 letters in the memory set). In the easy task condition with the fastest reaction times (positive probes of 3 letters condition), a single P3 was observed, whereas P3 was split into two peaks in responses to probe items of more demanding task conditions. The single P3 peak and the later components of the split P3 peaks displayed the typical P3 topography. On the other hand, the topographic mapping of the earlier peak of the split P3 wave and ascending part of the single P3 peak revealed a right parietal topography. The onset time of this earlier right lateralized topography was stable among all conditions but it persisted longer in the high memory load condition. We conclude that the right-lateralized positivity in the pre-P3 period reflects the memory scanning process followed by the P3 peak with midline parietal topography reflecting the decision making process.

  15. A Customized Attention-Based Long Short-Term Memory Network for Distant Supervised Relation Extraction.

    PubMed

    He, Dengchao; Zhang, Hongjun; Hao, Wenning; Zhang, Rui; Cheng, Kai

    2017-04-14

    Distant supervision, a widely applied approach in the field of relation extraction can automatically generate large amounts of labeled training corpus with minimal manual effort. However, the labeled training corpus may have many false-positive data, which would hurt the performance of relation extraction. Moreover, in traditional feature-based distant supervised approaches, extraction models adopt human design features with natural language processing. It may also cause poor performance. To address these two shortcomings, we propose a customized attention-based long short-term memory network. Our approach adopts word-level attention to achieve better data representation for relation extraction without manually designed features to perform distant supervision instead of fully supervised relation extraction, and it utilizes instance-level attention to tackle the problem of false-positive data. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach is effective and achieves better performance than traditional methods.

  16. Infant word segmentation recruits the cerebral network of phonological short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Yasuyo; Hakuno, Yoko; Kobayashi, Ai; Naoi, Nozomi; Kojima, Shozo

    2017-04-10

    Segmenting word units from running speech is a fundamental skill infants must develop in order to acquire language. Despite ample behavioral evidence of this skill, its neurocognitive basis remains unclear. Using behavioral testing and functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to uncover the neurocognitive substrates of word segmentation and its development. Of three age-groups of Japanese infants (5-6, 7-8, and 9-10months of age), the two older age-groups showed significantly larger temporo-parietal (particularly supramarginal gyrus) responses to target words repeatedly presented for training, than to control words. After the training, they also exhibited stronger inferior frontal responses to target words embedded in sentences. These findings suggest that word segmentation largely involves a cerebral circuit of phonological (phonetic) short-term memory. The dorsal pathway involved in encoding and decoding phonological representation may start to function stably at around 7months of age to facilitate the growth of the infant's vocabulary.

  17. Questioning short-term memory and its measurement: Why digit span measures long-term associative learning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2015-11-01

    Traditional accounts of verbal short-term memory explain differences in performance for different types of verbal material by reference to inherent characteristics of the verbal items making up memory sequences. The role of previous experience with sequences of different types is ostensibly controlled for either by deliberate exclusion or by presenting multiple trials constructed from different random permutations. We cast doubt on this general approach in a detailed analysis of the basis for the robust finding that short-term memory for digit sequences is superior to that for other sequences of verbal material. Specifically, we show across four experiments that this advantage is not due to inherent characteristics of digits as verbal items, nor are individual digits within sequences better remembered than other types of individual verbal items. Rather, the advantage for digit sequences stems from the increased frequency, compared to other verbal material, with which digits appear in random sequences in natural language, and furthermore, relatively frequent digit sequences support better short-term serial recall than less frequent ones. We also provide corpus-based computational support for the argument that performance in a short-term memory setting is a function of basic associative learning processes operating on the linguistic experience of the rememberer. The experimental and computational results raise questions not only about the role played by measurement of digit span in cognition generally, but also about the way in which long-term memory processes impact on short-term memory functioning.

  18. Two stages of directed forgetting: Electrophysiological evidence from a short-term memory task.

    PubMed

    Gao, Heming; Cao, Bihua; Qi, Mingming; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Li, Fuhong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a short-term memory test was used to investigate the temporal course and neural mechanism of directed forgetting under different memory loads. Within each trial, two memory items with high or low load were presented sequentially, followed by a cue indicating whether the presented items should be remembered. After an interval, subjects were asked to respond to the probe stimuli. The ERPs locked to the cues showed that (a) the effect of cue type was initially observed during the P2 (160-240 ms) time window, with more positive ERPs for remembering relative to forgetting cues; (b) load effects were observed during the N2-P3 (250-500 ms) time window, with more positive ERPs for the high-load than low-load condition; (c) the cue effect was also observed during the N2-P3 time window, with more negative ERPs for forgetting versus remembering cues. These results demonstrated that directed forgetting involves two stages: task-relevance identification and information discarding. The cue effects during the N2 epoch supported the view that directed forgetting is an active process.

  19. Effects of healthy ageing on precision and binding of object location in visual short term memory.

    PubMed

    Pertzov, Yoni; Heider, Maike; Liang, Yuying; Husain, Masud

    2015-03-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19-83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer's disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD.

  20. Relations among acute and chronic nicotine administration, short-term memory, and tactics of data analysis.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Branch, Marc N

    2012-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance short-term memory. Some of this evidence comes from nonhuman primate research using a procedure called delayed matching-to-sample, wherein the monkey is trained to select a comparison stimulus that matches some physical property of a previously presented sample stimulus. Delays between sample stimulus offset and comparison stimuli onset are manipulated and accuracy is measured. The present research attempted to systematically replicate these enhancement effects with pigeons. In addition, the effects of nicotine were assessed under another, more dynamic, memory task called titrating-delay matching-to-sample. In this procedure, the delay between sample offset and comparison onset adjusts as a function of the subject's performance. Correct matches increase the delay, mismatches decrease the delay, and titrated delay values serve as the primary dependent measure. Both studies examined nicotine's effects under acute and chronic administration. Neither provided clear or compelling evidence of memory enhancement following nicotine administration despite reliable and systematic dose-related changes in response latency measures. A modest dose-related effect on accuracy was found, but the magnitude of the effect appears to be directly related to tactics of data analysis involving best-dose analyses of a very circumscribed subset of trial types.

  1. The Deployment of Attention in Short-term Memory Tasks: Tradeoffs between Immediate and Delayed Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Bunting, Michael F.; Cowan, Nelson; Colflesh, Greg H.

    2008-01-01

    Memory at times depends on attention, as when attention is used to encode incoming, serial verbal information. When encoding and rehearsal are difficult or when attention is divided during the list presentation, more attention is needed in the time following the presentation and just preceding the response. Across 12 experimental conditions observed in several experiments, we demonstrated this by introducing a nonverbal task with three levels of effort (no task, a natural nonverbal task, or an unnatural version of the task) during a brief retention interval in a short-term digit recall task. Interference from the task during the retention interval was greater when other factors drew resources away from the encoding of the stimuli, including unpredictability of the end point of the list, rapid presentation, and a secondary task during the list presentation. When those conditions complicate encoding of the list, we argue, attention is needed after the list to retrieve the contents of passive memory (i.e., post-categorical phonological storage and/or precategorical sensory memory) to the focus of attention for recall. PMID:18604962

  2. The objects of visuospatial short-term memory: Perceptual organization and change detection

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Atanaska; Macken, Bill

    2016-01-01

    We used a colour change-detection paradigm where participants were required to remember colours of six equally spaced circles. Items were superimposed on a background so as to perceptually group them within (a) an intact ring-shaped object, (b) a physically segmented but perceptually completed ring-shaped object, or (c) a corresponding background segmented into three arc-shaped objects. A nonpredictive cue at the location of one of the circles was followed by the memory items, which in turn were followed by a test display containing a probe indicating the circle to be judged same/different. Reaction times for correct responses revealed a same-object advantage; correct responses were faster to probes on the same object as the cue than to equidistant probes on a segmented object. This same-object advantage was identical for physically and perceptually completed objects, but was only evident in reaction times, and not in accuracy measures. Not only, therefore, is it important to consider object-level perceptual organization of stimulus elements when assessing the influence of a range of factors (e.g., number and complexity of elements) in visuospatial short-term memory, but a more detailed picture of the structure of information in memory may be revealed by measuring speed as well as accuracy. PMID:26286369

  3. Presynaptic learning and memory with a persistent firing neuron and a habituating synapse: a model of short term persistent habituation.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Ning, Ning; Dhanasekar, Dhiviya; Li, Guoqi; Shi, Luping; Vadakkepat, Prahlad

    2012-08-01

    Our paper explores the interaction of persistent firing axonal and presynaptic processes in the generation of short term memory for habituation. We first propose a model of a sensory neuron whose axon is able to switch between passive conduction and persistent firing states, thereby triggering short term retention to the stimulus. Then we propose a model of a habituating synapse and explore all nine of the behavioral characteristics of short term habituation in a two neuron circuit. We couple the persistent firing neuron to the habituation synapse and investigate the behavior of short term retention of habituating response. Simulations show that, depending on the amount of synaptic resources, persistent firing either results in continued habituation or maintains the response, both leading to longer recovery times. The effectiveness of the model as an element in a bio-inspired memory system is discussed.

  4. The relationship between perisylvian morphology and verbal short-term memory functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Kroese, Judith M; Morgan, Allison E; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Cohen, Morris J; Hynd, George W

    2004-04-01

    Although children with neurodevelopmental disorders frequently present with reduced short-term memory functioning, the relationship between perisylvian morphology and verbal short-term memory functioning has received limited attention. Thus, examining this relationship in children with neurodevelopmental disorders was the focus of this exploratory study. Results suggested leftward asymmetry in the temporal bank of the planum temporale is related to better coding and storage of semantic material. In contrast, parietal bank morphology is related to coding and storage of phonological material, and presence of an extra gyrus in the parietal region is associated with reduced phonological working memory. Data also supported a relationship between pars triangularis morphology and verbal short-term memory functioning, but this is not material-specific.

  5. Multiple neural states of representation in short-term memory? It's a matter of attention.

    PubMed

    Larocque, Joshua J; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Postle, Bradley R

    2014-01-01

    Short-term memory (STM) refers to the capacity-limited retention of information over a brief period of time, and working memory (WM) refers to the manipulation and use of that information to guide behavior. In recent years it has become apparent that STM and WM interact and overlap with other cognitive processes, including attention (the selection of a subset of information for further processing) and long-term memory (LTM-the encoding and retention of an effectively unlimited amount of information for a much longer period of time). Broadly speaking, there have been two classes of memory models: systems models, which posit distinct stores for STM and LTM (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley and Hitch, 1974); and state-based models, which posit a common store with different activation states corresponding to STM and LTM (Cowan, 1995; McElree, 1996; Oberauer, 2002). In this paper, we will focus on state-based accounts of STM. First, we will consider several theoretical models that postulate, based on considerable behavioral evidence, that information in STM can exist in multiple representational states. We will then consider how neural data from recent studies of STM can inform and constrain these theoretical models. In the process we will highlight the inferential advantage of multivariate, information-based analyses of neuroimaging data (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG)) over conventional activation-based analysis approaches (Postle, in press). We will conclude by addressing lingering questions regarding the fractionation of STM, highlighting differences between the attention to information vs. the retention of information during brief memory delays.

  6. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Alters the Expression of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit selectively impairs short-term memory for spatial locations. We further investigated this deficit by examining memory for discrete nonspatial visual stimuli in an operant chamber. Unconditioned suppression of magazine responding to visual stimuli was measured in wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice.…

  7. Evidence for Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Commentary on Berman, Jonides, and Lewis (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campoy, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    M. G. Berman, J. Jonides, and R. L. Lewis (2009) adapted the recent-probes task to investigate the causes of forgetting in short-term memory. In 7 experiments, they studied the persistence of memory traces by assessing the level of proactive interference generated by previous-trial items over a range of intertrial intervals. None of the…

  8. Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory in down Syndrome Reflects a Capacity Limitation Rather than Atypically Rapid Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M. Purser, H.R.; Jarrold, C.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome suffer from relatively poor verbal short-term memory. Recent work has indicated that this deficit is not caused by problems of audition, speech, or articulatory rehearsal within the phonological loop component of Baddeley and Hitch's working memory model. Given this, two experiments were conducted to investigate…

  9. Assessing the associative deficit of older adults in long-term and short-term/working memory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tina; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2012-09-01

    Older adults exhibit a deficit in associative long-term memory relative to younger adults. However, the literature is inconclusive regarding whether this deficit is attenuated in short-term/working memory. To elucidate the issue, three experiments assessed younger and older adults' item and interitem associative memory and the effects of several variables that might potentially contribute to the inconsistent pattern of results in previous studies. In Experiment 1, participants were tested on item and associative recognition memory with both long-term and short-term retention intervals in a single, continuous recognition paradigm. There was an associative deficit for older adults in the short-term and long-term intervals. Using only short-term intervals, Experiment 2 utilized mixed and blocked test designs to examine the effect of test event salience. Blocking the test did not attenuate the age-related associative deficit seen in the mixed test blocks. Finally, an age-related associative deficit was found in Experiment 3, under both sequential and simultaneous presentation conditions. Even while accounting for some methodological issues, the associative deficit of older adults is evident in short-term/working memory.

  10. Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of semantic control

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to semantic control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias semantic processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three semantic STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of semantic control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak semantic associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more semantic control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating semantic knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in semantic STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that semantic STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of semantic control disorders. PMID:21195105

  11. Infant auditory short-term memory for non-linguistic sounds.

    PubMed

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Newman, Rochelle S

    2015-04-01

    This research explores auditory short-term memory (STM) capacity for non-linguistic sounds in 10-month-old infants. Infants were presented with auditory streams composed of repeating sequences of either 2 or 4 unique instruments (e.g., flute, piano, cello; 350 or 700 ms in duration) followed by a 500-ms retention interval. These instrument sequences either stayed the same for every repetition (Constant) or changed by 1 instrument per sequence (Varying). Using the head-turn preference procedure, infant listening durations were recorded for each stream type (2- or 4-instrument sequences composed of 350- or 700-ms notes). Preference for the Varying stream was taken as evidence of auditory STM because detection of the novel instrument required memory for all of the instruments in a given sequence. Results demonstrate that infants listened longer to Varying streams for 2-instrument sequences, but not 4-instrument sequences, composed of 350-ms notes (Experiment 1), although this effect did not hold when note durations were increased to 700 ms (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 replicates and extends results from Experiments 1 and 2 and provides support for a duration account of capacity limits in infant auditory STM.

  12. Enhanced visual short-term memory in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M

    2013-08-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is critical for acquiring visual knowledge and shows marked individual variability. Previous work has illustrated a VSTM advantage among action video game players (Boot et al. Acta Psychologica 129:387-398, 2008). A growing body of literature has suggested that action video game playing can bolster visual cognitive abilities in a domain-general manner, including abilities related to visual attention and the speed of processing, providing some potential bases for this VSTM advantage. In the present study, we investigated the VSTM advantage among video game players and assessed whether enhanced processing speed can account for this advantage. Experiment 1, using simple colored stimuli, revealed that action video game players demonstrate a similar VSTM advantage over nongamers, regardless of whether they are given limited or ample time to encode items into memory. Experiment 2, using complex shapes as the stimuli to increase the processing demands of the task, replicated this VSTM advantage, irrespective of encoding duration. These findings are inconsistent with a speed-of-processing account of this advantage. An alternative, attentional account, grounded in the existing literature on the visuo-cognitive consequences of video game play, is discussed.

  13. Negative BOLD response in the hippocampus during short-term spatial memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jonna; Ferrier, I Nicol; Coventry, Kenny; Bester, Andre; Finkelmeyer, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    A parieto-medial temporal pathway is thought to underlie spatial navigation in humans. fMRI was used to assess the role of this pathway, including the hippocampus, in the cognitive processes likely to underlie navigation based on environmental cues. Participants completed a short-term spatial memory task in virtual space, which required no navigation but involved the recognition of a target location from a foil location based on environmental landmarks. The results showed that spatial memory retrieval based on environmental landmarks was indeed associated with increased signal in regions of the parieto-medial temporal pathway, including the superior parietal cortex, the retrosplenial cortex, and the lingual gyrus. However, the hippocampus demonstrated a signal decrease below the fixation baseline during landmark-based retrieval, whereas there was no signal change from baseline during retrieval based on viewer position. In a discussion of the origins of such negative BOLD response in the hippocampus, we consider both a suppression of default activity and an increase in activity without a corresponding boost in CBF as possible mechanisms.

  14. Phonological, visual, and semantic coding strategies and children's short-term picture memory span.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David; Luger-Klein, Scarlett; Crane, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments addressed controversies in the previous literature on the development of phonological and other forms of short-term memory coding in children, using assessments of picture memory span that ruled out potentially confounding effects of verbal input and output. Picture materials were varied in terms of phonological similarity, visual similarity, semantic similarity, and word length. Older children (6/8-year-olds), but not younger children (4/5-year-olds), demonstrated robust and consistent phonological similarity and word length effects, indicating that they were using phonological coding strategies. This confirmed findings initially reported by Conrad (1971), but subsequently questioned by other authors. However, in contrast to some previous research, little evidence was found for a distinct visual coding stage at 4 years, casting doubt on assumptions that this is a developmental stage that consistently precedes phonological coding. There was some evidence for a dual visual and phonological coding stage prior to exclusive use of phonological coding at around 5-6 years. Evidence for semantic similarity effects was limited, suggesting that semantic coding is not a key method by which young children recall lists of pictures.

  15. [Evaluation of mental workload of short-term memory task by secondary task performance and frontal midline theta rhythm].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, K; Sato, H

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the mental workload of short-term memory task by two objective measures, the secondary task performance and the frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm theta) of the electroencephalogram (EEG). First, to choose Fm theta appearance subjects EEGs were recorded for 18 male students during performing additional task. On Fm theta appearance subjects (8 males) a series of short-term memory task with changed number of memorable figures was imposed as the primary task, and tracking task as the secondary task. The task that presents seven numbers will be over the subjects' limits of short-term memory, and it was the threshold that the subjects' mental workload will be increased.

  16. Dot Enumeration Perceptual Organization Task (DEPOT): evidence for a short-term visual memory deficit in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, E F; Opler, L A; Owen, D R; Knight, R A

    1996-08-01

    The Dot Enumeration Perceptual Organization Task (DEPOT) evaluates the validity of 2 specific competing cognitive models of early input dysfunction in schizophrenic individuals: a primary Stage 1, sensory store, perceptual organization deficit vs. a Stage 2, short-term visual memory (STVM) deficit. DEPOT was also designed to assess the hypothesis that schizophrenic individuals tend to perform poorly on all cognitive tasks. In DEPOT both number and form judgments are made about the same dot patterns. A response delay manipulation assesses the persistence and operation of STVM. The study included 41 psychotic inpatients (8 with acute and 16 with chronic schizophrenia and 7 with bipolar and 10 with nonbipolar affective disorder) and 38 controls (22 college students and 16 hospital personnel). Although the pattern of results was consistent with neither the Stage 1 deficit nor the general deficit hypotheses, a Stage 2, STVM deficit hypothesis could account parsimoniously for the data.

  17. Long-term effects of interference on short-term memory performance in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Missaire, Mégane; Fraize, Nicolas; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Parmentier, Régis; Marighetto, Aline; Salin, Paul Antoine; Malleret, Gaël

    2017-01-01

    A distinction has always been made between long-term and short-term memory (also now called working memory, WM). The obvious difference between these two kinds of memory concerns the duration of information storage: information is supposedly transiently stored in WM while it is considered durably consolidated into long-term memory. It is well acknowledged that the content of WM is erased and reset after a short time, to prevent irrelevant information from proactively interfering with newly stored information. In the present study, we used typical WM radial maze tasks to question the brief lifespan of spatial WM content in rodents. Groups of rats were submitted to one of two different WM tasks in a radial maze: a WM task involving the repetitive presentation of a same pair of arms expected to induce a high level of proactive interference (PI) (HIWM task), or a task using a different pair in each trial expected to induce a low level of PI (LIWM task). Performance was effectively lower in the HIWM group than in LIWM in the final trial of each training session, indicative of a “within-session/short-term” PI effect. However, we also observed a different “between-session/long-term” PI effect between the two groups: while performance of LIWM trained rats remained stable over days, the performance of HIWM rats dropped after 10 days of training, and this impairment was visible from the very first trial of the day, hence not attributable to within-session PI. We also showed that a 24 hour-gap across training sessions known to allow consolidation processes to unfold, was a necessary and sufficient condition for the long-term PI effect to occur. These findings suggest that in the HIWM task, WM content was not entirely reset between training sessions and that, in specific conditions, WM content can outlast its purpose by being stored more permanently, generating a long-term deleterious effect of PI. The alternative explanation is that WM content could be transferred and

  18. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rolinski, Michal; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E.; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits—long associated with Parkinson’s disease—in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson’s disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson’s disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson’s disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson’s disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of ‘prodromal’ Parkinson’s disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. PMID:26582557

  19. Repeated mild closed head injury impairs short-term visuospatial memory and complex learning.

    PubMed

    Hylin, Michael J; Orsi, Sara A; Rozas, Natalia S; Hill, Julia L; Zhao, Jing; Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2013-05-01

    Concussive force can cause neurocognitive and neurobehavioral dysfunction by inducing functional, electrophysiological, and/or ultrastructural changes within the brain. Although concussion-triggered symptoms typically subside within days to weeks in most people, in 15%-20% of the cases, symptomology can continue beyond this time point. Problems with memory, attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility (e.g., problem solving, conflict resolution) are some of the prominent post-concussive cognitive symptoms. Repeated concussions (with loss or altered consciousness), which are common to many contact sports, can exacerbate these symptoms. The pathophysiology of repeated concussions is not well understood, nor is an effective treatment available. In order to facilitate drug discovery to treat post-concussive symptoms (PCSs), there is a need to determine if animal models of repeated mild closed head injury (mCHI) can mimic the neurocognitive and histopathological consequences of repeated concussions. To this end, we employed a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device to deliver a mCHI directly to the skull of mice daily for 4 days, and examined the ensuing neurological and neurocognitive functions using beam balance, foot-fault, an abbreviated Morris water maze test, context discrimination, and active place avoidance tasks. Repeated mCHI exacerbated vestibulomotor, motor, short-term memory and conflict learning impairments as compared to a single mCHI. Learning and memory impairments were still observed in repeated mCHI mice when tested 3 months post-injury. Repeated mCHI also reduced cerebral perfusion, prolonged the inflammatory response, and in some animals, caused hippocampal neuronal loss. Our results show that repeated mCHI can reproduce some of the deficits seen after repeated concussions in humans and may be suitable for drug discovery studies and translational research.

  20. Phonological awareness and short-term memory in hearing and deaf individuals of different communication backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Koo, Daniel; Crain, Kelly; LaSasso, Carol; Eden, Guinevere F

    2008-12-01

    Previous work in deaf populations on phonological coding and working memory, two skills thought to play an important role in the acquisition of written language skills, have focused primarily on signers or did not clearly identify the subjects' native language and communication mode. In the present study, we examined the effect of sensory experience, early language experience, and communication mode on the phonological awareness skills and serial recall of linguistic items in deaf and hearing individuals of different communicative and linguistic backgrounds: hearing nonsigning controls, hearing users of ASL, deaf users of ASL, deaf oral users of English, and deaf users of cued speech. Since many current measures of phonological awareness skills are inappropriate for deaf populations on account of the verbal demands in the stimuli or response, we devised a nonverbal phonological measure that addresses this limitation. The Phoneme Detection Test revealed that deaf cuers and oral users, but not deaf signers, performed as well as their hearing peers when detecting phonemes not transparent in the orthography. The second focus of the study examined short-term memory skills and found that in response to the traditional digit span as well as an experimental visual version, digit-span performance was similar across the three deaf groups, yet deaf subjects' retrieval was lower than that of hearing subjects. Our results support the claim (Bavelier et al., 2006) that lexical items processed in the visual-spatial modality are not as well retained as information processed in the auditory channel. Together these findings show that the relationship between working memory, phonological coding, and reading may not be as tightly interwoven in deaf students as would have been predicted from work conducted in hearing students.

  1. Effects of memory from vagal feedback on short-term potentiation of ventilation in conscious dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Xi, L; Smith, C A; Saupe, K W; Dempsey, J A

    1993-01-01

    1. We assessed short-term potentiation of ventilation in response to brief systemic normocapnic hypoxaemia in conscious dogs. Four recumbent dogs were exposed to Pa, O2 35-55 mmHg with Pa, CO2 maintained normocapnic for forty to fifty seconds and then abruptly returned to normoxia. Minute ventilation (VI) increased 4- to 5-fold during hypoxia due to both increased tidal volume (VT) and frequency (f). Several trials of hypoxic exposure with normoxic restoration were conducted with animals intact and following bilateral cold blockade of the cervical vagus nerves sufficient to block completely the Hering-Breuer reflex. 2. In the vagally intact dog, when normoxia was restored immediately following normocapnic hypoxia (PET, O2 = 40 Torr), expiratory time (TE) was prolonged to 190 +/- 68% of control (mean +/- S.E.M., range 53-350%) on the second or third breath and then returned slowly to control values on subsequent breaths. The prolongation of TE following removal of the hypoxic stimulus was positively correlated with the magnitude of the peak VT reached during hypoxic exposure. However, VT and VI remained significantly greater than control over a twenty second or four-breath period following hypoxia. 3. In the vagally blocked dog, no prolongation of TE was observed following isocapnic hypoxia; nor was TE following hypoxia correlated with the magnitude of the VT during hypoxia. The time constants of decay of VI, VT and f back to control, following hypoxia averaged 16, 19 and 9 s, respectively. 4. We conclude that short-term potentiation of ventilatory output following peripheral chemoreceptor hypoxic stimulation does exist in the awake dog, but the stimulatory after-effect is masked and TE is prolonged by a 'memory' of inhibitory vagal feedback. The magnitude of this inhibitory after-effect on TE prolongation increases in proportion to the increase in tidal volume achieved during the hypoxaemia. 5. This inhibitory effect of vagal memory may contribute to instability of

  2. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα) values showed overexpression (198%). Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism. PMID:17725831

  3. Interpreting potential markers of storage and rehearsal: Implications for studies of verbal short-term memory and neuropsychological cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Logie, Robert H; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychological studies of verbal short-term memory have often focused on two signature effects - phonological similarity and word length - the absence of which has been taken to indicate problems in phonological storage and rehearsal respectively. In the present study we present a possible alternative reading of such data, namely that the absence of these effects can follow as a consequence of an individual's poor level of recall. Data from a large normative sample of 251 adult participants were re-analyzed under the assumption that the size of phonological similarity and word length effects are proportional to an individual's overall level of recall. For both manipulations, when proportionalized effects were plotted against memory span, the same function fit the data in both auditory and visual presentation conditions. Furthermore, two additional sets of single-case data were broadly comparable to those that would be expected for an individual's level of verbal short-term memory performance albeit with some variation across tasks. These findings indicate that the absolute magnitude of phonological similarity and word length effects depends on overall levels of recall, and that these effects are necessarily eliminated at low levels of verbal short-term memory performance. This has implications for how one interprets any variation in the size of these effects, and raises serious questions about the causal direction of any relationship between impaired verbal short-term memory and the absence of phonological similarity or word length effects.

  4. Extraversion and short-term memory for chromatic stimuli: an event-related potential analysis.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Corinne C; Indermühle, Rebekka; Troche, Stefan J; Rammsayer, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated extraversion-related individual differences in visual short-term memory (VSTM) functioning. Event related potentials were recorded from 50 introverts and 50 extraverts while they performed a VSTM task based on a color-change detection paradigm with three different set sizes. Although introverts and extraverts showed almost identical hit rates and reaction times, introverts displayed larger N1 amplitudes than extraverts independent of color change or set size. Extraverts also showed larger P3 amplitudes compared to introverts when there was a color change, whereas no extraversion-related difference in P3 amplitude was found in the no-change condition. Our findings provided the first experimental evidence that introverts' greater reactivity to punctuate physical stimulation, as indicated by larger N1 amplitude, also holds for complex visual stimulus patterns. Furthermore, P3 amplitude in the change condition was larger for extraverts than introverts suggesting higher sensitivity to context change. Finally, there were no extraversion-related differences in P3 amplitude dependent on set size. This latter finding does not support the resource allocation explanation as a source of differences between introverts and extraverts.

  5. The strength of attentional biases reduces as visual short-term memory load increases

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite our visual system receiving irrelevant input that competes with task-relevant signals, we are able to pursue our perceptual goals. Attention enhances our visual processing by biasing the processing of the input that is relevant to the task at hand. The top-down signals enabling these biases are therefore important for regulating lower level sensory mechanisms. In three experiments, we examined whether we apply similar biases to successfully maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We presented participants with targets alongside distracters and we graded their perceptual similarity to vary the extent to which they competed. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the more items held in VSTM before the onset of the distracters, the more perceptually distinct the distracters needed to be for participants to retain the target accurately. Experiment 3 extended these behavioral findings by demonstrating that the perceptual similarity between target and distracters exerted a significantly greater effect on occipital alpha amplitudes, depending on the number of items already held in VSTM. The trade-off between VSTM load and target-distracter competition suggests that VSTM and perceptual competition share a partially overlapping mechanism, namely top-down inputs into sensory areas. PMID:23576694

  6. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; Toledano, Doroteo T; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved.

  7. Deep Pain: Exploiting Long Short-Term Memory Networks for Facial Expression Classification.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pau; Cucurull, Guillem; Gonalez, Jordi; Gonfaus, Josep M; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B; Roca, F Xavier

    2017-02-09

    Pain is an unpleasant feeling that has been shown to be an important factor for the recovery of patients. Since this is costly in human resources and difficult to do objectively, there is the need for automatic systems to measure it. In this paper, contrary to current state-of-the-art techniques in pain assessment, which are based on facial features only, we suggest that the performance can be enhanced by feeding the raw frames to deep learning models, outperforming the latest state-of-the-art results while also directly facing the problem of imbalanced data. As a baseline, our approach first uses convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to learn facial features from VGG_Faces, which are then linked to a long short-term memory to exploit the temporal relation between video frames. We further compare the performances of using the so popular schema based on the canonically normalized appearance versus taking into account the whole image. As a result, we outperform current state-of-the-art area under the curve performance in the UNBC-McMaster Shoulder Pain Expression Archive Database. In addition, to evaluate the generalization properties of our proposed methodology on facial motion recognition, we also report competitive results in the Cohn Kanade+ facial expression database.

  8. Principal Component 2-D Long Short-Term Memory for Font Recognition on Single Chinese Characters.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dapeng; Lin, Xu; Jin, Lianwen; Li, Xuelong

    2016-03-01

    Chinese character font recognition (CCFR) has received increasing attention as the intelligent applications based on optical character recognition becomes popular. However, traditional CCFR systems do not handle noisy data effectively. By analyzing in detail the basic strokes of Chinese characters, we propose that font recognition on a single Chinese character is a sequence classification problem, which can be effectively solved by recurrent neural networks. For robust CCFR, we integrate a principal component convolution layer with the 2-D long short-term memory (2DLSTM) and develop principal component 2DLSTM (PC-2DLSTM) algorithm. PC-2DLSTM considers two aspects: 1) the principal component layer convolution operation helps remove the noise and get a rational and complete font information and 2) simultaneously, 2DLSTM deals with the long-range contextual processing along scan directions that can contribute to capture the contrast between character trajectory and background. Experiments using the frequently used CCFR dataset suggest the effectiveness of PC-2DLSTM compared with other state-of-the-art font recognition methods.

  9. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-02-10

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task's transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100-140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140-180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD.

  10. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M.; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A.; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task’s transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100–140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140–180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD.

  11. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M.; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A.; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task’s transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100–140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140–180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD. PMID:28186173

  12. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; T. Toledano, Doroteo; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved. PMID:26824467

  13. The heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory impairment in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM.

  14. Spatial Attention can Bias Search in Visual Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Anna C.; Griffin, Ivan C.; Rao, Anling

    2007-01-01

    Whereas top-down attentional control is known to bias perceptual functions at many levels of stimulus analysis, its possible influence over memory-related functions remains uncharted. Our experiment combined behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the ability of spatial orienting to bias functions associated with visual short-term memory (VSTM), and to shed light on the neural mechanisms involved. In particular, we investigated whether orienting attention to a spatial location within an array maintained in VSTM could facilitate the search for a specific remembered item. Participants viewed arrays of one, two or four differently colored items, followed by an informative spatial (100% valid) or uninformative neutral retro-cue (1500–2500 ms after the array), and later by a probe stimulus (500–1000 ms after the retro-cue). The task was to decide whether the probe stimulus had been present in the array. Behavioral results showed that spatial retro-cues improved both accuracy and response times for making decisions about the presence of the probe item in VSTM, and significantly attenuated performance decrements caused by increasing VSTM load. We also identified a novel ERP component (N3RS) specifically associated with searching for an item within VSTM. Paralleling the behavioral results, the amplitude and duration of the N3RS systematically increased with VSTM load in neutral retro-cue trials. When spatial retro-cues were provided, this “retro-search” component was absent. Our findings clearly show that the influence of top-down attentional biases extends to mnemonic functions, and, specifically, that searching for items within VSTM can be under flexible voluntary control. PMID:18958218

  15. Patient affect experiencing following therapist interventions in short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Town, Joel M; Hardy, Gillian E; McCullough, Leigh; Stride, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between therapist interventions and patient affect responses in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP). The Affect Experiencing subscale from the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS) was adapted to measure individual immediate affect experiencing (I-AES) responses in relation to therapist interventions coded within the preceding speaking turn, using the Psychotherapy Interaction Coding (PIC) system. A hierarchical linear modelling procedure was used to assess the change in affect experiencing and the relationship between affect experiencing and therapist interventions within and across segments of therapy. Process data was taken from six STDP cases; in total 24 hours of video-taped sessions were examined. Therapist interventions were found to account for a statistically significant amount of variance in immediate affect experiencing. Higher levels of immediate affect experiencing followed the therapist's use of Confrontation, Clarification and Support compared to Questions, Self-disclosure and Information interventions. Therapist Confrontation interventions that attempted to direct pressure towards either the visceral experience of affect or a patient's defences against feelings led to the highest levels of immediate affect experiencing. The type of therapist intervention accounts for a small but significant amount of the variation observed in a patient's immediate emotional arousal. Empirical findings support clinical theory in STDP that suggests strategic verbal responses promote the achievement of this specific therapeutic objective.

  16. Diabetes mellitus may affect short-term outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peric, Stojan; Bozovic, Ivo; Bjelica, Bogdan; Berisavac, Ivana; Stojiljkovic, Olivera; Basta, Ivana; Beslac-Bumbasirevic, Ljiljana; Rakocevic-Stojanovic, Vidosava; Lavrnic, Dragana; Stevic, Zorica

    2017-02-08

    We sought to determine influence of diabetes mellitus on GBS course and short-term prognosis. Among the 257 GBS patients included in this retrospective study, diabetes mellitus was present in 17%. The degree of disability at admission and on discharge was assessed according to the GBS Disability Scale (mild disability = 0-3, severe disability = 4-6). Even after correction for age, diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with more severe disability at nadir (OR=3.4, P < 0.05) and on discharge (OR=2.0, P < 0.05). Linear regression analysis with multiple factors included showed that age and presence of diabetes were significant predictors of severe disability at nadir (adjusted R(2) =0.21, P < 0.05), and on discharge (adjusted R(2) =0.19, P < 0.05). The presence of diabetes mellitus affects short-term prognosis of GBS, independent of age.

  17. Visual short-term memory for high resolution associations is impaired in patients with medial temporal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Koen, Joshua D; Borders, Alyssa A; Petzold, Michael T; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-02-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a critical role in episodic long-term memory, but whether the MTL is necessary for visual short-term memory is controversial. Some studies have indicated that MTL damage disrupts visual short-term memory performance whereas other studies have failed to find such evidence. To account for these mixed results, it has been proposed that the hippocampus is critical in supporting short-term memory for high resolution complex bindings, while the cortex is sufficient to support simple, low resolution bindings. This hypothesis was tested in the current study by assessing visual short-term memory in patients with damage to the MTL and controls for high resolution and low resolution object-location and object-color associations. In the location tests, participants encoded sets of two or four objects in different locations on the screen. After each set, participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task in which they were required to discriminate the object in the target location from the object in a high or low resolution lure location (i.e., the object locations were very close or far away from the target location, respectively). Similarly, in the color tests, participants were presented with sets of two or four objects in a different color and, after each set, were required to discriminate the object in the target color from the object in a high or low resolution lure color (i.e., the lure color was very similar or very different, respectively, to the studied color). The patients were significantly impaired in visual short-term memory, but importantly, they were more impaired for high resolution object-location and object-color bindings. The results are consistent with the proposal that the hippocampus plays a critical role in forming and maintaining complex, high resolution bindings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Memory load effect in auditory-verbal short-term memory task: EEG fractal and spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Stokić, Miodrag; Milovanović, Dragan; Ljubisavljević, Miloš R; Nenadović, Vanja; Čukić, Milena

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to quantify changes in complexity of EEG using fractal dimension (FD) alongside linear methods of spectral power, event-related spectral perturbations, coherence, and source localization of EEG generators for theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (13-23 Hz) frequency bands due to a memory load effect in an auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) task for words. We examined 20 healthy individuals using the Sternberg's paradigm with increasing memory load (three, five, and seven words). The stimuli were four-letter words. Artifact-free 5-s EEG segments during retention period were analyzed. The most significant finding was the increase in FD with the increase in memory load in temporal regions T3 and T4, and in parietal region Pz, while decrease in FD with increase in memory load was registered in frontal midline region Fz. Results point to increase in frontal midline (Fz) theta spectral power, decrease in alpha spectral power in parietal region-Pz, and increase in beta spectral power in T3 and T4 region with increase in memory load. Decrease in theta coherence within right hemisphere due to memory load was obtained. Alpha coherence increased in posterior regions with anterior decrease. Beta coherence increased in fronto-temporal regions. Source localization delineated theta activity increase in frontal midline region, alpha decrease in superior parietal region, and beta increase in superior temporal gyrus with increase in memory load. In conclusion, FD as a nonlinear measure may serve as a sensitive index for quantifying dynamical changes in EEG signals during AVSTM tasks.

  19. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  20. The Role of Short-Term Memory in the Development of Logical Operations Skills. Technical Report No. 445.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Spencer S.; And Others

    The longitudinal interrelations among age, visual and auditory short-term memory, and the concrete operational tasks of class inclusion and combinatorial reasoning were investigated over four testing occasions in a sample of 134 students, initially ranging from 5 to 12 years in age. The Piagetian task battery involved placement of colored…

  1. Lexical Learning in Bilingual Adults: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Phonological Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of monolingual speakers have shown a strong association between lexical learning and short-term memory (STM) capacity, especially STM for serial order information. At the same time, studies of bilingual speakers suggest that phonological knowledge is the main factor that drives lexical learning. This study tested these two hypotheses…

  2. Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…

  3. [Change in short-term memory in pupils of 5-7th classes in the process of class work].

    PubMed

    Rybakov, V P; Orlova, N I

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this study was the investigation of the short-term memory (STM) of visual (SVM) and auditory (SAM) modality in boys and girls of the middle school age, as in the daytime, and during the course of the school week. The obtained data show that in pupils from the 5th to the 7th class SVM and SAM playback volume in children of both genders is significantly increased, while SVM productivity in boys from 6 - 7th classes is higher than in girls of the same age. The amplitude of day changes in SVM and SAM was found to decrease significantly with the age. In all age groups the range of daily fluctuations in short-term memory of both modalities in boys appears to be higher than in girls. In all age groups a significant part of schoolchildren was revealed to possess optimal forms of temporal organization of short-term memory: morning, day and morning-day types, in that while during the school week in pupils of 5th to 7th classes of both genders the number of optimal waveforms of curves of daily dynamics of short-term memory increases, which contributes to the optimization of their mental performance.

  4. Short-Term Memory for Temporal Intervals: Contrasting Explanations of the Choose-Short Effect in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2011-01-01

    To better understand short-term memory for temporal intervals, we re-examined the choose-short effect. In Experiment 1, to contrast the predictions of two models of this effect, the subjective shortening and the coding models, pigeons were exposed to a delayed matching-to-sample task with three sample durations (2, 6 and 18 s) and retention…

  5. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  6. Transitions between Short-Term and Long-Term Memory in Learning Meaningful Unrelated Paired Associates Using Computer Based Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Tzvika Y.; Turnure, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of short-term and long-term memory in learning paired associates focuses on two microcomputer-based instructional design experiments with eleventh and twelfth graders that were modeled after traditional drill and practice routines. Research questions are presented, treatment conditions are explained, and additional research is…

  7. Time-Based Loss in Visual Short-Term Memory Is from Trace Decay, Not Temporal Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker, Timothy J.; Spiegel, Lauren R.; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus as to why forgetting occurs in short-term memory tasks. In past work, we have shown that forgetting occurs with the passage of time, but there are 2 classes of theories that can explain this effect. In the present work, we investigate the reason for time-based forgetting by contrasting the predictions of temporal…

  8. Articulatory Suppression Effects on Short-Term Memory of Signed Digits and Lexical Items in Hearing Bimodal-Bilingual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu Tan; Squires, Bonita; Liu, Chun Jung

    2016-01-01

    We can gain a better understanding of short-term memory processes by studying different language codes and modalities. Three experiments were conducted to investigate: (a) Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL) digit spans in Chinese/TSL hearing bilinguals (n = 32); (b) American Sign Language (ASL) digit spans in English/ASL hearing bilinguals (n = 15);…

  9. Specific deficit of colour-colour short-term memory binding in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Parra, Mario A; Sala, Sergio Della; Abrahams, Sharon; Logie, Robert H; Méndez, Luis Guillermo; Lopera, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Short-term memory binding of visual features which are processed across different dimensions (shape-colour) is impaired in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, familial Alzheimer's disease, and in asymptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated whether Alzheimer's disease also impacts on within-dimension binding processes. The study specifically explored whether visual short-term memory binding of features of the same type (colour-colour) is sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. We used a neuropsychological battery and a short-term memory binding task to assess patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 1), familial Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 2) due to the mutation E280A of the Presenilin-1 gene and asymptomatic carriers of the mutation. The binding task assessed change detection within arrays of unicoloured objects (Colour Only) or bicoloured objects the colours of which had to be remembered separately (Unbound Colours) or together (Bound Colours). Performance on the Bound Colours condition (1) explained the largest proportion of variance between patients (sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease), (2) combined more sensitivity and specificity for the disease than other more traditional neuropsychological tasks, (3) identified asymptomatic carriers of the mutation even when traditional neuropsychological measures and other measures of short-term memory did not and, (4) contrary to shape-colour binding, correlated with measures of hippocampal functions. Colour-colour binding and shape-colour binding both appear to be sensitive to AD even though they seem to rely on different brain mechanisms.

  10. Articulation Rate, Naming Speed, Verbal Short-Term Memory, and Phonological Awareness: Longitudinal Predictors of Early Reading Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrila, Rauno; Kirby, John R.; McQuarrie, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    This study examines how measures of articulation rate, verbal short-term memory (STM), naming speed, and phonological awareness tasks administered in kindergarten and again in Grade 1 jointly and uniquely predict word reading and passage comprehension variance in Grades 1, 2, and 3. Results from regression and commonality analyses indicated that…

  11. Music Memory Following Short-term Practice and Its Relationship with the Sight-reading Abilities of Professional Pianists

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Eriko; Matsui, Toshie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice. The number of mistakes was used as an index of performance. There were no correlations in the numbers of mistakes between sight-reading and memory trial performance. Some pianists memorized almost the entire score, while others hardly remembered it despite demonstrating almost completely accurate performance just before memory trial performance. However, judging from the participants’ responses to a questionnaire regarding their practice strategies, we found auditory memory was helpful for memorizing music following short-term practice. PMID:27242576

  12. Anisomycin Injection in Area CA3 of the Hippocampus Impairs Both Short-Term and Long-Term Memories of Contextual Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remaud, Jessica; Ceccom, Johnatan; Carponcy, Julien; Dugué, Laura; Menchon, Gregory; Pech, Stéphane; Halley, Helene; Francés, Bernard; Dahan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is involved in the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory. Previous electrophysiological data concerning LTP in CA3 suggest that protein synthesis in that region might also be necessary for short-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by locally injecting the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin in hippocampal…

  13. Consequence of preterm birth in early adolescence: the role of language on auditory short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Fraello, David; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Vohr, Betty; Katz, Karol H; Kesler, Shelli; Schneider, Karen; Reiss, Allan; Ment, Laura; Spann, Marisa N

    2011-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that preterm early adolescents' short-term memory is compromised when presented with increasingly complex verbal information and that associated neuroanatomical volumes would differ between preterm and term groups. Forty-nine preterm and 20 term subjects were evaluated at age 12 years with neuropsychological measures and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no differences between groups in simple short-term and working memory. Preterm subjects performed lower on learning and short-term memory tests that included increased verbal complexity. They had reduced right parietal, left temporal, and right temporal white matter volumes and greater bilateral frontal gray and right frontal white matter volumes. There was a positive association between complex working memory and the left hippocampus and frontal white matter in term subjects. While not correlated, memory scores and volumes of cortical regions known to subserve language and memory were reduced in preterm subjects. This study provides evidence of possible mechanisms for learning problems in former preterm infants.

  14. The effects of diazepam and oxprenolol on short term memory in individuals of high and low state anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Desai, N; Taylor-Davies, A; Barnett, D B

    1983-01-01

    1 The effect of oral doses of diazepam (5 mg) and oxprenolol (80 mg) on short term memory of normal individuals stratified for 'state' anxiety levels has been investigated. 2 Normal student volunteers were stratified into high and low anxiety groups on the basis of responses to the Spielberger 'A-state' scale. Subjects were then randomly administered active drug or placebo and given a form of running memory test performed under a variety of conditions in which variable rate of item presentation and articulatory suppression were used. 3 Diazepam significantly reduced the errors of recall in the running memory test in the high anxiety group and produced a distinct separation of response from the low anxiety group under the test conditions of slow item presentation with articulatory suppression. Oxprenolol had no effect on the short term memory test in either high or low anxiety groups in any experimental test situation. 4 These results are compared to previous work in which generally a deleterious effect of diazepam on short term memory in normal volunteers has been reported. The implications of these findings are further discussed in relationship to possible models of memory function. PMID:6849754

  15. Effects of Methamphetamine and Fatigue on Long- and Short-Term Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    initial (acquisition) strengths of memories without affecting their susceptibility to interference and (thus) forgetting (Elkin & Murray, 1974; Polzella ...large). Polzella (1975) measured the effects of sleep loss on the parameters of equation 1 in a probed recognition task. He found that sleep loss...sleep loss reduces the initial strengths of traces but does not affect rates of forgetting. Polzella (1975) argued that such effects would be expected if

  16. Short-term efficacy of topical capsaicin therapy in severely affected fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, Benigno; Rodero, Baltasar; Quintial, Covadonga; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy of topical capsaicin treatment in patients severely affected by fibromyalgia. One hundred and thirty fibromyalgia patients were randomly divided into two groups. The control group, 56 women and 4 men who continued their medical treatment, and the capsaicin group, 70 women who apart from continuing their medical treatment, also underwent topical capsaicin 0.075 % 3 times daily for 6 weeks. At the beginning of the program, there were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the analyzed parameters. At the end of the treatment, there were significant improvements in the capsaicin group in the myalgic score (5.21 vs 3.8, p = 0.02) and global subjective improvement (22.8 vs 5 %, p = 0.001). Six weeks after the end of the treatment, the experimental group showed significant differences in Visual Analogue Scale of depression (5.63 vs 7.35, p = 0.02), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (67.89 vs 77.7, p = 0.02), role limitations due to emotional problems (36.17 vs 17.2, p = 0.05), Fatigue Severity Scale (6.2 vs 6.6, p = 0.04), myalgic score (3.94 vs 2.66, p = 0.02) and pressure pain threshold (79.25 vs 56.71, p = 0.004). In conclusion, patients severely affected by fibromyalgia can obtain short-term improvements following topical capsaicin 0.075 % treatment three times daily for 6 weeks.

  17. Emotion Based Attentional Priority for Storage in Visual Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Simione, Luca; Calabrese, Lucia; Marucci, Francesco S.; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Raffone, Antonino; Maratos, Frances A.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of research demonstrates that the processing of emotional faces is prioritised over non-emotive stimuli when cognitive resources are limited (this is known as ‘emotional superiority’). However, there is debate as to whether competition for processing resources results in emotional superiority per se, or more specifically, threat superiority. Therefore, to investigate prioritisation of emotional stimuli for storage in visual short-term memory (VSTM), we devised an original VSTM report procedure using schematic (angry, happy, neutral) faces in which processing competition was manipulated. In Experiment 1, display exposure time was manipulated to create competition between stimuli. Participants (n = 20) had to recall a probed stimulus from a set size of four under high (150 ms array exposure duration) and low (400 ms array exposure duration) perceptual processing competition. For the high competition condition (i.e. 150 ms exposure), results revealed an emotional superiority effect per se. In Experiment 2 (n = 20), we increased competition by manipulating set size (three versus five stimuli), whilst maintaining a constrained array exposure duration of 150 ms. Here, for the five-stimulus set size (i.e. maximal competition) only threat superiority emerged. These findings demonstrate attentional prioritisation for storage in VSTM for emotional faces. We argue that task demands modulated the availability of processing resources and consequently the relative magnitude of the emotional/threat superiority effect, with only threatening stimuli prioritised for storage in VSTM under more demanding processing conditions. Our results are discussed in light of models and theories of visual selection, and not only combine the two strands of research (i.e. visual selection and emotion), but highlight a critical factor in the processing of emotional stimuli is availability of processing resources, which is further constrained by task demands. PMID:24788385

  18. Contrasting contributions of phonological short-term memory and long-term knowledge to vocabulary learning in a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Masoura, Elvira V; Gathercole, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    The contributions of phonological short-term memory and existing foreign vocabulary knowledge to the learning of new words in a second language were compared in a sample of 40 Greek children studying English at school. The children's speed of learning new English words in a paired-associate learning task was strongly influenced by their current English vocabulary, but was independent of phonological memory skill, indexed by nonword repetition ability. However, phonological memory performance was closely linked to English vocabulary scores. The findings suggest that in learners with considerable familiarity with a second language, foreign vocabulary acquisition is mediated largely by use of existing knowledge representations.

  19. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers were enrolled to study the effect of G. biloba and R. rosea on PVT and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects, the central cognitive effect was assessed by critical flicker-fusion frequency, PVT, and computerized N-back test. Results: Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure P > 0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, G. biloba or R. rosea improve PVT and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to more significant effect on PVT, all levels of short-term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker P < 0.01, more than of G. biloba or R. rosea when they used alone. Conclusion: The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to a more significant effect on cognitive function than either G. biloba or R. rosea when they used alone. PMID:27069717

  20. Oscillatory synchrony in the monkey temporal lobe correlates with performance in a visual short-term memory task.

    PubMed

    Tallon-Baudry, Catherine; Mandon, Sunita; Freiwald, Winrich A; Kreiter, Andreas K

    2004-07-01

    Oscillatory synchrony has been proposed to dynamically coordinate distributed neural ensembles, but whether this mechanism is effectively used in neural processing remains controversial. We trained two monkeys to perform a delayed matching-to-sample task using new visual shapes at each trial. Measures of population-activity patterns (cortical field potentials) were obtained from a chronically implanted array of electrodes placed over area V4 and posterior infero-temporal cortex. In correct trials, oscillatory phase synchrony in the beta range (15-20 Hz) was observed between two focal sites in the inferior temporal cortex while holding the sample in short-term memory. Error trials were characterized by an absence of oscillatory synchrony during memory maintenance. Errors did not seem to be due to an impaired stimulus encoding, since various parameters of neural activity in sensory area V4 did not differ in correct and incorrect trials during sample presentation. Our findings suggest that the successful performance of a visual short-term memory task depends on the strength of oscillatory synchrony during the maintenance of the object in short-term memory. The strength of oscillatory synchrony thus seems to be a relevant parameter of the neural population dynamics that matches behavioral performance.

  1. Variation in Parasympathetic Dysregulation Moderates Short-term Memory Problems in Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ward, Anthony R; Alarcón, Gabriela; Nigg, Joel T; Musser, Erica D

    2015-11-01

    Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairment in working memory and short-term memory, up to half of individual children with ADHD perform within a normative range. Heterogeneity in other ADHD-related mechanisms, which may compensate for or combine with cognitive weaknesses, is a likely explanation. One candidate is the robustness of parasympathetic regulation (as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Theory and data suggest that a common neural network is likely tied to both heart-rate regulation and certain cognitive functions (including aspects of working and short-term memory). Cardiac-derived indices of parasympathetic reactivity were collected during short-term memory (STM) storage and rehearsal tasks from 243 children (116 ADHD, 127 controls). ADHD was associated with lower STM performance, replicating previous work. In addition, RSA reactivity moderated the association between STM and ADHD - both as a category and a dimension - independent of comorbidity. Specifically, conditional effects revealed that high levels of withdrawal interacted with weakened STM but high levels of augmentation moderated a positive association predicting ADHD. Thus, variations in parasympathetic reactivity may help explain neuropsychological heterogeneity in ADHD.

  2. There are multiple contributors to the verbal short-term memory deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kibby, Michelle Y

    2009-09-01

    Prior research has put forth at least four possible contributors to the verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities (RD): poor phonological awareness that affects phonological coding into VSTM, a less effective phonological store, slow articulation rate, and fewer/poorer quality long-term memory (LTM) representations. This project is among the first to test the four suppositions in one study. Participants included 18 children with RD and 18 controls. VSTM was assessed using Baddeley's model of the phonological loop. Findings suggest all four suppositions are correct, depending upon the type of material utilized. Children with RD performed comparably to controls in VSTM for common words but worse for less frequent words and nonwords. Furthermore, only articulation rate predicted VSTM for common words, whereas Verbal IQ and articulation rate predicted VSTM for less frequent words, and phonological awareness and articulation rate predicted VSTM for nonwords. Overall, findings suggest that the mechanism(s) used to code and store items by their meaning is intact in RD, and the deficit in VSTM for less frequent words may be a result of fewer/poorer quality LTM representations for these words. In contrast, phonological awareness and the phonological store are impaired, affecting VSTM for items that are coded phonetically. Slow articulation rate likely affects VSTM for most material when present. When assessing reading performance, VSTM predicted decoding skill but not word identification after controlling Verbal IQ and phonological awareness. Thus, VSTM likely contributes to reading ability when words are novel and must be decoded.

  3. Hyperthermia impairs short-term memory and peripheral motor drive transmission.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Gaoua, N; Grantham, J

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (i) the effect of passive hyperthermia on motor drive and cognitive function, and (ii) whether head cooling can limit the hyperthermia-induced alterations. Sixteen subjects were randomly exposed for 2 h to three different conditions: control (Con, 20 degrees C), hot (Hot, 50 degrees C) and hot head cool (HHC--where cold packs were applied to the head under Hot conditions). Three cognitive tests measuring attention and two measuring memory were performed. Neuromuscular testing included electrically evoked muscle action potentials (M-waves) and reflex waves (H-reflex) at rest and during brief (4-5 s) and sustained (120 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the plantar flexors. All the tests were performed in the environmental room. During brief MVC, torque was significantly lower in both Hot and HHC as compared to Con (P < 0.05). The decrease in muscle activation was significant in Hot (P < 0.05) but not in HBC (P = 0.07). This was accompanied by peripheral failures in the transmission of the neural drive at both spinal (significant decrements in H-reflexes and V-waves, P < 0.05) and neuromuscular junction (significant decrements in M-waves, P < 0.05) levels. During sustained MVC, muscle activation was further depressed (P < 0.05) without any concomitant failures in M-waves, suggesting neural activation adjustments occurring probably at the supraspinal level. Cerebral perturbations were confirmed by significant decrements in both memory tests in Hot as compared with Con (P < 0.05) but not in simple tests (attention tests) that were not affected by hyperthermia. The decrement in memory capacity suggested the existence of frontal lobe activity impairments. Thus, HHC preserved memory capacity but not the visual memory.

  4. Verbal, Visual, and Spatio-Sequential Short-Term Memory: Assessment of the Storage Capacities of Children and Teenagers with Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenkel, S.; Bourdin, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It is recognized that individuals with Down's syndrome have a specific deficit in verbal short-term memory. On the other hand, non-verbal short-term memory seems to be preserved or even be a strong point for these persons. Nevertheless, the extent and specificity of the deficit must be determined. To do so, we carried out a research…

  5. Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

  6. An investigation of the effects of interference speech on short-term memory for verbally presented prose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodico, Dana M.; Torres, Rendell R.; Shimizu, Yasushi; Hunter, Claudia

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of interference speech and the built acoustical environment on human performance, and the possibility of designing spaces to architecturally meet the acoustical goals of office and classroom environments. The effects of room size, geometry, and acoustical parameters on human performance are studied through human subject testing. Three experiments are used to investigate the effects of distracting background speech on short-term memory for verbally presented prose under constrained laboratory conditions. Short-term memory performance is rated within four different acoustical spaces and five background noise levels, as well as a quiet condition. The presentation will cover research methods, results, and possibilities for furthering this research. [Work supported by the Program in Architectural Acoustics, School of Architecture, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

  7. Altered short-term plasticity within the working memory neural network: Is it neuroticism or is it depression?

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Renzo; Laurent, Eric

    2016-04-01

    In the present article, we discuss (1) the importance of assessing and statistically considering both clinical and subclinical forms of depression when examining the relationship between neuroticism and short-term plasticity within the working memory neural network, and (2) the hypothesis of an antagonism between neuroticism and conscientiousness in personality research. We suggest that (1) neuroticism and depression should be examined in a relational manner, and (2) neuroticism and conscientiousness should not be antagonized.

  8. Decreased synaptic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex underlies short-term memory deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Matheus, Filipe C; Rial, Daniel; Real, Joana I; Lemos, Cristina; Ben, Juliana; Guaita, Gisele O; Pita, Inês R; Sequeira, Ana C; Pereira, Frederico C; Walz, Roger; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Bertoglio, Leandro J; Da Cunha, Cláudio; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Prediger, Rui D

    2016-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor dysfunction associated with dopaminergic degeneration in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). However, motor symptoms in PD are often preceded by short-term memory deficits, which have been argued to involve deregulation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We now used a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat PD model to explore if alterations of synaptic plasticity in DLS and mPFC underlie short-term memory impairments in PD prodrome. The bilateral injection of 6-OHDA (20μg/hemisphere) in the DLS caused a marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (>80%) and decreased monoamine levels in the striatum and PFC, accompanied by motor deficits evaluated after 21 days in the open field and accelerated rotarod. A lower dose of 6-OHDA (10μg/hemisphere) only induced a partial degeneration (about 60%) of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with no gross motor impairments, thus mimicking an early premotor stage of PD. Notably, 6-OHDA (10μg)-lesioned rats displayed decreased monoamine levels in the PFC as well as short-term memory deficits evaluated in the novel object discrimination and in the modified Y-maze tasks; this was accompanied by a selective decrease in the amplitude of long-term potentiation in the mPFC, but not in DLS, without changes of synaptic transmission in either brain regions. These results indicate that the short-term memory dysfunction predating the motor alterations in the 6-OHDA model of PD is associated with selective changes of information processing in PFC circuits, typified by persistent changes of synaptic plasticity.

  9. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions: High-resolution path-integral calculation of short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingber, Lester; Nunez, Paul L.

    1995-05-01

    We present high-resolution path-integral calculations of a previously developed model of short-term memory in neocortex. These calculations, made possible with supercomputer resources, supplant similar calculations made by Ingber [Phys. Rev. E 49, 4652 (1994)] and support coarser estimates made by Ingber [Phys. Rev. A 29, 3346 (1984)]. We also present a current experimental context for the relevance of these calculations using the approach of statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions, especially in the context of electroencephalographic data.

  10. Spines slow down dendritic chloride diffusion and affect short-term ionic plasticity of GABAergic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Namrata; Tønnesen, Jan; Vlachos, Andreas; Kuner, Thomas; Deller, Thomas; Nägerl, U. Valentin; Santamaria, Fidel; Jedlicka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cl− plays a crucial role in neuronal function and synaptic inhibition. However, the impact of neuronal morphology on the diffusion and redistribution of intracellular Cl− is not well understood. The role of spines in Cl− diffusion along dendritic trees has not been addressed so far. Because measuring fast and spatially restricted Cl− changes within dendrites is not yet technically possible, we used computational approaches to predict the effects of spines on Cl− dynamics in morphologically complex dendrites. In all morphologies tested, including dendrites imaged by super-resolution STED microscopy in live brain tissue, spines slowed down longitudinal Cl− diffusion along dendrites. This effect was robust and could be observed in both deterministic as well as stochastic simulations. Cl− extrusion altered Cl− diffusion to a much lesser extent than the presence of spines. The spine-dependent slowing of Cl− diffusion affected the amount and spatial spread of changes in the GABA reversal potential thereby altering homosynaptic as well as heterosynaptic short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses in dendrites. Altogether, our results suggest a fundamental role of dendritic spines in shaping Cl− diffusion, which could be of relevance in the context of pathological conditions where spine densities and neural excitability are perturbed. PMID:26987404

  11. Spines slow down dendritic chloride diffusion and affect short-term ionic plasticity of GABAergic inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Namrata; Tønnesen, Jan; Vlachos, Andreas; Kuner, Thomas; Deller, Thomas; Nägerl, U. Valentin; Santamaria, Fidel; Jedlicka, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Cl‑ plays a crucial role in neuronal function and synaptic inhibition. However, the impact of neuronal morphology on the diffusion and redistribution of intracellular Cl‑ is not well understood. The role of spines in Cl‑ diffusion along dendritic trees has not been addressed so far. Because measuring fast and spatially restricted Cl‑ changes within dendrites is not yet technically possible, we used computational approaches to predict the effects of spines on Cl‑ dynamics in morphologically complex dendrites. In all morphologies tested, including dendrites imaged by super-resolution STED microscopy in live brain tissue, spines slowed down longitudinal Cl‑ diffusion along dendrites. This effect was robust and could be observed in both deterministic as well as stochastic simulations. Cl‑ extrusion altered Cl‑ diffusion to a much lesser extent than the presence of spines. The spine-dependent slowing of Cl‑ diffusion affected the amount and spatial spread of changes in the GABA reversal potential thereby altering homosynaptic as well as heterosynaptic short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses in dendrites. Altogether, our results suggest a fundamental role of dendritic spines in shaping Cl‑ diffusion, which could be of relevance in the context of pathological conditions where spine densities and neural excitability are perturbed.

  12. Spines slow down dendritic chloride diffusion and affect short-term ionic plasticity of GABAergic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Namrata; Tønnesen, Jan; Vlachos, Andreas; Kuner, Thomas; Deller, Thomas; Nägerl, U Valentin; Santamaria, Fidel; Jedlicka, Peter

    2016-03-18

    Cl(-) plays a crucial role in neuronal function and synaptic inhibition. However, the impact of neuronal morphology on the diffusion and redistribution of intracellular Cl(-) is not well understood. The role of spines in Cl(-) diffusion along dendritic trees has not been addressed so far. Because measuring fast and spatially restricted Cl(-) changes within dendrites is not yet technically possible, we used computational approaches to predict the effects of spines on Cl(-) dynamics in morphologically complex dendrites. In all morphologies tested, including dendrites imaged by super-resolution STED microscopy in live brain tissue, spines slowed down longitudinal Cl(-) diffusion along dendrites. This effect was robust and could be observed in both deterministic as well as stochastic simulations. Cl(-) extrusion altered Cl(-) diffusion to a much lesser extent than the presence of spines. The spine-dependent slowing of Cl(-) diffusion affected the amount and spatial spread of changes in the GABA reversal potential thereby altering homosynaptic as well as heterosynaptic short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses in dendrites. Altogether, our results suggest a fundamental role of dendritic spines in shaping Cl(-) diffusion, which could be of relevance in the context of pathological conditions where spine densities and neural excitability are perturbed.

  13. Language and Short-Term Memory: The Role of Perceptual-Motor Affordance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John C.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    The advantage for real words over nonwords in serial recall--the "lexicality effect"--is typically attributed to support for item-level phonology, either via redintegration, whereby partially degraded short-term traces are "cleaned up" via support from long-term representations of the phonological material or via the more…

  14. Short-Term Memory for Time in Children and Adults: A Behavioral Study and a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John; Delgado-Yonger, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of the short-term retention of duration on temporal discrimination in 5- and 8-year-olds, as well as in adults, by using an episodic temporal generalization task. In each age group, the participants' task was to compare two successive durations (a standard and a comparison duration) separated by a retention…

  15. Short-term memory of motor network performance via activity-dependent potentiation of Na+/K+ pump function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Sillar, Keith T

    2012-03-20

    Brain networks memorize previous performance to adjust their output in light of past experience. These activity-dependent modifications generally result from changes in synaptic strengths or ionic conductances, and ion pumps have only rarely been demonstrated to play a dynamic role. Locomotor behavior is produced by central pattern generator (CPG) networks and modified by sensory and descending signals to allow for changes in movement frequency, intensity, and duration, but whether or how the CPG networks recall recent activity is largely unknown. In Xenopus frog tadpoles, swim bout duration correlates linearly with interswim interval, suggesting that the locomotor network retains a short-term memory of previous output. We discovered an ultraslow, minute-long afterhyperpolarization (usAHP) in network neurons following locomotor episodes. The usAHP is mediated by an activity- and sodium spike-dependent enhancement of electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump function. By integrating spike frequency over time and linking the membrane potential of spinal neurons to network performance, the usAHP plays a dynamic role in short-term motor memory. Because Na(+)/K(+) pumps are ubiquitously expressed in neurons of all animals and because sodium spikes inevitably accompany network activity, the usAHP may represent a phylogenetically conserved but largely overlooked mechanism for short-term memory of neural network function.

  16. Treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han-Sam; Shin, Mal-Soon; Song, Wook; Jun, Tae-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra is a key pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory, apoptotic dopaminergic neuronal cell death and fiber loss in the nigrostriatum, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson’s rats. Parkinson’s rats were made by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum using stereotaxic instrument. Four weeks after 6-OHDA injection, the rats in the 6-OHDA-injection group exhibited significant rotational asymmetry following apomorphine challenge. The rats in the exercise groups were put on the treadmill to run for 30 min once a day for 14 consecutive days starting 4 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. In the present results, extensive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with loss of dopaminergic fibers in the striatum were produced in the rats without treadmill running, which resulted in short-term memory impairment. However, the rats performing treadmill running for 2 weeks alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss and alleviated short-term memory impairment with increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson’s rats. The present results show that treadmill exercise may provide therapeutic value for the Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24278884

  17. MEMANTINE ATTENUATES THE OKADAIC ACID INDUCED SHORT-TERM SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AND HIPPOCAMPAL CELL LOSS IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Dashniani, M; Chighladze, M; Burjanadze, M; Beselia, G; Kruashvili, L

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the possible beneficial effect of memantine on the Okadaic Acid (OA) induced spatial short-term memory impairment was examined in spatial alternation task, and the neuroprotective potential of memantine on OA-induced structural changes in the hippocampus was evaluated by Nissl staining. OA was dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and injected intracerebroventriculary (ICV) 200 ng in a volume of 10 μl bilaterally. Vehicle control received aCSF ICV bilaterally. Control and OA injected rats were divided into 2 subgroups injected i.p. with saline or memantine (5 mg/kg). Memantine or saline were given daily for 13 days starting from the day of OA injection. Behavioral study showed that bilateral ICV microinjection of OA induced impairment in spatial short-term memory. Nissl staining in the present study showed that the ICV microinjection of OA significantly decreased the number of surviving pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Chronic administration of memantine effectively attenuated OA induced spatial short-term memory impairment and the OA-induced neuropathological changes in the hippocampus. Therefore, ICV injection of OA can be used as an experimental model to study mechanisms of neurodegeneration and define novel therapeutics targets for AD pathology.

  18. Putting Short-Term Memory Into Context: Reply to Usher, Davelaar, Haarmann, and Goshen-Gottstein (2008)

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Michael J.; Sederberg, Per B.; Howard, Marc W.

    2009-01-01

    The temporal context model posits that search through episodic memory is driven by associations between the multiattribute representations of items and context. Context, in turn, is a recency weighted sum of previous experiences or memories. Because recently processed items are most similar to the current representation of context, M. Usher, E. J. Davelaar, H. J. Haarmann, and Y. Goshen-Gottstein (2008) have suggested that the temporal context model (TCM-A) embodies a distinction between short-term and long-term memory and that this distinction is central to TCM-A’s success in accounting for the pattern of recency and contiguity observed across short and long timescales. The authors dispute Usher et al’s claim that context in TCM-A has much in common with classic interpretations of short-term memory. The idea that multiple representations interact in the process of memory encoding and retrieval (across timescales), as proposed in TCM-A, is very different from the classic dual-process view that distinct rules govern retrieval of recent and remote memories. PMID:20976034

  19. The impact of visual complexity on visual short-term memory in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Maillart, Christelle; Pauquay, Sarah; Majerus, Steve

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have assessed visual short-term memory (VSTM) abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI), with contrasting results: some studies observed preserved VSTM capacities, while others reported impaired VSTM. The present study explores the hypothesis that the complexity of the visual information to be encoded and stored might underlie these discrepancies. Four VSTM conditions were administered to a group of 15 children with SLI, as well as to two groups of typically developing children, matched for chronological age and for VSTM capacity for visually simple stimuli, respectively. The stimuli to be remembered varied in their visual similarity and in the number of their visual features. Across the four VSTM conditions, children with SLI showed significantly reduced performance relative to an age-matched control group, and they were more strongly affected by visual similarity and number of features when compared to a control group matched for VSTM capacity for visually simple stimuli. The present results support the hypothesis that stimulus complexity is a determining factor of the poor VSTM performances in children with SLI.

  20. Right frontopolar cortex activity correlates with reliability of retrospective rating of confidence in short-term recognition memory performance.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Miura, Naoki; Watanabe, Jobu; Takemoto, Atsushi; Uchida, Shinya; Sugiura, Motoaki; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2010-11-01

    Human memory systems contain self-monitoring mechanisms for evaluating their progress. People can change their learning strategy on the basis of confidence in their performance at that time. However, it has not been fully understood how the brain is engaged in reliable rating of confidence in past recognition memory performance. We measured the brain activity by fMRI while healthy subjects performed a visual short-term recognition memory test and then rated their confidence in their answers as high, middle, or low. As shown previously, their behavioral performance in the confidence rating widely varied; some showed a positive confidence-recognition correlation (i.e., "rate reliably") while others did not. Among brain regions showing greater activity during rating their confidence relative to during a control, non-metamemory task (discriminating brightness of words), only a posterior-dorsal part of the right frontopolar cortex exhibited higher activity as the confidence level better correlated with actual recognition memory performance. These results suggest that activation in the right frontopolar cortex is key to a reliable, retrospective rating of confidence in short-term recognition memory performance.

  1. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Flegal, Kristin E; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2014-07-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and long delays, processing depth was manipulated as participants encoded lists of four semantically related words and were probed immediately, following a filled 3- to 4-s retention interval, or approximately 20 min later, in a surprise recognition test. In two experiments, the encoding manipulation dissociated STM and LTM on the frequency, but not the phenomenology, of false memory. Deep encoding at STM increases false recognition rates at LTM, but confidence ratings and remember/know judgments are similar across delays and do not differ as a function of processing depth. These results suggest that some shared and some unique processes underlie false memory illusions at short and long delays.

  2. Treadmill exercise improves short-term memory by enhancing neurogenesis in amyloid beta-induced Alzheimer disease rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Baek, Sang-Bin; Ko, Yeong-Chan; Kim, Young-Pyo

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders, and this disease is characterized by severe memory impairment and decline of cognition. Hippocampal neurons are vulnerable to injury induced by Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise is known to promote cell survival and functional recovery after brain injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with neurogenesis in the rats with amyloid β25-35 (Aβ25-35)-induced Alzheimer's disease. The rat model of Alzheimer's disease was induced by the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ25-35, using a stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the exercise group were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once daily for 4 consecutive weeks, starting 2 days after Aβ25-35 injection. Presently, short-term memory was deteriorated and apical dendritic length in the hippocampus was shortened in the hippocampus by Aβ25-35 injection. In contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment and increased apical dendritic length in the Aβ25-35-injected rats. Neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotorphic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (trkB) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by Aβ25-35 injection. Treadmill exercise increased neurogenesis and expressions of BDNF and trkB expressions. The present study shows that treadmill exercise may provide therapeutic value for the alleviating symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. A mathematical model of non-photochemical quenching to study short-term light memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Matuszyńska, Anna; Heidari, Somayyeh; Jahns, Peter; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Plants are permanently exposed to rapidly changing environments, therefore it is evident that they had to evolve mechanisms enabling them to dynamically adapt to such fluctuations. Here we study how plants can be trained to enhance their photoprotection and elaborate on the concept of the short-term illumination memory in Arabidopsis thaliana. By monitoring fluorescence emission dynamics we systematically observe the extent of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) after previous light exposure to recognise and quantify the memory effect. We propose a simplified mathematical model of photosynthesis that includes the key components required for NPQ activation, which allows us to quantify the contribution to photoprotection by those components. Due to its reduced complexity, our model can be easily applied to study similar behavioural changes in other species, which we demonstrate by adapting it to the shadow-tolerant plant Epipremnum aureum. Our results indicate that a basic mechanism of short-term light memory is preserved. The slow component, accumulation of zeaxanthin, accounts for the amount of memory remaining after relaxation in darkness, while the fast one, antenna protonation, increases quenching efficiency. With our combined theoretical and experimental approach we provide a unifying framework describing common principles of key photoprotective mechanisms across species in general, mathematical terms.

  4. Decoupling eye and hand movement control: visual short-term memory influences reach planning more than saccade planning.

    PubMed

    Issen, Laurel A; Knill, David C

    2012-01-04

    When reaching for objects, humans make saccades to fixate the object at or near the time the hand begins to move. In order to address whether the CNS relies on a common representation of target positions to plan both saccades and hand movements, we quantified the contributions of visual short-term memory (VSTM) to hand and eye movements executed during the same coordinated actions. Subjects performed a sequential movement task in which they picked up one of two objects on the right side of a virtual display (the "weapon"), moved it to the left side of the display (to a "reloading station") and then moved it back to the right side to hit the other object (the target). On some trials, the target was perturbed by 1° of visual angle while subjects moved the weapon to the reloading station. Although subjects did not notice the change, the original position of the target, encoded in VSTM, influenced the motor plans for both the hand and the eye back to the target. Memory influenced motor plans for distant targets more than for near targets, indicating that sensorimotor planning is sensitive to the reliability of available information; however, memory had a larger influence on hand movements than on eye movements. This suggests that spatial planning for coordinated saccades and hand movements are dissociated at the level of processing at which online visual information is integrated with information in short-term memory.

  5. Treadmill exercise improves short-term memory by enhancing neurogenesis in amyloid beta-induced Alzheimer disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Kyun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Baek, Sang-Bin; Ko, Yeong-Chan; Kim, Young-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders, and this disease is characterized by severe memory impairment and decline of cognition. Hippocampal neurons are vulnerable to injury induced by Alzheimer’s disease. Physical exercise is known to promote cell survival and functional recovery after brain injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with neurogenesis in the rats with amyloid β25–35 (Aβ25–35)-induced Alzheimer’s disease. The rat model of Alzheimer’s disease was induced by the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ25–35, using a stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the exercise group were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once daily for 4 consecutive weeks, starting 2 days after Aβ25–35 injection. Presently, short-term memory was deteriorated and apical dendritic length in the hippocampus was shortened in the hippocampus by Aβ25–35 injection. In contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment and increased apical dendritic length in the Aβ25–35-injected rats. Neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotorphic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (trkB) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by Aβ25–35 injection. Treadmill exercise increased neurogenesis and expressions of BDNF and trkB expressions. The present study shows that treadmill exercise may provide therapeutic value for the alleviating symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24678498

  6. Saturation of auditory short-term memory causes a plateau in the sustained anterior negativity event-related potential.

    PubMed

    Alunni-Menichini, Kristelle; Guimond, Synthia; Bermudez, Patrick; Nolden, Sophie; Lefebvre, Christine; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2014-12-10

    The maintenance of information in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) is accompanied by a sustained anterior negativity (SAN) in the event-related potential measured during the retention interval of simple auditory memory tasks. Previous work on ASTM showed that the amplitude of the SAN increased in negativity as the number of maintained items increases. The aim of the current study was to measure the SAN and observe its behavior beyond the point of saturation of auditory short-term memory. We used atonal pure tones in sequences of 2, 4, 6, or 8t. Our results showed that the amplitude of SAN increased in negativity from 2 to 4 items and then levelled off from 4 to 8 items. Behavioral results suggested that the average span in the task was slightly below 3, which was consistent with the observed plateau in the electrophysiological results. Furthermore, the amplitude of the SAN predicted individual differences in auditory memory capacity. The results support the hypothesis that the SAN is an electrophysiological index of brain activity specifically related to the maintenance of auditory information in ASTM.

  7. Processing Demand and Short-Term Memory: The Response-Prefix Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, John C.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1977-01-01

    Seven-digit strings were presented for immediate recall. Before recall, subjects either read or retrieved from memory a single item (response prefix). Results were seen in terms of the sharing of the limited capacity of an active memory system by the memory series, the response prefix, and the operations to retrieve and emit the items. (Editor/RK)

  8. Serotonin is critical for rewarded olfactory short-term memory in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sitaraman, Divya; LaFerriere, Holly; Birman, Serge; Zars, Troy

    2012-06-01

    The biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin are critical in establishing normal memories. A common view for the amines in insect memory performance has emerged in which dopamine and octopamine are largely responsible for aversive and appetitive memories. Examination of the function of serotonin begins to challenge the notion of one amine type per memory because altering serotonin function also reduces aversive olfactory memory and place memory levels. Could the function of serotonin be restricted to the aversive domain, suggesting a more specific dopamine/serotonin system interaction? The function of the serotonergic system in appetitive olfactory memory was examined. By targeting the tetanus toxin light chain (TNT) and the human inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) to the serotonin neurons with two different GAL4 driver combinations, the serotonergic system was inhibited. Additional use of the GAL80(ts1) system to control expression of transgenes to the adult stage of the life cycle addressed a potential developmental role of serotonin in appetitive memory. Reduction in appetitive olfactory memory performance in flies with these transgenic manipulations, without altering control behaviors, showed that the serotonergic system is also required for normal appetitive memory. Thus, serotonin appears to have a more general role in Drosophila memory, and implies an interaction with both the dopaminergic and octopaminergic systems.

  9. Storing information in-the-world: Metacognition and cognitive offloading in a short-term memory task.

    PubMed

    Risko, Evan F; Dunn, Timothy L

    2015-11-01

    We often store to-be-remembered information externally (e.g., written down on a piece of paper) rather than internally. In the present investigation, we examine factors that influence the decision to store information in-the-world versus in-the-head using a variant of a traditional short term memory task. In Experiments 1a and 1b participants were presented with to-be-remembered items and either had to rely solely on internal memory or had the option to write down the presented information. In Experiments 2a and 2b participants were presented with the same stimuli but made metacognitive judgments about their predicted performance and effort expenditure. The spontaneous use of external storage was related both to the number of items to be remembered and an individual's actual and perceived short-term-memory capacity. Interestingly, individuals often used external storage despite its use affording no observable benefit. Implications for understanding how individuals integrate external resources in pursuing cognitive goals are discussed.

  10. Short-term treatment with flumazenil restores long-term object memory in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colas, Damien; Chuluun, Bayarsaikhan; Garner, Craig C; Heller, H Craig

    2017-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic cause of intellectual disability yet no pro-cognitive drug therapies are approved for human use. Mechanistic studies in a mouse model of DS (Ts65Dn mice) demonstrate that impaired cognitive function is due to excessive neuronal inhibitory tone. These deficits are normalized by chronic, short-term low doses of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonists in adult animals, but none of the compounds investigated are approved for human use. We explored the therapeutic potential of flumazenil (FLUM), a GABAAR antagonist working at the benzodiazepine binding site that has FDA approval. Long-term memory was assessed by the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) testing in Ts65Dn mice after acute or short-term chronic treatment with FLUM. Short-term, low, chronic dose regimens of FLUM elicit long-lasting (>1week) normalization of cognitive function in both young and aged mice. FLUM at low dosages produces long lasting cognitive improvements and has the potential of fulfilling an unmet therapeutic need in DS.

  11. Neuroticism and conscientiousness respectively constrain and facilitate short-term plasticity within the working memory neural network.

    PubMed

    Dima, Danai; Friston, Karl J; Stephan, Klaas E; Frangou, Sophia

    2015-10-01

    Individual differences in cognitive efficiency, particularly in relation to working memory (WM), have been associated both with personality dimensions that reflect enduring regularities in brain configuration, and with short-term neural plasticity, that reflects task-related changes in brain connectivity. To elucidate the relationship of these two divergent mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that personality dimensions, which reflect enduring aspects of brain configuration, inform about the neurobiological framework within which short-term, task-related plasticity, as measured by effective connectivity, can be facilitated or constrained. As WM consistently engages the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), parietal (PAR), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), we specified a WM network model with bidirectional, ipsilateral, and contralateral connections between these regions from a functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset obtained from 40 healthy adults while performing the 3-back WM task. Task-related effective connectivity changes within this network were estimated using Dynamic Causal Modelling. Personality was evaluated along the major dimensions of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Only two dimensions were relevant to task-dependent effective connectivity. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness respectively constrained and facilitated neuroplastic responses within the WM network. These results suggest individual differences in cognitive efficiency arise from the interplay between enduring and short-term plasticity in brain configuration.

  12. The effect of gaze direction on the different components of visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral asymmetries and cortical regions associated with the upper and lower visual field were investigated using shifts of gaze. Earlier research suggests that gaze shifts to the left or right increase activation of specific areas of the contralateral hemisphere. We asked whether looking at one quadrant of the visual field facilitates the recall in various visuo-spatial tasks. The different components of visuo-spatial memory were investigated by probing memory for a stimulus matrix in each quadrant of the screen. First, memory for visual images or patterns was probed with a matrix of squares that was simultaneously presented and had to be reconstructed by mouse click. Better memory performance was found in the upper left quadrant compared to the three other quadrants indicating that both laterality and elevation are important. Second, positional memory was probed by subsequently presenting squares which prevented the formation of a visual image. Again, we found that gaze to the upper left facilitated performance. Third, memory for object-location binding was probed by asking observers to associate objects to particular locations. Higher performance was found with gaze directed to the lower quadrants irrespective of lateralization, confirming that only some components of visual short-term memory have shared neural substrates.

  13. Effects of high intensity white noise on short-term memory for position in a list and sequence.

    PubMed

    Daee, S; Wilding, J M

    1977-08-01

    Seven experiments are described investigating the effect of high intensity white noise during the visual presentation of words on a number of short-term memory tasks. The findings were: 1. In a free recall task recall of items decreased at the highest intensity used (85 dB) compared with a quiet and a 75 dB condition. 2. In free recall, recall by category decreased and recall in the original sequence increased in the 75 dB compared with the other two conditions. 3. Recall of the position of words in the list increased as noise intensity increased, but only when the learning of position was incidental, not when it was intentional. It is inferred that the effect is due to direction of attention or change in the learning strategy. 4. Recall of the original sequence (as shown by the ability to give in response to a word from a list the word which had followed it in the original list) was superior in the 75 dB compared with the other two conditions, but only when recall of the second word was required, not when it had to be recognized among all the items from the original list. It is argued that this can be explained if noise intensity affects the strength of traces and hence the interconnexions established between them, on which retrieval depends. The results for position learning are compatible with the theories of Hockey & Hamilton (1970) or Dornic (1973), but the results for sequence learning cannot be explained by either of these theories. A final experiment confirmed a prediction from the above theory that when recalling the original sequence, omissions (recalling no word) will decrease and transpositions (giving the wrong word) will increase as noise level increases.

  14. Modeling the action-potential-sensitive nonlinear-optical response of myelinated nerve fibers and short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    The Goldman-Albus treatment of the action-potential dynamics is combined with a phenomenological description of molecular hyperpolarizabilities into a closed-form model of the action-potential-sensitive second-harmonic response of myelinated nerve fibers with nodes of Ranvier. This response is shown to be sensitive to nerve demyelination, thus enabling an optical diagnosis of various demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The model is applied to examine the nonlinear-optical response of a three-neuron reverberating circuit—the basic element of short-term memory.

  15. Episodic Short-Term Recognition Requires Encoding into Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Probe Recognition after Letter Report

    PubMed Central

    Poth, Christian H.; Schneider, Werner X.

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is organized in discrete processing episodes (e.g., eye fixations or task-steps). Object information must be transmitted across episodes to enable episodic short-term recognition: recognizing whether a current object has been seen in a previous episode. We ask whether episodic short-term recognition presupposes that objects have been encoded into capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM), which retains visual information for report. Alternatively, it could rely on the activation of visual features or categories that occurs before encoding into VWM. We assessed the dependence of episodic short-term recognition on VWM by a new paradigm combining letter report and probe recognition. Participants viewed displays of 10 letters and reported as many as possible after a retention interval (whole report). Next, participants viewed a probe letter and indicated whether it had been one of the 10 letters (probe recognition). In Experiment 1, probe recognition was more accurate for letters that had been encoded into VWM (reported letters) compared with non-encoded letters (non-reported letters). Interestingly, those letters that participants reported in their whole report had been near to one another within the letter displays. This suggests that the encoding into VWM proceeded in a spatially clustered manner. In Experiment 2, participants reported only one of 10 letters (partial report) and probes either referred to this letter, to letters that had been near to it, or far from it. Probe recognition was more accurate for near than for far letters, although none of these letters had to be reported. These findings indicate that episodic short-term recognition is constrained to a small number of simultaneously presented objects that have been encoded into VWM. PMID:27713722

  16. Contralateral cortical organisation of information in visual short-term memory: evidence from lateralized brain activity during retrieval.

    PubMed

    Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Roberto; McDonald, John J; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a determination of orientation. Retrieval of information from VSTM was associated with an event-related lateralization (ERL) with a contralateral negativity relative to the visual field from which the probed stimulus was originally encoded, suggesting a lateralized organization of VSTM. The scalp distribution of the retrieval ERL was more anterior than what is usually associated with simple maintenance activity, which is consistent with the involvement of different brain structures for these distinct visual memory mechanisms. Experiment 2 was like Experiment 1, but used an unbalanced memory array consisting of one lateral color stimulus in a hemifield and one color stimulus on the vertical mid-line. This design enabled us to separate lateralized activity related to target retrieval from distractor processing. Target retrieval was found to generate a negative-going ERL at electrode sites found in Experiment 1, and suggested representations were retrieved from anterior cortical structures. Distractor processing elicited a positive-going ERL at posterior electrodes sites, which could be indicative of a return to baseline of retention activity for the discarded memory of the now-irrelevant stimulus, or an active inhibition mechanism mediating distractor suppression.

  17. Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children

    PubMed Central

    Sarokte, Atul Shankar; Rao, Mangalagowri V.

    2013-01-01

    Excellent memory, extraordinary intelligence, great academic achievement, and successful career are the dreams of every individual in this era of competition and professionalism. A good memory power acts as a catalyst in all walks of life, be it academic success or maintenance of personal relationships. It is observed that an average man uses only 10% of his natural memory. Remaining 90% is left unused in a haphazard manner. As per the American psychologist Carl Emil Seashore, if one is alert and makes systematic attempts to awaken and use the natural memory properly, his/her natural memory would be activated creatively and would offer benefits of higher order. A comparative study was conducted comprising 90 subjects to know the efficacy of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in short-term memory of school-going children. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. It was an open, prospective, and randomized clinical study. The subjects of group A formed the control group and they were observed silently for 3 months without any intervention. The subjects in group B were administered with Choorna (powder) of four Medhya Rasayanas, Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. and Thoms.], and Sankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy), at a dose of 2 g twice daily with milk. Subjects belonging to group C were advocated regular Yogic practices of Asanas, Pranayama, and Dhyana. Further study revealed that among the three groups, group B treated with Medhya Rasayana showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to objective parameters in the tests, i.e. (1) short-term memory test pictures and (2) serial recall effects test using memory scope. Among the three groups, group C treated with Yogic practices showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to subjective and objective parameters in mini mental status scale i.e. test 3. The

  18. Individual stress vulnerability is predicted by short-term memory and AMPA receptor subunit ratio in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mathias V; Trümbach, Dietrich; Weber, Peter; Wagner, Klaus; Scharf, Sebastian H; Liebl, Claudia; Datson, Nicole; Namendorf, Christian; Gerlach, Tamara; Kühne, Claudia; Uhr, Manfred; Deussing, Jan M; Wurst, Wolfgang; Binder, Elisabeth B; Holsboer, Florian; Müller, Marianne B

    2010-12-15

    Increased vulnerability to aversive experiences is one of the main risk factors for stress-related psychiatric disorders as major depression. However, the molecular bases of vulnerability, on the one hand, and stress resilience, on the other hand, are still not understood. Increasing clinical and preclinical evidence suggests a central involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of major depression. Using a mouse paradigm, modeling increased stress vulnerability and depression-like symptoms in a genetically diverse outbred strain, and we tested the hypothesis that differences in AMPA receptor function may be linked to individual variations in stress vulnerability. Vulnerable and resilient animals differed significantly in their dorsal hippocampal AMPA receptor expression and AMPA receptor binding. Treatment with an AMPA receptor potentiator during the stress exposure prevented the lasting effects of chronic social stress exposure on physiological, neuroendocrine, and behavioral parameters. In addition, spatial short-term memory, an AMPA receptor-dependent behavior, was found to be predictive of individual stress vulnerability and response to AMPA potentiator treatment. Finally, we provide evidence that genetic variations in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 are linked to the vulnerable phenotype. Therefore, we propose genetic variations in the AMPA receptor system to shape individual stress vulnerability. Those individual differences can be predicted by the assessment of short-term memory, thereby opening up the possibility for a specific treatment by enhancing AMPA receptor function.

  19. Postnatal dietary supplementation with either gangliosides or choline: effects on spatial short-term memory in artificially-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Patricia E; Lomanowska, Anna M; McCutcheon, Dawn; Park, Eek J; Clandinin, M Thomas; Ramanujam, Kalathur S

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with either gangliosides or choline during the brain growth spurt would enhance short-term spatial memory. Male Long-Evans rats were reared artificially from postnatal days (PD) 5-18 and were fed diets containing either (i) choline chloride 1250 mg/l (CHL), (ii) choline chloride 250 mg/l and GD3 24 mg/l (GNG) or (iii) choline chloride 250 mg/l (STD). A fourth group (SCK) was reared normally. Rats were weaned onto AIN 93G diet and on PD 35 were trained on a cued delayed- matching-to-place version of the Morris water maze. All groups learned to swim to the beacon that indicated the platform position on the first trial; similarly, on the second un-cued trial, the distance swam to reach the platform decreased to the same extent in all groups over the five days of training. The groups also responded in the same way to an increase in delay between the first and second trial from 1 min to 1 h, showing an increase in the distance swam, accompanied by a decrease in the number of direct swims to the platform. Thus, all rats were equally proficient at using spatial short-term memory, regardless of the choline or ganglioside content of the preweaning diet.

  20. Altered long-range alpha-band synchronization during visual short-term memory retention in children born very preterm

    PubMed Central

    Doesburg, Sam M; Ribary, Urs; Herdman, Anthony T; Miller, Steven P; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Moiseev, Alexander; Whitfield, Michael F; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2011-01-01

    Children born very preterm, even when intelligence is broadly normal, often experience selective difficulties in executive function and visual-spatial processing. Development of structural cortical connectivity is known to be altered in this group, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence indicates that very preterm children recruit different patterns of functional connectivity between cortical regions during cognition. Synchronization of neural oscillations across brain areas has been proposed as a mechanism for dynamically assigning functional coupling to support perceptual and cognitive processing, but little is known about what role oscillatory synchronization may play in the altered neurocognitive development of very preterm children. To investigate this, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) activity while 7–8 year old children born very preterm and age matched full-term controls performed a visual short-term memory task. Very preterm children exhibited reduced long-range synchronization in the alpha-band during visual short-term memory retention, indicating that cortical alpha rhythms may play a critical role in altered patterns functional connectivity expressed by this population during cognitive and perceptual processing. Long-range alpha-band synchronization was also correlated with task performance and visual-perceptual ability within the very preterm group, indicating that altered alpha-oscillatory mechanisms mediating transient functional integration between cortical regions may be relevant to selective problems in neurocognitive development in this vulnerable population at school age. PMID:20974268

  1. Stuck in default mode: inefficient cross-frequency synchronization may lead to age-related short-term memory decline.

    PubMed

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Aging-related decline in short-term memory capacity seems to be caused by deficient balancing of task-related and resting state brain networks activity; however, the exact neural mechanism underlying this deficit remains elusive. Here, we studied brain oscillatory activity in healthy young and old adults during visual information maintenance in a delayed match-to-sample task. Particular emphasis was on long range phase:amplitude coupling of frontal alpha (8-12 Hz) and posterior fast oscillatory activity (>30 Hz). It is argued that through posterior fast oscillatory activity nesting into the excitatory or the inhibitory phase of frontal alpha wave, long-range networks can be efficiently coupled or decoupled, respectively. On the basis of this mechanism, we show that healthy, elderly participants exhibit a lack of synchronization in task-relevant networks while maintaining synchronized regions of the resting state network. Lacking disconnection of this resting state network is predictive of aging-related short-term memory decline. These results support the idea of inefficient orchestration of competing brain networks in the aging human brain and identify the neural mechanism responsible for this control breakdown.

  2. Discrete capacity limits and neuroanatomical correlates of visual short-term memory for objects and spatial locations.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Nikos; Constantinidou, Fofi; Kanai, Ryota

    2017-02-01

    Working memory is responsible for keeping information in mind when it is no longer in view, linking perception with higher cognitive functions. Despite such crucial role, short-term maintenance of visual information is severely limited. Research suggests that capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) are correlated with sustained activity in distinct brain areas. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structure of the brain is reflected in individual differences of behavioral capacity estimates for spatial and object VSTM. Behavioral capacity estimates were calculated separately for spatial and object information using a novel adaptive staircase procedure and were found to be unrelated, supporting domain-specific VSTM capacity limits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed dissociable neuroanatomical correlates of spatial versus object VSTM. Interindividual variability in spatial VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the inferior parietal lobule. In contrast, object VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the left insula. These dissociable findings highlight the importance of considering domain-specific estimates of VSTM capacity and point to the crucial brain regions that limit VSTM capacity for different types of visual information. Hum Brain Mapp 38:767-778, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Deficits in visual short-term memory binding in children at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Pancera, Arianna; Galera, Cesar; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. Results revealed that groups did not differ in retention of either shapes or colors, but children at risk of NLD were poorer than controls in memory for shape-color bindings.

  4. Short-term vitamin A supplementation does not affect bone turnover in men.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Tisha N; Krueger, Diane C; Engelke, Jean A; Harke, Judy M; Binkley, Neil C

    2002-06-01

    Limited data in humans and animals indicate that excess vitamin A stimulates bone resorption and inhibits bone formation, effects that over time might lead to bone loss and fracture. Thus, it is possible that vitamin A supplementation is a currently unrecognized risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. To further evaluate this possibility, a prospective, randomized, single-blind study of vitamin A supplementation was conducted in 80 healthy men age 18-58 y. One half received 7576 microg (25,000 IU) of retinol palmitate daily with their evening meal; the others took a placebo. Blood was collected from fasting subjects and serum prepared at baseline and after 2, 4 and 6 wk of supplementation. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) and N-Telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx) were measured at all time points. Serum osteocalcin (Oc) was measured at baseline and after 6 wk of supplementation. BSAP, NTx and Oc did not differ between the supplemented and placebo-treated groups over the course of the study. In conclusion, short-term vitamin A supplementation at this dosage in healthy men does not alter serum markers of skeletal turnover. Thus, it is unlikely that short-term administration of vitamin A would contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Whether long-term vitamin A supplementation might have adverse skeletal effects remains to be determined.

  5. Robot evolutionary localization based on attentive visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Vega, Julio; Perdices, Eduardo; Cañas, José M

    2013-01-21

    Cameras are one of the most relevant sensors in autonomous robots. However, two of their challenges are to extract useful information from captured images, and to manage the small field of view of regular cameras. This paper proposes implementing a dynamic visual memory to store the information gathered from a moving camera on board a robot, followed by an attention system to choose where to look with this mobile camera, and a visual localization algorithm that incorporates this visual memory. The visual memory is a collection of relevant task-oriented objects and 3D segments, and its scope is wider than the current camera field of view. The attention module takes into account the need to reobserve objects in the visual memory and the need to explore new areas. The visual memory is useful also in localization tasks, as it provides more information about robot surroundings than the current instantaneous image. This visual system is intended as underlying technology for service robot applications in real people's homes. Several experiments have been carried out, both with simulated and real Pioneer and Nao robots, to validate the system and each of its components in office scenarios.

  6. Robot Evolutionary Localization Based on Attentive Visual Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Julio; Perdices, Eduardo; Cañas, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Cameras are one of the most relevant sensors in autonomous robots. However, two of their challenges are to extract useful information from captured images, and to manage the small field of view of regular cameras. This paper proposes implementing a dynamic visual memory to store the information gathered from a moving camera on board a robot, followed by an attention system to choose where to look with this mobile camera, and a visual localization algorithm that incorporates this visual memory. The visual memory is a collection of relevant task-oriented objects and 3D segments, and its scope is wider than the current camera field of view. The attention module takes into account the need to reobserve objects in the visual memory and the need to explore new areas. The visual memory is useful also in localization tasks, as it provides more information about robot surroundings than the current instantaneous image. This visual system is intended as underlying technology for service robot applications in real people's homes. Several experiments have been carried out, both with simulated and real Pioneer and Nao robots, to validate the system and each of its components in office scenarios. PMID:23337333

  7. The left superior temporal gyrus is a shared substrate for auditory short-term memory and speech comprehension: evidence from 210 patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Leff, Alexander P; Schofield, Thomas M; Crinion, Jennifer T; Seghier, Mohamed L; Grogan, Alice; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    Competing theories of short-term memory function make specific predictions about the functional anatomy of auditory short-term memory and its role in language comprehension. We analysed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images from 210 stroke patients and employed a novel voxel based analysis to test the relationship between auditory short-term memory and speech comprehension. Using digit span as an index of auditory short-term memory capacity we found that the structural integrity of a posterior region of the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus predicted auditory short-term memory capacity, even when performance on a range of other measures was factored out. We show that the integrity of this region also predicts the ability to comprehend spoken sentences. Our results therefore support cognitive models that posit a shared substrate between auditory short-term memory capacity and speech comprehension ability. The method applied here will be particularly useful for modelling structure-function relationships within other complex cognitive domains.

  8. Effects of Length of Retention Interval on Proactive Interference in Short-Term Visual Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meudell, Peter R.

    1977-01-01

    These experiments show two things: (a) In visual memory, long-term interference on a current item from items previously stored only seems to occur when the current item's retention interval is relatively long, and (b) the visual code appears to decay rapidly, reaching asymptote within 3 seconds of input in the presence of an interpolated task.…

  9. Short-Term Memories in "Drosophila" Are Governed by General and Specific Genetic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zars, Troy

    2010-01-01

    In a dynamic environment, there is an adaptive value in the ability of animals to acquire and express memories. That both simple and complex animals can learn is therefore not surprising. How animals have solved this problem genetically and anatomically probably lies somewhere in a range between a single molecular/anatomical mechanism that applies…

  10. A negative semantic similarity effect on short-term order memory: evidence from recency judgements.

    PubMed

    Tse, Chi-Shing

    2010-08-01

    Speeded recency judgements were used to examine whether judgements concerning the relative temporal order in which two items were presented on a short eight-item, study list would be facilitated or hindered when the two items were from the same semantic category (related, R, items), relative to when they were from different categories (unrelated, U, items). Semantic similarity led to slower and less accurate recency judgements. To evaluate the extent that item memory contributes to recency judgement performance, I used speeded pair recognition and speeded two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) recognition trials, in which the stimuli and designs were the same as in the recency judgement test. The type of test trial was manipulated between subjects (recency judgement vs pair recognition) or within participants (recency judgement and 2AFC recognition). Regardless of the between- or within-participants manipulation of recognition vs order memory tests, the pattern of recognition performance was very different from the pattern of recency judgement performance, indicating that semantic similarity had a negative effect on order memory per se. The explanation of the current findings offered by position-based order memory theories is discussed.

  11. Brain activation during associative short-term memory maintenance is not predictive for subsequent retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Heiko C.; Daselaar, Sander M.; Beul, Sarah F.; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Performance on working memory (WM) tasks may partially be supported by long-term memory (LTM) processing. Hence, brain activation recently being implicated in WM may actually have been driven by (incidental) LTM formation. We examined which brain regions actually support successful WM processing, rather than being confounded by LTM processes, during the maintenance and probe phase of a WM task. We administered a four-pair (faces and houses) associative delayed-match-to-sample (WM) task using event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and a subsequent associative recognition LTM task, using the same stimuli. This enabled us to analyze subsequent memory effects for both the WM and the LTM test by contrasting correctly recognized pairs with incorrect pairs for either task. Critically, with respect to the subsequent WM effect, we computed this analysis exclusively for trials that were forgotten in the subsequent LTM recognition task. Hence, brain activity associated with successful WM processing was less likely to be confounded by incidental LTM formation. The subsequent LTM effect, in contrast, was analyzed exclusively for pairs that previously had been correctly recognized in the WM task, disclosing brain regions involved in successful LTM formation after successful WM processing. Results for the subsequent WM effect showed no significantly activated brain areas for WM maintenance, possibly due to an insensitivity of fMRI to mechanisms underlying active WM maintenance. In contrast, a correct decision at WM probe was linked to activation in the “retrieval success network” (anterior and posterior midline brain structures). The subsequent LTM analyses revealed greater activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex in the early phase of the maintenance stage. No supra-threshold activation was found during the WM probe. Together, we obtained clearer insights in which brain regions support successful WM and LTM without the potential confound

  12. To bind or not to bind, that's the wrong question: Features and objects coexist in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Geigerman, Shriradha; Verhaeghen, Paul; Cerella, John

    2016-06-01

    In three experiments, we investigated whether features and whole-objects can be represented simultaneously in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Participants were presented with a memory set of colored shapes; we probed either for the constituent features or for the whole object, and analyzed retrieval dynamics (cumulative response time distributions). In our first experiment, we used whole-object probes that recombined features from the memory display; we found that subjects' data conformed to a kitchen-line model, showing that they used whole-object representations for the matching process. In the second experiment, we encouraged independent-feature representations by using probes that used features not present in the memory display; subjects' data conformed to the race-model inequality, showing that they used independent-feature representations for the matching process. In a final experiment, we used both types of probes; subjects now used both types of representations, depending on the nature of the probe. Combined, our three experiments suggest that both feature and whole-object representations can coexist in VSTM.

  13. Gap junctions between interneurons are required for normal spatial coding in the hippocampus and short-term spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kevin; Fuchs, Elke C; Jaschonek, Hannah; Bannerman, David M; Monyer, Hannah

    2011-04-27

    Gap junctions containing connexin 36 electrically couple interneurons in many brain regions and synchronize their activity. We used connexin-36 knock-out mice (Cx36(-/-)) to study the importance of electrical coupling between interneurons for spatial coding in the hippocampus and for different forms of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Recordings in behaving mice revealed that the spatial selectivity of hippocampal pyramidal neurons was reduced and less stable in Cx36(-/-) mice. Altered network activity was reflected in slower theta oscillations in the mutants. Temporal coding, assessed by determining the presence and characteristics of theta phase precession, had different dynamics in Cx36(-/-) mice compared with controls. At the behavioral level, Cx36(-/-) mice displayed impaired short-term spatial memory but normal spatial reference memory. These results highlight the functional role of electrically coupled interneurons for spatial coding and cognition. Moreover, they suggest that the precise spatial selectivity of place cells is not essential for normal performance on spatial tasks assessing associative long-term memory.

  14. The role of long-term familiarity and attentional maintenance in short-term memory for timbre.

    PubMed

    Siedenburg, Kai; McAdams, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    We study short-term recognition of timbre using familiar recorded tones from acoustic instruments and unfamiliar transformed tones that do not readily evoke sound-source categories. Participants indicated whether the timbre of a probe sound matched with one of three previously presented sounds (item recognition). In Exp. 1, musicians better recognised familiar acoustic compared to unfamiliar synthetic sounds, and this advantage was particularly large in the medial serial position. There was a strong correlation between correct rejection rate and the mean perceptual dissimilarity of the probe to the tones from the sequence. Exp. 2 compared musicians' and non-musicians' performance with concurrent articulatory suppression, visual interference, and with a silent control condition. Both suppression tasks disrupted performance by a similar margin, regardless of musical training of participants or type of sounds. Our results suggest that familiarity with sound source categories and attention play important roles in short-term memory for timbre, which rules out accounts solely based on sensory persistence.

  15. Nonverbal Short-Term Serial Order Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the role of item and order memory in the serial recall of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we carried out 2 experiments in which adults with ASD and comparison participants matched on chronological age and verbal IQ saw sequences of 7 dots appear sequentially in a 3 × 4 grid. In Experiment 1 (serial recall), they had to recall the locations and the presentation order of the dots by tapping locations on an empty grid. In Experiment 2, (order reconstruction) the studied dots were provided at test and participants had to touch them in their order of appearance at study. Experiment 1 revealed diminished item and order recall in the ASD group; Experiment 2 revealed diminished order recall only when verbal IQ was controlled. The results support the view that people with ASD have particular difficulty with serial order recall but may use their language ability to achieve better serial recall performance. PMID:27732024

  16. Visual short-term memory load reduces retinotopic cortex response to contrast.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Nikos; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-11-01

    Load Theory of attention suggests that high perceptual load in a task leads to reduced sensory visual cortex response to task-unrelated stimuli resulting in "load-induced blindness" [e.g., Lavie, N. Attention, distraction and cognitive control under load. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 143-148, 2010; Lavie, N. Distracted and confused?: Selective attention under load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 75-82, 2005]. Consideration of the findings that visual STM (VSTM) involves sensory recruitment [e.g., Pasternak, T., & Greenlee, M. Working memory in primate sensory systems. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 97-107, 2005] within Load Theory led us to a new hypothesis regarding the effects of VSTM load on visual processing. If VSTM load draws on sensory visual capacity, then similar to perceptual load, high VSTM load should also reduce visual cortex response to incoming stimuli leading to a failure to detect them. We tested this hypothesis with fMRI and behavioral measures of visual detection sensitivity. Participants detected the presence of a contrast increment during the maintenance delay in a VSTM task requiring maintenance of color and position. Increased VSTM load (manipulated by increased set size) led to reduced retinotopic visual cortex (V1-V3) responses to contrast as well as reduced detection sensitivity, as we predicted. Additional visual detection experiments established a clear tradeoff between the amount of information maintained in VSTM and detection sensitivity, while ruling out alternative accounts for the effects of VSTM load in terms of differential spatial allocation strategies or task difficulty. These findings extend Load Theory to demonstrate a new form of competitive interactions between early visual cortex processing and visual representations held in memory under load and provide a novel line of support for the sensory recruitment hypothesis of VSTM.

  17. Cannabinoid and cholinergic systems interact during performance of a short-term memory task in the rat.

    PubMed

    Goonawardena, Anushka V; Robinson, Lianne; Hampson, Robert E; Riedel, Gernot

    2010-10-01

    It is now well established that cannabinoid agonists such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide, and WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-2) produce potent and specific deficits in working memory (WM)/short-term memory (STM) tasks in rodents. Although mediated through activation of CB1 receptors located in memory-related brain regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, these may, in part, be due to a reduction in acetylcholine release (i.e., cholinergic hypofunction). To determine the interaction between cannabinoid and cholinergic systems, we exposed rats treated with WIN-2 or cholinergic drugs to a hippocampal-dependent delayed nonmatch to sample (DNMS) task to study STM, and recorded hippocampal single-unit activity in vivo. WIN-2 induced significant deficits in DNMS performance and reduced the average firing and bursting rates of hippocampal principal cells through a CB1 receptor-mediated mechanism. Rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, reversed these STM deficits and normalized hippocampal discharge rates. Effects were specific to 1 mg/kg WIN-2 as rivastigmine failed to reverse the behavioral and physiological deficits that were observed in the presence of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. This supports the notion that cannabinoid-modulated cholinergic activity is a mechanism underlying the performance deficits in DNMS. Whether deficits are due to reduced nicotinic or muscarinic receptor activation, or both, awaits further analysis.

  18. Winning in sequential Parrondo games by players with short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, K. W.; Ma, H. F.; Wu, D.; Lui, G. C.; Szeto, K. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The original Parrondo game, denoted as AB3, contains two independent games: A and B. The winning or losing of games A and B is defined by the change of one unit of capital. Game A is a losing game if played continuously, with winning probability p=0.5-ε , where ε =0.003 . Game B is also losing and has two coins: a good coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{g}}=0.75-ε is used if the player’s capital is not divisible by 3, otherwise a bad coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{b}}=0.1-ε is used. The Parrondo paradox refers to the situation where the mixture of games A and B in a sequence leads to winning in the long run. The paradox can be resolved using Markov chain analysis. We extend this setting of the Parrondo game to involve players with one-step memory. The player can win by switching his choice of A or B game in a Parrondo game sequence. If the player knows the identity of the game he plays and the state of his capital, then the player can win maximally. On the other hand, if the player does not know the nature of the game, then he is playing a (C, D) game, where either (C  =  A, D  =  B), or (C  =  B, D  =  A). For a player with one-step memory playing the AB3 game, he can achieve the highest expected gain with switching probability equal to 3/4 in the (C, D) game sequence. This result has been found first numerically and then proven analytically. Generalization to an AB mod(M) Parrondo game for other integers M has been made for the general domain of parameters {{p}\\text{b}}\\text{A}}<{{p}\\text{g}} . We find that for odd M the Parrondo effect does exist. However, for even M, there is no Parrondo effect for two cases: the initial game is A and the initial capital is even, or the initial game is B and the initial capital is odd. There is still a possibility of the Parrondo effect for the other two cases when M is even: the initial game is A and the initial capital is odd, or the initial game is B and the initial

  19. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusion The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. PMID:25646955

  20. Short-term treatment with transdermal nicotine affects the function of canine saphenous veins.

    PubMed

    Clouse, W D; Rud, K S; Hurt, R D; Miller, V M

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the effects of nicotine treatment on the functions of saphenous veins used for coronary artery bypass grafts in dogs. Dogs received either no treatment or transdermal nicotine for 5 weeks at doses of 11 mg, 22 mg or 44 mg/day. Saphenous veins were removed and suspended for the measurement of isometric force in organ chambers. Endothelium was removed mechanically from some rings. N(G)-mono-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 10(-4) M) was used to inhibit the production of nitric oxide. Contractions to alpha2-adrenergic stimulation were decreased in veins from dogs treated with a 22-mg/day dose of transdermal nicotine. In addition, endothelium-dependent relaxations to adenosine-diphosphate (10(-8)-10(-4) M) and the calcium ionophore A23,187 (10(-8)-10(-6) M) were decreased in veins from dogs with a 22-mg/day dose and increased in veins from dogs treated with a 44-mg/day dose. These relaxations were inhibited by L-NMMA. Plasma concentrations of oxidized products of nitric oxide were decreased only in dogs treated with 22 mg/day of nicotine. The relaxation of rings without endothelium (direct response on the smooth muscle) to nitric oxide were not altered by nicotine treatment. These results suggest that the short-term treatment of dogs with intermediate (22 mg/day) but not low (11 mg/day) or high (44 mg/day) doses of transdermal nicotine decreases the endothelial function of veins used for coronary artery bypass grafts. Therefore, changes in plasma products of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent relaxations mediated by nitric oxide are related to the dose of nicotine treatment.

  1. Multiple neural states of representation in short-term memory? It’s a matter of attention

    PubMed Central

    LaRocque, Joshua J.; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2014-01-01

    Short-term memory (STM) refers to the capacity-limited retention of information over a brief period of time, and working memory (WM) refers to the manipulation and use of that information to guide behavior. In recent years it has become apparent that STM and WM interact and overlap with other cognitive processes, including attention (the selection of a subset of information for further processing) and long-term memory (LTM—the encoding and retention of an effectively unlimited amount of information for a much longer period of time). Broadly speaking, there have been two classes of memory models: systems models, which posit distinct stores for STM and LTM (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley and Hitch, 1974); and state-based models, which posit a common store with different activation states corresponding to STM and LTM (Cowan, 1995; McElree, 1996; Oberauer, 2002). In this paper, we will focus on state-based accounts of STM. First, we will consider several theoretical models that postulate, based on considerable behavioral evidence, that information in STM can exist in multiple representational states. We will then consider how neural data from recent studies of STM can inform and constrain these theoretical models. In the process we will highlight the inferential advantage of multivariate, information-based analyses of neuroimaging data (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG)) over conventional activation-based analysis approaches (Postle, in press). We will conclude by addressing lingering questions regarding the fractionation of STM, highlighting differences between the attention to information vs. the retention of information during brief memory delays. PMID:24478671

  2. Slave to the Rhythm: Experimental Tests of a Model for Verbal Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Sequence Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitch, Graham J.; Flude, Brenda; Burgess, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments tested predictions of a neural network model of phonological short-term memory that assumes separate representations for order and item information, order being coded via a context-timing signal [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. J. (1999). Memory for serial order: A network model of the phonological loop and its timing. "Psychological…

  3. On the Division of Short-Term and Working Memory: An Examination of Simple and Complex Span and Their Relation to Higher Order Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

    2007-01-01

    Research has suggested that short-term memory and working memory (as measured by simple and complex span tasks, respectively) are separate constructs that are differentially related to higher order cognitive abilities. This claim is critically evaluated by reviewing research that has compared simple and complex span tasks in both experimental and…

  4. How do subvocal rehearsal and general attentional resources contribute to verbal short-term memory span?

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Whether rehearsal has a causal role in verbal STM has been controversial in the literature. Recent theories of working memory emphasize a role of attentional resources, but leave unclear how they contribute to verbal STM. Two experiments (with 49 and 102 adult participants, respectively) followed up previous studies with children, aiming to clarify the contributions of attentional capacity and rehearsal to verbal STM. Word length and presentation modality were manipulated. Experiment 1 focused on order errors, Experiment 2 on predicting individual differences in span from attentional capacity and articulation rate. Structural equation modeling showed clearly a major role of attentional capacity as a predictor of verbal STM span; but was inconclusive on whether rehearsal efficiency is an additional cause or a consequence of verbal STM. The effects of word length and modality on STM were replicated; a significant interaction was also found, showing a larger modality effect for long than short words, which replicates a previous finding on children. Item errors occurred more often with long words and correlated negatively with articulation rate. This set of findings seems to point to a role of rehearsal in maintaining item information. The probability of order errors per position increased linearly with list length. A revised version of a neo-Piagetian model was fit to the data of Experiment 2. That model was based on two parameters: attentional capacity (independently measured) and a free parameter representing loss of partly-activated information. The model could partly account for the results, but underestimated STM performance of the participants with smaller attentional capacity. It is concluded that modeling of verbal STM should consider individual and developmental differences in attentional capacity, rehearsal rate, and (perhaps) order representation. PMID:25798114

  5. Aggregated effects of combining daily milk consumption and aerobic exercise on short-term memory and sustained attention among female students.

    PubMed

    Leong, In-Tyng; Moghadam, Sedigheh; Hashim, Hairul A

    2015-02-01

    Regular aerobic exercise and milk consumption have been found to have positive effects on certain cognitive functions such as short-term memory and sustained attention. However, aggregated effects of combining these modalities have not been explored. This study examined the combined effects of milk supplementation and aerobic exercise on the short-term memory and sustained attention of female students aged 16 yr. (N = 81). The intervention involved serving of 250 ml of regular milk during school days and/or a 1-hr. aerobic exercise period twice per week for 6 weeks. The Digit Span Test and Digit Vigilance Test were used to measure short-term memory and sustained attention, respectively. The combination group (milk and exercise) and exercise group performed significantly better than did the milk and control groups in terms of short-term memory. No significant interaction or group differences were found for sustained attention. The results suggest benefits of regular exercise for students' short-term memory.

  6. Short-term visual deprivation reduces interference effects of task-irrelevant facial expressions on affective prosody judgments

    PubMed Central

    Fengler, Ineke; Nava, Elena; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that neuroplasticity can be triggered by short-term visual deprivation in healthy adults. Specifically, these studies have provided evidence that visual deprivation reversibly affects basic perceptual abilities. The present study investigated the long-lasting effects of short-term visual deprivation on emotion perception. To this aim, we visually deprived a group of young healthy adults, age-matched with a group of non-deprived controls, for 3 h and tested them before and after visual deprivation (i.e., after 8 h on average and at 4 week follow-up) on an audio–visual (i.e., faces and voices) emotion discrimination task. To observe changes at the level of basic perceptual skills, we additionally employed a simple audio–visual (i.e., tone bursts and light flashes) discrimination task and two unimodal (one auditory and one visual) perceptual threshold measures. During the 3 h period, both groups performed a series of auditory tasks. To exclude the possibility that changes in emotion discrimination may emerge as a consequence of the exposure to auditory stimulation during the 3 h stay in the dark, we visually deprived an additional group of age-matched participants who concurrently performed unrelated (i.e., tactile) tasks to the later tested abilities. The two visually deprived groups showed enhanced affective prosodic discrimination abilities in the context of incongruent facial expressions following the period of visual deprivation; this effect was partially maintained until follow-up. By contrast, no changes were observed in affective facial expression discrimination and in the basic perception tasks in any group. These findings suggest that short-term visual deprivation per se triggers a reweighting of visual and auditory emotional cues, which seems to possibly prevail for longer durations. PMID:25954166

  7. Altered strategy in short-term memory for pictures in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sanefuji, Masafumi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Takada, Yui; Imanaga, Hisako; Matsunaga, Mayumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sakai, Yasunari; Yoshida, Keiko; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-07-30

    Strategy in short-term memory for serially presented pictures shifts gradually from a non-phonological to a phonological method as memory ability increases during typical childhood development. However, little is known about the development of this strategic change in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To understand the neural basis of ADHD, we investigated short-term memory strategies using near-infrared spectroscopy. ADHD children aged from 6 to 12 years and age- and sex-matched control children were assessed in this study. Regional activity was monitored in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex to assess strategies used during short-term memory for visual or phonological objects. We examined the hypothesis that the strategic methods used would be correlated with memory ability. Higher memory ability and the phonological strategy were significantly correlated in the control group but not in the ADHD group. Intriguingly, ADHD children receiving methylphenidate treatment exhibited increased use of phonological strategy compared with those without. In conclusion, we found evidence of an altered strategy in short-term memory in ADHD children. The modulatory effect of methylphenidate indicates its therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function

  9. Thalamo-Cortical Disruption Contributes to Short-Term Memory Deficits in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Damage.

    PubMed

    Voets, Natalie L; Menke, Ricarda A L; Jbabdi, Saad; Husain, Masud; Stacey, Richard; Carpenter, Katherine; Adcock, Jane E

    2015-11-01

    Short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have largely been considered as separate brain systems reflecting fronto-parietal and medial temporal lobe (MTL) functions, respectively. This functional dichotomy has been called into question by evidence of deficits on aspects of working memory in patients with MTL damage, suggesting a potentially direct hippocampal contribution to STM. As the hippocampus has direct anatomical connections with the thalamus, we tested the hypothesis that damage to thalamic nuclei regulating cortico-cortical interactions may contribute to STM deficits in patients with hippocampal dysfunction. We used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography to identify anatomical subdivisions in patients with MTL epilepsy. From these, we measured resting-state functional connectivity with detailed cortical divisions of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Whereas thalamo-temporal functional connectivity reflected LTM performance, thalamo-prefrontal functional connectivity specifically predicted STM performance. Notably, patients with hippocampal volume loss showed thalamic volume loss, most prominent in the pulvinar region, not detected in patients with normal hippocampal volumes. Aberrant thalamo-cortical connectivity in the epileptic hemisphere was mirrored in a loss of behavioral association with STM performance specifically in patients with hippocampal atrophy. These findings identify thalamo-cortical disruption as a potential mechanism contributing to STM deficits in the context of MTL damage.

  10. Road and Rail Traffic Noise Induce Comparable Extra-aural Effects as Revealed During a Short-term Memory Test

    PubMed Central

    Gallasch, Eugen; Raggam, Reinhard B; Cik, Michael; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Lackner, Andreas; Piber, Barbara; Marth, Egon

    2016-01-01

    To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD) and 20 min of rail (RAIL) traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA), a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N=54) consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only), alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (sBP), total peripheral resistance (TPR), as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP), 0.15–0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF), and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA) were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%), sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL −0.7%, ROAD −0.8%), HF decreased (RAIL −3.4%, ROAD −2.9%), and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%). No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values) combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values) was found at the high-annoyed subgroup. PMID:27569408

  11. Thalamo-Cortical Disruption Contributes to Short-Term Memory Deficits in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Damage

    PubMed Central

    Voets, Natalie L.; Menke, Ricarda A. L.; Jbabdi, Saad; Husain, Masud; Stacey, Richard; Carpenter, Katherine; Adcock, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have largely been considered as separate brain systems reflecting fronto-parietal and medial temporal lobe (MTL) functions, respectively. This functional dichotomy has been called into question by evidence of deficits on aspects of working memory in patients with MTL damage, suggesting a potentially direct hippocampal contribution to STM. As the hippocampus has direct anatomical connections with the thalamus, we tested the hypothesis that damage to thalamic nuclei regulating cortico-cortical interactions may contribute to STM deficits in patients with hippocampal dysfunction. We used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography to identify anatomical subdivisions in patients with MTL epilepsy. From these, we measured resting-state functional connectivity with detailed cortical divisions of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Whereas thalamo-temporal functional connectivity reflected LTM performance, thalamo-prefrontal functional connectivity specifically predicted STM performance. Notably, patients with hippocampal volume loss showed thalamic volume loss, most prominent in the pulvinar region, not detected in patients with normal hippocampal volumes. Aberrant thalamo-cortical connectivity in the epileptic hemisphere was mirrored in a loss of behavioral association with STM performance specifically in patients with hippocampal atrophy. These findings identify thalamo-cortical disruption as a potential mechanism contributing to STM deficits in the context of MTL damage. PMID:26009613

  12. Road and rail traffic noise induce comparable extra-aural effects as revealed during a short-term memory test.

    PubMed

    Gallasch, Eugen; Raggam, Reinhard B; Cik, Michael; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Lackner, Andreas; Piber, Barbara; Marth, Egon

    2016-01-01

    To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD) and 20 min of rail (RAIL) traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA), a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N = 54) consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only), alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (sBP), total peripheral resistance (TPR), as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP), 0.15-0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF), and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA) were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%), sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL -0.7%, ROAD -0.8%), HF decreased (RAIL -3.4%, ROAD -2.9%), and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%). No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values) combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values) was found at the high-annoyed subgroup.

  13. Hemispheric specialization in selective attention and short-term memory: a fine-coarse model of left- and right-ear disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.; Pilgrim, Lea K.; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Serial short-term memory is impaired by irrelevant sound, particularly when the sound changes acoustically. This acoustic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the left compared to the right ear (a left-ear disadvantage). Serial memory appears relatively insensitive to distraction from the semantic properties of a background sound. In contrast, short-term free recall of semantic-category exemplars is impaired by the semantic properties of background speech and is relatively insensitive to the sound's acoustic properties. This semantic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the right compared to the left ear (a right-ear disadvantage). In this paper, we outline a speculative neurocognitive fine-coarse model of these hemispheric differences in relation to short-term memory and selective attention, and explicate empirical directions in which this model can be critically evaluated. PMID:24399988

  14. Short-term storage and swim-up selection do not affect the x/y ratio in equine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Orsztynowicz, M; Pawlak, P; Kociucka, B; Mucha, S; Klukowska-Rotzler, J; Lechniak, D

    2014-02-01

    The standard procedure of artificial insemination with fresh equine spermatozoa involves short-term storage (to 48 h at 5°C). This procedure is accompanied by a gradual loss of sperm viability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the X/Y ratio of equine spermatozoa is affected by short-term storage and the swim-up procedure. We used a standard protocol, for short-term storage (0, 24 and 48 h at 5°C) of stallion semen diluted in the commercial extender EquiPro™ (Minitüb GmbH, Tiefenbach, Germany). After each set-up storage period, the motile fraction of sperm cells was selected by the swim-up method. The X/Y ratio was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the fresh, non-selected sperm, and in motile spermatozoa selected after each of the storage periods. Molecular probes for the equine chromosomes X and Y were used. The X/Y ratio in all sperm samples analysed in this study (fresh and stored) was not different from the theoretical 1 : 1 value. The incidence of chromosomally abnormal sperm cells in the fresh (0.28%) and motile (0.13%) sperm samples was not significantly different. The two approaches (sperm storage up to 48 h and the swim-up procedure) applied to this study did not affect the X/Y ratio in the motile fraction of equine spermatozoa. This finding does not conform to phenomena described for human and cattle. For this reason, the finding may imply species-related differences.

  15. Hearing Loss Is Negatively Related to Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory but Not to Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnberg, Jerker; Danielsson, Henrik; Rudner, Mary; Arlinger, Stig; Sternang, Ola; Wahlin, Ake; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the relationship between degree of hearing loss and different memory systems in hearing aid users. Method: Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to study the relationship between auditory and visual acuity and different cognitive and memory functions in an age-hetereogenous subsample of 160 hearing aid users without…

  16. Computerized Memory Training Leads to Sustained Improvement in Visuospatial Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Stephanie J.; Holmes, Joni; Buckley, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a computerized visuospatial memory training intervention on the memory and behavioral skills of children with Down syndrome. Teaching assistants were trained to support the delivery of a computerized intervention program to individual children over a 10-16 week period in school. Twenty-one children aged 7-12…

  17. Improving the Short-Term Affect of Grieving Children through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kaylin E.; Lineweaver, Tara T.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated changes in positive and negative affect of grieving children in response to art making compared to another noncreative, non-expressive, but engaging visuospatial task and assessed whether art making was equally or differentially effective in individual versus collaborative settings. We randomly assigned grieving children to one of…

  18. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R.; Holmes, Megan C.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Yau, Joyce L.W.

    2015-01-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals. PMID:25497454

  19. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R; Holmes, Megan C; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

    2015-04-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals.

  20. The Item versus the Object in Memory: On the Implausibility of Overwriting As a Mechanism for Forgetting in Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of forgetting in short-term memory remains a disputed topic, with much debate focussed upon whether decay plays a fundamental role (Berman et al., 2009; Altmann and Schunn, 2012; Barrouillet et al., 2012; Neath and Brown, 2012; Oberauer and Lewandowsky, 2013; Ricker et al., 2014) but much less focus on other plausible mechanisms. One such mechanism of long-standing in auditory memory is overwriting (e.g., Crowder and Morton, 1969) in which some aspects of a representation are “overwritten” and rendered inaccessible by the subsequent presentation of a further item. Here, we review the evidence for different forms of overwriting (at the feature and item levels) and examine the plausibility of this mechanism both as a form of auditory memory and when viewed in the context of a larger hearing, speech and language understanding system. PMID:27014148

  1. Soil structure, colloids, and chemical transport as affected by short-term reducing conditions: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de-Campos, A. B.; Mamedov, A. I.; Huang, C.; Wagner, L. E.

    2008-12-01

    Upland soils in the Midwestern US often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring and remain water saturated for days or weeks. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and may affect soil structure and solution chemical transport. The effects of short-term reducing conditions on chemical and physical properties of the soils, colloids, and associated chemical/nutrients transport are still not well understood and was the objective of our study. A biogeochemical reactor was built to achieve reducing conditions. Three cultivated and three uncultivated soils with different organic carbon contents were incubated in the reactor for 1 hour and 3 days under anaerobic conditions. Effects of the redox state on soil structure (pore size distribution) and drainable porosity, colloids mobility, and chemical transport were determined using high energy moisture characteristic and analytical methods. After each treatment, the soil solution was collected for redox potential (Eh), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements, and chemical analysis of metals (Ca, Mg, K), nutrients (N, P), and dissolved organic carbon. Strongly reducing conditions were achieved after 3 days of incubation and were followed by a decrease in soil porosity and an increase in pH, EC, clay dispersion, swelling, colloids mobility, and associated chemical transport. The trend for each soil depended on their initial structural stability and chemical properties. The structure of cultivated soils and the leaching of nutrients and carbon from uncultivated soils were more sensitive to the redox state. A strong correlation was found between changes in Eh and drainable porosity. The role of short-term reducing conditions on changes in redox sensitive elements, organic matter decomposition, pH, and EC and their influence on soil structure and soil particles or colloids/chemical transport for both soil groups are discussed in the paper. This study

  2. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be

  3. The role of short-term memory and visuo-spatial skills in numerical magnitude processing: Evidence from Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noël, Marie-Pascale; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Rousselle, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on magnitude representation have focused on the visual modality with no possibility of disentangling the influence of visuo-spatial skills and short-term memory (STM) abilities on quantification processes. This study examines this issue in patients with Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic condition characterized by a specific cognitive profile frequently associating poor mathematical achievement, low spatial skills and reduced STM abilities. In order to identify the influence of visuo-spatial and STM processing on numerical magnitude abilities, twenty female participants with TS and twenty control female participants matched for verbal IQ and education level were administered a series of magnitude comparison tasks. The tasks differed on the nature of the magnitude to be processed (continuous, discrete and symbolic magnitude), on visuo-spatial processing requirement (no/high) and on STM demands (low in simultaneous presentation vs. high in sequential presentation). Our results showed a lower acuity when participants with TS compared the numerical magnitudes of stimuli presented sequentially (low visuo-spatial processing and high STM load: Dot sequence and Sound sequence) while no difference was observed in the numerical comparison of sets presented simultaneously. In addition, the group difference in sequential tasks disappeared when controlling for STM abilities. Finally, both groups demonstrated similar performance when comparing continuous or symbolic magnitude stimuli and they exhibited comparable subitizing abilities. These results highlight the importance of STM abilities in extracting numerosity through a sequential presentation and underline the importance of considering the impact of format presentation on magnitude judgments. PMID:28222116

  4. The role of short-term memory and visuo-spatial skills in numerical magnitude processing: Evidence from Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Rousselle, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on magnitude representation have focused on the visual modality with no possibility of disentangling the influence of visuo-spatial skills and short-term memory (STM) abilities on quantification processes. This study examines this issue in patients with Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic condition characterized by a specific cognitive profile frequently associating poor mathematical achievement, low spatial skills and reduced STM abilities. In order to identify the influence of visuo-spatial and STM processing on numerical magnitude abilities, twenty female participants with TS and twenty control female participants matched for verbal IQ and education level were administered a series of magnitude comparison tasks. The tasks differed on the nature of the magnitude to be processed (continuous, discrete and symbolic magnitude), on visuo-spatial processing requirement (no/high) and on STM demands (low in simultaneous presentation vs. high in sequential presentation). Our results showed a lower acuity when participants with TS compared the numerical magnitudes of stimuli presented sequentially (low visuo-spatial processing and high STM load: Dot sequence and Sound sequence) while no difference was observed in the numerical comparison of sets presented simultaneously. In addition, the group difference in sequential tasks disappeared when controlling for STM abilities. Finally, both groups demonstrated similar performance when comparing continuous or symbolic magnitude stimuli and they exhibited comparable subitizing abilities. These results highlight the importance of STM abilities in extracting numerosity through a sequential presentation and underline the importance of considering the impact of format presentation on magnitude judgments.

  5. The chaotic nature of temper in humans: a long short-term memory recurrent neural network model.

    PubMed

    Zifan, Ali; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2006-01-01

    In mathematics and physics, chaos theory deals with the behavior of certain nonlinear dynamical systems that under certain conditions exhibit a phenomenon known as chaos, which is characterised by a sensitivity to initial conditions. Mathematicians paradoxically call such states of order chaos and distinguish them from randomness. New models for describing and predicting different aspects of behavior are being created which once seemed unpredictable. This is done by focusing on the overall patterns of behavior, showing how stable or unstable they are and identifying the circumstances that make them change. In this paper, we indicate why human temper and mood changes have a chaotic nature. Then, we develop a chaotic model based on a long short-term memory recurrent neural network with irregular embeddings derived by the gamma test to model temper tantrum. We finally use a feedback delay controller to stabilize its chaotic behavior, because it is a plausible method for stabilizing biological neural systems. A lot of aspects of this model are analogous to the human counterpart. The model might suggest, for example, that if a particular person had stronger ego defenses, and attended a little less vigilantly to the external world, he or she might find a stable attractor amidst of a broader landscape of chaotic attractors. A therapist or self-control would be analogous to the delayed feedback controller, by specifically encouraging those changes, he might help the person reach a stable behavior. Finally, some comments are proposed to facilitate the normal behavior.

  6. Context-specific differences in fronto-parieto-occipital effective connectivity during short-term memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Bornali; Chang, Jui-Yang; Postle, Bradley R; Van Veen, Barry D

    2015-07-01

    Although visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance has been hypothesized to rely on two distinct mechanisms, capacity and filtering, the two have not been dissociated using network-level causality measures. Here, we hypothesized that behavioral tasks challenging capacity or distraction filtering would both engage a common network of areas, namely dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and occipital cortex, but would do so according to dissociable patterns of effective connectivity. We tested this by estimating directed connectivity between areas using conditional Granger causality (cGC). Consistent with our prediction, the results indicated that increasing mnemonic load (capacity) increased the top-down drive from dlPFC to SPL, and cGC in the alpha (8-14Hz) frequency range was a predominant component of this effect. The presence of distraction during encoding (filtering), in contrast, was associated with increased top-down drive from dlPFC to occipital cortices directly and from SPL to occipital cortices directly, in both cases in the beta (15-25Hz) range. Thus, although a common anatomical network may serve VSTM in different contexts, it does so via specific functions that are carried out within distinct, dynamically configured frequency channels.

  7. Short-term memory for space and time flexibly recruit complementary sensory-biased frontal lobe attention networks

    PubMed Central

    Michalka, Samantha W.; Kong, Lingqiang; Rosen, Maya L.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Somers, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex. PMID:26291168

  8. Why Chunking Should be Considered as an Explanation for Developmental Change before Short-Term Memory Capacity and Processing Speed

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The chunking hypothesis suggests that during the repeated exposure of stimulus material, information is organized into increasingly larger chunks. Many researchers have not considered the full power of the chunking hypothesis as both a learning mechanism and as an explanation of human behavior. Indeed, in developmental psychology there is relatively little mention of chunking and yet it can be the underlying cause of some of the mechanisms of development that have been proposed. This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child’s language learning. A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children’s performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development. Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development. PMID:22715331

  9. Short-Term Memory for Space and Time Flexibly Recruit Complementary Sensory-Biased Frontal Lobe Attention Networks.

    PubMed

    Michalka, Samantha W; Kong, Lingqiang; Rosen, Maya L; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2015-08-19

    The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex.

  10. Haploinsufficiency of the 22q11.2-microdeletion gene Mrpl40 disrupts short-term synaptic plasticity and working memory through dysregulation of mitochondrial calcium

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Prakash; Yu, Jing; Eddins, Donnie; Mellado-Lagarde, Marcia M.; Earls, Laurie R.; Westmoreland, Joby J.; Quarato, Giovanni; Green, Douglas R.; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.

    2016-01-01

    Hemizygous deletion of a 1.5- to 3-megabase region on chromosome 22 causes 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), which constitutes one of the strongest genetic risks for schizophrenia. Mouse models of 22q11DS have abnormal short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) that contributes to working memory deficiencies similar to those in schizophrenia. We screened mutant mice carrying hemizygous deletions of 22q11DS genes and identified haploinsufficiency of Mrpl40 (mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit protein 40) as a contributor to abnormal STP. Two-photon imaging of the genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP6, expressed in presynaptic cytosol or mitochondria, showed that Mrpl40 haploinsufficiency deregulates STP via impaired calcium extrusion from the mitochondrial matrix through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This led to abnormally high cytosolic calcium transients in presynaptic terminals and deficient working memory but did not affect long-term spatial memory. Thus, we propose that mitochondrial calcium deregulation is a novel pathogenic mechanism of cognitive deficiencies in schizophrenia. PMID:27184122

  11. Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) hemocyte are not affected by a mixture of pesticides in short-term in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Pierrick; Burgeot, Thierry; Renault, Tristan

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in estuaries among the pollutants found in estuarine and coastal areas and may have major ecological consequences. They could endanger organism growth, reproduction, or survival. In the context of high-mortality outbreaks affecting Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in France since 2008, it appears of importance to determine the putative effects of pesticides on oyster susceptibility to infectious agents. Massive mortality outbreaks reported in this species, mainly in spring and summer, may suggest an important role played by the seasonal use of pesticides and freshwater input in estuarine areas where oyster farms are frequently located. To understand the impact of some pesticides detected in French waters, their effects on Pacific oyster hemocytes were studied through short-term in vitro experiments. Bivalve immunity is mainly supported by hemocytes eliminating pathogens by phagocytosis and producing compounds including lysosomal enzymes and antimicrobial molecules. In this study, oyster hemocytes were incubated with a mixture of 14 pesticides and metaldehyde alone, a molecule used to eliminate land mollusks. Hemocyte parameters including dead/alive cells, nonspecific esterase activities, intracytoplasmic calcium, lysosome number and activity, and phagocytosis were monitored by flow cytometry. No significant effect of pesticides tested at different concentrations was reported on oyster hemocytes maintained in vitro for short-term periods in the present study. It could be assumed that these oyster cells were resistant to pesticide exposure in tested conditions and developing in vivo assays appears as necessary to better understand the effects of pollutants on immune system in mollusks.

  12. Short-Term Memory (STM) Constraints in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI): Are There Differences between Receptive and Expressive SLI?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickisch, Andreas; von Kries, Rudiger

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Specific language impairment (SLI) is assumed to be causally related to deficits in auditory short-term memory (STM). Although verbal STM deficits have been consistently found in SLI, the results of visual STM tests are inconsistent. Do these inconsistencies reflect different study populations of expressive SLI (ELI) and…

  13. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  14. An Exemplar-Familiarity Model Predicts Short-Term and Long-Term Probe Recognition across Diverse Forms of Memory Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Cox, Gregory E.; Cao, Rui; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-familiarity model on its ability to account for both short-term and long-term probe recognition within the same memory-search paradigm. Also, making connections to the literature on attention and visual search, the model was used to interpret differences in probe-recognition performance across…

  15. An Evaluation of the Written Texts of Children with SLI: The Contributions of Oral Language, Reading and Phonological Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Clare J.; Dockrell, Julie; Lindsay, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we performed a fine grained analysis of writing by children with a specific language impairment (SLI) and examined the contribution of oral language, phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal ability, and word reading to three writing constructs (productivity, complexity and accuracy). Forty-six children with SLI were compared…

  16. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  17. Short-Term Changes in General and Memory-Specific Control Beliefs and Their Relationship to Cognition in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielak, Allison A. M.; Hultsch, David F.; Levy-Ajzenkopf, Judi; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hunter, Michael A.; Strauss, Esther

    2007-01-01

    We examined short-term changes in younger and older adults' control beliefs. Participants completed measures of general and memory-specific competence and locus of control on 10 bi-monthly occasions. At each occasion, participants rated their control beliefs prior to and following completion of a battery of cognitive tasks. Exposure to the set of…

  18. Infants with complex congenital heart diseases show poor short-term memory in the mobile paradigm at 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Harrison, Tondi; Heathcock, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning, short-term memory and general development including cognitive, motor, and language domains in infants with Complex Congenital Heart Defects (CCDH). Ten infants with CCHD (4 males, 6 females) and 14 infants with typical development (TD) were examined at 3 months of age. The mobile paradigm, where an infant's leg is tethered to an overhead mobile, was used to evaluate learning and short-term memory. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition (Bayley-III) was used to evaluate general development in cognitive, motor, and language domains. Infants with CCHD and infants with TD both showed learning with significant increase in kicking rate (p<0.001) across periods of the mobile paradigm, but only infants with TD demonstrated short-term memory (p=0.017) in the mobile paradigm. There were no differences on cognitive, motor, and language development between infants with CCHD and infants with TD on the Bayley-III. Early assessment is necessary to guide targeted treatment in infants with CCHD. One-time assessment may fail to detect potential cognitive impairments during early infancy in infants with CCHD. Supportive intervention programs for infants with CCHD that focuses on enhancing short-term memory are recommended.

  19. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

  20. Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

  1. The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

  2. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development, has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. Evidence clearly suggests that the relation between reading skills, phoneme awareness, rhyme awareness, and verbal short-term memory is more than a mere association. A strong argument has…

  3. Brief Report: Effect of Spatial Complexity on Visual Short-Term Memory and Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits in Typically Developed Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Junichi; Gyoba, Jiro; Yamawaki, Nozomi

    2013-01-01

    This report examines effects of the spatial complexity of configurations on visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity for individuals from the general population differing on autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) scores. During each trial, nine-line segments with various orientations were arrayed in simple or complex configurations and presented in both…

  4. Forgotten but Not Gone: Retro-Cue Costs and Benefits in a Double-Cueing Paradigm Suggest Multiple States in Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Moorselaar, Dirk; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Theeuwes, Jan; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Sligte, Ilja G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we assessed whether noncued items can be restored to VSTM…

  5. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

  6. Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

  7. Short-Term Thermal-Humidity Shock Affects Point-of-Care Glucose Testing: Implications for Health Professionals and Patients.

    PubMed

    Lam, Mandy; Louie, Richard F; Curtis, Corbin M; Ferguson, William J; Vy, John H; Truong, Anh-Thu; Sumner, Stephanie L; Kost, Gerald J

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of short-term (≤1 hour) static high temperature and humidity stresses on the performance of point-of-care (POC) glucose test strips and meters. Glucose meters are used by medical responders and patients in a variety of settings including hospitals, clinics, homes, and the field. Reagent test strips and instruments are potentially exposed to austere environmental conditions. Glucose test strips and meters were exposed to a mean relative humidity of 83.0% (SD = 8.0%) and temperature of 42°C (107.6°F, SD = 3.2) in a Tenney BTRC environmental chamber. Stressed and unstressed glucose reagent strips and meters were tested with spiked blood samples (n = 40 measurements per time point for each of 4 trials) after 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes of exposure. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was applied to compare measurements test strip and meter measurements to isolate and characterize the magnitude of meter versus test strip effects individually. Stressed POC meters and test strips produced elevated glucose results, with stressed meter bias as high as 20 mg/dL (17.7% error), and stressed test strip bias as high as 13 mg/dL (12.2% error). The aggregate stress effect on meter and test strips yielded a positive bias as high as 33 mg/dL (30.1% error) after 15 minutes of exposure. Short-term exposure (15 minutes) to high temperature and humidity can significantly affect the performance of POC glucose test strips and meters, with measurement biases that potentially affect clinical decision making and patient safety.

  8. Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Effect of Verbal and Nonverbal Task Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botting, Nicola; Psarou, Popi; Caplin, Tamara; Nevin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background and Design: In recent years, evidence has emerged that suggests specific language impairment (SLI) does not exclusively affect linguistic skill. Studies have revealed memory difficulties, including those measured using nonverbal tasks. However, there has been relatively little research into the nature of the verbal/nonverbal boundaries…

  9. What factors underlie children's susceptibility to semantic and phonological false memories? investigating the roles of language skills and auditory short-term memory.

    PubMed

    McGeown, Sarah P; Gray, Eleanor A; Robinson, Jamey L; Dewhurst, Stephen A

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments investigated the cognitive skills that underlie children's susceptibility to semantic and phonological false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In Experiment 1, performance on the Verbal Similarities subtest of the British Ability Scales (BAS) II (Elliott, Smith, & McCulloch, 1997) predicted correct and false recall of semantic lures. In Experiment 2, performance on the Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation (Yopp, 1988) did not predict correct recall, but inversely predicted the false recall of phonological lures. Auditory short-term memory was a negative predictor of false recall in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. The findings are discussed in terms of the formation of gist and verbatim traces as proposed by fuzzy trace theory (Reyna & Brainerd, 1998) and the increasing automaticity of associations as proposed by associative activation theory (Howe, Wimmer, Gagnon, & Plumpton, 2009).

  10. Brain responses to symptom provocation and trauma-related short-term memory recall in coal mining accident survivors with acute severe PTSD.

    PubMed

    Hou, Cailan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Kun; Li, Lingjiang; Liang, Meng; He, Zhong; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Weihui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2007-05-04

    Functional neuroimaging studies have largely been performed in patients with longstanding chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, memory function of PTSD patients has been proved to be impaired. We sought to characterize the brain responses of patients with acute PTSD and implemented a trauma-related short-term memory recall paradigm. Individuals with acute severe PTSD (n=10) resulting from a mining accident and 7 men exposed to the mining accident without PTSD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the symptom provocation and trauma-related short-term memory recall paradigms. During symptom provocation paradigm, PTSD subjects showed diminished responses in right anterior cingulate gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus and enhanced left parahippocampal gyrus response compared with controls. During the short-term memory recall paradigm, PTSD group showed diminished responses in right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal and left middle occipital gyrus in comparison with controls. PTSD group exhibited diminished right parahippocampal gyrus response during the memory recall task as compared to the symptom provocation task. Our findings suggest that neurophysiological alterations and memory performance deficit have developed in acute severe PTSD.

  11. The impact of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory in stroke aphasia and semantic dementia: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This research aimed to explain these inconsistencies. We observed (a) qualitative differences between SD and TSA in the nature of the verbal STM impairment and (b) considerable variation within the TSA group. The SD and TSA patients all had poor semantic processing and good phonology. Reflecting this, both groups remained sensitive to phonological similarity and showed a reduced effect of lexicality in immediate serial recall. The SD patients showed normal serial position effects; in contrast, the TSA patients had poor recall of the initial list items and exhibited large recency effects on longer lists. The error patterns of the two groups differed: the SD patients made numerous phoneme migration errors whereas the TSA group were more likely to produce entire words in the wrong order, often initiating recall with terminal list items. The SD cases also showed somewhat larger effects of word frequency and imageability. We propose that these contrasting performance patterns are explicable in terms of the nature of the underlying semantic impairment. SD is associated with anterior lobe atrophy and produces degradation of semantic knowledge – this is more striking for less frequent/imageable items, accentuating the effects of these lexical/semantic variables in STM. SD patients frequently recombine the phonemes of different list items due to the reduced semantic constraint upon phonology (semantic binding: Patterson et al., 1994). In contrast, the semantic impairment in TSA follows frontal or temporoparietal lesions and is associated with poor executive control of semantic processing (deregulated semantic cognition: Jefferies and

  12. A shared, flexible neural map architecture reflects capacity limits in both visual short-term memory and enumeration.

    PubMed

    Knops, André; Piazza, Manuela; Sengupta, Rakesh; Eger, Evelyn; Melcher, David

    2014-07-23

    Human cognition is characterized by severe capacity limits: we can accurately track, enumerate, or hold in mind only a small number of items at a time. It remains debated whether capacity limitations across tasks are determined by a common system. Here we measure brain activation of adult subjects performing either a visual short-term memory (vSTM) task consisting of holding in mind precise information about the orientation and position of a variable number of items, or an enumeration task consisting of assessing the number of items in those sets. We show that task-specific capacity limits (three to four items in enumeration and two to three in vSTM) are neurally reflected in the activity of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC): an identical set of voxels in this region, commonly activated during the two tasks, changed its overall response profile reflecting task-specific capacity limitations. These results, replicated in a second experiment, were further supported by multivariate pattern analysis in which we could decode the number of items presented over a larger range during enumeration than during vSTM. Finally, we simulated our results with a computational model of PPC using a saliency map architecture in which the level of mutual inhibition between nodes gives rise to capacity limitations and reflects the task-dependent precision with which objects need to be encoded (high precision for vSTM, lower precision for enumeration). Together, our work supports the existence of a common, flexible system underlying capacity limits across tasks in PPC that may take the form of a saliency map.

  13. Male mice retain a metabolic memory of improved glucose tolerance induced during adult onset, short-term dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. These factors show rapid and robust improvements when rodents were crossed over from an ad libitum (AL) diet to DR in mid life. We aimed to determine whether the beneficial effects induced by short-term exposure to DR can be retained as a ‘metabolic memory’ when AL feeding is resumed (AL-DR-AL) and vice versa: whether the effects of long-term DR can be reversed by a period of AL feeding (DR-AL-DR). C57BL/6 male and female mice were used to examine sex differences (N = 10/sex/group). Mice were fed AL or DR from 3 until 15 months (baseline) and each dietary crossover lasted approximately 5 months. Results In females, body and fat mass were proportional to the changes in feeding regime and plasma insulin and glucose tolerance were unaffected by the crossovers. However, in male mice, glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels were reversed within 6 to 12 weeks. When males returned to AL intake following 5 months DR (AL-DR-AL), body mass was maintained below baseline, proportional to changes in fat mass. Glucose tolerance was also significantly better compared to baseline. Conclusions Male mice retained a metabolic memory of 5 months of DR feeding in terms of reduced body mass and improved glucose tolerance. This implies that some of the beneficial effects induced by a period of DR in adult life may be beneficial, even when free feeding is resumed at least in males. However, under continuous DR, lifespan extension was more prominent in females than in males. PMID:24764509

  14. Reduced short term memory in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and its relationship to spatial and quantitative performance.

    PubMed

    Collaer, Marcia L; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Pasterski, Vickie; Fane, Briony A; Hines, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    Girls and women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) experience elevated androgens prenatally and show increased male-typical development for certain behaviors. Further, individuals with CAH receive glucocorticoid (GC) treatment postnatally, and this GC treatment could have negative cognitive consequences. We investigated two alternative hypotheses, that: (a) early androgen exposure in females with CAH masculinizes (improves) spatial perception and quantitative abilities at which males typically outperform females, or (b) CAH is associated with performance decrements in these domains, perhaps due to reduced short-term-memory (STM). Adolescent and adult individuals with CAH (40 female and 29 male) were compared with relative controls (29 female and 30 male) on spatial perception and quantitative abilities as well as on Digit Span (DS) to assess STM and on Vocabulary to assess general intelligence. Females with CAH did not perform better (more male-typical) on spatial perception or quantitative abilities than control females, failing to support the hypothesis of cognitive masculinization. Rather, in the sample as a whole individuals with CAH scored lower on spatial perception (p ≤ .009), a quantitative composite (p ≤ .036), and DS (p ≤ .001), despite no differences in general intelligence. Separate analyses of adolescent and adult participants suggested the spatial and quantitative effects might be present only in adult patients with CAH; however, reduced DS performance was found in patients with CAH regardless of age group. Separate regression analyses showed that DS predicted both spatial perception and quantitative performance (both p ≤ .001), when age, sex, and diagnosis status were controlled. Thus, reduced STM in CAH patients versus controls may have more general cognitive consequences, potentially reducing spatial perception and quantitative skills. Although hyponatremia or other aspects of salt-wasting crises or additional hormone

  15. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? A comparison between first and second language learners.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to children learning an L2 in a naturalistic setting and to monolingual children. We also investigated whether relationships with verbal memory differ depending on the type of grammar skill investigated (i.e., morphology vs. syntax). Participants were 63 Turkish children who learned Dutch as an L2 and 45 Dutch monolingual children (mean age = 5 years). Children completed a series of VSTM and VWM tasks, a Dutch vocabulary task, and a Dutch grammar task. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that VSTM and VWM represented two separate latent factors in both groups. Structural equation modeling showed that VSTM, treated as a latent factor, significantly predicted vocabulary and grammar. VWM, treated as a latent factor, predicted only grammar. Both memory factors were significantly related to the acquisition of morphology and syntax. There were no differences between the two groups. These results show that (a) VSTM and VWM are differentially associated with language learning and (b) the same memory mechanisms are employed for learning vocabulary and grammar in L1 children and in L2 children who learn their L2 naturalistically.

  16. Measuring Workload Differences Between Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory Scenarios in a Simulated Flight Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    Four highly experienced Air Force pilots each flew four simulated flight scenarios. Two scenarios required a great deal of aircraft maneuvering. The other two scenarios involved less maneuvering, but required remembering a number of items. All scenarios were designed to be equaly challenging. Pilot's Subjective Ratings for Activity-level, Complexity, Difficulty, Stress, and Workload were higher for the manuevering scenarios than the memory scenarios. At a moderate workload level, keeping the pilots active resulted in better aircraft control. When required to monitor and remember items, aircraft control tended to decrease. Pilots tended to weigh information about the spatial positioning and performance of their aircraft more heavily than other items.

  17. Interactive effects of age and gender on EEG power and coherence during a short-term memory task in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Reichert, Johanna Louise; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    The effects of age and gender on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during a short-term memory task were assessed in a group of 40 healthy participants aged 22-63 years. Multi-channel EEG was recorded in 20 younger (mean = 24.65-year-old, 10 male) and 20 middle-aged participants (mean = 46.40-year-old, 10 male) during performance of a Sternberg task. EEG power and coherence measures were analyzed in different frequency bands. Significant interactions emerged between age and gender in memory performance and concomitant EEG parameters, suggesting that the aging process differentially influences men and women. Middle-aged women showed a lower short-term memory performance compared to young women, which was accompanied by decreasing delta and theta power and increasing brain connectivity with age in women. In contrast, men showed no age-related decline in short-term memory performance and no changes in EEG parameters. These results provide first evidence of age-related alterations in EEG activity underlying memory processes, which were already evident in the middle years of life in women but not in men.

  18. Inner speech is used to mediate short-term memory, but not planning, among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Bowler, Dermot M; Jarrold, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Evidence regarding the use of inner speech by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is equivocal. To clarify this issue, the current study employed multiple techniques and tasks used across several previous studies. In Experiment 1, participants with and without ASD showed highly similar patterns and levels of serial recall for visually presented stimuli. Both groups were significantly affected by the phonological similarity of items to be recalled, indicating that visual material was spontaneously recoded into a verbal form. Confirming that short-term memory is typically verbally mediated among the majority of people with ASD, recall performance among both groups declined substantially when inner speech use was prevented by the imposition of articulatory suppression during the presentation of stimuli. In Experiment 2, planning performance on a tower of London task was substantially detrimentally affected by articulatory suppression among comparison participants, but not among participants with ASD. This suggests that planning is not verbally mediated in ASD. It is important that the extent to which articulatory suppression affected planning among participants with ASD was uniquely associated with the degree of their observed and self-reported communication impairments. This confirms a link between interpersonal communication with others and intrapersonal communication with self as a means of higher order problem solving.

  19. The SNARC Effect in Number Memorization and Retrieval. What is the Impact of Congruency, Magnitude and the Exact Position of Numbers in Short-Term Memory Processing?

    PubMed Central

    Gut, Małgorzata; Staniszewski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Mental representations of numbers are spatially organized along a Mental Number Line (MNL). One widely proven manifestation of this relationship is the Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect. It refers to the phenomenon of faster responses to numbers when there is congruency between the reaction side and the number position on the MNL . Although long-term memory is considered to house the MNL, short-term memory (STM) load may also modulate responses to numbers and the SN ARCRC effect. Our question, however, was not how STM content modulates the SNARC effect observed in responses to digits, but rather how the MNLNL representation affects the number retrieval from ST M. Each trial began with four digits presented horizontally in a spatial sequence (prime stimuli), which were then replaced by one of the priming digits as a single target. The task required participants to recall the exact location of the target. The SN ARCRC effect occurred only in the retrieval of left-sided digits, most likely because of the generally better processing of right-sided ones, as well as in reaction to digits presented more laterally. Moreover, memory processing was more efficient with low-magnitude numbers, which may suggest that they trigger attention shifting. We conclude that the MNL affects not only the responses to numbers obtained in typical SNARC-induction tasks, such as number detection, parity judgment or magnitude comparison, but also memorization and retrieval of them. Importantly, this effect seems to be dependent on the exact position of a digit in STM. PMID:28154615

  20. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test.

    PubMed

    Duda, Weronika; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Pawel; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-09-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a crucial role in spatial memory formation. In neuropharmacological studies their functioning strongly depends on testing conditions and the dosage of NMDAR antagonists. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate effects of NMDAR block by (+)MK-801 or memantine on short-term allothetic memory. Memory was tested in a working memory version of the Morris water maze test. In our version of the test, rats underwent one day of training with 8 trials, and then three experimental days when rats were injected intraperitoneally with low- 5 (MeL), high - 20 (MeH) mg/kg memantine, 0.1mg/kg MK-801 or 1ml/kg saline (SAL) 30min before testing, for three consecutive days. On each experimental day there was just one acquisition and one test trial, with an inter-trial interval of 5 or 15min. During training the hidden platform was relocated after each trial and during the experiment after each day. The follow-up effect was assessed on day 9. Intact rats improved their spatial memory across the one training day. With a 5min interval MeH rats had longer latency then all rats during retrieval. With a 15min interval the MeH rats presented worse working memory measured as retrieval minus acquisition trial for path than SAL and MeL and for latency than MeL rats. MK-801 rats had longer latency than SAL during retrieval. Thus, the high dose of memantine, contrary to low dose of MK-801 disrupts short-term memory independent on the time interval between acquisition and retrieval. This shows that short-term memory tested in a working memory version of water maze is sensitive to several parameters: i.e., NMDA receptor antagonist type, dosage and the time interval between learning and testing.

  1. PKA Increases in the Olfactory Bulb Act as Unconditioned Stimuli and Provide Evidence for Parallel Memory Systems: Pairing Odor with Increased PKA Creates Intermediate- and Long-Term, but Not Short-Term, Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Darby-King, Andrea; McLean, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal odor-preference memory in rat pups is a well-defined associative mammalian memory model dependent on cAMP. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrates three phases of neonatal odor-preference memory: short-term (translation-independent), intermediate-term (translation-dependent), and long-term (transcription- and…

  2. Experience of affects predicting sense of self and others in short-term dynamic and cognitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Berggraf, Lene; Ulvenes, Pål G; Oktedalen, Tuva; Hoffart, Asle; Stiles, Tore; McCullough, Leigh; Wampold, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined whether levels of activating affects (AA) and inhibitory affects (IA) were related to change toward more compassionate and realistic levels of sense of self (SoS) and sense of others (SoO). The sample included 47 patients diagnosed with cluster C personality disorders, who received 40 sessions of either cognitive therapy or short-term dynamic therapy (see the randomized controlled trial study, Svartberg, Stiles, & Seltzer, 2004). A total of 927 videotaped sessions were rated with the use of the observational instrument, Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. Longitudinal multilevel modeling enabled the examination of both between-person effects and within-person changes in level of AA and IA. Patients with better ability to experience AA at the start of therapy displayed significantly higher SoS and SoO across sessions compared with other patients. Patients who experienced higher levels of IA at the start of therapy displayed lower levels of SoS across sessions. A patient experiencing more AA than usual for him/her self within a session predicted an increased level of SoS and SoO at the next measuring point. There were no different change patterns in the 2 treatment groups. Results suggest that focus within therapy sessions on increasing patients' AA can help facilitate change in SoS and SoO toward more compassionate and realistic quality.

  3. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf; Moraes, Rosana Nogueira; Ramos, Helton Estrela; Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Objective Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Methods Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5th and 10th days of T3 treatment. Results In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Conclusions Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity. PMID:24676225

  4. Verbal Short-Term Memory Deficits in Chinese Children with Dyslexia may not be a Problem with the Activation of Phonological Representations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Yang; Song, Yao-Wu; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2015-11-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia. Twenty-four children with dyslexia and 28 age-matched normal readers participated in the study. They were required to memorize a visually presented series of six Chinese characters and identify them from a list also including code-specific distracters and non-code-specific distracters. Error rates were recorded and were higher for code-specific distracters in all three conditions, revealing phonological, visual, and semantic similarity effects respectively. Group comparisons showed a stronger phonological similarity effect in dyslexic group, suggesting intact activation of phonological representations of target characters. Children with dyslexia also exhibited a greater semantic similarity effect, revealing stronger activation of semantic representations, while visual similarity effects were equivalent to controls. These results suggest that the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese dyslexics might not stem from insufficient activation of phonological information. Based the semantic activation of target characters in dyslexics is greater than in controls, it is possible that the memory deficit of dyslexia is related with deficient inhibition of target semantic representations in short-term memory.

  5. Longitudinal assessment of short-term memory deterioration in a logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia with post-mortem confirmed Alzheimer's Disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy; Kay, Janice

    2015-09-01

    In the field of dementia research, there are reports of neurodegenerative cases with a focal loss of language, termed primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Currently, this condition has been further sub-classified, with the most recent sub-type dubbed logopenic variant (PPA-LV). As yet, there remains somewhat limited evaluation of the characteristics of this condition, with no studies providing longitudinal assessment accompanied by post-mortem examination. Moreover, a key characteristic of the PPA-LV case is a deterioration of phonological short-term memory, but again little work has scrutinized the nature of this impairment over time. The current study seeks to redress these oversights and presents detailed longitudinal examination of language and memory function in a case of PPA-LV, with special focus on tests linked to components of phonological short-term memory function. Our findings are then considered with reference to a contemporary model of the neuropsychology of phonological short-term memory. Additionally, post-mortem examinations indicated Alzheimer's disease type pathology, providing further evidence that the PPA-LV presentation may reflect an atypical presentation of this condition.

  6. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  7. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  8. Reduced short term memory in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and its relationship to spatial and quantitative performance

    PubMed Central

    Collaer, Marcia L.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Pasterski, Vickie; Fane, Briony A.; Hines, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Girls and women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) experience elevated androgens prenatally and show increased male-typical development for certain behaviors. Further, individuals with CAH receive glucocorticoid (GC) treatment postnatally, and this GC treatment could have negative cognitive consequences. We investigated two alternative hypotheses, that: (a) early androgen exposure in females with CAH masculinizes (improves) spatial perception and quantitative abilities at which males typically outperform females, or (b) CAH is associated with performance decrements in these domains, perhaps due to reduced short-term-memory (STM). Adolescent and adult individuals with CAH (40 female and 29 male) were compared with relative controls (29 female and 30 male) on spatial perception and quantitative abilities as well as on Digit Span (DS) to assess STM and on Vocabulary to assess general intelligence. Females with CAH did not perform better (more male-typical) on spatial perception or quantitative abilities than control females, failing to support the hypothesis of cognitive masculinization. Rather, in the sample as a whole individuals with CAH scored lower on spatial perception (p ≤ .009), a quantitative composite (p ≤ .036), and DS (p ≤ .001), despite no differences in general intelligence. Separate analyses of adolescent and adult participants suggested the spatial and quantitative effects might be present only in adult patients with CAH; however, reduced DS performance was found in patients with CAH regardless of age group. Separate regression analyses showed that DS predicted both spatial perception and quantitative performance (both p ≤ .001), when age, sex, and diagnosis status were controlled. Thus, reduced STM in CAH patients versus controls may have more general cognitive consequences, potentially reducing spatial perception and quantitative skills. Although hyponatremia or other aspects of salt-wasting crises, or additional hormone

  9. Facilitation or disengagement? Attention bias in facial affect processing after short-term violent video game exposure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanling; Lan, Haiying; Teng, Zhaojun; Guo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has been inconsistent on whether violent video games exert positive and/or negative effects on cognition. In particular, attentional bias in facial affect processing after violent video game exposure continues to be controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate attentional bias in facial recognition after short term exposure to violent video games and to characterize the neural correlates of this effect. In order to accomplish this, participants were exposed to either neutral or violent video games for 25 min and then event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during two emotional search tasks. The first search task assessed attentional facilitation, in which participants were required to identify an emotional face from a crowd of neutral faces. In contrast, the second task measured disengagement, in which participants were required to identify a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces. Our results found a significant presence of the ERP component, N2pc, during the facilitation task; however, no differences were observed between the two video game groups. This finding does not support a link between attentional facilitation and violent video game exposure. Comparatively, during the disengagement task, N2pc responses were not observed when participants viewed happy faces following violent video game exposure; however, a weak N2pc response was observed after neutral video game exposure. These results provided only inconsistent support for the disengagement hypothesis, suggesting that participants found it difficult to separate a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces. PMID:28249033

  10. Facilitation or disengagement? Attention bias in facial affect processing after short-term violent video game exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Lan, Haiying; Teng, Zhaojun; Guo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has been inconsistent on whether violent video games exert positive and/or negative effects on cognition. In particular, attentional bias in facial affect processing after violent video game exposure continues to be controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate attentional bias in facial recognition after short term exposure to violent video games and to characterize the neural correlates of this effect. In order to accomplish this, participants were exposed to either neutral or violent video games for 25 min and then event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during two emotional search tasks. The first search task assessed attentional facilitation, in which participants were required to identify an emotional face from a crowd of neutral faces. In contrast, the second task measured disengagement, in which participants were required to identify a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces. Our results found a significant presence of the ERP component, N2pc, during the facilitation task; however, no differences were observed between the two video game groups. This finding does not support a link between attentional facilitation and violent video game exposure. Comparatively, during the disengagement task, N2pc responses were not observed when participants viewed happy faces following violent video game exposure; however, a weak N2pc response was observed after neutral video game exposure. These results provided only inconsistent support for the disengagement hypothesis, suggesting that participants found it difficult to separate a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces.

  11. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  12. Dexmedetomidine alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment by inhibiting the expression of apoptosis-related molecules in the hippocampus of gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Young; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Shin, Key-Moon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Sung-Wook; Han, Jin-Hee; Yi, Jae-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia results from cerebrovascular occlusion, which leads to neuronal cell death and eventually causes neurological impairments. Dexmedetomidine is a potent and highly selective α2-adrenoreceptor agonist with actions such as sedation, anxiolysis, analgesia and anesthetic-sparing effects. We investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine on apoptosis in the hippocampus after transient global ischemia in gerbils. Transient global ischemia was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries. Dexmedetomidine was administrated intraperitoneally at three respective doses (0.1, 1 and 10 µg/kg) once per day for 14 consecutive days beginning a day after surgery. Short-term memory was assessed by use of a step-down avoidance task. Apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, and western blot analysis of Bcl-2-associated X protein, B-cell lymphoma 2, Bid, cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 and caspase-9 in the hippocampus. Induction of global ischemia deteriorated short-term memory by enhancing the expression of apoptosis-related molecules in the hippocampus. Treatment with dexmedetomidine suppressed the expression of apoptosis-related molecules under ischemic conditions, resulting in short-term memory improvement. Under normal conditions, dexmedetomidine exerted no significant effect on apoptosis in the hippocampus. The present results suggest that the α2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic brain diseases. PMID:28123477

  13. Low doses of neonicotinoid pesticides in food rewards impair short-term olfactory memory in foraging-age honeybees.

    PubMed

    Wright, Geraldine A; Softley, Samantha; Earnshaw, Helen

    2015-10-19

    Neonicotinoids are often applied as systemic seed treatments to crops and have reported negative impact on pollinators when they appear in floral nectar and pollen. Recently, we found that bees in a two-choice assay prefer to consume solutions containing field-relevant doses of the neonicotinoid pesticides, imidacloprid (IMD) and thiamethoxam (TMX), to sucrose alone. This suggests that neonicotinoids enhance the rewarding properties of sucrose and that low, acute doses could improve learning and memory in bees. To test this, we trained foraging-age honeybees to learn to associate floral scent with a reward containing nectar-relevant concentrations of IMD and TMX and tested their short (STM) and long-term (LTM) olfactory memories. Contrary to our predictions, we found that none of the solutions enhanced the rate of olfactory learning and some of them impaired it. In particular, the effect of 10 nM IMD was observed by the second conditioning trial and persisted 24 h later. In most other groups, exposure to IMD and TMX affected STM but not LTM. Our data show that negative impacts of low doses of IMD and TMX do not require long-term exposure and suggest that impacts of neonicotinoids on olfaction are greater than their effects on rewarding memories.

  14. Low doses of neonicotinoid pesticides in food rewards impair short-term olfactory memory in foraging-age honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Geraldine A.; Softley, Samantha; Earnshaw, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoids are often applied as systemic seed treatments to crops and have reported negative impact on pollinators when they appear in floral nectar and pollen. Recently, we found that bees in a two-choice assay prefer to consume solutions containing field-relevant doses of the neonicotinoid pesticides, imidacloprid (IMD) and thiamethoxam (TMX), to sucrose alone. This suggests that neonicotinoids enhance the rewarding properties of sucrose and that low, acute doses could improve learning and memory in bees. To test this, we trained foraging-age honeybees to learn to associate floral scent with a reward containing nectar-relevant concentrations of IMD and TMX and tested their short (STM) and long-term (LTM) olfactory memories. Contrary to our predictions, we found that none of the solutions enhanced the rate of olfactory learning and some of them impaired it. In particular, the effect of 10 nM IMD was observed by the second conditioning trial and persisted 24 h later. In most other groups, exposure to IMD and TMX affected STM but not LTM. Our data show that negative impacts of low doses of IMD and TMX do not require long-term exposure and suggest that impacts of neonicotinoids on olfaction are greater than their effects on rewarding memories. PMID:26477973

  15. Short-term sleep deprivation impairs spatial working memory and modulates expression levels of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meilan; Yan, Jie; He, Chao; Yang, Li; Tan, Gang; Li, Chao; Hu, Zhian; Wang, Jiali

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning memory is sensitive to sleep deprivation (SD). Although the ionotropic glutamate receptors play a vital role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, however, whether the expression of these receptor subunits is modulated by sleep loss remains unclear. In the present study, western blotting was performed by probing with specific antibodies against the ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and against the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subunits GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B. In hippocampus, down regulation of surface GluA1 and GluN2A surface expression were observed in both SD groups. However, surface expression level of GluA2, GluA3, GluN1 and GluN2B was significantly up-regulated in 8h-SD rats when compared to the 4h-SD rats. In parallel with the complex changes in AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit expressions, we found the 8h-SD impaired rat spatial working memory in 30-s-delay T-maze task, whereas no impairment of spatial learning was observed in 4h-SD rats. These results indicate that sleep loss alters the relative expression levels of the AMPA and NMDA receptors, thus affects the synaptic strength and capacity for plasticity and partially contributes to spatial memory impairment.

  16. Different importance of the volatile and non-volatile fractions of an olfactory signature for individual social recognition in rats versus mice and short-term versus long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Noack, Julia; Richter, Karin; Laube, Gregor; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Veh, Rüdiger W; Engelmann, Mario

    2010-11-01

    When tested in the olfactory cued social recognition/discrimination test, rats and mice differ in their retention of a recognition memory for a previously encountered conspecific juvenile: Rats are able to recognize a given juvenile for approximately 45 min only whereas mice show not only short-term, but also long-term recognition memory (≥ 24 h). Here we modified the social recognition/social discrimination procedure to investigate the neurobiological mechanism(s) underlying the species differences. We presented a conspecific juvenile repeatedly to the experimental subjects and monitored the investigation duration as a measure for recognition. Presentation of only the volatile fraction of the juvenile olfactory signature was sufficient for both short- and long-term recognition in mice but not rats. Applying additional volatile, mono-molecular odours to the "to be recognized" juveniles failed to affect short-term memory in both species, but interfered with long-term recognition in mice. Finally immunocytochemical analysis of c-Fos as a marker for cellular activation, revealed that juvenile exposure stimulated areas involved in the processing of olfactory signals in both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb in mice. In rats, we measured an increased c-Fos synthesis almost exclusively in cells of the accessory olfactory bulb. Our data suggest that the species difference in the retention of social recognition memory is based on differences in the processing of the volatile versus non-volatile fraction of the individuals' olfactory signature. The non-volatile fraction is sufficient for retaining a short-term social memory only. Long-term social memory - as observed in mice - requires a processing of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of the olfactory signature.

  17. High dietary folate in pregnant mice leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency and altered methyl metabolism, with embryonic growth delay and short-term memory impairment in offspring.

    PubMed

    Bahous, Renata H; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Deng, Liyuan; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Lu, Jessica; Malysheva, Olga; Leung, Kit-Yi; Ho, Ming-Kai; Pallàs, Mercè; Kaliman, Perla; Greene, Nicholas DE; Bedell, Barry J; Caudill, Marie A; Rozen, Rima

    2017-01-09

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C>T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring. Female mice were placed on control diet (CD) or folic acid-supplemented diet (FASD) throughout mating, pregnancy and lactation. Three-week-old male pups were evaluated for motor and cognitive function. Tissues from E17.5 embryos, pups and dams were collected for choline/methyl metabolite measurements, immunoblotting or gene expression of relevant enzymes. Brains were examined for morphology of hippocampus and cortex.Pups of FASD mothers displayed short-term memory impairment, decreased hippocampal size and decreased thickness of the dentate gyrus. MTHFR protein levels were reduced in FASD pup livers, with lower concentrations of phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine in liver and hippocampus, respectively. FASD pup brains showed evidence of altered acetylcholine availability and Dnmt3a mRNA was reduced in cortex and hippocampus. E17.5 embryos and placentas from FASD dams were smaller. MTHFR protein and mRNA were reduced in embryonic liver, with lower concentrations of choline, betaine and phosphocholine. Embryonic brain displayed altered development of cortical layers. In summary, high folate intake during pregnancy leads to pseudo-MTHFR 3 deficiency, disturbed choline/methyl metabolism, embryonic growth delay and memory impairment in offspring. These findings highlight the unintended negative consequences of supplemental folic acid.

  18. Visual and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease: Role of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alescio-Lautier, B.; Michel, B. F.; Herrera, C.; Elahmadi, A.; Chambon, C.; Touzet, C.; Paban, V.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that visual recognition memory and certain attentional mechanisms are impaired early in Alzheimer disease (AD). Little is known about visuospatial recognition memory in AD. The crucial role of the hippocampus on spatial memory and its damage in AD suggest that visuospatial recognition memory may also be impaired early. The aim…

  19. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location.

  20. PKA increases in the olfactory bulb act as unconditioned stimuli and provide evidence for parallel memory systems: pairing odor with increased PKA creates intermediate- and long-term, but not short-term, memories.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Matthew T; Harley, Carolyn W; Darby-King, Andrea; McLean, John H

    2012-02-21

    Neonatal odor-preference memory in rat pups is a well-defined associative mammalian memory model dependent on cAMP. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrates three phases of neonatal odor-preference memory: short-term (translation-independent), intermediate-term (translation-dependent), and long-term (transcription- and translation-dependent). Here, we use neonatal odor-preference learning to explore the role of olfactory bulb PKA in these three phases of mammalian memory. PKA activity increased normally in learning animals 10 min after a single training trial. Inhibition of PKA by Rp-cAMPs blocked intermediate-term and long-term memory, with no effect on short-term memory. PKA inhibition also prevented learning-associated CREB phosphorylation, a transcription factor implicated in long-term memory. When long-term memory was rescued through increased β-adrenoceptor activation, CREB phosphorylation was restored. Intermediate-term and long-term, but not short-term odor-preference memories were generated by pairing odor with direct PKA activation using intrabulbar Sp-cAMPs, which bypasses β-adrenoceptor activation. Higher levels of Sp-cAMPs enhanced memory by extending normal 24-h retention to 48-72 h. These results suggest that increased bulbar PKA is necessary and sufficient for the induction of intermediate-term and long-term odor-preference memory, and suggest that PKA activation levels also modulate memory duration. However, short-term memory appears to use molecular mechanisms other than the PKA/CREB pathway. These mechanisms, which are also recruited by β-adrenoceptor activation, must operate in parallel with PKA activation.

  1. Acute changes in substrate oxidation do not affect short-term food intake in healthy boys and men.

    PubMed

    Hunschede, Sascha; El Khoury, Dalia; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Smith, Christopher; Thomas, Scott; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-02-01

    The acute relationship between substrate oxidation as measured by respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and food intake (FI) has not been defined. The purpose of the study was to determine acute relationships between RER, modified by exercise and a glucose load, and FI and net energy balance (NEB) in physically active normal-weight boys and men. In a crossover design, 15 boys (aged 9-12 years) and 15 men (aged 20-30 years) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: (i) water and rest, (ii) glucose-drink and rest, (iii) water and exercise, and (iv) glucose-drink and exercise. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine RER, energy expenditure, and carbohydrate and fat oxidation. Subjective appetite and blood glucose were also measured. RER was higher after glucose (0.91 ± 0.01) compared with water (0.87 ± 0.01) (p < 0.0001), and after exercise (0.91 ± 0.01) compared with rest (0.88 ± 0.01) (p = 0.0043) in men (0.91 ± 0.01) compared with boys (0.88 ± 0.01) (p = 0.0002). FI (kcal·m(-2)) did not differ between boys and men. Glucose (582 ± 24 kcal·m(-2)) reduced FI compared with water (689 ± 25 kcal·m(-2)) (p < 0.0001), and further decreased FI when combined with exercise (554 ± 34 kcal·m(-2)) (p = 0.0303). NEB was reduced with exercise (573 ± 25 kcal·m(-2)) compared with the sedentary condition (686 ± 24 kcal·m(-2)) (p < 0.0001), but was higher after the glucose drink (654 ± 27 kcal·m(-2)) compared with water (605 ± 25 kcal·m(-2)) (p = 0.0267). No correlations were found between RER and FI or NEB in boys and men, except in the control condition of resting with water. In conclusion, the short-term modification of substrate oxidation by glucose and/or exercise in normal weight and active boys and men did not affect FI and NEB.

  2. What part of working memory is not working in ADHD? Short-term memory, the central executive and effects of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2013-08-01

    Deficits in Working Memory (WM) are related to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In children with ADHD visuospatial WM is most impaired. WM is composed of Short-Term Memory (STM) and a Central Executive (CE). Therefore, deficits in either or both STM and the CE may account for WM impairments in children with ADHD. WM-component studies investigating this find deficits in both STM and the CE. However, recent studies show that not only cognitive deficits, but also motivational deficits give rise to the aberrant WM performance of children with ADHD. To date, the influence of these motivational deficits on the components of WM has not been investigated. This study examined the effects of a standard (feedback-only) and a high level of reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) on the visuospatial WM-, visuospatial STM-, and the CE performance of 86 children with ADHD and 62 typically-developing controls. With standard reinforcement the STM, CE, and WM performance of children with ADHD was worse than that of controls. High reinforcement improved STM and WM performance more in children with ADHD than in controls, but was unable to normalize their performance. High reinforcement did not appear to improve the CE-related performance of children with ADHD and controls. Motivational deficits have a detrimental effect on both the visuospatial WM performance and the STM performance of children with ADHD. Aside from motivational deficits, both the visuospatial STM and the CE of children with ADHD are impaired, and give rise to their deficits in visuospatial WM.

  3. Effects of treadmill exercise-intensity on short-term memory in the rats born of the lipopolysaccharide-exposed maternal rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijeong; Sung, Yun-Hee; Seo, Jin-Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-01-01

    Maternal infection is an important factor causing neonatal brain injury and later developmental disability. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on short-term memory, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the rats born of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed maternal rats. The rats were divided into six groups: control group, mild-intensity exercise group, moderate-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed group, maternal LPS-exposed and mild-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed and moderate-intensity exercise group. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The exercise load consisted of running at the speed of 8 m/min for the mild-intensity exercise groups and 14 m/min for moderate-intensity exercise groups. The latency in the step-down avoidance task was deter-mined for the short-term memory. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bro-mo-2′-deoxyuridine was performed to determine hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Western blot analysis was performed for the detection of BDNF and TrkB expression. In the present study, tread-mill exercise improved short-term memory deteriorated by maternal LPS exposure. Treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. Treadmill exercise increased BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. These effects of treadmill exercise were similarly appeared at both mild-intensity and moderate-intensity. PMID:26730379

  4. Bender Gestalt Recall as a measure of short-term visual memory in children and adolescents with psychotic and other severe disorders.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James; Rabinowitz, Dena; Habib, Mandy; Goldman, Heather; Miley, Diana; Stefanyshyn, Hanna Yim; Freeman, Shuamis; Murray, Tracey; Clauselle, Renee

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the short-term visual memory ability of children and adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders, 82 child and adolescent inpatients and day hospital patients in a state psychiatric hospital were administered the Bender Gestalt Test as part of a psychological assessment and then asked to reproduce the designs from memory. No significant differences were found between groups on either the Bender Gestalt Recall, or the WISC-III IQs and the Digit Span and Symbol Search subtests for Psychotic Disorders (Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Mood Disorders or Mood Disorders with co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Coding subtest scores of the Psychotic Disorders group were significantly lower than the ADHD group. Analyses showed that the Bender Gestalt Recall was significantly related to age. Performance IQ, and sex. The results were discussed in terms of both the poor cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with persistent, severe mental illness, and the importance of developmental level when using the Bender Gestalt Recall as a rough measure of short-term visual memory.

  5. [Anti-Ma2, anti-NMDA-receptor and anti-GluRε2 limbic encephalitis with testicular seminoma: short-term memory disturbance].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akihiro; Tajima, Takashi; Narukawa, Shinya; Yamazato, Masamizu; Fukaura, Hikoaki; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Shimizu, Jun; Nomura, Kyoichi

    2012-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with cognitive impairment and disturbance of short-term memory functions with character change. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed no abnormalities; however, brain MRI revealed high-signal intensity from bilateral hippocampus lesions on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images and T(2) weighted images. The 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET demonstrated high glucose uptake in the bilateral hippocampus lesions. He was diagnosed as limbic encephalitis, and was administered high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone and immune adsorption plasma therapy followed by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. MRI abnormalities improved after treatment but recent memory disturbance remained. Ma2 antibody, NMDA-receptor antibody, and GluRε2 antibody were positive. Eleven months atter the onset of disease, the tumor was identified in left testicle by ultrasound and removed the tumor. The pathological findings were seminoma. We experienced a case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with seminoma with short-term memory disturbance. The occurrence of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with antibodies against cell membrane (NMDA-receptor antibody and GluRε2 antibody) and intracellular (Ma2 antibody) is rare even in the literature.

  6. A short-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA-axis signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    de Kleijn, Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; de Jager, Linda; Hermans, Peter W M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2016-10-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/day in a short-term (1 week) and long-term (15 weeks) set-up to investigate whole body effects on the level of stress regulation and immune response. ELF-EMF signal contained multiple frequencies (20-5000 Hz) and a magnetic flux density of 10 μT. After exposure, blood was analyzed for leukocyte numbers (short-term and long-term) and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration (short-term only). Furthermore, in the short-term experiment, stress-related parameters, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and CYP11A1 gene-expression, respectively, were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. In the short-term but not long-term experiment, leukocyte counts were significantly higher in the 24 h-exposed group compared with controls, mainly represented by increased neutrophils and CD4 ± lymphocytes. POMC expression and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly lower compared with unexposed control mice. In conclusion, short-term ELF-EMF exposure may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in mice. Changes in stress hormone release may explain changes in circulating leukocyte numbers and composition. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:433-443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pregnancy persistently affects memory T cell populations.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Tom E C; Faas, Marijke M; Scherjon, Sicco A; Prins, Jelmer R

    2017-02-01

    Pregnancy is an immune challenge to the maternal immune system. The effects of pregnancy on maternal immunity and particularly on memory T cells during and after pregnancy are not fully known. This observational study aims to show the short term and the long term effects of pregnancy on the constitution, size and activation status of peripheral human memory T-lymphocyte populations. Effector memory (EM) and central memory (CM) T-lymphocytes were analyzed using flow cytometry of peripheral blood from 14 nulligravid, 12 primigravid and 15 parous women that were on average 18 months postpartum. The short term effects were shown by the significantly higher CD4+ EM cell and activated CD4+ memory cell proportions in primigravid women compared to nulligravid women. The persistent effects found in this study were the significantly higher proportions of CD4+ EM, CD4+ CM and activated memory T cells in parous women compared to nulligravid women. In contrast to CD4+ cells, activation status of CD8+ memory cells did not differ between the groups. This study shows that pregnancy persistently affects the pre-pregnancy CD4+ memory cell pool in human peripheral blood. During pregnancy, CD4+ T-lymphocytes might differentiate into EM cells followed by persistent higher proportions of CD4+ CM and EM cells postpartum. The persistent effects of pregnancy on memory T cells found in this study support the hypothesis that memory T cells are generated during pregnancy and that these cells could be involved in the lower complication risks in multiparous pregnancies in humans.

  8. Chronic nicotine restores normal Aβ levels and prevents short-term memory and E-LTP impairment in Aβ rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Srivareerat, Marisa; Tran, Trinh T; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by increased deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and progressive cholinergic dysfunction in regions of the brain involved in learning and memory processing. In AD, progressive accumulation of Aβ peptide impairs nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function by an unknown mechanism believed to involve α(7)- and α(4)β(2)-nAChR blockade. The three approaches of the current study evaluated the effects of chronic nicotine treatment in the prevention of Aβ-induced impairment of learning and short-term memory. Rat AD model was induced by 14-day i.c.v. osmotic pump infusion of a 1:1 mixture of 300 pmol/day Aβ(1-40)/Aβ(1-42) or Aβ(40-1) (inactive peptide, control). The effect of nicotine (2 mg/(kg day)) on Aβ-induced spatial learning and memory impairments was assessed by evaluation of performance in the radial arm water maze (RAWM), in vivo electrophysiological recordings of early-phase long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and immunoblot analysis to determine changes in the levels of beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme (BACE), Aβ and memory-related proteins. The results indicate that 6 weeks of nicotine treatment reduced the levels of Aβ(1-40) and BACE1 peptides in hippocampal area CA1 and prevented Aβ-induced impairment of learning and short-term memory. Chronic nicotine also prevented the Aβ-induced inhibition of basal synaptic transmission and LTP in hippocampal area CA1. Furthermore, chronic nicotine treatment prevented the Aβ-induced reduction of α(7)- and α(4)-nAChR. These effects of nicotine may be due, at least in part, to upregulation of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF).

  9. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M.; Butler, David M.; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures. PMID:27602281

  10. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M; Butler, David M; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  11. Self-reported strategies in decisions under risk: role of feedback, reasoning abilities, executive functions, short-term-memory, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    In decisions under objective risk conditions information about the decision options' possible outcomes and the rules for outcomes' occurrence are provided. Thus, deciders can base decision-making strategies on probabilistic laws. In many laboratory decision-making tasks, choosing the option with the highest winning probability in all trials (=maximization strategy) is probabilistically regarded the most rational behavior. However, individuals often behave less optimal, especially in case the individuals have lower cognitive functions or in case no feedback about consequences is provided in the situation. It is still unclear which cognitive functions particularly predispose individuals for using successful strategies and which strategies profit from feedback. We investigated 195 individuals with two decision-making paradigms, the Game of Dice Task (GDT) (with and without feedback), and the Card Guessing Game. Thereafter, participants reported which strategies they had applied. Interaction effects (feedback × strategy), effect sizes, and uncorrected single group comparisons suggest that feedback in the GDT tended to be more beneficial to individuals reporting exploratory strategies (e.g., use intuition). In both tasks, the self-reported use of more principled and more rational strategies was accompanied by better decision-making performance and better performances in reasoning and executive functioning tasks. The strategy groups did not significantly differ in most short-term and working-memory tasks. Thus, particularly individual differences in reasoning and executive functions seem to predispose individuals toward particular decision-making strategies. Feedback seems to be useful for individuals who rather explore the decision-making situation instead of following a certain plan.

  12. Increased total TAU but not amyloid-beta(42) in cerebrospinal fluid correlates with short-term memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuh-Te; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey; Yao, Yun-Chin; Juo; Lo, Yuk-Keung; Lin, Ching-Hwung; Ger, Luo-Ping; Lu, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    Given the need for tools for early and accurate diagnosis, prediction of disease progression, and monitoring efficacy of therapeutic agents for AD, the study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers has become a rapidly growing field of research. Several studies have reported conflicting data regarding the relationships between CSF biomarkers and dementia severity. In this study, we have focused on the identification of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with the impairment of different cognitive domains measured using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). Patients with AD (n=28), non-AD dementia (n=16), other neurological disorders (OND, n=14), and healthy controls (HC, n=21) were enrolled. Our results revealed significantly higher CSF total tau (t-tau) and lower amyloid-beta(42) levels in AD patients compared with those in HC and OND groups. Moreover, our data show that CSF t-tau levels, but not Abeta(42) levels, have an inverse correlation with the score of short-term memory in CASI for patients with AD (Spearman: r=-0.444; p=0.018). This data might indicate that the higher CSF t-tau level is associated with more NFT pathology and more severe impairment of short-term memory in AD patients.

  13. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients. PMID:28045968

  14. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    PubMed

    Clemensson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  15. Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Joseph A.; Landsberg, Gary M.; Milgram, Norton W.; Miolo, Alda

    2008-01-01

    Aged dogs demonstrate cognitive decline that is linked to brain aging. The purpose of the present study was to examine if a commercially available nutraceutical supplement that may be neuroprotective and contains phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine could improve cognitive function in aged beagles. Nine aged beagles were tested on performance on a delayed-non-matching-to-position task, which is a neuropsychological test of short-term visuospatial memory. All subjects were tested on 5 baseline sessions; then, to assess the supplement, a crossover design was used in which 1 group received the supplement and the other a control substance in the 1st phase, with treatment conditions being reversed in the 2nd phase. Performance accuracy was significantly improved in supplemented dogs compared with control dogs and the effect was long lasting. These findings suggest that the nutraceutical supplement can improve memory in aged dogs. PMID:18481547

  16. "I know your name, but not your number"--Patients with verbal short-term memory deficits are impaired in learning sequences of digits.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Seyboth, Margret; Umarova, Roza; Weiller, Cornelius

    2015-06-01

    Studies on verbal learning in patients with impaired verbal short-term memory (vSTM) have revealed dissociations among types of verbal information. Patients with impaired vSTM are able to learn lists of known words but fail to acquire new word forms. This suggests that vSTM is involved in new word learning. The present study assessed both new word learning and the learning of digit sequences in two patients with impaired vSTM. In two experiments, participants were required to learn people's names, ages and professions, or their four digit 'phone numbers'. The STM patients were impaired on learning unknown family names and phone numbers, but managed to acquire other verbal information. In contrast, a patient with a severe verbal episodic memory impairment was impaired across information types. These results indicate verbal STM involvement in the learning of digit sequences.

  17. Impairment of short-term memory associated with low iron stores in a volunteer multidose plateletpheresis donor.

    PubMed

    Page, E A; Harrison, J F; Jaldow, E J; Kopelman, M

    2008-10-01

    A platelet donor may lose 80-100 mL of blood both in the harness and by blood sampling at each donation, the equivalent of four to five whole blood donations per annum for a donor attending at 2-weekly intervals. A 54-year-old male multidose platelet donor had donated platelets at regular 2-weekly intervals for 6 years. He developed an impairment of anterograde memory (new learning). A self-rating scale revealed a moderate degree of depression [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score 22]. Memory testing (Doors and People Memory Battery) showed low scores, particularly for verbal recall and verbal recognition memory. He was found to have a normal haemoglobin of 157 g L(-1) with normal red blood cell indices, but a low serum ferritin (15 ng mL(-1)) and a low serum iron (8.1 mmol L(-1)). Following iron therapy and a return of his iron stores to normal levels, there was an improved BDI score of 13 (minimal level of depression) and a marked improvement in memory test scores. This has been maintained even though he has resumed platelet donation but at reduced intervals.

  18. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock.

  19. Short term exposure to attractive and muscular singers in music video clips negatively affects men's body image and mood.

    PubMed

    Mulgrew, K E; Volcevski-Kostas, D

    2012-09-01

    Viewing idealized images has been shown to reduce men's body satisfaction; however no research has examined the impact of music video clips. This was the first study to examine the effects of exposure to muscular images in music clips on men's body image, mood and cognitions. Ninety men viewed 5 min of clips containing scenery, muscular or average-looking singers, and completed pre- and posttest measures of mood and body image. Appearance schema activation was also measured. Men exposed to the muscular clips showed poorer posttest levels of anger, body and muscle tone satisfaction compared to men exposed to the scenery or average clips. No evidence of schema activation was found, although potential problems with the measure are noted. These preliminary findings suggest that even short term exposure to music clips can produce negative effects on men's body image and mood.

  20. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  1. The Role of Attention in the Development of Short-Term Memory: Age Differences in the Verbal Span of Apprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Nugent, Lara D.; Elliott, Emily M.; Ponomarev, Igor; Saults, J. Scott

    1999-01-01

    This study examined ability of first and fourth graders and adults to recall digits they heard while they were carrying out a visual task. Results suggested that each individual has a core memory capacity limit that can be observed in circumstances in which it cannot be supplemented by mnemonic strategies. The capacity limit increases with age…

  2. Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Congenital Articulatory Disorders: New Empirical Data and Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlesimo, G. A.; Galloni, F.; Bonanni, R.; Sabbadini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: To investigate the nature of the articulatory rehearsal mechanism of the Articulatory Loop in Baddeley's Working Memory model, it seems particularly important to study individuals who developed a deficit (dysarthria) or total abolition (anarthria) of the ability to articulate language following a cerebral lesion. Method: In this study,…

  3. PKA and PKC Are Required for Long-Term but Not Short-Term in Vivo Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of PKA and PKC signaling in a negatively reinforced operant learning paradigm in "Aplysia", learning that food is inedible (LFI). In vivo injection of PKA or PKC inhibitors blocked long-term LFI memory formation. Moreover, a persistent phase of PKA activity, although not PKC activity, was necessary for long-term…

  4. Influence of mild traumatic brain injury during pediatric stage on short-term memory and hippocampal apoptosis in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mi-Sook; Oh, Hyean-Ae; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of neurological deficit in the brain, which induces short- and long-term brain damage, cognitive impairment with/without structural alteration, motor deficits, emotional problems, and death both in children and adults. In the present study, we evaluated whether mild TBI in childhood causes persisting memory impairment until adulthood. Moreover, we investigated the influence of mild TBI on memory impairment in relation with hippocampal apoptosis. For this, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the experiments. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: sham-operation group and TBI-induction group. The mild TBI model was created with an electromagnetic contusion device activated at a velocity of 3.0 m/sec. The results showed that mild TBI during the pediatric stage significantly decreased memory retention. The numbers of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells were increased in the TBI-induction group compared to those in the sham-operation group. Defective memory retention and apoptosis sustained up to the adult stage. The present results shows that mild TBI induces long-lasting cognitive impairment from pediatric to adult stages in rats through the high level of apoptosis. The finding of this study suggests that children with mild TBI may need intensive treatments for the reduction of long-lasting cognitive impairment by secondary neuronal damage. PMID:25061593

  5. Influence of mild traumatic brain injury during pediatric stage on short-term memory and hippocampal apoptosis in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Sook; Oh, Hyean-Ae; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of neurological deficit in the brain, which induces short- and long-term brain damage, cognitive impairment with/without structural alteration, motor deficits, emotional problems, and death both in children and adults. In the present study, we evaluated whether mild TBI in childhood causes persisting memory impairment until adulthood. Moreover, we investigated the influence of mild TBI on memory impairment in relation with hippocampal apoptosis. For this, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the experiments. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: sham-operation group and TBI-induction group. The mild TBI model was created with an electromagnetic contusion device activated at a velocity of 3.0 m/sec. The results showed that mild TBI during the pediatric stage significantly decreased memory retention. The numbers of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells were increased in the TBI-induction group compared to those in the sham-operation group. Defective memory retention and apoptosis sustained up to the adult stage. The present results shows that mild TBI induces long-lasting cognitive impairment from pediatric to adult stages in rats through the high level of apoptosis. The finding of this study suggests that children with mild TBI may need intensive treatments for the reduction of long-lasting cognitive impairment by secondary neuronal damage.

  6. Short-Term Long Chain Omega3 Diet Protects from Neuroinflammatory Processes and Memory Impairment in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Joffre, Corinne; Costes, Laurence; Aubert, Agnès; Grégoire, Stéphane; Bretillon, Lionel; Layé, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are the most likely active components of ω3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old) and aged (22-month-old) mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ω3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects. PMID:22662127

  7. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds. PMID:24936174

  8. Using a Process Dissociation Approach to Assess Verbal Short-Term Memory for Item and Order Information in a Sample of Individuals with a Self-Reported Diagnosis of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Yifu; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined whether difficulties in short-term memory for verbal information, that might be associated with dyslexia, are driven by problems in retaining either information about to-be-remembered items or the order in which these items were presented. However, such studies have not used process-pure measures of short-term memory for item or order information. In this work we adapt a process dissociation procedure to properly distinguish the contributions of item and order processes to verbal short-term memory in a group of 28 adults with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia and a comparison sample of 29 adults without a dyslexia diagnosis. In contrast to previous work that has suggested that individuals with dyslexia experience item deficits resulting from inefficient phonological representation and language-independent order memory deficits, the results showed no evidence of specific problems in short-term retention of either item or order information among the individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia, despite this group showing expected difficulties on separate measures of word and non-word reading. However, there was some suggestive evidence of a link between order memory for verbal material and individual differences in non-word reading, consistent with other claims for a role of order memory in phonologically mediated reading. The data from the current study therefore provide empirical evidence to question the extent to which item and order short-term memory are necessarily impaired in dyslexia. PMID:26941679

  9. Using a Process Dissociation Approach to Assess Verbal Short-Term Memory for Item and Order Information in a Sample of Individuals with a Self-Reported Diagnosis of Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Yifu; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined whether difficulties in short-term memory for verbal information, that might be associated with dyslexia, are driven by problems in retaining either information about to-be-remembered items or the order in which these items were presented. However, such studies have not used process-pure measures of short-term memory for item or order information. In this work we adapt a process dissociation procedure to properly distinguish the contributions of item and order processes to verbal short-term memory in a group of 28 adults with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia and a comparison sample of 29 adults without a dyslexia diagnosis. In contrast to previous work that has suggested that individuals with dyslexia experience item deficits resulting from inefficient phonological representation and language-independent order memory deficits, the results showed no evidence of specific problems in short-term retention of either item or order information among the individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia, despite this group showing expected difficulties on separate measures of word and non-word reading. However, there was some suggestive evidence of a link between order memory for verbal material and individual differences in non-word reading, consistent with other claims for a role of order memory in phonologically mediated reading. The data from the current study therefore provide empirical evidence to question the extent to which item and order short-term memory are necessarily impaired in dyslexia.

  10. Preservation of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity despite short-term impairments in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morice, Elise; Andreae, Laura C; Cooke, Sam F; Vanes, Lesley; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Bliss, Timothy V P

    2008-07-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty and colleagues in an earlier study generated a new genetic mouse model of DS (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. Since DS is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in Tc1 mice. Here we show that Tc1 mice have impaired spatial working memory (WM) but spared long-term spatial reference memory (RM) in the Morris watermaze. Similarly, Tc1 mice are selectively impaired in short-term memory (STM) but have intact long-term memory (LTM) in the novel object recognition task. The pattern of impaired STM and normal LTM is paralleled by a corresponding phenotype in long-term potentiation (LTP). Freely-moving Tc1 mice exhibit reduced LTP 1 h after induction but normal maintenance over days in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Biochemical analysis revealed a reduction in membrane surface expression of the AMPAR (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-propionic acid receptor) subunit GluR1 in the hippocampus of Tc1 mice, suggesting a potential mechanism for the impairment in early LTP. Our observations also provide further evidence that STM and LTM for hippocampus-dependent tasks are subserved by parallel processing streams.

  11. Short-term memory effects of an auditory biofeedback on isometric force control: is there a differential effect as a function of transition trials?

    PubMed

    Cuisinier, Rémy; Olivier, Isabelle; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Nougier, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate memory effects, force accuracy, and variability during constant isometric force at different force levels, using auditory biofeedback. Two types of transition trials were used: a biofeedback-no biofeedback transition trial and a no biofeedback-biofeedback transition trial. The auditory biofeedback produced a low- or high-pitched sound when participants produced an isometric force lower or higher than required, respectively. To achieve this goal, 16 participants were asked to produce and maintain two different isometric forces (30±5% and 90 N±5%) during 25 s. Constant error and standard deviation of the isometric force were calculated. While accuracy and variability of the isometric force varied according to the transition trial, a drift of the force appeared in the no biofeedback condition. This result suggested that the degradation of information about force output in the no biofeedback condition was provided by a leaky memory buffer which was mainly dependent on the sense of effort. Because this drift remained constant whatever the transition used, this memory buffer seemed to be independent of short-term memory processes.

  12. The conjunction of non-consciously perceived object identity and spatial position can be retained during a visual short-term memory task

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Fredrik; Eriksson, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Although non-consciously perceived information has previously been assumed to be short-lived (< 500 ms), recent findings show that non-consciously perceived information can be maintained for at least 15 s. Such findings can be explained as working memory without a conscious experience of the information to be retained. However, whether or not working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information remains controversial, and little is known about the nature of such non-conscious visual short-term memory (VSTM). Here we used continuous flash suppression to render stimuli non-conscious, to investigate the properties of non-consciously perceived representations in delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. In Experiment I we used variable delays (5 or 15 s) and found that performance was significantly better than chance and was unaffected by delay duration, thereby replicating previous findings. In Experiment II the DMS task required participants to combine information of spatial position and object identity on a trial-by-trial basis to successfully solve the task. We found that the conjunction of spatial position and object identity was retained, thereby verifying that non-conscious, trial-specific information can be maintained for prospective use. We conclude that our results are consistent with a working memory interpretation, but that more research is needed to verify this interpretation. PMID:26483726

  13. Short-Term Memory Effects on Crossing the Boundary: Discrimination between Large and Small Quantities in Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M.; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rudimentary quantification abilities are found in numerous animal species and in human infants all demonstrating the ability to discriminate between quantities differing in numerical size. An open question is whether individuals rely on different underlying systems to discriminate between large (analogue magnitude system (AMS) for number of items exceeding 3) and small quantities (object-file system (OFS) for number of items below 4), or they use only one system (AMS) for the entire number range. The two-system hypothesis has been supported by finding reduced ability to discriminate between quantities that cross the large-small boundary in several species. Recently, the role of cognitive representation, i.e., memory, in quantity discrimination has also been recognized. Here, we investigated whether angelfish can discriminate quantities across the boundary under two memory conditions. In a binary choice test, single angelfish were allowed to see groups (shoals) of conspecifics of different numerical size on the two sides of their test tank. In Experiment 1, their choice was recorded after a 2-sec retention interval during which shoal size information was unavailable. Angelfish were able to discriminate the larger shoal across the boundary when the shoals differed by a 2:1 or higher ratio, but not when the ratio was lower. In Experiment 2, however, with a 15-sec retention interval, angelfish could only detect a four-fold difference in ratio but failed to detect a three- or a two-fold difference across the boundary. These results suggest that angelfish can remember smaller differences for a short (2 sec) but not for a longer (15 sec) period. Together with previous findings, the current results support the idea that angelfish use two distinct systems for representing quantity, but they may recruit the AMS even for the small number range under some circumstances, e.g., when higher memory demand is imposed by a greater retention interval. PMID:27683275

  14. Short-term stress experienced at time of immunization induces a long-lasting increase in immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Viswanathan, Kavitha

    2005-09-01

    It would be extremely beneficial if one could harness natural, endogenous, health-promoting defense mechanisms to fight disease and restore health. The psychophysiological stress response is the most underappreciated of nature's survival mechanisms. We show that acute stress experienced before primary immunization induces a long-lasting increase in immunity. Compared with controls, mice restrained for 2.5 h before primary immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) show a significantly enhanced immune response when reexposed to KLH 9 mo later. This immunoenhancement is mediated by an increase in numbers of memory and effector helper T cells in sentinel lymph nodes at the time of primary immunization. Further analyses show that the early stress-induced increase in T cell memory may stimulate the robust increase in infiltrating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers observed months later at a novel site of antigen reexposure. Enhanced leukocyte infiltration may be driven by increased levels of the type 1 cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, observed at the site of antigen reexposure in animals that had been stressed at the time of primary immunization. In contrast, no differences were observed in type 2 cytokines, IL-4 or IL-5. Given the importance of inducing long-lasting increases in immunologic memory during vaccination, we suggest that the neuroendocrine stress response is nature's adjuvant that could be psychologically and/or pharmacologically manipulated to safely increase vaccine efficacy. These studies introduce the novel concept that a psychophysiological stress response is nature's fundamental survival mechanism that could be therapeutically harnessed to augment immune function during vaccination, wound healing, or infection.

  15. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    PubMed

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment.

  16. Short-term maternal psychological stress in the post-conception period in ewes affects fetal growth and gestation length.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer; Ferguson, Drewe; Jauregui, Guillermo; Panarace, Martín; Medina, Mariano; Lehnert, Sigrid; Hill, Jonathan R

    2008-08-01

    Fetal development can be influenced by maternal environment in the peri-conceptional period. This study investigated the effect of maternal feed intake and psychological stress within the first 6 days after conception on embryo development and fetal growth. Superovulated ewes (n=40) were artificially inseminated with semen from one ram. Ewes were then divided into four groups (n=10): group 1 (control) was fed at maintenance level, group 2 (high) at 2x maintenance, and group 3 (low) at 0.5x maintenance on days 2-6 after conception. Group 4 (stress) was fed at maintenance level and then an intense physical and psychological stress challenge was applied for 1 h only on days 2 and 3 after conception. Embryos were recovered at day 6. A total of 113 transferable grade embryos were transferred singly into synchronized untreated recipients, while the remaining embryos (n=165) were fixed and stained for cell counts. Post-conception maternal stress or feed intake did not alter the cell count or grade of day 6 embryos. Fetuses from the stress group had longer crown-rump lengths at day 30 and longer femur length at day 58. Fetuses from the stressed and high feed groups had greater abdominal circumferences at day 85. Subsequent birth weights were not significantly different. Ewes carrying lambs from the stress treatment had shorter gestation lengths. These results show that short-term perturbations of the post-conception maternal environment have measurable effects on fetal development and gestation length.

  17. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  18. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-04-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  19. Emotional interference-based forgetting in short-term memory. Cognitive inhibition of pleasant but not unpleasant biologically relevant distractors

    PubMed Central

    García-Pacios, Javier; Del Río, David; Villalobos, Dolores; Ruiz-Vargas, José M.; Maestú, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Emotional stimuli automatically recruit attentional resources. Although this usually brings more adaptive responses, it may suppose a disadvantage when emotional information is task-irrelevant and should be ignored. Previous studies have shown how emotional stimuli with a negative content exert a greater interference than neutral stimuli during a concurrent working memory (WM) task. However, the impact of positively valenced stimuli as interference has not been addressed to date. In three experiments and one re-analysis we explore the impact of pleasant and unpleasant emotional distractors during WM maintenance. The results suggest that our cognitive control can cope with the interference posed by pleasant distractors as well as with the interference posed by neutral stimuli. However, unpleasant distractors are harder to control in the context of WM maintenance. As unpleasant stimuli usually convey relevant information that we should not to ignore, our executive control seems to be less able to reallocate cognitive resources after unpleasant distraction. PMID:25999894

  20. Computational comparison of a calcium-dependent jellyfish protein (apoaequorin) and calmodulin-cholesterol in short-term memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Gene A; Kostellow, Adele B; Gupta, Raj K

    2017-03-06

    Memory reconsolidation and maintenance depend on calcium channels and on calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases regulating protein turnover in the hippocampus. Ingestion of a jellyfish protein, apoaequorin, reportedly protects and/or improves verbal learning in adults and is currently widely advertised for use by the elderly. Apoaequorin is a member of the EF-hand calcium binding family of proteins that includes calmodulin. Calmodulin-1 (148 residues) differs from Apoaequorin (195 residues) in that it contains four rather than three Ca(2+)-binding sites and three rather than four cholesterol-binding (CRAC, CARC) domains. All three cholesterol-binding CARC domains in calmodulin have a high interaction affinity for cholesterol compared to only two high affinity CARC domains in apoaequorin. Both calmodulin and apoaequorin can form dimers with a potential of eight bound Ca(2+) ions and six high affinity-bound cholesterol molecules in calmodulin with six bound Ca(2+) ions and a mixed population of eight cholesterols bound to both CARC and CRAC domains in apoaqueorin. MEMSAT-SVM analysis indicates that both calmodulin and apoaqueorin have a pore-lining region. The Peptide-Cutter algorithm predicts that calmodulin-1 contains 11 trypsin-specific cleavage sites (compared to 21 in apoaqueorin), four of which are potentially blocked by cholesterol and three are within the Ca-binding domains and/or the pore-lining region. Three are clustered between the third and fourth Ca(2+)-binding sites. Only calmodulin pore-lining regions contain Ca(2+) binding sites and as dimers may insert into the plasma membrane of neural cells and act as Ca(2+) channels. In a dietary supplement, bound cholesterol may protect both apoaequorin and calmodulin from proteolysis in the gut as well as facilitate uptake across the blood-brain barrier. Our results suggest that a physiological calmodulin-cholesterol complex, not cholesterol-free jellyfish protein, may better serve as a dietary supplement to

  1. Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Epileptiform Activity Affects Basal Synaptic Transmission and Short-Term Plasticity in Monosynaptic Connections

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Carlo Natale Giuseppe; Premoselli, Federica; Montarolo, Pier Giorgio; Ghirardi, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Epileptic activity is generally induced in experimental models by local application of epileptogenic drugs, including pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), widely used on both vertebrate and invertebrate neurons. Despite the high prevalence of this neurological disorder and the extensive research on it, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis still remain unclear. In this work, we examined PTZ-induced neuronal changes in Helix monosynaptic circuits formed in vitro, as a simpler experimental model to investigate the effects of epileptiform activity on both basal release and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP), a form of short-term plasticity. We observed a significant enhancement of basal synaptic strength, with kinetics resembling those of previously described use-dependent forms of plasticity, determined by changes in estimated quantal parameters, such as the readily releasable pool and the release probability. Moreover, these neurons exhibited a strong reduction in PTP expression and in its decay time constant, suggesting an impairment in the dynamic reorganization of synaptic vesicle pools following prolonged stimulation of synaptic transmission. In order to explain this imbalance, we determined whether epileptic activity is related to the phosphorylation level of synapsin, which is known to modulate synaptic plasticity. Using western blot and immunocytochemical staining we found a PTZ-dependent increase in synapsin phosphorylation at both PKA/CaMKI/IV and MAPK/Erk sites, both of which are important for modulating synaptic plasticity. Taken together, our findings suggest that prolonged epileptiform activity leads to an increase in the synapsin phosphorylation status, thereby contributing to an alteration of synaptic strength in both basal condition and tetanus-induced potentiation. PMID:23437283

  2. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-term Memory – an Aggregate analysis of Lesion and fMRI data

    PubMed Central

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D’Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways, recent advances in lesions reconstruction methodology applied to groups of patients have implicated left temporoparietal zones. Parallel work using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has pinpointed a region in the posterior most portion of the left planum temporale, area Spt, which is critical for phonological working memory. Here we show that the region of maximal lesion overlap in a sample of 14 patients with conduction aphasia perfectly circumscribes area Spt, as defined in an aggregate fMRI analysis of 105 subjects performing a phonological working memory task. We provide a review of the evidence supporting the idea that Spt is an interface site for the integration of sensory and vocal tract-related motor representations of complex sound sequences, such as speech and music and show how the symptoms of conduction aphasia can be explained by damage to this system. PMID:21256582

  3. Domain-Generality of Timing-Based Serial Order Processes in Short-Term Memory: New Insights from Musical and Verbal Domains

    PubMed Central

    Kowialiewski, Benjamin; Majerus, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Several models in the verbal domain of short-term memory (STM) consider a dissociation between item and order processing. This view is supported by data demonstrating that different types of time-based interference have a greater effect on memory for the order of to-be-remembered items than on memory for the items themselves. The present study investigated the domain-generality of the item versus serial order dissociation by comparing the differential effects of time-based interfering tasks, such as rhythmic interference and articulatory suppression, on item and order processing in verbal and musical STM domains. In Experiment 1, participants had to maintain sequences of verbal or musical information in STM, followed by a probe sequence, this under different conditions of interference (no-interference, rhythmic interference, articulatory suppression). They were required to decide whether all items of the probe list matched those of the memory list (item condition) or whether the order of the items in the probe sequence matched the order in the memory list (order condition). In Experiment 2, participants performed a serial order probe recognition task for verbal and musical sequences ensuring sequential maintenance processes, under no-interference or rhythmic interference conditions. For Experiment 1, serial order recognition was not significantly more impacted by interfering tasks than was item recognition, this for both verbal and musical domains. For Experiment 2, we observed selective interference of the rhythmic interference condition on both musical and verbal order STM tasks. Overall, the results suggest a similar and selective sensitivity to time-based interference for serial order STM in verbal and musical domains, but only when the STM tasks ensure sequential maintenance processes. PMID:27992565

  4. Short-Term and Working Memory Skills in Primary School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment and Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: Phonological, Linguistic and Visuo-Spatial Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Jenny; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) are consistently reported to have short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) difficulties. Aim: To compare STM and WM abilities in CwSLI with children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI). Methods & Procedures: Primary school-aged CwSLI (n = 12) and CwPLI (n = 23) were…

  5. The differential recruitment of short-term memory and executive functions during time, number, and length perception: An individual differences approach.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Ruth S; Samuels, Michael; Simmons, Fiona; Wearden, John; Montgomery, Catharine

    2017-01-16

    Developmental, behavioural, and neurological similarities in the processing of different magnitudes (time, number, space) support the existence of a common magnitude processing system (e.g., a theory of magnitude, ATOM). It is, however, unclear whether the recruitment of wider cognitive resources (short-term memory, STM; and executive function) during magnitude processing is similar across magnitude domains or is domain specific. The current study used an individual differences approach to examine the relationship between STM, executive function, and magnitude processing. In two experiments, participants completed number, length, and duration bisection tasks to assess magnitude processing and tasks that have been shown to assess STM span and executive component processes. The results suggest that the recruitment of STM and executive resources differed for the different magnitude domains. Duration perception was associated with access, inhibition, and STM span. Length processing was associated with updating, and number processing was associated with access to semantic memory. For duration and length, greater difficulty in the magnitude judgement task resulted in more relationships to STM and executive function. It is suggested that duration perception may be more demanding of STM and executive resources because it is represented sequentially, unlike length and number which can be represented nonsequentially.

  6. Predicting Short-Term Positive Affect in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of Selected Personality Traits and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. PMID:26119140

  7. Predicting short-term positive affect in individuals with social anxiety disorder: The role of selected personality traits and emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Jaclyn S; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C

    2015-08-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety.

  8. On the nature of nonverbal working memory fractionation: a case of selective spatial short-term memory deficit in a child.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Michele; Celentano, Katia; Conson, Massimiliano; Grossi, Dario

    2008-09-01

    Several lines of research on adult subjects demonstrate a visual/spatial fractionation of nonverbal working memory (WM), while behavioral studies on normal children support the idea of a static/dynamic distinction. In the present paper, we report a child (Z.M.) who failed on nonverbal WM tasks. To verify the nature of his defect, we carried out two experiments: in Experiment 1, Z.M. failed on spatial WM tasks but not on visual WM tasks and was not affected by the static/dynamic format of stimulus presentation; in Experiment 2, this visual/spatial dissociation was extended to the imagery domain. These results are best accounted for within the visual/spatial fractionation of WM and confirmed the role of WM in mental imagery. Clinical and rehabilitative implications of the present findings are also discussed.

  9. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Ivanina, Anna V; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B; Ringwood, Amy H; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-09-15

    Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO2 ( [Formula: see text] ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high [Formula: see text] (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between [Formula: see text] and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of [Formula: see text] (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants - cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated [Formula: see text] resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated [Formula: see text] significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated [Formula: see text] levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd(2+) concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn(2+) increased suggesting that Cd(2+) substitutes bound Zn(2+) in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn(2+) but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels of labile Cu(2+) and Fe(2+). An increase in the extracellular concentrations of Cd and Cu led to the elevated production of reactive oxygen species under the normocapnic conditions (0.05 kPa [Formula: see text] ); surprisingly, this effect was mitigated in

  10. The cleaning method selected for new PEX pipe installation can affect short-term drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Cooley, Racheal; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The influence of four different cleaning methods used for newly installed polyethylene (PEX) pipes on chemical and odor quality was determined. Bench-scale testing of two PEX (type b) pipe brands showed that the California Plumbing Code PEX installation method does not maximize total organic carbon (TOC) removal. TOC concentration and threshold odor number values significantly varied between two pipe brands. Different cleaning methods impacted carbon release, odor, as well the level of drinking water odorant ethyl tert-butyl ether. Both pipes caused odor values up to eight times greater than the US federal drinking water odor limit. Unique to this project was that organic chemicals released by PEX pipe were affected by pipe brand, fill/empty cycle frequency, and the pipe cleaning method selected by the installer.

  11. Assessment of affective and somatic signs of ethanol withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice using a short term ethanol treatment

    PubMed Central

    Perez, EE; De Biasi, M

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most prevalent addictive substances in the world. Withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt cessation of alcohol consumption in habitual drinkers. The emergence of both affective and physical symptoms produces a state that promotes relapse. Mice provide a preclinical model that could be used to study alcohol dependence and withdrawal while controlling for both genetic and environmental variables. The use of a liquid ethanol diet offers a reliable method for the induction of alcohol dependence in mice, but this approach is impractical when conducting high throughput pharmacological screens or when comparing multiple strains of genetically engineered mice. The goal of this study was to compare withdrawal associated behaviors in mice chronically treated with a liquid ethanol diet vs. mice treated with a short-term ethanol treatment that consisted of daily ethanol injections containing the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole. Twenty-four hours after ethanol treatment, mice were tested in the open field arena, the elevated plus maze, the marble burying test or for changes in somatic signs during spontaneous ethanol withdrawal. Anxiety-like and compulsive-like behavior, as well as physical signs, were all significantly elevated in mice undergoing withdrawal, regardless of the route of ethanol administration. Therefore, a short-term ethanol treatment can be utilized as a screening tool for testing genetic and pharmacological agents before investing in a more time consuming ethanol treatment. PMID:25817777

  12. Assessment of affective and somatic signs of ethanol withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice using a short-term ethanol treatment.

    PubMed

    Perez, E E; De Biasi, M

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol is one of the most prevalent addictive substances in the world. Withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt cessation of alcohol consumption in habitual drinkers. The emergence of both affective and physical symptoms produces a state that promotes relapse. Mice provide a preclinical model that could be used to study alcohol dependence and withdrawal while controlling for both genetic and environmental variables. The use of a liquid ethanol diet offers a reliable method for the induction of alcohol dependence in mice, but this approach is impractical when conducting high-throughput pharmacological screens or when comparing multiple strains of genetically engineered mice. The goal of this study was to compare withdrawal-associated behaviors in mice chronically treated with a liquid ethanol diet vs. mice treated with a short-term ethanol treatment that consisted of daily ethanol injections containing the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole. Twenty-four hours after ethanol treatment, mice were tested in the open field arena, the elevated plus maze, the marble burying test, or for changes in somatic signs during spontaneous ethanol withdrawal. Anxiety-like and compulsive-like behaviors, as well as physical signs, were all significantly elevated in mice undergoing withdrawal, regardless of the route of ethanol administration. Therefore, a short-term ethanol treatment can be utilized as a screening tool for testing genetic and pharmacological agents before investing in a more time-consuming ethanol treatment.

  13. Partially overlapping sensorimotor networks underlie speech praxis and verbal short-term memory: evidence from apraxia of speech following acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Hickok, Gregory; Rogalsky, Corianne; Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H; Townsley, Sarah; Hillis, Argye E

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that motor planning and programming of speech articulation and verbal short-term memory (vSTM) depend on partially overlapping networks of neural regions. We evaluated this proposal by testing 76 individuals with acute ischemic stroke for impairment in motor planning of speech articulation (apraxia of speech, AOS) and vSTM in the first day of stroke, before the opportunity for recovery or reorganization of structure-function relationships. We also evaluated areas of both infarct and low blood flow that might have contributed to AOS or impaired vSTM in each person. We found that AOS was associated with tissue dysfunction in motor-related areas (posterior primary motor cortex, pars opercularis; premotor cortex, insula) and sensory-related areas (primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal operculum/auditory cortex); while impaired vSTM was associated with primarily motor-related areas (pars opercularis and pars triangularis, premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex). These results are consistent with the hypothesis, also supported by functional imaging data, that both speech praxis and vSTM rely on partially overlapping networks of brain regions.

  14. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increases serum levels of androgens and estrogens but does not enhance short-term memory in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Paul; Stangl, Bethany; Hirshman, Elliot; Verbalis, Joseph

    2012-11-05

    The current study examines the effect of administering dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on short-term memory. This experiment used a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design to explore the effects of a four week regimen of 50 mg oral DHEA on performance on the digit span, verbal span, and modified Sternberg (Oberauer) tasks. The results demonstrate that the current regimen of drug administration significantly increases serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone and estrone and substantially alters the patterns of correlations among the serum levels of these hormones. Despite this substantial change in the hormonal milieu, DHEA administration produced no beneficial effects on cognitive performance in the digit span, verbal span, or modified Sternberg paradigm tasks. Ancillary analyses of the relation between hormone levels and cognitive performance demonstrated a strong positive correlation between DHEA levels and performance on digit span forward/backward and verbal span forward in the placebo drug condition, but not in the DHEA condition. We interpret the juxtaposition of the null results of DHEA administration and the correlation of DHEA levels and performance in the placebo condition to indicate that the referenced correlations arise because a third variable (i.e., age) is associated with both performance and DHEA levels. Additional analyses supported this hypothesis.

  15. Small Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Current is Activated During Hypokalemia and Masks Short Term Cardiac Memory Induced by Ventricular Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Ko, Jum-Suk; Yin, Dechun; Chang, Po-Cheng; Rubart, Michael; Weiss, James N.; Everett, Thomas; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalemia increases the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation (VF). We hypothesize that the apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium-activated potassium current (IKAS) is activated during hypokalemia and that IKAS blockade is proarrhythmic. Methods and Results Optical mapping was performed in 23 Langendorff perfused rabbit ventricles with atrioventricular block and either right ventricular (RV) or left ventricular (LV) pacing during normokalemia or hypokalemia. Apamin prolonged the action potential duration (APD) measured to 80% repolarization (APD80) by 26 ms [95% confidence interval, CI, 14–37] during normokalemia and by 54 ms [CI, 40 to 68] during hypokalemia (P=0.01) at 1000 ms pacing cycle length (PCL). In hypokalemic ventricles, apamin increased the maximal slope of APD restitution, the PCL threshold of APD alternans, the PCL for wavebreak induction and the area of spatially discordant APD alternans. Apamin significantly facilitated the induction of sustained VF (from 3/9 hearts to 9/9 hearts, P=0.009). Short term cardiac memory was assessed by the slope of APD80 versus activation time. The slope increased from 0.01 [CI, −0.09 to 0.12] at baseline to 0.34 [CI, 0.23 to 0.44] after apamin (P<0.001) during RV pacing, and from 0.07 [CI, −0.05 to 0.20] to 0.54 [CI, 0.06 to 1.03] after apamin infusion (P=0.045) during LV pacing. Patch-clamp studies confirmed increased IKASin isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes during hypokalemia (P=0.038). Conclusions Hypokalemia activates IKAS to shorten APD and maintain repolarization reserve at late activation sites during ventricular pacing. IKAS blockade prominently lengthens the APD at late activation sites and facilitates VF induction. PMID:26362634

  16. Decreases in Short Term Memory, IQ, and Altered Brain Metabolic Ratios in Urban Apolipoprotein ε4 Children Exposed to Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Zhu, Hongtu; Lu, Zhaohua; Solorio, Edelmira; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    Children's urban air pollution exposures result in systemic and brain inflammation and the early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk for AD. We assessed whether APOE in healthy children modulates cognition, olfaction, and metabolic brain indices. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were administered to 50 Mexico City Metropolitan Area children (13.4 ± 4.8 years, 28 APOE ε3 and 22 APOE ε4). N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, myo-inositol (mI)/Cr, and NAA/mI were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobes, hippocampus, and pons. APOE ε4 versus ε3 children had a reduced NAA/Cr ratio in the right frontal white matter and decrements on attention, short-term memory, and below-average scores in Verbal and Full Scale IQ (>10 points). APOE modulated the group effects between WISC-R and left frontal and parietal white matter, and hippocampus metabolites. Soap was the predominantly failed odor in urban children and, in APOE ε4 versus ε3 carriers, strongly correlated with left hippocampus mI/Cr ratio. APOE modulates responses to air pollution in the developing brain. APOE ε4 carriers could have a higher risk of developing early AD if they reside in a polluted environment. APOE, cognition, and olfaction testing and targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy may contribute to the assessment of urban children and their results could provide new paths toward the unprecedented opportunity for early neuroprotection and AD prevention.

  17. Facilitative effects of the ampakine CX516 on short-term memory in rats: enhancement of delayed-nonmatch-to-sample performance.

    PubMed

    Hampson, R E; Rogers, G; Lynch, G; Deadwyler, S A

    1998-04-01

    Ampakines are a family of drugs that selectively increase AMPA receptor-gated currents and improve performance on several behavioral tasks. This report describes evidence that ampakines cause a cumulative enhancement of performance in a spatial short-term memory task (Deadwyler et al., 1996). Two groups of rats were trained on a spatial variant of the delayed-nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) paradigm. One group (n = 12) received the ampakine CX516 (Cortex Pharmaceuticals) alternated with vehicle for 17 consecutive days and then only vehicle for an additional 7 d. The second group (n = 6) received only vehicle injections over the same number of days. CX516 improved performance within sessions, particularly on trials with delays of 6-35 sec. In 9 of 12 rats, the positive effect of the drug was also present on nondrug days between CX516 administration and after cessation of CX516 injections. The animals that received only vehicle injections showed no improvement in DNMS performance over the entire 32 d of testing. Three of the 12 animals given CX516 did not exhibit "carryover" effects of the drug to the intervening (vehicle only) test sessions, but nonetheless exhibited superior performance during the first half of the session on days in which the ampakine was administered. Evaluation of errors suggests that the ampakine eliminated the necessity for a shift in response strategy that produced proactive interference on the following trial. Hippocampal involvement in these ampakine effects is discussed as a prelude to the second article in the series (Hampson et al., 1998).

  18. Deoxynivalenol Impairs Weight Gain and Affects Markers of Gut Health after Low-Dose, Short-Term Exposure of Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Arash; Braber, Saskia; Akbari, Peyman; Garssen, Johan; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi, and exposure to this mycotoxin requires an assessment of the potential adverse effects, even at low toxin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term, low-dose DON exposure on various gut health parameters in pigs. Piglets received a commercial feed or the same feed contaminated with DON (0.9 mg/kg feed) for 10 days, and two hours after a DON bolus (0.28 mg/kg BW), weight gain was determined and samples of different segments of the intestine were collected. Even the selected low dose of DON in the diet negatively affected weight gain and induced histomorphological alterations in the duodenum and jejunum. The mRNA expression of different tight junction (TJ) proteins, especially occludin, of inflammatory markers, like interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 and the oxidative stress marker heme-oxigenase1, were affected along the intestine by low levels of DON in the diet. Taken together, our results indicate that even after low-level exposure to DON, which has been generally considered as acceptable in animal feeds, clinically-relevant changes are measurable in markers of gut health and integrity. PMID:26067367

  19. Short-term heat shock affects the course of immune response in Galleria mellonella naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Vertyporokh, Lidiia; Taszłow, Paulina; Samorek-Pieróg, Małgorzata; Wojda, Iwona

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate how exposition of infected insects to short-term heat shock affects the biochemical and molecular aspects of their immune response. Galleria mellonella larvae were exposed to 43°C for 15min, at the seventy second hour after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. As a result, both qualitative and quantitative changes in hemolymph protein profiles, and among them infection-induced changes in the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), were observed. Heat shock differently affects the expression of the tested immune-related genes. It transiently inhibits expression of antifungal peptides gallerimycin and galiomicin in both the fat body and hemocytes of infected larvae. The same, although to a lesser extent, concerned apoLp-III gene expression and was observed directly after heat shock. Nevertheless, in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, apoLp-III expression was higher in comparison to unshocked larvae in the fat body but not in hemocytes, which was consistent with the higher amount of this protein detected in the hemolymph of the infected, shocked larvae. Furthermore, lysozyme-type activity was higher directly after heat shock, while antifungal activity was significantly higher also in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, in comparison to the respective values in their non-shocked, infected counterparts. These results show how changes in the external temperature modulate the immune response of G. mellonella suffering from infection with its natural pathogen B. bassiana.

  20. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-06

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory